WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical waste sites

  1. Blasting at a Superfund chemical waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, Maine Drilling and Blasting of Gardiner, Maine was contracted by Cayer Corporation of Harvard, Massachusetts to drill and blast an interceptor trench at the Nyanza Chemical Superfund Site in Ashland, Massachusetts. The interceptor trench was to be 1,365 feet long and to be blasted out of granite. The trench was to be 12 feet wide at the bottom with 1/1 slopes, the deepest cut being 30 feet deep. A French drain 12 feet wide by 15 to 35 feet deep was blasted below the main trench on a 2% slope from its center to each end. A French drain is an excavation where the rock is blasted but not dug. The trench would be used as a perimeter road with any ground water flow going through the French drain flowing to both ends of the trench. Being a Superfund project turned a simple blasting project into a regulatory nightmare. The US Environmental Protection Agency performed all the chemical related functions on site. The US Army Corps of Engineers was overseeing all related excavation and construction on site, as was the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Quality Engineering, the local Hazardous Wastes Council, and the local Fire Department. All parties had some input with the blasting and all issues had to be addressed. The paper outlines the project, how it was designed and completed. Also included is an outline of the blast plan to be submitted for approval, an outline of the Safety/Hazardous Waste training and a description of all the problems which arose during the project by various regulatory agencies

  2. Hazard ranking systems for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Parker, F.L.; Crutcher, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Hazardous materials and substances have always existed in the environment. Mankind has evolved to live with some degree of exposure to toxic materials. Until recently the risk has been from natural toxins or natural background radiation. While rapid technological advances over the past few decades have improved the lifestyle of our society, they have also dramatically increased the availability, volume and types of synthetic and natural hazardous materials. Many of their effects are as yet uncertain. Products and manufacturing by-products that no longer serve a useful purpose are deemed wastes. For some waste products land disposal will always be their ultimate fate. Hazardous substances are often included in the waste products. One needs to classify wastes by degree of hazard (risk). Risk (degree of probability of loss) is usually defined for risk assessment as probability of an occurrence times the consequences of the occurrence. Perhaps even more important than the definition of risk is the choice of a risk management strategy. The choice of strategy will be strongly influenced by the decision criteria used. Those decision criteria could be utility (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), rights or technology based or some combination of the three. It is necessary to make such choices about the definition of risks and criteria for management. It is clear that these are social (i.e., political) and value choices and science has little to say on this matter. This is another example of what Alvin Weinberg has named Transcience where the subject matter is scientific and technical but the choices are social, political and moral. This paper shall deal only with the scientific and technical aspects of the hazardous waste problem to create a hazardous substances classification system

  3. Designing chemical soil characterization programs for mixed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, K.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project is a remedial action effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Weldon Spring Site, a former uranium processing facility, is located in east-central Missouri on a portion of a former ordnance works facility which produced trinitrotoluene during World War II. As a result of both uranium and ordnance production, the soils have become both radiologically and chemically contaminated. As a part of site characterization efforts in support of the environmental documentation process, a chemical soil characterization program was developed. This program consisted of biased and unbiased sampling program which maximized areal coverage, provided a statistically sound data base and maintained cost effectiveness. This paper discusses how the general rationale and processes used at the Weldon Spring Site can be applied to other mixed and hazardous waste sites

  4. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs

  5. Chemical Disposition of Plutonium in Hanford Site Tank Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This report examines the chemical disposition of plutonium (Pu) in Hanford Site tank wastes, by itself and in its observed and potential interactions with the neutron absorbers aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and sodium (Na). Consideration also is given to the interactions of plutonium with uranium (U). No consideration of the disposition of uranium itself as an element with fissile isotopes is considered except tangentially with respect to its interaction as an absorber for plutonium. The report begins with a brief review of Hanford Site plutonium processes, examining the various means used to recover plutonium from irradiated fuel and from scrap, and also examines the intermediate processing of plutonium to prepare useful chemical forms. The paper provides an overview of Hanford tank defined-waste–type compositions and some calculations of the ratios of plutonium to absorber elements in these waste types and in individual waste analyses. These assessments are based on Hanford tank waste inventory data derived from separately published, expert assessments of tank disposal records, process flowsheets, and chemical/radiochemical analyses. This work also investigates the distribution and expected speciation of plutonium in tank waste solution and solid phases. For the solid phases, both pure plutonium compounds and plutonium interactions with absorber elements are considered. These assessments of plutonium chemistry are based largely on analyses of idealized or simulated tank waste or strongly alkaline systems. The very limited information available on plutonium behavior, disposition, and speciation in genuine tank waste also is discussed. The assessments show that plutonium coprecipitates strongly with chromium, iron, manganese and uranium absorbers. Plutonium’s chemical interactions with aluminum, nickel, and sodium are minimal to non-existent. Credit for neutronic interaction of plutonium with these absorbers

  6. The use of chemical and radionuclide risk estimates in site performance evaluation of mixed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.; Meyer, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Many radioactive waste sites contain not only radioactive material but also varying amounts of chemical waste. The use of such procedures implies some risk at any exposure level, and thus requires that an exposure level be determined that corresponds to an acceptable risk to an individual or a population. Although the uncertainties and limitations of these methods are of concern, the assumption has been generally adopted that the human dose response for all carcinogens is linear, with no threshold occurring at low levels of exposure. With the move toward decontamination programs and clean-up of various mixed waste sites throughout the US, there is interest in the possibility that risk estimates calculated individually for radionuclides and for chemicals may be combined to reflect the total risk for each site. The purpose of this paper is to examine the feasibility of combining risk estimates during risk/benefit analyses. For a variety of reasons, the state of radiation risk assessment is more advanced than that of chemical risk assessment. The reasons for this disparity are summarized in this paper. Quantitative radiation risk assessment is currently being performed, but involves a high degree of uncertainty. Chemical risk assessment in general does not allow quantitative results bracketed by uncertainty analysis. Therefore, it is concluded that it is currently not possible to develop a useful, quantitative combined risk assessment for a mixed waste site, but that it may be possible to develop such a capability in the future

  7. The additivity of radionuclide and chemical risk estimates in performance evaluation of mixed-waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.; Meyer, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    Methods for assessing radioactive waste sites that contain chemical constituents are in the formative stages. In evaluating these sites, a key concern will be the hazard to personnel involved in cleanup work and to the general population. This paper focuses on what we have learned from pathway analysis and risk assessment about providing a combined estimate of risk from exposure to both chemicals and radionuclides. Quantitative radiation risk assessment involves a high degree of uncertainty. Chemical risk assessment generally does not provide quantitative results. Thus, it is not currently possible to develop a useful, quantitative combined risk assessment for mixed-waste sites

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area,. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  9. Savannah River Site chemical, metal, and pesticide (CMP) waste vitrification treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as well as Department of Defense (DOD) and commercial facilities, have used earthen pits for disposal of chemicals, organic contaminants, and other waste materials. Although this was an acceptable means of disposal in the past, direct disposal into earthen pits without liners or barriers is no longer a standard practice. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately three million pounds of such material was removed from seven chemical, metal, and pesticide disposal pits. This material is known as the Chemical, Metal, and Pesticide (CMP) Pit waste and carries several different listed waste codes depending on the contaminants in the respective storage container. The waste is not classified as a mixed waste because it is believed to be non-radioactive; however, in order to treat the material in a non-radioactive facility, the waste would first have to be screened for radioactivity. The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Section of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the DOE-Savannah River (SR) office to determine the viability of vitrification of the CMP Pit wastes. Radioactive vitrification facilities exist which would be able to process this waste, so the material would not have to be analyzed for radioactive content. Bench-scale treatability studies were performed by the DWPT to determine whether a homogeneous and durable glass could be produced from the CMP Pit wastes. Homogeneous and durable glasses were produced from the six pits sampled. The optimum composition was determined to be 68.5 wt% CMP waste, 7.2 wt% Na 2 O, 9 wt% CaO, 7.2 wt% Li 2 O and 8.1 wt% Fe 2 O 3 . This glass melted at 1,150 C and represented a two fold volume reduction

  10. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  11. Waste management and chemical inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-C-3, 105-C Chemical Waste Tanks. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 116-C-3 waste site consisted of two underground storage tanks designed to receive mixed waste from the 105-C Reactor Metals Examination Facility chemical dejacketing process. Confirmatory evaluation and subsequent characterization of the site determined that the southern tank contained approximately 34,000 L (9,000 gal) of dejacketing wastes, and that the northern tank was unused. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling and modeling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also show that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  13. Estimating risk at a Superfund site contaminated with radiological and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temeshy, A.; Liedle, J.M.; Sims, L.M.; Efird, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the method and results for estimating carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects at a Superfund site that is radiologically and chemically contaminated. Risk to receptors from disposal of waste in soil and resulting contamination of groundwater, air, surface water, and sediment is quantified. Specific risk assessment components which are addressed are the exposure assessment, toxicity assessment, and the resulting risk characterization. In the exposure assessment, potential exposure pathways are identified using waste disposal inventory information for soil and modeled information for other media. Models are used to calculate future radionuclide concentrations in groundwater, soil, surface water and air. Chemical exposure concentrations are quantified using site characterization data. Models are used to determine concentrations of chemicals in surface water and in air. Toxicity parameters used to quantify the dose-response relationship associated with the carcinogenic contaminants are slope factors and with noncarcinogenic contaminants are reference doses. In the risk characterization step, results from the exposure assessment and toxicity assessment are summarized and integrated into quantitative risk estimates for carcinogens and hazard induces for noncarcinogens. Calculated risks for carcinogenic contaminants are compared with EPA's target risk range. At WAG 6, the risk from radionuclides and chemicals for an on-WAG homesteader exceeds EPA's target risk range. Hazard indices are compared to unity for noncarcinogenic contaminants. At WAG 6, the total pathway hazard index for the on-WAG homesteader exceeds unity

  14. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  15. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  16. Assessing Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals In Landfills, Solid Waste Sites and Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers are assessing waste water effluents to measure their effects on ecosystems and aquatic animals while also developing innovative solutions to reduce concentrations of potential endocrine disrupting chemicals.

  17. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  18. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  19. Regional groundwater chemical characteristics of Aqishan pre-selected site for high level radioactive waste repository and its hydrogeological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Dong Jiannan; Liu Shufen; Zhou Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    Aqishan area located in Xinjiang Uygur Automonous Region is one of the main preselected site of disposal repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in our country. Groundwater chemical feature is one of the most important consideration factors in the siting and site evaluation for high-level radioactive waste repository, From 2012 to 2013, the regional field hydrogeochemical investigation was carried out in study area and more than 30 groundwater samples were collected. According to the measurement data, the groundwater chemical features for different subareas are discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the location of discharge area of groundwater in Aqishan area was estimated according to the chemical features of different subareas. (authors)

  20. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  1. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste

  2. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation

  3. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste

  4. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 2, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1944-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  5. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction

  6. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, spring 1993 (Radium Chemical Site profile, Queens, New York)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Radium Chemical hazardous waste site in Queens, New York was contaminated with radium, posing a grave potential threat to the community. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) used the Superfund program to design a long-term cleanup for the site using input from citizens and the business community. Superfund staff: Mobilized a quick cleanup action to remove 10,000 small containers of radium; Developed a streamlined approach to long-term cleanup; Secured the site to reduce the possibility of radiation exposure to the local residents; Cooperated with the community to design a well-organized emergency response plan; and Educated local citizens about site hazards, incorporating community concerns into the cleanup process. The Radium Chemical site is a clear example of EPA's effective management and problem-solving strategies at Superfund sites

  7. Waste assessment chemical characterization of the Weldon Spring site Raffinate Pitts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    As part of the remedial investigation efforts conducted at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action project (WSSRAP), it was recognized that an assessment of the nature and extent of the types of waste in the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits (WSRP) was necessary to evaluate treatment and disposal alternatives. A sampling plan was developed, therefore, which detailed sample locations, sample parameters, and sampling techniques. The sampling effort consisted of collecting 145 samples from 42 locations. The sampling locations were evenly distributed across each of the four raffinate pits in terms of both area and depth. The samples were analyzed for nitroaromatics, metals, inorganic anions, volatiles, semi-volatiles, PCBs/pesticides, oil and grease, total organic halogens, total organic carbon, cyanides and phenols. The data were then evaluated specific to each pit. At a later date the surface waters of each pit were sampled and similarly analyzed for metals. Samples were also analyzed for radiological contaminants. Information regarding radiological characterization is available in a companion report. 5 figs., 24 tabs

  8. Nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloman, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the geopolitics of nuclear waste disposal in the USA. Constitutional choice and social equity perspectives are used to argue for a more open and just repository siting program. The authors assert that every potential repository site inevitably contains geologic, environmental or other imperfections and that the political process is the correct one for determining sites selected

  9. Dimensional and chemical characterization of particles at a downwind receptor site of a waste-to-energy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, G; Stabile, L; Avino, P; Vanoli, R

    2010-07-01

    In the last years numerous epidemiological studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of particulate matter on human health. In industrialized areas, anthropogenic activities highly contribute to the fine and ultrafine particle concentrations. Then, it is important to characterize the evolution of particle size distribution and chemical composition near these emission points. Waste incineration represents a favorable technique for reducing the waste volume. However, in the past, municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) had a bad reputation due to the emission of toxic combustion byproducts. Consequently, the risk perception of the people living near MWIs is very high even if in Western countries waste incineration has nowadays to be considered a relatively clean process from a technical point of view. The study here presented has an exemplary meaning for developing appropriate management and control strategies for air quality in the surrounding of MWIs and to perform exposure assessment for populations involved. Environment particles were continuously measured through a SMPS/APS system over 12 months. The monitoring site represents a downwind receptor of a typical MWI. Furthermore, elements and organic fractions were measured by means of the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and using dichotomous and high volume samplers. Annual mean values of 8.6 x 10(3)+/-3.7 x 10(2)part.cm(-3) and 31.1+/-9.0 microg m(-3) were found for number and mass concentration, typical of a rural site. Most of the elements can be attributed to long-range transport from other natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Finally, the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons present low concentrations with a mean value of 24.6 ng m(-3). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department

  11. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  12. Analytical study of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in leachate treatment process of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Nobutoshi

    2007-01-01

    Influent and processed water were sampled at different points in the leachate treatment facilities of five municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites. Then, the concentrations of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), namely, alkylphenols (APs), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and organotin compounds (OTs), in the treated leachate samples were determined and the behavior of the EDCs in the treatment processes was discussed. The concentrations of APs were as low as those in surface waters, and no OTs were detected (detection limit: 0.01 microg/L). Meanwhile, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), which was the most abundant of the four substances measured as PAEs, and BPA were found in all of the influent samples. BPA was considerably degraded by aeration, except when the water temperature was low and the total organic carbon (TOC) was high. By contrast, aeration, biological treatment, and coagulation/sedimentation removed only a small amount of DEHP.

  13. Assessing Worker and Environmental Chemical Exposure Risks at an e-Waste Recycling and Disposal Site in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Caravanos

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling/disposal site in Accra, Ghana revealed an area with extensive lead contamination in both ambient air and topsoil. Given the urban nature of this site e as well as the large adjacent food distribution market, the potential for human health impact is substantial both to workers and local residents.

  14. The Drigg low-level waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Safe disposal of waste is a vital aspect of any industrial operation whether it be production of plastics, steel or chemicals or handling of radioactive materials. Appropriate methods must be used in every case. Radioactive waste falls into three distinct categories - high, intermediate and low-level. It is the solid low-level waste making up over 90% of the total which this booklet discusses. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operates a site for the disposal of solid low-level waste at Driggs, some six kilometres south of Sellafield in West Cumbria. The daily operations and control of the site, the responsibility of the BNFL Waste Management Unit is described. (author)

  15. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package (TRUPACT-11 SARP). In

  16. Hanford site transuranic waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management, and the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant' (DOE 1996d) (WIPP WAC). The WIPP WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WIPP WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their management of TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter41 (TRUPACT-11). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-I1 requirements in the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (NRC 1997) (TRUPACT-I1 SARP)

  17. Effects of radiation on the chemical environment surrounding waste canisters in proposed repository sites and possible effects on the corrosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.S.

    1981-12-01

    This report explores the interaction of ionizing radiation with various environments. In particular, worst case (aqueous) environments for the proposed nuclear waste repository sites are considered. Emphasis is on the fundamental chemical and physical processes involved. The identities of possible radiolysis products (both transient and stable) have been sought through a literature search. The effect of radiation on corrosion processes is discussed. The radiation-induced chemical environment in the worst case repository sites is not well defined. Attention should therefore be given to fundamental studies exploring the interaction of such environments with components of the nuclear waste package, including the canister materials and backfills. Identification and quantification of radiolysis products would be helpful in this regard

  18. Geohydrology of industrial waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    An existing desert site for hazardous chemical and low-level radioactive waste disposal is evaluated for suitability. This site is characterized using geologic, geohydrologic, geochemical, and other considerations. Design and operation of the disposal facility is considered. Site characteristics are also evaluated with respect to new and proposed regulatory requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) regulations, 40 CFR Part 264, and the ''Licensing Requirements for Landfill Disposal of Radioactive Waste,'' 10 CRF Part 61. The advantages and disadvantages of siting new disposal facilities in similar desert areas are reviewed and contrasted to siting in humid locations

  19. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  20. Nuclear waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain

  1. Historical genesis of Hanford Site wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, and with the generation of the major waste streams of concern in Hanford Site clean-up today. The paper also describes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War 11 construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), and some past suggestions and efforts to chemically treat, open-quotes fractionate,close quotes and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes. Recent events, including the designation of the Hanford Site as the open-quotes flagshipclose quotes of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation efforts and the signing of the landmark Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), have generated new interest in Hanford's history. Clean-up milestones dictated in this agreement demand information about how, when, in what quantities and mixtures, and under what conditions, Hanford Site wastes were generated and released. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. The earliest, 1940s knowledge base, assumptions and calculations about radioactive and chemical discharges, as discussed in the memos, correspondence and reports of the original Hanford Site (then Hanford Engineer Works) builders and operators, are reviewed. The growth of knowledge, research efforts, and subsequent changes in Site waste disposal policies and practices are traced. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history

  2. Modelling the transfer of chemical pollutants to the aquifer in the very low level waste disposal site of El Cabril, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, L.; Merino, J.; Grive, M.; Jordana, S.; Bruno, J.; Ordonez, M.

    2005-01-01

    A Very Low Level Radioactive Waste disposal site is being planned in El Cabril, Spain, where a Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste disposal site is already located. As part of the ongoing safety assessment for this new facility, we have modelled the transfer of chemical pollutants from the disposal site to the underlying aquifer. The conceptual model is based on the water transport due to the infiltration of rain through the disposal cell. The source term is given by the dissolution of the initial inventory limited by sorption in cement (the main form of the waste) and secondary phase solubility. Several assumptions have been made: all protective layers are degraded, the system is saturated and the water flux is stationary and unidimensional in the vertical direction. A compartment modelling approach has been followed, and the system has been divided in four compartments: Top clay layer, Waste, Bottom clay layer and Subsoil. The latter acts as a sink representing the discharge to the aquifer. Advective and diffusive fluxes are defined between the compartments taking into account hydrological, geochemical and transport properties of the different materials and compounds. The results of the simulation (up to 106 years) show that there is an initial increase in the contaminant release to the aquifer due to the leaching of the waste by the infiltrating waters until a maximum is obtained. In most of the elements the maximum is given by their respective solubility limit and therefore the release is constant during all the time the concentration in the pore water is controlled by solubility. (author)

  3. A natural analogue for high-level waste in tuff: Chemical analysis and modeling of the Valles site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockman, H.W.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Ho, C.K.; Kovach, L.; McConnell, V.S.

    1995-01-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a high-level waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock Tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and 39 Ar/ 40 Ar isotopic composition. Overall, the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 m of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks

  4. Hanford Site Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Plan (HWMP) was prepared in accordance with the outline and format described in the US Department of Energy Orders. The HWMP presents the actions, schedules, and projected costs associated with the management and disposal of Hanford defense wastes, both radioactive and hazardous. The HWMP addresses the Waste Management Program. It does not include the Environmental Restoration Program, itself divided into the Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program and the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. The executive summary provides the basis for the plans, schedules, and costs within the scope of the Waste Management Program at Hanford. It summarizes fiscal year (FY) 1988 including the principal issues and the degree to which planned activities were accomplished. It further provides a forecast of FY 1989 including significant milestones. Section 1 provides general information for the Hanford Site including the organization and administration associated with the Waste Management Program and a description of the Site focusing on waste management operations. Section 2 and Section 3 describe radioactive and mixed waste management operations and hazardous waste management, respectively. Each section includes descriptions of the waste management systems and facilities, the characteristics of the wastes managed, and a discussion of the future direction of operations

  5. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  6. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  7. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities were built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Areas to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  8. Old radioactive waste storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a recall of the regulatory context for the management of old sites used for the storage of radioactive wastes with respect with their activity, the concerned products, the disposal or storage type, this document describes AREVA's involvement in the radioactive waste management process in France. Then, for the different kinds of sites (currently operated sites having radioactive waste storage, storage sites for uranium mineral processing residues), it indicates their location and name, their regulatory status and their control authority, the reference documents. It briefly presents the investigation on the long term impact of uranium mineral processing residues on health and environment, evokes some aspects of public information transparency, and presents the activities of an expertise group on old uranium mines. The examples of the sites of Bellezane (uranium mineral processing residues) and COMURHEX Malvesi (assessment of underground and surface water quality at the vicinity of this installation) are given in appendix

  9. Chemical treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottier, P.E.

    1968-01-01

    This is the third manual of three commissioned by the IAEA on the three principal techniques used in concentrating radioactive liquid wastes, namely chemical precipitation, evaporation and ion exchange. The present manual deals with chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation, commonly called ''chemical treatment'' of low-activity wastes. Topics discussed in the manual are: (i) principles of coagulation on flocculation and sedimentation and associated processes; (ii) process and equipment; (iii) conditioning and disposal of flocculation sludge; (iv) sampling and the equipment required for experiments; and (v) factors governing the selection of processes. 99 refs, 17 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Chemical decontamination of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.I.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. There is also a variety of alternatives for treatment and conditioning of the wastes prior disposal. The importance of treatment of radioactive waste for protection of human and environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has gained in this field. Generally, the methods used for treatment of radioactive wastes can be classified into three type's biological, physical and chemical treatment this physical treatment it gives good result than biological treatment. Chemical treatment is fewer hazards and gives good result compared with biological and physical treatments. Chemical treatment is fewer hazards and gives good result compared with biological and physical treatments. In chemical treatment there are different procedures, solvent extraction, ion exchange, electro dialysis but solvent extraction is best one because high purity can be optioned on the other hand the disadvantage that it is expensive. Beside the solvent extraction technique one can be used is ion exchange which gives reasonable result, but requires pretreatment that to avoid in closing of column by colloidal and large species. Electro dialysis technique gives quite result but less than solvent extraction and ion exchange technique the advantage is a cheep.(Author)

  11. Hanford site implementation plan for buried, transuranic-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The GAO review of DOE's Defense Waste Management Plan (DWMP) identified deficiencies and provided recommendations. This report responds to the GAO recommendations with regard to the Hanford Site. Since the issuance of the DWMP, an extensive planning base has been developed for all high-level and transuranic waste at the Hanford Site. Thirty-three buried sites have been identified as possibly containing waste that can be classified as transuranic waste. Inventory reports and process flowsheets were used to provide an estimate of the radionuclide and hazardous chemical content of these sites and approximately 370 additional sites that can be classified as low-level waste. A program undertaken to characterize select sites suspected of having TRU waste to refine the inventory estimates. Further development and evaluation are ongoing to determine the appropriate remedial actions, with the objectives of balancing long-term risks with costs and complying with regulations. 18 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  12. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-01-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal

  13. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives

  14. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria with in which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP

  15. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria within which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  16. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site

  17. Hazardous waste sites and housing appreciation rates

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, Jill Jennifer; Rausser, Gordon C

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic effect of a hazardous waste site is analyzed by investigating the causal relationship between housing appreciation rates and house location in relation to a hazardous waste site using resale data from individual sales transactions in Dallas County, Texas. The results indicate that in the period in which the hazardous waste site was identified and cleanup occurred, residential property owners in close proximity to the hazardous waste site experienced lower housing appreciation rate...

  18. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope

  19. Hanford Site Waste management units report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the operable units in several areas of the Hanford Site Waste Facility. Each operable unit has several waste units (crib, ditch, pond, etc.). The operable units are summarized by describing each was unit. Some of the descriptions are unit name, unit type, waste category start data, site description, etc. The descriptions will vary for each waste unit in each operable unit and area of the Hanford Site

  20. Performance of evaporators in high level radioactive chemical waste service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical processing of nuclear fuels and targets at Savannah River Site resulted in generation of millions of gallons of liquid wastes. The wastes were further processed to reduce volume and allow for extended temporary storage of a more concentrated material. Waste evaporators have been a central point for waste reduction for many years. Currently, the transfer and processing of the concentrated wastes for permanent storage requires dilution and results in generation of significant quantities of additional liquid wastes. A new round of volume reduction is required to fit existing storage capacity and to allow for removal of older vessels from service. Evaporator design, performance and repairs are discussed in this report

  1. Chemical modeling of waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.

    1996-10-01

    The processing of waste from underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and other facilities will require an understanding of the chemical interactions of the waste with process chemicals. Two aspects of sludge treatment should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids, and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns. It is likely that the treatment of waste tank sludge will begin with washing, followed by basic or acidic leaching. The dissolved materials will be in a solution that has a high ionic strength where activity coefficients are far from unity. Activity coefficients are needed in order to calculate solubilities. Several techniques are available for calculating these values, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. The techniques adopted and described here is the Pitzer method. Like any of the methods, prudent use of this approach requires that it be applied within concentration ranges where the experimental data were fit, and its use in large systems should be preceded by evaluating subsystems. While much attention must be given to the development of activity coefficients, other factors such as coprecipitation of species and Ostwald ripening must also be considered when one aims to interpret results of sludge tests or to predict results of treatment strategies. An understanding of sludge treatment processes begins with the sludge tests themselves and proceeds to a general interpretation with the aid of modeling. One could stop with only data from the sludge tests, in which case the table of data would become an implicit model. However, this would be a perilous approach in situations where processing difficulties could be costly or result in concerns for the environment or health and safety

  2. Chemical analyses of potash-bearing horizons from 21 exploratory holes drilled at a tentative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, G.B.

    1977-09-01

    Sandia Laboratories drilled 21 potash drill holes over an 18,960-acre site in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico, to evaluate potash resources as part of their Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project. This report furnishes assay information on samples obtained from the drilling program

  3. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, N.P.; Triner, G.C.

    1991-09-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages the Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy Field Office, Richland under contract DE-AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites, radioactive solid waste storage areas and hazardous waste treatment, storage, and/or disposal facilities. This manual defines the criteria that must be met by waste generators for solid waste to be accepted by Westinghouse Hanford Company for treatment, storage and/or disposal facilities. It is to be used by all waste generators preparing radioactive solid waste for storage or disposal at the Hanford Site facilities and for all Hanford Site generators of hazardous waste. This manual is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved with approval and acceptance of solid waste. The criteria in this manual represent a compilation of state and federal regulations; US Department of Energy orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to management of solid waste. Where appropriate, these requirements are included in the manual by reference. It is the intent of this manual to provide guidance to the waste generator in meeting the applicable requirements

  4. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal

  5. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  6. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal

  7. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  8. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  9. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  10. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  11. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities

  12. Managing soil moisture on waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ratzlaff, T.D.

    1991-11-01

    Shallow land burial is a common method of disposing of industrial, municipal, and low-level radioactive waste. The exclusion of water from buried wastes is a primary objective in designing and managing waste disposal sites. If wastes are not adequately isolated, water from precipitation may move through the landfill cover and into the wastes. The presence of water in the waste zone may promote the growth of plant roots to that depth and result in the transport of toxic materials to above-ground foliage. Furthermore, percolation of water through the waste zone may transport contaminants into ground water. This report presents results from a field study designed to assess the the potential for using vegetation to deplete soil moisture and prevent water from reaching buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Our results show that this approach may provide an economical means of limiting the intrusion of water on waste sites

  13. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2012 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3389 sites and 540 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  14. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-13

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2013 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3427 sites and 564 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  15. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-19

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2013 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3438 sites and 569 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  16. A Bayesian sampling strategy for hazardous waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalski, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    Prior knowledge based on historical records or physical evidence often suggests the existence of a hazardous waste site. Initial surveys may provide additional or even conflicting evidence of site contamination. This article presents a Bayes sampling strategy that allocates sampling at a site using this prior knowledge. This sampling strategy minimizes the environmental risks of missing chemical or radionuclide hot spots at a waste site. The environmental risk is shown to be proportional to the size of the undetected hot spot or inversely proportional to the probability of hot spot detection. 12 refs., 2 figs

  17. Hanford Site annual waste reduction report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1992-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Field Office (RL) has developed and implemented a Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan that provides overall guidance and direction on waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness to the four contractors who manage and operate the Hanford Site for the RL. Waste reduction at the RL will be accomplished by following a hierarchy of environmental protection practices. First, waste generation will be eliminated or minimized through source reduction. Second, potential waste materials that cannot be eliminated or minimized will be recycled (i.e., used, reused, or reclaimed). Third, all waste that is nevertheless generated will be treated to reduce volume, toxicity, or mobility before storage or disposal. The scope of this waste reduction program will include nonhazardous, hazardous, radioactive mixed, and radioactive wastes

  18. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated

  19. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-30

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated.

  20. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  1. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs

  2. Site identification presentation: Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The final step in the site identification process for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project is described. The candidate sites are identified. The site identification methodology is presented. The general objectives which must be met in selecting the final site are listed. Considerations used in the screening process are also listed. Summary tables of the guidelines used are included

  3. Vitrification technology for Hanford Site tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.T.; Calmus, R.B.; Wilson, C.N.

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has an inventory of 217,000 m 3 of nuclear waste stored in 177 underground tanks. The DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology have agreed that most of the Hanford Site tank waste will be immobilized by vitrification before final disposal. This will be accomplished by separating the tank waste into high- and low-level fractions. Capabilities for high-capacity vitrification are being assessed and developed for each waste fraction. This paper provides an overview of the program for selecting preferred high-level waste melter and feed processing technologies for use in Hanford Site tank waste processing

  4. Waste reduction at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, W.E.; Lee, R.A.; Reynolds, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation for the production and research of nuclear materials for national defense and peace time applications and has been operating a full nuclear fuel cycle since the early 1950s. Wastes generated include high level radioactive, transuranic, low level radioactive, hazardous, mixed, sanitary, and aqueous wastes. Much progress has been made during the last several years to reduce these wastes including management systems, characterization, and technology programs. The reduction of wastes generated and the proper handling of the wastes have always been a part of the Site's operation. This paper summarizes the current status and future plans with respect to waste reduction to waste reduction and reviews some specific examples of successful activities

  5. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-28

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  6. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  7. Waste minimization applications at a remediation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allmon, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) owned by the Department of Energy was used for the processing of uranium. In 1989 Fernald suspended production of uranium metals and was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). The site's mission has changed from one of production to environmental restoration. Many groups necessary for producing a product were deemed irrelevant for remediation work, including Waste Minimization. Waste Minimization does not readily appear to be applicable to remediation work. Environmental remediation is designed to correct adverse impacts to the environment from past operations and generates significant amounts of waste requiring management. The premise of pollution prevention is to avoid waste generation, thus remediation is in direct conflict with this premise. Although greater amounts of waste will be generated during environmental remediation, treatment capacities are not always available and disposal is becoming more difficult and costly. This creates the need for pollution prevention and waste minimization. Applying waste minimization principles at a remediation site is an enormous challenge. If the remediation site is also radiologically contaminated it is even a bigger challenge. Innovative techniques and ideas must be utilized to achieve reductions in the amount of waste that must be managed or dispositioned. At Fernald the waste minimization paradigm was shifted from focusing efforts on source reduction to focusing efforts on recycle/reuse by inverting the EPA waste management hierarchy. A fundamental difference at remediation sites is that source reduction has limited applicability to legacy wastes but can be applied successfully on secondary waste generation. The bulk of measurable waste reduction will be achieved by the recycle/reuse of primary wastes and by segregation and decontamination of secondary wastestreams. Each effort must be measured in terms of being economically and ecologically beneficial

  8. Historical research in the Hanford site waste cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, Michele S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will acquaint the audience with role of historical research in the Hanford Site waste cleanup - the largest waste cleanup endeavor ever undertaken in human history. There were no comparable predecessors to this massive waste remediation effort, but the Hanford historical record can provide a partial road map and guide. It can be, and is, a useful tool in meeting the goal of a successful, cost-effective, safe and technologically exemplary waste cleanup. The Hanford historical record is rich and complex. Yet, it poses difficult challenges, in that no central and complete repository or data base exists, records contain obscure code words and code numbers, and the measurement systems and terminology used in the records change many times over the years. Still, these records are useful to the current waste cleanup in technical ways, and in ways that extend beyond a strictly scientific aspect. Study and presentations of Hanford Site history contribute to the huge educational and outreach tasks of helping the Site's work force deal with 'culture change' and become motivated for the cleanup work that is ahead, and of helping the public and the regulators to place the events at Hanford in the context of WWII and the Cold War. This paper traces historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, and acquaints the audience with the generation of the major waste streams of concern in Hanford Site cleanup today. It presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. The earliest, 1940s knowledge base, assumptions and calculations about radioactive and chemical discharges, as discussed in the memos, correspondence and reports of the original Hanford Site (then Hanford Engineer Works) builders and operators, are reviewed. The growth of knowledge, research efforts, and subsequent changes in Site waste disposal policies and practices are traced. Examples of the strengths and limitations of the

  9. Mixed waste management at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, special projects have been initiated for the management of RMW. This paper addresses the management of solid RMW. The management of bulk liquid RMW will not be described. 7 refs., 4 figs

  10. Technologies to remediate hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, J.W.

    1990-03-01

    Technologies to remediate hazardous wastes must be matched with the properties of the hazardous materials to be treated, the environment in which the wastes are imbedded, and the desired extent of remediation. Many promising technologies are being developed, including biological treatment, immobilization techniques, and in situ methods. Many of these new technologies are being applied to remediate sites. The management and disposal of hazardous wastes is changing because of federal and state legislation as well as public concern. Future waste management systems will emphasize the substitution of alternatives for the use of hazardous materials and process waste recycling. Onsite treatment will also become more frequently adopted. 5 refs., 7 figs

  11. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities

  12. SITE-94. Chemical and physical transport parameters for SITE-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Technical Environmental Planning

    1996-02-01

    Important parameters are the interactions of radionuclides with solid surfaces, parameters describing the geometrical conditions like porosity, data on water composition (ionic strength, pH, redox conditions, complex formers etc) and data on the solids that may be of importance to the water and radionuclide chemistry. In this report some of these data of relevance for the Aespoe site are discussed. Based on a literature survey, sorption data as well as values for some other parameters have been selected for rock, fracture fillings and bentonite relevant to the chemical conditions in and around a repository at Aespoe. A comparison to data used for earlier, site-specific as well as general, safety assessments of underground repositories has been performed. The data are recommendations for modelling of radionuclide release from a hypothetical high level waste repository at Aespoe. Since the data to a large extent are not based on experimental measurements, more accurate predictions may be expected if more experimental data are available. Before such studies are performed for a specific site, a variational analysis in order to evaluate the importance of the single parameters is recommended. After such a study, the key parameters may be investigated in detail and the modelling can be expected to be more accurate what concerns influence of single parameters. However, the uncertainty in conceptual areas like how to model accurately the long term hydrology of the site etc still remains. 32 refs.

  13. A Short History of Waste Management at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2010-01-01

    The world's first full-scale nuclear reactors and chemical reprocessing plants built at the Hanford Site in the desert of eastern Washington State produced two-thirds of the plutonium generated in the United States for nuclear weapons. Operating these facilities also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste, some of which was released into the environment exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Hanford now contains the largest accumulation of nuclear waste in the Western Hemisphere. Hanford's last reactor shut down in 1987 followed by closure of the last reprocessing plant in 1990. Today, Hanford's only mission is cleanup. Most onsite radioactive waste and nuclear material lingers inside underground tanks or storage facilities. About half of the chemical waste remains in tanks while the rest persists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Six million dollars each day, or nearly two billion dollars each year, are spent on waste management and cleanup activities. There is significant uncertainty in how long cleanup will take, how much it will cost, and what risks will remain for future generations. This paper summarizes portions of the waste management history of the Hanford Site published in the book 'Hanford: A Conversation about Nuclear Waste and Cleanup.'

  14. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  15. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste; DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW); DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW); and, U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste. The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  16. Chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Akimoto, Hidetoshi

    1991-01-01

    The invention relates to a decontamination method for radioactive metal waste products derived from equipment that handles radioactive materials whose surfaces have been contaminated; in particular it concerns a decontamination method that reduces the amount of radioactive waste by decontaminating radioactive waste substances to a level of radioactivity in line with normal waste products. In order to apply chemical decontamination to metal waste products whose surfaces are divided into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste; the carbon steel waste is treated using only a primary process in which the waste is immersed in a sulfuric acid solution, while the stainless steel waste must be treated with both the primary process and then electrolytically reduces it for a specific length of time and a secondary process that uses a solution of sulfuric acid mixed with oxidizing metal salts. The method used to categorize metal waste into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste involves determining the presence, or absence, of magnetism. Voltage is applied for a fixed duration; once that has stopped, electrolytic reduction repeats the operative cycle of applying, then stopping voltage until the potential of the radioactive metal waste is retained in the active region. 1 fig. 2 tabs

  17. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  18. EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation of Navy Waste Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. LeStrange

    1999-01-01

    The Monitored Geologic Repository Waste Package Operations of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M and O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Navy (Refs. 1 and 2). The Navy SNF has been considered for disposal at the potential Yucca Mountain site. For some waste packages, the containment may breach (Ref. 3), allowing the influx of water. Water in the waste package may moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the waste package. The water may gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the waste package. In addition, the accumulation of silica (SiO 2 ) in the waste package over time may further affect the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of waste packages containing the Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II inner shell, Navy canister, and basket components. The calculations do not include the Navy SNF in the waste package. The specific study objectives were to determine the chemical composition of the water and the quantity of silicon (Si) and other solid corrosion products in the waste package during the first million years after the waste package is breached. The results of this calculation will be used to ensure that the type and amount of criticality control material used in the waste package design will prevent criticality

  19. EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation of Navy Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. LeStrange

    1999-11-15

    The Monitored Geologic Repository Waste Package Operations of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management & Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Navy (Refs. 1 and 2). The Navy SNF has been considered for disposal at the potential Yucca Mountain site. For some waste packages, the containment may breach (Ref. 3), allowing the influx of water. Water in the waste package may moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the waste package. The water may gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the waste package. In addition, the accumulation of silica (SiO{sub 2}) in the waste package over time may further affect the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of waste packages containing the Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II inner shell, Navy canister, and basket components. The calculations do not include the Navy SNF in the waste package. The specific study objectives were to determine the chemical composition of the water and the quantity of silicon (Si) and other solid corrosion products in the waste package during the first million years after the waste package is breached. The results of this calculation will be used to ensure that the type and amount of criticality control material used in the waste package design will prevent criticality.

  20. Chemical treatment of mixed waste at the FEMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honigford, L.; Sattler, J.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Chemical Treatment Project is one in a series of projects implemented by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to treat mixed waste. The projects were initiated to address concerns regarding treatment capacity for mixed waste and to comply with requirements established by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. The Chemical Treatment Project is designed to utilize commercially available mobile technologies to perform treatment at the FEMP site. The waste in the Project consists of a variety of waste types with a wide range of hazards and physical characteristics. The treatment processes to be established for the waste types will be developed by a systematic approach including waste streams evaluation, projectization of the waste streams, and categorization of the stream. This information is utilized to determine the proper train of treatment which will be required to lead the waste to its final destination (i.e., disposal). This approach allows flexibility to manage a wide variety of waste in a cheaper, faster manner than designing a single treatment technology diverse enough to manage all the waste streams

  1. Environmental Assessment: Waste Tank Safety Program, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action in the near-term, to accelerate resolution of waste tank safety issues at the Hanford Site near the City of Richland, Washington, and reduce the risks associated with operations and management of the waste tanks. The DOE has conducted nuclear waste management operations at the Hanford Site for nearly 50 years. Operations have included storage of high-level nuclear waste in 177 underground storage tanks (UST), both in single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank configurations. Many of the tanks, and the equipment needed to operate them, are deteriorated. Sixty-seven SSTs are presumed to have leaked a total approximately 3,800,000 liters (1 million gallons) of radioactive waste to the soil. Safety issues associated with the waste have been identified, and include (1) flammable gas generation and episodic release; (2) ferrocyanide-containing wastes; (3) a floating organic solvent layer in Tank 241-C-103; (4) nuclear criticality; (5) toxic vapors; (6) infrastructure upgrades; and (7) interim stabilization of SSTs. Initial actions have been taken in all of these areas; however, much work remains before a full understanding of the tank waste behavior is achieved. The DOE needs to accelerate the resolution of tank safety concerns to reduce the risk of an unanticipated radioactive or chemical release to the environment, while continuing to manage the wastes safely

  2. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal.

  3. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal

  4. Chemical risks from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies concerning the chemical risks of nuclear waste are reviewed. The radiological toxicity of the material is of primary concern but the potential nonradiological toxicity should not be overlooked as the chemotoxic substances may reach the biosphere from a nuclear waste repository. In the report is concluded that the possible chemotoxic effects of a repository for nuclear waste should be studied as a part of the formal risk assessment of the disposal concept. (author)

  5. Disposal of Hanford site tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1993-09-01

    Between 1943 and 1986, 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) were built and used to store radioactive wastes generated during reprocessing of irradiated uranium metal fuel elements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. The 149 SSTs, located in 12 separate areas (tank farms) in the 200 East and 200 West areas, currently contain about 1.4 x 10 5 m 3 of solid and liquid wastes. Wastes in the SSTs contain about 5.7 x 10 18 Bq (170 MCi) of various radionuclides including 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 137 Cs, and transuranium (TRU) elements. The 28 DSTs also located in the 200 East and West areas contain about 9 x 10 4 m 3 of liquid (mainly) and solid wastes; approximately 4 x 10 18 Bq (90 MCi) of radionuclides are stored in the DSTs. Important characteristics and features of the various types of SST and DST wastes are described in this paper. However, the principal focus of this paper is on the evolving strategy for final disposal of both the SST and DST wastes. Also provided is a chronology which lists key events and dates in the development of strategies for disposal of Hanford Site tank wastes. One of these strategies involves pretreatment of retrieved tank wastes to separate them into a small volume of high-level radioactive waste requiring, after vitrification, disposal in a deep geologic repository and a large volume of low-level radioactive waste which can be safely disposed of in near-surface facilities at the Hanford Site. The last section of this paper lists and describes some of the pretreatment procedures and processes being considered for removal of important radionuclides from retrieved tank wastes

  6. Hazardous waste disposal sites: Report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    Arkansas, like virtually every other state, is faced with a deluge of hazardous waste. There is a critical need for increased hazardous waste disposal capacity to insure continued industrial development. Additionally, perpetual maintenance of closed hazardous waste disposal sites is essential for the protection of the environment and human health. Brief descriptions of legislative and regulatory action in six other states are provided in this report. A report prepared for the New York State Environmental Facilities Corp. outlines three broad approaches states may take in dealing with their hazardous waste disposal problems. These are described. State assistance in siting and post-closure maintenance, with private ownership of site and facility, appears to be the most advantageous option

  7. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  8. Hanford site transuranic waste sampling plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling plan (SP) describes the selection of containers for sampling of homogeneous solids and soil/gravel and for visual examination of transuranic and mixed transuranic (collectively referred to as TRU) waste generated at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The activities described in this SP will be conducted under the Hanford Site TRU Waste Certification Program. This SP is designed to meet the requirements of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) (DOE 1996a) (QAPP), site-specific implementation of which is described in the Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Characterization Program Quality Assurance Project Plan (HNF-2599) (Hanford 1998b) (QAPP). The QAPP defines the quality assurance (QA) requirements and protocols for TRU waste characterization activities at the Hanford Site. In addition, the QAPP identifies responsible organizations, describes required program activities, outlines sampling and analysis strategies, and identifies procedures for characterization activities. The QAPP identifies specific requirements for TRU waste sampling plans. Table 1-1 presents these requirements and indicates sections in this SP where these requirements are addressed

  9. Mixed waste characterization and certification at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.A.; Dodge, R.L.; Fitzsimmons, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was recently granted interim status by the state of Nevada to receive mixed waste. The RCRA Part B permit application has been revised and submitted to the state. Preliminary indications are that the permit will be granted. In conjunction with revision of the Part B permit application, pertinent DOE guidelines governing waste acceptance criteria and waste characterization were also revised. The guidelines balance the need for full characterization of hazardous constituents with ALARA precepts. Because it is not always feasible to obtain a full chemical analysis without undue or unnecessary radiological exposure of personnel, process knowledge is considered an acceptable method of waste characterization. A balance of administrative controls and verification procedures, as well as careful documentation and high standards of quality assurance, are essential to the characterization and certification program developed for the NTS

  10. Mixed waste characterization and certification at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.A.; Dodge, R.L.; Fitzsimmons, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Project (RWMP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was recently granted interim status by the state of Nevada to receive mixed waste (MW). The RCRA Part B permit application has been revised and submitted to the state. Preliminary indications are that the permit will be granted. In conjunction with revision of the Part B Permit application, pertinent DOE guidelines governing waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and waste characterization were also revised. The guidelines balance the need for full characterization of hazardous constituents with as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) precepts. Because it is not always feasible to obtain a full chemical analysis without undue or unnecessary radiological exposure of personnel, process knowledge is considered an acceptable method of waste characterization. A balance of administrative controls and verification procedures, as well as careful documentation and high standards of quality assurance, are essential to the characterization and certification program developed for the NTS

  11. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

    2002-01-01

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable

  12. Voluntary cleanup of the Ames chemical disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboas, A.L.; Freeman, R.; Peterson, J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy completed a voluntary removal action at the Ames chemical disposal site, a site associated with the early days of the Manhattan Project. It contained chemical and low-level radioactive wastes from development of the technology to extract uranium from uranium oxide. The process included the preparation of a Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study, Baseline Risk Assessment, and, ultimately, issuance of a Record of Decision. Various stakeholder groups were involved, including members of the regulatory community, the general public, and the landowner, Iowa State University. The site was restored and returned to the landowner for unrestricted use.

  13. Disposal of mixed radioactive and chemical waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghissi, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment of waste by dilution was practiced as long as nature provided sufficient unpolluted air, water, and land. The necessity for treatment, including containment and disposal of wastes is, however, relatively new. Initially, waste products from manufacturing processes were looked upon as a potential resource. The industries of Western Europe, short of raw materials, tried to recover as many chemical compounds as possible from industrial waste. However, the availability of abundant and cheap petroleum during the fifties changes this practice, at least for a short period

  14. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC). The report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site and consists of waste disposal units, including (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structure, (5) RCRA treatment and storage units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. In support of the Hanford RCRA permit, a field was added to designate whether the waste management unit is a solid waste management unit (SWMU). As SWMUs are identified, they will added to the Hanford Waste Information Data System (WIDS), which is the database supporting this report, and added to the report at its next annual update. A quality review of the WIDS was conducted this past year. The review included checking all data against their reference and making appropriate changes, updating the data elements using the most recent references, marking duplicate units for deletion, and addition additional information. 6 refs

  15. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC). The report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site and consists of waste disposal units, including (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment and storage units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. In support of the Hanford RCRA permit, a field was added to designate whether the waste management unit is a solid waste management unit (SWMU). As SWMUs are identified, they will added to the Hanford Waste Information Data System (WIDS), which is the database supporting this report, and added to the report at its next annual update. A quality review of the WIDS was conducted this past year. The review included checking all data against their reference and making appropriate changes, updating the data elements using the most recent references, marking duplicate units for deletion, and adding additional information. 6 refs

  16. Cleanup around an old waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergaast, G.; Moffett, D.; Lawrence, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    42,500 m 3 of contaminated soil were removed from off-site areas around an old, low-level radioactive waste site near Port Hope, Ontario. The cleanup was done by means of conventional excavation equipment to criteria developed by Eldorado specific to the land use around the company's waste management facility. These cleanup criteria were based on exposure analyses carried out for critical receptors in two different scenarios. The excavated soils, involving eight different landowners, were placed on the original burial area of the waste management facility. Measures were also undertaken to stabilize the soils brought on-site and to ensure that there would be no subsequent recontamination of the off-site areas

  17. Hanford Site Waste Managements Units reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC 1984). This report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site, including a description of the units and the waste they contain. Waste management units in this report include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. The information in this report is extracted from the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The WIDS provides additional information concerning the waste management units contained in this report and is maintained current with changes to these units. This report is updated annually if determined necessary per the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1990). This report identifies 1,414 waste management units. Of these, 1,015 units are identified as solid waste management units (SWMU), and 342 are RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal units. The remaining 399 are comprised mainly of one-time spills to the environment, sanitary waste disposal facilities (i.e., septic tanks), and surplus facilities awaiting decontamination and decommissioning

  18. Hanford Site waste management units report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of the 1984. This report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site, including a description of the units and the waste they contain. Waste management units in the report include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of the units report, the list of units is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of the 1984. In Sections 3.0 through 6.0 of this report, the four aggregate areas are subdivided into their operable units. The operable units are further divided into two parts: (1) those waste management units assigned to the operable unit that will be remediated as part of the Environmental Restoration Remedial Actions (ERRA) Program, and (2) those waste management units located within the operable unit boundaries but not assigned to the ERRA program. Only some operable unit sections contain the second part

  19. Detecting hot spots at hazardous-waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirschky, J.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluating the need for remedial cleanup at a waste site involves both finding the average contaminant concentration and identifying highly contaminated areas, or hot spots. A nomographic procedure to determine the sample configuration needed to locate a hot spot is presented. The technique can be used to develop a waste-site sampling plant - to determine either the grid spacing required to detect a hot spot at a given level of confidence, or the probability of finding a hot spot of a certain size, given a particular grid spacing. The method and computer program (ELIPGRID) were developed for locating geologic deposits, but the basic procedure can also be used to detect hot spots at chemical- or nuclear-waste disposal sites. Nomographs based on the original program are presented for three sampling-grid configurations - square, rectangular and triangular

  20. 1993 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkendall, J.R.; Engel, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    More important than waste generation numbers, the pollution prevention and waste minimization successes achieved at Hanford in 1993 have reduced waste and improved operations at the Site. Just a few of these projects are: A small research nuclear reactor, unused and destined for disposal as low level radioactive waste, was provided to a Texas University for their nuclear research program, avoiding 25 cubic meters of waste and saving $116,000. By changing the slope on a asphalt lot in front of a waste storage pad, run-off rainwater was prevented from becoming mixed low level waste water, preventing 40 cubic meters of waste and saving $750,000. Through more efficient electrostatic paint spraying equipment and a solvent recovery system, a paint shop reduced hazardous waste by 3,500 kilograms, saving $90,800. During the demolition of a large decommissioned building, more than 90% of the building's material was recycled by crushing the concrete for use on-Site and selling the steel to an off-Site recycler, avoiding a total of 12,600 metric tons of waste and saving $450,000. Additionally, several site-wide programs have avoided large quantities of waste, including the following: Through expansion of the paper and office waste recycling program which includes paper, cardboard, newspaper, and phone books, 516 metric tons of sanitary waste was reduced, saving $68,000. With the continued success of the excess chemicals program, which finds on-Site and off-Site customers for excess chemical materials, hazardous waste was reduced by 765,000 liters of liquid chemicals and 50 metric tons of solid chemicals, saving over $700,000 in disposal costs

  1. Final vegetative cover for closed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Salvo, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as an interim vegetative cover for most sites. This coverage allows for required monitoring of the closure cap for settlement and maintenance activities. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate plant materials for use on wastes sites after the post-closure care period that are quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retard water infiltration, provide maximum year-round evapotranspiration, are ecologically acceptable and do not harm the closure cap. The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) bissetii and P. rubromarginata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites after surveillance and maintenance requirements have ceased

  2. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS), Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear operations generate a variety of primary solid waste comprising of tissue materials, glassware, plastics, protective rubber-wears, used components like filters, piping, structural items, unserviceable equipment, etc. This type of solid waste is generally associated with low and intermediate level of beta and gamma radiation and, in some cases, by low levels of alpha contamination. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS), Trombay is operational with an objective of safe and efficient management of low and intermediate level solid waste generated from various nuclear fuel cycle facilities of BARC, Trombay. The RSMS also manages the spent radioactive sources, utilised in healthcare, industries and research institutes, after completion of their useful life. The radioactive solid waste is first segregated, treated for volume reduction and disposed in engineered disposal module to prevent the migration of radionuclides and isolate them from human environment

  3. Chemical aspects of nuclear waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical aspects of the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes are discussed in overview. The role of chemistry and the chemical reactions in waste treatment are emphasized. Waste treatment methods encompass the chemistry of radioactive elements from every group of the periodic table. In most streams, the radioactive elements are present in relatively low concentrations and are often associated with moderately large amounts of process reagents, or materials. In general, it is desirable that waste treatment methods are based on chemistry that is selective for the concentration of radionuclides and does not require the addition of reagents that contribute significantly to the volume of the treated waste. Solvent extraction, ion exchange, and sorbent chemistry play a major role in waste treatment because of the high selectivity provided for many radionuclides. This paper deals with the chemistry of the onsite treatment methods that is typically used at nuclear installations and is not concerned with the chemistry of the various alternative materials proposed for long-term storage of nuclear wastes. The chemical aspects are discussed from a generic point of view in which the chemistry of important radionuclides is emphasized

  4. Fate of nuclear waste site remains unclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.V.

    1980-01-01

    The only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S., located in West Valley, N.Y., has been shut down since 1972, and no efforts have yet been made to clean up the site. The site contains a spent-fuel pool, high level liquid waste storage tanks, and two radioactive waste burial grounds. Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., has been leasing the site from the New York State Energy RandD Authority. Federal litigation may ensue, prompted by NRC and DOE, if the company refuses to decontaminate the area when its lease expires at the end of 1980. DOE has developed a plan to solidify the liquid wastes at the facility but needs additional legislation and funding to implement the scheme

  5. Nuclear waste: Status of DOE's nuclear waste site characterization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Three potential nuclear waste repository sites have been selected to carry out characterization activities-the detailed geological testing to determine the suitability of each site as a repository. The sites are Hanford in south-central Washington State, Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada, and Deaf Smith in the Texas Panhandle. Two key issues affecting the total program are the estimations of the site characterization completion data and costs and DOE's relationship with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has been limited and its relations with affected states and Indian tribes which continue to be difficult

  6. Citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.E.; Olsen, D.

    1982-12-01

    The following study presents a proposed strategy for citizen participation during the planning stages of nuclear waste repository siting. It discusses the issue from the general perspective of citizen participation in controversial issues and in community development. Second, rural institutions and attitudes toward energy development as the context for developing a citizen participation program are examined. Third, major citizen participation techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach for resolving public policy issues are evaluated. Fourth, principles of successful citizen participation are presented. Finally, a proposal for stimulating and sustaining effective responsible citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting and management is developed

  7. A process for treatment of mixed waste containing chemical plating wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anast, K.R.; Dziewinski, J.; Lussiez, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Waste Treatment and Minimization Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed and will be constructing a transportable treatment system to treat low-level radioactive mixed waste generated during plating operations. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is composed of two modules with six submodules, which can be trucked to user sites to treat a wide variety of aqueous waste solutions. The process is designed to remove the hazardous components from the waste stream, generating chemically benign, disposable liquids and solids with low level radioactivity. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is designed as a multifunctional process capable of treating several different types of wastes. At this time, the unit has been the designated treatment process for these wastes: Destruction of free cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes from spent plating solutions; destruction of ammonia in solution from spent plating solutions; reduction of Cr VI to Cr III from spent plating solutions, precipitation, solids separation, and immobilization; heavy metal precipitation from spent plating solutions, solids separation, and immobilization, and acid or base neutralization from unspecified solutions

  8. Waste processing of chemical cleaning solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes that are difficult to reduce in volume using existing technology. Current methods for evaporating low-level radiative waste solutions often use high maintenance evaporators that can be costly and inefficient. The heat transfer surfaces of these evaporators are easily fouled, and their maintenance requires a significant labor investment. To address the volume reduction of spent, low-level radioactive, chelating-based chemical cleaning solutions, ECOSAFE Liquid Volume Reduction System (LVRS) has been developed. The LVRS is based on submerged combustion evaporator technology that was modified for treatment of low-level radiative liquid wastes. This system was developed in 1988 and was used to process 180,000 gallons of waste at Oconee Nuclear Station

  9. Instructive of chemical residues waste administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro Vargas, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the waste management system of chemical residues generated at the Universidad de Costa Rica, ensuring the collection, separation, transportation, reuse, recycling and final disposal. The laboratory waste management system is conditioned to the volume and type of waste generated. The respective procedures are listed in data sheets according to the corresponding model: avoid, reduce, recycle, treat, delete. The materials are identified as: expired products, materials or damaged products, substances that have lost some of the required characteristics, waste from the regular activities of the lab, unused products that now no longer used because they are considered inadequate. The chemicals reagents or hazardous are transformed into small amounts of derivatives safe products, or less hazardous, to allow for removal or to pick up a spill of these without problem [es

  10. Application of neural networks to waste site screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabiri, A.E.; Garrett, M.; Kraft, T.; Hilton, J.; VanHammersveld, M.

    1993-02-01

    Waste site screening requires knowledge of the actual concentrations of hazardous materials and rates of flow around and below the site with time. The present approach consists primarily of drilling boreholes near contaminated sites and chemically analyzing the extracted physical samples and processing the data. This is expensive and time consuming. The feasibility of using neural network techniques to reduce the cost of waste site screening was investigated. Two neural network techniques, gradient descent back propagation and fully recurrent back propagation were utilized. The networks were trained with data received from Westinghouse Hanford Corporation. The results indicate that the network trained with the fully recurrent technique shows satisfactory generalization capability. The predicted results are close to the results obtained from a mathematical flow prediction model. It is possible to develop a new tool to predict the waste plume, thus substantially reducing the number of the bore sites and samplings. There are a variety of applications for this technique in environmental site screening and remediation. One of the obvious applications would be for optimum well siting. A neural network trained from the existing sampling data could be utilized to decide where would be the best position for the next bore site. Other applications are discussed in the report

  11. Chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Akio; Shibuya, Sadao.

    1991-01-01

    When contaminants mainly composed of copper remained on the surface of stainless steel wastes sent from an electrolytic reduction as a first step are chemically decontaminated, metal wastes are discriminated to carbon steel wastes and stainless steel wastes. Then, the carbon steel wastes are applied only with the first step of immersing in a sulfuric acid solution, and stainless steel wastes are applied with a first step of immersing into a sulfuric acid solution for electrolytic reduction for a predetermined period of time and a second step of immersing into a liquid in which an oxidative metal salt is added to sulfuric acid. The decontamination liquid which is used for immersing the stainless steel wastes in the second step and the oxidation force of which is lowered is used as the sulfuric acid solution in the first step for the carbon steel wastes. In view of the above, the decontamination liquid of the second step can be utilized most effectively, enabling to greatly decrease the secondary wastes and to improve decontamination efficiency. (T.M.)

  12. Chemical Accident Prevention: Site Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chemical safety alert assists facilities that routinely handle extremely hazardous substances, along with SERCs, LEPCs, and emergency responders, in their efforts to reduce criminally caused releases and vulnerability to terrorist activity.

  13. Chemical compatibility of DWPF canistered waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require that the contents of the canistered waste form are compatible with one another and the stainless steel canister. The canistered waste form is a closed system comprised of a stainless steel vessel containing waste glass, air, and condensate. This system will experience a radiation field and an elevated temperature due to radionuclide decay. This report discusses possible chemical reactions, radiation interactions, and corrosive reactions within this system both under normal storage conditions and after exposure to temperatures up to the normal glass transition temperature, which for DWPF waste glass will be between 440 and 460 degrees C. Specific conclusions regarding reactions and corrosion are provided. This document is based on the assumption that the period of interim storage prior to packaging at the federal repository may be as long as 50 years

  14. Waste repository planned for Bruce Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    2004-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and Kincardine, the municipality nearest the Bruce site, have agreed in principal to the construction of a deep geologic repository for low and medium level radioactive waste on the site. The two parties signed the 'Kincardine Hosting Agreement' on October 13, 2004 to proceed with planning, seek regulatory approval and further public consultation of the proposed project. A construction Licence is not expected before 2013. (author)

  15. Hanford Site waste management units report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of the 1984. This report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site, including a description of the units and the waste they contain. Waste management units in the report include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of the units report, the list of units is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of the 1984. In Sections 3.0 through 6.0 of this report, the four aggregate areas are subdivided into their operable units. The operable units are further divided into two parts: (1) those waste management units assigned to the operable unit that will be remediated as part of the Environmental Restoration Remedial Actions (ERRA) Program, and (2) those waste management units located within the operable unit boundaries but not assigned to the ERRA program. Only some operable unit sections contain the second part.Volume two contains Sections 4.0 through 6.0 and the following appendices: Appendix A -- acronyms and definition of terms; Appendix B -- unplanned releases that are not considered to be units; and Appendix C -- operable unit maps

  16. Siting a low-level waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    In processes to site disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste, volunteerism and incentives packages hold more promise for attracting host communities than they have for attracting host states. But volunteerism and incentives packages can have disadvantages as well as advantages. This paper discusses their pros and cons and summarizes the different approaches that states are using in their relationships with local governments

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 600-259 Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-02-09

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 600-259 waste site. The site was the former site of the Special Waste Form Lysimeter, consisting of commercial reactor isotope waste forms in contact with soils within engineered caissons, and was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to collect data regarding leaching behavior for target analytes. A Grout Waste Test Facility also operated at the site, designed to test leaching rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive waste.

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 600-259 Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 600-259 waste site. The site was the former site of the Special Waste Form Lysimeter, consisting of commercial reactor isotope waste forms in contact with soils within engineered caissons, and was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to collect data regarding leaching behavior for target analytes. A Grout Waste Test Facility also operated at the site, designed to test leaching rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive waste

  19. Chemical Industry Waste water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, F.A.; Doma, H.S.; El-Shafai, S.A.; Abdel-HaJim, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of chemical industrial wastewater from building and construction chemicals factory and plastic shoes manufacturing factory was investigated. The two factories discharge their wastewater into the public sewerage network. The results showed the wastewater discharged from the building and construction chemicals factory was highly contaminated with organic compounds. The average values of COD and BOD were 2912 and 150 mg O 2 /l. Phenol concentration up to 0.3 mg/l was detected. Chemical treatment using lime aided with ferric chloride proved to be effective and produced an effluent characteristics in compliance with Egyptian permissible limits. With respect to the other factory, industrial wastewater was mixed with domestic wastewater in order to lower the organic load. The COD, BOD values after mixing reached 5239 and 2615 mg O 2 /l. The average concentration of phenol was 0.5 mg/l. Biological treatment using activated sludge or rotating biological contactor (RBe) proved to be an effective treatment system in terms of producing an effluent characteristic within the permissible limits set by the law

  20. Conflicts concerning sites for waste treatment and waste disposal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werbeck, N.

    1993-01-01

    The erection of waste treatment and waste disposal flants increasingly meets with the disapproval of local residents. This is due to three factors: Firstly, the erection and operation of waste treatment plants is assumed to necessarily entail harmful effects and risks, which may be true or may not. Secondly, these disadvantages are in part considered to be non-compensable. Thirdly, waste treatment plants have a large catchment area, which means that more people enjoy their benefits than have to suffer their disadvantages. If residents in the vicinity of such plants are not compensated for damage sustained or harmed in ways that cannot be compensated for it becomes a rational stance for them, while not objecting to waste treatment and waste disposal plants in principle to object to their being in their own neighbourhood. The book comprehensively describes the subject area from an economic angle. The causes are analysed in detail and an action strategy is pointed, out, which can help to reduce acceptance problems. The individual chapters deal with emissions, risk potentials, optimization calculus considering individual firms or persons and groups of two or more firms or persons, private-economy approaches for the solving of site selection conflicts, collective decision-making. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Ranking system for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, K.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Hazard Ranking System (HRS) is a simplified management decision tool that provides a common basis for evaluating a multitude of hazardous waste sites. A deficiency in the HRS for application to Department of Energy mixed radioactive and hazardous waste sites is its inability to explicitly handle radioactive material. A modification to the basic HRS to add the capability to consider radioactivity is described. The HRS considers the exposure routes of direct contact, fire/explosion, atmospheric release, surface-water release, and ground-water release. Each exposure route is further divided into release, route, containment, waste, and target characteristics. To maintain the basic HRS structure, only the waste characteristics section of each exposure route was modified. A ranking system was developed, using radiation dose pathway analysis, to group radionuclides by dose factors. For mixed waste sites, the ranking factor derived for radionuclides is compared with the ranking factor obtained for hazardous chemicals and the most restrictive is used in the overall ranking. The modified HRS has the advantages of being compatible with the original HRS, has reasonable information requirements, and provides scientifically defensible conclusions. 17 references, 2 figures, 6 tables

  2. Chemical hazards from decontamination solutions in low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, L.; Miller, A.; Turney, J.; Naughton, M.; IMPELL Corp., Walnut Creek, CA; Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Recent regulations are focussing more attention on the non-radioactive matrix materials associated with radioactive wastes. Decontamination of operating facilities is becoming a more significant source of low-level waste. This study reviewed the chemical and biological hazards of over 50 decontamination processes. Seventeen of the most prominent hard and soft decontamination processes were examined in detail. The chemical and biological hazards of these seventeen are presented in this paper. These hazards influence the choice of radwaste processing and packaging operations and methods. Federal, state and local regulations further impact on operations and waste disposal. Hazards to personnel, in plant and off-site, resulting from the decontamination cycle are evaluated. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  3. Risk management at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Doty, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) provided the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with additional resources and direction for the identification, evaluation, and remediation of hazardous waste sites in the United States. SARA established more stringent requirements for the Superfund program, both in terms of the pace of the program and the types of remedial alternatives selected. The central requirement is that remedial alternatives be ''protective of public health and the environment'' and ''significantly and permanently'' reduce the toxicity, mobility, or volume of contaminants. The mandate also requires that potential risk be considered in the decision-making process. This document discusses risk management at hazardous waste sites. Topics include selection of sites for placement on the National Priority List, risk assessment and the decision process, risk reduction and remedial alternative selection, and aquifer restoration. 10 refs., 2 figs

  4. Site suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste management system is a tedious task that is facing both developing and developed countries. Site Suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste disposal can make waste management cheap and can be used for sustainable development. However, if the disposal site(s) is/are not sited and handle ...

  5. Waste to chemicals for a circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Centi, Gabriele; Annarita Salladini, Annarita; Palo, Emma; Perathoner, Siglinda

    2018-06-25

    The implementation of a circular economy is a fundamental step to create a greater and more sustainable future for a better use of resources and energy. Wastes and in particular municipal solid waste represent an untapped source of carbon (and hydrogen) to produce a large range of chemicals from methane to alcohols (as methanol or ethanol) or urea. The waste to chemical (WtC) process and related economics are assessed in this concept article to show the validity of such solution both from an economic point of view and from an environmental perspective considering the sensible reduction in greenhouse gas emissions with respect to conventional production from fossil fuels. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Failure analysis on a chemical waste pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambler, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    A failure analysis of a chemical waste pipe illustrates how nuclear technology can spin off metallurgical consultant services. The pipe, made of zirconium alloy (Zr-2.5 wt percent Nb, UNS 60705), had cracked in several places, all at butt welds. A combination of fractography and metallography indicated delayed hydride cracking

  7. Application of neural networks to waste site screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabiri, A.E.; Kraft, T.; Hilton, J.M. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Waste site screening requires knowledge of the actual concentrations of hazardous materials and rates of flow around and below the site with time. The present approach to site screening consists primarily of drilling, boreholes near contaminated site and chemically analyzing the extracted physical samples and processing the data. In addition, hydraulic and geochemical soil properties are obtained so that numerical simulation models can be used to interpret and extrapolate the field data. The objective of this work is to investigate the feasibility of using neural network techniques to reduce the cost of waste site screening. A successful technique may lead to an ability to reduce the number of boreholes and the number of samples analyzed from each borehole to properly screen the waste site. The analytic tool development described here is inexpensive because it makes use of neural network techniques that can interpolate rapidly and which can learn how to analyze data rather than having to be explicitly programmed. In the following sections, data collection and data analyses will be described, followed by a section on different neural network techniques used. The results will be presented and compared with mathematical model. Finally, the last section will summarize the research work performed and make several recommendations for future work.

  8. Physical sampling for site and waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnough, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Physical sampling plays a basic role in site and waste characterization program effort. The term ''physical sampling'' used here means collecting tangible, physical samples of soil, water, air, waste streams, or other materials. The industry defines the term ''physical sampling'' broadly to include measurements of physical conditions such as temperature, wind conditions, and pH which are also often taken in a sample collection effort. Most environmental compliance actions are supported by the results of taking, recording, and analyzing physical samples and the measuring of physical conditions taken in association with sample collecting

  9. Management and disposition of off-site laboratory-generated mixed/low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is the first Department of Energy (DOE) site to take back mixed and low level waste generated at commercial laboratories from chemical analyses and treatability studies on samples taken from the site. This paper discusses the steps addressed and the issues resolved in order to initiate the task of taking back mixed/low level waste. Such issues included regulatory, waste management and contractual issues

  10. Performance of on-site Medical waste disinfection equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of studies available on the performance of on-site medical waste treatment facilities is rare, to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of onsite medical waste treatment equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A various range of the on-site medical waste disinfection equipment (autoclave, chemical disinfection, hydroclave, and dry thermal treatment was considered to select 10 out of 22 hospitals in Tabriz to be included in the survey. The apparatus were monitored mechanically, chemically, and biologically for a six months period in all of the selected hospitals. Results: The results of the chemical monitoring (Bowie-Dick tests indicated that 38.9% of the inspected autoclaves had operational problems in pre-vacuum, air leaks, inadequate steam penetration into the waste, and/or vacuum pump. The biological indicators revealed that about 55.55% of the samples were positive. The most of applied devices were not suitable for treating anatomical, pharmaceutical, cytotoxic, and chemical waste. Conclusion: Although on-site medical waste treating facilities have been installed in all the hospitals, the most of infectious-hazardous medical waste generated in the hospitals were deposited into a municipal solid waste landfill, without enough disinfection. The responsible authorities should stringently inspect and evaluate the operation of on-site medical waste treating equipment. An advanced off-site central facility with multi-treatment and disinfection equipment and enough capacity is recommended as an alternative.

  11. Nevada test site waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document

  12. Compensation: Will it provide a waste site?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Offering an attractive compensation package to persuade a community to voluntarily accept an otherwise undesirable facility may work in some cases, but it's not likely to work for high-level nuclear-waste disposal. The public perception of the risks involved and the public distrust of the institutions responsible for managing those risks are just too great. Much of the controversy stems from public perceptions that the site-selection process itself is unfair. Resentment builds when this occurs, and offers of compensation come to be labeled bribes or blood money. The driving force behind current nuclear-waste policy is intergenerational equity - the moral concept that the generation that produced the waste should dispose of it, permanently. Regardless of the moral appeal, doubts have been raised about the technical feasibility of this approach. Alternatives featuring intergenerational monetary compensation may better honor the commitment hor-ellipsis and reduce pressure to try to do what may be impossible

  13. Nevada test site waste acceptance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document.

  14. Health and Safety Procedures Manual for hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thate, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemical Assessments Team (ORNL/CAT) has developed this Health and Safety Procedures Manual for the guidance, instruction, and protection of ORNL/CAT personnel expected to be involved in hazardous waste site assessments and remedial actions. This manual addresses general and site-specific concerns for protecting personnel, the general public, and the environment from any possible hazardous exposures. The components of this manual include: medical surveillance, guidance for determination and monitoring of hazards, personnel and training requirements, protective clothing and equipment requirements, procedures for controlling work functions, procedures for handling emergency response situations, decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment, associated legal requirements, and safe drilling practices.

  15. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Conroy, M.; Blalock, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals

  16. Chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akio; Onuma, Tsutomu; Yamazaki, Sei; Miura, Haruki.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal wastes, which are generated from radioactive material handling facilities and the surfaces of which are contaminated by radioactive materials. That is, it has a feature of applying acid dissolution simultaneously with mechanical grinding. The radioactive metal wastes are contained in a vessel such as a barrel together with abrasives in a sulfuric acid solution and rotated at several tens rotation per minute. By such procedures for the radioactive metal wastes, (1) cruds and passive membranes are mechanically removed, (2) exposed mother metal materials are uniformly brought into contact with sulfuric acid and further (3) the mother metal materials dissolve the cruds and the passive membranes also chemically by a reducing dissolution (so-called local cell effect). According to the method of the present invention, stainless steel metal wastes having cruds and passive membranes can rapidly and efficiently be decontaminated to a radiation level equal with that of ordinary wastes. (I.S.)

  17. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping is a serious problem in the urban areas because most solid wastes are not dumped in the suitable areas. Bahir Dar Town has the problem of solid waste dumping site identification. The main objective of this study was to select potential areas for suitable solid waste dumping sites for Bahir Dar Town, ...

  18. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  19. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ''lessons learned'' from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors

  20. Hanford Site Waste Storage Tank Information Notebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husa, E.I.; Raymond, R.E.; Welty, R.K.; Griffith, S.M.; Hanlon, B.M.; Rios, R.R.; Vermeulen, N.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides summary data on the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 East and West Areas at the Hanford Site. The summary data covers each of the existing 161 Series 100 underground waste storage tanks (500,000 gallons and larger). It also contains information on the design and construction of these tanks. The information in this report is derived from existing reports that document the status of the tanks and their materials. This report also contains interior, surface photographs of each of the 54 Watch List tanks, which are those tanks identified as Priority I Hanford Site Tank Farm Safety Issues in accordance with Public Law 101-510, Section 3137*

  1. Performance of a radioactive waste internment site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, D.E.; Owen, D.H.; Mishub, R.J.; Prewett, S.V.; Cole, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Aerojet disposed of 30,000 cubic meters of uranium and thorium wastes in an engineered 12,000 square meter (3 acre) internment site in Tennessee. The operation, performed under a State of Tennessee source material license, is based on termination of the license with the material remaining in place, and the option of future commercial use of the site. The closure plan included a long-term monitoring program. Yearly monitoring of the site has verified performance within the design criteria. Full-time construction monitored by a licensed engineer and extensive testing of materials ensured construction of the site according to or better than the specifications. Surface subsidence of the site has averaged about 2.2 cm with a range of 0 to 4.3 cm at 11 settlement markers after 4 years. The anticipated settlement, based on design parameters, was between 15 and 25 cm. The present anticipated settlement is 8 to 15 cm, based on the as-built parameters, and the long-term monitoring results. Slope stability analysis indicates the stability has improved with time due to consolidation of materials and reduced groundwater activity as a result of site construction. There has been no need for corrective action maintenance due to erosion, sluffing of slopes, or subsidence. Groundwater monitoring indicates the materials have been isolated, and there have also been no indications of springs or leakage from the site. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Strategy for managing mixed waste at a plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fentiman, A.

    1991-01-01

    No waste disposal site is currently accepting mixed waste, but facilities across the country continue to generate it. The waste manager at each site is faced with two problems: how to manage the mixed waste already on-site and how to minimize the amount of new waste generated. A strategy has been developed to address each problem. A key element of the strategy is a building-by-building survey of the site. The survey provides information on how and where mixed waste is generated and stored. This paper describes a method for planning and conducting a site-wide mixed-waste survey. It then outlines approaches to managing existing mixed waste and to minimizing mixed-waste generation using information from the survey

  3. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; waste materials.

  4. Radioactive waste on-site storage alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    The first, most frequently evaluated approach for the large producer is the construction of a relatively expensive storage building. However, with the likely possibility that at least one disposal site will remain available and the building never used, such expenditures are difficult to justify. A low cost, but effective alternative, is the use of ''On-Site Storage Containers'' (OSSC) when and if required. Radwaste is only stored in the OSSC if a disposal site is not available. A small number of OSSC's would be purchased initially just to assure immediate access to storage. Only in the unlikely event of total disposal sites closure would additional OSSC's have to be obtained and even this is cost effective. With two or three months of storage available on site, production lead time is sufficient for the delivery of additional units at a rate faster than the waste can be produced. The recommended OSSC design would be sized and shielding optimized to meet the needs of the waste generator. Normally, this would duplicate the shipping containers (casks or vans) currently in use. The reinforced concrete design presented is suitable for outside storage, contains a leakproof polyethylene liner and has remote sampling capability. Licensing would be under 10CFR50.59 for interim storage with long-term storage under 10CFR30 not an impossibility. Cost comparisons of this approach vs. building construction show that for a typical reactor plant installation, the OSSC offers direct savings even under the worst case assumption that no disposal sites are available and the time value of money is zero

  5. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F.

    2003-01-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14±1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85±0.19 million t representing 37.22±6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait

  6. FTIR fiber optic methods for the analysis of Hanford Site waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Cash, R.J.; Dodd, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    Sampling and chemical characterization of mixed high-level waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site is currently in progress. Waste tank safety concerns have provided impetus to analyze this waste. A major safety issue is the possibility of significant concentrations of fuel (ferrocyanide and/or organic compounds) in contact with oxidizers (nitrates and nitrites). It is postulated that under dry conditions and elevated temperatures, ferrocyanide- and/or organic-bearing wastes could undergo rapid exothermic reactions. To maintain the tanks in a safe condition, data are needed on the moisture and fuel concentrations in the waste. Because of the highly radioactive nature of the waste, non-radioactive waste simulants mimicking actual waste are used to provide an initial basis for identifying realistic waste tank safety concerns. Emphasis has been placed on the use of new or existing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)-based systems with potential for field or tank deployment to perform in situ remote waste characterization. Near-infrared diffuse reflectance and mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance fiber optic probes coupled to a Bio-Rad FTS 60A spectrometry system have been evaluated. The near-infrared diffuse reflectance fiber probe system has also been used for preliminary screening of the moisture content and chemical composition of actual Hanford Site waste tank waste core samples. The attributes of this method for analyzing actual radioactive waste are discussed

  7. Waste management units - Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This report is a compilation of worksheets from the waste management units of Savannah River Plant. Information is presented on the following: Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with a known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with no known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received no hazardous waste or hazardous constituents; Waste Management Units having received source; and special nuclear, or byproduct material only

  8. Biological toxicity evaluation of Hanford Site waste grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V. Dodd, D.A.; Voogd, J.A.

    1992-10-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 50 years of operation of the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy near Richland, Washington. These wastes are currently stored onsite in single- and double-shell carbon steel tanks. To effectively handle and treat these wastes, their degree of toxicity must be determined. The disposal of the low-level radioactive liquid portion of the wastes involves mixing the wastes with pozzolanic blends to form grout. Potential environmental hazards posed by grouts are largely unknown. Biological evaluation of grout toxicity is needed to provide information on the potential risks of animal and plant exposure to the grouts. The fish, rat, and Microtox toxicity tests described herein indicate that the grouts formed from Formulations I and 2 are nonhazardous and nondangerous. Using the Microtox solid-phase protocol, both soluble and insoluble organic and inorganic toxicants in the grouts can be detected. This protocol may be used for rapid screening of environmental pollutants and toxicants

  9. Mass spectrometry analysis of tank wastes at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Mong, G.M.; Clauss, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-five of the 177 high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington are being watched closely because of the possibility that flammable gas mixtures may be produced from the mixed wastes contained in the storage tanks. One tank in particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas mixtures since its final filling in the early 1980s. It has been postulated that the organic compounds present in the waste may be precursors to the production of hydrogen. Mass spectrometry has proven to be an invaluable tool for the identification of organic components in wastes from Tank 101-SY and C-103. A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unresolved Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for organic components

  10. Evaluation of conceptual, mathematical and physical-and-chemical models for describing subsurface radionuclide transport at the Lake Karachai Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumynin, V.G.; Mironenko, V.A.; Sindalovsky, L.N.; Boronina, A.V.; Konosavsky, P.K.; Pozdniakov, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop the methodology and to improve understanding of subsurface radionuclide transport for application to the Lake Karachai Site and to identify the influence of the processes and interactions involved into transport and fate of the radionuclides. The report is focused on two sets of problems, which have to do both with, hydrodynamic and hydrogeochemical aspects of the contaminant transport

  11. DSEM, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site Economic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The Disposal Site Economic Model calculates the average generator price, or average price per cubic foot charged by a disposal facility to a waste generator, one measure of comparing the economic attractiveness of different waste disposal site and disposal technology combinations. The generator price is calculated to recover all costs necessary to develop, construct, operate, close, and care for a site through the end of the institutional care period and to provide the necessary financial returns to the site developer and lender (when used). Six alternative disposal technologies, based on either private or public financing, can be considered - shallow land disposal, intermediate depth disposal, above or below ground vaults, modular concrete canister disposal, and earth mounded concrete bunkers - based on either private or public development. 2 - Method of solution: The economic models incorporate default cost data from the Conceptual Design Report (DOE/LLW-60T, June 1987), a study by Rodgers Associates Engineering Corporation. Because all costs are in constant 1986 dollars, the figures must be modified to account for inflation. Interest during construction is either capitalized for the private developer or rolled into the loan for the public developer. All capital costs during construction are depreciated over the operation life of the site using straight-line depreciation for the private sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of - 100 years post-operating period, 30 years operating period, 15 years pre-operating period. The model should be used with caution outside the range of 1.8 to 10.5 million cubic feet of total volume. Depreciation is not recognized with public development

  12. Defense waste management operations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.; Kendall, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Waste management activities were initiated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of low-level wastes (LLW) produced by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) weapons testing program. Disposal activities have expanded from the burial of atmospheric weapons testing debris to demonstration facilities for greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) waste, transuranic (TRU) waste storage and certification, and the development of a mixed waste (MW) facility. Site specific operational research projects support technology development required for the various disposal facilities. The annual cost of managing the facilities is about $6 million depending on waste volumes and types. The paper discusses site selection; establishment of the Radioactive Waste Management Project; operations with respect to low-level radioactive wastes, transuranic waste storage, greater confinement disposal test, and mixed waste management facility; and related research activities such as tritium migration studies, revegetation studies, and in-situ monitoring of organics

  13. Electronic Denitration Savannah River Site Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    Electrochemical destruction of nitrate in radioactive Savannah River Site Waste has been demonstrated in a bench-scale flow cell reactor. Greater than 99% of the nitrate can be destroyed in either an undivided or a divided cell reactor. The rate of destruction and the overall power consumption is dependent on the cell configuration and electrode materials. The fastest rate was observed using an undivided cell equipped with a nickel cathode and nickel anode. The use of platinized titanium anode increased the energy requirement and costs compared to a nickel anode in both the undivided and divided cell configurations

  14. Low-level radioactive waste disposal at a humid site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.

    1987-03-01

    Waste management in humid environments poses a continuing challenge because of the potential contamination of groundwater in the long term. Short-term needs for waste disposal, regulatory uncertainty, and unique site and waste characteristics have led to the development of a site-specific waste classification and management system proposed for the Oak Ridge Reservation. The overlying principle of protection of public health and safety is used to define waste classes compatible with generated waste types, disposal sites and technologies, and treatment technologies. 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission

  16. Operational radioactive waste management plan for the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Operational Radioactive Waste Management Plan for the Nevada Test Site establishes procedures and methods for the safe shipping, receiving, processing, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. Included are NTS radioactive waste disposition program guidelines, procedures for radioactive waste management, a description of storage and disposal areas and facilities, and a glossary of specifications and requirements

  17. Environmental monitoring considerations for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlet, J.

    1982-01-01

    All waste disposal sites are required to monitor the environment. The proposed NRC licensing rule, 10 CFR Part 61, requires that such monitoring be conducted before, during, and after a site is operated. An adequate monitoring program consists of measuring concentrations of radionuclides, chemically-toxic substances, and leachate indicators in environmental media and of evaluating specific physical properties of the site. In addition, the composition of the buried waste must be known. Methods for obtaining this information are discussed and monitoring programs are presented for the preoperational, operational, and postclosure phases of a disposal site. Environmental monitoring is considered in a broad context, since it includes monitoring burial trenches onsite, as well as surveillance in the offsite environment. Postclosure monitoring programs will be strongly influenced by the operational monitoring results. In some respects, this phase will be easier since the migration pathways should be well known and the number of radionuclides of concern reduced by radioactive decay. The results of the environmental monitoring program will be vital to successful site operation. These results should be used to determine if operational changes are needed and to predict future environmental impacts

  18. Ground-penetrating radar in characterizing and monitoring waste-burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Kimball, C.S.

    1982-02-01

    Potential environmental hazards are associated with buried chemical and nuclear wastes because of the possibilities of inadvertent excavation or migration of toxic chemicals or radionuclides into groundwater or surface water bodies. Concern is often related to the fact that many existing waste burial sites have been found to be inadequately designed and/or poorly documented. New technology and innovative applications of current technology are needed to locate, characterize, and monitor the wastes contained in such sites. The work described in this paper is focused on the use of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for those purposes

  19. Pre-1970 transuranic solid waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    The document is based on a search of pre-1970 Hanford Solid Waste Records. The available data indicates seven out of thirty-one solid waste burial sites used for pre-1970 waste appear to be Transuranic (TRU). A burial site defined to be TRU contains >100 nCi/gm Transuranic nuclides

  20. Biological tracer for waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.

    1995-01-01

    Remediating hazardous waste sites requires detailed site characterization. In groundwater remediation, characterizing the flow paths and velocity is a major objective. Various tracers have been used for measuring groundwater velocity and transport of contaminants, colloidal particles, and bacteria and nutrients. The conventional techniques use dissolved solutes, dyes. and gases to estimate subsurface transport pathways. These tracers can provide information on transport and diffusion into the matrix, but their estimates for groundwater flow through fractured regions are very conservative. Also, they do not have the same transport characteristics as bacteria and suspended colloid tracers, both of which must be characterized for effective in-place remediation. Bioremediation requires understanding bacterial transport and nutrient distribution throughout the acquifer, knowledge of contaminants s mobile colloidal particles is just essential

  1. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field

  2. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  3. Chemical Education: A Tool for Wealth Creation from Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on exposing the indispensible role of chemical education in wealth creation from waste. Every settlement of people has one type of waste or the other to dispose. The challenge of waste management has in recent time occupied researchers such that innovations are geared towards reducing wastes that ...

  4. Environmental analysis of closure options for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, D.E.; King, C.M.; Looney, B.B.; Stephenson, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    Previously acceptable waste management practices (e.g., the use of unlined seepage basins) for discarding of wastes from nuclear materials production has resulted in occasional cases of groundwater contamination beneath some disposal sites, mainly in water-table aquifers. Groundwater contaminants include volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, radionuclides, and other chemicals. The closure of active and inactive waste sites that have received hazardous and/or low-level radioactive materials at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is planned as part of an overall program to protect groundwater quality. DOE developed and submitted to Congress a groundwater protection plan for SRP. This initial plan and subsequent revisions provide the basis for closure of SRP waste sites to comply with applicable groundwater protection requirements. An environmental analysis of the closure options for the criteria waste sites that have received hazardous and/or low-level radioactive wastes was conducted to provide technical support. The several parts of this environmental analysis include description of geohydrologic conditions; determination of waste inventories; definition of closure options; modeling of environmental pathways; assessment of risk; and analysis of project costs. Each of these components of the overall analysis is described in turn in the following paragraphs. Production operations at SRP have generated a variety of solid, hazardous, and low-level radioactive waste materials. Several locations onplant have been used as waste disposal sites for solid and liquid wastes. Seventy-six individual waste sites at 45 distinct geographical locations on SRP have received hazardous, low-level radioactive, or mixed wastes. These waste sites can be categorized into 26 groupings according to the function of the waste disposed. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  5. The Savannah River Site Waste Inventory Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.M.; Holmes, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Each hazardous and radioactive waste generator that delivers waste to Savannah River Site (SRS) treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facilities is required to implement a waste certification plan. The waste certification process ensures that waste has been properly identified, characterized, segregated, packaged, and shipped according to the receiving facilities waste acceptance criteria. In order to comply with the rigid acceptance criteria, the Reactor Division developed and implemented the Waste Inventory Management Program (WIMP) to track the generation and disposal of low level radioactive waste. The WIMP system is a relational database with integrated barcode technology designed to track the inventory radioactive waste. During the development of the WIMP several waste minimization tools were incorporated into the design of the program. The inclusion of waste minimization tools as part of the WIMP has resulted in a 40% increase in the amount of waste designated as compactible and an overall volume reduction of 5,000 cu-ft

  6. Overview of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Tank Gas and Vapor Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Droppo, James G.; Meacham, Joseph E.

    2004-08-31

    Hanford Site processes associated with the chemical separation of plutonium from uranium and other fission products produced a variety of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic and inorganic waste chemicals that were sent to high-level waste tanks. These chemicals have undergone and continue to undergo radiolytic and thermal reactions in the tanks to produce a wide variety of degradation reaction products. The origins of the organic wastes, the chemical reactions they undergo, and their reaction products have recently been examined by Stock (2004). Stock gives particular attention to explaining the presence of various types of volatile and semivolatile organic species identified in headspace air samples. This report complements the Stock report by examining the storage of volatile and semivolatile species in the waste, their transport through any overburden of waste to the tank headspaces, the physical phenomena affecting their concentrations in the headspaces, and their eventual release into the atmosphere above the tanks.

  7. Radioactive waste disposal: Recommendations for a repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadelli, N.; Orlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a guidebook on recommendations for site selection of radioactive waste repository, based on a consensus in european community. This report describes particularly selection criteria and recommendations for radioactive waste disposal in underground or ground repositories. 14 refs

  8. Hanford Site waste management and environmental restoration integration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The ''Hanford Site Waste Management and Environmental Restoration Integration Plan'' describes major actions leading to waste disposal and site remediation. The primary purpose of this document is to provide a management tool for use by executives who need to quickly comprehend the waste management and environmental restoration programs. The Waste Management and Environmental Restoration Programs have been divided into missions. Waste Management consists of five missions: double-shell tank (DST) wastes; single-shell tank (SST) wastes (surveillance and interim storage, stabilization, and isolation); encapsulated cesium and strontium; solid wastes; and liquid effluents. Environmental Restoration consists of two missions: past practice units (PPU) (including characterization and assessment of SST wastes) and surplus facilities. For convenience, both aspects of SST wastes are discussed in one place. A general category of supporting activities is also included. 20 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  9. In situ vitrification of a mixed radioactive and hazardous waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, B.E.; Koegler, S.S.

    1990-11-01

    A large-scale test of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process was performed on a mixed radioactive and hazardous-chemical contaminated waste site on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. A mixed-waste site was selected for this large-scale test to demonstrate the applicability of ISV to mixed wastes common to many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In situ vitrification is a thermal process that converts contaminated soil into a durable, leach-resistant product. Electrodes are inserted into the ground. The goals of the test are to demonstrate at least 99% retention of fission products and hazardous metals in the ISV glass during the test; demonstrate the ability of the ISV off-gas treatment system to process a waste site containing significant quantities of combustible material and demonstrate the ability of ISV to vitrify the site to a depth of 20 ft or greater. The test was completed in April 1990. 5 figs

  10. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Samples were collected from an area adjacent to the disposal site at Sheffield, IL, and from two operating sites: one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. The soil samples, which were analyzed from each site, were believed to include soil which was representative of that in contact with buried waste forms. Results of field measurements of earth resistivity and of soil pH will be presented. Additionally, the results of laboratory measurements of resistivity, moisture content, pH, exchange acidity and the soluble ion content of the soils will be discussed. The soluble ion content of the soils was determined by analysis of aqueous extracts of saturated soil pastes. The concentrations of the following ions were determined: Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , HCO 3 - , CO 3 2- , SO 4 2- , Cl - , S 2-

  11. Application to transfer radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    All waste described in this application has been, and will be, generated by LANL in support of the nuclear weapons test program at the NTS. All waste originates on the NTS. DOE Order 5820.2A states that low-level radioactive waste shall be disposed of at the site where it is generated, when practical. Since the waste is produced at the NTS, it is cost effective for LANL to dispose of the waste at the NTS

  12. Waste classification and methods applied to specific disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1979-01-01

    An adequate definition of the classes of radioactive wastes is necessary to regulating the disposal of radioactive wastes. A classification system is proposed in which wastes are classified according to characteristics relating to their disposal. Several specific sites are analyzed with the methodology in order to gain insights into the classification of radioactive wastes. Also presented is the analysis of ocean dumping as it applies to waste classification. 5 refs

  13. Defense waste management operations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.; Kendall, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Waste management activities were initiated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of low-level wastes (LLW) produced by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) weapons testing program. Disposal activities have expanded from the burial of atmospheric weapons testing debris to demonstration facilities for greater-than-Class C (GTCC) waste, transuranic (TRU) waste storage and certification, and the development of a mixed waste (MW) facility. Site specific operational research projects support technology development required for the various disposal facilities. The annual cost of managing the facilities is about $6 million depending on waste volumes and types

  14. Radiation effects issues related to US DOE site remediation and nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Ewing, R.C.

    1994-10-01

    Site restoration activities at DOE facilities and the permanent disposal of nuclear waste generated at the same DOE facilities involve working with and within various types and levels of radiation fields. Radionuclide decay and the associated radiation fields lead to physical and chemical changes that can degrade or enhance material properties. This paper reviews the impact of radiation fields on site restoration activities and on the release rate of radionuclides to the biosphere from nuclear waste forms

  15. Less is Better. Laboratory Chemical Management for Waste Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    An objective of the American Chemical Society is to promote alternatives to landfilling for the disposal of laboratory chemical wastes. One method is to reduce the amount of chemicals that become wastes. This is the basis for the "less is better" philosophy. This bulletin discusses various techniques involved in purchasing control,…

  16. Ecologic assessment of closure options for Savannah River Plant waste sites: Task 38, AX-681812

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Ecologic assessment of closure options is one of several analyses being documented in the EIDs (along with analysis of relative potential health risks, accident risks, and costs). This information will serve as a basis for choosing the best option for closing a particular waste facility. This report presents the methodology adopted for SRP waste site ecological assessment, and the results of its application. The results of the ecologic assessment indicated that no impacts are expected for any of the closure options at eleven sites. Significant ecologic impacts are possible at the eight waste sites or groups of waste sites including the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds, Old TNX Seepage Basin, CMP Pits, F-Area Seepage Basins, H-Area Seepage Basins, SRL Seepage Basins, R-Reactor Seepage Basins, and L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin. 104 refs., 22 figs., 241 tabs

  17. Waste site grouping for 200 Areas soil investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify logical waste site groups for characterization based on criteria established in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy (DOE-RL 1996a). Specific objectives of the document include the following: finalize waste site groups based on the approach and preliminary groupings identified in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; prioritize the waste site groups based on criteria developed in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; select representative site(s) that best represents typical and worse-case conditions for each waste group; develop conceptual models for each waste group. This document will serve as a technical baseline for implementing the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy. The intent of the document is to provide a framework, based on waste site groups, for organizing soil characterization efforts in the 200 Areas and to present initial conceptual models

  18. Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This ''Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement'' (HSW EIS) covers three primary aspects of waste management at Hanford--waste treatment, storage, and disposal. It also addresses four kinds of solid waste--low-level waste (LLW), mixed (radioactive and chemically hazardous) low-level waste (MLLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). It fundamentally asks the question: how should we manage the waste we have now and will have in the future? This EIS analyzes the impacts of the LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, and ILAW we currently have in storage, will generate, or expect to receive at Hanford. The HSW EIS is intended to help us determine what specific facilities we will continue to use, modify, or construct to treat, store, and dispose of these wastes (Figure S.1). Because radioactive and chemically hazardous waste management is a complex, technical, and difficult subject, we have made every effort to minimize the use of acronyms (making an exception for our four waste types listed above), use more commonly understood words, and provide the ''big picture'' in this summary. An acronym list, glossary of terms, and conversions for units of measure are provided in a readers guide in Volume 1 of this EIS

  19. Laboratory testing of ozone oxidation of Hanford site waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Stubbs, A.M.; Bolling, S.D.; Colby, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Organic constituents in radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site provoke safety concerns arising from their low-temperature reactions with nitrate and nitrite oxidants. Destruction of the organics would eliminate both safety problems. Oxone oxidation was investigated to destroy organic species present in simulated and genuine waste from Hanford Site Tank 241-SY-101. Bench-scale tests showed high-shear mixing apparatus achieved efficient gas-to-solution mass transfer and utilization of the ozone reagent. Oxidations of nitrite (to form nitrate) and organic species were observed. The organics formed carbonate and oxalate as well as nitrate and nitrogen gas from organic nitrogen. Formate, acetate and oxalate were present both in source waste and as reaction intermediates. Metal species oxidations also were observed directly or inferred by solubilities. Chemical precipitations of metal ions such as strontium and americium occurred as the organic species were destroyed by ozone. Reaction stoichiometries were consistent with the reduction of one oxygen atom per ozone molecule

  20. Bioprocessing applications in the management of nuclear and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genung, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Defense (DOD), and other federal agencies already face profound challenges in finding strategies that manage budgets and priorities while bringing their sites and facilities into compliance with current statues and regulations and with agency policies and orders. While it is often agreed that current technology can be used to address most waste management and environmental restoration needs, it is also argued by many that the costs of implementing current technology will be too high unless the standards and schedules for compliance are relaxed. Since this is socially unacceptable, efforts to improve the efficiency of existing technologies and to develop new technologies should be pursued. A sizable research, development, and demonstration effort can be easily justified if the potential for reducing costs can be shown. Bioprocessing systems for the treatment of nuclear and chemically hazardous wastes offer such promise

  1. Assessment of chemical vulnerabilities in the Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize results of relevant data (tank farm and laboratory) and analysis related to potential chemical vulnerabilities of the Hanford Site waste tanks. Potential chemical safety vulnerabilities examined include spontaneous runaway reactions, condensed phase waste combustibility, and tank headspace flammability. The major conclusions of the report are the following: Spontaneous runaway reactions are not credible; condensed phase combustion is not likely; and periodic releases of flammable gas can be mitigated by interim stabilization

  2. Assessment of LANL waste management site plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, R.L.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present findings from evaluating the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Management Plan to determine if it meets applicable DOE requirements. DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, sets forth requirements and guidelines for the establishment of a Waste Management Plan. The primary purpose of a Waste Management Plan is to describe how waste operations are conducted, what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming year

  3. Six Strategies for Chemical Waste Minimization in Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Gary C.; Hadley, Cheri R.

    1991-01-01

    Guidelines are offered to research administrators for reducing the volume of hazardous laboratory waste. Suggestions include a chemical location inventory, a chemical reuse facility, progressive contracts with chemical suppliers, internal or external chemical recycling mechanisms, a "chemical conservation" campaign, and laboratory fees for…

  4. Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico chemical evaluation of coffee husk, wastes of enset (Enset ventricosum), vegetable and khat (Catha edulis) through vermicomposting employing an epigeic earthworm Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa, 1886)

  5. Remediation of hazardous waste sites by heap leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samani, Z.; Hanson, A.; Dwyer, B.

    1994-01-01

    Efforts are being made to devise technologies and treatment systems to remediate contaminated soil-on site without generating significant wastes for off-site disposal. Heap leaching, a technique used extensively in the mining industry, has been investigated as a method for remediation of hazardous chemical contamination of the vadose zone. In the mining industry, metal-bearing ore is excavated and mounded on a pad. The metals are removed by passing a special leaching solution through the ore. In this study, the removal of chromium(VI) from the New Mexico soils (sand, sandy loam, and clay) using heap leaching was evaluated at a column scale. The heap leaching study demonstrated greater than 99% removal of Cr(VI) from all three soils using tap water as the leaching agent. (author) 13 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs

  6. Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes

  7. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility

  8. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: site screening and site evaluation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.; Brown, A.; Everitt, R.A.; Gascoyne, M.; Kozak, E.T.; Lodha, G.S.; Martin, C.D.; Soonawala, N.M.; Stevenson, D.R.; Thorne, G.A.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1994-06-01

    carefully characterized to understand the groundwater flow conditions in the rock. This understanding would be used to situate the disposal vault in the rock so as to allow the flow and chemical characteristics of the groundwater to enhance the safety of the disposal system. The geoscience methods for characterizing the conditions within plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield have been developed and tested by AECL at geologic research areas on the Shield. This report presents examples of the site characterization methods which are drawn from the studies at these research areas. The geoscience work performed at the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) on the Shield in southeastern Manitoba comes closest to illustrating the spatial coverage of characterization that would be required for siting an actual nuclear fuel waste disposal vault in a candidate area of the Shield. The characterization work done at the site of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in the WRA demonstrates how to evaluate the geoscience conditions of the rock at a candidate disposal site, and illustrates how that information would be used to confirm the suitability of the site for disposal. This report presents evidence from case studies at the URL and the geologic research areas that the surface-based, borehole and underground site characterization methods developed by AECL are now sufficiently developed that they can be used to obtain the geoscience information needed for siting a disposal vault in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. We expect that these site characterization methods will continue to be improved and that new methods will be developed during the long time period required for implementation of the disposal project. Improvements and new developments are continuing through ongoing research at the site of the URL and at the other geologic research areas on the Shield. However the methods that are currently available are sufficiently well developed to allow siting to commence. (author)

  9. Application of new technologies for characterization of Hanford Site high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, W.I.

    1998-01-01

    To support remediation of Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks, new chemical and physical measurement technologies must be developed and deployed. This is a major task of the Chemistry Analysis Technology Support (CATS) group of the Hanford Corporation. New measurement methods are required for efficient and economical resolution of tank waste safety, waste retrieval, and disposal issues. These development and deployment activities are performed in cooperation with Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. This paper provides an overview of current analytical technologies in progress. The high-level waste at the Hanford Site is chemically complex because of the numerous processes used in past nuclear fuel reprocessing there, and a variety of technologies is required for effective characterization. Programmatic and laboratory operational needs drive the selection of new technologies for characterizing Hanford Site high-level waste, and these technologies are developed for deployment in laboratories, hot cells or in the field. New physical methods, such as the propagating reactive systems screening tool (PRSST) to measure the potential for self-propagating reactions in stored wastes, are being implemented. Technology for sampling and measuring gases trapped within the waste matrix is being used to evaluate flammability hazards associated with gas releases from stored wastes. Application of new inductively coupled plasma and laser ablation mass spectrometry systems at the Hanford Site's 222-S Laboratory will be described. A Raman spectroscopy probe mounted in a cone penetrometer to measure oxyanions in wastes or soils will be described. The Hanford Site has used large volumes of organic complexants and acids in processing waste, and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) methods have been developed for determining several of the major organic components in complex waste tank matrices. The principles involved, system installation, and results from

  10. Use of risk to resolve conflicts in assessing hazards at mixed-waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1991-01-01

    Two main issues contribute to the assessment of health hazard from mixed waste: the scientific methods to assess these materials and the legislative and regulatory control of these materials. This paper is primarily concerned with the scientific method of assessing hazards from mixed waste (i.e., carcinogenic chemicals, noncarcinogenic chemicals, and radioactive material). This paper discusses SRS, a Site Ranking System, and its use of risk concepts to avoid introducing new inconsistencies when ranking mixed-waste sites. SRS ranks each site by scoring factors that influence the human health risk. The factors are (1) the potentially exposed population, (2) the average amount of exposure to the waste, and (3) the toxicity of the waste. The relative risk of a release is measured as the product of these three factors. The third factor, toxicity, is indexed with a single score, but because methods of measuring toxicity differ for carcinogenic chemicals, noncarcinogenic chemicals, and radionuclides, comparison can be difficult; hence, this paper also summarizes the logic and assumptions used to make toxicity comparisons in SRS. As may be expected, results from a ranking scheme based on risk are different from results generated by the original Hazard Ranking System (HRS), used by the Environmental Protection Agency. This paper briefly discusses these differences for five Superfund sites (no mixed waste). The legislative and regulatory control of these materials to protect human health is also discussed. 37 refs., 1 tab

  11. Groundwater hydrology study of the Ames Chemical Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickel, T.

    1996-01-01

    The Ames Laboratory Chemical Disposal Site is located in northwestern Ames, Iowa west of Squaw Creek. From 1957 to 1966, Ames Laboratory conducted research to develop processes to separate uranium and thorium from nuclear power fuel and to separate yttrium from neutron shielding sources. The wastes from these processes, which contained both hazardous and radiological components, were placed into nine burial pits. Metal drums, plywood boxes, and steel pails were used to store the wastes. Uranium was also burned on the ground surface of the site. Monitoring wells were placed around the waste burial pits. Groundwater testing in 1993 revealed elevated levels of Uranium 234, Uranium 238, beta and alpha radiation. The north side of the burial pit had elevated levels of volatile organic compounds. Samples in the East Ravine showed no volatile organics; however, they did contain elevated levels of radionuclides. These analytical results seem to indicate that the groundwater from the burial pit is flowing down hill and causing contamination in the East Ravine. Although there are many avenues for the contamination to spread, the focus of this project is to understand the hydrogeology of the East Ravine and to determine the path of groundwater flow down the East Ravine. The groundwater flow data along with other existing information will be used to assess the threat of chemical migration down the East Ravine and eventually off-site. The primary objectives of the project were as follows: define the geology of the East Ravine; conduct slug tests to determine the hydraulic conductivity of both oxidized and unoxidized till; develop a three-dimensional mathematical model using ModIME and MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow in the East Ravine

  12. Disposal facilities for radioactive waste - legislative requirements for siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova-Mihaylova, Radosveta

    2015-01-01

    The specifics of radioactive waste, namely the content of radionuclides require the implementation of measures to protect human health and the environment against the hazards arising from ionizing radiation, including disposal of waste in appropriate facilities. The legislative requirements for siting of such facilities, and classification of radioactive waste, as well as the disposal methods, are presented in this publication

  13. Mixed waste disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Kendall, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a law suit brought against DOE resulted in the requirement that DOE be subject to regulation by the state and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for all hazardous wastes, including mixed wastes. Therefore, all DOE facilities generating, storing, treating, or disposing of mixed wastes will be regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCTA). In FY 1985, DOE Headquarters requested DOE low-level waste (LLW) sites to apply for a RCRA Part B Permit to operate radioactive mixed waste facilities. An application for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was prepared and submitted to the EPA, Region IX in November 1985 for review and approval. At that time, the state of Nevada had not yet received authorization for hazardous wastes nor had they applied for regulatory authority for mixed wastes. In October 1986, DOE Nevada Operations Office was informed by the Rocky Flats Plant that some past waste shipments to NTS contained trace quantities of hazardous substances. Under Colorado law, these wastes are defined as mixed. A DOE Headquarters task force was convened by the Under Secretary to investigate the situation. The task force concluded that DOE has a high priority need to develop a permitted mixed waste site and that DOE Nevada Operations Office should develop a fast track project to obtain this site and all necessary permits. The status and issues to be resolved on the permit for a mixed waste site are discussed

  14. Implementation of Waste Minimization at a complex R ampersand D site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, R.E.; Thuot, J.R.; Devgun, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Under the 1994 Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, the Department of Energy (DOE) has set a goal of 50% reduction in waste at its facilities by the end of 1999. Each DOE site is required to set site-specific goals to reduce generation of all types of waste including hazardous, radioactive, and mixed. To meet these goals, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, has developed and implemented a comprehensive Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (PP/WMin) Program. The facilities and activities at the site vary from research into basic sciences and research into nuclear fuel cycle to high energy physics and decontamination and decommissioning projects. As a multidisciplinary R ampersand D facility and a multiactivity site, ANL generates waste streams that are varied, in physical form as well as in chemical constituents. This in turn presents a significant challenge to put a cohesive site-wide PP/WMin Program into action. In this paper, we will describe ANL's key activities and waste streams, the regulatory drivers for waste minimization, and the DOE goals in this area, and we will discuss ANL's strategy for waste minimization and it's implementation across the site

  15. Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-02-24

    This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

  16. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300-18 Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-18 waste site. This site was identified as containing radiologically contaminated soil, metal shavings, nuts, bolts, and concrete

  17. 40 CFR 268.36 - Waste specific prohibitions-inorganic chemical wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-inorganic chemical wastes 268.36 Section 268.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... generator may use knowledge of the waste. If the waste contains regulated constituents in excess of the...

  18. Case history update: RCRA waste site remediation by telerobotic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yemington, C.R.; Stone, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the first 18 months of closure work at the Kerr Hollow Quarry site on the DOE reservation at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Closure work includes recovery and processing of explosive, toxic and radioactive waste. As of January 1992, more than 10,000 items had been processed and removed from the quarry, exclusively by remotely operated equipment. Drums, buckets, tubing assemblies and other containers are being shredded to react any explosive contents. Concussion and projectiles are controlled by operating the shredder under 30 feet of water. The performance of the shredder, the effectiveness of the approach, production rates and maintenance requirements are addressed in the paper. To avoid exposing personnel to hazards, all work in the restricted area is done remotely. Two remotely operated vehicles were used to clear a pad, set a stand and install the 200-hp shredder. Some materials exposed by shredding are stable in water but react when exposed to air. In addition, radioactive items are mixed in with the other wastes. Safety considerations have therefore led to use of remote techniques for handling and examining materials after recovery. Deteriorated gas cylinders, which may contain pressurized toxic materials, are recovered and handled exclusively by remotely operated equipment. Waste retrieval work at the Kerr Hollow Quarry has proven the capability and cost-effectiveness of remotely operated equipment to deal with a wide variety of hazardous materials in an unstructured waste site environment. A mixture of radioactive materials, toxic chemicals, explosives and asbestos has been found and processed. Remotely operated vehicles have retrieved, sorted and processed more than 10,000 items including drums, buckets, pipe manifolds, gas cylinders and other containers

  19. Inventory of chemicals used at Hanford Site production plants and support operations (1944-1980)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M. J.

    1990-04-01

    A complete list of chemicals used in the production facilities and support operations of the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is presented to aid development of plans for characterizing the radioactive liquid chemical wastes stored in the 149 single-shell tanks. The complete chemical list is compared to the list provided by the regulatory agencies to identify hazardous chemicals stored in the single-shell tanks. A reduced list has been developed by others and is used to identify the chemical constituents for analysis in the Waste Characterization Plan for the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks. The chemical list is based on chemical process flowsheets, essential material consumption records, letters, reports, and other historical data. 14 refs., 36 tabs.

  20. Risky business: Assessing cleanup plans for waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.

    1995-01-01

    ORNL was chosen to perform human health and ecological risk assessments for DOE because of its risk assessment expertise. The U.S. Department of Energy's many production and research sites contain radioactive and hazardous wastes. These waste sites pose potential risks to the health and safety of remediation and waste management workers and the public. The risks, however, vary from site to site. Some sites undoubtedly present larger risks than others and should be cleaned up first. However, before the cleanup begins, DOE is required by law to prepare an environmental impact statement on any actions that may significantly affect the environment-even actions that would clean it up

  1. 1994 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition. A few of the successful projects are: T-Plant helps facilities reuse equipment by offering decontamination services for items such as gas cylinders, trucks, and railcars, thus saving disposal and equipment replacement costs. Custodial Services reviewed its use of 168 hazardous cleaning products, and, through a variety of measures, replaced them with 38 safer substitutes, one for each task. Scrap steel contaminated with low level radioactivity from the interim stabilization of 107-K and 107-C was decontaminated and sold to a vendor for recycling. Site-wide programs include the following: the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P2OA) program at the Hanford site was launched during 1994, including a training class, a guidance document, technical assistance, and goals; control over hazardous materials purchased was achieved by reviewing all purchase requisitions of a chemical nature; the Office Supply Reuse Program was established to redeploy unused or unwanted office supply items. In 1994, pollution prevention activities reduced approximately 274,000 kilograms of hazardous waste, 2,100 cubic meters of radioactive and mixed waste, 14,500,000 kilograms of sanitary waste, and 215,000 cubic meters off liquid waste and waste water. Pollution Prevention activities also saved almost $4.2 million in disposal, product, and labor costs. Overall waste generation increased in 1994 due to increased work and activity typical for a site with an environmental restoration mission. However, without any Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention activities, solid radioactive waste generation at Hanford would have been 25% higher, solid hazardous waste generation would have been 30% higher, and solid sanitary waste generation would have been 60% higher

  2. Successful characterization of radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.B.; Miles, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Characterization of the low-level radioactive waste generated by forty five independent operating facilities at The Savannah River Site (SRS) experienced a slow start. However, the site effectively accelerated waste characterization based on findings of an independent assessment that recommended several changes to the existing process. The new approach included the development of a generic waste characterization protocol and methodology and the formulation of a technical board to approve waste characterization. As a result, consistent, detailed characterization of waste streams from SRS facilities was achieved in six months

  3. Site and facility waste transportation services planning documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratledge, J.E.; Schmid, S.; Danese, L.

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) will eventually ship Purchasers' (10 CFR 961.3) spent nuclear fuel from approximately 122 commercial nuclear facilities. The preparation and maintenance of Site- and Facility-Specific Transportation Services Planning Documents (SPDs) and Site-Specific Servicing Plans (SSSPs) provides a focus for advanced planning and the actual shipping of waste, as well as the overall development of transportation requirements for the waste transportation system. SPDs will be prepared for each of the affected nuclear waste facilities, with initial emphasis on facilities likely to be served during the earliest years of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) operations

  4. Citric waste saccharification under different chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Second generation ethanol from lignocellulose materials has been used in applications for food processing wastes. Since Brazil has a leading position in orange juice exports, the influence of acid and alkali pretreatments on liquor saccharification, solubilization of solid fraction and mass yield was evaluated. Time and Cacid or Calkaline at different concentrations of solids (low to moderate, 1 to 9% and high catalyst concentrations were analyzed. A hydrothermal pretreatment was conducted under the same conditions of acid and alkaline treatments to investigate the relative selectivity increase in using the catalysts. The chemical analyses of wastes indicated a 70% total carbohydrate level denoting a promising raw material for bioethanol production. Pretreatment caused acid saccharifications between 25 and 65% in total reducing sugars (TRS and mass yields (MY between 30 and 40%. In alkaline pretreatment, these rates ranged between 2 and 22.5% and between 30 and 80, respectively. In hydrothermal pretreatment, solubilized TRS varied between 3 and 37%, whereas MY remained between 45 and 60%, respectively. Cbiomass strongly influenced the three variables; in the same way, time affected MY.

  5. Pyrochlore as nuclear waste form. Actinide uptake and chemical stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkeldei, Sarah Charlotte

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste is generated by many different technical and scientific applications. For the past decades, different waste disposal strategies have been considered. Several questions on the waste disposal strategy remain unanswered, particularly regarding the long-term radiotoxicity of minor actinides (Am, Cm, Np), plutonium and uranium. These radionuclides mainly arise from high level nuclear waste (HLW), specific waste streams or dismantled nuclear weapons. Although many countries have opted for the direct disposal of spent fuel, from a scientific and technical point of view it is imperative to pursue alternative waste management strategies. Apart from the vitrification, especially for trivalent actinides and Pu, crystalline ceramic waste forms are considered. In contrast to glasses, crystalline waste forms, which are chemically and physically highly stable, allow the retention of radionuclides on well-defined lattice positions within the crystal structure. Besides polyphase ceramics such as SYNROC, single phase ceramics are considered as tailor made host phases to embed a specific radionuclide or a specific group. Among oxidic single phase ceramics pyrochlores are known to have a high potential for this application. This work examines ZrO{sub 2} based pyrochlores as potential nuclear waste forms, which are known to show a high aqueous stability and a high tolerance towards radiation damage. This work contributes to (1) understand the phase stability field of pyrochlore and consequences of non-stoichiometry which leads to pyrochlores with mixed cationic sites. Mixed cationic occupancies are likely to occur in actinide-bearing pyrochlores. (2) The structural uptake of radionuclides themselves was studied. (3) The chemical stability and the effect of phase transition from pyrochlore to defect fluorite were probed. This phase transition is important, as it is the result of radiation damage in ZrO{sub 2} based pyrochlores. ZrO{sub 2} - Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} pellets

  6. Pyrochlore as nuclear waste form. Actinide uptake and chemical stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkeldei, Sarah Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated by many different technical and scientific applications. For the past decades, different waste disposal strategies have been considered. Several questions on the waste disposal strategy remain unanswered, particularly regarding the long-term radiotoxicity of minor actinides (Am, Cm, Np), plutonium and uranium. These radionuclides mainly arise from high level nuclear waste (HLW), specific waste streams or dismantled nuclear weapons. Although many countries have opted for the direct disposal of spent fuel, from a scientific and technical point of view it is imperative to pursue alternative waste management strategies. Apart from the vitrification, especially for trivalent actinides and Pu, crystalline ceramic waste forms are considered. In contrast to glasses, crystalline waste forms, which are chemically and physically highly stable, allow the retention of radionuclides on well-defined lattice positions within the crystal structure. Besides polyphase ceramics such as SYNROC, single phase ceramics are considered as tailor made host phases to embed a specific radionuclide or a specific group. Among oxidic single phase ceramics pyrochlores are known to have a high potential for this application. This work examines ZrO 2 based pyrochlores as potential nuclear waste forms, which are known to show a high aqueous stability and a high tolerance towards radiation damage. This work contributes to (1) understand the phase stability field of pyrochlore and consequences of non-stoichiometry which leads to pyrochlores with mixed cationic sites. Mixed cationic occupancies are likely to occur in actinide-bearing pyrochlores. (2) The structural uptake of radionuclides themselves was studied. (3) The chemical stability and the effect of phase transition from pyrochlore to defect fluorite were probed. This phase transition is important, as it is the result of radiation damage in ZrO 2 based pyrochlores. ZrO 2 - Nd 2 O 3 pellets with pyrochlore and defect

  7. Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste thermal treatment initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.; Riddelle, J.G.

    1993-03-01

    This paper is a progress report of current Westinghouse Hanford Company engineering activities related to the implementation of a program for the thermal treatment of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste. Topics discussed include a site-specific engineering study, the review of private sector capability in thermal treatment, and thermal treatment of some of the Hanford Site radioactive mixed waste at other US Department of Energy sites

  8. Characterization recommendations for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, W.H.; Gordon, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.; Shedrow, C.B.

    1987-11-01

    One hundred and sixty six disposal facilities that received or may have received waste materials resulting from operations at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been identified. These waste range from innocuous solid and liquid materials (e.g., wood piles) to process effluents that contain hazardous and/or radioactive constituents. The waste sites have been grouped into 45 categories according the the type of waste materials they received. Waste sites are located with SRP coordinates, a local Department of Energy (DOE) grid system whose grid north is 36 degrees 22 minutes west of true north. DOE policy is to close all waste sites at SRP in a manner consistent with protecting human health and environment and complying with applicable environmental regulations (DOE 1984). A uniform, explicit characterization program for SRP waste sites will provide a sound technical basis for developing closure plans. Several elements are summarized in the following individual sections including (1) a review of the history, geohydrology, and available characterization data for each waste site and (2) recommendations for additional characterization necessary to prepare a reasonable closure plan. Many waste sites have been fully characterized, while others have not been investigated at all. The approach used in this report is to evaluate available groundwater quality and site history data. For example, groundwater data are compared to review criteria to help determine what additional information is required. The review criteria are based on regulatory and DOE guidelines for acceptable concentrations of constituents in groundwater and soil

  9. Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization

  10. APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL METHODS TO THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Bulimaga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a synthesis analysis of application of chemical methods for the development of technologies of hazardous waste management. Here are offered some technologies of neutralization of the waste containing hexacyanofferates, galvanic wastes and those with contain of vanadium, which are collected at Power Thermoelectric Plants.

  11. Savannah River Site`s Site Specific Plan. Environmental restoration and waste management, fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities that were identified during the preparation of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) for FY 1992--1996. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. The purpose of the SSP is to develop a baseline for policy, budget, and schedules for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities. The plan explains accomplishments since the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 plan, demonstrates how present and future activities are prioritized, identifies currently funded activities and activities that are planned to be funded in the upcoming fiscal year, and describes future activities that SRS is considering.

  12. Technical Assessment Of Selection Of A Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Hun

    1992-04-01

    This book gives overall descriptions of technical assessment of selection of a waste disposal site, which deals with standard of selection on incinerator of city waste, the method over assessment of selection of incinerator in city waste, prerequisite of technical assessment for selection of incinerator, waste incinerator and related equipment such as form, structure, quality of material, ventilation device, plumbing system and electrical installation, and total plan like plan of construction and a measure taken against environmental pollution.

  13. Storage of intermediate level waste at UKAEA sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodill, D.R.; Tymons, B.J.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the storage of wastes at UKAEA sites and accordingly contributes to the investigations conducted by the Department of the Environment into the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) for radioactive waste storage and/or disposal. This report on the storage of ILW should be read in conjunction with a similar NII funded CTS study for Licensed Sites in the UK. (author)

  14. Factors influencing chemical durability of nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xiangdong; Bates, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    A short summary is given of our studies on the major factors that affect the chemical durability of nuclear waste glasses. These factors include glass composition, solution composition, SA/V (ratio of glass surface area to the volume of solution), radiation, and colloidal formation. These investigations have enabled us to gain a better understanding of the chemical durability of nuclear waste glasses and to accumulate.a data base for modeling the long-term durability of waste glass, which will be used in the risk assessment of nuclear waste disposal. This knowledge gained also enhances our ability to formulate optimal waste glass compositions

  15. Measurements and models for hazardous chemical and mixed wastes. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, C.; Louie, B.; Mullins, M.E.; Outcalt, S.L.; Rogers, T.N.; Watts, L.

    1998-01-01

    'Aqueous waste of various chemical compositions constitutes a significant fraction of the total waste produced by industry in the US. A large quantity of the waste generated by the US chemical process industry is waste water. In addition, the majority of the waste inventory at DoE sites previously used for nuclear weapons production is aqueous waste. Large quantities of additional aqueous waste are expected to be generated during the clean-up of those sites. In order to effectively treat, safely handle, and properly dispose of these wastes, accurate and comprehensive knowledge of basic thermophysical property information is paramount. This knowledge will lead to huge savings by aiding in the design and optimization of treatment and disposal processes. The main objectives of this project are: Develop and validate models that accurately predict the phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of hazardous aqueous systems necessary for the safe handling and successful design of separation and treatment processes for hazardous chemical and mixed wastes. Accurately measure the phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of a representative system (water + acetone + isopropyl alcohol + sodium nitrate) over the applicable ranges of temperature, pressure, and composition to provide the pure component, binary, ternary, and quaternary experimental data required for model development. As of May, 1998, nine months into the first year of a three year project, the authors have made significant progress in the database development, have begun testing the models, and have been performance testing the apparatus on the pure components.'

  16. Site-Specific Waste Management Instruction - 100-DR-1 Group 2 Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    This site-specific waste management instruction (SSWMI) provides guidance for the management of wastes that may be generated during the excavation and remediation of the 100-DR-1 Group 2 sites. The management of waste generated as a result of these activities will be as directed in this SSWMI. This SSWMI will be revised to incorporate guidance for management of wastes encountered that are not addressed in this SSWMI

  17. Hazardous and mixed waste management at UMTRA sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampill, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    During the early stages of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, there were some serious questions regarding the ownership of and consequently the responsibility for disposal of hazardous wastes at UMTRA sites. In addition to State and Indian Tribe waste disposal regulations, UMTRA must also conform to guidelines established by the NRC, OSHA, EPA, and DOT. Because of the differing regulatory thrusts of these agencies, UMTRA has to be vigilant in order to ensure that the disposal of each parcel of waste material is in compliance with all regulations. Mixed-waste disposal presents a particularly difficult problem. No single agency is willing to lay claim to the regulation of mixed-wastes, and no conventional waste disposal facility is willing to accept it. Consequently, the disposal of each lot of mixed-waste at UMTRA sites must be handled on a case by case basis. A recently published position paper which spells out UMTRA policy on waste materials indicates that wastes found at UMTRA sites are either residual radioactive wastes, or mixed-wastes, or for the disposal of hazardous waste is determined by the time the original material arrived. If it arrived prior to the termination of the AEC uranium supply contract, its disposal is the responsibility of UMTRA. If it arrived after the end of the contract, the responsibility for disposal lies with the former operator

  18. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1993-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  19. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1994-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  20. Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document, Volume 2, provides the inventory of waste addressed in this Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The inventories consist of waste from the following four groups: (1) Tank waste; (2) Cesium (Cs) and Strontium (Sr) capsules; (3) Inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs); and (4) Anticipated future tank waste additions. The major component by volume of the overall waste is the tank waste inventory (including future tank waste additions). This component accounts for more than 99 percent of the total waste volume and approximately 70 percent of the radiological activity of the four waste groups identified previously. Tank waste data are available on a tank-by-tank basis, but the accuracy of these data is suspect because they primarily are based on historical records of transfers between tanks rather than statistically based sampling and analyses programs. However, while the inventory of any specific tank may be suspect, the overall inventory for all of the tanks combined is considered more accurate. The tank waste inventory data are provided as the estimated overall chemical masses and radioactivity levels for the single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). The tank waste inventory data are broken down into tank groupings or source areas that were developed for analyzing groundwater impacts

  1. Screening criteria for siting waste management facilities: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission (Midwest Compact) seeks to define and place into operation a system for low-level waste management that will protect the public health and safety and the environment from the time the waste leaves its point of origin. Once the system is defined it will be necessary to find suitable sites for the components of that waste management system. The procedure for siting waste management facilities that have been chosen by the compact is one in which a host state is chosen for each facility. The host state is then given the freedom to select the site. Sites will be needed of low-level waste disposal facilities. Depending on the nature of the waste management system chosen by the host state, sites may also be needed for regional waste treatment facilities, such as compactors or incinerators. This report provides example criteria for use in selecting sites for low-level radioactive waste treatment and disposal facilities. 14 refs

  2. EMC: a new equipment for repackaging the ancient waste from Fontenay-aux-Roses CEA site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ithurbide, A.; Masy, J.C.; Serrano, R.; Blanc, S.

    2017-01-01

    A new equipment called EMC (Equipment for measuring and packaging) is being built on the Fontenay-aux Roses site in the framework of the cleaning-up of this CEA site. Studies on irradiated fuels and on radio-chemical processes were performed till 1995 and a large quantity of radioactive waste were generated and have stayed on the site so far in storage pits. EMC purpose is to prepare high level radioactive waste for their removal towards the Diadem storing facility that is being built on the Marcoule CEA site. EMC will deal with α-emitter contaminated waste and will be able to recover ancient 50 l waste drums from storage pits, to characterize their radioactive content, to open them, to package them in CDD1 drum (each CDD1 drum can contain up to 5 ancient drums), and to load CDD1 drums in transport packing. EMC is expected to operate for 4 years. (A.C.)

  3. Principles for disposal of radioactive and chemical hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    The double hazard of mixed wastes is characterized by several criteria: radioactivity on the one hand, and chemical toxicity, flammability, corrosiveness as well as chemical reactivity on the other hand. Chemotoxic waste normally has a much more complex composition than radioactive waste and appears in much larger quantities. However, the two types of waste have some properties in common when it comes to their long-term impact on health and the environment. In order to minimize the risk associated with mixed waste management, the material assigned for ultimate disposal should be thoroughly detoxified, inertized, or mineralized prior to conditioning and packaging. Good control over the environmental consequence of waste disposal requires that detailed criteria for tolerable contamination should be established, and that compliance with these criteria can be demonstrated. For radioactive waste, there has been an extensive international development of criteria to protect human health. For non-radioactive waste, derived criteria exist only for a limited number of substances

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300 VTS Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.W.; Mitchell, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300 Area Vitrification Test Site, also known as the 300 VTS site. The site was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a field demonstration site for in situ vitrification of soils containing simulated waste

  5. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300 VTS Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and T. H. Mitchell

    2006-03-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300 Area Vitrification Test Site, also known as the 300 VTS site. The site was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a field demonstration site for in situ vitrification of soils containing simulated waste.

  6. Burden of disease from toxic waste sites in India, Indonesia, and the Philippines in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; Caravanos, Jack; Ericson, Bret; Sunga-Amparo, Jennifer; Susilorini, Budi; Sharma, Promila; Landrigan, Philip J; Fuller, Richard

    2013-07-01

    Prior calculations of the burden of disease from toxic exposures have not included estimates of the burden from toxic waste sites due to the absence of exposure data. We developed a disability-adjusted life year (DALY)-based estimate of the disease burden attributable to toxic waste sites. We focused on three low- and middle-income countries (LMICs): India, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Sites were identified through the Blacksmith Institute's Toxic Sites Identification Program, a global effort to identify waste sites in LMICs. At least one of eight toxic chemicals was sampled in environmental media at each site, and the population at risk estimated. By combining estimates of disease incidence from these exposures with population data, we calculated the DALYs attributable to exposures at each site. We estimated that in 2010, 8,629,750 persons were at risk of exposure to industrial pollutants at 373 toxic waste sites in the three countries, and that these exposures resulted in 828,722 DALYs, with a range of 814,934-1,557,121 DALYs, depending on the weighting factor used. This disease burden is comparable to estimated burdens for outdoor air pollution (1,448,612 DALYs) and malaria (725,000 DALYs) in these countries. Lead and hexavalent chromium collectively accounted for 99.2% of the total DALYs for the chemicals evaluated. Toxic waste sites are responsible for a significant burden of disease in LMICs. Although some factors, such as unidentified and unscreened sites, may cause our estimate to be an underestimate of the actual burden of disease, other factors, such as extrapolation of environmental sampling to the entire exposed population, may result in an overestimate of the burden of disease attributable to these sites. Toxic waste sites are a major, and heretofore underrecognized, global health problem.

  7. Records of wells and chemical analyses of water from wells for the period June 13, 1984 to December 4, 1986 at the Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyverse, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Lithologic data are presented for 113 wells drilled at the Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Site for the period June 13, 1984 to December 4, 1986. Water levels, tritium concentrations, and specific conductance are also presented for wells yielding sufficient water for measuring and sampling. At least one sample was collected from most wells for the determination of gross alpha and beta activity. These activities and the results for gamma emitting radionuclides (Cobalt 60 and Cesium 137) are also presented. (USGS)

  8. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2

  9. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.; Stevens, L.

    1992-01-01

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste

  10. On-site waste storage assuring the success of on-site, low-level nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Waste management has reached paramount importance in recent years. The successful management of radioactive waste is a key ingredient in the successful operation of any nuclear facility. This paper discusses the options available for on-site storage of low-level radioactive waste and those options that have been selected by the Department of Energy facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The focus of the paper is on quality assurance (QA) features of waste management activities such as accountability and retrievability of waste materials and waste packages, retrievability of data, waste containment, safety and environmental monitoring. Technical performance and careful documentation of that performance are goals which can be achieved only through the cooperation of numerous individuals from waste generating and waste managing organizations, engineering, QA, and environmental management

  11. Waste certification review program at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulk, G.W.; Kinney, J.C.; Knapp, D.C.; Burdette, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    After approving the waste certification programs for 45 generators of low-level radioactive and mixed waste, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) moved forward to implement a performance-based approach for assuring that approved waste generators maintain their waste certification programs. WSRC implemented the Waste Certification Review Program, which is comprised of two sitewide programs, waste generator self-assessments and Facility Evaluation Board reviews, integrated with the WSRC Solid Waste Management Department Waste Verification Program Evaluations. The waste generator self-assessments ensure compliance with waste certification requirements, and Facility Evaluation Board reviews provide independent oversight of generators' waste certification programs. Waste verification evaluations by the TSD facilities serve as the foundation of the program by confirming that waste contents and generator performance continue to meet waste acceptance criteria (WSRC 1994) prior to shipment to treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Construction of the Savannah River Site (SRS) was started by the US Government in 1950. The site covers approximately 300 square miles located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. It is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Operations are conducted by managing and operating contractors, including the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). Historically, the primary purpose of the SRS was to produce special nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium. In general, low-level radioactive and mixed waste is generated through activities in operations. Presently, 47 SRS facilities generate low-level radioactive and mixed waste. The policies, guidelines, and requirements for managing these wastes are determined by DOE and are reflected in DOE Order 5820.2A (US DOE 1988)

  12. Hanford Site waste treatment/storage/disposal integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998 Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. began the integration of all low-level waste, mixed waste, and TRU waste-generating activities across the Hanford site. With seven contractors, dozens of generating units, and hundreds of waste streams, integration was necessary to provide acute waste forecasting and planning for future treatment activities. This integration effort provides disposition maps that account for waste from generation, through processing, treatment and final waste disposal. The integration effort covers generating facilities from the present through the life-cycle, including transition and deactivation. The effort is patterned after the very successful DOE Complex EM Integration effort. Although still in the preliminary stages, the comprehensive onsite integration effort has already reaped benefits. These include identifying significant waste streams that had not been forecast, identifying opportunities for consolidating activities and services to accelerate schedule or save money; and identifying waste streams which currently have no path forward in the planning baseline. Consolidation/integration of planned activities may also provide opportunities for pollution prevention and/or avoidance of secondary waste generation. A workshop was held to review the waste disposition maps, and to identify opportunities with potential cost or schedule savings. Another workshop may be held to follow up on some of the long-term integration opportunities. A change to the Hanford waste forecast data call would help to align the Solid Waste Forecast with the new disposition maps

  13. Soil contamination by brominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifimi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Rouch Seang; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-03-01

    In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped into open dumping sites each day without adequate management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increase health risks to local communities. These dumping sites are contaminated with many chemicals including brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). BFRs may be released into the environment through production processes and through the disposal of plastics and electronic wastes that contain them. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the status of BFR pollution in municipal waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Soil samples were collected from six open waste dumping sites and five reference sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam from 1999 to 2007. The results suggest that PBDEs are the dominant contaminants in the dumping sites in Asian developing countries, whereas HBCD contamination remains low. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs ranged from ND to 180 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 1.4 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the reference sites and from 0.20 to 430 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 2.5 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the dumping sites. Contamination levels of PBDEs in Asian municipal dumping sites were comparable with those reported from electronic waste dismantling areas in Pearl River delta, China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). Hazardous chemical waste is a necessary byproduct of LBL's research and technical support activities. This waste must be handled properly if LBL is to operate safely and provide adequate protection to staff and the environment. These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of hazardous chemical waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical waste

  15. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions

  16. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  17. Chemical characterization, leach, and adsorption studies of solidified low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, M.B.; Serne, R.J.; Jones, T.L.; McLaurine, S.B.

    1986-12-01

    Laboratory and field leaching experiments are beig conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the performance of solidified low-level nuclear waste in a typical, arid, near-surface disposal site. Under PNL's Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid Program, a field test facility was constructed to monitor the leaching of commercial solidified waste. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the leaching and adsorption characteristics of the waste forms in contact with soil. Liquid radioactive wastes solidified in cement, vinyl ester-styrene, and bitumen were obtained from commercial boiling water and pressurized water reactors, and buried in a field leaching facility on the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. Batch leaching, soil column adsorption, and soil/waste form column experiments were conducted in the laboratory, using small-scale cement waste forms and Hanford site ground water. The purpose of these experiments is to evaluate the ability of laboratory leaching tests to predict leaching under actual field conditions and to determine which mechanisms (i.e., diffusion, solubility, adsorption) actually control the concentration of radionuclides in the soil surrounding the waste form. Chemical and radionuclide analyses performed on samples collected from the field and laboratory experiments indicate strong adsorption of /sup 134,137/Cs and 85 Sr onto the Hanford site sediment. Small amounts of 60 Co are leached from the waste forms as very mobile species. Some 60 Co migrated through the soil at the same rate as water. Chemical constituents present in the reactor waste streams also found at elevated levels in the field and laboratory leachates include sodium, sulfate, magnesium, and nitrate. Plausible solid phases that could be controlling some of the chemical and radionuclide concentrations in the leachate were identified using the MINTEQ geochemical computer code

  18. A history of solid waste packaging at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.; Weyns-Rollosson, D.I.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J.

    1995-02-01

    Since the initiation of the defense materials product mission, a total of more than 600,000 m 3 of radioactive solid waste has been stored or disposed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. As the DOE complex prepares for its increasing role in environmental restoration and waste remediation, the characterization of buried and retrievably stored waste will become increasingly important. Key to this characterization is an understanding of the standards and specifications to which waste was packaged; the regulations that mandated these standards and specifications; the practices used for handling and packaging different waste types; and the changes in these practices with time

  19. Savannah River Site Waste Management Program Plan, FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The primary purpose of the Waste Management Program Plan is to provide an annual report on facilities being used to manage wastes, forces acting to change current waste management (WM) systems, and how operations are conducted. This document also reports on plans for the coming fiscal year and projects activities for several years beyond the coming fiscal year to adequately plan for safe handling and disposal of radioactive wastes generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for developing technology for improved management of wastes

  20. An approach for sampling solid heterogeneous waste at the Hanford Site waste receiving and processing and solid waste projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining meaningful data from samples of solid heterogeneous waste while maintaining sample rates as low as practical. The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State will process mostly heterogeneous solid wastes. The presence of hazardous materials is documented for some packages and unknown for others. Waste characterization is needed to segregate the waste, meet waste acceptance and shipping requirements, and meet facility permitting requirements. Sampling and analysis are expensive, and no amount of sampling will produce absolute certainty of waste contents. A sampling strategy is proposed that provides acceptable confidence with achievable sampling rates

  1. Public reactions to nuclear waste: Citizens' views of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents revised and updated papers from a panel of social scientists, at the 1989 AAAS meetings, that examined the public's reactions to nuclear waste disposal and the repository siting process. The papers report the results of original empirical research on citizens' views of nuclear waste repository siting. Topics covered include the following: content analysis of public testimony; sources of public concern about nuclear waste disposal in Texas agricultural communities; local attitudes toward high-level waste repository at Hanford; perceived risk and attitudes toward nuclear wastes; attitudes of Nevada urban residents toward a nuclear waste repository; attitudes of rural community residents toward a nuclear waste respository. An introductory chapter provides background and context, and a concluding chapter summarizes the implications of the reports. Two additional chapters cover important features of high-level waste disposal: long term trends in public attitudes toward nuclear energy and nuclear waste policy and assessment of the effects on the Los Vegas convention business if a high-level nuclear waste depository were sited in Nevada

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting corrective action

  3. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-06-20

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  4. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-01-01

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  5. Characteristics of transuranic waste at Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.T.; Wilkinson, F.J. III.

    1983-05-01

    This document reports data and information on TRU waste from all DOE generating and storage sites. The geographical location of the sites is shown graphically. There are four major sections in this document. The first three cover the TRU waste groups known as Newly Generated, Stored, and Buried Wastes. Subsections are included under Newly Generated and Stored on contact-handled and remote-handled waste. These classifications of waste are defined, and the current or expected totals of each are given. Figure 1.3 shows the total amount of Buried and Stored TRU waste. Preparation of this document began in 1981, and most of the data are as of December 31, 1980. In a few cases data were reported to December 31, 1981, and these have been noted. The projections in the Newly Generated section were made, for the most part, at the end of 1981

  6. Waste treatment at the La Hague and Marcoule sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In this report, an overview of waste treatment and solidification facilities located at the La Hague and Marcoule sites, which are owned and/or operated by Cogema, provided. The La Hague facilities described in this report include the following: The STE3 liquid effluent treatment facility (in operation); the AD2 solid waste processing facility (also in operation); and the UCD alpha waste treatment facility (under construction). The Marcoule facilities described in this report, both of which are in operation, include the following: The STEL-EVA liquid effluent treatment facilities for the entire site; and the alpha waste incinerator of the UPI plant. This report is organized into four sections: this introduction, low-level waste treatment at La Hague, low-level waste treatment at Marcoule, and new process development. including the solvent pyrolysis process currently in the development stage for Cogema's plants

  7. Waste treatment at the La Hague and Marcoule sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    In this report, an overview of waste treatment and solidification facilities located at the La Hague and Marcoule sites, which are owned and/or operated by Cogema, provided. The La Hague facilities described in this report include the following: The STE3 liquid effluent treatment facility (in operation); the AD2 solid waste processing facility (also in operation); and the UCD alpha waste treatment facility (under construction). The Marcoule facilities described in this report, both of which are in operation, include the following: The STEL-EVA liquid effluent treatment facilities for the entire site; and the alpha waste incinerator of the UPI plant. This report is organized into four sections: this introduction, low-level waste treatment at La Hague, low-level waste treatment at Marcoule, and new process development. including the solvent pyrolysis process currently in the development stage for Cogema`s plants.

  8. Evaluating the potential of process sites for waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluleye, Gbemi; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin; Perry, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis considers the temperature and duties of the available waste heat. • Models for organic Rankine cycles, absorption heat pumps and chillers proposed. • Exploitation of waste heat from site processes and utility systems. • Concept of a site energy efficiency introduced. • Case study presented to illustrate application of the proposed methodology. - Abstract: As a result of depleting reserves of fossil fuels, conventional energy sources are becoming less available. In spite of this, energy is still being wasted, especially in the form of heat. The energy efficiency of process sites (defined as useful energy output per unit of energy input) may be increased through waste heat utilisation, thereby resulting in primary energy savings. In this work, waste heat is defined and a methodology developed to identify the potential for waste heat recovery in process sites; considering the temperature and quantity of waste heat sources from the site processes and the site utility system (including fired heaters and, the cogeneration, cooling and refrigeration systems). The concept of the energy efficiency of a site is introduced – the fraction of the energy inputs that is converted into useful energy (heat or power or cooling) to support the methodology. Furthermore, simplified mathematical models of waste heat recovery technologies using heat as primary energy source, including organic Rankine cycles (using both pure and mixed organics as working fluids), absorption chillers and absorption heat pumps are developed to support the methodology. These models are applied to assess the potential for recovery of useful energy from waste heat. The methodology is illustrated for an existing process site using a case study of a petroleum refinery. The energy efficiency of the site increases by 10% as a result of waste heat recovery. If there is an infinite demand for recovered energy (i.e. all the recoverable waste heat sources are exploited), the site

  9. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Both nonhazardous and nonradioactive sanitary solid waste are generated at the Hanford Site. This permit application describes the manner in which the Solid Waste Landfill will be operated. A description is provided of the landfill, including applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. The characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of are discussed. The regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill are reviewed. A plan is included of operation, closure, and postclosure. This report addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill is discussed

  10. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m 3 brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs

  11. Chemical precipitation processes for the treatment of aqueous radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation has been commonly used for many years to treat liquid (aqueous) radioactive waste. This method allows the volume of waste to be substantially reduced for further treatment or conditioning and the bulk of the waste to de discharged. Chemical precipitation is usually applied in combination with other methods as part of a comprehensive waste management scheme. As with any other technology, chemical precipitation is constantly being improved to reduce cost to increase the effectiveness and safety on the entire waste management system. The purpose of this report is to review and update the information provided in Technical Reports Series No. 89, Chemical Treatment of Radioactive Wastes, published in 1968. In this report the chemical methods currently in use for the treatment of low and intermediate level aqueous radioactive wastes are described and illustrated. Comparisons are given of the advantages and limitations of the processes, and it is noted that good decontamination and volume reduction are not the only criteria according to which a particular process should be selected. Emphasis has been placed on the need to carefully characterize each waste stream, to examine fully the effect of segregation and the importance of looking at the entire operation and not just the treatment process when planning a liquid waste treatment facility. This general approach includes local requirements and possibilities, discharge authorization, management of the concentrates, ICRP recommendations and economics. It appears that chemical precipitation process and solid-liquid separation techniques will continue to be widely used in liquid radioactive waste treatment. Current research and development is showing that combining different processes in one treatment plant can provide higher decontamination factors and smaller secondary waste arisings. Some of these processes are already being incorporated into new and

  12. DEVELOPMENT, QUALIFICATION, AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Edge, J.A.; Swanberg, D.J.; Robbins, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  13. Intrusion scenarios in fusion waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Zucchetti, M.; Rocco, P.

    1998-01-01

    Results of analyses on human intrusions into repositories of fusion radioactive waste are presented. The main topics are: duration of the institutional control, occurrence of intrusion, intrusion scenarios, acceptable risk limits and probabilistic data. Application to fusion waste repositories is implemented with a computational model: wells drilling is considered as the possible scenario. Doses and risks to intruder for different SEAFP-2 cases turn out to be very small. No intervention to reduce the hazard is necessary. (authors)

  14. Intrusion scenarios in fusion waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchetti, M. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Advanced Material, Ispra, Vatican City State, Holy See (Italy); Zucchetti, M.; Rocco, P. [Energetics Dept., Polytechnic of Turin (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Results of analyses on human intrusions into repositories of fusion radioactive waste are presented. The main topics are: duration of the institutional control, occurrence of intrusion, intrusion scenarios, acceptable risk limits and probabilistic data. Application to fusion waste repositories is implemented with a computational model: wells drilling is considered as the possible scenario. Doses and risks to intruder for different SEAFP-2 cases turn out to be very small. No intervention to reduce the hazard is necessary. (authors)

  15. Status of siting studies for a near surface repository site for radioactive wastes in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Palattao, M.V.B.; Marcelo, E.A.; Caseria, E.S.; Venida, L.L.; Cruz, J.M. dela

    2002-01-01

    The Philippines, through the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), decided to conduct a study on siting a low level radioactive waste disposal facility. The infrastructure set up for this purpose, the radioactive waste disposal concept, the overall siting process, the methodology applied and preliminary results obtained are described in this paper. (author)

  16. Macroencapsulated and elemental lead mixed waste sites report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, A.; Jacobson, R.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compile a list of the Macroencapsulated (MACRO) and Elemental Lead (EL) Mixed Wastes sites that will be treated and require disposal at the Nevada Test Site within the next five to ten years. The five sites selected were: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Rocky Flats Environmental Technology (RF), Golden, Colorado; and Savannah River (SRS), Charleston, South Carolina. A summary of total lead mixed waste forms at the five selected DOE sites is described in Table E-1. This table provides a summary of total waste and grand total of the current inventory and five-year projected generation of lead mixed waste for each site. This report provides conclusions and recommendations for further investigations. The major conclusions are: (1) the quantity of lead mixed current inventory waste is 500.1 m 3 located at the INEL, and (2) the five sites contain several other waste types contaminated with mercury, organics, heavy metal solids, and mixed sludges

  17. Chemical treatment of mixed waste can be done.....Today exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.; Sattler, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Chemical Treatment Project is one in a series of projects implemented by the FEMP to treat mixed waste. The projects were initiated to address concerns regarding treatment capacity for mixed waste and to comply with requirements established by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. The Chemical Treatment Project is designed to utilize commercially available mobile technologies to perform treatment at the FEMP site. The waste in the Project consists of a variety of waste types with a wide range of hazards and physical characteristics. The treatment processes to be established for the waste types will be developed by a systematic approach including waste streams evaluation, projectization of the waste streams, and categorization of the stream. This information is utilized to determine the proper train of treatment which will be required to lead the waste to its final destination (i.e., disposal). This approach allows flexibility to manage a wide variety of waste in a cheaper, faster manner than designing a single treatment technology diverse enough to manage all the waste streams

  18. The role of economic incentives in nuclear waste facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    There is a need to provide some public benefit and/or reward for accepting a ''locally unwanted land use'' (LULU) facility such as a nuclear waste storage or disposal facility. This paper concludes that DOE, Congress and the states should immediately quantify an economic incentive for consideration ''up front'' by society on siting decisions for nuclear waste storage and disposal facilities

  19. Regulatory Support of Treatment of Savannah River Site Purex Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, L.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the support given by federal and state regulatory agencies to Savannah River Site (SRS) during the treatment of an organic liquid mixed waste from the Plutonium Extraction (Purex) process. The support from these agencies allowed (SRS) to overcome several technical and regulatory barriers and treat the Purex waste such that it met LDR treatment standards. (authors)

  20. Basic principles and criteria on radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.; Kropikova, S.

    1980-01-01

    The basic principles are stated of radiation protection of the workers at radioactive waste disposal facilities, which must be observed in the choice of radioactive waste disposal sites. The emergency programme, the operating regulations and the safety report are specified. Workplace safety regulations are cited. (author)

  1. Description of the Northwest hazardous waste site data base and preliminary analysis of site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, D.L.; Hartz, K.E.; Triplett, M.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Northwest Hazardous Waste RD and D Center (the Center) conducts research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities for hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste technologies applicable to remediating sites in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. To properly set priorities for these RD and D activities and to target development efforts it is necessary to understand the nature of the sites requiring remediation. A data base of hazardous waste site characteristics has been constructed to facilitate this analysis. The data base used data from EPA's Region X Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) and from Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) forms for sites in Montana. The Center's data base focuses on two sets of sites--those on the National Priorities List (NPL) and other sites that are denoted as ''active'' CERCLIS sites. Active CERCLIS sites are those sites that are undergoing active investigation and analysis. The data base contains information for each site covering site identification and location, type of industry associated with the site, waste categories present (e.g., heavy metals, pesticides, etc.), methods of disposal (e.g., tanks, drums, land, etc.), waste forms (e.g., liquid, solid, etc.), and hazard targets (e.g., surface water, groundwater, etc.). As part of this analysis, the Northwest region was divided into three geographic subregions to identify differences in disposal site characteristics within the Northwest. 2 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Savannah River Site RCRA Facility Investigation plan: Road A Chemical Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The nature of wastes disposed of at the Road A Chemical Basin (RACB) is such that some degree of soil contamination is probable. Lead has also been detected in site monitoring wells at concentrations above SRS background levels. A RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) is proposed for the RACB and will include a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey, collection and chemical and radiological analyses of soil cores, installation of groundwater monitoring wells, collection and chemical and radiological analyses of groundwater samples, and collection of chemical and radiological analyses of surface water and sediment samples. Upon completion of the proposed RFI field work and chemical and radiological analyses, and RFI report should be prepared to present conclusions on the nature and extent of contamination at the site, and to make recommendations for site remediation. If contamination is detected at concentrations above SRS background levels, a receptor analysis should be done to evaluate potential impacts of site contamination on nearby populations

  3. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option

  4. 1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segall, P.

    1998-01-01

    Hanford's missions are to safely clean up and manage the site's legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford's environmental management or cleanup mission is to protect the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment; control hazardous materials; and utilize the assets (people, infra structure, site) for other missions. Hanford's science and technology mission is to develop and deploy science and technology in the service of the nation including stewardship of the Hanford Site. Pollution Prevention is a key to the success of these missions by reducing the amount of waste to be managed and identifying/implementing cost effective waste reduction projects. Hanford's original mission, the production of nuclear materials for the nation's defense programs, lasted more than 40 years, and like most manufacturing operations, Hanford's operations generated large quantities of waste and pollution. However, the by-products from Hanford operations pose unique problems like radiation hazards, vast volumes of contaminated water and soil, and many contaminated structures including reactors, chemical plants and evaporation ponds. The cleanup activity is an immense and challenging undertaking, which includes characterization and decommissioning of 149 single shell storage tanks, treating 28 double shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored on site, removing numerous structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, ground water, and land restoration issues

  5. Safety assessment for Area 5 radioactive-waste-management site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.; Card, D.H.; Horton, K.

    1982-09-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document contains evaluations of site characteristics, facilities, and operating practices that contribute to the safe handling, storage, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. A separate section considers facilities and operating practices such as monitoring, storage/disposal criteria, site maintenance, equipment, and support. The section also considers the transportation and waste handling requirements supporting the new Greater Confinement Disposal Facility (GCDF), GCDF demonstration project, and other requirements for the safe handling, storage, and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Finally, the document provides an analysis of releases and an assessment of the near-term operational impacts and dose commitments to operating personnel and the general public from normal operations and anticipated accidental occurrences. The conclusion of this report is that the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for low-level radioactive waste handling, storage, and disposal. Also, the new GCDF demonstration project will not affect the overall safety of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

  6. Computer models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; DePhillips, M.P.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-07-01

    Massive efforts are underway to cleanup hazardous and radioactive waste sites located throughout the US To help determine cleanup priorities, computer models are being used to characterize the source, transport, fate and effects of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials found at these sites. Although, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have provided preliminary guidance to promote the use of computer models for remediation purposes, no Agency has produced directed guidance on models that must be used in these efforts. To identify what models are actually being used to support decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites, a project jointly funded by EPA, DOE and NRC was initiated. The purpose of this project was to: (1) Identify models being used for hazardous and radioactive waste site assessment purposes; and (2) describe and classify these models. This report presents the results of this study.

  7. Computer models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; DePhillips, M.P.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-07-01

    Massive efforts are underway to cleanup hazardous and radioactive waste sites located throughout the US To help determine cleanup priorities, computer models are being used to characterize the source, transport, fate and effects of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials found at these sites. Although, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have provided preliminary guidance to promote the use of computer models for remediation purposes, no Agency has produced directed guidance on models that must be used in these efforts. To identify what models are actually being used to support decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites, a project jointly funded by EPA, DOE and NRC was initiated. The purpose of this project was to: (1) Identify models being used for hazardous and radioactive waste site assessment purposes; and (2) describe and classify these models. This report presents the results of this study

  8. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remortel, R. D. Van; Lee, Y. J.; Snyder, K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates, and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data

  9. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Remortel, R. D. Van; Snyder, K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates,and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data

  10. Effects on residential property values of proximity to a site contaminated with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Olshansky, S.J.; Segel, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An issue often raised by the public regarding projects that involve hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites is whether distance from these sites affects residential property values. Previous research has studied changes in the housing market in communities near Three Mile Island after the 1979 accident and legal precedents of compensation for loss of property value because of proximity to hazardous areas. However, this research has not addressed effects on residential property values of proximity specifically to hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites. The effects of the proximity of residence to such a site in West Chicago, Illinois - used for many years for disposal of thorium waste from processing ores - were investigated in this study. Single-family residence sales located within about 0.4 km of the West Chicago site were compared with residence sales located between 0.4 km and 1.6 km from the site. Trends in average annual selling prices were analyzed both before and after publicity appeared about the existence of the radioactive material at the site. Results indiate that older residences (built before 1950) located within about 0.4 km of the disposal site experienced a prolonged depression in selling prices after the publicity, in comparison with older residences located farther from the site and with all transactions on newer residences. These results confirm to some extent public perceptions and potentially raise legal issues associated with property values. Suggestions are provided for mitigative measures to alleviate these issues. 22 references, 1 figure

  11. Some interactive factors affecting trench-cover integrity on low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Lane, L.J.; Steger, J.G.; DePoorter, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes important mechanisms by which radionuclide can be transported from low-level waste disposal sites into biological pathways, discuss interactions of abiotic and biotic processes, and recommends environmental characteristics that should be measured to design sites that minimize this transport. Past experience at shallow land burial sites for low-level radioactive wastes suggest that occurrences of waste exposure and radionuclide transport are often related to inadequate trench cover designs. Meeting performance standards at low-level waste sites can only be achieved by recognizing that physical, chemical, and biological processes operating on and in a trench cover profile are highly interactive. Failure to do so can lead to improper design criteria and subsequent remedial action procedures that can adversely affect site stability. Based upon field experiments and computer modeling, recommendations are made on site characteristics that require measurement in order to design systems that reduce surface runoff and erosion, manage soil moisture and biota in the cover profile to maximize evapotranspiration and minimize percolation, and place bounds on the intrusion potential of plants and animals into the waste material. Major unresolved problems include developing probabilistic approaches that include climatic variability, improved knowledge of soil-water-plant-erosion relationships, development of practical vegetation establishment and maintenance procedures, prediction and quantification of site potential and plant succession, and understanding the interaction of processes occurring on and in the cover profile with deeper subsurface processes

  12. In situ chemical characterization of waste sludges using FTIR-based fiber optic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.; Jeppson, D.W.; Lockrem, L.L.; Blewett, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    The characterization of unknown mixed wastes is a mandatory step in today's climate of strict environmental regulations. Cleaning up the nuclear and chemical wastes that have accumulated for 50 years at the Hanford Site is the largest single cleanup task in the United States today. The wastes are stored temporarily in carbon steel single- and double-shell tanks that are buried in tank farms at the Site. In the 1950s, a process to scavenge radioactive cesium and other soluble radionuclides in the wastes was developed to create additional tank space for waste storage. This scavenging process involved treatment of the wastes with alkali cyanoferrates and nickel sulfate to precipitate 137 Cs in the presence of nitrate oxidant. Recent safety issues have focused on the stability of cyanoferrate-bearing wastes with large quantities of nitrates and nitrites. Nitrate has been partially converted to nitrite as a result of radiolysis during more than 35 years of storage. The major safety issue is the possibility of the presence of local hot spots enriched in 137 Cs and 90 Sr that under optimum conditions can self-heat causing dry out and a potential runaway reaction of the cyanoferrates with the nitrates/nitrites). For waste tank safety, accurate data of the concentration and distribution of cyanoferrates in the tanks are needed. Because of the extensive sampling required and the highly restricted activities allowed in the tank farms, simulated tank wastes are used to provide an initial basis for identifying and quantifying realistic concerns prior to waste remediation. Fiber optics provide a tool for the remote and in situ characterization of hazardous and toxic materials. This study is focused on near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) fiber optic sensors for in situ chemical characterization of Hanford Site waste sludges

  13. Intruder scenarios for site-specific waste classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently revising its low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management requirements and guidelines for waste generated at its facilities that support defense missions. Specifically, draft DOE 5820.2A, Chapter 3, describes the purpose, policy, and requirements necessary for the management of defense LLW. The draft DOE policy calls for DOE LLW operations to be managed to protect the health and safety of the public, preserve the environment, and ensure that no remedial action will be necessary after termination of operations. The requirements and guidelines apply to radioactive wastes but are also intended to apply to mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes as defined in draft DOE 5400.5, Hazardous and Radioactive Mixed Waste. The basic approach used by DOE is to establish overall performance objectives in terms of ground-water protection and public radiation dose limits and to require site-specific performance assessments to determine compliance. As a result of these performance assessments, each site shall develop waste acceptance criteria that define the allowable quantities and concentrations of specific radioisotopes. Additional limitations on waste disposal design, waste form, and waste treatment shall also be developed on a site-specific basis. As a key step in the site-specific performance assessments, an evaluation must be conducted of potential radiation doses to intruders who may inadvertently move onto a closed DOE LLW disposal site after loss of institutional controls must be conducted. This paper describes the types of intruder scenarios that should be considered when performing this step of the site-specific performance assessment

  14. Low-level waste disposal site selection demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies undertaken at EPRI related to low-level waste disposal technology. The initial work provided an overview of the state of the art including an assessment of its influence upon transportation costs and waste form requirements. The paper discusses work done on the overall system design aspects and computer modeling of disposal site performance characteristics. The results of this analysis are presented and provide a relative ranking of the importance of disposal parameters. This allows trade-off evaluations to be made of factors important in the design of a shallow land burial facility. To help minimize the impact of a shortage of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, EPRI is closely observing the development of bellweather projects for developing new sites. The purpose of this activity is to provide information about lessons learned in those projects in order to expedite the development of additional disposal facilities. This paper describes most of the major stems in selecting a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas. It shows how the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority started with a wide range of potential siting areas in Texas and narrowed its attention down to a few preferred sites. The parameters used to discriminate between large areas of Texas and, eventually, 50 candidate disposal sites are described, along with the steps in the process. The Texas process is compared to those described in DOE and EPRI handbooks on site selection and to pertinent NRC requirements. The paper also describes how an inventory of low-level waste specific to Texas was developed and applied in preliminary performance assessments of two candidate sites. Finally, generic closure requirements and closure operations for low-level waste facilities in arid regions are given

  15. Canadian experiences in characterizing two low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste management sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heystee, R.J.; Rao, P.K.M.

    1984-02-01

    Low-level waste (LLW) and intermediate-level reactor waste (ILW) arise in Canada from the operation of nuclear power reactors for the generation of electricity and from the operation of reactors for nuclear research and development as well as for the production of separated radioisotopes. The majority of this waste is currently being safely managed at two sites in the Province of Ontario: (1) Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, and (2) Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Power Development Radioactive Waste Operations Site 2. Although these storage facilities can safely manage the waste for a long period of time, there are advantages in disposal of the LLW and ILW. The design of the disposal facilities and the assessment of long-term performance will require that the hydrologic and geologic data be gathered for a potential disposal site. Past site characterization programs at the two aforementioned waste storage sites have produced information which will be useful to future disposal studies in similar geologic materials. The assessment of long-term performance will require that predictions be made regarding the potential subsurface migration of radionuclides. However there still remain many uncertainties regarding the chemical and physical processes which affect radionuclide mobility and concentrations, in particular hydrodynamic dispersion, geochemical reactions, and transport through fractured media. These uncertainties have to be borne in mind when conducting the performance assessments and adequate conservatism must be included to account for the uncertainties. (author)

  16. A review of the Hanford Site soil corrosion applicable to solid waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, J.R.

    1991-05-01

    The first phase of the assessment of the soil corrosion in the solid waste burial grounds of the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site is completed with this review of both existing information developed at the site and relevant offsite information. Detailed soil corrosion data are needed for several reasons: (1) the possibility of predicting the damage to the containers of the retrievable stored transuranic waste that are under soil cover, (2) the feasibility of forecasting the state of waste containers being retrieved in remedial investigation/feasibility studies, (3) the capability of predicting subsidence of the soil over the waste containers, and (4) the capability of forecasting when stored lead shielding or hazardous chemicals might be exposed to the environment. Because corrosion in soils is dependent on the soil type, site-specific data are required even though offsite data can provide guidance on the type and the approximate extent of corrosion to expect. These data permit rough estimations of the corrosion rates of a variety of materials -- including carbon steels, cast irons, stainless steels, and lead -- in the Hanford Site soils. This report attempts to compile these data to facilitate current estimates of waste container longevity. However, because of the lack of well-documented, site-specific data, it is difficult to provide a definite life expectancy for waste containers and other structures. Consequently, additional data are essential for reliable container life estimates. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230 0 --300 0 C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue. 6 claims, no drawings

  18. Summary of tank waste physical properties at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q.H.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the physical parameters measured from Hanford Site tank wastes. Physical parameters were measured to determine the physical nature of the tank wastes to develop simulants and design in-tank equipment. The physical parameters were measured mostly from core samples obtained directly below tank risers. Tank waste physical parameters were collected through a database search, interviewing and selecting references from documents. This report shows the data measured from tank waste but does not describe how the analyses wee done. This report will be updated as additional data are measured or more documents are reviewed

  19. Physical sampling for site and waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnough, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    Physical sampling plays a basic role in high-level radioactive waste management program effort. The term ''physical sampling'' used here means collecting tangible, physical samples of soil, water, air, waste streams, or other materials. The industry defines the term ''physical sampling'' broadly to include measurements of physical conditions such as temperature, wind conditions, and pH, which are also often taken in a sample collection effort. Most environmental compliance actions are supported by the results of taking, recording, and analyzing physical samples and the measurements of physical conditions taken in association with sample collecting. Therefore, the when and how to take samples is needed to be known and planned

  20. Identifying suitable piercement salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehle, R.; e.

    1980-08-01

    Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes

  1. Chemical characterization of SRP waste tank sludges and supernates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Donnan, M.Y.; Okamoto, B.Y.

    1979-08-01

    Most high-level liquid wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are byproducts from plutonium and enriched uranium recovery processes. The high-level liquid wastes generated by these separations processes are stored in large, underground, carbon-steel tanks. The liquid wastes consist of: supernate (an aqueous solution containing sodium, nitrate, nitrite, hydroxyl, and aluminate ions), sludge (a gelatinous material containing insoluble components of the waste, such as ferric and aluminum hydroxides, and mercuric and manganese oxides), and salt cake (crystals, such as sodium nitrate, formed by evaporation of water from supernate). Analyses of SRP wastes by laser-Raman spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, spark-source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, colorimetry, ion chromatography, and various other wet-chemical and radiochemical methods are discussed. These analyses are useful in studies of waste tank corrosion and of forms for long-term waste storage

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-233 Waste Site, Vertical Pipe Near 100-B Electrical Laydown Area. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-041

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The 600-233 waste site consisted of three small-diameter pipelines within the 600-232 waste site, including previously unknown diesel fuel supply lines discovered during site remediation. The 600-233 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  3. A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal

  4. Surface water management at a mixed waste remediation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlotzhauer, D.S.; Warbritton, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) deals with chemical and radiological contaminants. MK-Ferguson Company is managing the project under contract with the US Department of Energy. Remedial activities include demolishing buildings, constructing material storage and staging areas, excavating and consolidating waste materials, and treating and disposing of the materials in a land disposal facility. Due to the excavation and construction required during remediation, a well-planned surface water management system is essential. Planning involves characterization of source areas and surface water transport mechanisms and identification of applicable regulations. System components include: erosion control sediment control, flow attenuation, and management of contaminated water. Combinations of these components may be utilized during actual construction and remediation to obtain optimum control. Monitoring is performed during implementation in order to assess the effectiveness of control measures. This management scheme provides for comprehensive management of surface water at this site by providing control and/or treatment to appropriate standards. Although some treatment methodologies for contaminated water are specific to site contaminants, this comprehensive program provides a management approach which is applicable to many remedial projects in order to minimize contaminant release and meet Clean Water Act requirements

  5. Chemical and Nuclear Waste Disposal: Problems and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    James P. Murray; Joseph J. Harrington; Richard Wilson

    1982-01-01

    The problems of waste disposal have always been with us. In biblical times, the residents of Jerusalem always burnt their wastes inthehideousValeofGehenna.Thisgavewaytoburialofwasteor sometimes dumping it in shallow oceans. All too often the sewage pipes of the seaside towns did not even take the waste to the low tide mark; and the use of the deep oceans as a disposal site has been almost unknown...

  6. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation

  7. Low-Level Radioactive Waste siting simulation information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a simulation exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The siting simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, can involve 14-70 participants (or more), and requires approximately eight hours to complete. The exercise is available for use by states, regional compacts, or other organizations for use as part of the planning process for low-level waste disposal facilities. This information package describes the development, content, and use of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation. Information is provided on how to organize a workshop for conducting the simulation. 1 ref., 1 fig

  8. Identification of potential transuranic waste tanks at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colburn, R.P.

    1995-05-05

    The purpose of this document is to identify potential transuranic (TRU) material among the Hanford Site tank wastes for possible disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an alternative to disposal in the high-level waste (HLW) repository. Identification of such material is the initial task in a trade study suggested in WHC-EP-0786, Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The scope of this document is limited to the identification of those tanks that might be segregated from the HLW for disposal as TRU, and the bases for that selection. It is assumed that the tank waste will be washed to remove soluble inert material for disposal as low-level waste (LLW), and the washed residual solids will be vitrified for disposal. The actual recommendation of a disposal strategy for these materials will require a detailed cost/benefit analysis and is beyond the scope of this document.

  9. Identification of potential transuranic waste tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colburn, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify potential transuranic (TRU) material among the Hanford Site tank wastes for possible disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an alternative to disposal in the high-level waste (HLW) repository. Identification of such material is the initial task in a trade study suggested in WHC-EP-0786, Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The scope of this document is limited to the identification of those tanks that might be segregated from the HLW for disposal as TRU, and the bases for that selection. It is assumed that the tank waste will be washed to remove soluble inert material for disposal as low-level waste (LLW), and the washed residual solids will be vitrified for disposal. The actual recommendation of a disposal strategy for these materials will require a detailed cost/benefit analysis and is beyond the scope of this document

  10. Modular risk analysis for assessing multiple waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Nazarali, A.

    1994-06-01

    Human-health impacts, especially to the surrounding public, are extremely difficult to assess at installations that contain multiple waste sites and a variety of mixed-waste constituents (e.g., organic, inorganic, and radioactive). These assessments must address different constituents, multiple waste sites, multiple release patterns, different transport pathways (i.e., groundwater, surface water, air, and overland soil), different receptor types and locations, various times of interest, population distributions, land-use patterns, baseline assessments, a variety of exposure scenarios, etc. Although the process is complex, two of the most important difficulties to overcome are associated with (1) establishing an approach that allows for modifying the source term, transport, or exposure component as an individual module without having to re-evaluate the entire installation-wide assessment (i.e., all modules simultaneously), and (2) displaying and communicating the results in an understandable and useable maimer to interested parties. An integrated, physics-based, compartmentalized approach, which is coupled to a Geographical Information System (GIS), captures the regional health impacts associated with multiple waste sites (e.g., hundreds to thousands of waste sites) at locations within and surrounding the installation. Utilizing a modular/GIS-based approach overcomes difficulties in (1) analyzing a wide variety of scenarios for multiple waste sites, and (2) communicating results from a complex human-health-impact analysis by capturing the essence of the assessment in a relatively elegant manner, so the meaning of the results can be quickly conveyed to all who review them

  11. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feo, Giovanni De; Gisi, Sabino De

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method

  12. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, Giovanni De, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Gisi, Sabino De [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, ENEA, Water Resource Management Lab., via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna, BO (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  13. Cementation and solidification of miscellaneous mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site produces a variety of wastes which are amenable to micro-encapsulation in cement Portland cement is an inexpensive and readily available material for this application. The Waste Projects (WP) group at Rocky Flats evaluated cementation to determine its effectiveness in encapsulating several wastes. These included waste analytical laboratory solutions, incinerator ash, hydroxide precipitation sludge, and an acidic solution from the Delphi process (a chemical oxidation technology being evaluated as an alternative to incineration). WP prepared surrogate wastes and conducted designed experiments to optimize the cement formulation for the waste streams. These experiments used a Taguchi or factorial experimental design, interactions between the variables were also considered in the testing. Surrogate waste samples were spiked with various levels of each of six Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed metals (Cd, Cr, Ba, Pb, Ni, and Ag), cemented using the optimized formulation, and analyzed for leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The metal spike levels chosen were based on characterization data, and also based on an estimate of the highest levels of contaminants suspected in the waste. This paper includes laboratory test results for each waste studied. These include qualitative observations as well as quantitative data from TCLP analyses and environmental cycling studies. The results from these experiments show that cement stabilization of the different wastes can produce final waste forms which meet the current RCRA Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements. Formulations that resulted in LDR compliant waste forms are provided. The volume increases associated with cementation are also lower than anticipated. Future work will include verification studies with actual mixed radioactive waste as well as additional formulation development studies on other waste streams

  14. Chemical analysis of simulated high level waste glasses to support stage III sulfate solubility modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms within the DOE complex. These wastes can contain relatively high concentrations of sulfate, which has low solubility in borosilicate glass. This is a significant issue for low-activity waste (LAW) glass and is projected to have a major impact on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Sulfate solubility has also been a limiting factor for recent high level waste (HLW) sludge processed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The low solubility of sulfate in glass, along with melter and off-gas corrosion constraints, dictate that the waste be blended with lower sulfate concentration waste sources or washed to remove sulfate prior to vitrification. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerate mission completion.The objective of the current scope being pursued by SHU is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DWPF and WTP, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput at these facilities. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the model and is identified as Stage III. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to SRNL for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for the Stage III, simulated HLW glasses fabricated by SHU in support of the sulfate solubility model development.

  15. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art environmental assessment of waste management systems rely on data for the physico-chemical composition of individual material fractions comprising the waste in question. To derive the necessary inventory data for different scopes and systems, literature data from different sources...... and backgrounds are consulted and combined. This study provides an overview of physico-chemical waste characterisation data for individual waste material fractions available in literature and thereby aims to support the selection of data fitting to a specific scope and the selection of uncertainty ranges related...... to the data selection from literature. Overall, 97 publications were reviewed with respect to employed characterisation method, regional origin of the waste, number of investigated parameters and material fractions and other qualitative aspects. Descriptive statistical analysis of the reported physico...

  16. Cleanup Verification Package for the 600-47 Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutlip, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of interim remedial action for the 600-47 waste site. This site consisted of several areas of surface debris and contamination near the banks of the Columbia River across from Johnson Island. Contaminated material identified in field surveys included four areas of soil, wood, nuts, bolts, and other metal debris

  17. In situ vitrification of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W.; Thompson, L.E.; Kindle, C.H.

    1991-04-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a remedial technology initially developed to treat soils contaminated with a variety of organics, heavy metals, and/or radioactive materials. Recent tests have indicated the feasibility of applying the process to buried wastes including containers, combustibles, and buried metals. In addition, ISV is being considered for application to the emplacement of barriers and to the vitrification of underground tanks. This report provides a review of some of the recent experiences of applying ISV in engineering-scale and pilot-scale tests to wastes containing organics, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic metals buried in sealed containers, and buried ferrous metals, with emphasis on the characteristics of the vitrified product and adjacent soil. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Independent technical review of Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will vitrify high-level radioactive waste that is presently stored as liquid, salt-cake, and sludge in 51 waste-storage tanks. Construction of the DWPF began in 1984, and the Westinghouse Savannah Company (WSRC) considers the plant to be 100% turned over from construction and 91% complete. Cold-chemical runs are scheduled to begin in November 1992, and hot start up is projected for June 1994. It is estimated that the plant lifetime must exceed 15 years to complete the vitrification of the current, high-level tank waste. In a memo to the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP-1), the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM-1) established the need for an Independent Technical Review (ITR), or the Red Team, to ''review process technology issues preventing start up of the DWPF.'' This report documents the findings of an Independent Technical Review (ITR) conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), at the request of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, of specified aspects of Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) process technology. Information for the assessment was drawn from documents provided to the ITR Team by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), and presentations, discussions, interviews, and tours held at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the weeks of February and March 9, 1992

  19. Regulatory requirements for groundwater monitoring networks at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.

    1989-10-01

    In the absence of an explicit national mandate to protect groundwater quality, operators of active and inactive hazardous waste sites must use a number of statutes and regulations as guidance for detecting, correcting, and preventing groundwater contamination. The objective of this paper is to provide a framework of the technical and regulatory considerations that are important to the development of groundwater monitoring programs at hazardous waste sites. The technical site-specific needs and regulatory considerations, including existing groundwater standards and classifications, will be presented. 14 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Radionuclide Inventory and Waste Site Selection Process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Will E.; Mehta, Sunil

    2017-09-13

    The updated Hanford Site Composite Analysis will provide an all-pathways dose projection to a hypothetical future member of the public from all planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities and potential contributions from all other projected end-state sources of radioactive material left at Hanford following site closure. Its primary purpose is to support the decision-making process of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE O 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management (DOE, 2001), related to managing low-level waste disposal facilities at the Hanford Site.

  1. Development of waste minimization and decontamination technologies at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.L.; Archibald, K.E.; Demmer, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Emphasis on the minimization of decontamination secondary waste has increased because of restrictions on the use of hazardous chemicals and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste handling issues. The Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co. (LITCO) Decontamination Development Subunit has worked to evaluate and introduce new performed testing, evaluations, development and on-site demonstrations for a number of novel decontamination techniques that have not yet previously been used at the ICPP. This report will include information on decontamination techniques that have recently been evaluated by the Decontamination Development Subunit

  2. TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL LESSONS LEARNED AT THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DODD, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the environmental remediation challenges facing the nation is the retrieval and permanent disposal of approximately 90 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State and stores roughly 60% of this waste. An estimated 53 million gallons of high-level, transuranic, and low-level radioactive waste is stored underground in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 newer double-shell tanks (DSTs) at the Hanford Site. These SSTs range in size from 55,000 gallons to 1,000,000 gallon capacity. Approximately 30 million gallons of this waste is stored in SSTs. The SSTs were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and all have exceeded the nominal 20-year design life. Sixty-seven SSTs are known or suspected to have leaked an estimated 1,000,000 gallons of waste. The risk of additional SST leakage has been greatly reduced by removing more than 3 million gallons of interstitial liquids and supernatant and transferring the waste to the DST system since 1997 as part of the interim stabilization program. Retrieval of SST saltcake and sludge waste is underway to further reduce risks and stage feed materials for the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant. This paper presents lessons learned from retrieval of tank waste at the Hanford Site and discusses how this information is used to optimize retrieval system efficiency, improve overall cost effectiveness of retrieval operations, and ensure that HFFACO requirements are met

  3. Gas production, composition and emission at a modern disposal site receiving waste with a low-organic content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Nedenskov, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    AV Miljø is a modern waste disposal site receiving non-combustible waste with a low-organic content. The objective of the current project was to determine the gas generation, composition, emission, and oxidation in top covers on selected waste cells as well as the total methane (CH4) emission from....... The results indicated that the gas composition in the shredder waste was governed by chemical reactions as well as microbial reactions. CH4 mass balances from three individual waste cells showed that a significant part (between 15% and 67%) of the CH4 generated in cell 1.3 and 2.2.2 was emitted through...

  4. Chemical durability of glasses containing radioactive fission product waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Ross, W.A.

    1974-04-01

    Measurements made to determine the chemical durability of glasses for disposal of radioactive waste are discussed. The term glass covers materials varying from true glass with only minute quantities of crystallites, such as insoluble RuO 2 , to quasi glass-ceramics which are mostly crystalline. Chemical durability requirements and Soxhlet extractor leach tests are discussed

  5. Radiological and chemical source terms for Solid Waste Operations Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the radiological and chemical source terms for the major projects of the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC), including Project W-112, Project W-133 and Project W-100 (WRAP 2A). For purposes of this document, the term ''source term'' means the design basis inventory. All of the SWOC source terms involve the estimation of the radiological and chemical contents of various waste packages from different waste streams, and the inventories of these packages within facilities or within a scope of operations. The composition of some of the waste is not known precisely; consequently, conservative assumptions were made to ensure that the source term represents a bounding case (i.e., it is expected that the source term would not be exceeded). As better information is obtained on the radiological and chemical contents of waste packages and more accurate facility specific models are developed, this document should be revised as appropriate. Radiological source terms are needed to perform shielding and external dose calculations, to estimate routine airborne releases, to perform release calculations and dose estimates for safety documentation, to calculate the maximum possible fire loss and specific source terms for individual fire areas, etc. Chemical source terms (i.e., inventories of combustible, flammable, explosive or hazardous chemicals) are used to determine combustible loading, fire protection requirements, personnel exposures to hazardous chemicals from routine and accident conditions, and a wide variety of other safety and environmental requirements

  6. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary site characterization at Beishan northwest China-A potential site for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Su Rui; Xue Weiming; Zheng Hualing

    2004-01-01

    Chinese nuclear power plants,radioactive waste and radioactive waste disposal are introduced. Beishan region (Gansu province,Northwest China)for high-level radioactive waste repository and preliminary site characterization are also introduced. (Zhang chao)

  8. On site clean up with a hazardous waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.L. Jr.; Tessitore, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Army Corps of Engineers and the EPA have determined that on-site incineration for the detoxification of soils, sediments, and sludges is a viable, safe, and economic alternative. This paper discusses an approach to on-site incineration as a method of detoxification of soils/sediments contaminated with organic hazardous wastes. Specifically, this paper describes the procedures used to evaluate on-site incineration at a large Superfund site with extensive PCB contaminated soils and sediments. The paper includes the following: (1) a discussion of site waste quantities and properties, (2) a selection of an incineration technology with a resulting concept and design, (3) a discussion of incinerator permitting requirements, (4) discussion and rationale for an incinerator sub-scale testing approach, and (5) analysis of on-site incineration cost

  9. Microbial effects on radioactive wastes at SLB sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the significance of microbial degradation of organic wastes on radionuclide migration on shallow land burial for humid and arid sites, establish which mechanisms predominate and ascertain the conditions under which these mechanisms operate. Factors contolling gaseous eminations from low-level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide and possibly hydrogen from the site stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or 14 C into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste materials, primary emphasis of the study involved on examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Although the methane and carbon dioxide production rate indicates the degradation rate of the organic substances in the waste, it does not predict the methane evolution rate from the trench site. Methane fluxes from the soil surface are equivalent to the net synthesis minus the quantity oxidized by the microbial community as the gas passes through the soil profile. Gas studies were performed at three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (West Valley, New York; Beatty, Nevada; Maxey Flats, Kentucky) during the period 1976 to 1978. The results of these studies are presented. 3 tables

  10. Mathematical model of the Savannah River Site waste tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.G. III.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to simulate operation of the waste tank farm and the associated evaporator systems at the Savannah River Site. The model solves material balance equations to predict the volumes of liquid waste, salt, and sludge for all of the tanks within each of the evaporator systems. Additional logic is included to model the behavior of waste tanks not directly associated with the evaporators. Input parameters include the Material Management Plan forecast of canyon operations, specification of other waste sources for the evaporator systems, evaporator operating characteristics, and salt and sludge removal schedules. The model determines how the evaporators will operate, when waste transfers can be made, and waste accumulation rates. Output from the model includes waste tank contents, summaries of systems operations, and reports of space gain and the remaining capacity to store waste materials within the tank farm. Model simulations can be made to predict waste tank capacities on a daily basis for up to 20 years. The model is coded as a set of three computer programs designed to run on either IBM compatible or Apple Macintosh II personal computers

  11. Processing of tetraphenylborate precipitates in the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibling, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Savannah River Site has generated 77 million gallons of high level radioactive waste since the early 1950's. By 1987, evaporation had reduced the concentration of the waste inventory to 35 million gallons. Currently, the wastes reside in large underground tanks as a soluble fraction stored, crystallized salts, and an insoluble fraction, sludge, which consists of hydrated transition metal oxides. The bulk of the radionuclides, 67 percent, are in the sludge while the crystallized salts and supernate are composed of the nitrates, nitrites, sulfates and hydroxides of sodium, potassium, and cesium. The principal radionuclide in the soluble waste is 137 Cs with traces of 90 Sr. The transformation of the high level wastes into a borosilicate glass suitable for permanent disposal is the goal of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To minimize the volume of glass produced, the soluble fraction of the waste is treated with sodium tetraphenylborate and sodium titanate in the waste tanks to precipitate the radioactive cesium ion and absorb the radioactive strontium ion. The precipitate is washed in the waste tanks and is then pumped to the DWPF. The precipitate, as received, is incompatible with the vitrification process because of the high aromatic carbon content and requires further chemical treatment. Within the DWPF, the precipitate is processed in the Salt Processing Cell to remove the aromatic carbon as benzene. The precipitate hydrolysis process hydrolyzes the tetraphenylborate anion to produce borate anion and benzene. The benzene is removed by distillation, decontaminated and transferred out of the DWPF for disposal

  12. Land suitability maps for waste disposal siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrasna, M.

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of geoenvironment for waste disposal depends mainly on its stability and on the danger of groundwater pollution. Besides them, on the land suitability maps for the given purpose also those factors of the factors of the geoenvironment and the landscape should be taken into account, which enable another way of the land use, such as mineral resources, water resources, fertile soils, nature reserves, etc. On the base of the relevant factors influence evaluation - suitable, moderately suitable and unsuitable territorial units are delimited on the maps. The different way of various scale maps compilation is applied, taken into account their different representing feasibilities. (authors)

  13. Nevada Test Site 2008 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2008 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities

  14. Characterization and reaction behavior of ferrocyanide simulants and Hanford Site high-level ferrocyanide waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-02-01

    Nonradioactive waste simulants and initial ferrocyanide tank waste samples were characterized to assess potential safety concerns associated with ferrocyanide high-level radioactive waste stored at the Hanford Site in underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). Chemical, physical, thermodynamic, and reaction properties of the waste simulants were determined and compared to properties of initial samples of actual ferrocyanide wastes presently in the tanks. The simulants were shown to not support propagating reactions when subjected to a strong ignition source. The simulant with the greatest ferrocyanide concentration was shown to not support a propagating reaction that would involve surrounding waste because of its high water content. Evaluation of dried simulants indicated a concentration limit of about 14 wt% disodium mononickel ferrocyanide, below which propagating reactions could not occur in the ambient temperature bulk tank waste. For postulated localized hot spots where dried waste is postulated to be at an initial temperature of 130 C, a concentration limit of about 13 wt% disodium mononickel ferrocyanide was determined, below which propagating reactions could not occur. Analyses of initial samples of the presently stored ferrocyanide waste indicate that the waste tank ferrocyanide concentrations are considerably lower than the limit for propagation for dry waste and that the water content is near that of the as-prepared simulants. If the initial trend continues, it will be possible to show that runaway ferrocyanide reactions are not possible under present tank conditions. The lower ferrocyanide concentrations in actual tank waste may be due to tank waste mixing and/or degradation from radiolysis and/or hydrolysis, which may have occurred over approximately 35 years of storage

  15. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia (Stockholm Univ., SCORE, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  16. Conflict resolution in low-level waste facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Siting a low-level waste facility is only one part of the low-level waste management process. But it is a crucial part, a prism that focuses many of the other issues in low-level waste management. And, as the 1990 and 1992 milestones approach, siting has a urgency that makes the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) techniques especially appropriate, to avoid protracted and expensive litigation and to reach creative and durable solutions. Drawing upon literature in the ADR field, this paper discusses ADR techniques as they apply to low-level waste management and the groundwork that must be laid before they can be applied. It also discusses questions that can arise concerning the terms under which negotiations are carried out. The paper then give suggestions for achieving win/win negotiations. Potential objections to negotiated agreements and potential answers to those objections are reviewed, and some requisites for negotiation are given

  17. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia

    2009-12-01

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  18. On-site vs off-site management of environmental restoration waste: A cost effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, M.A.; Aamodt, P.L.; Cox, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Restoration Project is expected to generate relatively large volumes of hazardous waste as a result of cleanup operations. These volumes will exceed the Laboratories existing waste management capacity. This paper presents four options for managing remediation wastes, including three alternatives for on-site waste management utilizing a corrective action management unit (CAMU). Costs are estimated for each of the four options based on current volumetric estimates of hazardous waste. Cost equations are derived for each of the options with the variables being waste volumes, the major unknowns in the analysis. These equations provide a means to update cost estimates as volume estimates change. This approach may be helpful to others facing similar waste management decisions

  19. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Chemical Wastes in Academic Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Wendy A.

    1987-01-01

    Encourages instruction about disposal of hazardous wastes in college chemistry laboratories as an integral part of experiments done by students. Discusses methods such as down-the-drain disposal, lab-pack disposal, precipitation and disposal, and precipitation and recovery. Suggests that faculty and students take more responsibility for waste…

  20. Siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was established by the 67th Legislature to assure safe and effective disposal of the state's low-level radioactive waste. The Authority operates under provisions of the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority Act, VACS 4590f-1. In Texas, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material that has a half-life of 35 years or less or that has less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics, and may include radioactive material not excluded by this definition with a half-life or more than 35 years if special disposal criteria are established. Prior to beginning the siting study, the Authority developed both exclusionary and inclusionary criteria. Major requirements of the siting guidelines are that the site shall be located such that it will not interfere with: (1) existing or near-future industrial use, (2) sensitive environmental and ecological areas, and (3) existing and projected population growth. Therefore, the site should be located away from currently known recoverable mineral, energy and water resources, population centers, and areas of projected growth. This would reduce the potential for inadvertent intruders, increasing the likelihood for stability of the disposal site after closure. The identification of potential sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste involves a phased progression from statewide screening to site-specific exploration, using a set of exclusionary and preferential criteria to guide the process. This methodology applied the criteria in a sequential manner to focus the analysis on progressively smaller and more favorable areas. The study was divided into three phases: (1) statewide screening; (2) site identification; and (3) preliminary site characterization

  1. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive-waste-disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from two currently operating commercial radioactive waste disposal sites; one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. Soil samples believed to be representative of the soil that will contact the buried waste were collected and analyzed. Earth resistivities (field measurements), from both sites, supply information to identify variations in subsurface material. Barnwell soil resistivities (laboratory measurements) range from 3.6 x 10 5 ohm-cm to 8.9 x 10 4 ohm-cm. Soil resistivities of the Hanford sample vary from 3.0 x 10 5 ohm-cm to 6.6 x 10 3 ohm-cm. The Barnwell and Hanford soil pH ranges from 4.8 to 5.4 and from 4.0 to 7.2 respectively. The pH of a 1:2 mixture of soil to 0.01 M CaCl 2 resulted in a pH for the Barnwell samples of 3.9 +- 0.1 and for the Hanford samples of 7.4 +- 0.2. These values are comparable to the pH measurements of the water extract of the soils used for the analyses of soluble ion content of the soils. The exchange acidity of the soils was found to be approximately 7 mg-eq per 100 g of dry soil for clay material from Barnwell, whereas the Hanford soils showed an alkaline reaction. Aqueous extracts of saturated pastes were used to determine the concentrations of the following ions: Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , HCO 3 - , SO 4 /sup =/, and Cl - . The sulfide content of each of the soils was measured in a 1:2.5 mixture of soil to an antioxidant buffer solution. The concentrations of soluble ions found in the soils from both sites are consistent with the high resistivities

  2. Assessment of mixed hazardous and radioactive waste sites at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.J.; Cramer, K.H.; Lamar, D.A.; Sherwood, D.R.; Stenner, R.D.; Schulze, W.B.

    1987-10-01

    The US Department of Energy and Pacific Northwest Laboratory recently completed a preliminary assessment of 685 inactive hazardous waste sites located on the Hanford Site. The preliminary assessment involved collecting historical data and individual site information, conducting site inspections, and establishing an environmental impact priority, using the Hazard Ranking System, for each of these 685 sites. This preliminary assessment was the first step in the remediation process required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act. This paper presents the results of that preliminary assessment. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-3 Burn Pit Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-058

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-11-17

    The 128-B-3 waste site is a former burn and disposal site for the 100-B/C Area, located adjacent to the Columbia River. The 128-B-3 waste site has been remediated to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results of sampling at upland areas of the site also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. Development of chemical decontamination for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Seigo; Omata, Kazuo; Obinata, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Yoshihiko; Kanamori, Osamu.

    1995-01-01

    During routine intermittent inspection and maintenance at nuclear power plants, a considerable quantity of low level radioactive waste is generated requiring release from the nuclear site or treating additionally. To decontaminate this waste for safe release from the nuclear power plant, the first step could be washing the waste in Methylene chloride, CH 2 Cl 2 , to remove most of the paint coating. However, CH 2 Cl 2 washing does not completely remove the paint coating from the waste, which in the next step is shot blasted with plastic bead media to loose and remove the remaining paint coating. Following in succession, in the third step, the waste is washed in a chelate solution, after which most waste is decontaminated and suitable to be released for recycling. The residual chelate solution may be decomposed into nontoxic carbon dioxide and water by an electrolysis process and then safely discharged into the environment. (author)

  5. Savannah River Site waste management. Final environmental impact statement - addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this environmental impact statement is to help DOE decide how to manage over the next 30 years liquid high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, mixed, hazardous, and transuranic wastes generated during 40 years of past operations and on-going activities (including management of wastes received from offsite) at Savannah River Site (SRS) in southwestern South Carolina. The wastes are currently stored at SRS. DOE seeks to dispose of the wastes in a cost-effective manner that protects human health and the environment. In this document, DOE assesses the cumulative environmental impacts of storing, treating, and disposing of the wastes, examines the impacts of alternatives, and identifies measures available to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socio-economics, and the health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

  6. Savannah River Site Waste Management Final Environmental Impact Statement Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this environmental impact statement is to help DOE decide how to manage over the next 30 years liquid high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, mixed, hazardous, and transuranic wastes generated during 40 years of past operations and on-going activities (including management of wastes received from offsite) at Savannah River Site (SRS) in southwestern South Carolina. The wastes are currently stored at SRS. DOE seeks to dispose of the wastes in a cost-effective manner that protects human health and the environment. In this document, DOE assesses the cumulative environmental impacts of storing, treating, and disposing of the wastes, examines the impacts of alternatives, and identifies measures available to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socio-economic, and the health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

  7. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Waste Package Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison-Giesler, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-02-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) waste package program is to develop, confirm the effectiveness of, and document a design for a waste package and associated engineered barrier system (EBS) for spent nuclear fuel and solidified high-level nuclear waste (HLW) that meets the applicable regulatory requirements for a geologic repository. The Waste Package Plan describes the waste package program and establishes the technical approach against which overall progress can be measured. It provides guidance for execution and describes the essential elements of the program, including the objectives, technical plan, and management approach. The plan covers the time period up to the submission of a repository license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). 1 fig

  8. Waste Tank Corrosion Program at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, J.R.; Hsu, T.C.; Hobbs, D.T.; Iyer, N.C.; Marra, J.E.; Zapp, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has approximately 30 million gallons of high level radioactive waste stored in 51 underground tanks. SRS has maintained an active corrosion research and corrosion control and monitoring program throughout the operating history of SRS nuclear waste storage tanks. This program is largely responsible for the successful waste storage experience at SRS. The program has consisted of extensive monitoring of the tanks and surrounding environment for evidence of leaks, extensive research to understand the potential corrosion processes, and development and implementation of corrosion chemistry control. Current issues associated with waste tank corrosion are primarily focused on waste processing operations and are being addressed by a number of active programs and initiatives

  9. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs

  10. Radioactive waste will be stored at desolate Cape site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    High, intermediate and low-level radioactive waste will be stored at the Vaalputs nuclear waste dump site near Springbok. This area is sparsely populated, there are no mineral deposits of any value, the agricultural potential is minimal. It is a typical semi-desert area. Geologically it lends itself towards the ground-storage of used nuclear fuel, because of the remote possibility of earthquakes

  11. Dilute chemical decontamination resins and the mixed waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denault, R.P.; Hallman, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The decontamination of reactor primary systems, sub-systems and components is an important method used to reduce the occupational radiation exposure of nuclear plant personnel. The waste produced by the application of this technology is mainly solid in the form of ion exchange resins. As a result of a recent agreement between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), all radioactive waste must meet EPA burial criteria. The chemicals used in a decontamination and certain metals dissolved during the process, primarily chromium, could render the waste hazardous as well as radioactive or more commonly called a mixed waste. This paper defines mixed waste as described in the EPA directive 9432.00-2, and examine the criteria by which waste is categorized as hazardous. The decontamination waste resin generated by two processes, the CAN-DEREM and the LOMI process, is described in detail. Waste data obtained from decontaminations performed by LN Technologies Corporation including chemical, metal and radionuclide loadings on resins from both PWR and BWR applications are presented

  12. Management of radioactive wastes at power reactor sites in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amalraj, R.V.; Balu, K.

    Indian nuclear power programme, at the present stage, is based on natural uranium fuelled heavy water moderated CANDU type reactors except for the first nuclear power station consisting of two units of enriched uranium fuelled, light water moderated, BWR type of reactors. Some of the salient aspects of radioactive waste management at power reactor sites in India are discussed. Brief reviews are presented on treatment of wastes, their disposal and environmental aspects. Indian experience in power reactor waste management is also summarised identifying some of the areas needing further work. (auth.)

  13. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site's pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office's (RL's) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program

  14. Siting simulation for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Rope, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role-playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW). This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, involves 14 or more participants, and requires about eight hours to complete. The simulation consists of two sessions; in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred disposal site is chosen from three candidate sites. The project has sponsored two workshops (in Boston, Massachusetts and Richmond, Virginia) in which the simulation has been conducted for persons concerned with LLW management issues. It is concluded that the simulation can be valuable as a tool for disseminating information about LLW management; a vehicle that can foster communication; and a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The DOE National Low-Level Waste Management Program is now making the siting simulation available for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in development of LLW disposal facilities

  15. Characterization of radionuclude behavior in low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Kirby, L.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Abel, K.H.; Perkins, R.W.

    1982-10-01

    Our laboratory is investigating the subsurface migration of radionuclides in groundwater at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, shallow land-burial site and at a low-level aqueous waste disposal facility. At Maxey Flats, radionuclide and tracer data indicate groundwater communication between a waste trench and an adjacent experimental study area. Areal distributions of radionuclides in surface soil confirm that contamination at Maxey Flats has been largely contained on site. Of the radionuclides detected in the surface soil, only 3 H and 60 Co concentrations appear to be derived from waste. Plutonium exists in the anoxic subsurface waters at Maxey Flats as a reduced, anionic complex; some of the plutonium appears to be complexed with EDTA, whereas organic acids seem to be associated with 137 Cs and 90 Sr. At the aqueous waste disposal site, 3 H and mainly anionic species of certain radionuclides, including 60 Co, 106 Ru, 99 Tc, 131 I, and traces of 238 239 240 Pu, appear to migrate from a trench through soil adjacent to the trench. Radionuclides in the particulate and cationic forms appear to be efficiently retained by the soil. In general, observations indicate that the physicochemical form of the radionuclides mediates their subsurface migration in groundwater at both waste disposal sites

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed, and a UR was

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed

  18. Site selection handbook: Workshop on site selection for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide technical assistance to ''...those compact regions, host States and nonmember States determined by the Secretary to require assistance.'' Technical assistance has been defined to include, but not be limited to, ''technical guidelines for site selection.'' This site selection workshop was developed to assist States and Compacts in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in accordance with the requirements of the LLRWPAA. The workshop comprises a series of lectures, discussion topics, and exercises, supported by this Site Selection Workshop Handbook, designed to examine various aspects of a comprehensive site selection program. It is not an exhaustive treatment of all aspects of site selection, nor is it prescriptive. The workshop focuses on the major elements of site selection and the tools that can be used to implement the site selection program

  19. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Stanley H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

  20. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alumkal, W.T.; Babad, H.; Harmon, H.D.; Wodrich, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste in the United States. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 230,000 m 3 (61 Mgal) of caustic liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludges have 137 Cs accumulated in 177 tanks. In addition, significant amounts of 90 Sr and were removed from the tank waste, converted to salts, doubly encapsulated in metal containers., and stored in water basins. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy in 1991 to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal of the high-level waste fraction in a geologic repository. Since 1991, progress has been made resolving waste tank safety issues, upgrading Tank Farm facilities and operations, and developing a new strategy for retrieving, treating, and immobilizing the waste for disposal

  1. Chemical inventory control program for mixed and hazardous waste facilities at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; Vincent, A.M. III.

    1997-01-01

    Mixed Waste (MW) and Hazardous Waste (HW) are being stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) pending onsite and/or offsite treatment and disposal. The inventory control for these wastes has recently been brought under Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) in accordance with DOE Order 5480.22. With the TSRs was the question of the degree of rigor with which the inventory is to be tracked, considering that the variety of chemicals present, or that could be present, numbers in the hundreds. This paper describes the graded approach program to track Solid Waste (SW) inventories relative to TSRs. The approach uses a ratio of the maximum anticipated chemical inventory to the permissible inventory in accordance with Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) limits for on- and off-site receptors. A specific threshold ratio can then be determined. The chemicals above this threshold ratio are to be included in the chemical inventory control program. The chemicals that fall below the threshold ratio are managed in accordance with existing practice per State and RCRA hazardous materials requirements. Additionally, the facilities are managed in accordance with process safety management principles, specifically using process hazards analyses, which provides safety assurance for even the small quantities that may be excluded from the formal inventory control program. The method yields a practical approach to chemical inventory control, while maintaining appropriate chemical safety margins. The resulting number of specific chemicals that require inclusion in a rigorous inventory control program is greatly reduced by about 80%, thereby resulting in significant reduction in chemical data management while preserving appropriate safety margins

  2. Protective barrier systems for final disposal of Hanford Waste Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Hartley, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    A protecting barrier system is being developed for potential application in the final disposal of defense wastes at the Hanford Site. The functional requirements for the protective barrier are control of water infiltration, wind erosion, and plant and animal intrusion into the waste zone. The barrier must also be able to function without maintenance for the required time period (up to 10,000 yr). This paper summarizes the progress made and future plans in this effort to design and test protective barriers at the Hanford Site

  3. Physical and chemical evaluation of furniture waste briquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana Isabel; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A

    2016-03-01

    Furniture waste is mainly composed of wood and upholstery foam (mostly polyurethane foam). Both of these have a high calorific value, therefore, energy recovery would be an appropriate process to manage these wastes. Nevertheless, the drawback is that the energy content of these wastes is limited due to their low density mainly that of upholstery foam. Densification of separate foam presents difficulties due to its elastic character. The significance of this work lies in obtaining densified material by co-densification of furniture wood waste and polyurethane foam waste. Densification of furniture wood and the co-densification of furniture wood waste with polyurethane foam have been studied. On the one hand, the parameters that have an effect on the quality of the furniture waste briquettes have been analysed, i.e., moisture content, compaction pressure, presence of lignin, etc. The maximum weight percentage of polyurethane foam that can be added with furniture wood waste to obtain durable briquettes and the optimal moisture were determined. On the other hand, some parameters were analysed in order to evaluate the possible effect on the combustion. The chemical composition of waste wood was compared with untreated wood biomass; the higher nitrogen content and the concentration of some metals were the most important differences, with a significant difference of Ti content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of hazardous waste sites: a methods manual. Volume 2. Available sampling methods (second edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, P.J.; Turina, P.J.; Seely, D.E.

    1984-12-01

    Investigations at hazardous waste sites and sites of chemical spills often require on-site measurements and sampling activities to assess the type and extent of contamination. This document is a compilation of sampling methods and materials suitable to address most needs that arise during routine waste site and hazardous spill investigations. The sampling methods presented in this document are compiled by media, and were selected on the basis of practicality, economics, representativeness, compatability with analytical considerations, and safety, as well as other criteria. In addition to sampling procedures, sample handling and shipping, chain-of-custody procedures, instrument certification, equipment fabrication, and equipment decontamination procedures are described. Sampling methods for soil, sludges, sediments, and bulk materials cover the solids medium. Ten methods are detailed for surface waters, groundwater and containerized liquids; twelve are presented for ambient air, soil gases and vapors, and headspace gases. A brief discussion of ionizing radiation survey instruments is also provided

  5. CHEMICAL SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT 8183

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaxton, D; Timothy Baughman, T

    2008-01-01

    Chemical Sludge Removal (CSR) is the final waste removal activity planned for some of the oldest nuclear waste tanks located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. In 2008, CSR will be used to empty two of these waste tanks in preparation for final closure. The two waste tanks chosen to undergo this process have previously leaked small amounts of nuclear waste from the primary tank into an underground secondary containment pan. CSR involves adding aqueous oxalic acid to the waste tank in order to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The resultant acidic waste solution is then pumped to another waste tank where it will be neutralized and then stored awaiting further processing. The waste tanks to be cleaned have a storage capacity of 2.84E+06 liters (750,000 gallons) and a target sludge heel volume of 1.89E+04 liters (5,000 gallons) or less for the initiation of CSR. The purpose of this paper is to describe the CSR process and to discuss the most significant technical issues associated with the development of CSR

  6. Site characterization data for Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1984-12-01

    Currently, the only operating shallow land burial site for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is Solid Waste Storage Area No. 6 (SWSA-6). In 1984, the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued Order 5820.2, Radioactive Waste Management, which establishes policies and guidelines by which DOE manages its radioactive waste, waste by-products, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities. The ORNL Operations Division has given high priority to characterization of SWSA-6 because of the need for continued operation under DOE 5820.2. The purpose of this report is to compile existing information on the geologic and hydrologic conditions in SWSA-6 for use in further studies related to assessing compliance with 5820.2. Burial operations in SWSA-6 began in 1969 on a limited scale, and full operation was initiated in 1973. Since that time, ca. 29,100 m 3 of low-level waste containing ca. 251,000 Ci of activity has been buried in SWSA-6. No transuranic waste has been disposed of in SWSA-6; rather this waste is retrievably stored in SWSA-5. Estimates of the remaining usable space in SWSA-6 vary; however, in 1982 sufficient useful land was reported for about 10 more years of operation. Analysis of the information available on SWSA-6 indicates that more information is required to evaluate the surface water hydrology, the geology at depths below the burial trenches, and the nature and extent of soils within the site. Also, a monitoring network will be required to allow detection of potential contaminant movement in groundwater. Although these are the most obvious needs, a number of specific measurements must be made to evaluate the spatial heterogeneity of the site and to provide background information for geohydrological modeling. Some indication of the nature of these measurements is included

  7. Effects on residential property values of proximity to a site contaminated with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Olshansky, S.J.; Segel, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An issue often raised by the public regarding waste sites is whether distance from these sites affects residential property values. Previous research has studied changes in the housing market in communities near Three Mile Island after the 1979 accident and after the 1979 accident and legal precedents of compensation for loss of property value because of proximity to hazardous areas. However, this research has not addressed effects on residential property values of proximity specifically to hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites. The effects of the proximity of residences to such a site in West Chicago, Illinois - used for many years for disposal of thorium waste from processing ores - were investigated in this study. Sales of single-family residences located within about 0.4 km and 1.6 km from the site. Trends in average annual selling prices were analyzed both before and after publicity appeared about the existence of the radioactive material at the site. Results indicate that older residences (built before 1950) located within about 0.4 km of the disposal site experienced a prolonged depression in selling prices after the publicity in comparison with older residences located farther from the site and with all transactions on newer residences. These results confirm to some extent public perceptions and potentially raise legal issues associated with property values. Suggestions are provided for mitigative measures to alleviate these issues

  8. Chemical analysis for waste management in paint industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Z.; Naveed, S.; Shiekh, N.A.; Sagheer, K.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical analysis of paint industries waste has been carried out; the main emission sources are the heating of raw materials and lacquer. Also the waste from other applications and production contains high concentration of heavy metals, VOC's, COD, TDS with notable acidity and alkalinity. Based on the analysis it was observed that the major losses of production could be minimized. Further toxic effects of the waste material can be minimized. In this reference measures to minimize production losses should be adopted along with the proper management. These laboratory results also lead to the areas of emissions and waste production during manufacturing process. Solutions have been proposed for process development and integrated waste minimization. (author)

  9. Method of heat decomposition for chemical decontaminating resin waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To make resin wastes into non-deleterious state, discharge them into a resin waste storage tank of existent radioactive waste processing facility and store and dispose them. Constitution: In the processing of chemical decontaminating resin wastes, iron exchange resins adsorbing chemical decontaminating agents comprising a solution of citric acid, oxalic acid, formic acid and EDTA alone or as a mixture of them are heated to dry, thermally decomposed and then separated from the ion exchange resins. That is, the main ingredients of the chemical decontaminating agents are heat-decomposed when heated and dried at about 250 deg C in air and converted into non-toxic gases such as CO, CO 2 , NO, NO 2 or H 2 O. Further, since combustion or carbonization of the basic materials for the resin is not caused at such a level of temperature, the resin wastes removed with organic acid and chelating agents are transferred to an existent resin waste storage tank and stored therein. In this way, facility cost and radiation exposure can remarkably be decreased. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Sociological perspective on the siting of hazardous waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mileti, D.S.; Williams, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The siting of hazardous waste facilities has been, and will likely continue to be, both an important societal need and a publically controversial topic. Sites have been denounced, shamed, banned, and moved at the same time that the national need for their installation and use has grown. Despite available technologies and physical science capabilities, the effective siting of facilitites stands more as a major contemporary social issue than it is a technological problem. Traditional social impact assessment approaches to the siting process have largely failed to meaningfully contribute to successful project implementation; these efforts have largely ignored the public perception aspects of risk and hazard on the success or failure of facility siting. This paper proposes that the siting of hazardous waste facilities could well take advantage of two rich but somewhat disparate research histories in the social sciences. A convergent and integrated approach would result from the successful blending of social impact assessment, which seeks to define and mitigate problems, with an approach used in hazards policy studies, which has sought to understand and incorporate public risk perceptions into effective public decision-making. It is proposed in this paper that the integration of these two approaches is necessary for arriving at more readily acceptable solutions to siting hazardous waste facilities. This paper illustrates how this integration of approaches could be implemented

  11. CORROSION AND CHEMICAL WASTE IN SAWBLADES STEEL USED IN WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the chemical waste provoked by the wood on the sheets of steel used in the making of the mountains and cut tools. It was certain the correlationbetween the chemical waste and the extractive soluble in cold water, hot water and in the sequencetoluene and ethanol content. Two types of steel and twenty-seven species different from wood wereused. The corrosive agent, constituted of 50 g of fresh sawdust (moist mixed to 50 ml of distilledwater, it was prepared and placed inside of the plastic box, hermetically closed, on the samples ofsteel, which were totally immersed. The box was placed in a water bath pre-heated to 75°C, that themedium temperature of reaction is considered, that affects the sheet of the sawblade in operation. Thisgroup was operated to 80 rotations per minute (rpm. The time of reaction was of four hours. Afterthat time the corrosive agent was discarded and the samples were washed, dried and weighed. At theend, each sample was processed by a total period of forty hours. The chemical waste was evaluated by the weight difference suffered from beginning at the end of the experiment. For theresults it was observed that the Eucalyptus tradryphloia and the Eucalyptus phaeotricha the speciesthat provoked were, respectively, the largest and smaller chemical waste for the two types of steelappraised. Great variation exists in the chemical waste due to the effect of the species. The corrosionand chemical waste are especially related with the quality of the material solved in ethanol. The 1070steel were more attached than the 6170 steel.

  12. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-01-01

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals

  13. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-03-24

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

  14. Chemical modeling of irreversible reactions in nuclear waste-water-rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolery, T.J.

    1981-02-01

    Chemical models of aqueous geochemical systems are usually built on the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium. Though many elementary reactions in a geochemical system may be close to equilibrium, others may not be. Chemical models of aqueous fluids should take into account that many aqueous redox reactions are among the latter. The behavior of redox reactions may critically affect migration of certain radionuclides, especially the actinides. In addition, the progress of reaction in geochemical systems requires thermodynamic driving forces associated with elementary reactions not at equilibrium, which are termed irreversible reactions. Both static chemical models of fluids and dynamic models of reacting systems have been applied to a wide spectrum of problems in water-rock interactions. Potential applications in nuclear waste disposal range from problems in geochemical aspects of site evaluation to those of waste-water-rock interactions. However, much further work in the laboratory and the field will be required to develop and verify such applications of chemical modeling

  15. General safety guidelines for looking for a low mass activity-long life waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this document is to define general guidelines which must be followed during the stages of search for a site and stages of design of a storage facility for low activity-long life radioactive wastes, in order to ensure its safety after closure. After having specified the considered wastes, geological shapes, and situations, this document defines the fundamental objective and the associated criteria (protection against chemical risk, radioprotection). It presents the design aspects related to safety (safety principles and functions, waste packages, public works engineering, geological environment, storage concepts). The last part deals with the safety demonstration after site closure which includes the control of some components, the assessment of disturbances in the storage facility or due to its presence, the taking of uncertainty and sensitivity studies into account, the influence of natural events

  16. Waste dissolution with chemical reaction, diffusion and advection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambre, P.L.; Kang, C.H.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This paper extends the mass-transfer analysis to include the effect of advective transport in predicting the steady-state dissolution rate, with a chemical-reaction-rate boundary condition at the surface of a waste form of arbitrary shape. This new theory provides an analytic means of predicting the ground-water velocities at which dissolution rate in a geologic environment will be governed entirely to the chemical reaction rate. As an illustration, we consider the steady-state potential flow of ground water in porous rock surrounding a spherical waste solid. 3 refs., 2 figs

  17. Calcination/dissolution testing for Hanford Site tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, S.A.; Delegard, C.H.; McLaughlin, D.F.; Danielson, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Thermal treatment by calcination offers several benefits for the treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes, including the destruction of organics and ferrocyanides and an hydroxide fusion that permits the bulk of the mostly soluble nonradioactive constituents to be easily separated from the insoluble transuranic residue. Critical design parameters were tested, including: (1) calciner equipment design, (2) hydroxide fusion chemistry, and (3) equipment corrosion. A 2 gal/minute pilot plant processed a simulated Tank 101-SY waste and produced a free flowing 700 C molten calcine with an average calciner retention time of 20 minutes and >95% organic, nitrate, and nitrite destruction. Laboratory experiments using actual radioactive tank waste and the simulated waste pilot experiments indicate that 98 wt% of the calcine produced is soluble in water, leaving an insoluble transuranic fraction. All of the Hanford Site tank wastes can benefit from calcination/dissolution processing, contingent upon blending various tank waste types to ensure a target of 70 wt% sodium hydroxide/nitrate/nitrite fluxing agent. Finally, corrosion testing indicates that a jacketed nickel liner cooled to below 400 C would corrode <2 mil/year (0.05 mm/year) from molten calcine attack

  18. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-02-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 537: Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 537 is identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) of 1996 as Waste Sites. CAU 537 is located in Areas 3 and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-23-06, Bucket; Yellow Tagged Bags; and CAS 19-19-01, Trash Pit. CAU 537 closure activities were conducted in April 2007 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2003). At CAS 03-23-06, closure activities included removal and disposal of a 15-foot (ft) by 15-ft by 8-ft tall wooden shed containing wood and metal debris and a 5-gallon plastic bucket containing deteriorated plastic bags with yellow radioactive contamination tape. The debris was transported to the Area 9 U10c Landfill for disposal after being screened for radiological contamination according to the ''NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). At CAS 19-19-01, closure activities included segregation, removal, and disposal of non-friable, non-regulated asbestos-containing material (ACM) and construction debris. The ACM was determined to be non-friable by waste characterization samples collected prior to closure activities. The ACM was removed and double-bagged by licensed, trained asbestos workers and transported to the Area 9 U10c Landfill for disposal. Construction debris was transported in end-dump trucks to the Area 9 U10c Landfill for disposal. Closure activities generated sanitary waste/construction debris and ACM. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste characterization sample results are included as Appendix A of this report, and waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix B of this report. Copies of the Sectored Housekeeping Site Closure

  20. Technology needs and trends for hazardous waste site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalick, W.W. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Over the next few decades, federal, state, and local governments and private industry will commit billions of dollars annually to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous waste and petroleum products. While these needs represent an obligation for society, they also represent an important business opportunity for vendors of remediation services. This presentation assesses the remediation market by characterizing sites that comprise the demand for cleanup services, observing remedy selection trends in the Superfund program, and discussing gaps in the supply of technologies

  1. Geoelectrical Evaluation of Waste Dump Sites at Warri and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existing waste dump sites in Delta State were investigated without soil disturbance by using the vertical electrical sounding (VES).The soil overlying the aquifer at Ovwian-Aladja dump site has resistively values, 11.84-85.50 Ohm-m, thicknesses,21.10-31.83m and at depths less than 1m, while at Warri it has resistively ...

  2. Work plan for defining a standard inventory estimate for wastes stored in Hanford Site underground tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    This work plan addresses the Standard Inventory task scope, deliverables, budget, and schedule for fiscal year 1997. The goal of the Standard Inventory task is to resolve differences among the many reported Hanford Site tank waste inventory values and to provide inventory estimates that will serve as Standard Inventory values for all waste management and disposal activities. These best-basis estimates of chemicals and radionuclides will be reported on both a global and tank-specific basis and will be published in the Tank Characterization Database

  3. The physical and chemical environment and radionuclide migration in a low level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, J.; Buckley, L.P.

    1988-01-01

    The expected physical and chemical environment within the low-level radioactive waste repository to be sited at Chalk River is being studied to establish the rate of radionuclide migration. Chemical conditions in the repository are being assessed for their effect on buffer performance and the degradiation of the concrete structure. Experimental programs include the effect of changes in solution chemistry on radionuclide distribution between buffer/backfill materials and the aqueous phase; the chemical stability of the buffer materials and the determination of the controlling mechanism for radionuclide transport during infiltration

  4. Chemical Decontamination of Metallic Waste from Uranium Conversion Plant Dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Byun, J. I.; Jang, N. S.

    2005-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant. Pre-work was carried as follows; installation of the access control facility, installation of a changing room and shower room, designation of an emergency exit way and indicating signs, installation of a radiation management facility, preparation of a storage area for tools and equipments, inspection and load test of crane, distribution and packaging of existing waste, and pre-decontamination of the equipment surface and the interior. First, decommissioning work was performed in kiln room, which will be used for temporary radioactive waste storage room. Kiln room housed hydro fluorination rotary kiln for production of uranium tetra-fluoride. The kiln is about 0.8 m in diameter and 5.5 m long. The total dismantled waste was 6,690 kg, 73 % of which was metallic waste and 27 % the others such as cable, asbestos, concrete, secondary waste, etc. And effluent treatment room and filtration room were dismantled for installation of decontamination equipment and lagoon sludge treatment equipment. There were tanks and square mixer in these rooms. The total dismantled waste was 17,250 kg, 67% of which was metallic waste and 33% the others. These dismantled metallic wastes consist of stainless and carbon steel. In this paper, the stainless steel plate and pipe were decontaminated by the chemical decontamination with ultrasonic

  5. University program in hazardous chemical and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The three main functions of a university program are education, training, and research. At Vanderbilt University, there is a Solid and Hazardous Waste option in the Master of Science in Engineering Program. The two main foci are treatment of wastes and environmental transport and transformation of the wastes. Courses in Hazardous Waste Engineering and Radioactive Waste Disposal present a synoptic view of the field, including legal, economic, and institutional aspects as well as the requisite technical content. The training is accomplished for some of the students through the aegis of an internship program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. In the summer between the two academic years of the program, the study works at a facility where decontamination and/or decommissioning and/or remedial actions are taking place. Progress in understanding the movement, transformation, and fate of hazardous materials in the environment is so rapid that it will not be possible to be current in the field without participating in that discovery. Therefore, their students are studying these processes and contributing to new knowledge. Some recent examples are the study of safety factors implicit in assuming a saturated zone below a hazardous waste landfill when an unsaturated zone exists, application of probabilistic risk assessment to three National Priority List sites in Tennessee, and the explanation of why certain organics precede pH, conductivity and nitrates through a clay liner at a hazardous waste disposal site

  6. Chemical laboratory hazardous waste management at a DOE multiprogram national laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, P.J.

    1990-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a United States Department of Energy (DOE) Multiprogram Energy Laboratory, is establishing a program for management of diverse small-quantity laboratory waste generated on site. Although the main emphasis of this program is ''cradle-to-grave'' tracking and treatment of hazardous chemical waste and mixed waste, low-level radioactive and transuranic (TRU) waste is also being included. With the program in operation, more than 95% of all regulated waste will be treated or destroyed on site. The cost savings will return the original investment in under six years and decrease the liability to PNL and DOE -- a benefit with a potentially greater economic value. Tracking of hazardous waste will be mediated by a computer-based inventory and tracking system. The system will track all hazardous materials from receipt through final disposition, whether the material is destroyed or treated for disposal. It will allow user access to handling and hazards information as well as provide an updated inventory by location, user, and hazard type. Storage and treatment of waste will be performed by at least four facilities, made operational in three phases. 6 figs

  7. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  8. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  9. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs and satellite imagery: Three sites in New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Becker, N.; Wells, B.; Lewis, A.; David, N.

    1996-01-01

    The proper handling and characterization of past hazardous waste sites is becoming more and more important as world population extends into areas previously deemed undesirable. Historical photographs, past records, current aerial satellite imagery can play an important role in characterizing these sites. These data provide clear insight into defining problem areas which can be surface samples for further detail. Three such areas are discussed in this paper: (1) nuclear wastes buried in trenches at Los Alamos National Laboratory, (2) surface dumping at one site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and (3) the historical development of a municipal landfill near Las Cruces, New Mexico

  10. Selection and Evaluation of Chemical Indicators for Waste Stream Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, W. M.; Hall, J.

    2015-12-01

    Human and animal wastes pose a threat to the quality of groundwater, surface water and drinking water. This is especially of concern for private and public water supplies in agricultural areas of Wisconsin where land spreading of livestock waste occurs on thin soils overlaying fractured bedrock. Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for source identification requires the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Due to cost, these tests are often not an option for homeowners, municipalities or state agencies with limited resources. The Water and Environmental Analysis Laboratory sought to develop chemical methods to provide lower cost processes to determine sources of fecal waste using fecal sterols, pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary) and human care/use products in ground and surface waters using solid phase extraction combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The two separate techniques allow for the detection of fecal sterol and other chemical markers in the sub part per billion-range. Fecal sterol ratios from published sources were used to evaluate drinking water samples and wastewater from onsite waste treatment systems and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products indicative of human waste included: acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, paraxanthine, sulfamethoxazole, and the artificial sweeteners; acesulfame, saccharin, and sucralose. The bovine antibiotic sulfamethazine was also targeted. Well water samples with suspected fecal contamination were analyzed for fecal sterols and PPCPs. Results were compared to traditional MST results from the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene. Chemical indicators were found in 6 of 11 drinking water samples, and 5 of 11 were in support of MST results. Lack of detection of chemical indicators in samples contaminated with fecal waste supports the need for confirmatory methods and advancement of chemical indicator detection technologies.

  11. Characteristics and suitability of waste dump sites in Owerri, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five point criteria screening of the three major waste dumpsites in Owerri Municipality was identified, and a ranking procedure adopted to determine the suitability or otherwise of the dumpsites. The sites were screened and ranked hydro-geologically and geo-technically in order of suitable, moderately suitable, and not ...

  12. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized

  13. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing for Bahir Dar Town, North Western Ethiopia. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  14. High-level radioactive waste repositories site selection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanon, A.; Recreo, F.

    1985-01-01

    A general vision of the high level nuclear waste (HLNW) and/or nuclear spent fuel facilities site selection processes is given, according to the main international nuclear safety regulatory organisms quidelines and the experience from those countries which have reached a larger development of their national nuclear programs. (author)

  15. Final storage site for radioactive waste. Gorleben mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    Out of more than 20 salt stocks, the Gorleben salt stock was chosen. In addition to the preliminary information available on its size and depth, detailed exploratory investigations were carried out in order to test its suitability as a site for ultimate storage of all types of radioactive waste. (orig.) [de

  16. Closure Strategy Nevada Test Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the strategy for closure of part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The Area 5 RWMS is in the northern part of Frenchman Flat, approximately 14 miles north of Mercury. The Area 5 RWMS encompasses 732 acres subdivided into quadrants, and is bounded by a 1,000-foot (ft)-wide buffer zone. The northwest and southwest quadrants have not been developed. The northeast and southeast quadrants have been used for disposal of unclassified low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and indefinite storage of classified materials. This paper focuses on closure of the 38 waste disposal and classified material storage units within the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 RWMS, called the ''92-Acre Area''. The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently planning to close the 92-Acre Area by 2011. Closure planning for this site must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. For ease of discussion, the 92-Acre Area has been subdivided into six closure units defined by waste type, location, and similarity in regulatory requirements. Each of the closure units contains one or more waste disposal units; waste disposal units are also called waste disposal cells. The paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues for the 92-Acre Area, recommends actions to address the issues, and provides the National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), schedule for closure.

  17. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  18. Proposed plan for remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contaminated material at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site and nearby properties in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry, both of which are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed in the 1950s and 1960s. Various liquid, sludge, and solid wastes were disposed of at the Chemical plant area and in the quarry during that time. The Weldon Spring site is listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The proposed plan is organized as follows: Chapter 2 presents the history and setting of the Weldon Spring site and briefly describes the contaminated material at the chemical plant area. Chapter 3 defines the scope of the remedial action and its role in the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. Chapter 4 summarizes the risks associated with possible exposures to site contaminants in the absence of remedial action and identifies proposed cleanup levels for soil. Chapter 5 briefly describes the final alternatives considered for the remedial action. Chapter 6 summarizes the evaluation of final alternatives for managing the contaminated material, identifies the currently preferred alternative, and discusses a possible contingency remedy to provide treatment flexibility. Chapter 7 presents the community's role in this action. Chapter 8 is a list of the references cited in this proposed plan

  19. Final Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.S.; Borgstrom, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement (HSW EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed waste management practices at the Hanford Site. The HSW EIS updates analyses of environmental consequences from previous documents and provides evaluations for activities that may be implemented consistent with the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) Records of Decision (RODs). Waste types considered in the HSW EIS include operational low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), and transuranic (TRU) waste (including TRU mixed waste). MLLW contains chemically hazardous components in addition to radionuclides. Alternatives for management of these wastes at the Hanford Site, including the alternative of No Action, are analyzed in detail. The LLW, MLLW, and TRU waste alternatives are evaluated for a range of waste volumes, representing quantities of waste that could be managed at the Hanford Site. A single maximum forecast volume is evaluated for ILAW. The No Action Alternative considers continuation of ongoing waste management practices at the Hanford Site and ceasing some operations when the limits of existing capabilities are reached. The No Action Alternative provides for continued storage of some waste types. The other alternatives evaluate expanded waste management practices including treatment and disposal of most wastes. The potential environmental consequences of the alternatives are generally similar. The major differences occur with respect to the consequences of disposal versus continued storage and with respect to the range of waste volumes managed under the alternatives. DOE's preferred alternative is to dispose of LLW, MLLW, and ILAW in a single, modular, lined facility near PUREX on Hanford's Central Plateau; to treat MLLW using a combination of onsite and

  20. Nevada test site defense waste acceptance criteria, certification, and transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification and Transfer Requirements establishes procedures and criteria for safe transfer, disposal, and storage of defense transuranic, low-level, and mixed waste at the NTS. Included are an overview of the NTS defense waste management program; the NTS waste acceptance criteria for transuranic, low-level, and mixed wastes; waste certification requirements and guidance; application to submit waste; and requirements for waste transfer and receipt. 5 figs., 16 tabs

  1. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The NTS solid waste disposal sites must be permitted by the state of Nevada Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The SWMA for the NTS is the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as land manager (owner), and National Security Technologies (NSTec), as operator, will store, collect, process, and dispose all solid waste by means that do not create a health hazard, a public nuisance, or cause impairment of the environment. NTS disposal sites will not be included in the Nye County Solid Waste Management Plan. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles (mi)) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The Area 5 RWMS is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NTS (Figure 2), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. A Notice of Intent to operate the disposal site as a Class III site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 28, 1994, and was acknowledged as being received in a letter to the NNSA/NSO on August 30, 1994. Interim approval to operate a Class III SWDS for regulated asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) was authorized on August 12, 1996 (in letter from Paul Liebendorfer to Runore Wycoff), with operations to be conducted in accordance with the ''Management Plan

  2. Chemical recycling of mixed waste plastics by selective pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumoto, K.; Meglen, R.; Evans, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The goal of this work is to use selective pyrolysis to produce high-value chemicals from waste plastics mixtures. Selectivity is achieved by exploiting differences in reaction rates, catalysis, and coreactants. Target wastes are molecular mixtures such as; blends or composites, or mixtures from manufactured products such as; carpets and post-consumer mixed-plastic wastes. The experimental approach has been to use small-scale experiments using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS), which provides rapid analysis of reaction products and permits rapid screening of process parameters. Rapid screening experiments permit exploration of many potential waste stream applications for the selective pyrolysis process. After initial screening, small-scale, fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors are used to provide products for conventional chemical analysis, to determine material balances, and to test the concept under conditions that will be used at a larger scale. Computer assisted data interpretation and intelligent chemical processing are used to extract process-relevant information from these experiments. An important element of this project employs technoeconomic assessments and market analyses of durables, the availability of other wastes, and end-product uses to identify target applications that have the potential for economic success.

  3. Natural radiation, nuclear wastes and chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, T.; Ehdwall, H.; Stranden, E.

    1990-01-01

    Doses from natural radiation to the population in the Nordic Countries are summarized and man made modifications of the natural radiation environment are discussed. An account is given of the radiological consequences of energy conservation by reduced ventilation. Risks from possible future releases of radioactivity from final repositories of spent nuclear fuel are compared to the risks from present natural radioactivity in the environment. The possibilities for comparison between chemical and radiological risks are discussed. (author) 13 refs

  4. Environmental Planning Strategies for Optimum Solid Waste Landfill Siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiani, Y.; Onn, C.C.; Mohd, M.A.D.; Wan, W.Z.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of environmental planning tools for optimum solid waste landfill siting taking into account all environmental implications was carried out by applying Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) to enhance the research information obtained from initial analysis using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The objective of this study is to identify the most eco-friendly landfill site by conducting a LCA analysis upon 5 potential GIS generated sites which incorporated eleven important criteria related to the social, environmental, and economical factors. The LCA analysis utilized the daily distance covered by collection trucks among the 5 selected landfill sites to generate inventory data on total energy usage for each landfill sites. The planning and selection of the potential sites were facilitated after conducting environmental impact analysis upon the inventory data which showed the least environmental impact. (author)

  5. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-01-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells

  6. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-09-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells.

  7. The Hanford Site solid waste treatment project; Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility will provide treatment and temporary storage (consisting of in-process storage) for radioactive and radioactive/hazardous mixed waste. This facility must be constructed and operated in compliance with all appropriate US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The WRAP Facility will examine and certify, segregate/sort, and treat for disposal suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes in drums and boxes placed in 20-yr retrievable storage since 1970; low-level radioactive mixed waste (RMW) generated and placed into storage at the Hanford Site since 1987; designated remote-handled wastes; and newly generated TRU and RMW wastes from high-level waste (HLW) recovery and processing operations. In order to accelerated the WRAP Project, a partitioning of the facility functions was done in two phases as a means to expedite those parts of the WRAP duties that were well understood and used established technology, while allowing more time to better define the processing functions needed for the remainder of WRAP. The WRAP Module 1 phase one, is to provide the necessary nondestructive examination and nondestructive assay services, as well as all transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT-2) shipping for both WRAP Project phases, with heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; change rooms; and administrative services. Phase two of the project, WRAP Module 2, will provide all necessary waste treatment facilities for disposal of solid wastes. 1 tab

  8. What to do with your chemical waste ?

    CERN Multimedia

    Roland Magnier/SC

    2004-01-01

    For any type and quantity of chemical waste, please contact phone number 16 0879 or 16 3315 for the collection and safe elimination. The quality and the safety of our environment is our own responsibility. Let's do it. Roland Magnier/SC-GS

  9. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process.

  10. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-2, 100-B Burn Pit No.2 Waste Site. Attchment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-038

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The 128-B-2 waste site was a burn pit historically used for the disposal of combustible and noncombustible wastes, including paint and solvents, office waste, concrete debris, and metallic debris. This site has been remediated by removing approximately 5,627 bank cubic meters of debris, ash, and contaminated soil to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  12. Geotechnical site assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report contains a state-of-the-art review of the geotechnical assessment of Land 3 and Land 4 repository sites (at 100 - 300 m depth in rock) for intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. The principles established are also valid for the disposal of low and high level waste in rock. The text summarizes the results of 21 DoE research contract reports, firstly 'in series' by providing a technical review of each report and then 'in parallel' by considering the current state of knowledge in the context of the subjects in an interaction matrix framework. 1214 references are cited. It is concluded that four further research projects are required for site assessment procedures to be developed or confirmed. These are coupled modelling, mechanical properties, water flow and establishment of 2 phase site assessment procedures. (author)

  13. Financing a new low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressen, A.L.; Serie, P.J.; McGarvey, R.S.; Lemmon, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    No new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal site has been licensed in the past decade. During the time, inflation has wreaked havoc on the costs for the labor, equipment, and buildings that will be necessary to develop and operate new sites. The regulatory environment has become much more complex with enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the recent issuance by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of a draft set of comprehensive regulations for land disposal of low-level waste (10 CFR Part 61). Finally, the licensing process itself has become much lengthier as both the site developers and regulators respond to the public's desire to be more involved in decisions that may affect their lives

  14. High-level wastes: DOE names three sites for characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    DOE announced in May 1986 that there will be there site characterization studies made to determine suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The studies will include several test drillings to the proposed disposal depths. Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Deaf Smith Country, Texas, and Hanford, Washington were identified as the study sites, and further studies for a second repository site in the East were postponed. The affected states all filed suits in federal circuit courts because they were given no advance warning of the announcement of their selection or the decision to suspend work on a second repository. Criticisms of the selection process include the narrowing or DOE options

  15. Program for closure of an inactive radioactive waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The 643-G Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility was operated at the Savannah River Plant from 1952 through 1974, and has been inactive since that time. The actions leading to closure of 643-G will involve a combination of activities consisting of limited waste removal, stabilization, capping, and monitoring. The overall effect of these closure actions will be to place the 643-G site in a physically and chemically stable state which will remain stable over a long period of time. During a one-hundred year institutional control period surveillance and monitoring of the site will be carried out to verify that the performance of the system is acceptable, and access of the general public to the site will be restricted. The program described in this paper is a recommendation; the actual closure plan will be negotiated with regulatory authorities. 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Canonical correlations between chemical and energetic characteristics of lignocellulosic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Canonical correlation analysis is a statistical multivariate procedure that allows analyzing linear correlation that may exist between two groups or sets of variables (X and Y. This paper aimed to provide canonical correlation analysis between a group comprised of lignin and total extractives contents and higher heating value (HHV with a group of elemental components (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur for lignocellulosic wastes. The following wastes were used: eucalyptus shavings; pine shavings; red cedar shavings; sugar cane bagasse; residual bamboo cellulose pulp; coffee husk and parchment; maize harvesting wastes; and rice husk. Only the first canonical function was significant, but it presented a low canonical R². High carbon, hydrogen and sulfur contents and low nitrogen contents seem to be related to high total extractives contents of the lignocellulosic wastes. The preliminary results found in this paper indicate that the canonical correlations were not efficient to explain the correlations between the chemical elemental components and lignin contents and higher heating values.

  17. Chemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic agroindustrial waste for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of different chemical pretreatments on the solubilization and the degradability of different solid agroindustrial waste, namely winery waste, cotton gin waste, olive pomace and juice industry waste. Eight different reagents were investigated, i.e. sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ), sodium chloride (NaCl), citric acid (H 3 Cit), acetic acid (AcOH), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), acetone (Me 2 CO) and ethanol (EtOH), under three condition sets resulting in treatments of varying intensity, depending on process duration, reagent dosage and temperature. Results indicated that chemical pretreatment under more severe conditions is more effective on the solubilization of lignocellulosic substrates, such as those of the present study and among the investigated reagents, H 3 Cit, H 2 O 2 and EtOH appeared to be the most effective to this regard. At the same time, although chemical pretreatment in general did not improve the methane potential of the substrates, moderate to high severity conditions were found to generally be the most satisfactory in terms of methane production from pretreated materials. In fact, moderate severity treatments using EtOH for winery waste, H 3 Cit for olive pomace and H 2 O 2 for juice industry waste and a high severity treatment with EtOH for cotton gin waste, resulted in maximum specific methane yield values. Ultimately, the impact of pretreatment parameters on the different substrates seems to be dependent on their characteristics, in combination with the specific mode of action of each reagent. The overall energy balance of such a system could probably be improved by using lower operating powers and higher solid to liquid ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Review of the Scientific Understanding of Radioactive Waste at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Reid A; Buck, Edgar C; Chun, Jaehun; Daniel, Richard C; Herting, Daniel L; Ilton, Eugene S; Lumetta, Gregg J; Clark, Sue B

    2018-01-16

    This Critical Review reviews the origin and chemical and rheological complexity of radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The waste, stored in underground tanks, was generated via three distinct processes over decades of plutonium extraction operations. Although close records were kept of original waste disposition, tank-to-tank transfers and conditions that impede equilibrium complicate our understanding of the chemistry, phase composition, and rheology of the waste. Tank waste slurries comprise particles and aggregates from nano to micro scales, with varying densities, morphologies, heterogeneous compositions, and complicated responses to flow regimes and process conditions. Further, remnant or changing radiation fields may affect the stability and rheology of the waste. These conditions pose challenges for transport through conduits or pipes to treatment plants for vitrification. Additionally, recalcitrant boehmite degrades glass quality and the high aluminum content must be reduced prior to vitrification for the manufacture of waste glass of acceptable durability. However, caustic leaching indicates that boehmite dissolves much more slowly than predicted given surface normalized rates. Existing empirical models based on ex situ experiments and observations generally only describe material balances and have not effectively predicted process performance. Recent advances in the areas of in situ microscopy, aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, theoretical modeling across scales, and experimental methods for probing the physics and chemistry at mineral-fluid and mineral-mineral interfaces are being implemented to build robustly predictive physics-based models.

  19. Quality assurance program for environmental assessment of Savannah River Plant waste sites: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; King, C.M.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    Forty-eight locations were identified that received a variety of radioactive and nonradioactive constituents during the past 35 years including surface impoundments and shallow land burial facilities. Detailed environmental assessments of existing waste disposal areas, as well as new waste disposal techniques and disposition of tritiated water, were completed to air in an evaluation of the low level, mixed and hazardous waste management activities. These assessments result in estimation of risk, or residual risk, posed by each disposal area to various receptors as a function of waste management alternative. For example, at existing waste sites, the closure actions evaluated were waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action; several pathways/receptors were considered, including groundwater to river, groundwater to well, atmospheric transport, occupational exposure, direct exposure, and contamination followed by ingestion of crops and meat. Modeling of chemical transport in a variety of media was an integral part of the assessment process. The quality of the models used and the application of these models were assured by an explicit quality assurance program

  20. Conflict, location, and politics: Siting a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power and the management of high-level radioactive waste is examined with the goal of explaining the forces driving the formulation of the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act and a subsequent decision to site a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study draws upon geographic, political, economic, and organizational factors to examine the commitment to dispose of spent fuel in a geologic repository located in Nevada or in Utah, Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana, or at Hanford Washington. Special attention is given to the impact of location, science and technology on the definition of the nuclear waste problem and political agendas, public participation, and the power of the nuclear establishment. The study finds that the choice of a Yucca Mountain Nevada as the preferred site for a repository was based more on technological precedent and political-economic expediency than on the demonstrated superiority of that site's geology. Conflict over a repository location is interpreted as a symptom of more fundamental conflicts concerning: the credibility of nuclear science, the legitimacy of federal authority and administration, and the priorities of environmental protection and a nuclear economy

  1. Statistical process control support during Defense Waste Processing Facility chemical runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) has been developed to ensure that the wasteforms produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will satisfy the regulatory and processing criteria that will be imposed. The PCCS provides rigorous, statistically-defensible management of a noisy, multivariate system subject to multiple constraints. The system has been successfully tested and has been used to control the production of the first two melter feed batches during DWPF Chemical Runs. These operations will demonstrate the viability of the DWPF process. This paper provides a brief discussion of the technical foundation for the statistical process control algorithms incorporated into PCCS, and describes the results obtained and lessons learned from DWPF Cold Chemical Run operations. The DWPF will immobilize approximately 130 million liters of high-level nuclear waste currently stored at the Site in 51 carbon steel tanks. Waste handling operations separate this waste into highly radioactive sludge and precipitate streams and less radioactive water soluble salts. (In a separate facility, soluble salts are disposed of as low-level waste in a mixture of cement slag, and flyash.) In DWPF, the precipitate steam (Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous or PHA) is blended with the insoluble sludge and ground glass frit to produce melter feed slurry which is continuously fed to the DWPF melter. The melter produces a molten borosilicate glass which is poured into stainless steel canisters for cooling and, ultimately, shipment to and storage in a geologic repository

  2. Projecting future solid waste management requirements on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, S.R.; Stiles, D.L.; Holter, G.M.; Anderson, B.C.

    1990-09-01

    The problem of treating and disposing of hazardous transuranic (TRU), low-level radioactive, and mixed waste has become a major concern of the public and the government. At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington state, the problem is compounded by the need to characterize, retrieve, and treat the solid waste that was generated and stored for retrieval during the past 20 years. This paper discusses the development and application of a Solid Waste Projection Model that uses forecast volumes and characteristics of existing and future solid waste to address the treatment, storage, and disposal requirements at Hanford. The model uses a data-driven, object-oriented approach to assess the storage and treatment throughout requirements for each operation for each of the distinct waste classes and the accompanying cost of the storage and treatment operations. By defining the elements of each alternative for the total waste management system, the same database can be used for numerous analyses performed at different levels of detail. This approach also helps a variety of users with widely varying information requirements to use the model and helps achieve the high degree of flexibility needed to cope with changing regulations and evolving treatment and disposal technologies. 2 figs

  3. Contaminant Release from Residual Waste in Single Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA - 9276

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Determinations of elemental and solid-phase compositions, and contaminant release studies have been applied in an ongoing study of residual tank wastes (i.e., waste remaining after final retrieval operations) from five of 149 underground single-shell storage tanks (241-C-103, 241-C-106, 241-C-202, 241-C-203, and 241-S-112) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. This work is being conducted to support performance assessments that will be required to evaluate long-term health and safety risks associated with tank site closure. The results of studies completed to date show significant variability in the compositions, solid phase properties, and contaminant release characteristics from these residual tank wastes. This variability is the result of differences in waste chemistry/composition of wastes produced from several different spent fuel reprocessing schemes, subsequent waste reprocessing to remove certain target constituents, tank farm operations that concentrated wastes and mixed wastes between tanks, and differences in retrieval processes used to remove the wastes from the tanks. Release models were developed based upon results of chemical characterization of the bulk residual waste, solid-phase characterization (see companion paper 9277 by Krupka et al.), leaching and extraction experiments, and geochemical modeling. In most cases empirical release models were required to describe contaminant release from these wastes. Release of contaminants from residual waste was frequently found to be controlled by the solubility of phases that could not be identified and/or for which thermodynamic data and/or dissolution rates have not been measured. For example, significant fractions of Tc-99, I-129, and Cr appear to be coprecipitated at trace concentrations in metal oxide phases that could not be identified unambiguously. In the case of U release from tank 241-C-103 residual waste, geochemical calculations indicated that leachate

  4. Research priorities in bioconversion of municipal solid waste to produce chemicals, liquid and gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J. [BABA Ltd., Reading (United Kingdom)

    1988-09-01

    Areas for future research on the bioconversion of municipal solid wastes are highlighted in order to optimise the potential use of this resource to make chemical, liquid and gaseous fuels. Despite widespread research, a biological understanding of bioconversion technologies, including landfill gas, composting and anaerobic digestion, has yet to be established. Specifically, work on the development and growth of microorganisms in uncontrolled systems and the detailed biochemistry of purified strains needs to be undertaken. The microbial breakdown of xenobiotics to clean up polluted sites, and as an alternative to incineration of toxic organic wastes, is viewed as a desirable outcome of such an understanding. (UK)

  5. Chemically treated carbon black waste and its potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Pengwei; Maneerung, Thawatchai; Ng, Wei Cheng; Zhen, Xu [NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 1 Create Way, Create Tower #15-02, 138602 (Singapore); Dai, Yanjun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tong, Yen Wah [NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 1 Create Way, Create Tower #15-02, 138602 (Singapore); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Ting, Yen-Peng [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Koh, Shin Nuo [Sembcorp Industries Ltd., 30 Hill Street #05-04, 179360 (Singapore); Wang, Chi-Hwa, E-mail: chewch@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Neoh, Koon Gee, E-mail: chenkg@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Hazardous impurities separated from carbon black waste with little damage to solid. • Heavy metals were effectively removed from carbon black waste by HNO{sub 3} leaching. • Treated carbon black waste has high adsorption capacity (∼356.4 mg{sub dye}/g). • Carbon black waste was also found to show high electrical conductivity (10 S/cm). - Abstract: In this work, carbon black waste – a hazardous solid residue generated from gasification of crude oil bottom in refineries – was successfully used for making an absorbent material. However, since the carbon black waste also contains significant amounts of heavy metals (especially nickel and vanadium), chemical leaching was first used to remove these hazardous impurities from the carbon black waste. Acid leaching with nitric acid was found to be a very effective method for removal of both nickel and vanadium from the carbon black waste (i.e. up to 95% nickel and 98% vanadium were removed via treatment with 2 M nitric acid for 1 h at 20 °C), whereas alkali leaching by using NaOH under the same condition was not effective for removal of nickel (less than 10% nickel was removed). Human lung cells (MRC-5) were then used to investigate the toxicity of the carbon black waste before and after leaching. Cell viability analysis showed that the leachate from the original carbon black waste has very high toxicity, whereas the leachate from the treated samples has no significant toxicity. Finally, the efficacy of the carbon black waste treated with HNO{sub 3} as an absorbent for dye removal was investigated. This treated carbon black waste has high adsorption capacity (∼361.2 mg {sub dye}/g {sub carbonblack}), which can be attributed to its high specific surface area (∼559 m{sup 2}/g). The treated carbon black waste with its high adsorption capacity and lack of cytotoxicity is a promising adsorbent material. Moreover, the carbon black waste was found to show high electrical conductivity (ca. 10 S

  6. Chemical and mechanical decontamination processes to minimize secondary waste decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enda, M.; Ichikawa, N.; Yaita, Y.; Kanasaki, T.; Sakai, H.

    2008-01-01

    In the decommissioning of commercial nuclear reactors in Japan, prior to the dismantling of the nuclear power plants, there are plans to use chemical techniques to decontaminate reactor pressure vessels (RPVs), internal parts, primary loop recirculation systems (PLRs), reactor water clean up systems (RWCUs), etc., so as to minimize radiation sources in the materials to be disposed of. After dismantling the nuclear power plants, chemical and mechanical decontamination techniques will then be used to reduce the amounts of radioactive metallic waste. Toshiba Corporation has developed pre-dismantling and post-dismantling decontamination systems. In order to minimize the amounts of secondary waste, the T-OZON process was chosen for decontamination prior to the dismantling of nuclear power plants. Dismantling a nuclear power plant results in large amounts of metallic waste requiring decontamination; for example, about 20,000 tons of such waste is expected to result from the dismantling of a 110 MWe Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Various decontamination methods have been used on metallic wastes in preparation for disposal in consideration of the complexity of the shapes of the parts and the type of material. The materials in such nuclear power plants are primarily stainless steel and carbon steel. For stainless steel parts having simple shapes, such as plates and pipes, major sources of radioactivity can be removed from the surface of the parts by bipolar electrolysis (electrolyte: H 2 SO 4 ). For stainless steel parts having complicated shapes, such as valves and pumps, major sources of radioactivity can be removed from the surfaces by redox chemical decontamination treatments (chemical agent: Ce(IV)). For carbon steel parts having simple shapes, decontamination by blasting with zirconia grit is effective in removing major sources of radioactivity at the surface, whereas for carbon steel parts having complicated shapes, major sources of radioactivity can be removed from

  7. Techniques for site investigations for underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The report provides a more detailed description of the capabilities and applications of the various earth science investigation techniques outlined in the IAEA Technical Reports Series Nos. 177, 215 and 216. These methods are generally appropriate during at least one of the stages of the assessment or selection of a site for any type of waste disposal facility, in shallow ground or in deep geological formations. This report is addressed to technical authorities responsible for or involved in planning, approving, executing and reviewing national waste disposal programmes. It may also help administrative authorities in this field to select appropriate techniques for obtaining the majority of the required information at minimum cost

  8. Negotiating the voluntary siting of nuclear waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussler, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator which was created by Congress with the purpose of seeking a voluntary host State or Indian tribe for a high level nuclear waste repository or monitored retrievable storage facility. Given the history of the Federal government's efforts at siting such facilities, this would appear to be an impossible mission. Since commencing operations in August 1990, the Office has accomplished perhaps more than had been expected. Some of the approaches it has taken to implementing this mission may be applicable to other endeavors

  9. Haiti: Feasibility of Waste-to-Energy Options at the Trutier Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Hunsberger, R.; Ness, J. E.; Harris, T.; Raibley, T.; Ursillo, P.

    2014-08-01

    This report provides further analysis of the feasibility of a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility in the area near Port-au-Prince, Haiti. NREL's previous analysis and reports identified anaerobic digestion (AD) as the optimal WTE technology at the facility. Building on the prior analyses, this report evaluates the conceptual financial and technical viability of implementing a combined waste management and electrical power production strategy by constructing a WTE facility at the existing Trutier waste site north of Port-au-Prince.

  10. Site specific plan. [Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.; Jernigan, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) covers the period for FY 1989 through FY 1995. The plan establishes a Department of Energy -- Headquarters (DOE-HQ) agenda for cleanup and compliance against which overall progress can be measured. The FYP covers three areas: Corrective Activities, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management Operations. Corrective Activities are those activities necessary to bring active or standby facilities into compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulations. Environmental restoration activities include the assessment and cleanup of surplus facilities and inactive waste sites. Waste management operations includes the treatment, storage, and disposal of wastes which are generated as a result of ongoing operations. This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show how environmental restoration and waste management activities that were identified during the preparation of the FYP will be implemented, tracked, and reported. The SSP describes DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) and operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), organizations that are responsible, for undertaking the activities identified in this plan. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. 8 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs.

  11. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  12. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta's K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports

  13. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP

  14. Chemical Equilibrium Modeling of Hanford Waste Tank Processing: Applications of Fundamental Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Wang, Zheming; Dixon, David A.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2004-01-01

    The development of computational models based upon fundamental science is one means of quantitatively transferring the results of scientific investigations to practical application by engineers in laboratory and field situations. This manuscript describes one example of such efforts, specifically the development and application of chemical equilibrium models to different waste management issues at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The development of the chemical models is described with an emphasis on the fundamental science investigations that have been undertaken in model development followed by examples of different waste management applications. The waste management issues include the leaching of waste slurries to selective remove non-hazardous components and the separation of Sr90 and transuranics from the waste supernatants. The fundamental science contributions include: molecular simulations of the energetics of different molecular clusters to assist in determining the species present in solution, advanced synchrotron research to determine the chemical form of precipitates, and laser based spectroscopic studies of solutions and solids.

  15. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H.; Hills, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies

  16. Characterization of the atmospheric pathway at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Buck, J.W.

    1988-10-01

    Evaluation of potential health effects for populations surrounding hazardous waste sites requires consideration of all potential contaminant transport pathways through groundwater, surface water, and the atmosphere. A comprehensive pathway model that includes emission, dispersion, and deposition computations has been developed as a component of the Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS). RAPS is designed to assess the relative potential risks associated with hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste disposal sites. The atmospheric component includes optional volatilization and suspension emission routines. Atmospheric transport, dispersion, and deposition are computed using relatively standard modeling techniques expanded to incorporate topographical influences. This sector-averaged Gaussian model accounts for local channeling, terrain heights, and terrain roughness effects. Long-term total deposition is computed for the terrain surrounding the hazardous waste site. An example is given of applications at a US Department of Energy site, where atmospheric emissions are potentially important. The multiple applications of RAPS have provided information on the relative importance of different constitutent transport pathways from a potential population risk basis. Our results show that the atmospheric pathway is often equally as important as other pathways such as groundwater and direct soil ingestion. 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Expeditious Methods for Site Characterization and Risk Assessment at Department of Defense Hazardous Waste Sites in the Republic of Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartman, Dean

    1999-01-01

    ...) with preferred innovative site characterization technologies and risk assessment methods to meet their needs in obtaining hazardous waste site data and then prioritizing those sites for remediation based upon risk...

  18. Alternatives to land disposal of solid radioactive mixed wastes on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, P.H.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a detailed description of the generation and management of land disposal restricted mixed waste generated, treated, and stored at the Hanford Site. This report discusses the land disposal restricted waste (mixed waste) managed at the Hanford Site by point of generation and current storage locations. The waste is separated into groups on the future treatment of the waste before disposal. This grouping resulted in the definition of 16 groups or streams of land disposal restricted waste

  19. Chemodynamics of EDTA in a simulated mixed waste: the Hanford Site's complex concentrate waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    1999-01-01

    Enormous stockpiles of mixed wastes at the USDOE's Hanford Site, the original US plutonium production facility, await permanent disposal. One mixed waste derived from reprocessing spent fuel was found to contain numerous nuclear related organics including chelating agents like EDTA and complexing agents, which have been used as decontamination agents, etc. Their presence in actual mixed wastes indicates that the organic content of nuclear wastes is dynamic and complicate waste management efforts. The subjects of this report is the chemo-degradation of EDTA degradation in a simulant Hanford's complex concentrate waste. The simulant was prepared by adding EDTA to an inorganic matrix, which was formulated based on past analyses of the actual waste. Aliquots of the EDTA simulant were withdrawn at different time points, derivatized via methylation and analyzed by gas chromatography and Gc/MS to monitor the disappearance of EDTA and the appearance of its' degradation products. This report also compares the results of EDTA's chemo-degradation to the g-radiolysis of EDTA in the simulant, the subject of a recently published article. Finally based on the results of these two studies, an assesment of the potential impact of EDTA degradation on the management of mixed wastes is offered. (J.P.N.)

  20. Study of commercial chemical additives for cementation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota Vieira, V.; Oliveira, C.C. de

    2015-01-01

    In this research it has been studied the effects of chemical additives (admixtures) in the cementation process of radioactive wastes, which are used to improve the properties of waste cementation process, both of the paste and of the solidified product. However there are a large variety of these materials that are frequently changed or taken out of the market, then it is essential to know the commercially available materials and their effects. The tests were carried out with a solution simulating the evaporator concentrate waste coming from PWR nuclear reactors. It was cemented using two formulations, A and B, incorporating higher or lower amount of waste, respectively. It was added chemical admixtures from two manufacturers (S and H), which were: accelerators, set retarders and superplasticizers. The experiments were organized by a factorial design 23. The measured parameters were the viscosity, the setting time, the paste and product density and the compressive strength. In this study we performed comparative analyzes of the results of compressive strength at age of 28 and 90 days and between the densities of the samples at the same ages. The compressive strength test at age of 28 days is considered a parameter essential issues related to security handling, transport and storage of cemented waste product. The results showed that the addition of accelerators improved the compressive strength of the cemented product, but presented lower values density products. (authors)

  1. Using proven, cost-effective chemical stabilization to remediate radioactive and heavy metal contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.; Sogue, A.

    1999-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, L.L.C. (RMRS) has deployed a cost-effective metals stabilization method which can be used to reduce the cost of remediation projects where radioactivity and heavy metals are the contaminants of concern. The Envirobond TM process employs the use of a proprietary chemical process to stabilize metals in many waste forms, and provides an excellent binding system that can easily be compacted to reduce the waste into a shippable brick called Envirobric TM . The advantages of using chemical stabilization are: (1) Low cost, due to the simplicity of the process design and inexpensive reagents. (2) Chemical stabilization is easily deployed in field applications, which limit the amount of shielding and other protective measures. (3) The process does not add volume and bulk to the treated waste; after treatment the materials may be able to remain on-site, or if transportation and disposal is required the cost will be reduced due to lower volumes. (4) No secondary waste. The simplicity of this process creates a safe environment while treating the residues, and the long-term effectiveness of this type of chemical stabilization lowers the risk of future release of hazardous elements associated with the residues. (author)

  2. Nuclear waste and social peace - Strategies of site selection for radioactive waste disposal. Proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dally, A.

    2003-01-01

    In February 1999, BMU appointed a working party to establish site selection procedures for repositories (AkEnd) which was to develop a transparent procedure of finding and selecting sites for the final storage of all kinds of radioactive waste in Germany. The procedure finally proposed by AkEnd implies considerable uncertainty, inter alia, about its legal implementability, the time required, and funding. The discussion papers of the meeting ''atomic waste and social peace'' show a tightrope walk between society, clerical aspects and scientists taking into account also a right of say for critical citizens. (GL)

  3. Chemical recycle of plastics waste; Hai purasuchikku no kemikaru risaikuru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, A. [Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Chemical recycling of the wasted plastics contains from regeneration to monomer as a constructing component in the case of single element polymer to conversion to fuel oil through thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics and application to chemical raw material. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) decomposes to methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer with high selection rate at max temperature of 400{+-}50degC. The Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Signed a cooperative development contract on the recycling technique of PMMA The ICI., Ltd., Great Britain. Depolymerization technique of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is already used actually on methanolysis with Coca-Cola Corp. (Hoechst-Celanese Corp.) and glycolysis with Pepsi-Cola Corp. (Goodyear Inc.). The chemical recycle due to thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics is established as a technique of gasification of the mixed wasted plastics to generate methanol in Japan by the Mitsubishi Heavy Ind., Ltd., and is operated in a pilot plant of 2 ton/day. Here was summarized on these trends in and out of Japan. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tab.

  4. Nevada Test Site waste acceptance criteria [Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-08-01

    Revision one updates the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document.

  5. Nevada Test Site waste acceptance criteria [Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1997-01-01

    Revision one updates the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document

  6. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Repackaging at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sanza, E.F.; Pyles, G.; Ciucci, J.; Arnold, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the activities required to modify a facility and the process of characterizing, repackaging, and preparing for shipment the Nevada Test Site's (NTS) legacy transuranic (TRU) waste in 58 oversize boxes (OSB). The waste, generated at other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites and shipped to the NTS between 1974 and 1990, requires size-reduction for off-site shipment and disposal. The waste processing approach was tailored to reduce the volume of TRU waste by employing decontamination and non-destructive assay. As a result, the low-level waste (LLW) generated by this process was packaged, with minimal size reduction, in large sea-land containers for disposal at the NTS Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The remaining TRU waste was repackaged and sent to the Idaho National Laboratory Consolidation Site for additional characterization in preparation for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the NTS Management and Operating (M and O) contractor, NSTec, successfully partnered to modify and upgrade an existing facility, the Visual Examination and Repackaging Building (VERB). The VERB modifications, including a new ventilation system and modified containment structure, required an approved Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis prior to project procurement and construction. Upgrade of the VERB from a radiological facility to a Hazard Category 3 Nuclear Facility required new rigor in the design and construction areas and was executed on an aggressive schedule. The facility Documented Safety Analysis required that OSBs be vented prior to introduction into the VERB. Box venting was safely completed after developing and implementing two types of custom venting systems for the heavy gauge box construction. A remotely operated punching process was used on boxes with wall thickness of up to 3.05 mm (0.120 in) to insert aluminum

  7. Sociological perspective on the siting of hazardous waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mileti, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The site of hazardous waste facilities has been, and will likely continue to be, both an important societal need and a publicity controversial topic. Sites have been denounced, shamed, banned, and moved at the same time that the national need for their installation and use has grown. Based on the available technologies, the effective siting of facilities is more of a major contemporary social issue than it is a technological problem. Traditional social impact assessment approaches to the siting process have generally failed to meaningfully contribute to successful project implementation; these efforts have largely ignored the public perception aspects of risk and hazard on the success or failure of facility siting. It is proposed in this paper that more readily acceptable solutions to siting hazardous waste facilities might result from the integration of two social science approaches: (1) social impact assessment, which seeks to define and mitigate problems, and (2) hazards policy studies, which has sought to understand and incorporate public risk perceptions into effective public decision-making. This paper illustrates how this integration of approaches could be implemented

  8. Gorleben. Waste management site based on an appropriate selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiggemann, Anselm

    2010-01-01

    On February 22, 1977, the Lower Saxony state government decided in favor of Gorleben as a ''preliminary'' site of a ''potential'' facility for managing the back end of the fuel cycle of the nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. The Lower Saxony files, closed until recently, now allow both the factual basis and the political background to be reconstructed comprehensively. The first selection procedure, financed by the federal government, for the site of a ''nuclear waste management center,'' which had been conducted by Kernbrennstoff-Wiederaufarbeitungsgesellschaft (KEWA) in 1974, had not considered Gorleben in any detail. As early as in the winter of 1975/76, Gorleben and a number of other potential sites were indicated to KEWA by the Lower Saxony State Ministry of Economics. The new finding is KEWA's conclusion of 1976 that Gorleben surpassed all potential sites examined so far in terms of suitability. As a consequence, Gorleben was regarded as an alternative alongside the 3 sites favored before, i.e. Wahn, Lutterloh, and Lichtenhorst, when the 3 Federal Ministers, Hans Matthoefer (SPD), Werner Maihofer (F.D.P.), and Hans Friderichs (F.D.P.), discussed the nuclear waste management project with Minister President Albrecht (CDU) in November 1976. The Lower Saxony State Cabinet commissioned an interministerial working party (IMAK) to find other potential sites besides Wahn, Lutterloh, Lichtenhorst, and Gorleben. IMAK proposed Gorleben, Lichtenhorst, Mariaglueck, and Wahn for further examination. IMAK recommended to the State Cabinet in another proposal to earmark either Gorleben or Lichtenhorst. (orig.)

  9. Biological intrusion barriers for large-volume waste-disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Cline, J.F.; Rickard, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    intrusion of plants and animals into shallow land burial sites with subsequent mobilization of toxic and radiotoxic materials has occured. Based on recent pathway modeling studies, such intrusions can contribute to the dose received by man. This paper describes past work on developing biological intrusion barrier systems for application to large volume waste site stabilization. State-of-the-art concepts employing rock and chemical barriers are discussed relative to long term serviceability and cost of application. The interaction of bio-intrusion barrier systems with other processes affecting trench cover stability are discussed to ensure that trench cover designs minimize the potential dose to man. 3 figures, 6 tables

  10. Radioactive waste disposal sites: Two successful closures at Tinker Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, G.; Mohatt, J.V.; Kowall, S.J.; Jarvis, M.F.

    1993-06-01

    This article describes remediation and closure of two radioactive waste disposal sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma, making them exemption regulatory control. The approach consisted of careful exhumation and assessment of soils in sites expected to be contaminated based on historical documentation, word of mouth, and geophysical surveys; removal of buried objects that had gamma radiation exposure levels above background; and confirmation that the soil containing residual radium-226 was below an activity level equal to no more than a 10 mrem/yr annual dose equivalent. In addition, 4464 kg of chemically contaminated excavated soils were removed for disposal. After remediation, the sites met standards for unrestricted use. These sites were two of the first three Air Force radioactive disposal sites to be closed and were the first to be closed under Draft NUREG/CR-5512

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Enviromnetal Services

    2009-09-21

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first

  13. Treatment systems for liquid wastes generated in chemical analysis laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linda Berrio; Oscar Beltran; Edison Agudelo; Santiago Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, handling of liquid wastes from chemical analysis laboratories is posing problems to different public and private organizations because of its requirements of an integrated management. This article reviews various treatment technologies and its removal efficiencies in order to establish criteria for selecting the system and the appropriate variables to achieve research objectives as well as environmental sustainability. Review begins with a description of the problem and continues with the study of treatments for laboratory wastes. These technologies are segregated into physicochemical and biological treatments that comprise a variety of processes, some of which are considered in this review.

  14. Laboratory testing of ozone oxidation of Hanford Site waste from Tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Stubbs, A.M.; Bolling, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ozone was investigated as a reagent to oxidize and destroy organic species present in simulated and genuine waste from Hanford Site Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY). Two high-shear mixing apparatus were tested to perform the gas-to-solution mass transfer necessary to achieve efficient use of the ozone reagent. Oxidations of nitrite (to form nitrate) and organic species were observed. The organics oxidized to form carbonate and oxalate as well as nitrate and nitrogen gas from nitrogen associated with the organic. oxidations of metal species also were observed directly or inferred by solubilities. The chemical reaction stoichiometries were consistent with reduction of one oxygen atom per ozone molecule. Acetate, oxalate, and formate were found to comprise about 40% of the genuine waste's total organic carbon (TOC) concentration. Ozonation was found to be chemically feasible for destroying organic species (except oxalate) present in the wastes in Tank 101-SY. The simulated waste formulation used in these studies credibly modelled the ozonation behavior of the genuine waste

  15. Preliminary Performance Assessment for the Waste Management Area C at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Singleton, Kristin M.; Eberlein, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    A performance assessment (PA) of Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area C (WMA C) located at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington is being conducted to satisfy the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO), as well as other Federal requirements and State-approved closure plans and permits. The WMP C PA assesses the fate, transport, and impacts of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals within residual wastes left in tanks and ancillary equipment and facilities in their assumed closed configuration and the subsequent risks to humans into the far future. The part of the PA focused on radiological impacts is being developed to meet the requirements for a closure authorization under DOE Order 435.1 that includes a waste incidental to reprocessing determination for residual wastes remaining in tanks, ancillary equipment, and facilities. An additional part of the PA will evaluate human health and environmental impacts from hazardous chemical inventories in residual wastes remaining in WMA C tanks, ancillary equipment, and facilities needed to meet the requirements for permitted closure under RCRA.

  16. Preliminary Performance Assessment for the Waste Management Area C at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Marcel P. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Singleton, Kristin M. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Eberlein, Susan J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-07

    A performance assessment (PA) of Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area C (WMA C) located at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington is being conducted to satisfy the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO), as well as other Federal requirements and State-approved closure plans and permits. The WMP C PA assesses the fate, transport, and impacts of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals within residual wastes left in tanks and ancillary equipment and facilities in their assumed closed configuration and the subsequent risks to humans into the far future. The part of the PA focused on radiological impacts is being developed to meet the requirements for a closure authorization under DOE Order 435.1 that includes a waste incidental to reprocessing determination for residual wastes remaining in tanks, ancillary equipment, and facilities. An additional part of the PA will evaluate human health and environmental impacts from hazardous chemical inventories in residual wastes remaining in WMA C tanks, ancillary equipment, and facilities needed to meet the requirements for permitted closure under RCRA.

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Roy B.; Adams, Amy; Martin, Don; Morris, Randall C.; Reynolds, Timothy D.; Warren, Ronald W.

    2000-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)Carlsbad Area Office and the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 1999 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during calendar year 1999. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 1999, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment. Radionuclide concentrations in the environment surrounding WIPP were not statistically higher in 1999 than in 1998.

  18. Pyramiding tumuli waste disposal site and method of construction thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Martin P.

    1989-01-01

    An improved waste disposal site for the above-ground disposal of low-level nuclear waste as disclosed herein. The disposal site is formed from at least three individual waste-containing tumuli, wherein each tumuli includes a central raised portion bordered by a sloping side portion. Two of the tumuli are constructed at ground level with adjoining side portions, and a third above-ground tumulus is constructed over the mutually adjoining side portions of the ground-level tumuli. Both the floor and the roof of each tumulus includes a layer of water-shedding material such as compacted clay, and the clay layer in the roofs of the two ground-level tumuli form the compacted clay layer of the floor of the third above-ground tumulus. Each tumulus further includes a shield wall, preferably formed from a solid array of low-level handleable nuclear wate packages. The provision of such a shield wall protects workers from potentially harmful radiation when higher-level, non-handleable packages of nuclear waste are stacked in the center of the tumulus.

  19. Risk communication on the siting of radioactive waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru; Torii, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Siting of radioactive waste management facilities frequently raise arguments among stakeholders such as a municipal government and the residents. Risk communication is one of the useful methods of promoting mutual understanding on related risks among stakeholders. In Finland and Sweden, siting selection procedures of repositories for spent nuclear fuels have been carried out successfully with risk communication. The success reasons are analyzed based on the interviews with those who belong to the regulatory authorities and nuclear industries in both countries. Also, in this paper, risk communication among the Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA), a local government and the general public, which was carried out during the establishment process of additional radioactive waste treatment facilities in Takizawa Village, Iwate Prefecture, is analyzed based on articles in newspapers and interviews with persons concerned. The analysis results showed that good risk communication was not carried out because of the lack of confidence on the JRIA, decision making rules, enough communication chances and economic benefits. In order to make good use of these experiences for the future establishment of radioactive waste management facilities, the lessons learned from these cases are summarized and proposals for good risk communication (establishment of exploratory committee and technical support system for decision making, and measurements to increase familiarity of radioactive waste) are discussed. (author)

  20. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data, 1996 consists of 2042 polygons for selected hazardous waste sites...

  1. Incentives and nuclear waste siting: Prospects and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Sorensen, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Reed, J.H.; Bjornstad, D.J.; Peelle, E.

    1983-01-01

    Limited anecdotal evidence from existing incentive-based facility sitings, and from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 regarding the acceptability of a nuclear waste repository, indicates that incentives may help ahcieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward), and prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. 54 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  2. Ozone destruction of Hanford Site tank waste organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, S.A.

    1993-04-01

    Ozone processing is one of several technologies being developed to meet the intent of the Secretary of the US Department of Energy, Decision on the Programmatic Approach and Near-Term Actions for Management and Disposal of Hanford Tank Waste Decision Statement, dated December 20, 1991, which emphasizes the need to resolve tank safety issues by destroying or modifying the constituents (e.g., organics) that cause safety concerns. As a result, the major tank treatment objectives on the Hanford Site are to resolve the tank safety issues regarding organic compounds (and accompanying flammable gas generation), which all potentially can react to evolve heat and gases. This report contains scoping test results of an alkaline ozone oxidation process to destroy organic compounds found in the Hanford Site's radioactive waste storage tanks

  3. Risk analysis and solving the nuclear waste siting problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaber, H.

    1994-01-01

    In spite of millions of dollars and countless human resources being expended on finding nuclear wastes sites, the search has proved extremely difficult for the nuclear industry. This may be due to the approach followed, rather than inadequacies in research or funding. A new approach to the problem, the reverse Dutch auction, is suggested. It retains some of the useful elements of the present system, but it also adds new ones. It allows natural market forces to set the level of compensation, rather than relying on close-door negotiations or theoretical calculations. Two flow charts show the pre-bid and post-bid steps of the reverse Duch auction system of Inhaber. It is assumed that a state wishes to site a waste facility somewhere in its boundaries. 22 refs., 3 figs

  4. Power from waste. [Power plant at landfill site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1991-01-01

    Base Load Systems Ltd, a company in the United Kingdom, has just commissioned a power plant in Leicestershire which uses waste gases from a landfill site. The gases power two specially modified turbo charged engine and generator packages. The plant will use approximately 100 cu meters of landfill gas per hour and is expected to feed 1.5MW of electrical power into the supply network of East Midlands Electricity. Once the landfill site has been completely filled and capped with clay, it is estimated that the electrical power output will be 4 MW. At present, since their are no customers for heat in the vicinity, 100 KW of the electricity produced are used to run fans to dissipate the 2.5 MW of waste heat. Base load is also involved elsewhere in combined heat and power projects. (UK).

  5. Risk analysis and solving the nuclear waste siting problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of millions of dollars and countless human resources being expended on finding nuclear wastes sites, the search has proved extremely difficult for the nuclear industry. This may be due to the approach followed, rather than inadequacies in research or funding. A new approach to the problem, the reverse Dutch auction, is suggested. It retains some of the useful elements of the present system, but it also adds new ones

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no evidence was found of any adverse

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

    2001-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no

  8. Risk analysis and solving the nuclear waste siting problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-12-01

    In spite of millions of dollars and countless human resources being expended on finding nuclear wastes sites, the search has proved extremely difficult for the nuclear industry. This may be due to the approach followed, rather than inadequacies in research or funding. A new approach to the problem, the reverse Dutch auction, is suggested. It retains some of the useful elements of the present system, but it also adds new ones.

  9. Study of a waste disposal site and it's groundwater contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The choice of an old borrow pit at Avu village in the outskirts of Owerri Urban as the permanent dump for wastes from Owerri Urban is evaluated in terms of the hydrogeology of the site. The depth to the groundwater table or the vadose zone is 9 – 9.5m; the texture of the soils shows fine attenuative materials that can inhibit ...

  10. Report on the workshop to review waste inventory, waste characteristics and reference site candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    There is a need of co-operation among Regional Co-operative Agreement (RCA) Member States in the field of low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal. An integrated approach is essential for successful establishment of LILW disposal facilities in RCA Member States. This would include: a) identification of waste inventory and characteristics; b) guidelines for implementation of LILW disposal; c) regulatory guidelines; d) safety assessment; e) quality assurance; and f) public acceptance. This project will focus on technical issues. The overall objective of the project, established in the project formulation meeting, is to assist RCA Member States in establishing national disposal activities for radioactive waste from nuclear applications by providing expert advice and training on techniques and methodology associated with planning and establishment of disposal facilities and to obtain improved knowledge of key staff members for the implementation of LILW disposal. The purpose of this workshop was to identify waste inventories, waste characteristics, site characteristics (generic or site specific) for disposal of LILW in RCA Member States of the project and identify conceptual reference site conditions and consider reference repository concepts preliminarily. Also the workshop was to establish an action plan of the next step. The workshop was held in Shanghai, China from 7 to 9 July 1997 and attended by 7 countries, i.e. Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Refs, figs, tabs

  11. Social impact mitigation and nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of the socioeconomic impacts of siting, constructing, and operating radioactive waste repositories in rural areas are discussed. These include public perceptions of high risk and uncertainty; limited benefits and no incentives; dissociations of costs and benefits; remoteness and inaccessibility of the decision making process for large energy facilities; no institutions to provide protection and accountability for those who may be affected by the siting; the fact that not all risks or impacts are fully mitigable; and constraints on DOE's present ability or authority to mitigate impacts

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  13. The Changing Adventures of Mixed Low-Level Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    After a 15-year hiatus, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) began accepting DOE off-site generated mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in December 2005. This action was predicated on the acceptance by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) of a waste analysis plan (WAP). The NNSA/NSO agreed to limit mixed waste disposal to 20,000 cubic meters (approximately 706,000 cubic feet) and close the facility by December 2010 or sooner, if the volume limit is reached. The WAP and implementing procedures were developed based on Hanford?s system of verification to the extent possible so the two regional disposal sites could have similar processes. Since the NNSA/NSO does not have a breaching facility to allow the opening of boxes at the site, verification of the waste occurs by visual inspection at the generator/treatment facility or by Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) at the NTS. This system allows the NTS to effectively, efficiently, and compliantly accept MLLW for disposal. The WAP, NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria, and procedures have been revised based on learning experiences. These changes include: RTR expectations; visual inspection techniques; tamper-indicating device selection; void space requirements; and chemical screening concerns. The NNSA/NSO, NDEP, and the generators have been working together throughout the debugging of the verification processes. Additionally, the NNSA/NSO will continue to refine the MLLW acceptance processes and strive for continual improvement of the program

  14. Building arrangement and site layout design guides for on site low level radioactive waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, J.W.; Feehan, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Many papers have been written by AE's and utilities describing their onsite storage facilities, why they are needed, NRC regulations, and disposal site requirements. This paper discusses a typical storage facility and address the design considerations and operational aspects that are generally overlooked when designing and siting a low level radioactive waste storage facility. Some topics to be addressed are: 1. Container flexibility; 2. Modular expansion capabilities; 3. DOT regulations; 4. Meterological requirements; 5. OSHA; 6. Fire protection; 7. Floods; 8. ALARA

  15. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  16. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report.

  17. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure

  18. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report

  19. Radiological safety evaluation for a Waste Transfer Facility at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the radiological safety evaluation performed for a Waste Transfer Facility (WTF) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This facility transfers liquid radioactive waste between various waste processing facilities and waste storage facilities. The WTF includes functional components such as the diversion box and the pump pits, waste transfer lines, and the outside yard service piping and electrical services. The WSRC methodology is used to evaluate the consequences of postulated accidents that result in the release of radioactive material. Such accidents include transfer line breaks, underground liquid pathway release, fire in pump tank cells and HEPA filters, accidents due to natural phenomena, and externally induced events. Chemical hazards accidents are not considered. The analysis results indicate that the calculated mean onsite and offsite radiological consequences are bounded by the corresponding WSRC dose limits for each accident considered. Moreover, the results show that the maximum onsite and offsite doses calculated for the WTF are lower than the maximum doses determined for the whole radioactive waste facility where the WTF is located

  20. Review of the Scientific Understanding of Radioactive Waste at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Reid A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Chun, Jaehun; Daniel, Richard C.; Herting, Daniel L. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Ilton, Eugene S.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Clark, Sue B. [Chemistry

    2018-01-02

    This paper reviews the origin and chemical and rheological complexity of radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site. The waste, stored in underground tanks, was generated via three distinct processes over decades of plutonium extraction operations. Although close records were kept of original waste disposition, tank-to-tank transfers and conditions that impede equilibrium complicate our understanding of the chemistry, phase composition, and rheology of the waste. Tank waste slurries comprise particles and aggregates from nano to micron scales, with varying densities, morphologies, heterogeneous compositions, and complicated responses to flow regimes and process conditions. Further, remnant or changing radiation fields may affect the stability and rheology of the waste. These conditions pose challenges for transport through conduits or pipes to treatment plants for vitrification. Additionally, recalcitrant boehmite degrades glass quality and must be reduced prior to vitrification, but dissolves much more slowly than predicted given surface normalized rates. Existing empirical models based on ex situ experiments and observations lack true predictive capabilities. Recent advances in in situ microscopy, aberration corrected TEM, theoretical modeling across scales, and experimental methods for probing the physics and chemistry at mineral-fluid and mineral-mineral interfaces are being implemented to build robustly predictive physics-based models.

  1. Review on waste inventory, waste characteristics and candidate site for LLW disposal in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamkate, P.; Sriyotha, P.; Punnachaiya, M.; Danladkaew, K.

    1997-01-01

    It is a worldwide practice that radioactive waste has to be kept under control to be ensured of low potential impact on man and his environment. In Thailand, the OAEP is responsible for all radioactive waste management activities, both operation and the competent authority. The radioactive waste in Thailand consists of low level wastes from the application of radioisotopes in medical treatment and industry, the operation of the 2 MW TRIGA Mark III Research Reactor and the production of radioisotopes at OAEP. A plan for central disposal site has been set up. The near surface disposal method is chosen for this aspect because of its simple, inexpensive and adequate safe and very well know process. 8 refs., 6 tabs

  2. Chemical pathways for the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, L.M.; Pederson, L.R.

    1997-12-01

    This report reviews chemical reactions leading to the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes. The general features of the chemistry of the organic compounds in the Hanford wastes are briefly outlined. The radiolytic and thermal free radical reactions that are responsible for the initiation and propagation of the oxidative degradation reactions of the nitrogen-containing complexants, trisodium HEDTA and tetrasodium EDTA, are outlined. In addition, the roles played by three different ionic reaction pathways for the oxidation of the same compounds and their degradation products are described as a prelude to the discussion of the formation of ammonia. The reaction pathways postulated for its formation are based on tank observations, laboratory studies with simulated and actual wastes, and the review of the scientific literature. Ammonia derives from the reduction of nitrite ion (most important), from the conversion of organic nitrogen in the complexants and their degradation products, and from radiolytic reactions of nitrous oxide and nitrogen (least important)

  3. Chemical pathways for the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.; Pederson, L.R.

    1997-12-01

    This report reviews chemical reactions leading to the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes. The general features of the chemistry of the organic compounds in the Hanford wastes are briefly outlined. The radiolytic and thermal free radical reactions that are responsible for the initiation and propagation of the oxidative degradation reactions of the nitrogen-containing complexants, trisodium HEDTA and tetrasodium EDTA, are outlined. In addition, the roles played by three different ionic reaction pathways for the oxidation of the same compounds and their degradation products are described as a prelude to the discussion of the formation of ammonia. The reaction pathways postulated for its formation are based on tank observations, laboratory studies with simulated and actual wastes, and the review of the scientific literature. Ammonia derives from the reduction of nitrite ion (most important), from the conversion of organic nitrogen in the complexants and their degradation products, and from radiolytic reactions of nitrous oxide and nitrogen (least important).

  4. Towards a regional siting approach for canadian nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The proposal to construct a nuclear fuel waste (NFW) disposal facility in Canada is fraught with difficulties, particularly with respect to gaining public acceptance and consent. Public perceptions of risk associated with a disposal facility are generally negative. Indeed, it was found that over 60% of residents in northern Ontario communities are opposed to the possibility of a disposal facility being constructed within 120 km of their community. Even after being offered the possibility of compensation and incentives, the majority of residents are strongly opposed. Canadian decision makers have generally endorsed a siting framework known as the open siting approach. The major characteristic of this approach is that it allows for substantial public participation in any siting process. It is premised on the notion that only communities where a majority of citizens favour the siting of a facility will be considered as potential hosts. However, given that the majority of residents on the Ontario portion of the Canadian Shield are strongly opposed to a NFW facility, the open approach will not be a panacea for a successful siting process. The major limitation of this approach is the fact that a single community cannot be isolated from its surrounding region and communities. The purpose of this paper is to work towards the development of a regional siting strategy for Canadian nuclear fuel waste management. There are no clear precedents of a regional siting approach to facility location in Canada. However, some analogous planning regimes and initiatives have been attempted. Common to these initiatives is the consideration of a large geographical region and attempts to integrate, at least formally, social, cultural, political and environmental concerns in a coherent and comprehensive manner. Under this type of 'siting strategy' NFW management would be considered within a broad array of resource management initiatives, social and cultural priorities, and institutional

  5. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.4 Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984. (a) No person may operate...

  6. Performance assessment methods for mixed waste sites at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Marter, W.L.; Looney, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    Risk assessment techniques were applied to Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste facilities as part of a program on waste site cleanup and groundwater protection. The components of risk assessment and the technical basis for application of the risk evaluation process to the principal pollutants at SRP (radionuclides, toxic chemicals, and carcinogenic compounds) are given. An extensive technical data base from the fields of radiation health physics, toxicology, and environmental sciences is required. Data are summarized for each class of contaminant and parameter values are provided for use in numerical analysis of risk. A review of risk assessment uncertainties and the limitations of predictive risk assessment are summarized. Risk estimators for each class of contaminants at the SRP were tabulated for radionuclides, toxic chemicals, and carcinogens from the technical literature. Estimation of human health risk is not an additive process for radiation effects and chemical carcinogensis since their respective dosimetric models are distinctly different - even though the induction of cancer is reported to be the common end result. Risk estimation for radionuclides and chemical carcinogens should be tabulated separately. Impacts due to toxic chemicals in the biosphere should also be estimated as a separate entity because toxic chemical risk estimators are uniquely different and do not reflect the probability of a detrimental health effect. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases

  8. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2002-02-26

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases.

  9. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental...... of variance (20-85% of the overall variation). Only by increasing the sample size significantly can this variance be reduced. The accuracy and short-term reproducibility of the chemical characterization were good, as determined by the analysis of several relevant certified reference materials. Typically, six...... to eight different certified reference materials representing a range of concentrations levels and matrix characteristics were included. Based on the documentation provided, the methods introduced were considered satisfactory for characterization of the chemical composition of waste-material fractions...

  10. Used nuclear materials at Savannah River Site: asset or waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoulas, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable ''assets'' to worthless ''wastes''. In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or - in the case of high level waste - awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site's (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as ''waste'' include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest.

  11. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC), Rev. 7-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-05-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NTSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal.

  12. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC), Rev. 7-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NTSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal.

  13. The Blue Ribbon Commission and siting radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    2010-01-01

    On 21 September 2010, the NEA Secretariat was invited to address the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. This paper is a summary of the remarks made. The successful siting of radioactive waste disposal facilities implies creating the conditions for continued ownership of the facility over time. Acceptance of the facility at a single point in time is not good enough. Continued ownership implies the creation of conscious, constructive and durable relationships between the (most affected) communities and the waste management facility. Being comfortable about the technical safety of the facility requires a degree of familiarity and control . Having peace of mind about the safety of the facility requires trust in the waste management system and its actors as well as some control over the decision making. Regulators are especially important players who need to be visible in the community. The ideal site selection process should be step- wise, combining procedures for excluding sites that do not meet pre-identified criteria with those for identifying sites where nearby and more distant residents are willing to discuss acceptance of the facility. The regional authorities are just as important as the local authorities. Before approaching a potential siting region or community, there should be clear results of national (and state) debates establishing the role of nuclear power in the energy mix, as well as information on the magnitude of the ensuing waste commitment and its management end-points, and the allocation of the financial and legal responsibilities until the closure of the project. Once the waste inventories and type of facilities have been decided upon, there should be agreement that all significant changes will require a new decision-making process. Any proposed project has a much better chance to move forward positively if the affected populations can participate in its definition, including, at the appropriate time, its technical details. A

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

    2002-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

    2002-09-20

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

  16. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Chemical Waste Management of NJ in Newark, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Waste Management of NJ is located at 100 Lister Avenue in Newark, New Jersey. This section of Newark has been industrial since the late 1800s when the marshlands of the Passaic River were filled in with a mixture of coal ash, construction debris

  17. Development of biological and chemical methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage facilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-04-01

    Hazardous chemicals in the environment have received ever increasing attention in recent years. In response to ongoing problems with hazardous waste management, Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976. In 1980, Congress adopted the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly called Superfund to provide for emergency spill response and to clean up closed or inactive hazardous waste sites. Scientists and engineers have begun to respond to the hazardous waste challenge with research and development on treatment of waste streams as well as cleanup of polluted areas. The magnitude of the problem is just now beginning to be understood. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List as of September 13 1985, contained 318 proposed sites and 541 final sites (USEPA, 1985). Estimates of up to 30,000 sites containing hazardous wastes (1,200 to 2,000 of which present a serious threat to public health) have been made (Public Law 96-150). In addition to the large number of sites, the costs of cleanup using available technology are phenomenal. For example, a 10-acre toxic waste site in Ohio is to be cleaned up by removing chemicals from the site and treating the contaminated groundwater. The federal government has already spent more than $7 million to remove the most hazardous wastes and the groundwater decontamination alone is expected to take at least 10 years and cost $12 million. Another example of cleanup costs comes from the State of California Commission for Economic Development which predicts a bright economic future for the state except for the potential outlay of $40 billion for hazardous waste cleanup mandated by federal and state laws.

  18. Delegated democracy. Siting selection for the Swedish nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia

    2008-11-01

    The present study concerns the siting of the Swedish nuclear waste repository. Four cases are examined: the feasibility studies in Nykoeping and Tierp (cases 1 and 2), as well as three public consultation meetings with conservationist and environmental organisations, and two study visits to nuclear facilities in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, which were held during what is called the site-investigation phase (cases 3 and 4). The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) began the search for a nuclear waste site in the 1970s. Since 1992 SKB has conducted feasibility studies in eight municipalities, including in the four municipalities mentioned above. At the present time more comprehensive site investigations are underway in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, two municipalities that already host nuclear power plants as well as storages for nuclear waste. In addition to SKB and the municipalities involved in the site-selection process, politicians, opinion groups, concerned members of the public, and oversight bodies are important actors. The analysis of the cases employs the concepts of 'sub-politics', 'boundary work', and 'expertise', together with the four models of democracy 'representative democracy', participatory democracy', 'deliberative democracy', and 'technocracy'. The aim of the study is to describe the characteristics of Swedish democracy in relation to the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. The main questions of the study are: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? and Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process? The study is based on qualitative methods, and the source materials consist of documents, interviews, and participant observations. In summary, the form of democracy that emerges in the four case studies can be described as delegated democracy. This means that a large

  19. Chemical states of molybdenum in radioactive waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Kawanishi, Nobuo; Nagaki, Hiroshi; Naito, Aritsune

    1982-01-01

    In order to confirm an expectation that the chemical state of molybdenum in glass reflects the phase separation tendency of the yellow solid from the melt of borosilicate glass, simulated waste glasses were prepared, and ESCA analysis was performed using a commercially available electron spectrometer (PHI550 E) with an excitation source consisting of Mg Kα-ray. The effects of the concentration of Mo and FE 2 O 3 and the melting atmosphere (oxidizing or reducing) in which the samples were prepared on the chemical state of Mo and the solubility of MoO 3 were examined. From the observation of Mo spectra, it was shown that Mo in waste glass had several valencies, e.g., Mo(3), Mo(4), Mo(5) and Mo(6), while Mo in the yellow solid separated from the melts exhibited hexa-valent state, the peak intensity of higher valencies increased relatively with the increase of MoO 3 concentration, but the chemical state of Mo did not change remarkably around the solubility limit of MoO 3 , the melting atmosphere influenced on the Mo state in the waste glass, the peak intensity of Mo(6) increased relatively with the increasing Fe 2 O 3 concentration, and Mo in devitrified glass exhibited hexa-valent state. (Yoshitake, I.)

  20. Method of waste stabilization with dewatered chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D.

    2010-06-29

    A method of stabilizing a waste in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC). The method consists of preparing a slurry including the waste, water, an oxide binder, and a phosphate binder. The slurry is then allowed to cure to a solid, hydrated CBPC matrix. Next, bound water within the solid, hydrated CBPC matrix is removed. Typically, the bound water is removed by applying heat to the cured CBPC matrix. Preferably, the quantity of heat applied to the cured CBPC matrix is sufficient to drive off water bound within the hydrated CBPC matrix, but not to volatalize other non-water components of the matrix, such as metals and radioactive components. Typically, a temperature range of between 100.degree. C.-200.degree. C. will be sufficient. In another embodiment of the invention wherein the waste and water have been mixed prior to the preparation of the slurry, a select amount of water may be evaporated from the waste and water mixture prior to preparation of the slurry. Another aspect of the invention is a direct anyhydrous CBPC fabrication method wherein water is removed from the slurry by heating and mixing the slurry while allowing the slurry to cure. Additional aspects of the invention are ceramic matrix waste forms prepared by the methods disclosed above.