Sample records for chemical warfare materiel

  1. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives (United States)

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.


    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a 252Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  2. Analysis of Biota to Evaluate the Risks Associated with Chemical Warfare Materiel Present in Sea-Disposed Military Munitions to Human Health and the Environment (United States)

    Briggs, C. W.; Bissonnette, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Shjegstad, S. M.


    Thousands of 100-lb M47A series bombs containing sulfur mustard were disposed in the ocean following World War II yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth where most discarded military munitions (DMM) were disposed. The Hawai`i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project was conducted to evaluate the risk from chemical warfare materiel (CWM) in DMM to human health, measuring ecological differences between the disposal area and nearby but otherwise similar areas, and evaluating the most efficient platforms for surveying DMM sea-disposal sites located at depths between 400-650 m. During the 2014 HUMMA Sampling Survey, the Jason 2 remotely operated vehicle was used to collect data. Shrimp were collected and analyzed to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of CWM, energetics and metals from munitions. No CWM was detected in H. ensifer tissue samples, indicating bioaccumulation is not occurring. Low levels of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 4-amino-2,6-­dinitrotoluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, nitrobenzene, arsenic, copper, and lead were detected and the concentrations were not significantly different at DMM and control sites. No visible deformities, eroded fins, lesions, or tumors were observed on the shrimp living in the vicinity of M47A bombs. Given these results and under current and potential future uses of the HUMMA study area, health risks to likely receptors are within EPA acceptable levels. Photographic data and benthic infauna analysis were used to study benthic organisms that lived on or near munitions. There was no statistically distinguishable difference between organism distributions in dense and sparse munitions fields. Conventional munitions were found to have the greatest number of benthic infauna individuals, with control sites generally having the least number of individuals. This is consistent with the benthic macro-fauna analysis, which shows that munitions provide habitat.

  3. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R


    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  4. Biological and Chemical Warfare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and entrails over the walls to induce a plaque and defecate into wells and water supplies. The. Romans tilted ... modern military weapons, discussions of their characteristics and potential threat have to draw heavily upon .... poisoning of water in desert warfare is his- torical, having continued through the time of. World War II.

  5. Chemical warfare in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, Gabi


    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field

  6. Nuclear and Chemical Weapons and Materiel: Chemical Surety (United States)


    serious progressive illness. This includes Acquired–Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or testing positive for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...AIDS Acquired–Immune Deficiency Syndrome AMC U.S. Army Materiel Command AOC Army Operations Center ARSTAF Army staff ASA(I&E) Assistant Secretary of the...workers. Examples of primary controls are hoods, gloveboxes, or rooms under negative pressure relative to the adjacent vestibule , corridor, or room

  7. Chemical warfare in termites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šobotník, Jan; Jirošová, Anna; Hanus, Robert


    Roč. 56, č. 9 (2010), s. 1012-1021 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600550614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Isoptera * chemical defense * exocrine gland * frontal gland Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2010

  8. Nuclear and Chemical Weapons and Materiel: Chemical Surety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... It has been revised to update responsibilities, Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) procedures, transportation policies, chemical event notification, chemical accident or incident response and assistance (CAIRA...

  9. Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Selected Bibliography (United States)


    WORLD ARMA - MENTS AND DISARMAMENT. SIPRI Yearbook 1990. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. (REF JX1974 S775 1990) Pp. 107-133: "Chemical and...Report. Norton D. Zinder, Chairman. Washington: National Academy Press, 1984. (UG447 N33 1984) LEGACY OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICA !L WARFARE Some 20th

  10. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Benschop, H.P.


    An overview is presented of the major methods that are presently available for biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents, i.e., nerve agents and sulfur mustard. These methods can be applied for a variety of purposes such as diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of casualties, verification

  11. Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents

    CERN Document Server


    This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves research...

  12. History of chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szinicz, L.


    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents

  13. History of chemical and biological warfare agents. (United States)

    Szinicz, L


    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents.

  14. Chemical Warfare Agent Decontaminant Solution Using Quaternary Ammonium Complexes (United States)


    warfare agents, which include a variety of organophosphorus and organosulfur compounds, are known in the art. 15 However, these known methods use...chemical warfare agents, and works particularly well for neutralization of organosulfur agents such as mustard gas (HD), and organophosphorus agents such...detoxifying/neutralizing a variety of chemical warfare agents, including organosulfur agents such as mustard gas (HD), and organophosphorus agents such as

  15. Receipt and Inspection of Chemical - Biological (CB) Materiel (United States)


    Procedures will be altered only after full consideration of any possible effects on the reliability and validity of the data to be obtained. Such...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 31-08-2017 2. REPORT...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 08-2-500A Receipt and Inspection of Chemical

  16. The Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)


    Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition has been totally revised since the successful first edition and expanded to about three times the length, with many new chapters and much more in-depth consideration of all the topics. The chapters have been written by distinguished international experts in various aspects of chemical warfare agents and edited by an experienced team to produce a clear review of the field. The book now contains a wealth of material on the mechanisms of action of the major chemical warfare agents, including the nerve agent cyclosarin, formally considered to be of secondary importance, as well as ricin and abrin. Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition discusses the physico-chemical properties of chemical warfare agents, their dispersion and fate in the environment, their toxicology and management of their effects on humans, decontamination and protective equipment. New chapters cover the experience gained after the use of sarin to attack travelers on the Tokyo subway and how to deal with the outcome of the deployment of riot control agents such as CS gas. This book provides a comprehensive review of chemical warfare agents, assessing all available evidence regarding the medical, technical and legal aspects of their use. It is an invaluable reference work for physicians, public health planners, regulators and any other professionals involved in this field.

  17. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center


    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  18. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent (United States)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.


    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  19. Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Benschop, H.P.; Black, R.M.


    In this report an overview of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e., sulfur mustard, lewisite and nerve agents, is presented. Such methods can be applied for various purposes, e.g., diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure of

  20. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janos, P.; Skoumal, M.


    Roč. 236, č. 2016 (2016), s. 239-258 ISSN 0179-5953 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : chemical warfare agent * metal nanoparticle * unique surface-chemistry * mesoporous manganese oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.930, year: 2016

  1. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep


    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  2. Marine Corps NBC Warfare: Determining Clinical Supply Requirements for Treatment of Battlefield Casualties from Chemical and Biological Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Martin; Galameau, Mike; Pang, Gerry; Konoske, Paula


    ... to treat victims of biochemical agents on the battlefield. This study reviewed Marine Corps medical supply blocks for biological and chemical warfare casualties - Authorized Medical Allowance Lists (AMALs) 687 and 688...

  3. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare. (United States)

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S


    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Mondloch, Joseph E.; Katz, Michael J.; Isley, William C., III; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W.; Hall, Morgan G.; Decoste, Jared B.; Peterson, Gregory W.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.


    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic ZrIV ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  5. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: The case of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mottaghi


    Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  6. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...... residues in connection with the installation of the pipelines. Novel exposure and toxicity assessments are presented and the risk is assessed. The overall conclusion is that there is a negligible acute added CWA risk towards the fish community from the installation of the pipelines....

  7. Metal organic frameworks for the catalytic detoxification of chemical warfare nerve agents (United States)

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Katz, Michael J.; Mondloch, Joseph E.


    A method of using a metal organic framework (MOF) comprising a metal ion and an at least bidendate organic ligand to catalytically detoxify chemical warfare nerve agents including exposing the metal-organic-framework (MOF) to the chemical warfare nerve agent and catalytically decomposing the nerve agent with the MOF.

  8. Diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents: An essential tool to counteract chemical terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Bikker, F.J.; Benschop, H.P.


    Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed. Retrospective detection of exposure to

  9. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents. (United States)

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav


    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  10. Diagnosis of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents: A Comprehensive Literature Survey 1990-2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noort, D


    This report is an update of TNO report PML 2003-A63. In this report an overview is presented of the methods currently available for detection of exposure to a number of chemical warfare agents (CWA), i.e...

  11. Cerium oxide for the destruction of chemical warfare agents: A comparison of synthetic routes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janos, P.; Henych, Jiří; Pelant, O.; Pilařová, V.; Vrtoch, L.; Kormunda, M.; Mazanec, K.; Štengl, Václav


    Roč. 304, MAR (2016), s. 259-268 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Cerium oxide * Chemical warfare agents * Organophosphate compounds * Decontamination Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.065, year: 2016

  12. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W


    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  13. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W


    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  14. Key Planning Factors for Recovery from a Chemical Warfare Agent Incident (United States)


    GB], Franke, S., Manual of Military Chemistry , Volume 1. Chemistry of Chemical Warfare Agents, Deutscher Militîrverlag: Berlin (East), 1967... Chemistry , Volume 1. Chemistry of Chemical Warfare Agents, Deutscher Militîrverlag: Berlin (East), 1967. Translated from German by U.S. Department of...Response and Recovery Phases A common misconception is that recovery begins after the response phase. Recovery, however, actually begins during

  15. Estimated Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Clearance Goals for Remediation Pre-Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bansleben, Dr. Donald [U.S. Department of Homeland Security; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL


    Health-based surface clearance goals, in units of mg/cm2, have been developed for the persistent chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard (HD) and nerve agent VX as well as their principal degradation products. Selection of model parameters and critical receptor (toddler child) allow calculation of surface residue estimates protective for the toddler child, the general population and adult employees of a facilty that has undergone chemical warfare agent attack.

  16. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents. (United States)

    Wagner, George W


    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  17. A Review of Multi-Threat Medical Countermeasures Against Chemical Warfare and Terrorism (United States)


    Biopreparat, the military and civil defense to combat chemical warfare and civilian arm of the former Soviet Union’s biological weapons chemical terrorism . program...seamlessly transition to military force protection and civil defense against chemical terrorism . Terrorist threat agents include all classes of MTMC... chemical terrorism . Using MTMC to blunt pathological actions enteric mast cell granulation in acute soman intoxicated rats. Experimentia of chemical agents


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester


    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester


    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator

  20. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic indutrial chemicals in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt-Hunt, D.L.; Barlaz, M.A.; Knappe, D.R.U.


    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs......], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from...... CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis halflives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess...

  1. Mass spectrometric study of selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papoušková, B.; Bednář, P.; Fryšová, I.; Stýskala, J.; Hlaváč, J.; Barták, P.; Ulrichová, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Lemr, K.


    Roč. 42, č. 12 (2007), s. 1550-1561 ISSN 1076-5174 Grant - others:The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons(NL) L/ICA/ICB/84322/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : mass spectrometry * chemical warfare agent * high performance liquid chromatography * LC/MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2007

  2. The Equipment of Czech Firefighters for the Detection and Field Analyses of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Krykorkova


    Full Text Available This paper describes the requirements for the devices of detection, chemical reconnaissance and field analyses of chemical warfare agents (CWA and divides them into simple devices of detection, universal detectors, selective analyzers, multi-component analyzers and mobile laboratories. It also describes the devices of detection available within the Fire and Rescue Service of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and compares them with some prospective trends of further development.

  3. Materiel Evaluation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CRREL's Materiel Evaluation Facility (MEF) is a large cold-room facility that can be set up at temperatures ranging from −20°F to 120°F with a temperature change...

  4. Emergency destruction system for recovered chemical munitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepodd, T.J.; Stofleth, J.H.; Haroldsen, B.L.


    At the request of the US Army Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, Sandia National Laboratories is developing a transportable system for destroying recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions. The system uses shaped charges to access the agent and burster followed by chemical neutralization to destroy them. The entire process takes place inside a sealed pressure vessel. In this paper, they review the design, operation, and testing of a prototype system capable of containing up to one pound of explosive.

  5. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials (United States)


    directions for future decontamination formulation approaches. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent...agent from materials. The objective of this study was to provide a screening tool to identify decontamination chemistries and formulations that will...mitigation. The materials included a water-dispersible polyurethane (WDP) paint (MIL-DTL-53039) and an alkyd paint (MIL-PRF-24635). Two polymers were also

  6. From the Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agents to the Decontamination of Cytostatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Šťastný, Martin; Janoš, P.; Mazanec, K.; Perez-Diaz, J. L.; Štenglová Netíková, I. R.


    Roč. 57, č. 6 (2018), s. 2114-2122 ISSN 0888-5885 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312804 - COUNTERFOG Grant - others:NATO(US) SPS984599 Program:Science for Peace and Security Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Chemical warfare agents * Degradation * Metal oxide sorbents Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.843, year: 2016

  7. Quality of life in chemical warfare survivors with ophthalmologic injuries: the first results form Iran Chemical Warfare Victims Health Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Mohammad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iraq used chemical weapons extensively against the Iranians during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. The aim of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQOL in people who had ophthalmologic complications due to the sulfur mustard gas exposure during the war. Methods The Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF database indicated that there were 196 patients with severe ophthalmologic complications due to chemical weapons exposure. Of these, those who gave consent (n = 147 entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and scores were compared to those of the general public. In addition logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate variables that contribute to physical and mental health related quality of life. Results The mean age of the patients was 44.8 (SD = 8.7 ranging from 21 to 75 years. About one-third of the cases (n= 50 reported exposure to chemical weapons more than once. The mean exposure duration to sulfur mustard gas was 21.6 years (SD = 1.2. The lowest scores on the SF-36 subscales were found to be: the role physical and the general health. Quality of life in chemical warfare victims who had ophthalmologic problems was significantly lower than the general public (P Conclusion The study findings suggest that chemical warfare victims with ophthalmologic complications suffer from poor health related quality of life. It seems that the need for provision of health and support for this population is urgent. In addition, further research is necessary to measure health related quality of life in victims with different types of disabilities in order to support and enhance quality of life among this population.

  8. Chemical warfare in freshwater. Allelpathic effects of macrophytes on phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.


    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field

  9. Chemical warfare and medical response during World War I. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gerard J


    The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914-1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist's war because of the scientific and engineering mobilization efforts by the major belligerents. The development, production, and deployment of war gases such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard created a new and complex public health threat that endangered not only soldiers and civilians on the battlefield but also chemical workers on the home front involved in the large-scale manufacturing processes. The story of chemical weapons research and development during that war provides useful insights for current public health practitioners faced with a possible chemical weapons attack against civilian or military populations.

  10. Modern sample preparation techniques for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of environmental markers of chemical warfare agents use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzic, O.; de Voogt, P.; Banoub, J.


    The chapter introduces problematics of on-site chemical analysis in the investigations of past chemical warfare agents (CWA) events. An overview of primary environmental degradation pathways of CWA leading to formation of chemical markers of their use is given. Conventional and modern sample

  11. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J


    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  12. International Symposium 100 Years of Chemical Warfare : Research, Deployment, Consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Renn, Jürgen; Schmaltz, Florian; Wolf, Martin; One hundred years of chemical warfare : research, deployment, consequences; 100 Jahre Giftgaskrieg : Forschung, Einsatz, Folgen chemischer Massenvernichtungswaffen


    On April 22, 1915, the German military released 150 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium. Carried by a long-awaited wind, the chlorine cloud passed within a few minutes through the British and French trenches, leaving behind at least 1,000 dead and 4,000 injured. This chemical attack, which amounted to the first use of a weapon of mass destruction, marks a turning point in world history. The preparation as well as the execution of the gas attack was orchestrated by Fritz Haber, the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin-Dahlem. During World War I, Haber transformed his research institute into a center for the development of chemical weapons (and of the means of protection against them). Bretislav Friedrich and Martin Wolf (Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, the successor institution of Haber’s institute) together with Dieter Hoffmann, Jürgen Renn, and Florian Schmaltz (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science) organized an inte...

  13. Destruction of chemical warfare agent simulants by air and moisture stable metal NHC complexes. (United States)

    Weetman, Catherine; Notman, Stuart; Arnold, Polly L


    The cooperative effect of both NHC and metal centre has been found to destroy chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. Choice of both the metal and NHC is key to these transformations as simple, monodentate N-heterocyclic carbenes in combination with silver or vanadium can promote stoichiometric destruction, whilst bidentate, aryloxide-tethered NHC complexes of silver and alkali metals promote breakdown under mild heating. Iron-NHC complexes generated in situ are competent catalysts for the destruction of each of the three targetted CWA simulants.

  14. Trace Detection of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents in Wastewater and Plants by Luminescent UIO-67(Hf) and Evaluating the Bioaccumulation of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents. (United States)

    Lian, Xiao; Yan, Bing


    Organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (OPCWAs) are a group of organic pollutants characterized by high toxicity and chemical stability, and they are very difficult to be degraded. The trace quality of OPCWAs in water and food will cause great harm to the human body. Therefore, the detection of OPCWAs is a difficult challenge, which has become the research hotspot over the world. In this work, a Hf-based luminescent metal-organic framework (Eu@1) is prepared, and the reactivity of Hf 12 results in a methanephosphonic acid (MPA)-induced luminescence quenching and the charge transfer from MPA to Hf(IV) and generated exciplexes which are responsible for this quenching effect. The excellent performance of Eu@1 in the detection of MPA, with its finer selectivity, high sensitivity (LOD = 0.4 ppm), and large linear range (10 -7 to 10 -3 M), is encouraging for application in wastewater detection. Importantly, MPA is a pollutant that can be absorbed by plants and causes the bioaccumulation effect, and thus, the detection of MPA in real plant samples is a purposeful topic. Eu@1 also achieved satisfactory results in actual plant sample testing, and the bioaccumulation of MPA in onions, turnips, and cabbages is determined via our sensor. This fabricated detector provides a feasible path for the detection of ppm-level OPCWAs in a complex environment, which will help humans to avoid OPCWA-contaminated foods.

  15. The possible role of intravenous lipid emulsion in the treatment of chemical warfare agent poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik Eisenkraft

    Full Text Available Organophosphates (OPs are cholinesterase inhibitors that lead to a characteristic toxidrome of hypersecretion, miosis, dyspnea, respiratory insufficiency, convulsions and, without proper and early antidotal treatment, death. Most of these compounds are highly lipophilic. Sulfur mustard is a toxic lipophilic alkylating agent, exerting its damage through alkylation of cellular macromolecules (e.g., DNA, proteins and intense activation of pro-inflammatory pathways. Currently approved antidotes against OPs include the peripheral anticholinergic drug atropine and an oxime that reactivates the inhibited cholinesterase. Benzodiazepines are used to stop organophosphate-induced seizures. Despite these approved drugs, efforts have been made to introduce other medical countermeasures in order to attenuate both the short-term and long-term clinical effects following exposure. Currently, there is no antidote against sulfur mustard poisoning. Intravenous lipid emulsions are used as a source of calories in parenteral nutrition. In recent years, efficacy of lipid emulsions has been shown in the treatment of poisoning by fat-soluble compounds in animal models as well as clinically in humans. In this review we discuss the usefulness of intravenous lipid emulsions as an adjunct to the in-hospital treatment of chemical warfare agent poisoning. Keywords: Intravenous lipid emulsion, Organophosphates, Sulfur mustard, Antidotes, Poisoning, Chemical Warfare agents

  16. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL


    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development

  17. Materiel Acquisition Management Guide (United States)


    facilities equipment, electromagnetic spectrum, and crypto -materiel) included? Are costs expressed in both constant year and current year dollars? Are there...project manager will ensure budget estimate accuracy and currency and will be prepared to Justify all budget sulmissions and reclamhs. o A respon- sible for the completeness, accuracy, and currency of all planning and estimating documents. " Support resources will not be subject to

  18. Rapid Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Hydrolysis Products by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS) (United States)


    72, 77-79], polymers [80], alkaloids on plant tissue [81], chemical warfare agents on solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers [60, 82], hydrolysis...situ detection of alkaloids in plant tissue under ambient conditions using desorption electrospray ionization. Analyst, 130, 1624-1633. [82

  19. Chemical warfare agent detection in complex environments with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Ni, Mingtian; Kottapalli, Visweswara; Visvanathan, Arvind; Ledford, Edward B., Jr.; Oostdijk, John; Trap, Henk C.


    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) is an emerging technology for chemical separation that provides an order-of-magnitude increase in separation capacity over traditional gas chromatography. GCxGC separates chemical species with two capillary columns interfaced by two-stage thermal desorption. Because GCxGC is comprehensive and has high separation capacity, it can perform multiple traditional analytical methods with a single analysis. GCxGC has great potential for a wide variety of environmental sensing applications, including detection of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and other harmful chemicals. This paper demonstrates separation of nerve agents sarin and soman from a matrix of gasoline and diesel fuel. Using a combination of an initial column separating on the basis of boiling point and a second column separating on the basis of polarity, GCxGC clearly separates the nerve agents from the thousands of other chemicals in the sample. The GCxGC data is visualized, processed, and analyzed as a two-dimensional digital image using a software system for GCxGC image processing developed at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln.

  20. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Capoun


    Full Text Available This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and demonstrates some of the devices. The decontamination efficiency of selected methods (sorbent, glove and sponge, two-chamber foam device and wiping with alcohol was evaluated for protective clothing and painted steel plate contaminated with O-ethyl-S-(diisopropylaminoethyl-methylthiophosphonate (VX, sulfur mustard, o-cresol and acrylonitrile. The methods were assessed from an economic point of view and with regard to specific user parameters, such as the decontamination of surfaces or materials with poor accessibility and vertical surfaces, the need for a water rinse as well as toxic waste and its disposal.

  1. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal


    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 227-232

  2. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of a Chemical Warfare Agent in Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Topal


    Full Text Available One of the most important chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM causes crucial acute and chronic toxic effects. Lung, skin, eye and kidneys are the most affected organs. In this work, it was investigated if increased nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite are involved in nitrogen mustard (NM induced kidney damage. In this experimen, aminoguanidine (AG as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS inhibitor and ebselen as peroxynitrite scavenger were used. NM administration resulted in important oxidant and antioxidant changes as well as tissue damage in kidneys. Therapeutic agents showed significant protection and reduced oxidant parameteres leading to tissue healing was observed. Results of this study suggest that drugs with similar properties can be used to protect kidney damage caused by NM. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 227-232

  3. Chemiresistor Devices for Chemical Warfare Agent Detection Based on Polymer Wrapped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Fennell, John F.; Hamaguchi, Hitoshi; Yoon, Bora; Swager, Timothy M.


    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) continue to present a threat to civilian populations and military personnel in operational areas all over the world. Reliable measurements of CWAs are critical to contamination detection, avoidance, and remediation. The current deployed systems in United States and foreign militaries, as well as those in the private sector offer accurate detection of CWAs, but are still limited by size, portability and fabrication cost. Herein, we report a chemiresistive CWA sensor using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) wrapped with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) derivatives. We demonstrate that a pendant hexafluoroisopropanol group on the polymer that enhances sensitivity to a nerve agent mimic, dimethyl methylphosphonate, in both nitrogen and air environments to concentrations as low as 5 ppm and 11 ppm, respectively. Additionally, these PEDOT/SWCNT derivative sensor systems experience negligible device performance over the course of two weeks under ambient conditions. PMID:28452929

  4. Decontamination of adsorbed chemical warfare agents on activated carbon using hydrogen peroxide solutions. (United States)

    Osovsky, Ruth; Kaplan, Doron; Nir, Ido; Rotter, Hadar; Elisha, Shmuel; Columbus, Ishay


    Mild treatment with hydrogen peroxide solutions (3-30%) efficiently decomposes adsorbed chemical warfare agents (CWAs) on microporous activated carbons used in protective garments and air filters. Better than 95% decomposition of adsorbed sulfur mustard (HD), sarin, and VX was achieved at ambient temperatures within 1-24 h, depending on the H2O2 concentration. HD was oxidized to the nontoxic HD-sulfoxide. The nerve agents were perhydrolyzed to the respective nontoxic methylphosphonic acids. The relative rapidity of the oxidation and perhydrolysis under these conditions is attributed to the microenvironment of the micropores. Apparently, the reactions are favored due to basic sites on the carbon surface. Our findings suggest a potential environmentally friendly route for decontamination of adsorbed CWAs, using H2O2 without the need of cosolvents or activators.

  5. Nanoparticle-based optical biosensors for the direct detection of organophosphate chemical warfare agents and pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonian, A.L.; Good, T.A.; Wang, S.-S.; Wild, J.R.


    Neurotoxic organophosphates (OP) have found widespread use in the environment for insect control. In addition, there is the increasing threat of use of OP based chemical warfare agents in both ground based warfare and terrorist attacks. Together, these trends necessitate the development of simple and specific methods for discriminative detection of ultra low quantities of OP neurotoxins. In our previous investigations a new biosensor for the direct detection of organophosphorus neurotoxins was pioneered. In this system, the enzymatic hydrolysis of OP neurotoxins by organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) generated two protons in each hydrolytic turnover through reactions in which P-X bonds are cleaved. The sensitivity of this biosensor was limited due to the potentiometric method of detection. Recently, it was reported that a change in fluorescence properties of a fluorophore in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles might be used for detection of nanomolar concentrations of DNA oligonucleotides. The detection strategy was based on the fact that an enhancement or quenching of fluorescence intensity is a function of the distances between the gold nanoparticle and fluorophore. While these reports have demonstrated the use of nanoparticle-based sensors for the detection of target DNA, we observed that the specificity of enzyme-substrate interactions could be exploited in similar systems. To test the feasibility of this approach, OPH-gold nanoparticle conjugates were prepared, then incubated with a fluorescent enzyme inhibitor or decoy. The fluorescence intensity of the decoy was sensitive to the proximity of the gold nanoparticle, and thus could be used to indicate that the decoy was bound to the OPH. Then different paraoxon concentrations were introduced to the OPH-nanoparticle-conjugate-decoy mixtures, and normalized ratio of fluorescence intensities were measured. The greatest sensitivity to paraoxon was obtained when decoys and OPH-gold nanoparticle conjugates were present at

  6. Domestic Preparedness Program: Evaluation of the Agilent Gas Chromatograph - Flame Photometric Detector/Mass Selective Detector (GC-FPD/MSD) System Against Chemical Warfare Agents Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longworth, Terri


    This report characterizes the chemical warfare agent (CWA) detection potential of the commercially available Agilent gas chromatograph-flame photometric detector/mass selective detector (GC-FPD/MSD...

  7. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces. (United States)

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen


    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural Effect of Thioureas on the Detection of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants. (United States)

    Ha, Seonggyun; Lee, Minhe; Seo, Hyun Ook; Song, Sun Gu; Kim, Kyung-Su; Park, Chan Heum; Kim, Il Hee; Kim, Young Dok; Song, Changsik


    The ability to rapidly detect, identify, and monitor chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is imperative for both military and civilian defense. Since most CWAs and their simulants have an organophosphonate group, which is a hydrogen (H)-bond acceptor, many H-bond donors have been developed to effectively bind to the organophosphonate group. Although thioureas have been actively studied as an organocatalyst, they are relatively less investigated in CWA detection. In addition, there is a lack of studies on the structure-property relationship for gas phase detection. In this study, we synthesized various thioureas of different chemical structures, and tested them for sensing dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP), a CWA simulant. Molecular interaction between DMMP and thiourea was measured by 1 H NMR titration and supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Strong H-bond donor ability of thiourea may cause self-aggregation, and CH-π interaction can play an important role in the DMMP detection. Gas-phase adsorption of DMMP was also measured using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and analyzed using the simple Langmuir isotherm, showing the importance of structure-induced morphology of thioureas on the surface.

  9. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abedi


    Full Text Available ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical warfare victims with respiratory diseases were selected. Chest physiotherapy including postural drainage percussion and vibration were used in four positions for all patients. Pulmonary function test (PFT was obtained before (baseline, immediately and 20 minute after the chest physiotherapy. The SPSS software was used for the data analysis of the collected data. Results: Results of this study showed the significant effect (p<0.01 of chest physiotherapy upon forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1 (baseline mean, 44.19 immediately after intervention mean 47.3 and 20 minute after intervention mean 48.3 and forced vital capacity (FVC (baseline mean, 69.37 immediately after intervention mean, 73.67 20 minute after intervention 75.74. Chest physiotherapy had significant effect (p<0.01 in asthmatic bronchitis group and also had significant effect (p<0.05 in both severe and moderate groups. Conclusion: Chest physiotherapy was able to improve pulmonary function test indices in chemical warfare victims suffering from respiratory problems. The effect on asthmatic bronchitis group, as well as both severe and moderate groups, was significant.

  10. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces. (United States)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R; Gordon, Wesley O; Davis, Erin Durke; Mantooth, Brent A; Lalain, Teri A; Morris, John R


    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  11. Computed Tomography Imaging findings in Chemical Warfare Victims with pulmonary Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Salehinezhad


    Full Text Available Introduction: Data on imaging findings in pulmonary complications of chemical agents is scarce. The current study aimed to evaluate radiological findings of late onset pulmonary complications in chemical warfare victims (CWV and to guide pulmonologists in diagnosis of these subjects. Materials and Methods: Ninety- three male CWV were enrolled in this prospective study, 20-25 years (mean=23 after exposure. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. High resolution computed Tomography (HRCT of the lung was performed during inspiration and expiration and was double reported blindly by two radiologists. Final diagnosis was made according to HRCT findings. The HRCT findings, final diagnosis, and distribution of the abnormalities were compared between subjects whom had been exposed to more complex chemical agents used during the second half of the war and simpler agents during the first half. Results: The most frequent HRCT findings were air trapping (56.7% and mosaic attenuation (35.1%. The distribution of abnormalities was mostly local (79.4% and bilateral (73% especially in lower regions (61.3%. The diagnosed respiratory diseases included bronchiolitis obliterans (43%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (27.9%, asthma (23.6%, bronchiectasis (13.9% and interstitial lung disease (ILD (9.6%. Frequency of subjects involved in the second half of the period of war was more than the first period (P-value < 0.05 but the HRCT findings were similar. Conclusions: Bronchiolitis obliterans with picture of focal bilateral air trapping was the most common finding in CWV but asthma appeared to have become a new problem in these subjects.

  12. [Analytical and on-site detection methods for chemical warfare agents]. (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo


    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are fast acting and sometimes lethal, even at low levels, and can be classified into nerve gases, blister agents, choking agents, blood agents, vomit agents, tear gases, and incapacitating agents. As countermeasures against CWA terrorism, detection and identification are important. In crisis management, monitoring of CWAs in public places and security checks at territorial borders, big event venues, and executive facilities are performed for protection against terrorism. In consequence management, on-site detection by first responders and laboratory analysis after on-site sampling and transfer are performed for minimization of terrorism damage, leading to personal protection, initial investigation, and emergency lifesaving. In incident management, laboratory analysis is performed to provide evidence at court trials for the prevention of future crimes. Laboratory analysis consists of pretreatment of on-site and casualty samples and instrumental analysis using GC-MS. However, CWAs are easily degraded, and thus are difficult to detect. Instead, it is useful to detect their metabolites and degradation products using tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatization GC-MS or direct LC-MS. Commercially available chemical detection equipment such as gas detection tubes and ion mobility spectrometers are used for on-site detection. We have evaluated the detection performance of such equipment and found that no equipment fulfills the required perfect performance of CWA detection sensitivity, accuracy, response time, return time, and operation. To overcome the drawbacks, we have adopted the monitoring tape method and counterflow introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and recommend the combination of commercial detection equipment and these new technologies for simultaneous, rapid detection of all CWAs.

  13. Reactions of psychiatric inpatients to the threat of biological and chemical warfare in Israel. (United States)

    Strous, Rael D; Ofir, Dana; Brodsky, Ori; Yakirevitch, Janna; Drannikov, Angela; Navo, Nadav; Kotler, Moshe


    In the months before the Second Gulf War, the threat of biological and chemical warfare led many Israelis to experience significant stress and mood changes. In this study, we investigated whether this threat affected the subjective mood and behavior of inpatients with schizophrenia and compared the results with effects noted in their clinical staff. Subjects were evaluated at two points in time-2 months before the war and on day 1 of the war-with a specially designed questionnaire and with the Spielberger Scale for Trait Anxiety. Although the responses of the two groups did not differ radically before the war, on the first day of war, significant differences were noted, with patients demonstrating increases in anxiety and level of concern. Both groups reported similar effects on their mood. Patients were more concerned about the potential for the outbreak of World War III, whereas staff were more concerned about economic effects. Female subjects in both groups demonstrated greater anxiety and mood changes after the outbreak of war compared with before the war. Effects observed on the patients may be related to the decreased coping threshold resulting from their illness, which renders psychotic patients more vulnerable to any acute stressor; however, effects on the staff members should not be ignored.

  14. Detection of chemical warfare simulants using Raman excitation at 1064 nm (United States)

    Dentinger, Claire; Mabry, Mark W.; Roy, Eric G.


    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for material identification. The technique is sensitive to primary and higher ordered molecular structure and can be used to identify unknown materials by comparison with spectral reference libraries. Additionally, miniaturization of opto-electronic components has permitted development of portable Raman analyzers that are field deployable. Raman scattering is a relatively weak effect compared to a competing phenomenon, fluorescence. Even a moderate amount of fluorescence background interference can easily prevent identification of unknown materials. A long wavelength Raman system is less likely to induce fluorescence from a wider variety of materials than a higher energy visible laser system. Compounds such as methyl salicylate (MS), diethyl malonate (DEM), and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) are used as chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants for development of analytical detection strategies. Field detection of these simulants however poses unique challenges because threat identification must be made quickly without the turnaround time usually required for a laboratory based analysis. Fortunately, these CWA simulants are good Raman scatterers, and field based detection using portable Raman instruments is promising. Measurements of the CWA simulants were done using a 1064 nm based portable Raman spectrometer. The longer wavelength excitation laser was chosen relative to a visible based laser systems because the 1064 nm based spectrometer is less likely to induce fluorescence and more suitable to a wider range of materials. To more closely mimic real world measurement situations, different sample presentations were investigated.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome in Chemical Warfare Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad M. Lari


    Full Text Available   Introduction: Sulfur mustard (SM, a toxic alkylating gas, can cause serious long-term pulmonary complications such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Metabolic syndrome (MetS is one of the important comorbidities of COPD. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of metabolic syndrome in Iranian chemical warfare patients (CWPs with COPD. Materials and Methods: Thirty CWPs with a mean age of 46.93± 6.8 were enrolled in this study. The following parameters were studied in: complete pulmonary function tests, health-related quality of life, serum triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL and fasting blood sugar (FBS levels. Additionally, 32 COPD patients and 56 healthy persons were considered as control groups who were matched to CWPs. Results: We found a statistically significant difference in the frequency of MetS between the COPD patients and the healthy control group (p=0.04. Additionally, we observed a statistically significant difference in the mean HDL levels among these groups (p=

  16. Explosives and chemical warfare agents - detection and analysis with PTR-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulzer, Philipp; Juerschik, Simone; Jaksch, Stefan; Jordan, Alfons; Hanel, Gernot; Hartungen, Eugen; Seehauser, Hans; Maerk, Lukas; Haidacher, Stefan; Schottkowsky, Ralf [IONICON Analytik GmbH, Innsbruck (Austria); Petersson, Fredrik [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria); Maerk, Tilmann [IONICON Analytik GmbH, Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria)


    We utilized a recently developed high sensitivity PTR-MS instrument equipped with a high resolution time-of-flight mass analyzer for detailed investigations on explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). We show that with this so called PTR-TOF 8000 it is possible to identify solid explosives (RDX, TNT, HMX, PETN and Semtex A) by analyzing the headspace above small quantities of samples at room temperature and from trace quantities not visible to the naked eye placed on surfaces. As the mentioned solid explosives possess very low vapor pressures, the main challenge for detecting them in the gas phase is to provide an instrument with a sufficient sensitivity. CWAs on the other side have very high vapor pressures but are difficult to identify unambiguously as their nominal molecular masses are usually comparably small and therefore hard to distinguish from harmless everyday-compounds (e.g. mustard gas: 159 g/mol). In the present work we demonstrate that we can detect a broad range of dangerous substances, ranging from the CWA mustard gas to the explosive HMX.

  17. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.


    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  18. The role of the sand in chemical warfare agent exposure among Persian Gulf War veterans: Al Eskan disease and "dirty dust". (United States)

    Korényi-Both, A L; Svéd, L; Korényi-Both, G E; Juncer, D J; Korényi-Both, A L; Székely, A


    The purpose of this paper is to inquire into the relationship between Al Eskan disease and the probable exposure to chemical warfare agents by Persian Gulf War veterans. Al Eskan disease, first reported in 1991, compromises the body's immunological defense and is a result of the pathogenic properties of the extremely fine, dusty sand located in the central and eastern region of the Arabian peninsula. The disease manifests with localized expression of multisystem disorder. Signs and symptoms of Al Eskan disease have been termed by the news media "Persian Gulf syndrome." The dust becomes a warfare agent when toxic chemicals are microimpregnated into inert particles. The "dirty dust" concept, that the toxicity of an agent could be enhanced by absorption into inactive particles, dates from World War I. A growing body of evidence shows that coalition forces have encountered Iraqi chemical warfare in the theater of operation/Persian Gulf War to a much greater extent than early U.S. Department of Defense information had indicated. Veterans of that war were exposed to chemical warfare agents in the form of direct (deliberate) attacks by chemical weapons, such as missiles and mines, and indirect (accidental) contamination from demolished munition production plants and storage areas, or otherwise. We conclude that the microimpregnated sand particles in the theater of operation/Persian Gulf War depleted the immune system and simultaneously acted as vehicles for low-intensity exposure to chemical warfare agents and had a modifying-intensifying effect on the toxicity of exposed individuals. We recommend recognition of a new term, "dirty sand," as a subcategory of dirty dust/dusty chemical warfare agents. Our ongoing research efforts to investigate the health impact of chemical warfare agent exposure among Persian Gulf War veterans suggest that Al Eskan disease is a plausible and preeminent explanation for the preponderance of Persian Gulf War illnesses.

  19. The use of advanced simulation in the training of anesthesiologists to treat chemical warfare casualties. (United States)

    Berkenstadt, Haim; Ziv, Amitai; Barsuk, Daphna; Levine, Inbal; Cohen, Amir; Vardi, Amir


    Training anesthesiologists to treat nerve gas intoxication in a mass casualty scenario is a complicated task. The scenario is an unfamiliar medical situation involving the need to decontaminate patients before providing definitive medical treatment, and the need for physical protection to the medical team before decontamination. We describe the development of a simulation-based training program. In one site of a virtual hospital, anesthesiologists were trained in initial airway and breathing resuscitation before decontamination while wearing full protective gear. In another site, they were trained in the treatment of critically-ill patients with combined conventional and chemical injuries or severe intoxication. Intubation simulators of newborn, pediatric, and adult patients, advanced full-scale simulators, and actors simulating patients were used. Initial airway, breathing, and antidotal treatment were performed successfully, with or without full protective gear. The gas mask did not interfere with orotracheal intubation, but limited effective communication within the medical team. Chemical protective gloves were the limiting factor in the performance of medical tasks such as fixing the orotracheal tube. Twenty-two participants (88%) pointed out that the simulated cases represented realistic problems in this scenario, and all 25 participants found the simulated-based training superior to previous traditional training they had in this field. Using advanced simulation, we were able to train anesthesiologists to treat nerve gas intoxication casualties and to learn about the limitations of providing medical care in this setting. Advanced medical simulation can be used to train anesthesiologists to treat nonconventional warfare casualties. The limitations of medical performance in full protective gear can be learned from this training.

  20. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshiri Mohammd


    Full Text Available Abstract Organophosphorous (OP Nerve agents (NAs are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I AChE activity measurement, (II Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning.

  1. Locus-specific microemulsion catalysts for sulfur mustard (HD) chemical warfare agent decontamination. (United States)

    Fallis, Ian A; Griffiths, Peter C; Cosgrove, Terence; Dreiss, Cecile A; Govan, Norman; Heenan, Richard K; Holden, Ian; Jenkins, Robert L; Mitchell, Stephen J; Notman, Stuart; Platts, Jamie A; Riches, James; Tatchell, Thomas


    The rates of catalytic oxidative decontamination of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chlororethyl) sulfide) and a range (chloroethyl) sulfide simulants of variable lipophilicity have been examined using a hydrogen peroxide-based microemulsion system. SANS (small-angle neutron scattering), SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering), PGSE-NMR (pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR), fluorescence quenching, and electrospray mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) were implemented to examine the distribution of HD, its simulants, and their oxidation/hydrolysis products in a model oil-in-water microemulsion. These measurements not only present a means of interpreting decontamination rates but also a rationale for the design of oxidation catalysts for these toxic materials. Here we show that by localizing manganese-Schiff base catalysts at the oil droplet-water interface or within the droplet core, a range of (chloroethyl) sulfides, including HD, spanning some 7 orders of octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)), may be oxidized with equal efficacy using dilute (5 wt. % of aqueous phase) hydrogen peroxide as a noncorrosive, environmentally benign oxidant (e.g., t(1/2) (HD) approximately 18 s, (2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide, C(6)H(5)SCH(2)CH(2)Cl) approximately 15 s, (thiodiglycol, S(CH(2)CH(2)OH)(2)) approximately 19 s {20 degrees C}). Our observations demonstrate that by programming catalyst lipophilicity to colocalize catalyst and substrate, the inherent compartmentalization of the microemulsion can be exploited to achieve enhanced rates of reaction or to exert control over product selectivity. A combination of SANS, ESI-MS and fluorescence quenching measurements indicate that the enhanced catalytic activity is due to the locus of the catalyst and not a result of partial hydrolysis of the substrate.

  2. COPD assessment test (CAT): simple tool for evaluating quality of life of chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (United States)

    Lari, Shahrzad M; Ghobadi, Hassan; Attaran, Davood; Mahmoodpour, Afsoun; Shadkam, Omid; Rostami, Maryam


    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the serious late pulmonary complications caused by sulphur mustard exposure. Health status evaluations of chemical warfare patients with COPD are important to the management of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the COPD assessment test (CAT) in evaluating the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of chemical warfare patients with COPD. Eighty-two consecutive patients with stable COPD were enrolled in this study. All subjects were visited by one physician, and the HRQOL was evaluated by the CAT and St. George Respiratory Questionnaires (SGRQs). In addition, a standard spirometry test, 6-min walk distance test and pulse oxymetry were conducted. The severity of the COPD was determined using Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging and the body mass index, obstruction, dyspnoea and exercise (BODE) index. The mean age of the patients was 47.30 ± 7.08 years. The mean CAT score was 26.03 ± 8.28. Thirty-five (43%) patients were in CAT stage 3. There were statistically significant correlations between the CAT and the SGRQ (r = 0.70, P = 0.001) and the BODE index (r = 0.70, P = 0.001). A statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the CAT score and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (r = -0.30, P = 0.03). Our results demonstrated that the CAT is a simple and valid tool for assessment of HRQOL in chemical warfare patients with COPD and can be used in clinical practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Impact of psychological problems in chemical warfare survivors with severe ophthalmologic complication, a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaedi Gholamhosein


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfur mustard (SM has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated SM induced ocular injuries, few of those studies have also focused on the psychological health status of victims. This study has evaluated the most prominent influences on the psychological health status of patients with severe SM induced ocular injuries. Methods This descriptive study was conducted on 149 Iranian war veterans with severe SM induced eye injuries. The psychological health status of all patients was assessed using the Iranian standardized Symptom Check List 90-Revised (SCL90-R questionnaire. The results of patients' Global Severity Index (GSI were compared with the optimal cut-off point of 0.4 that has previously been calculated for GSI in Iranian community. The Mann-Whitney U test, T tests and effect sizes (using Cohen's d were employed as statistical methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results The mean age of patients was 44.86 (SD = 8.7 and mean duration of disease was 21.58 (SD = 1.20 years. Rate of exposure was once in 99 (66.4% cases. The mean GSI (1.46 of the study group was higher compared to standardized cut off point (0.4 of the Iranian community. The results of this study showed that the mean of total GSI score was higher in participants with lower educational levels (effect size = 0.507, unemployment (effect size = 0.464 and having more than 3 children (effect size = 0.62. Among the participants, 87 (58.4% cases had a positive psychological history for hospitalization or receiving outpatient cares previously and 62 (41.6% cases had a negative psychological history. In addition, the mean of GSI in participants with negative psychological history was lower than those with positive psychological history (Mean Change Difference = -0.621 with SD = 0.120. There was a significant difference between positive and negative psychological history

  4. Interleukin-6 and airflow limitation in chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Attaran


    disease, interleukin-6, inflammation, chemical warfare

  5. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)


    1991. Protection by butyrylcholinesterase against organophosphorus poisoning in nonhuman primates. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 259(2): 633-638. Costa...Employee Health), Stephen McCurdy (UCD Epidemiology ), Stephanie Padilla (US EPA), Matthew Keifer (U. Washington) and CA and Utah clinical laboratories...the cholinergic function of the nervous system (Wilson, 2001). Organophosphorus ester pesticides and chem- ical warfare agents disrupt cholinergic

  6. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zboril, Radek, E-mail: [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Andrle, Marek; Oplustil, Frantisek [Military Institute VOP-026 Sternberk, Division in Brno, Rybkova 8, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Machala, Libor; Tucek, Jiri; Filip, Jan; Marusak, Zdenek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Sharma, Virender K., E-mail: [Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Center of Ferrate Excellence, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3 Prime -imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants ({approx}10{sup -2} s{sup -1}) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} s{sup -1}). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  7. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zboril, Radek; Andrle, Marek; Oplustil, Frantisek; Machala, Libor; Tucek, Jiri; Filip, Jan; Marusak, Zdenek; Sharma, Virender K.


    Highlights: ► Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. ► Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). ► Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3′-imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants (∼10 −2 s −1 ) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10 −8 –10 −6 s −1 ). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  8. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives (United States)

    Patel, C. K. N.


    Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment. An example of this is the release of Sarin by Aum Shinrikyo sect in a crowded Tokyo subway in 1995. An example of the second terrorist threat is the ever-present possible suicide bomber in crowded environment such as airports, markets and large buildings. Minimizing the impact of both of these threats requires early detection of the presence of the CWAs and explosives. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an exquisitely sensitive technique for the detection of trace gaseous species, a property that Pranalytica has extensively exploited in its CO2 laser based commercial instrumentation for the sub-ppb level detection of a number of industrially important gases including ammonia, ethylene, acrolein, sulfur hexafluoride, phosphine, arsine, boron trichloride and boron trifluoride. In this presentation, I will focus, however, on our recent use of broadly tunable single frequency high power room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for the detection of the CWAs and explosives. Using external grating cavity geometry, we have developed room temperature QCLs that produce continuously tunable single frequency CW power output in excess of 300 mW at wavelengths covering 5 μm to 12 μm. I will present data that show a CWA detection capability at ppb levels with false alarm rates below 1:108. I will also show the capability of detecting a variety of explosives at a ppb level, again with very low false alarm rates. Among the explosives, we have demonstrated the capability of detecting homemade explosives such as triacetone triperoxide and its liquid precursor, acetone which is a common household

  9. Anticonvulsant efficacy of antihistamine cyproheptadine in rats exposed to the chemical warfare nerve agent soman. (United States)

    Winkler, Jennifer L; Skovira, Jacob W; Kan, Robert K


    Organophosphate compounds, such as soman and sarin, are highly toxic chemical warfare nerve agents that cause a build-up of acetylcholine in synapses and neuromuscular junctions. Current therapies aim to prevent seizures and protect against brain injury following exposure. The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the antihistamine cyproheptadine in improving survival and controlling seizures in rats exposed to soman. Rats were pretreated with the oxime reactivator HI-6 (125mg/kg, ip) 30min prior to soman exposure (225μg/kg, sc) and then treated with atropine methylnitrate (AMN, 2.0mg/kg, im) 1min after soman. Cyproheptadine (10, 13, 16 or 20mg/kg, ip) was given at one of three time points: 1min after soman intoxication, at the onset of soman-induced seizures or 5min after seizure onset. Control animals were exposed to soman and given an equivalent volume of sterile water instead of cyproheptadine. The incidence of seizures, mortality, neuron counts, neuropathology and apoptosis in specific regions of the brain were evaluated. In animals given HI-6 and AMN the incidence of soman-induced seizure and mortality rate within the first 24h were 100%. When cyproheptadine was given at a dose of 13 or 20mg/kg 1min after soman exposure, the incidence of seizures was reduced from 100% to 13% and 30%, respectively. In addition, cyproheptadine given at 1min after soman exposure increased the survival rate to 100% regardless of dose. When cyproheptadine was administered at seizure onset, seizures were terminated in 100% of the animals at doses above 10mg/kg. The survival rate with cyproheptadine treatment at the onset of seizure was ≥83%. Seizures terminated in ≥75% of the animals that received cyproheptadine 5min after soman-induced seizure onset. When given at 5min after seizure onset the survival rate was 100% at all tested doses of cyproheptadine. The neuropathology scores and the number of TUNEL positive cells in the brain regions examined

  10. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Young, Robert A [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

  11. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.


    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  12. A Comparison of QSAR Based Thermo and Water Solvation Property Prediction Tools and Experimental Data for Selected Traditional Chemical Warfare Agents and Simulants (United States)



  13. Development of an automated on-line pepsin digestion-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry configuration for the rapid analysis of protein adducts of chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carol-Visser, J.; van der Schans, M.; Fidder, A.; Huist, A.G.; van Baar, B.L.M.; Irth, H.; Noort, D.


    Rapid monitoring and retrospective verification are key issues in protection against and non-proliferation of chemical warfare agents (CWA). Such monitoring and verification are adequately accomplished by the analysis of persistent protein adducts of these agents. Liquid chromatography-mass

  14. Graphene Nanoplatelet-Polymer Chemiresistive Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Discrimination of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants. (United States)

    Wiederoder, Michael S; Nallon, Eric C; Weiss, Matt; McGraw, Shannon K; Schnee, Vincent P; Bright, Collin J; Polcha, Michael P; Paffenroth, Randy; Uzarski, Joshua R


    A cross-reactive array of semiselective chemiresistive sensors made of polymer-graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) composite coated electrodes was examined for detection and discrimination of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The arrays employ a set of chemically diverse polymers to generate a unique response signature for multiple CWA simulants and background interferents. The developed sensors' signal remains consistent after repeated exposures to multiple analytes for up to 5 days with a similar signal magnitude across different replicate sensors with the same polymer-GNP coating. An array of 12 sensors each coated with a different polymer-GNP mixture was exposed 100 times to a cycle of single analyte vapors consisting of 5 chemically similar CWA simulants and 8 common background interferents. The collected data was vector normalized to reduce concentration dependency, z-scored to account for baseline drift and signal-to-noise ratio, and Kalman filtered to reduce noise. The processed data was dimensionally reduced with principal component analysis and analyzed with four different machine learning algorithms to evaluate discrimination capabilities. For 5 similarly structured CWA simulants alone 100% classification accuracy was achieved. For all analytes tested 99% classification accuracy was achieved demonstrating the CWA discrimination capabilities of the developed system. The novel sensor fabrication methods and data processing techniques are attractive for development of sensor platforms for discrimination of CWA and other classes of chemical vapors.

  15. Environmental Effects on Zirconium Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Chemical Warfare Agent Decomposition: Implications of Atmospheric Water and Carbon Dioxide. (United States)

    Balow, Robert B; Lundin, Jeffrey G; Daniels, Grant C; Gordon, Wesley O; McEntee, Monica; Peterson, Gregory W; Wynne, James H; Pehrsson, Pehr E


    Zirconium hydroxide (Zr(OH) 4 ) has excellent sorption properties and wide-ranging reactivity toward numerous types of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals. Under pristine laboratory conditions, the effectiveness of Zr(OH) 4 has been attributed to a combination of diverse surface hydroxyl species and defects; however, atmospheric components (e.g., CO 2 , H 2 O, etc.) and trace contaminants can form adsorbates with potentially detrimental impact to the chemical reactivity of Zr(OH) 4 . Here, we report the hydrolysis of a CWA simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) on Zr(OH) 4 determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy under ambient conditions. DMMP dosing on Zr(OH) 4 formed methyl methylphosphonate and methoxy degradation products on free bridging and terminal hydroxyl sites of Zr(OH) 4 under all evaluated environmental conditions. CO 2 dosing on Zr(OH) 4 formed adsorbed (bi)carbonates and interfacial carbonate complexes with relative stability dependent on CO 2 and H 2 O partial pressures. High concentrations of CO 2 reduced DMMP decomposition kinetics by occupying Zr(OH) 4 active sites with carbonaceous adsorbates. Elevated humidity promoted hydrolysis of adsorbed DMMP on Zr(OH) 4 to produce methanol and regenerated free hydroxyl species. Hydrolysis of DMMP by Zr(OH) 4 occurred under all conditions evaluated, demonstrating promise for chemical decontamination under diverse, real-world conditions.

  16. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars?  ...

  17. A comparison of 252Cf and 14-MeV neutron excitation to identify chemical warfare agents by PGNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, A.J.; Harlow, B.D.; Edwards, A.J.; Krebs, K.M.; Jones, J.L.; Yoon, W.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Dougan, A.D.


    Since 1992, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectrometry (PINS) system has been widely used for the nondestructive assessment of munitions suspected to contain chemical warfare agents, such as the nerve agent sarin. PINS is a 252 Cf-based prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system. The standard PINS system employs a partially moderated 5-microg 252 Cf source emitting 10 7 n/s to excite the atomic nuclei inside the item under test. The chemical elements inside the item are revealed by their characteristic gamma-ray spectrum, measured by a high-resolution high-purity germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. The system computer then infers the fill compound or mixture from the elemental data extracted from the gamma-ray spectrum. Reliable PINS assessments can be completed in as little as 100 s for favorable cases such as white phosphorus smoke munitions, but normally, a 1000 to 3000 live-second counting interval is required. To improve PINS throughput when hundreds or more munitions must be assessed, they are evaluating the possible advantages of 14-MeV neutron excitation over their current radioisotopic source

  18. Chemical Warfare Agent Surface Adsorption: Hydrogen Bonding of Sarin and Soman to Amorphous Silica. (United States)

    Davis, Erin Durke; Gordon, Wesley O; Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R; Troya, Diego; Morris, John R


    Sarin and soman are warfare nerve agents that represent some of the most toxic compounds ever synthesized. The extreme risk in handling such molecules has, until now, precluded detailed research into the surface chemistry of agents. We have developed a surface science approach to explore the fundamental nature of hydrogen bonding forces between these agents and a hydroxylated surface. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that both agents adsorb to amorphous silica through the formation of surprisingly strong hydrogen-bonding interactions with primarily isolated silanol groups (SiOH). Comparisons with previous theoretical results reveal that this bonding occurs almost exclusively through the phosphoryl oxygen (P═O) of the agent. Temperature-programmed desorption experiments determined that the activation energy for hydrogen bond rupture and desorption of sarin and soman was 50 ± 2 and 52 ± 2 kJ/mol, respectively. Together with results from previous studies involving other phosphoryl-containing molecules, we have constructed a detailed understanding of the structure-function relationship for nerve agent hydrogen bonding at the gas-surface interface.

  19. Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS) Analysis of Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Agents: Rapid Acquisition of Time-Aligned Parallel (TAP) Fragmentation Data (United States)


    of surfaces [22, 28-30], polymers [31], alkaloids on plant tissue [32], chemical warfare agents on solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers [33, 34...phase analysis of industrial polymers. Chem. Commun., 888-890. [32] Talaty, N., Takats, Z. and Cooks, R.G. (2005). Rapid in situ detection of alkaloids plant tissue under ambient conditions using desorption electrospray ionization. Analyst, 130, 1624-1633. [33] D’Agostino, P. A., Hancock, J. R

  20. Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.


    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  1. Information Warfare


    Darczewska, Jolanta; Żochowski, Piotr; Orttung, Robert W.; Laruelle, Marlene; Pörzgen, Gemma


    This edition addresses information warfare. Firstly, Jolanta Darczewska and Piotr Żochowski examine the use of “active measures” by Russian special services in support of Russian foreign policy. Secondly, Robert W. Orttung argues that Russia has sought to use various information warfare techniques to sow division and chaos in the U.S., but it remains unclear to what extent Russian actions had an impact on the thinking or behavior of American citizens. Thirdly, Marlene Laruelle considers the t...

  2. Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel


    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  3. In Situ Probes of Capture and Decomposition of Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants by Zr-Based Metal Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plonka, Anna M.; Wang, Qi; Gordon, Wesley O.; Balboa, Alex; Troya, Diego; Guo, Weiwei; Sharp, Conor H.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Morris, John R.; Hill, Craig L.; Frenkel, Anatoly I. (BNL); (Virginia Tech); (ECBC); (Emory); (SBU)


    Zr-based metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been recently shown to be among the fastest catalysts of nerve-agent hydrolysis in solution. We report a detailed study of the adsorption and decomposition of a nerve-agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), on UiO-66, UiO-67, MOF-808, and NU-1000 using synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray absorption, and infrared spectroscopy, which reveals key aspects of the reaction mechanism. The diffraction measurements indicate that all four MOFs adsorb DMMP (introduced at atmospheric pressures through a flow of helium or air) within the pore space. In addition, the combination of X-ray absorption and infrared spectra suggests direct coordination of DMMP to the Zr6 cores of all MOFs, which ultimately leads to decomposition to phosphonate products. These experimental probes into the mechanism of adsorption and decomposition of chemical warfare agent simulants on Zr-based MOFs open new opportunities in rational design of new and superior decontamination materials.

  4. Using Metal Complex Ion-Molecule Reactions in a Miniature Rectilinear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer to Detect Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)

    Graichen, Adam M.; Vachet, Richard W.


    The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n]y+ complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n]2+ complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations.

  5. Express analysis of explosives, chemical warfare agents and drugs with multicapillary column gas chromatography and ion mobility increment spectrometry. (United States)

    Buryakov, Igor A


    Description of a gas chromatograph designed for express analysis of explosives (2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate), chemical warfare agents (mustard gas, lewisite, sarin) and drugs (heroin, cocaine hydrochloride, crack) is given. The devices comprises a multicapillary chromatographic column and an ion mobility increment spectrometer (MCC-IMIS). The main analytical characteristics of an IMIS (estimated detection limit (DL), linear dynamic range (LDR), speed of response) and a chromatographic column (separation power, degree of separation, a number of possible peaks at a chromatogram section, divided by analysis time) are determined. The maximum value of DL equal to 5 pg/ml was registered for cis-alpha-LW, and the lowest one of 0.001 pg/ml was for cocaine. The maximum value of LDR equal to 1000 was registered for sarin and the lowest one of 150 was for the ions of lewisite. Speed of response of one compound detection with the IMIS was 0.7 s.

  6. Demonstration of spread-on peel-off consumer products for sampling surfaces contaminated with pesticides and chemical warfare agent signatures. (United States)

    Behringer, Deborah L; Smith, Deborah L; Katona, Vanessa R; Lewis, Alan T; Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Crenshaw, Michael D


    A terrorist attack using toxic chemicals is an international concern. The utility of rubber cement and latex body paint as spray-on/spread-on peel-off collection media for signatures attributable to pesticides and chemical warfare agents from interior building and public transportation surfaces two weeks post-deposition is demonstrated. The efficacy of these media to sample escalator handrail, stainless steel, vinyl upholstery fabric, and wood flooring is demonstrated for two pesticides and eight chemicals related to chemical warfare agents. The chemicals tested are nicotine, parathion, atropine, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, dipinacolyl methylphosphonate, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphonic acid, and thiodiglycol. Amounts of each chemical found are generally greatest when latex body paint is used. Analytes with low volatility and containing an alkaline nitrogen or a sulfur atom (e.g., nicotine and parathion) usually are recovered to a greater extent than the neutral phosphonate diesters and acidic phosphonic acids (e.g., dimethyl methylphosphonate and ethyl methylphosphonic acid). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Review of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) Detector Technologies and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Items (United States)


    Detection and Screening of Chemicals Related to the Chemical Weapons Convention. In Encyclopaedia of Analytical Chemistry, Meyers, R. A., Ed. John...Division Defence Science and Technology Organisation DSTO-GD-0570 ABSTRACT This report provides a review of the open-source literature (unclassified...Published by Human Protection and Performance Division DSTO Defence Science and Technology Organisation 506 Lorimer St Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207

  8. Rapid screening of N-oxides of chemical warfare agents degradation products by ESI-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Sridhar, L; Karthikraj, R; Lakshmi, V V S; Raju, N Prasada; Prabhakar, S


    Rapid detection and identification of chemical warfare agents and related precursors/degradation products in various environmental matrices is of paramount importance for verification of standards set by the chemical weapons convention (CWC). Nitrogen mustards, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides, N,N-dialkylaminoethanols, N-alkyldiethanolamines, and triethanolamine, which are listed CWC scheduled chemicals, are prone to undergo N-oxidation in environmental matrices or during decontamination process. Thus, screening of the oxidized products of these compounds is also an important task in the verification process because the presence of these products reveals alleged use of nitrogen mustards or precursors of VX compounds. The N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides easily produce [M + H](+) ions under electrospray ionization conditions, and their collision-induced dissociation spectra include a specific neutral loss of 48 u (OH + CH2OH) and 66 u (OH + CH2Cl), respectively. Based on this specific fragmentation, a rapid screening method was developed for screening of the N-oxides by applying neutral loss scan technique. The method was validated and the applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing positive and negative samples. The method was useful in the detection of N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides in environmental matrices at trace levels (LOD, up to 500 ppb), even in the presence of complex masking agents, without the use of time-consuming sample preparation methods and chromatographic steps. This method is advantageous for the off-site verification program and also for participation in official proficiency tests conducted by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the Netherlands. The structure of N-oxides can be confirmed by the MS/MS experiments on the detected peaks. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for the separation of isomeric N-oxides of aminoethanols and

  9. Real-time, wide-area hyperspectral imaging sensors for standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Tazik, Shawna; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.


    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the detection and analysis of targets located within complex backgrounds. HSI can detect threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have size, weight, and power limitations that prohibit their use for field-portable and/or real-time applications. Current generation systems commonly provide an inefficient area search rate, require close proximity to the target for screening, and/or are not capable of making real-time measurements. ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of real-time, wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems that utilize shortwave infrared (SWIR) absorption and Raman spectroscopy. SWIR HSI sensors provide wide-area imagery with at or near real time detection speeds. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focusing on sensor design and detection results.

  10. Computational Investigations of Potential Energy Function Development for Metal--Organic Framework Simulations, Metal Carbenes, and Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)

    Cioce, Christian R.

    sigma donates, and subsequent back-bonding occurs into a pi* antibonding orbital. This is a different type of interaction not seen in the three existing classes of metal-carbene complexes, namely Fischer, Schrock, and Grubbs. Finally, the virtual engineering of enhanced chemical warfare agent (CWA) detection systems is discussed. As part of a U.S. Department of Defense supported research project, in silico chemical modifications to a previously synthesized zinc-porphyrin, ZnCS1, were made to attempt to achieve preferential binding of the nerve agent sarin versus its simulant, DIMP (diisopropyl methylphosphonate). Upon modification, a combination of steric effects and induced hydrogen bonding allowed for the selective binding of sarin. The success of this work demonstrates the role that high performance computing can play in national security research, without the associated costs and high security required for experimentation.

  11. Alternative approaches for medical countermeasures to biological and chemical terrorism and warfare. (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas; Zurlo, Joanne


    The desire to develop and evaluate drugs as potential countermeasures for biological and chemical threats requires test systems that can also substitute for the clinical trials normally crucial for drug development. Animal models have limited predictivity for drug efficacy, as is well known from many disappointments in clinical trials. Traditional in vitro and in silico approaches are not really game changers here, but the substantial investment into novel tools now underway might bring about a second generation of alternative approaches. The avenue pursued focuses primarily on the development of a Human on a Chip, i.e., the combination of different three-dimensional (stem) cell-based organ equivalents combined with microfluidics. The prospects of such approaches, their impact on the field of alternative approaches, and necessary complementary activities are discussed. The need to adapt quality assurance measures and experiences from validation is stressed.

  12. Chemical warfare and industrial agents detection and identification by LIBS and CRDS (United States)

    Pailloux, A.; Chenevier, Marc; Debecker, I.; Triki, Mariem; Romanini, Daniele


    This paper reports on the development of optically based techniques to detect and identify chemical agents. Detection sensitivity and molecule discrimination are studied. In parallel, efforts are made to develop rugged and compact experimental designs that can be used for field measurements. Laser Induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a surface analyzing optical technique investigated to measure sarin like molecules deposited on samples coming from the Parisian subway. On the other hand, Tunable Diode Laser Spectroscopy (TDLS) - Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) or Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) - is used to measure traces of the industrial toxic hydrogen fluoride gas down to the ppb level. Measurements in laboratory are reported and primary results obtained in a field experiment are described.

  13. Chemical warfare in Colombia, evidentiary ecologies and senti-actuando practices of justice. (United States)

    Lyons, Kristina


    Between 1994 and 2015, militarized aerial fumigation was a central component of US-Colombia antidrug policy. Crop duster planes sprayed a concentrated formula of Monsanto's herbicide, glyphosate, over illicit crops, and also forests, soils, pastures, livestock, watersheds, subsistence food and human bodies. Given that a national peace agreement was signed in 2016 between FARC-EP guerrillas and the state to end Colombia's over five decades of war, certain government officials are quick to proclaim aerial fumigation of glyphosate an issue of the past. Rural communities, however, file quejas (complaints or grievances) seeking compensation from the state for the ongoing effects of the destruction of their licit agro-forestry. At the interfaces of feminist science and technology studies and anthropology, this article examines how evidentiary claims are mobilized when war deeply politicizes and moralizes technoscientific knowledge production. By ethnographically tracking the grievances filed by small farmers, I reveal the extent to which evidence circulating in zones of war - tree seedlings, subsistence crops, GPS coordinates and bureaucratic documents - retains (or not) the imprints of violence and toxicity. Given the systematic rejection of compensation claims, farmers engage in everyday material practices that attempt to transform chemically degraded ecologies. These everyday actualizations of justice exist both alongside and outside contestation over the geopolitically backed violence of state law. Rather than simply contrasting everyday acts of justice with denunciatory claims made against the state, farmers' reparative practices produce an evidentiary ecology that holds the state accountable while also ' senti-actuando' (feel-acting) alternative forms of justice.

  14. Treating exposure to chemical warfare agents: Implications for health care providers and community emergency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, N.B.; Watson, A.P.; Ambrose, K.R.; Griffin, G.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))


    Current treatment protocols for exposure to nerve and vesicant agents found in the US stockpile of unitary chemical weapons are summarized, and the toxicities of available antidotes are evaluated. The status of the most promising of the new nerve agent antidotes is reviewed. In the US, atropine and pralidoxime compose the only approved antidote regimen for organophosphate nerve agent poisoning. Diazepam may also be used if necessary to control convulsions. To avoid death, administration must occur within minutes of substantial exposure together with immediate decontamination. Continuous observation and repeated administration of antidotes are necessary as symptoms warrant. Available antidotes do not necessarily prevent respiratory failure or incapacitation. The toxicity of the antidotes themselves and the individualized nature of medical care preclude recommending that autoinjectors be distributed to the general public. In addition, precautionary administration of protective drugs to the general population would not be feasible or desirable. No antidote exists for poisoning by the vesicant sulfur mustard (H, HD, HT); effective intervention can only be accomplished by rapid decontamination followed by palliative treatment of symptoms. British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol) is the antidote of choice for treatment of exposure to Lewisite, another potent vesicant. Experimental water-soluble BAL analogues have been developed that are less toxic than BAL. Treatment protocols for each antidote are summarized in tabular form for use by health care providers.

  15. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, H.W.; Henins, I.; Park, J.; Selwyn, G.S.


    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) [A. Schuetze et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1685 (1998)] is a nonthermal, high pressure, uniform glow plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He/O 2 /H 2 O), which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz rf. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains neutral metastable species (e.g., O 2 * , He * ) and radicals (e.g., O, OH). This reactive effluent has been shown to be an effective neutralizer of surrogates for anthrax spores and mustard blister agent. Unlike conventional wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion and it does not destroy wiring, electronics, or most plastics, making it highly suitable for decontamination of sensitive equipment and interior spaces. Furthermore, the reactive species in the effluent rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful by-products. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  16. Air Warfare (United States)


    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...marked by periods of crescendo, air warfare will consist of a succession of actions of great violence , with periods of almost complete calm between...influence of time, if it should require fif- teen seconds for each airplane to take off, and one minute to land, the commander of a group of 100 airplanes

  17. Hybrid Warfare (United States)


    Office, Title 10, U.S. Code ; Act of 5 May 1960. 3. 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report, February 2010, 8. 4. Hybrid Warfare, Global Accountability...Rise of Hybrid Wars.” Proceedings 132 (November 2005); William J. Nemeth , Future War and Chechnya: A Case for Hybrid War- fare (master’s thesis, U.S...William J. Nemeth which represents the earliest scholarly work on the subject, in which the emergence of devolved hybrid societies gives rise to hybrid

  18. Materiel Solutions for Special Operations Forces (United States)


    textiles attended U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) events including: an Additive Manufacturing (3D printing ) workshop in Dec 2013; a Tactical...acknowledge ARO support from the start of the project to the date of this printing . List the papers, including journal references, in the following... techniques . • Hosted campus visits by LTG Patricia McQuisition, Army Materiel Command, and MG Nick Justice former Commanding General of RDECOM

  19. Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate. (United States)

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre


    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones. We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time (Ct) product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard. Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. Methyl salicylate could be detected on hair for vapour concentration corresponding to about one fifth of the sulphur mustard concentration that would kill 50% of exposed individuals (LCt50). The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds. It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Drone warfare (United States)

    Gusterson, Hugh


    Crude drones existed as early as World War I, but the technology matured in the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s and the current wars around the Middle East. The U.S. first used a weaponized drone in late 2001, in Afghanistan. Drones may cause more or less civilian casualties depending on the targeting protocols employed by their operators. There is an inherent ambiguity in determining who is an insurgent from several thousand feet, but civilian casualties are likely to be higher if targeters emphasize "signature strikes" over "personality strikes," if they engage in "double-tap strikes," if they rely too much on local informants, and if they rely too heavily on cellphone identification in the absence of corroboration from other intelligence sources. The legality of drone warfare is fairly clear in established battle zones such as Afghanistan, but is more problematic in terms of both international and domestic law when it comes to drone strikes in countries such as Yemen, Pakistan and Somalia with which the U.S. is not at war. Looking to the future, the U.S. would be well advised to sponsor negotiations for an international drone convention that might establish clear international rules for the use of drones, ban autonomous smart drones, and establish adjudicatory procedures to handle allegations of war crimes.

  1. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL


    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  2. Business ethics: the materiel/manufacturing perspective. (United States)

    Marucheck, A S; Robbins, L B


    The discussion of purchasing practices and product integrity, which have ethical implications for materiel/manufacturing management, serves to illustrate how routine decisions can have larger implications for the firm as a whole. Management needs to take a proactive role in confronting ethical issues by (1) demonstrating a corporate commitment to sound ethics in business practices, (2) providing written policies where appropriate to provide a basis for sound ethical conducts, (3) educating various functional areas to understand their responsibility in seeming unrelated ethical problems, (4) delegating authority in ethical issues where such issues are considered in decision making, and (5) fostering interfunctional communication as a means in establishing corporatewide responsibility. The basic philosophical principles of JIT serve as a blueprint for recognizing and managing ethical responsibility. The unexpected by-products of a JIT implementation may be vendor/customer good will and an excellent reputation for the firm.

  3. Fate of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) on soil following accelerant-based fire and liquid decontamination. (United States)

    Gravett, M R; Hopkins, F B; Self, A J; Webb, A J; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R


    procedures and analytical methods suitable for investigating accelerant and decontaminant-soaked soil samples are presented. VX and its degradation products and/or impurities were detected under all the conditions studied, demonstrating that accelerant-based fire and liquid-based decontamination and then fire are unlikely to prevent the retrieval of evidence of chemical warfare agent (CWA) testing. This is the first published study of the effects of an accelerant-based fire on a CWA in environmental samples. The results will inform defence and security-based organisations worldwide and support the verification activities of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), winner of the 2013 Nobel Peace Prize for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons.

  4. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 3: Evaluation of in vitro topical decontamination efficacy using damaged skin. (United States)

    Lydon, Helen L; Hall, Charlotte A; Dalton, Christopher H; Chipman, J Kevin; Graham, John S; Chilcott, Robert P


    Previous studies have demonstrated that haemostatic products with an absorptive mechanism of action retain their clotting efficiency in the presence of toxic materials and are effective in decontaminating chemical warfare (CW) agents when applied to normal, intact skin. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess three candidate haemostatic products for effectiveness in the decontamination of superficially damaged porcine skin exposed to the radiolabelled CW agents, soman (GD), VX and sulphur mustard (HD). Controlled physical damage (removal of the upper 100 μm skin layer) resulted in a significant enhancement of the dermal absorption of all three CW agents. Of the haemostatic products assessed, WoundStat™ was consistently the most effective, being equivalent in performance to a standard military decontaminant (fuller's earth). These data suggest that judicious application of haemostatic products to wounds contaminated with CW agents may be a viable option for the clinical management of casualties presenting with contaminated, haemorrhaging injuries. Further studies using a relevant animal model are required to confirm the potential clinical efficacy of WoundStat™ for treating wounds contaminated with CW agents. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Graphene oxide as sensitive layer in Love-wave surface acoustic wave sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agent simulants. (United States)

    Sayago, Isabel; Matatagui, Daniel; Fernández, María Jesús; Fontecha, José Luis; Jurewicz, Izabela; Garriga, Rosa; Muñoz, Edgar


    A Love-wave device with graphene oxide (GO) as sensitive layer has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. Sensitive films were fabricated by airbrushing GO dispersions onto Love-wave devices. The resulting Love-wave sensors detected very low CWA simulant concentrations in synthetic air at room temperature (as low as 0.2 ppm for dimethyl-methylphosphonate, DMMP, a simulant of sarin nerve gas, and 0.75 ppm for dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether, DPGME, a simulant of nitrogen mustard). High responses to DMMP and DPGME were obtained with sensitivities of 3087 and 760 Hz/ppm respectively. Very low limit of detection (LOD) values (9 and 40 ppb for DMMP and DPGME, respectively) were calculated from the achieved experimental data. The sensor exhibited outstanding sensitivity, good linearity and repeatability to all simulants tested. The detection mechanism is here explained in terms of hydrogen bonding formation between the tested CWA simulants and GO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Materiel management and radiology: building a teamwork relationship. (United States)

    Burke, M D; Cirino, J C


    Mr. Burke and Mr. Cirino explain how a teamwork relationship between radiology and materiel management can serve both well--radiology can continually strive to provide high quality diagnostic data and superior patient care, while materiel management can provide a continuous flow of supplies and services, keep inventory investment low, and develop a competent supplier base. Effective communication is the necessary element that will allow each to achieve its respective goals.

  7. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J


    The development of "information warfare" presents international legal issues that will complicate nations' efforts both to execute and to respond to certain information warfare attacks, specifically...

  8. Hybrid Warfare and Lawfare


    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik; Mosquera, Andres B Munoz


    Hybrid Warfare as a method of war is not new. The change today appears to be that Hybrid Warfare “has the potential to transform the strategic calculations of potential belligerents [it has become] increasingly sophisticated and deadly”. This short paper presents Hybrid Warfare and one of its methods, lawfare. For this, we provide a current, comprehensive definition of hybrid warfare and examine different areas where law has been/is being used as a method of war. This paper focuses on the fol...

  9. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  10. Sterilization and Decontamination of Surfaces Contaminated With Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents Using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Discharges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garate, Eusebio


    ... based on the application of an atmospheric pressure plasma. We used both a DC corona and dielectric barrier discharge for the sterilization tests which were conducted on a variety of substrates including metals and chemically resistant fabrics...

  11. Information Warfare and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren


    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethics of the practice of information warfare at both the national and corporate levels. Initially examining the present and past actions of individual hackers, it moves to the more organised, future military and economic warfare scenarios. It examines the lack of legal or policy initiatives in this area.

  12. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces. (United States)

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D


    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DAN damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro; Kato, Minoru; Kakehashi, Anna; Fujioka, Masaki; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Kitano, Mistuaki; Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail:


    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies. - Highlights: • DPAA, an environmental neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis in rats. • DPAA is an activator of AhR signaling pathway. • DPAA promoted oxidative DNA damage in rat livers. • AhR target gene CYP 1B1 might be involved in the metabolism of DPAA.

  14. The role of genetic background in susceptibility to chemical warfare nerve agents across rodent and non-human primate models. (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; McCarren, Hilary S; Cadieux, C Linn; Cerasoli, Douglas M; McDonough, John H


    Genetics likely play a role in various responses to nerve agent exposure, as genetic background plays an important role in behavioral, neurological, and physiological responses to environmental stimuli. Mouse strains or selected lines can be used to identify susceptibility based on background genetic features to nerve agent exposure. Additional genetic techniques can then be used to identify mechanisms underlying resistance and sensitivity, with the ultimate goal of developing more effective and targeted therapies. Here, we discuss the available literature on strain and selected line differences in cholinesterase activity levels and response to nerve agent-induced toxicity and seizures. We also discuss the available cholinesterase and toxicity literature across different non-human primate species. The available data suggest that robust genetic differences exist in cholinesterase activity, nerve agent-induced toxicity, and chemical-induced seizures. Available cholinesterase data suggest that acetylcholinesterase activity differs across strains, but are limited by the paucity of carboxylesterase data in strains and selected lines. Toxicity and seizures, two outcomes of nerve agent exposure, have not been fully evaluated for genetic differences, and thus further studies are required to understand baseline strain and selected line differences. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Technical support for recovery phase decision-making in the event of a chemical warfare agent release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Kistner, S.; Halbrook, R. [and others


    In late 1985, Congress mandated that the U.S. stockpile of lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions be destroyed by the Department of the Army in a manner that provides maximum protection to the environment, the general public and personnel involved in the disposal program (Public Law 99-1, Section 1412, Title 14, Part b). These unitary munitions were last manufactured in the late 1960`s. The stockpiled inventory is estimated to approximate 25,000-30,000 tons, an includes organophosphate ({open_quotes}nerves{close_quotes}) agents such as VX [O-ethylester of S-(diisopropyl aminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate, C{sub 11}H{sub 26}NO{sub 2}PS] and vesicant ({open_quotes}blister{close_quotes}) agents such as Hd [sulfur mustard; bis (2-chloroethyl sulfide), C{sub 4}H{sub 8}Cl{sub 2}S]. The method of agent destruction selected by the Department of the Army is combined high-temperature and high-residence time incineration at secured military installations where munitions are currently stockpiled. This program supports the research program to address: the biomonitoring of nerve agent exposure; agent detection limits in foods and milk; and permeation of agents through porous construction materials.

  16. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović


    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  17. Economic Feasibility of DLA (Defense Logistics Agency) Materiel Maintenance Mission (United States)


    a series of formulas presented in DLAM 4151.1, DLA Mission Materiel Maintenance Management Manual , for use in computing the economical basis for...they exceed variable :ost ., it will always be better to continu* cho operations from A short term economic perspective. If the operacions are continued

  18. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy


    Section 1 of this paper provides an overview of cyber warfare as an element of information warfare, starting with the general background of the current strategic environment the United States is operating...

  19. The cost management organization: the next step for materiel management. (United States)

    Schuweiler, R C


    With Materiel Management's transition over the last decade from simple logistics to analysis and cost management, it has gained recognition as a key part of the management team responsible for supplies, equipment, standards, and associated processes to identify, purchase, store, distribute, issue, and dispose of supplies and equipment. The materiel manager's job consists of putting the right product in the right place at the right time and in the right quantity at the best total delivered cost. In this context, Materiel Management has made powerful impacts to lower costs associated with: Distribution--costs have been lowered by actively adopting advanced supply channel management techniques such as primary suppliers, JIT, stockless programs, case cart/custom kit/procedure based delivery systems, modified stockless programs as well as margin management through cost plus, flat fee, or margins paid per activity. Cost of goods--lowered through aggregated purchasing in the forms of regional and national purchasing alliances and local capitation or other gain/risk share programs. Internal process costs--lowered by out-sourcing and/or integrating supplier processes and personnel into operations via partnership approaches. We have also reduced transactional costs through EDI transaction sets and the emerging use of the inter and intranet/electronic commerce, procurement cards, and evaluated receipt settlement processes. De-layering--We have lowered the operating costs of Materiel Management overhead by re-design/re-engineering, resulting in reduced management and greater front line authority. Quality--We have learned to identify and respond to customer and supplier needs by using quality improvement tools and ongoing measurement and monitoring techniques. Through this we have identified the waste of non-beneficial products and services. We have adopted supplier certification measurers to ensure quality is built into processes and outcomes. With so much already accomplished

  20. Gray Zone Warfare: German and Russian Political Warfare, 1935-1939, and 2001 (United States)


    separated periods. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Political Warfare, Psychological Warfare, Unconventional Warfare, Hybrid Warfare, Asymmetrical Warfare, Gray Zone...Russia ............................................................................................................................ 56 Psychological ...the waging of psychological and economic warfare to the furtherance of war aims and the organization of the fighting strength of the nation to the

  1. Performance Analysis of the United States Marine Corps War Reserve Materiel Program Process Flow (United States)


    WAR RESERVE MATERIEL PROGRAM PROCESS FLOW December 2016 By: Nathan A. Campbell Luke S. Helwig Spencer D. Sweet Advisors: Eddine Dahel...RESERVE MATERIEL PROGRAM PROCESS FLOW Nathan A. Campbell , Captain, United States Marine Corps Luke S. Helwig, Captain, United States Marine...PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF THE UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS WAR RESERVE MATERIEL PROGRAM PROCESS FLOW 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Nathan A. Campbell

  2. The Physics of Warfare (United States)

    Giordano, Gerardo


    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  3. Hybrid Maritime Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Murphy, Martin; Hoffman, Frank


    Russia’s use of hybrid warfare techniques has raised concerns about the security of the Baltic States. Gary Schaub, Jr, Martin Murphy and Frank G Hoffman recommend a series of measures to augment NATO’s Readiness Action Plan in the Baltic region, including increasing the breadth and depth of naval...... of a larger hybrid campaign...

  4. Refocusing Cyber Warfare Thought (United States)


    the service placed two vastly different career fields into a single training pipeline? Does radar jamming belong to the same class of warfare as...patch newly discovered flaws, and private antivirus companies that develop signatures to inoculate systems to new mal- ware.21 Meanwhile, highly

  5. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  6. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J


    .... Some legal constraints will certainly apply to information warfare, either because the constraints explicitly regulate particular actions, or because more general principles of international law...

  7. Materiel Testing in the Tropics (6th Ed) (United States)


    cyclocarpum _(coro- tu), uarea lonalpetiola (chuchupate), Ptthecellobtum mangense (una de gato) tenia macroplla ( mahogany ), Tectona randi (Burma teak...Calderon, J. M.; and Fradel, M. A. Rlaityand Maintainability of Materiel in the Tropics. Caa one: Army Tropic Testy Cetr-TOM Project No. 9-CQ-009-OOO-017, AD...Zone." Gal vanic and Pittin2 Corrosion-Field and I aboratnoy Studies. PF TIade~i aTWerca 1-ii_cie_ oir Testi ng andTMater ia T- -ATT STP 576, 1976

  8. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.


    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  9. The evolution of human warfare. (United States)

    Pitman, George R


    Here we propose a new theory for the origins and evolution of human warfare as a complex social phenomenon involving several behavioral traits, including aggression, risk taking, male bonding, ingroup altruism, outgroup xenophobia, dominance and subordination, and territoriality, all of which are encoded in the human genome. Among the family of great apes only chimpanzees and humans engage in war; consequently, warfare emerged in their immediate common ancestor that lived in patrilocal groups who fought one another for females. The reasons for warfare changed when the common ancestor females began to immigrate into the groups of their choice, and again, during the agricultural revolution.

  10. Review of environmental exposure concentrations of chemical warfare agent residues and associated the fish community risk following the construction and completion of the Nord Stream gas pipeline between Russia and Germany. (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Rahbek, Malene; Larsen, Jørn Bo


    This paper compiles all the measured chemical warfare agent (CWA) concentrations found in relation to the Nord Stream pipeline work in Danish waters for the past 5 years. Sediment and biota sampling were performed along the pipeline route in four campaigns, prior to (in 2008 and 2010), during (in 2011) and after (in 2012) the construction work. No parent CWAs were detected in the sediments. Patchy residues of CWA degradation products of Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine, trichloroarsine and Lewisite II, were detected in a total of 29 of the 391 sediment samples collected and analyzed the past 5 years. The cumulative fish community risk quotient for the different locations, calculated as a sum of background and added risk, ranged between 0 and 0.017 suggesting a negligible acute CWA risk toward the fish community. The added risk from sediment disturbance in relation to construction of the pipelines represents less than 2% of the total risk in the areas with the highest calculated risk. The analyses of benthic infauna corroborate the finding of CWA related low risk across the years. There was no significant difference in CWA risk before (2008) and after the pipeline construction (2012). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water using hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction with in-situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Lee, Hoi Sim Nancy; Sng, Mui Tiang; Basheer, Chanbasha; Lee, Hian Kee


    Hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) together with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was investigated for the analysis of degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water samples. The degradation products studied were those of nerve and blister agents, and a psychotomimetic agent. Extractions were successfully performed coupled with in-situ derivatisation using a mixture of solvent and derivatising agent. The protection of the moisture-sensitive derivatising agent was afforded by the hollow fibre. Parameters such as extraction solvent, pH, salt concentration, stirring speed and extraction time were optimised using spiked deionised water samples. The linear range established was between 0.005 and 5 microg ml(-1) depending on analyte, with squared regression coefficients ranging from 0.9929 to 1.0000. Relative standard deviations ranged from 9% to 22%. As compared to those of solid-phase microextraction, the limits of detection (0.01-0.54 microg l(-1)) of the newly-developed approach were significantly improved.

  12. Cyber Warfare/Cyber Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy


    .... Section 1 concludes with a review of offensive and defensive cyber warfare concepts. Section 2 presents a general overview of cyber terrorism, including definitions of cyber terrorism and cyber terrorism support...

  13. Attrition in Network Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erbetta, John


    .... Information warfare means that positive attacks on systems themselves compound the problem. Emerging technologies applicable to NCW as a force multiplier need to be recognized as counter to the impediments to progress...

  14. The ethics of information warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano


    This book offers an overview of the ethical problems posed by Information Warfare, and of the different approaches and methods used to solve them, in order to provide the reader with a better grasp of the ethical conundrums posed by this new form of warfare.The volume is divided into three parts, each comprising four chapters. The first part focuses on issues pertaining to the concept of Information Warfare and the clarifications that need to be made in order to address its ethical implications. The second part collects contributions focusing on Just War Theory and its application to the case of Information Warfare. The third part adopts alternative approaches to Just War Theory for analysing the ethical implications of this phenomenon. Finally, an afterword by Neelie Kroes - Vice President of the European Commission and European Digital Agenda Commissioner - concludes the volume. Her contribution describes the interests and commitments of the European Digital Agenda with respect to research for the developme...

  15. MRP (materiel requirements planning) II implementation: a case study. (United States)

    Sheldon, D


    Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) is a powerful and effective business planning template on which to build a continuous improvement culture. MRP II, when successfully implemented, encourages a disciplined yet nonthreatening environment centered on measurement and accountability. From the education that accompanies an MRP II implementation, the employees can better understand the vision and mission of the organization. This common goal keeps everyone's energy directed toward the same final objective. The Raymond Corporation is a major materiels handling equipment manufacturer headquartered in Greene, New York, with class "A" MRP II manufacturing facilities in Greene and Brantford, Ontario and an aftermark distribution facility in East Syracuse, New York. Prior to the implementation of MRP II in its Greene plant (from 1988 through 1990) good intentions and hard work were proving to be less than necessary to compete in the global market. Certified class "A" in February 1990. The Raymond Corporation has built a world-class organization from these foundations.

  16. Air Power and Maneuver Warfare (United States)


    way to integrate air power on the one hand with maneuver warfare on the other. While American commanders such as Robert E. Lee and George S. Patton...MANEUVER WARFARE years .’ Nevertheless, it should not be forgotten that few commanders of any time or place have fought as many great battles- batailles ...the process to a boxer who uses one arm to parry his opponent’s punches and draw his attention while striking with the other. Gen George S. Patton

  17. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.


    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.


    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  19. Reflections on nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.P.


    The author looks back on his more than 70 years of familiarity with Americans involved in warfare, noting their loyal support for our country's objectives. Drawing on the Einstein equation, his own visits to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and current literature, he, as a physician, belatedly concurs with those who look on the use of nuclear weapons as irrational and untenable. Their employment under present circumstances would create a ''final epidemic'' to be avoided only by prevention. He suggests that medical perceptions must be considered by our national leaders in assessing the many factors that he hopes will lead to rational answers to this urgent, highly complex, and vital enigma. He cites physicians' efforts to help in finding answers and asks that his colleagues consider the issues with attention to the gravity of the situation and act according to their best judgment

  20. Class VIII Medical Materiel Controls in the U.S. European Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Class VIII medical materiel inventories are maintained as part of the U.S. war reserve stocks to ensure military readiness and to provide needed health care during wartime or contingencies. The U.S...

  1. Screening of Materiel Available in the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The audit objectives were to evaluate the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOD wholesale inventory management activities' screening and requisitioning of materiel in the DRMS during the FES and FAS processes...

  2. Intelligence Strategy for Fourth Generation Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jamison, Edward P


    ...." They have named this new era of war "fourth generation warfare." Currently the Department of Defense's intelligence strategy is designed to defeat conventional adversaries vise a fourth generation warfare opponent...

  3. Determination of basic degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water using hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction with in-situ derivatisation followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Lee, Hoi Sim Nancy; Sng, Mui Tiang; Basheer, Chanbasha; Lee, Hian Kee


    Hollow fibre-protected liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was, for the first time, investigated for the in-situ derivatisation and analysis of basic degradation products of chemical warfare agents in water samples. The degradation products studied were those of nerve and blister agents, and a psychotomimetic agent. Extractions with in-situ derivatisation were successfully performed using a mixture of solvent and derivatising agent. The protection of the moisture-sensitive derivatising agent was afforded by the hydrophobic hollow fibre. Parameters such as type of derivatising agent, extraction solvent, pH, salt concentration, stirring speed and extraction time were optimised using spiked deionised water samples. The linear range established was between 0.05 and 25 microg ml(-1) depending on analyte, with squared regression coefficients ranging from 0.9959 to 0.9996. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 6% to 10%. As comparison, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was also evaluated and extraction conditions such as pH, salt concentration, stirring speed and extraction time were optimised. This work also represented the first report of such an in-situ derivatisation approach for SPME of basic analytes. The linear range established was between 0.5 and 25 microg ml(-1) depending on analyte, with squared regression coefficients ranging from 0.9946 to 0.9998. RSDs ranged from 5% to 22%. The limits of detection of HF-LPME (0.04-0.36 microg l(-1)) showed improvement over those of SPME (0.06-0.77 microg l(-1)).

  4. ISIL's Hybrid Warfare in Syria & Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heine


    The case study specifically seeks to answer the following problem statement: Does ISIL qualify as an actor using hybrid warfare and if so what characterizes their particular use of this type of warfare? Based on an analysis of ISIL’s warfare from August 2012 to August 2016 the chapter argues, tha...

  5. Special Warfare: A Selected Bibliography. (United States)


    Digest, Vol. 18, January 1963, pp. 36-41. 313. Van de Velde , R. W. "the Neglected Deterrent (Guerrilla Warfare)." Military Review, Vol. 38, August...34Principles of Modern Chinese Strategy." NATO’s Fifteen Nations, Vol. 8, June-July 1963, pp. 44-49. 255. Purcell, Henry . "Night Patrolling and District...September 1970, pp. 2-8. 331. Whittier, Henry S. "Soviet Special Operations/Partisan Warfare: Implications for Today." Military Review, Vol. 59, January 1979

  6. The doctor and nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    At the 34th World Medical Assembly in Lisbon in 1981 the World Medical Association adopted a motion proposed by the American Medical Association that national medical associations should develop programs to educate the civilian population on the medical consequences of nuclear war. This article discusses the attitude the medical professions should have, should nuclear warfare in some form confront them in the future. The conclusion is drawn that defence against nuclear warfare is only a part of civil defence against any disaster, including the natural disasters such as flood and fire and the man-made disasters of transport accidents, even of problems at nuclear plants designed to supply energy

  7. The Different Sensitive Behaviors of a Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer-Coated SAW Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Simulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Long


    Full Text Available A linear hydrogen-bond acidic (HBA linear functionalized polymer (PLF, was deposited onto a bare surface acoustic wave (SAW device to fabricate a chemical sensor. Real-time responses of the sensor to a series of compounds including sarin (GB, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP, mustard gas (HD, chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (2-CEES, 1,5-dichloropentane (DCP and some organic solvents were studied. The results show that the sensor is highly sensitive to GB and DMMP, and has low sensitivity to HD and DCP, as expected. However, the sensor possesses an unexpected high sensitivity toward 2-CEES. This good sensing performance can’t be solely or mainly attributed to the dipole-dipole interaction since the sensor is not sensitive to some high polarity solvents. We believe the lone pair electrons around the sulphur atom of 2-CEES provide an electron-rich site, which facilitates the formation of hydrogen bonding between PLF and 2-CEES. On the contrary, the electron cloud on the sulphur atom of the HD molecule is offset or depleted by its two neighbouring strong electron-withdrawing groups, hence, hydrogen bonding can hardly be formed.

  8. The Different Sensitive Behaviors of a Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer-Coated SAW Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Simulants. (United States)

    Long, Yin; Wang, Yang; Du, Xiaosong; Cheng, Luhua; Wu, Penglin; Jiang, Yadong


    A linear hydrogen-bond acidic (HBA) linear functionalized polymer (PLF), was deposited onto a bare surface acoustic wave (SAW) device to fabricate a chemical sensor. Real-time responses of the sensor to a series of compounds including sarin (GB), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), mustard gas (HD), chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (2-CEES), 1,5-dichloropentane (DCP) and some organic solvents were studied. The results show that the sensor is highly sensitive to GB and DMMP, and has low sensitivity to HD and DCP, as expected. However, the sensor possesses an unexpected high sensitivity toward 2-CEES. This good sensing performance can't be solely or mainly attributed to the dipole-dipole interaction since the sensor is not sensitive to some high polarity solvents. We believe the lone pair electrons around the sulphur atom of 2-CEES provide an electron-rich site, which facilitates the formation of hydrogen bonding between PLF and 2-CEES. On the contrary, the electron cloud on the sulphur atom of the HD molecule is offset or depleted by its two neighbouring strong electron-withdrawing groups, hence, hydrogen bonding can hardly be formed.

  9. The Anatomy of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Lars; Pedersen, Kenneth; Thruelsen, Peter Dahl

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the West has been increasingly involved in a tiresome and rather particular type of conflict: insurgency warfare. The bloody and shocking terrorist attacks on New York and Washington in September 2001 marked the beginning of a new era, and the introducti...

  10. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare. (United States)

    Coulby, David


    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  11. Measurement of breakthrough volumes of volatile chemical warfare agents on a poly(2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide)-based adsorbent and application to thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis. (United States)

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo


    To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were

  12. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator. (United States)

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo


    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Information and Knowledge Centric Warfare: The Next Steps in the Evolution of Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phister, Jr., Paul W; Plonisch, Igor G


    ...: transitioning from network-centric/information-centric to knowledge-centric warfare. Network-centric warfare is built around human and organizational behavior a new way of thinking in terms of linkages...

  14. UML modelling of network warfare examples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N


    Full Text Available will be determined by arguing their application to Network Warfare A. Consideration of Network Warfare Attributes Network Warfare can be seen as taking place over Information and Communication Technology (ICT) networks to affect information processing... the works of Theohandou, Tipton and Sowa, the following information security techniques emerge: Risk Analysis, Physical Security, Incident Response, Disaster Recovery Planning, Security Awareness, Legal, Regulations and Compliance [15] [16] [17...

  15. Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Manageable Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donahoo, Brian


    ... (Desert Storm 1991 and Desert Storm 2003). The intent is to provide combat forces with a logical and realistic framework to accurately assess the CB threat enabling a proper balance of force protection and mission accomplishment...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC


    Full Text Available According to the Declaration of Saint Petersburg of 1868 “the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy”. Thus, International Humanitarian Law prohibits or limits the use of certain means and methods of warfare. The rapid development of technology has led to the emergence of a new dimension of warfare. The cyber aspect of armed conflict has led to the development of new means and methods of warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study how the norms of international humanitarian law apply to the means and methods of cyber warfare.

  17. Cyber warfare building the scientific foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Subrahmanian, VS; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff


    This book features a wide spectrum of the latest computer science research relating to cyber warfare, including military and policy dimensions. It is the first book to explore the scientific foundation of cyber warfare and features research from the areas of artificial intelligence, game theory, programming languages, graph theory and more. The high-level approach and emphasis on scientific rigor provides insights on ways to improve cyber warfare defense worldwide. Cyber Warfare: Building the Scientific Foundation targets researchers and practitioners working in cyber security, especially gove

  18. Shadow Wars: An Analysis of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dogan, Osman


    ... of the current strategic approaches to counterinsurgency warfare. Toward this end, a systems model approach, which views insurgent organizations as open systems, is adapted to the insurgent environment...

  19. Radioecological aspects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardson, Kay


    Radioactive fallout, one of the major effects of nuclear warfare, will cause acute radiation sickness within the close-in or intermediate areas downwind from surface bursts. Global fallout from high yield explosions will be fairly evenly distributed in the hemisphere where the explosions occur, and will cause irradiation from ground deposit, inhaled material and contaminated food. Estimates of collective doses and the approximate number of late casualties from the global contamination are presented for a given total explosion yield. (author)

  20. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel. (United States)


    ... decline of borrowed stock fund materiel at which returned property can be sold. (c) Nonreimbursable costs... collection. The property will be released for repair and returned to stock. (4) The finance office will send... transaction records will be closed. (6) The approving authority will then return the bond to the borrower. (7...

  1. United States Chemical Policy: Response Considerations (United States)


    individuals insured the issue of chemical warfare stayed in the public’s mind. The mix of facts and fiction contributed to the controversy, confusion, and...that the public wanted to abolish it.23 Frederic J. Brown states: "By 1921, it [chemical warfare] had become the bete noire (black beast] of World War

  2. The Information Warfare Life Cycle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett van Niekerk


    Full Text Available Information warfare (IW is a dynamic and developing concept, which constitutes a number of disciplines. This paper aims to develop a life cycle model for information warfare that is applicable to all of the constituent disciplines. The model aims to be scalable and applicable to civilian and military incidents where information warfare tactics are employed. Existing information warfare models are discussed, and a new model is developed from the common aspects of these existing models. The proposed model is then applied to a variety of incidents to test its applicability and scalability. The proposed model is shown to be applicable to multiple disciplines of information warfare and is scalable, thus meeting the objectives of the model.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurian GHERMAN


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on changes occurred in military organizations in Information Age. During Industrial Age the military structure of forces evolved according with principles of decomposition, specialization, hierarchy, optimization, deconfliction, centralized planning, and decentralized execution. But now the solutions based upon Industrial Age assumptions and practices will break down and fail in the Information Age. This will happen no matter how well intentioned, hardworking, or dedicated the leadership and the force are. Two key force capabilities needed by Information Age militaries are interoperability and agility. Both interoperability and agility are provided by Network centric warfare theory of war.

  4. Radioecological aspects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvarson, K.


    The radioactive fallout from nuclear explosions is one of the major effects of nuclear warfare. Those levels causing acute radiation sickness are to be expected only within the close-in or intermediate areas downwind from surface bursts. Global fallout from high yield explosions will be fairly evenly distributed in the hemisphere where the explosions occurred and cause irradiation from ground deposit, inhaled material and contaminated food. The collective doses and the order of magnitude of late casualties from this global contamination are estimated for a given total explosion yield. (auth)

  5. Analytic tools for information warfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandewart, R.L.; Craft, R.L.


    Information warfare and system surety (tradeoffs between system functionality, security, safety, reliability, cost, usability) have many mechanisms in common. Sandia`s experience has shown that an information system must be assessed from a {ital system} perspective in order to adequately identify and mitigate the risks present in the system. While some tools are available to help in this work, the process is largely manual. An integrated, extensible set of assessment tools would help the surety analyst. This paper describes one approach to surety assessment used at Sandia, identifies the difficulties in this process, and proposes a set of features desirable in an automated environment to support this process.

  6. Information warfare technologies in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova Anna Yu.


    Full Text Available We attempt to examine the technology of «information warfare» in this paper. The dominant theme of the paper is that the outcome of the information warfare is important not only for the future of a state itself but for the future of the world balance of forces. The main task of geopolitical actors in information warfare is to introduce ideas corresponding to their interests into mass consciousness. All participants of political conflicts have common features in technologies of Information warfare. The information anomie is the indicator of the great geopolitical actors’ personified interests on the stage of «information warfare» - the process resulted in destroying the communicative line: report-information understanding and disrupting the social order in society. In this paper authors describe the following Information Warfare technologies: "Political volcano" technology; "SPIN" technology; "Widening media resource" technology; "specific gravity" technology; "Cold War 2.0" technology and Information cleaningup technology. It is assumed that in the future there will be new instructions on applying technologies of information warfare. To impart perspective to the paper we consider examples, opinions and trends.

  7. Decontamination tests on tritium-contaminated materials; Essais de decontamination de materiel contamine par du tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutot, P.; Schipfer, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule


    These tests are designed to try out various processes liable to be applied to the decontamination of a material contaminated with tritium. The samples are thin stainless- steel slabs contaminated in the laboratory with elements extracted from industrial installations. The measurement of the initial and residual activities is carried out using an open-window BERTHOLD counter. The best results are obtained by passing a current of pre-heated (300 deg. C) air containing water vapour. This process makes it possible to reach a decontamination factor of 99.5 per cent in 4 hours. In a vacuum, the operation has to be prolonged to 100 hours in order to obtain a decontamination factor of 99.2 per cent. Wet-chemical or electrolytic treatments are efficient but their use is limited by the inherent corrosion risks. A study of the reappearance of the contamination has made it possible to observe that this phenomenon occurs whatever the process used. (authors) [French] Ces essais ont pour but d'experimenter divers procedes susceptibles d'etre appliques a la decontamination du materiel contamine par du tritium. Les echantillons sont constitues par des plaquettes d'acier inoxydable contamines en laboratoire et par des elements extraits d'installations industrielles. Les mesures d'activites initiales et residuelles sont effectuees au moyen d'un compteur BERTHOLD a fenetre ouverte. Les meilleurs resultats sont obtenus par balayage d'air prechauffe a 300 deg. C et additionne de vapeur d'eau. Ce procede permet d'atteindre en 4 heures un facteur de decontamination de 99,5 pour cent. Sous vide, l'operation doit etre poursuivie pendant 100 heures pour porter le facteur de decontamination a 99,2 pour cent. Les traitements par voie chimique humide et par voie electrolytique sont efficaces mais la corrosion qu'ils risquent d'engendrer limite considerablement leur champ d'application. Une etude sur la resurgence de la

  8. Assessment of the Air Force Materiel Command Reorganization: Report for Congress (United States)


    48 Daft, 2007; Galbraith, 1977. 49 Galbraith, 1977. 50 Michael L. Tushman and David A. Nadler ...76 Tushman, Michael L., and David A. Nadler , “Information Processing as an Integrating Concept in Organizational Design,” Academy of Management...Ausink, Chelsea Kaihoi Duran, Robert G. DeFeo, David W. George, Raymond E. Conley, Bernard Fox, and Jerry M. Sollinger, Air Force Materiel Command

  9. Standardizacija materijalnih sredstava u Severnoatlantskom savezu / Materiel standardization in North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Glišić


    Full Text Available U radu je prikazan proces standardizacije materijalnih sredstava u Severnoatlantskom savezu kroz sagledavanje njegovog mesta i uloge u okviru zajedničke standardizacije, koja se realizuje radi dostizanja interoperabilnosti između vojnih snaga zemalja uključenih u evroatlantske integracije. / This paper presents a process of materiel standardization in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization through analysis of its place and role in common standardization process that should achieve interoperability between allied forces.

  10. The Acme of Skill: Nonkinetic Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teo, Cheng H


    .... The insurgency attributes that have characterized many wars since World War II suggest that the objective of warfare has shifted from the kinetic destruction of military forces to the nonkinetic...

  11. Topic modelling in the information warfare domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors provide context to Topic Modelling as an Information Warfare technique. Topic modelling is a technique that discovers latent topics in unstructured and unlabelled collection of documents. The topic structure can be searched...

  12. Prehistoric ceremonial warfare: beginning of institutionalized violence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Jan


    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2017), s. 535-548 ISSN 1555-8622 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : human aggression * ceremonial warfare * archery symbolism * Neolithic * Chalcolithic * Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  13. Mountain Warfare: The Need for Specialist Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Muhammad


    This study focuses on the need for specialist training for mountain warfare. It analyzes the special characteristics of mountain and high altitude terrain which affect conduct of military operations...

  14. On Cyber Warfare Command and Control Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howes, Norman R; Mezzino, Michael; Sarkesain, John


    .... Cyber warfare then becomes a one-sided battle where the attacker makes all the strikes and the target of the attack responds so slowly that the attacker usually gets away without being identified...

  15. Annual Expeditionary Warfare Conference (22nd) (United States)


    Session: Expeditionary Logistics Integration & Expeditionary Medicine Session Co-Chair: Mr. Tom Wetherald, Director Business Development and Strategic...Forces Special Operations Component Command. Mr. thomas Dee, Performing the Duties of the Under secretary of the navy On Feb. 17, 2017, Mr. Tom Dee was...1990) • Col Chip Gregson, “Keeping Up With Navy Doctrine.” MC Gazette, (December 1990) • Maj Tom Waldhauser, “Composite Warfare/Amphibious Warfare

  16. Special Warfare: Restructuring for the Future (United States)


    Boston, MA: Albert Einstein Institution, 2002, 1-9. Hoffman , Frank. “Hybrid Warfare and Challenges.” Joint Forces Quarterly, Issue 52, 1st Quarter...20 Robert Helvey. On Strategic Nonviolence Conflict: Thinking About the Fundamentals. Boston, MA: Albert Einstein Institution, 2002, 2-3...important as the future of warfare becomes increasingly “characterized by uncertainty.”28 As Frank Hoffman has commented, success in hybrid wars will

  17. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo......The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition...

  18. On the Probability of Predicting and Mapping Traditional Warfare Measurements to the Cyber Warfare Domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M


    Full Text Available Cyber warfare is a contentious topic, with no agreement on whether this is a real possibility or an unrealistic extension of the physical battlefield. This article will not debate the validity and legality of the concept of cyber warfare...

  19. The impact of warfare on the soil environment (United States)

    Certini, Giacomo; Scalenghe, Riccardo; Woods, William I.


    One of the most dramatic ways humans can affect soil properties is through the performance of military activities. Warfare-induced disturbances to soil are basically of three types - physical, chemical, and biological - and are aimed at causing direct problems to enemies or, more often, are indirect, undesired ramifications. Physical disturbances to soil include sealing due to building of defensive infrastructures, excavation of trenches or tunnels, compaction by traffic of machinery and troops, or cratering by bombs. Chemical disturbances consist of the input of pollutants such as oil, heavy metals, nitroaromatic explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, dioxins from herbicides, or radioactive elements. Biological disturbances occur as unintentional consequences of the impact on the physical and chemical properties of soil or the deliberate introduction of microorganisms lethal to higher animals and humans such as botulin or anthrax. Soil represents a secure niche where such pathogens can perpetuate their virulence for decades.

  20. United States Army Medical Materiel Development Activity - 1989 (United States)


    arteether, in sesame oil) to include stability studies . Preformulation studies (chemical characterization) on ribavirin and AVS 206 will be initiated. An...agreed to conduct a Pilot Study to verify the feasibility of incorporating the CAPMI antemortem dental data base into DEERS. o The concept of an Externally...2Q90. * The Pilot Study for determining the feasibility of incorporating the Computer-Assisted Postmortem Identification (CAPRI) dental data base into

  1. Towards a framework for a network warfare capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N


    Full Text Available by many, there is a need for a more structured approach to understanding the various techniques required for a network warfare capability. A conceptual framework describing the most important network warfare techniques and considerations is proposed...

  2. Cyber Attacks, Information Attacks, and Postmodern Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valuch Jozef


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate and differentiate between the phenomena of cyberwarfare and information warfare, as manifestations of what we perceive as postmodern warfare. We describe and analyse the current examples of the use the postmodern warfare and the reactions of states and international bodies to these phenomena. The subject matter of this paper is the relationship between new types of postmodern conflicts and the law of armed conflicts (law of war. Based on ICJ case law, it is clear that under current legal rules of international law of war, cyber attacks as well as information attacks (often performed in the cyberspace as well can only be perceived as “war” if executed in addition to classical kinetic warfare, which is often not the case. In most cases perceived “only” as a non-linear warfare (postmodern conflict, this practice nevertheless must be condemned as conduct contrary to the principles of international law and (possibly a crime under national laws, unless this type of conduct will be recognized by the international community as a “war” proper, in its new, postmodern sense.

  3. U.S. Army Medical Materiel Development Activity 1991 Annual Report (United States)


    K) is an updated field bacteriological test kit to detect and quantify coliforms in water samples within four to six hours. This kit will include...Aberdeen, MD, September 1991. Roy, Michael J. Efficacy of Bovine Milk Immunoglobulin Concentrate in Preventing Illness After Shigella flexneri Challenge...FRflFPftr!K. MD 2170.2-5012i’- ~U S. -- RMY - its- s,••••o h I I In I I 3 U.S. ARMY ME2DICAL MATERIEL DEVELOPME~NT ACTIVITY I1991 ANNUAL REPORT I I al

  4. A methodology for the quantification of doctrine and materiel approaches in a capability-based assessment (United States)

    Tangen, Steven Anthony

    Due to the complexities of modern military operations and the technologies employed on today's military systems, acquisition costs and development times are becoming increasingly large. Meanwhile, the transformation of the global security environment is driving the U.S. military's own transformation. In order to meet the required capabilities of the next generation without buying prohibitively costly new systems, it is necessary for the military to evolve across the spectrum of doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF). However, the methods for analyzing DOTMLPF approaches within the early acquisition phase of a capability-based assessment (CBA) are not as well established as the traditional technology design techniques. This makes it difficult for decision makers to decide if investments should be made in materiel or non-materiel solutions. This research develops an agent-based constructive simulation to quantitatively assess doctrine alongside materiel approaches. Additionally, life-cycle cost techniques are provided to enable a cost-effectiveness trade. These techniques are wrapped together in a decision-making environment that brings crucial information forward so informed and appropriate acquisition choices can be made. The methodology is tested on a future unmanned aerial vehicle design problem. Through the implementation of this quantitative methodology on the proof-of-concept study, it is shown that doctrinal changes including fleet composition, asset allocation, and patrol pattern were capable of dramatic improvements in system effectiveness at a much lower cost than the incorporation of candidate technologies. Additionally, this methodology was able to quantify the precise nature of strong doctrine-doctrine and doctrine-technology interactions which have been observed only qualitatively throughout military history. This dissertation outlines the methodology and demonstrates how potential

  5. Survey on Urban Warfare Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You


    Full Text Available Urban warfare has become one of the main forms of modern combat in the twenty-first century. The main reason why urban warfare results in hundreds of casualties is that the situational information of the combatant is insufficient. Accessing information via an Augmented Reality system can elevate combatants’ situational awareness to effectively improve the efficiency of decision-making and reduce the injuries. This paper begins with the concept of Urban Warfare Augmented Reality (UWAR and illuminates the objectives of developing UWAR, i.e., transparent battlefield, intuitional perception and natural interaction. Real-time outdoor registration, information presentation and natural interaction are presented as key technologies of a practical UWAR system. Then, the history and current research state of these technologies are summarized and their future developments are highlighted from three perspectives, i.e., (1 Better integration with Geographic Information System and Virtual Geographic Environment; (2 More intelligent software; (3 More powerful hardware.

  6. Mongol Warfare in the Pre-Dissolution Period »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy May


    Full Text Available Although the Mongols used many of the tactics and strategies that steppe nomads had used for centuries, the Mongols refined steppe warfare so that this style of warfare reached its apogee during the Mongol Empire. Furthermore, the Mongols developed a style of warfare that made them possibly the greatest military force in history. This work examines several facets of the pre-dissolution period (1200–1260. With the dissolution of the Mongol Empire, Mongol warfare once again changed. In some areas it remained complex while in others it regressed to traditional forces of steppe warfare, still potent but not as effective as the pre-dissolution period.

  7. Physical Readiness Testing of Surface Warfare Officers (United States)



  8. Cognitive systems in electronic warfare (United States)

    Kulpa, Krzysztof; Szczepankiewicz, Michał; Żywek, Marcin; Malanowski, Mateusz; Misiurewicz, Jacek; Samczyński, Piotr


    Electronic warfare (EW) techniques were invented 70 years ago and are still being developed, all the time with a key role played by their operators. However, a human operator responds far too slowly for the on-going needs since to be adequate to current threats the EW system reaction should be within 1 ms or less. Too slow reaction defers an achievement of the objectives, and generally may lead to disclosure of the applied strategy and to waste of resources. Developing the adequate response to the threat is a multifaceted matter that requires considerable experience and knowledge on the one hand, and thorough observation of outcomes of the applied strategy on the other hand. Such action requires the use of not only intelligence but also more complex algorithms for automatic control than the classical ones, and it heavily builds on the experience. It is therefore a cognitive task in its nature, and a human operator acts naturally this way. Consequently, a proper training and experience gained are what really matters. As a result of tests and actions in EW the operator builds his own knowledge base, thus, gains a capability of responding to the known threats in a balanced way. New threats, however, are much more challenging since they should be handled as fast as possible but in a fresh and creative manner. To this end, adapting the algorithms of radar jamming protection for the new conditions of the battlefield is an example of such challenging tasks. At present, such adjustments are done in a long feedback loop when the operator, after recognizing the problem, notifies the equipment manufacturers, and then, their engineers work on required solutions accordingly. Thus, the reaction time is counted in years, not a single milliseconds or seconds. Speeding up the response time is therefore the key issue, and a solution to it would be feasible only when cognitive systems were used. A concept of such cognitive system is presented in this paper.

  9. Warfare tourism experiences and national identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, Joost; Ong, Chin Ee


    This paper examines through an analysis of Dutch warfare tourism whether there is a relationship between the subjective perceived salience of Dutch identity and heritage tourists’ motives, emotions and overall satisfaction. Using a social identity theory framework, this study provides a view of

  10. Mesoporous manganese oxide for warfare agents degradation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Králová, Daniela; Opluštil, F.; Němec, T.


    Roč. 156, JULY (2012), s. 224-232 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA MPO FI-IM5/231 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : homogeneous hydrolysis * chloroacetamide * manganese(IV) oxide * warfare agents Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.365, year: 2012

  11. Information Warfare Officer Retention: Using a Capabilities-based Assessment to Solve Retention Issues (United States)


    Family Benefits Homosexuality Patriotism Medical Lack of Other Opportunity Retirement Time Deployed Failed to Select Table 4. Career...materiel solution cannot discriminate by gender, race, or prior enlisted status. This section will provide materiel and/or non-materiel solutions a lower-paying job with all the attendant relocations and mismanagement that come with staying Navy. There should be more equity in pay for

  12. AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series. Volume 17. Electronic Warfare Test and Evaluation. (Les Essais et l’Evaluation du Materiel de Guerre Electronique) (United States)


    potential to be does not make any reference to the equipment used, but rather serviceable and supportable in the field. These qualities are is confined to a...the C41 contributions ofjoint- Service no longer be considered solely a tool for determining EW (i.e., Army-Air Force-Navy) and allied forces operations...preto torecaste performacemints Resut% atddsign pltantesing tots maium prdciiydniy problem aes and Sofware eopoet/subsystern performance, and use

  13. Containment 2.0: U.S. political warfare


    Alexander, Nicole M.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Contemporary Russia has shown an increasing preference for using Cold War–era political warfare techniques, which are deeply rooted in its doctrine and foreign policies. To date, the U.S. response comprises the conventional military aspects of the Cold War–era deterrence and containment rather than political warfare strategies. Exploring previous U.S. experience in political warfare activities—under the broad categories of strategic in...

  14. Book Review: Composite warfare: the conduct of successful ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Composite warfare: the conduct of successful ground force operations in Africa. Book Author: Eeben Barlow. Pinetown: 30 Degrees South Publishers. 2015, 576 pages. ISBN 9781928211761.

  15. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.


    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  16. Cyber Warfare: New Character with Strategic Results (United States)


    government property.”12 Applying these standards to cyberspace is contentious in the international community since millions of cyber attacks transpire daily...forces and creating additional hostility. At its very nature cyber warfare can be both coercive and destructive. “At the strategic level, cyber attacks the state is an armed attack.”42 Other interpretations require a higher threshold for invoking Article 51. “[O]nly large scale cyber attacks on

  17. Electronic Warfare in Army Models - A Survey. (United States)



  18. Russia’s Approach to Cyber Warfare (United States)


    warfare domain in its own right. Ideally, it is to be employed as part of a whole of government effort, along with other, more traditional, weapons of...4 even days, be transformed into an arena of fierce armed conflict, become a victim of foreign intervention, and sink into a web of chaos...Russian military is a relative latecomer to the cyber arena. For many years, cyber was the exclusive domain of the state’s security services. The

  19. Recent Trends in Thinking about Warfare (United States)


    as a pikeman), the flintlock, the iron ramrod, and mechanical production, coupled with the discovery of cheap sources of nitrates (which technologies that provide cheap WMD-like capabilities, and the vulnerabilities offered by physical, cultural, social, economic, and political...context in Peter P. Perla, Albert A. Nofi, and Michael C. Markowitz, Wargaming Fourth-Generation Warfare, Sep 2006 ( CRM D0014752.A2/Final). 83 Aryan

  20. Training Practices for Surface Warfare Junior Officers (United States)


    What some saw as spoon feeding , others saw as a lack of standards and goals. The issue is also worth considering in light of the changing values of the...NPS-GSBPP-12-004 NAVAL POSTGRADATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA Approved for public release; distribution is...unlimited Prepared for Naval Postgraduate School , Monterey, California 93943 TRAINING PRACTICES FOR SURFACE WARFARE JUNIOR OFFICERS by William R

  1. Hybrid Warfare: Preparing for Future Conflict (United States)

    2015-02-17 conversation/obama-foreign-policy-transcript. Zedong , Mao . On Protracted War. Honolulu: University...warfare in Ukraine represents a threat to state sovereignty in Eastern Europe, where, like Ukraine, many states have large Russian minority populations ...adjust as well. Conventional and unconventional military actions, such as targeting military supply routes and protecting the population , must occur at

  2. Soviet Partisan Warfare: Integral to the Whole, (United States)


    partisan forces. They also saw partisan warfare as more than a military tool. Its influence was potent for propaganda use and for assuring continued...corefully selected for political reliability and partisan bands themselves were subjected to intense pro-Soviet propaganda . The risks involved in...John Erickson. The Soviet High Command. A_____________________ Military- Politica ~l History. 1918-1941. Boulder, Colorado: * Westview Press, 1962, p. 6.i

  3. Hybrid Warfare: Implications for CAF Force Development (United States)


    objective,” p.603 in Peter Paret and Michael Howard , eds., trans., Carl von Clausewitz, On War. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976...and Michael Howard , eds., trans., Carl von Clausewitz, On War. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976. Royal Canadian Navy, Horizon 2050: A...The Winograd Commission) (Government of Israel), Final Report, January 2008. Thornton, Rod, Asymmetric Warfare, Malden MA: 2007. Tse- Tung , Mao, On

  4. Toward Operational Art in Special Warfare: Appendixes (United States)


    groups to endure great hardship and work toward a common goal of driving out the infidel to defend their faith. Insights for special warfare Nuclear... financing , and the International Military Education and Training program (IMET). These programs are typically authorized and funded by DoS and executed...Organizations at U.S. embassies. In par- allel, the Security Assistance Organizations also submit requests through the foreign military financing /IMET

  5. Torpedoes and Their Impact on Naval Warfare (United States)


    torpedo shell, and, as it pumped the water out through a hole in the rear, thrust was produced. This was surely the first jet -propelled torpedo...reduced from 46 to 2 kilograms per torpedo. The amounts of copper and tin used were substantially reduced. The cost and labor hours were cut in...unrestricted warfare against merchant shipping to cut sea lines of communications forcefully demonstrated the strategic significance of the torpedo as

  6. Expression of Membrane-Bound Human AminopeptidaseP as a Soluble Enzyme and an Investigation into Its Efficacy Towards Offering Protection Against the Toxicity of Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents (United States)


    provided food and water ad libitum. Mice (n=6) were injected with 2 × 1011 viral particles of Ad-shmAPP or Ad-null per mouse via the tail vein. Prior...Interact, 2010. 187(1-3): p. 349-54. 10. Hsu, Y.T., et al., Evaluation of organophosphorus chemicals- degrading enzymes: a comparison of Escherichia coli...against the toxicity of the organophosphorus pesticide toxicant diazoxon. Gene Ther, 2011. 18(3): p. 250-7. 22. Broomfield, C.A., et al., Protection

  7. Relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article illustrates the relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure protection. Analogies of information warfare models to those of information security and information systems were used to deconstruct the models into their fundamental components and this will be discussed. The models were applied ...

  8. Integrating MRP (materiel requirements planning) II and JIT to achieve world-class status. (United States)

    Titone, R C


    The concepts and principles of using manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) for planning are not new. Their success has been proven in numerous manufacturing companies in America. The concepts and principles of using just-in-time (JIT) inventory for execution, while more recent, have also been available for some time, and their success in Japan well documented. However, it is the effective integration of these two powerful tools that open the way to achieving world-class manufacturing status. This article will utilize a newly developed world-class manufacturing model, which will review the aspects of planning, beginning with a business plan through the production planning process and culminating with a master schedule that drives a materiel/capacity plan. The importance and interrelationship of these functions are reviewed. The model then illustrates the important aspects of executing these plans beginning with people issues, through total quality control (TQC) and pull systems. We will then utilize this new functional model to demonstrate the relationship between these various functions and the importance of integrating them with a total comprehensive manufacturing strategy that will lead to world-class manufacturing and profits.

  9. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan


    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  10. Navy Operational Planner - Undersea Warfare Module (United States)


    CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT Unclassified 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU NSN 7540–01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2–89) Prescribed by ANSI...Convergence Zone DP Direct Path HVU High Value Unit MCM Mine Sweeper MIW Mine Warfare NMP Navy Mission Planner NOP Navy Operational Planner NOP–USW...Illustrated in Figure 1 is a piecewise linear from of the equation 1 tAchievement e   , where Achievement is the probability that a mine field

  11. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A


    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  12. Microwave receivers with electronic warfare applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, James


    This book by the author of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers willbe like no other one on your book shelf as the definitive word on electronicwarfare (EW) receiver design and performance. Whether you are an EWscientist involved in the test and evaluation of EW receivers or a designerof RWR's and other EW-related receivers, Microwave Receivers withElectronic Warfare Applications is a handy reference through which you canperfect your technical art. Lucidly written, this book is a treatise on EWreceivers that is relevant to you if you are just looking for a top-levelinsight into EW receive

  13. Combustion Diagnostics for Understanding and Monitoring Chemical Weapons Incineration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cool, Terrill


    .... Laboratory studies of the destruction of chemical warfare agent simulants have been performed under air-starved pyrolysis conditions, rich and lean flame mode destruction conditions, and flame radical attack conditions...

  14. The Chemical Weapons Convention: Strategic Implications for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vogel, Frederick


    ... the U.S. national security interest. The author explores the historical, moral, and legal aspects of chemical warfare, and the strategic implications of the convention, including operational, policy, Constitutional, and industry impact...


    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service


    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  16. Natural Attenuation of the Persistent Chemical Warfare Agent ... (United States)

    Report This project studied the influence of temperature on the natural attenuation of VX from five types of porous/permeable materials: unsealed concrete, plywood, rubber escalator handrail, high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic, and acoustic ceiling tile.

  17. Potassium Ferrate: A Novel Chemical Warfare Agent Decontaminant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Russell; von Fahnestock, F. M; Monzyk, Bruce


    ..., and/or unsatisfactory CWA destruction efficiencies. Potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) addresses all of these issues through its high oxidation potential, stable shelf life, and benign reduced state, namely iron oxide...

  18. Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes for protection from chemical warfare stimulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaseshan, Ramakrishnan; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Liu, Yingjun; Barhate, R S; Lala, Neeta L; Ramakrishna, S


    A catalyst for the detoxification of nerve agents is synthesized from β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA). Functionalized polymer nanofibre membranes from PVC polymer are fabricated with β-CD, IBA, a blend of β-CD+IBA, and the synthesized catalyst. These functionalized nanofibres are then tested for the decontamination of paraoxon, a nerve agent stimulant, and it is observed that the stimulant gets hydrolysed. The kinetics of hydrolysis is investigated using UV spectroscopy. The rates of hydrolysis for different organophosphate hydrolyzing agents are compared. The reactivity and amount of adsorption of these catalysts are of higher capacity than the conventionally used activated charcoal. A new design for protective wear is proposed based on the functionalized nanofibre membrane

  19. Fate and Transport of Chemical Warfare Agents VX and HD ... (United States)

    Report The intent of this investigation was to study the fate and transport of CWA applied to painted/sealed materials including the potential partitioning of CWA into permeable paints/sealants and subsequently into underlying porous materials. Based on the results obtained from this investigation, VX and sulfur mustard (HD) have the ability to permeate into paints and sealants, including in some cases the underlying porous materials. It is likely that other permeable materials besides paints and sealants may also show similar behavior.

  20. Surface Acoustic Wave Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)


    diisopropylamino)ethyl]- methylphosphonothioate (VX), all organophosphorous compounds, and bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (HD), an organosulfur compound. The...the SAW device to the presence of HD, the only organosulfur compound that was tested, is shown in Table 6. Because no organosulfur simulants had

  1. Reactivity of Dual-Use Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)


    Markers, Inc.; Huntington Beach, CA) 9.5 M Windex (S.C. Johnson; Racine, WI) 10.8 —: not measured. 4 Table 2. Listing of Formulations...control, reference technology, or alternate treatment condition). For example, the calculation can indicate if and by how much a hazard mitigation...i.e., if CI > LDR), the evaluated decontaminant did not change the agent concentration during the reaction residence period. Treatment of the

  2. Biodegradation of Organophosphate Chemical Warfare Agents by Activated Sludge (United States)


    enzyme acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and thus may alter the human nervous system or affect the hormonal balance of children in particular. In the... hormonal balance of children in particular (Pehkonen & Zhang, 2002). The most toxic organophosphorus CWAs include tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD...Res. 42, 3146, 3152. Yi, T., & Harper, W. F. (2007). The link between nitrification and biotransformation of 17 a-ethinylestradiol. Environmental

  3. High-sensitivity photoacoustic detection of chemical warfare agents (United States)

    Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Webber, Michael E.; MacDonald, Tyson; Patel, C. Kumar N.


    We report sensitive and selective detection of Diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) - a decomposition product of Sarin and a common surrogate for the nerve gases - in presence of several gases expected to be interferences in an urban setting. By employing photoacosutic spectroscopy with broadly tunable CO2 laser as a radiation source we demonstrate detection sensitivity for DIMP in the presence of these interferences of better than 0.5 ppb in 60 second long measurement time, which satisfies most current homeland and military security requirements and validates the photoacoustic spectroscopy as a powerful technology for nerve gas sensing instrumentation.

  4. Eye injuries in twentieth century warfare: a historical perspective. (United States)

    Wong, T Y; Seet, M B; Ang, C L


    With successive wars in the twentieth century, there has been a relative increase in injuries to the eye compared to injuries of other parts of the body. The main causes of eye injury have changed with advances in techniques and weaponry of warfare, with blast fragmentation injuries accounting for 50-80% of cases. Penetrating and perforating injuries are most common, and injuries associated with intraocular foreign bodies pose special diagnostic and management problems. Injuries are bilateral in 15-25% of cases. Injuries associated with chemical, nuclear, and laser weapons have distinct characteristics and epidemiology. Enucleation was commonly performed at the turn of the century, but incidence has declined with better understanding of the pathophysiology of ocular trauma, improved surgical techniques and sepsis control with antibiotics. Sympathetic ophthalmia appears to be uncommon and earlier fears of this complication seem to have been exaggerated. Timely evacuation to a surgical facility is important for a good visual prognosis and preservation of the globe. However, prevention of injuries with eye armor is ultimately the best management, and the need for a comprehensive eye protection program in the military cannot be overemphasized, especially since eye injuries pose important socioeconomic, as well as medical, problems.

  5. Managing the Double Edged Sword of Network-Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wells, David


    Network Centric Warfare can tend to collapse the operational level war by allowing information to flow around or past hierarchical staff structures and directly between tactical and strategic level decision makers...

  6. Mine Warfare - The Joint Force Commander's Achilles Heel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochran, Bryan


    ... Countermeasures systems resident within Strike Groups to counter enemy mine laying activities. Additionally, the Navy needs to transform its culture and mainstream the full spectrum of MIW to include naval mining and countermine warfare capabilities...

  7. Echoes of Chechnya Warfare Resound in Moscow, Quantico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ackerman, Robert


    .... thinking about urban warfare. After suffering stunning public defeats just a few years ago, Russian forces applied painful lessons learned then to drive Chechen forces out of their capital city, Grozny, this year...

  8. Organizing for Irregular Warfare: Implications for the Brigade Combat Team

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burgess, Kenneth J


    ... operations in 21st-century irregular environments. The author argues that Infantry Brigade Combat Teams would be better optimized for the challenges of irregular warfare through structural changes that decentralize resources...

  9. Irregular Warfare: Impact on Future Professional Military Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paschal, David G


    ... to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment. The utility of a decisive war between nation states continues to decline and will eventually reach critical mass based upon the extreme imbalance of military power and a U.S. monopoly...

  10. Design and implementation of intelligent electronic warfare decision making algorithm (United States)

    Peng, Hsin-Hsien; Chen, Chang-Kuo; Hsueh, Chi-Shun


    Electromagnetic signals and the requirements of timely response have been a rapid growth in modern electronic warfare. Although jammers are limited resources, it is possible to achieve the best electronic warfare efficiency by tactical decisions. This paper proposes the intelligent electronic warfare decision support system. In this work, we develop a novel hybrid algorithm, Digital Pheromone Particle Swarm Optimization, based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA). We use PSO to solve the problem and combine the concept of pheromones in ACO to accumulate more useful information in spatial solving process and speed up finding the optimal solution. The proposed algorithm finds the optimal solution in reasonable computation time by using the method of matrix conversion in SFLA. The results indicated that jammer allocation was more effective. The system based on the hybrid algorithm provides electronic warfare commanders with critical information to assist commanders in effectively managing the complex electromagnetic battlefield.

  11. Fourth Generation Warfare: The Need for a Comprehensive Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benton, LeRoy D


    .... A definition of Fourth Generation Warfare is developed, based on Col. Thomas X. Hammes' writings. The definition is further developed to show relevance and applicability to current operations in the Long War on Terrorism...

  12. Information Warfare: Defining the Legal Response to An Attack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pottorff, James


    This paper discusses the difficulty in determining whether an information warfare attack, such as a computer virus, can be treated as an "armed attack" for purposes of national defense under the United Nations charter. As the U.S...

  13. The Role of Airpower in Urban Warfare. An Airman's Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saffold, Timothy


    .... This emphasis on surface force employment stifles innovative thought as to how military forces can achieve operational and strategic effects by employing airpower as the key instrument of force in urban warfare...

  14. State of the Art Report on Drone-Based Warfare


    Lee-Morrison, Lila


    State of the art report on the latest cultural discourse and debate over contemporary forms of drone based warfare. primarily resulting from the disciplines of Law, Political Science, and Geography. 2014.

  15. Fourth Generation Warfare: The Need for a Comprehensive Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benton, LeRoy D


    ... to defeat its enemies in the Long War on Terrorism. The method used to resolve this issue was to frame the scope of the current operating environment in the context of Fourth Generation Warfare...

  16. Irregular Warfare: Special Operations Joint Professional Military Education Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannady, Bryan H


    ... on today's battlefront in Afghanistan and Iraq and in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). At the forefront of the GWOT and irregular warfare are the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM...

  17. A Proposed Framework for Network-Centric Maritime Warfare Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klingbeil, Ralph


    .... In addition, this report demonstrates how the functions of many of the independent and dependent variables and associated warfare metrics can be translated into the characteristics and metrics of queues.

  18. Enabling Technologies for Point and Remote Sensing of Chemical and Biological Agents Using Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Techniques (United States)


    chemicals: brilliant cresyl blue ( BCB ; Sigma), phenylalanine (PHE; Sigma), diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP; Sigma), dimethyl methylphosphonate...microscopy BCB brilliant cresyl blue CBW Chemical and biological warfare CCD charged coupled device COTS commercial-off-the-shelf CT charge transfer

  19. Motivation and requirements for determining a Network Warfare Capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N


    Full Text Available , whereas in the latter, an assessment is given of the current state of Network Warfare skills. This assessment can involve expert opinion, controls and guidelines. According to Bragg et al, an assessment is not an audit, which is used to test compliance... approach to ensure conformance to established guidelines. The difference between network security auditing and determining a Network Warfare Capability is that network security auditing evaluates compliance with controls in a very detailed manner...

  20. The theory of unconventional warfare win, lose, and draw


    DeFeyter, Bruce E.


    Clausewitz states that "The defensive form of warfare is intrinsically stronger than the offense" and to defeat 'the stronger form of warfare' "an army's best weapon is superior numbers." Given these two facts, how do special operations forces defeat numerically superior forces fighting in the defense? William H. McRaven's book, Spec Ops, lays out a theory of special operations and six principles that are "applicable across the spectrum of special operations" (McRaven, 1995, p. 3). McRav...

  1. Cyberspace Warfare: A New DoD Core Mission Area (United States)


    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Joint Forces Staff College REPORT NUMBER Joint Advanced Warfighting...According to Andrew F. Krepinevich cyberspace warfare is defined as: The actions by nation-states and non-state actors to penetrate computers or... actors conducting cyberspace operations in, through, and from cyberspace as a 1 Andrew F. Krepinevich, “Cyber Warfare: A Nuclear Option,” Center for

  2. Dirty Fighting: How to Counter Total Warfare Mentality (United States)


    sustained British security discipline, support for the main PIRA dirty fighting weapon (unannounced bombings) began to turn against them. This was... DIRTY FIGHTING: HOW TO COUNTER TOTAL WARFARE MENTALITY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and... Dirty Fighting: How to Counter Total Warfare Mentality 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Major

  3. Information Warfare, Threats and Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Nikolaevich Bespalov


    Full Text Available The article presents the opposite, but dependent on each other's reality - Revolutionary War information,information security goals and objectives of their study within the scheme "challenge-response", methodological and analytical support, the role of elites and the information society in promoting information security. One of the features of contemporaneityis the global spread of ICT, combined with poor governance and other difficulties in the construction of innovation infrastructures that are based on them in some countries. This leads to the reproduction of threats, primarily related to the ability to use ICT for purposes that are inconsistent with the objectives of maintaining international peace and security, compliance with the principles of non-use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of states, etc. In this regard, include such terms as "a threat of information warfare", "information terrorism" and so forth. Information warfare, which stay in the policy declared the struggle for existence, and relationships are defined in terms of "friend-enemy", "ours-foreign". Superiority over the opponent or "capture of its territory" is the aim of political activity. And information security, serving activities similar process of political control, including a set of components, is a technology until their humanitarian. From the context and the decision itself is the ratio of the achieved results of information and political influence to the target - a positive image of Russia. Bringing its policy in line with the demands of a healthy public opinion provides conductivity of theauthorities initiatives in the country and increases the legitimacy of the Russian Federation actions in the world.

  4. Understanding the elementary considerations in a network warfare environment: an introductory framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N


    Full Text Available by many, there is a need for a more structured approach to understanding the various techniques required for a network warfare capability. A conceptual framework describing the most important network warfare techniques and considerations is proposed...

  5. The 2006 Lebanon Campaign and the Future of Warfare: Implications for Army and Defense Policy (United States)


    ground, see, e.g., Mao Tse-Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, Samuel B. Griffith, trans., Mineola, NY: Dover, 2005, pp. 52, 97, 102; Ernesto Guevara...Guerrilla Warfare, Old Chelsea, NY: Ocean Press, 2006, pp. 20, 22, 26; Ian F.W. Beckett , Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies, New York...Clodfelter, Warfare and Armed Conflicts, pp. 689-690, 696, 712, 757-759). 15. See, e.g., Mao, On Guerrilla Warfare, pp. 55-57, 113; Beckett , Modern

  6. Detection of warfare agents in liquid foods using the brine shrimp lethality assay. (United States)

    Lumor, Stephen E; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Labuza, Theodore P


    The brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) was used for rapid and non-specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents at concentrations considerably below that which will cause harm to humans. Warfare agents detected include T-2 toxin, trimethylsilyl cyanide, and commercially available pesticides such as dichlorvos, diazinon, dursban, malathion, and parathion. The assay was performed by introducing 50 μL of milk or orange juice contaminated with each analyte into vials containing 10 freshly hatched brine shrimp nauplii in seawater. This was incubated at 28 °C for 24 h, after which mortality was determined. Mortality was converted to probits and the LC(50) was determined for each analyte by plotting probits of mortality against analyte concentration (log(10)). Our findings were the following: (1) the lethal effects of toxins dissolved in milk were observed, with T-2 toxin being the most lethal and malathion being the least, (2) except for parathion, the dosage (based on LC(50)) of analyte in a cup of milk (200 mL) consumed by a 6-y-old (20 kg) was less than the respective published rat LD(50) values, and (3) the BSLA was only suitable for detecting toxins dissolved in orange juice if incubation time was reduced to 6 h. Our results support the application of the BSLA for routine, rapid, and non-specific prescreening of liquid foods for possible sabotage by an employee or an intentional bioterrorist act. Practical Application: The findings of this study strongly indicate that the brine shrimp lethality assay can be adapted for nonspecific detection of warfare agents or toxins in food at any point during food production and distribution.

  7. Chemical munitions dumped at sea (United States)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek


    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  8. Russian New Art of Hybrid Warfare in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnáková Soňa


    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to analyse the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. For the purposes of the paper, the theory of hybrid warfare was chosen as an analytical category. Throughout the paper, the concept of hybrid warfare is examined and applied on case study of Crimean annexation. Hybrid warfare, especially in connection with Russian actions in Crimea has been an intensely debated concept. There is an ongoing debate among scholars concerning the meaning of the concept, its existence and employment by the Russian Federation. This paper showed that the article of Valeriy Gerasimov – the incumbent Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Federation-invoked a new warfare strategy for the Russian Federation which was consequently for the very first time in its full spectre and effectivity employed on case of Crimean annexation in March 2014. Observing the application of the hybrid warfare in practice serves the purposes of countering its further potential application in post-Soviet space and Russian ‘near abroad’.

  9. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kuizhi


    Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.

  10. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism. (United States)

    Barras, V; Greub, G


    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  11. 78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8460] Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria... Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22 U.S.C. 5604(a), that the Government of Syria has used...: (1) Determined that the Government of Syria has used chemical weapons in violation of international...

  12. Chemically-functionalized microcantilevers for detection of chemical, biological and explosive material (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Gilbert M [Knoxville, TN; Hawk, John Eric [Olive Branch, MS; Boiadjiev, Vassil I [Knoxville, TN


    A chemically functionalized cantilever system has a cantilever coated on one side thereof with a reagent or biological species which binds to an analyte. The system is of particular value when the analyte is a toxic chemical biological warfare agent or an explosive.

  13. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)


    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  14. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengl, Vaclav; Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas


    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr 4+ dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr 4+ converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  15. The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Storm


    The abstract has the title: “The Cycle of Warfare - Analysis of an Analytical Model” The Cycle of Warfare is an analytical model designed to illustrate the coherence between the organization, doctrine and technology of a military entity and the influence of the surrounding society as expressed...... both retrospectively and predictively. As a tool for historians the model can help to identify decisive factors in developments and outcomes. As a tool for intelligence analysts, it can be used predictively to identify likely possible outcomes or unknown elements in analysed entities....

  16. Media Technologies and Their Role in the Information Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Александрович Федоров


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the new role of the mass media in the modern information space, the basic techniques and technologies of focused preparation, semantic distortion and emotional coloring of the transmitted information. The value of the mass media is estimated as the main weapon of the information warfare in the modern geopolitical space. Specific examples and techniques for manipulating information.

  17. Influence Operations in Insurgencies: Identifying Framing Strategies for Special Warfare (United States)


    Military Information Support Operations MAR Minorities at Risk MAROB Minorities at Risk Organizational Behavior POQC Psychological Operations...and others use religious violence as a form of cleansing to eradicate “ infidels .”16 While individuals who are motivated by visions of the...indigenous personnel for Special Warfare through psychological and cognitive means. The Military Information Support Operations Command (MISOC) mission

  18. Anti-submarine warfare with continuously active sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, R. van; Beerens, S.P.; Spek, E. van der


    Existing surveillance sonar systems for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) use a pulsed sonar deployed at a low duty cycle. Continuously active sonar (CAS) is of special interest since the technique could provide better detection performance than conventional pulsed sonar, and it will provide the operator

  19. The Ottawa Treaty and Coalition Warfare: An Unholy Alliance?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weddle, Kevin


    ...) on our ability to execute successful coalition warfare. This paper describes the serious implications for NATO and Coalition operations in view of the bulk of our Allies signing the Ottawa Treaty banning the use of all anti-personnel landmines (APLs...

  20. The political economy of warfare in nineteeth century Benin kingdom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines how the interactions of politics and economy influenced the changing perspective on warfare in nineteenth century Benin Kingdom. The study investigates how the combined political and economic behaviour of Benin affected the rebuilding of military power as instrument of political policy in furtherance ...

  1. blitzkrieg to desert storm: the evolution of operational warfare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    disease of stalemates infecting militaries before the Second World War. The invasion did not change the world; instead, it brought about an increased awareness of the importance of the operational level of war, a dimension of warfare previously neglected. The German operational effectiveness represented an evolution ...

  2. relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    not be applicable to every possible scenario; however, the intention is to illustrate their relevance in many .... digital communications system, where the vehicles are analogous to bits or packets, intersections for routers or ..... wireless channel, and negatively impact on the systems that rely on that channel. Electronic warfare.

  3. Management information systems for electronic warfare command and decision support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, B


    Full Text Available information to allow them to manage their own spectrum, to identify threats, and to deny adversaries’ use of the spectrum. In this paper, the concepts of integrated electronic warfare and spectrum battle management are introduced, and the relevant information...

  4. Manoeuvre warfare analysis of South Africa's 1914-1915 German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reported in this article explored the nexus between military theory and history. Military theory attempts to quantify, qualify and illuminate the often unpredictable phenomenon of war. The article consists of two parts: the theory of manoeuvre warfare and the history of the 1914-1915 South African campaign in ...

  5. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.


    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  6. the deployment of soviet chemical forces in afghanistan and south

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Recently chemical warfare has become a most distinct feature of military technique. This can be said after it has been established that the Soviet. Union used chemical agents in South-East Asia and Afghanistan. The first reports dealt with some unexplained deaths among the Hmong people of Laos and shortly ...

  7. The Battle for Hue: Casualty and Disease Rates during Urban Warfare (United States)


    NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER AD-A271 748 THE BATTLE FOR HUE: CASUALTY AND DISEASE RATES DURING URBAN WARFARE C. G. Blood M. E. Anderson DTIC...prior to the first casualties being sustained. 2 The Battle for Flue: Casualty and Disease Rates During Urban Warfare Renewed nationalism with the ending...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The Battle for Hue: Casualty and Disease Rates Program Element: 63706N During Urban Warfare Work Unit Number: 6

  8. Standard operating procedure for air quality stationary source management at Air Force installations in the Air Force Materiel Command

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, C.M.; Ryckman, S.J. [Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Environmental Compliance Branch


    To sustain compliance and avoid future enforcement actions associated with air quality stationary sources and to provide installation commanders with a certification process for Title V permitting, and Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Stationary Source Management has been developed. The SOP consists of two major sections: Stationary Source Planning and Administration, and Stationary Source Operations These two main sections are further subdivided into twelve subsections which delineate requirements (e.g. maintaining inventories, applying for and maintaining permits, keeping records, reporting and certifying compliance) and assign ownership of processes and responsibilities (e.g. appointing a manager/alternate for each identified stationary air source). In addition, the SOP suggests training that should be provided from operator to commander levels to ensure that all personnel involved with a stationary air source are aware of their responsibilities. Implementation of the SOP should provide for the essential control necessary for installation commanders to eliminate stationary air source non-compliance and to certify compliance in accordance with the Title V Operating Permit requirements. This paper will discuss: the background and purpose for the SOPs content, the twelve subsections of the SOP, the success of implementation at various installations, the relevance or the recommended training, the success of negotiating with various labor unions for SOP implementation and the success of the SOP in reference to its intended purpose.

  9. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic.   Check the web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. The lecturer invites comments via email to NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  10. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic. Check the web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.   NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  11. Containment 2.0: U.S. Political Warfare (United States)


    and was intended to ensure the heritage , culture , and languages of ethnic minorities in the Soviet Union were maintained. The secondary objective was... warfare-in-the-gray-zone/. 4 radio messaging, and cultural ...staging a communist coup in Czechoslovakia in early 1948.28 Furthermore, each of these events started with the sponsorship of pro-communist movements

  12. Handbook on Ground Forces Attrition in Modern Warfare (United States)


    Dupuy d ELECTE John R. Brinkerhoff 0 APR 2 81994 C. Curtiss Johnson Peter J. Clark A Division of: DATA MEMORY SYSTEMS, INC. 10332 Democracy Lane Thi...Evaluation and Fe.earch Organization A Division of Data Memory Systems.. Inc. 10392 Democracy Lcne * Fairfax, Virginia 22030 Tel,: (703) 591-36ඒ base touching a variety of aspects of warfare and analyzed it using techniques of the social and behavioral sciences. The work considers

  13. Just War and Postmodern Warfare: A German Case Study (United States)


    non-lethal in equal measure. In many ways, Germany’s Bundeswehr (military) construct and participation in various conflicts mirror contemporary just...war theory and postmodern warfare, while its military concept lacks the necessary postmodern balance. The Bundeswehr stands in stark contrast to...the United States. The Bundeswehr is only employed for the purposes of defending German citizens where the United States military can be employed to

  14. Employing U.S. Information Operations Against Hybrid Warfare Threats (United States)


    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code ) USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Employing U.S. Information Operations Against...hostile computer code through internet infrastructure in multiple countries en route to the target) have enormous legal ramifications. Even within the...59 145 William J. Nemeth , Future War And Chechnya: A Case For Hybrid Warfare, (Monterey CA: Naval Postgraduate School, June 2002), 74. 146 U.S

  15. Information Warfare and Information Operations: Protecting The Global Information Environment. (United States)


    findings in a November 1996 report described by the Wall Street Journal as "unusually strident.൮ It made 13 recommendations, including one for...Funds Moved Around World", The Wall Street Journal , September 12, 1995, p 1. 21 Data Provided By Member of the President’s Commission on Critical...U.S. Department of Defense, April 1997, 230. 38 Thomas E. Ricks, "Information Warfare Defense is Urged", Wall Street Journal , 6 January 1997, Section

  16. Wrestling the Bear: The Rise of Russian Hybrid Warfare (United States)

    2015-04-13 545535275?accountid.:: J2686. (accessed on 4 December 2014). 14 Reuters, " Malaysia : Dutch...with subversive efforts. The aggressor often resorts to clandestine actions, to avoid attribution or retribution. Without a credible smoking gun, NATO...2015. Accessed December 27, 2014. http://www 14/ Also-in-20 14/Deterring-hybrid- warfare/EN/index .htm. Reuters,. ’ Malaysia

  17. Nodes and Codes: The Reality of Cyber Warfare (United States)


    that spin highly toxic, corrosive , and radioactive uranium gas (Uranium Hexafluoride) at over 100,000...Policy for Information Warfare,” Intellibriefs, (accessed February 11, 2012). 81 Marina ...commentary_battlefield_on_your_desktop/2345202.html (accessed December 13, 2011). Myakisheva, Marina . “What is Russia’s Answer to Cyber Threats?”

  18. Enterprises as Inquiring Systems with Implications for Information Warfare (United States)


    applying C. West Churchman’s characterization of Western epistemology , which was born in the tradition of the philosophy of science, in the business... epistemology they most closely resemble. 2.1 Lockian Model The Lockian model bases reasoning on experiment and consensus. Empirical information is gathered...defined as the “integrated employment of the core capabilities of electronic warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military

  19. Russian and Chinese Information Warfare: Theory and Practice (United States)


    Integral neurolinguistic programming •Placing essential programs into the conscious or sub- conscious mind •Subconscious suggestions that modify human...Generators of special rays •Optical systems • Neurolinguistic programming •Computer psychotechnology •The mass media •Audiovisual effects •Special effects...Information Warfare: Theory and Practice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  20. The Prospects for International Terrorist Groups Employing Chemical Weapons (United States)


    will turn to US policy and response to acts of chemical terrorism . We will first examine US policies on chemical warfare defense, deterrence, and...necessary, to deal with an act of chemical terrorism on American soil. The US government has recently enacted laws detailing the federal and state...sponsorship of chemical terrorism . States, which would back such action, are cognizant of the possible destruction they could face if they were tied to the

  1. History of the Chemical Warfare Service in World War II. Biological Warfare Research in the United States, Volume 2 (United States)


    263 Pathogenicity 266 Defensive Research 269 IX BRUCELLOSIS 276 General 276 Selection of Strain 277 Simulant.. m ^ -78 Nutrition ; 2S0...Safety Precautions *. sg^, Production of Inactivated Bovine Tissue Vaccines... 362 Production of Inactivated Egg-Cultivated Virus 365...Serrisc M » C •« e li t\\ a .. 0LU21L. liar Research Service Project # 3 Subject for Research: Brucellosis (Code "US") Location

  2. Marine Corps NBC Warfare: Determining Clinical Supply Requirements for Treatment of Battlefield Casualties from Chemical and Biological Warfare (United States)


    White Phosphorus Injury, Skin Exposure B-1 APPENDIX B NBC Tasks and Supplies First Responder B-2 Appendix B NBC Tasks and...6630015008737 Analyzer Blood Hand-Held 1 EA 6550015008742 Cartridge Analyzer Blood Cc Combo 25S 1 EA 599 SERUM CREATININE 6630014151593 Analyzer...Hospital Field 1 EA 6530000756636 Specimen Kit Urine 500S 1 EA 7520002815895 Stapler Paper Fastening Office Desk Gray 1 EA 7510002729662

  3. 78 FR 72025 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay... (United States)


    ...-AA87 Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay... establishing a new security zone at the Naval Mine and Anti-Submarine Warfare Command to protect the relocated... Commander of Naval Base Point Loma, the Commander of the Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command, and the...

  4. 78 FR 29699 - Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction: Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center... (United States)


    ... Forest Service Transfer of Administrative Jurisdiction: Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center... order authorizing the transfer of administrative jurisdiction from the Department of Agriculture to the..., lying within the Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center and the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest...

  5. Defending Our Satellites: The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training (United States)


    74 | Air & Space Power Journal Defending Our Satellites The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training Lt Col E. Lincoln Bonner, USAF...expanding education and training in the use of electronic warfare to defend US satellites and improve their survivability. The following discussion...Fighting The US military gains a disproportionate advantage over potential adversaries by exploiting space capabilities. Satellites provide an

  6. Application of non-quantitative modelling in the analysis of a network warfare environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N


    Full Text Available Network warfare is an emerging concept that focuses on the network and computer based forms through which information is attacked and defended. Various computer and network security concepts thus play a role in network warfare. Due the intricacy...

  7. U.S. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Air Force Optometry Augmentation Team (FFDOT) (United States)


    PHOROPTER MINUS CYLINDRICAL LENS TYPE EA 1 1 8.50 1.10 $4,774.92 8.50 1.10 $4,774.92 A 6540002998186 PLATE SET PSEUDOISOCHROMATIC PLATE QUANTITY 14 4.5IN...5,810.49 3.00 0.88 $5,810.49 A 6540015053800 STAND TRIPOD FOR PHOROPTER EA 1 1 25.00 2.80 $925.33 25.00 2.80 $925.33 FFDOT Materiel Solutions A-4

  8. Summary of Research 1995, Interdisciplinary Academic Groups (Command, Control & Communications Academic Group, Electronic Warfare Academic Group, Space Systems Academic Group and Undersea Warfare Academic Group)


    Faculty of the Academic Groups


    The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. This report contains information of research projects in the four interdisciplinary groups, Command, Control & Communications Academic Group, Electronic Warfare Academic Group, Space Systems Academic Group and Undersea Warfare Academic Group, which were carried out under funding of the Naval Postgraduate School Research...

  9. Women and Warfare in Pre-Colonial Akokoland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusanya Faboyede


    Full Text Available In pre-colonial Akokoland, the most conspicuous fact about its political economy and peace was security challenges and mismanagement through internal and external manipulation. This paper analyses the role of women in warfare in pre-colonial Akokoland as a potential to integrate Akokoland, a multi-cultural community for productive and sustained effort to promote economic development in the region. Thus, the paper is conceptualised on historical objectivity. The paper argues that one of the ways of dealing with the scale of insecurity in the society is to assimilate historical thinking into the intention of the security agents (women warriors.

  10. Russian Military Thinking – A New Generation of Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattsson Peter A.


    Full Text Available This article deals with how Russian warfighting is described and discussed in contemporary Russian military theory. The approach has been studies, analyses and interpretations of primarily Russian sources as prominent Russian journals, but also Western analyses and interpretations of contemporary Russian warfighting discussions. Theoretical considerations are limited to the period from the 1980s to the present day - 2014. Mainly Russian experts on military theory (Bogdanov, Chekinov, Gareev, Kiselyov, Kuralenko, Morozov, Slipchenko, Vinogradov, Vladimirov, Vorobyov have been studied, but also sources from some prominent Western experts on Russian warfare (FitzGerald, Gileotti, Kipp, McDermott.

  11. Lawfare in Hybrid Wars: The 21st Century Warfare


    Mosquera, A.; Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik


    In the context of ‘Hybrid Warfare’ as 21st Century’s threat to peace and security, this paper intends to address the role of Lawfare. The use of law as a weapon, Lawfare,1can have a tangible impact on democratic States when their adversaries use it in an exploitative way. Lawfare can be used in the context of Hybrid War.2 Examples of Hybrid Warfare as witnessed in the Russian/Ukrainian conflict of 2014/2015 and the ongoing conflict with Daesh are particularly sensitive to Lawfare due to an ap...

  12. Cybersecurity protecting critical infrastructures from cyber attack and cyber warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Thomas A


    The World Economic Forum regards the threat of cyber attack as one of the top five global risks confronting nations of the world today. Cyber attacks are increasingly targeting the core functions of the economies in nations throughout the world. The threat to attack critical infrastructures, disrupt critical services, and induce a wide range of damage is becoming more difficult to defend against. Cybersecurity: Protecting Critical Infrastructures from Cyber Attack and Cyber Warfare examines the current cyber threat landscape and discusses the strategies being used by governments and corporatio

  13. Built to Outlast: Operational Approaches to Hybrid Warfare (United States)


    PAGE 19b. PHONE NUMBER (include area code ) (U) (U) (U) (U) 100 (913)758-3300 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 i...William J. Nemeth , Future War and Chechnya: A Case for Hybrid Warfare (master’s thesis, US Naval Postgraduate School, 2002); Erin M. Simpson...2005). Unpublished papers pre-dating Hoffman’s effort include a 2002 Master’s thesis by William J. Nemeth which represents the earliest scholarly work

  14. Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez, Bolivarian Socialism, and Asymmetric Warfare (United States)


    lead to a better life for all. Finally, taken all together, this is “war as a whole,” or what Chávez calls “ Guerra de todo el pueblo...VENEZUELA’S HUGO CHÁVEZ, BOLIVARIAN SOCIALISM, AND ASYMMETRIC WARFARE Beginning with the election of Lieutenant Colonel Hugo Chávez Frias as, material, and political-military support of people’s movements.31 This takes us to the notion of “ Guerra de todo el pueblo” (war of all

  15. Thermal luminescence spectroscopy chemical imaging sensor. (United States)

    Carrieri, Arthur H; Buican, Tudor N; Roese, Erik S; Sutter, James; Samuels, Alan C


    The authors present a pseudo-active chemical imaging sensor model embodying irradiative transient heating, temperature nonequilibrium thermal luminescence spectroscopy, differential hyperspectral imaging, and artificial neural network technologies integrated together. We elaborate on various optimizations, simulations, and animations of the integrated sensor design and apply it to the terrestrial chemical contamination problem, where the interstitial contaminant compounds of detection interest (analytes) comprise liquid chemical warfare agents, their various derivative condensed phase compounds, and other material of a life-threatening nature. The sensor must measure and process a dynamic pattern of absorptive-emissive middle infrared molecular signature spectra of subject analytes to perform its chemical imaging and standoff detection functions successfully.

  16. Biomarker of Exposure and Mechanism of Action of Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs) (United States)


    exposed individuals resulting from an act of chemical terrorism or industrial or transportation accident involving acrylonitrile. Finally, we...civilian personnel may encounter the challenge of dealing with an exposure to a toxic industrial chemical used in an act of chemical terrorism . Acrylonitrile...large quantities by the chemical industry and is acutely toxic. Preparedness for acts of chemical terrorism and warfare requires that methods be

  17. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare (United States)

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert


    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  18. Challenges of Military Health Service Support in Mountain Warfare. (United States)

    Lechner, Raimund; Küpper, Thomas; Tannheimer, Markus


    History is full of examples of the influence of the mountain environment on warfare. The aim of this article is to identify the main environmental hazards and summarize countermeasures to mitigate the impact of this unique environment. A selective PubMed and Internet search was conducted. Additionally, we searched bibliographies for useful supplemental literature and included the recommendations of the leading mountain medicine and wilderness medicine societies. A definition of mountain warfare mainly derived from environmental influences on body functions is introduced to help identify the main environmental hazards. Cold, rugged terrain, hypoxic exposure, and often a combination and mutual aggravation of these factors are the most important environmental factors of mountain environment. Underestimating this environmental influence has decreased combat strength and caused thousands of casualties during past conflicts. Some marked differences between military and civilian mountaineering further complicate mission planning and operational sustainability. To overcome the restrictions of mountain environments, proper planning and preparation, including sustained mountain mobility training, in-depth mountain medicine training with a special emphasize on prolonged field care, knowledge of acclimatization strategies, adapted time calculations, mountain-specific equipment, air rescue strategies and makeshift evacuation strategies, and thorough personnel selection, are vital to guarantee the best possible medical support. The specifics of managing risks in mountain environments are also critical for civilian rescue missions and humanitarian aid. Copyright © 2018 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hjortdal


    Full Text Available This article presents three reasons for states to use cyber warfare and shows that cyberspace is—and will continue to be—a decisive element in China's strategy to ascend in the international system. The three reasons are: deterrence through infiltration of critical infrastructure; military technological espionage to gain military knowledge; and industrial espionage to gain economic advantage. China has a greater interest in using cyberspace offensively than other actors, such as the United States, since it has more to gain from spying on and deterring the United States than the other way around. The article also documents China's progress in cyber warfare and shows how it works as an extension of its traditional strategic thinking and the current debate within the country. Several examples of cyber attacks traceable to China are also presented. This includes cyber intrusions on a nuclear arms laboratory, attacks on defense ministries (including the Joint Strike Fighter and an airbase and the U.S. electric grid, as well as the current Google affair, which has proved to be a small part of a broader attack that also targeted the U.S. Government. There are, however, certain constraints that qualify the image of China as an aggressive actor in cyberspace. Some believe that China itself is the victim of just as many attacks from other states. Furthermore, certain actors in the United States and the West have an interest in overestimating China's capabilities in cyberspace in order to maintain their budgets.

  20. An Important Chemical Weapon Group: Nerve Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yaren


    Full Text Available As a result of developing modern chemistry, nerve agents, which are one of the most important group of efficient chemical warfare agents, were developed just before Second World War. They generate toxic and clinical effects via inhibiting acetylcholinesterase irreversibly and causing excessive amounts of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses in the body. Clinical symptoms are occurred as a result of affected muscarinic (stimulation of secretuar glands, miosis, breathing problems etc., nicotinic (stimulation of skeletal muscles, paralyse, tremors etc. and central nerve system (convulsions, loss of consciousness, coma etc. areas. In case of a nerve agent exposure, treatment includes the steps of ventilation, decontamination, antidotal treatment (atropine, oximes, diazepam and pyridostigmine bromide and supportive theraphy. Because of arising possibility of using chemical warfare agents due to current conjuncture of the world, medical staff should know about nerve agents, their effects and how to treat the casualties exposured to nerve agents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 491-500

  1. An Important Chemical Weapon Group: Nerve Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yaren


    Full Text Available As a result of developing modern chemistry, nerve agents, which are one of the most important group of efficient chemical warfare agents, were developed just before Second World War. They generate toxic and clinical effects via inhibiting acetylcholinesterase irreversibly and causing excessive amounts of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses in the body. Clinical symptoms are occurred as a result of affected muscarinic (stimulation of secretuar glands, miosis, breathing problems etc., nicotinic (stimulation of skeletal muscles, paralyse, tremors etc. and central nerve system (convulsions, loss of consciousness, coma etc. areas. In case of a nerve agent exposure, treatment includes the steps of ventilation, decontamination, antidotal treatment (atropine, oximes, diazepam and pyridostigmine bromide and supportive theraphy. Because of arising possibility of using chemical warfare agents due to current conjuncture of the world, medical staff should know about nerve agents, their effects and how to treat the casualties exposured to nerve agents. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 491-500

  2. Acute toxicity of sea-dumped chemical munitions: Luminating the environmental toxicity of legacy compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed Abdullah Christensen, Ilias; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik


    As a result of the disarmament of Germany after the Second World War, 65,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped in the Baltic Sea. Approximately 13,000 tons containing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) of which 11,000 tons were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. This paper addresses...

  3. Joint chemical agent detector (JCAD): the future of chemical agent detection (United States)

    Laljer, Charles E.


    The Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD) has continued development through 2002. The JCAD has completed Contractor Validation Testing (CVT) that included chemical warfare agent testing, environmental testing, electromagnetic interferent testing, and platform integration validation. The JCAD provides state of the art chemical warfare agent detection capability to military and homeland security operators. Intelligence sources estimate that over twenty countries have active chemical weapons programs. The spread of weapons of mass destruction (and the industrial capability for manufacture of these weapons) to third world nations and terrorist organizations has greatly increased the chemical agent threat to U.S. interests. Coupled with the potential for U.S. involvement in localized conflicts in an operational or support capacity, increases the probability that the military Joint Services may encounter chemical agents anywhere in the world. The JCAD is a small (45 in3), lightweight (2 lb.) chemical agent detector for vehicle interiors, aircraft, individual personnel, shipboard, and fixed site locations. The system provides a common detection component across multi-service platforms. This common detector system will allow the Joint Services to use the same operational and support concept for more efficient utilization of resources. The JCAD detects, identifies, quantifies, and warns of the presence of chemical agents prior to onset of miosis. Upon detection of chemical agents, the detector provides local and remote audible and visual alarms to the operators. Advance warning will provide the vehicle crew and other personnel in the local area with the time necessary to protect themselves from the lethal effects of chemical agents. The JCAD is capable of being upgraded to protect against future chemical agent threats. The JCAD provides the operator with the warning necessary to survive and fight in a chemical warfare agent threat environment.

  4. Evaluation of Molecular Markers and Analytical Methods Documenting the Occurrence of Mustard Gas and Arsenical Warfare Agents in Soil. (United States)

    Sassolini, Alessandro; Brinchi, Giampaolo; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Dionisi, Simone; Dominici, Carola; Fantozzi, Luca; Onofri, Giorgio; Piazza, Rosario; Guidotti, Maurizio


    The chemicals warfare agents (CWAs) are an extremely toxic class of molecules widely produced in many industrialized countries for decades, these compounds frequently contained arsenic. The plants where the CWAs have been produced or the plants where they have been demilitarized after the Second World War with unacceptable techniques can represent a serious environmental problem. CWAs standards are difficult to find on market so in present work an environmental assessment method based on markers has been proposed. Triphenylarsine, phenylarsine oxide and thiodiglycol have been selected as markers. Three reliable analytical methods based on gaschromatography and mass detection have been proposed and tested for quantitative analysis of markers. Methods performance have been evaluated testing uncertainty, linearity, recovery and detection limits and also comparing detection limits with exposure limits of reference CWAs. Proposed assessment methods have been applied to a case study of a former industrial plant sited in an area characterized by a high background of mineral arsenic.

  5. Trade, Diplomacy, and Warfare: The Quest for Elite Rhizobia Inoculant Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Checcucci


    Full Text Available Rhizobia form symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on leguminous plants, which provides an important source of fixed nitrogen input into the soil ecosystem. The improvement of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the main challenges facing agriculture research. Doing so will reduce the usage of chemical nitrogen fertilizer, contributing to the development of sustainable agriculture practices to deal with the increasing global human population. Sociomicrobiological studies of rhizobia have become a model for the study of the evolution of mutualistic interactions. The exploitation of the wide range of social interactions rhizobia establish among themselves, with the soil and root microbiota, and with the host plant, could constitute a great advantage in the development of a new generation of highly effective rhizobia inoculants. Here, we provide a brief overview of the current knowledge on three main aspects of rhizobia interaction: trade of fixed nitrogen with the plant; diplomacy in terms of communication and possible synergistic effects; and warfare, as antagonism and plant control over symbiosis. Then, we propose new areas of investigation and the selection of strains based on the combination of the genetic determinants for the relevant rhizobia symbiotic behavioral phenotypes.

  6. Trade, Diplomacy, and Warfare: The Quest for Elite Rhizobia Inoculant Strains. (United States)

    Checcucci, Alice; DiCenzo, George C; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio


    Rhizobia form symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on leguminous plants, which provides an important source of fixed nitrogen input into the soil ecosystem. The improvement of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the main challenges facing agriculture research. Doing so will reduce the usage of chemical nitrogen fertilizer, contributing to the development of sustainable agriculture practices to deal with the increasing global human population. Sociomicrobiological studies of rhizobia have become a model for the study of the evolution of mutualistic interactions. The exploitation of the wide range of social interactions rhizobia establish among themselves, with the soil and root microbiota, and with the host plant, could constitute a great advantage in the development of a new generation of highly effective rhizobia inoculants. Here, we provide a brief overview of the current knowledge on three main aspects of rhizobia interaction: trade of fixed nitrogen with the plant; diplomacy in terms of communication and possible synergistic effects; and warfare, as antagonism and plant control over symbiosis. Then, we propose new areas of investigation and the selection of strains based on the combination of the genetic determinants for the relevant rhizobia symbiotic behavioral phenotypes.

  7. Measurement and Ranking of Permeation Specimen Thickness Profiles: High-Density Polyethylene Swatches (United States)


    the standard technique for milling heat - sensitive thermoplastics. The no-lube technique was requested as an alternative to avoid sorption of nonpolar...Destruction System for the Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Program, the Universal Munitions Storage Container was evaluated as a candidate for over...packing munitions (leaking and non-leaking) that contain chemical warfare agents for storage until destruction. A 1–2 year storage period was the

  8. Integrated Swarming Operations for Air Base Defense: Applications in Irregular Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, Ron


    .... However, in low-intensity conflicts (LICs) or irregular warfare (IW) campaigns, U.S. forces are faced with an irregular enemy, one that does not choose to fight its forces directly, but rather through unconventional or indirect methods...

  9. Understanding "Understanding" Flow for Network-Centric Warfare: Military Knowledge-Flow Mechanics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nissen, Mark


    Network-centric warfare (NCW) emphasizes information superiority for battlespace efficacy, but it is clear that the mechanics of how knowledge flows are just as important as those pertaining to the networks and communication...

  10. Defense Base Closure and Realignment Budget Data for the Naval Surface Warfare Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... and realignment military construction projects. This report provides the results of the audit related to the realignment of Naval Surface Warfare Centers elements in White Oak, Maryland, and Panama City, Florida, to Dahlgren, Virginia...

  11. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  12. Interoperability and Network-Centric Warfare: US Army Future Force and German Army in 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alme, Thorsten


    .... Special consideration is given to technical and behavioral interoperability. The monograph also assesses the projected capabilities of the German Bundeswehr in the year 2015 with regard to Network-Centric Warfare (NCW...

  13. Analysis of Acoustic Effects on Marine Mammals for the Proposed Undersea Warfare Training Range

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jette, Steven D; Cembrola, Joan M; Mitchell, Glenn H; Fetherston, Thomas N


    ...) for the proposed Undersea Warfare Training Range (USWTR). The DEIS includes an assessment of the effects of Navy sonars on marine mammals during exercises to occur on the range as required by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA...

  14. Surface Warfare Officer Retention: Analysis of Individual Ready Reserve Survey Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoker, Carol; Crawford, Alice


    ... (including morale and lack of mentoring), push both men and women out of the Navy. Nonetheless, the Navy s primary effort to improve retention has been to introduce the Surface Warfare Officer Continuation Pay (SWOCP...

  15. Information Warfare: Issues Associated with the Defense of DOD Computers and Computer Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franklin, Derek


    ... that may threaten the critical information pathways of the armed forces An analysis of the history of computer information warfare reveals that there was an embarrassing lack of readiness and defense...

  16. The Third World War? In The Cyberspace. Cyber Warfare in the Middle East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a brief and comprehensive introduction to the issue of cyber warfare and to display the recent development in this area. Geographically, it focuses on the Middle East region, since the vast majority of the most important recent cyber attacks appeared just in there or were connected to it. The first part of the article tries to define the key notion of cyber warfare, compares it to the standard warfare and presents different types of cyber weapons that are known today. The second part points out examples of the most striking recent cyber attacks and uses them as evidences to demonstrate today's importance and dissemination of cyber warfare. Finally, the article sums up pros and cons of the cyber weapons and, in view of these, predicts a significant increase in their use in any future war conflicts.

  17. The Army Ground Forces Training for Mountain and Winter Warfare - Study No. 23

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Govan, Thomas


    This general study of the experiments in mountain and winter warfare training from 1940 to 1944 is designed as an introduction to the histories of the Mountain Training Center and The 10th Mountain...

  18. Damn! The Torpedoes: Coping with Mine Warfare in the Joint Maritime Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahr, James D


    ... and the attainment of joint operational maneuver. The potential exists for non-state actors to acquire sea mines and subsequently employ mine warfare as a means of crippling the Navy throughout its range of military operations...

  19. Evaluation Report on Management Controls at the Disbursing Office, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, Virginia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F


    On September 19, 1996, the Defense Criminal Investigative Service requested assistance from the Assistant Inspector General for Auditing, DoD, in an investigation at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, Virginia...

  20. Guerrilla Warfare: Cause and Conflict (A 21st Century Success Story?), (United States)


    and low intensity warfare is the means, both qualitative and quantitative, employed to achieve the intended goal. Both types of war require analysis ...administration.’ 9 If despair and aggravation become the mortar and pestle of future guerrilla warfare, then weapons availability and population growth might be... Thailand , and the Philippines. 55 Every time you ask, "Where are they going to get the money to pay," everybody falls silent. Brazil alone owes $55

  1. Twenty-First-Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War: Strategic Agility (United States)


    September–October 2015 | 85 Views Twenty-First-Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War Strategic Agility Maj Michael W. Benitez, USAF America’s... gap between the dynamic 21st-century environment and our 20th-century bureaucracy. Their initiative and perse- verance allow us to succeed in our...SUBTITLE Twenty-First-Century Air Warfare and the Invisible War: Strategic Agility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  2. Detachment 101 and North Burma: Historical Conditions for Future Unconventional Warfare Operations (United States)


    of 1941 (1990; repr., Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2011), 42. 24 Maurice Matloff and Edwin M. Snell, Strategic Planning for Coalition...Warfare: 1941­ 1942 (1953 repr., Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1999), 120. 25 Maurice Matloff, Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare...opportunity for DET 101 to improve its relationships with the Kachin people. 99War Report: OSS, Volume 2, 383. 100 Richard Dunlop, Behind Japanese Lines with

  3. Irregular Warfare as a National Military Strategy Approach for Small States (United States)


    of these “pods”: the question of homogeneity or heterogeneity. There 216 Oliker, Russia´s Chechen Wars...Ronfeldt regarding the degree of homogeneity of the teams should also be evaluated. In some cases, there might be a higher degree of specialization in...prerequisites. A. IRREGULAR WARFARE – A DIRTY WAR? Based on the last decades of conflicts, the tactics used in irregular warfare have left a bad taste in the

  4. Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development (United States)


    Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development by Neal Tesny Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electronic Warfare Closed Loop Laboratory (EWCLL) Antenna Motor Software and Hardware Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...called cllMotorBasic. This module can be used separately if one is developing other software that needs to control the motors . The front panel of this

  5. Welcome to the Naval Postgraduate School Center on Terrorism and Irregular Warfare, Webpage


    Center on Terrorism and Irregular Warfare


    Includes an image of the main page on this date and compressed file containing additional web pages. Established in 1998, The Center on Terrorism and Irregular Warfare produces timely, innovative, interdisciplinary analysis relevant to policy and operations. In studying terrorism and irregular warfare, the Center focuses the research capabilities of its staff and the Naval Postgraduate School on an area of critical importance to the national security of the United States.

  6. Modeling Anti-Air Warfare With Discrete Event Simulation and Analyzing Naval Convoy Operations (United States)


    W., & Scheaffer, R. L. (2008). Mathematical statistics with applications . Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. 118 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK...WARFARE WITH DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION AND ANALYZING NAVAL CONVOY OPERATIONS by Ali E. Opcin June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Arnold H. Buss Co...REPORT DATE June 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING ANTI-AIR WARFARE WITH DISCRETE EVENT

  7. Explosive and chemical threat detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakonen, Aron; Andersson, Per Ola; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk


    Acts of terror and warfare threats are challenging tasks for defense agencies around the world and of growing importance to security conscious policy makers and the general public. Explosives and chemical warfare agents are two of the major concerns in this context, as illustrated by the recent...... progressively better, smaller and cheaper, and can today be acquired for a retail price close to 10,000 US$. This contribution aims to give a comprehensive overview of SERS as a technique for detection of explosives and chemical threats. We discuss the prospects of SERS becoming a major tool for convenient in...

  8. Information Warfare on Social Media: A Brand Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpokas Ignas


    Full Text Available Employing a perspective informed by brand management, this article aims at understanding information warfare operations in social media. The state, seen as brand, must project an image of itself to both internal and foreign audiences to unite the domestic audience and/or attract global support. However, in constructing a brand, states are vulnerable to ‘sofa warriors’ – ordinary individuals who have been unwittingly recruited by hostile actors to disseminate (over social media or other platforms a counter-brand, harmful to the state concerned. These new threats are investigated in light of recent tendencies in online branding, elucidating their status as a national security threat, with the potential to significantly disrupt life in political communities.

  9. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Terry M.; Logan-Henfrey, Linda; Weller, Richard E.; Kellman, Brian


    There is a rising level of concern that agriculture might be targeted for economic sabotage by terrorists. Knowledge gathered about the Soviet Union biological weapons program and Iraq following the Gulf War, confirmed that animals and agricultural crops were targets of bioweapon development. These revelations are particularly disturbing in light of the fact that both countries are States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention that entered into force in 1975. The potential for misusing biotechnology to create more virulent pathogens and the lack of international means to detect unethical uses of new technologies to create destructive bioweapons is of increasing concern. Disease outbreaks, whether naturally occurring or intentionally, involving agricultural pathogens that destroy livestock and crops would have a profound impact on a country's infrastructure, economy and export markets. This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically, horses, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MINCULETE


    Full Text Available The military joint operations of the future are characterized by large concentrations of forces and conventional means on the directions that permit the exploitation of the technological superiority and the manifestation of the offensive spirit of the commanders of the joint operation force groups. Having in mind the fact that the relation between the combatant forces and the logistic ones will shift more and more in favour of the latter, the aforementioned operations will be usually supported by modern flexible logistic structures. The constituted force groups will have a significant joint force character, ensuring superior quality of the troops’ combat training, both at individual level and collective level of units and large units. The current article presents innovative aspects of focused logistics, adapted for the modern warfare, which should be designed and achieved in order to increase the operational potential of the joint force groups.

  11. Book Review: Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C. Kessler


    Full Text Available Libicki, M.C. (2007. Conquest in Cyberspace: National Security and Information Warfare. New York: Cambridge University Press. 323 pages, ISBN: 978-0-521-69214-4 (paper, US$80Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gary.kessler@champlain.eduMany books -- and even movies ("Live Free or Die Hard" -- are based upon the premise of an impending information war. In these scenarios -- made all too plausible by the increased frequency with which we read about and experience major information security incidents -- a Bad Guy exploits known computer security vulnerabilities in order to control major national infrastructures via the Internet so as to reap financial, economic, and/or personal power.(see PDF for full review

  12. An Open Architecture Framework for Electronic Warfare Based Approach to HLA Federate Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyunSeo Kang


    Full Text Available A variety of electronic warfare models are developed in the Electronic Warfare Research Center. An Open Architecture Framework for Electronic Warfare (OAFEw has been developed for reusability of various object models participating in the electronic warfare simulation and for extensibility of the electronic warfare simulator. OAFEw is a kind of component-based software (SW lifecycle management support framework. This OAFEw is defined by six components and ten rules. The purpose of this study is to construct a Distributed Simulation Interface Model, according to the rules of OAFEw, and create Use Case Model of OAFEw Reference Conceptual Model version 1.0. This is embodied in the OAFEw-FOM (Federate Object Model for High-Level Architecture (HLA based distributed simulation. Therefore, we design and implement EW real-time distributed simulation that can work with a model in C++ and MATLAB API (Application Programming Interface. In addition, OAFEw-FOM, electronic component model, and scenario of the electronic warfare domain were designed through simple scenarios for verification, and real-time distributed simulation between C++ and MATLAB was performed through OAFEw-Distributed Simulation Interface.

  13. A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick


    Full Text Available Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.

  14. Toxic Chemicals in the Soil Environment. Volume 2. Interactions of Some Toxic Chemicals/Chemical Warfare Agents and Soils (United States)


    fraction of soils, that is, charged compounds such as paraquat are very firmly and almost irreversibly bound on mineral surfaces, particularly on smectite...0.2, and in a dry soil (where plants die due to lack of water) fL - 0.01. There- fore, all of these factors are expressed in an equation as: -- •, plants , depth of the bottom deposit, and volume and. movement of water. Rao and Sethunathan. (1979) reported that many pesticides were known to

  15. Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers. (United States)

    Hood, E


    The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing.

  16. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank


    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  17. Microfabricated Gas Phase Chemical Analysis Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A portable, autonomous, hand-held chemical laboratory ({micro}ChemLab{trademark}) is being developed for trace detection (ppb) of chemical warfare (CW) agents and explosives in real-world environments containing high concentrations of interfering compounds. Microfabrication is utilized to provide miniature, low-power components that are characterized by rapid, sensitive and selective response. Sensitivity and selectivity are enhanced using two parallel analysis channels, each containing the sequential connection of a front-end sample collector/concentrator, a gas chromatographic (GC) separator, and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector. Component design and fabrication and system performance are described.

  18. 78 FR 53109 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti-Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay... (United States)


    ...-AA87 Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti-Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay... Anti-Submarine Warfare Command to protect the relocated marine mammal program. These security zone... the Port, The Commander of Naval Base Point Loma, the Commander of the Naval Mine Anti Submarine...

  19. The enemy as animal: Symmetric dehumanization during asymmetric warfare. (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile; Kteily, Nour


    Historically, dehumanization has enabled members of advantaged groups to 'morally disengage' from disadvantaged group suffering, thereby facilitating acts of intergroup aggression such as colonization, slavery and genocide. But is blatant dehumanization exclusive to those at the top 'looking down', or might disadvantaged groups similarly dehumanize those who dominate them? We examined this question in the context of intergroup warfare in which the disadvantaged group shoulders a disproportionate share of casualties and may be especially likely to question the humanity of the advantaged group. Specifically, we assessed blatant dehumanization in the context of stark asymmetric conflict between Israelis (Study 1; N = 521) and Palestinians (Study 2; N = 354) during the 2014 Gaza war. We observed that (a) community samples of Israelis and Palestinians expressed extreme (and comparable) levels of blatant dehumanization, (b) blatant dehumanization was uniquely associated with outcomes related to outgroup hostility for both groups, even after accounting for political ideologies known to strongly predict outgroup aggression, and (c) the strength of association between blatant dehumanization and outcomes was similar across both groups. This study illuminates the striking potency and symmetry of blatant dehumanization among those on both sides of an active asymmetric conflict.

  20. Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) containment and mitigation subtask.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wente, William Baker


    The objective of this subtask of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Design project was to demonstrate mitigation technologies for radiological material dispersal and to assist planners with incorporation of the technologies into a concept of operations. The High Consequence Assessment and Technology department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has studied aqueous foam's ability to mitigate the effects of an explosively disseminated radiological dispersal device (RDD). These benefits include particle capture of respirable radiological particles, attenuation of blast overpressure, and reduction of plume buoyancy. To better convey the aqueous foam attributes, SNL conducted a study using the Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion model, comparing the effects of a mitigated and unmitigated explosive RDD release. Results from this study compared health effects and land contamination between the two scenarios in terms of distances of effect, population exposure, and remediation costs. Incorporating aqueous foam technology, SNL created a conceptual design for a stationary containment area to be located at a facility entrance with equipment that could minimize the effects from the detonation of a vehicle transported RDD. The containment design was evaluated against several criteria, including mitigation ability (both respirable and large fragment particle capture as well as blast overpressure suppression), speed of implementation, cost, simplicity, and required space. A mock-up of the conceptual idea was constructed at SNL's 9920 explosive test site to demonstrate the containment design.

  1. Drone Warfare: Twenty-First Century Empire and Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Howley


    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger project that examines drones from a social-construction of technology perspective, considers drone warfare in light of Harold Innis’s seminal work on empire and communication. Leveraging leading-edge aeronautics with advanced optics, data processing, and networked communication, drones represent an archetypal “space-biased” technology. Indeed, by allowing remote operators and others to monitor, select, and strike targets from half a world away, and in real-time, these weapon systems epitomize the “pernicious neglect of time” Innis sought to identify and remedy in his later writing. With Innis’s time-space dialectic as a starting point, then, the paper considers drones in light of a longstanding paradox of American culture: the impulse to collapse the geographical distance between the United States and other parts of the globe, while simultaneously magnifying the cultural difference between Americans and other peoples and societies. In the midst of the worldwide proliferation of drones, this quintessentially sublime technology embodies this (disconnect in important, profound, and ominous ways.

  2. Back to the future: aerial warfare in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Nunes Vicente


    Full Text Available A century after the first air bomb mission, a new intervention in the same geographic space has made evident the changes in Airpower. The Aerial Warfare in Libya has radically changed the civil war, complying with a UN mission to protect Libyan population, imposing a no-fly zone and an arms embargo. Therefore, Operation Unified Protector became one of the most successful campaigns in the history of NATO. We aim to assess the operational efficiency of Airpower in the conflict in Libya, focusing on the challenges of a War essentially Aerial. Despite the military results and the fact that some political objectives were met, we can identify some concerning trends that, if not shifted, may negatively influence future NATO operations. We do not aim to draw general and universal conclusions on the strategic value of Airpower based on the analysis of a specific case. Above all, we focus on identifying some lessons which have influenced OUP operational efficiency. Thus, we must analyze some factors, such as the scope of objectives, the type of opposing action and aerial strategy used by the coalition and then focus on the challenges arising from the OUP.

  3. The effect of air permeability of chemical protective clothing material on clothing vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Vuister, R.; Wammes, L.


    One of the major problems associated with Chemical Warfare Protective Clothing (CW) is the additional heat load created by the garments. For CW-overgarments, research in the direction of reducing material thickness and thus heat and vapour resistance have not resulted in major improvements. The

  4. A Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP)-Coated Microbeam MEMS Sensor for Chemical Detection (United States)


    were chosen based on specific interactions with the chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulant dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) because they are strong...DEFENSE TECH INFO CTR (PDF) DTIC OCA 2 US ARMY RSRCH LAB (PDF) IMAL HRA MAIL & RECORDS MGMT TECHL LIB 1 GOVT PRNTG OFC (PDF) A

  5. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR. (United States)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C


    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. SiGe-based re-engineering of electronic warfare subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Wynand


    This book equips readers with a thorough understanding of the applicability of new-generation silicon-germanium (SiGe) electronic subsystems for the military purposes of electronic warfare and defensive countermeasures. The theoretical and technical background is extensively explained and all aspects of the integration of SiGe as an enabling technology for maritime, land, and airborne (including space) electronic warfare are addressed, including research, design, development, and implementation. The coverage is supported by mathematical derivations, informative illustrations, practical examples, and case studies. While SiGe technology provides speed, performance, and price advantages in many markets, sharing of information on its use in electronic warfare systems has to date been limited, especially in developing nations. This book will therefore be warmly welcomed as an engineering guideline that focuses especially on the speed and reliability of current-generation SiGe circuits and highlights emerging innov...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin DUCARU


    Full Text Available The technological development and the instant communication possibilities advanced not only economic and social developments, but also evolving threats from those who exploit the vulnerabilities of communication and information systems. The cyber threat landscape points to a significant increase of the frequency, intensity, duration and sophistication of cyber-attacks. One of the new and concerning trends is the use of cyber capabilities in relation with military of hybrid operations – the so-called cyber dimension of hybrid warfare. NATO’s strategy on countering hybrid warfare is based on the triad: prepare-deter-defend, which also applies to cyber. Nations represent the first line of defence in countering hybrid strategies. International cooperation is also a key factor in this sense. It is in this context that NATO’s response to cyber-attacks in the context of hybrid warfare must be further refined.

  8. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea. (United States)

    Bruwer, A


    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  9. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru. (United States)

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C


    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Mustard Group Chemical War Agents from Preventive Medicine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Ucar


    Full Text Available Although many preventive efforts and treaties, chemical warfare agents have still been a severe assault form against both military and civilian individuals. The most important chemical warfare agents sulphur mustard and others are easy to handle and cheap those the important reasons to accept sulphur mustard as a chemical warfare agent. Many individuals attacked by sulphur mustard have severe health problems such as respiratory system diseases. After ten years of sulphur mustard exposure, several health problems such as respiratory tract problems (%42.5, eye problems (%40 and other systemic diseases have been observed to insist on induviduals when examined. Exposure of even single sulphur mustard exposure has been seen to result high level of disability and early deaths. In spite of the fact that there is no available antidote and/or remedy against sulphur mustard exposure, our country has an incremental chemical assault threat for both military personels and civilians because of its jeopolitics position. Experimental studies regarding sulphur mustard toxicity will be helpful for novel preventive strategies and antidot devolepment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 209-214

  11. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL


    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.

  12. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (TNT, RDX) in soil and plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Bean, R.M.; McVeety, B.D.


    The objective of these investigations was to elucidate the environmental behavior and fate of trinitrotoluene (TNT). Emphasis was placed on those chemical transformations occurring in soils and in plant tissues following uptake and on the probable impact of these chemical transformations on the food chain. Analytical methodology was developed to fractionate and characterize both TNT and TNT-derived residues in soil and plant matrices. The procedures developed in this program extend prior art, through the use of matrix-specific extraction and fractionation schemes followed by classical HPLC separations. Methods showed good recovery and reproducibility. 30 refs., 35 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Homeland Biological Warfare Consequence Management: Capabilities and Needs Assessment (United States)


    Improve Civilian Medical Response. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999, 73-74 10 —Biological and Chemical Terrorism : Strategic Plan Notes 1 —Biological and Chemical Terrorism : Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response Recommendations of...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command, Domestic Preparedness Office, September 12, 2000. —Biological and Chemical

  14. Animals as sentinels of chemical terrorism agents: an evidence-based review. (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Wiley, James; Odofin, Lynda; Wilcox, Matthew; Dein, F Joshua


    The goal of this systematic review was to identify evidence that animals could serve as sentinels of an attack with a chemical terrorism agent. The biomedical literature was systematically searched for evidence that wild or domestic animals exposed to certain chemical weapons of terrorism had either greater susceptibility, shorter latency period, or increased exposure risk versus humans. Additionally, we searched for documented reports of such animals historically serving as sentinels for chemical warfare agents. For a small number of agents, there was limited evidence that domestic and/or wild animals could provide sentinel information to humans following an airborne attack with chemical agents, usually related to increased potential for environmental exposure. Some of this evidence was based on anecdotal case reports, and in many cases high quality chemical terrorism agent evidence regarding comparative susceptibility, exposure, and latency between humans and sentinel animal species was not found. Currently, there is insufficient evidence for routine use of animals as sentinels for airborne chemical warfare agents. At the same time, Poison Center surveillance systems should include animal calls, and greater communication between veterinarians and physicians could help with preparedness for a chemical terrorism attack. Further analysis of comparative chemical warfare agent toxicity between sentinel animal species and humans is needed.

  15. Review of Toxicological Data Regarding Contact Hazards of Chemical Agents (United States)


    function of contact time, amount of agent, and agent migration rates. As stated by Armour and Sturgeon (1992), the extent of the contact hazard...the backs of the knees at 3 days. By the 5th day there was extensive dry scarring and scabbing of the scrotum. Raw areas appeared on the scrotum and...Defence Research Establishment: Porton Down, UK, 1943; UNCLASSIFIED Report. 3. Armour , S.J; Sturgeon, W.R. Liquid Hazard from Chemical Warfare Agents

  16. 2011 Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Survivability Conference (United States)


    System for additional CB protection • Worn with the CB RAM and CB balaclava Materials • Outer Layer: Flame Retardant Nonwoven Material (60/40 FR...Findings CB PRISM Integrated Filter Concept • Advantages: • Filter removed from front of face • High surface area available for filtration and...UNCLASSIFIED Traditional Threats • Chemical warfare agents (nerve, blood , and blister) • Agents designed for military operations/ applications • Toxic

  17. Chiral Separation of G-type Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents via Analytical Seupercritical Fluid Chromatography (United States)


    enantioselective degradation of the P(+) enantiomer. Based on the hydrolysis profile seen in Fig. 5, the enantiomer with the shorter reten - tion time on the...column (light gray fill). As with GA and GB, the P(+) enantiomers of GF have shorter reten - tion on the WhelkO1 (SS) column, while the P(–) enantio- mers


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Capillary zone electrophoresis-ionspray mass spectrometry (CZE-IS-MS) in the negative-ion mode was applied in the identification of five organophosphonic acids, which are the primary hydrolysis products of nerve agents. The spectra exhibit a very abundant (M - H)- ion with minimal fragmentation.

  19. Brain Damage Caused by Chemical Warfare Agents: Are Free Radicals a Final Common Pathway? (United States)


    homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5 - hydroxyindole acetic acid ( 5 -HIAA) were quantitated by HPLC with electrochemical detection as described by Westerink et...microdialysis perfusates in both anesthetized and awake rats. Also, both soman and cyanide cause significant increases in 5 - hydroxyindole acetic acid (HIAA...Nielsen, E.O., Scheel-Krüger, J. and Olesen, S-P. (1994) Nitric oxide promotes seizure activity in kainate-treated rats. Neuroreport 5 , 2325-2328

  20. Marital Relationship and Its Associated Factors in Veterans Exposed to High Dose Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the associates of marital relationship in mustard exposed veterans.Materials and Methods: Two hundred ninety two married Iranian mustard exposed veterans, who had been exposed to single high dose mustard gas in Iraq-Iran war, were assessed for marital adjustment with Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS. Census sampling was done. The patients' quality of life (SF-36, spirometric measures and war related data were also extracted.Results: A total of 189 subjects (65% completed our study. The mean (±SD of the RDAS Total score, RDAS Dyadic Consensus , RDAS Affectional Expression, RDAS Dyadic Satisfaction , and RDAS Dyadic Cohesion were 50.61 (8.16, 16.67 (2.77, 7.62 (1.84, 14.76 (3.39, and 11.54 (3.79, respectively. RDAS Dyadic satisfaction was correlated with SF-36 and all its sub-scores (p<0.05. RDAS total score showed significant correlation with SF-36 total score and most of its sub-scores (p<0.05. RDAS affective expression was significantly correlated with role limitation, social function, general mental health, vitality, General health perceptions, physical composite score (PCS and mental composite score (MCS (p<0.05. RDAS dyadic consensus was not correlated with any SF-36 sub-scores.Conclusion: Veterans health team including physicians, psychologists and/or psychiatrists should know that poorer marital satisfaction is linked with lower quality of life scores, late after mustard exposure, although marital relationship is independent of spirometric findings, age, duration from exposure and comorbidity score.

  1. Methods of Advanced Wound Management for Care of Combined Traumatic and Chemical Warfare Injuries (United States)


    hypothermia, acidosis , and coagulopathy.6,12 The most common operative procedures con- ducted in these units are fasciotomies, laparotomies, craniotomies... metabolic processes in the pig and human skin. In: Tumbleson ME, ed. Swine in Biomedical Research. New York: Plenum Press; 1986:667–71. 22. Meyer W...can-opener capsulotomy. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004;30(12):2606–11. 27. Wilson M. Anterior lens capsule management in pediatric cataract surgery

  2. Semi-continuous high speed gas analysis of generated vapors of chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trap, H.C.; Langenberg, J.P.


    A method is presented for the continuous analysis of generated vapors of the nerve agents soman and satin and the blistering agent sulfur mustard. By using a gas sampling valve and a very short (15 cm) column connected to an on-column injector with a 'standard length' column, the system can either

  3. Environmental toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) - MicrotoxTM and Spontaneous Locomotor Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten Swayne; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    in Zebrafish (Danio rerio). The CTDB database and Zebrafish gene collection reveals that genes associated with locomotion interacts with some of the found parent and degradation compounds of CWAs; even though the locomotion is a complex out of an array of genes. This study intends to draw lines...

  4. A Review of the Disruptive Potential of Botulinum Neurotoxins as Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)


    caused by ingestion of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) was first described as “ sausage poisoning” in 1820 and attributed to a bacterium in 1897 [1]. We...References. 1. Erbguth, F.J. and M. Naumann, Historical aspects of botulinum toxin: Justinus Kerner (1786-1862) and the " sausage poison...Liu, Analyzing a bioterror attack on the food supply: the case of botulinum toxin in milk. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2005. 102(28): p. 9984-9. 8

  5. Epoxy Resin Modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agent Sulfur Mustard Vapor Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra BUNKAR


    Full Text Available An epoxy resin polymer coated quartz crystal microbalance (PC-QCM is used for detection of sulfur mustard vapor (SM. When SM vapor is exposed to PC-QCM sensor frequency shift is observed. The response of the sensor in ambient condition is 554 Hz with ±10 % variation upon exposure of 155 ppm of the SM concentration. The observed response loss is nearly 40 % over the period of 15 months. The response of the sensor is higher for SM than compare to structurally similar chloroethyl ether (CEE and other interferences.

  6. Decontamination of chemical warfare sulfur mustard agent simulant by ZnO nanoparticles (United States)

    Sadeghi, Meysam; Yekta, Sina; Ghaedi, Hamed


    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been surveyed to decontaminate the chloroethyl phenyl sulfide as a sulfur mustard agent simulant. Prior to the reaction, ZnO NPs were successfully prepared through sol-gel method in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA was utilized as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The formation, morphology, elemental component, and crystalline size of nanoscale ZnO were certified and characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. The decontamination (adsorption and destruction) was tracked by the GC-FID analysis, in which the effects of polarity of the media, such as isopropanol, acetone and n-hexane, reaction time intervals from 1 up to 18 h, and different temperatures, including 25, 35, 45, and 55 °C, on the catalytic/decontaminative capability of the surface of ZnO NPs/PVA were investigated and discussed, respectively. Results demonstrated that maximum decontamination (100 %) occurred in n-hexane solvent at 55 °C after 1 h. On the other hand, the obtained results for the acetone and isopropanol solvents were lower than expected. GC-MS chromatograms confirmed the formation of hydroxyl ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl vinyl sulfide as the destruction reaction products. Furthermore, these chromatograms proved the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the catalyst considering its surface Bronsted and Lewis acid sites. A non-polar solvent aids material transfer to the reactive surface acid sites without blocking these sites.

  7. Cerium oxide for the destruction of chemical warfare agents: A comparison of synthetic routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoš, Pavel; Henych, Jiří; Pelant, Ondřej; Pilařová, Věra; Vrtoch, Luboš; Kormunda, Martin; Mazanec, Karel


    Highlights: • Four synthetic routes were compared to prepare the nanoceria-based reactive sorbents. • The sorbents prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis destroy efficiently the soman and VX nerve agents. • Toxic organophosphates are converted to less-dangerous products completely within a few minutes. • Surface non-stoichiometry and −OH groups promote the destruction by the S N 2 mechanism. - Abstract: Four different synthetic routes were used to prepare active forms of cerium oxide that are capable of destroying toxic organophosphates: a sol–gel process (via a citrate precursor), homogeneous hydrolysis and a precipitation/calcination procedure (via carbonate and oxalate precursors). The samples prepared via homogeneous hydrolysis with urea and the samples prepared via precipitation with ammonium bicarbonate (with subsequent calcination at 500 °C in both cases) exhibited the highest degradation efficiencies towards the extremely dangerous nerve agents soman (O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) and the organophosphate pesticide parathion methyl. These samples were able to destroy more than 90% of the toxic compounds in less than 10 min. The high degradation efficiency of cerium oxide is related to its complex surface chemistry (presence of surface −OH groups and surface non-stoichiometry) and to its nanocrystalline nature, which promotes the formation of crystal defects on which the decomposition of organophosphates proceeds through a nucleophilic substitution mechanism that is not dissimilar to the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphates by phosphotriesterase.

  8. Reduced weight decontamination formulation for neutralization of chemical and biological warfare agents (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.


    A reduced weight DF-200 decontamination formulation that is stable under high temperature storage conditions. The formulation can be pre-packed as an all-dry (i.e., no water) or nearly-dry (i.e., minimal water) three-part kit, with make-up water (the fourth part) being added later in the field at the point of use.

  9. Application of Quantitative Phosphorous Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)


    liquid chromatograph LOD limits of detection LOQ limits of quantitation M molarity (moles per litre) mg milligrams MHz megahertz (106 Hz) mL...relative to other common laboratory techniques such as gas and liquid chromatography. Despite lower relative sensitivity and high cost of purchase and...peak in the NMR spectrum. Ideal reference standards are non- volatile, non- hygroscopic and have a limited number of peaks in an NMR spectrum

  10. Persistence and Effective Half-Life of Chemical Warfare Agent VX on Grass Foliage (United States)


    using an Oasis HLB 3 cc (60 mg) flangeless SPE cartridge (Waters Corporation; Milford, MA) that was conditioned with 1 mL of ethyl acetate (EtOAc...Biological Center EMPA ethyl methyl phosphonic acid EtOAc ethyl acetate g force of gravity GC gas chromatography HPLC high-performance liquid...Life Grass O- Ethyl -S-(2-diisoproylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX) Terrestrial plant 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  11. Ionization Potentials of Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Compounds Determined with Density Functional Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, J


    ...) agents at contaminated sites. Reported herein are theoretical ionization potentials for CW agents and their related compounds calculated using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level of theory...

  12. Chemical language and warfare of bacterial natural products in bacteria-nematode-insect interactions. (United States)

    Shi, Yi-Ming; Bode, Helge B


    Covering: up to November 2017Organismic interaction is one of the fundamental principles for survival in any ecosystem. Today, numerous examples show the interaction between microorganisms like bacteria and higher eukaryotes that can be anything between mutualistic to parasitic/pathogenic symbioses. There is also increasing evidence that microorganisms are used by higher eukaryotes not only for the supply of essential factors like vitamins but also as biological weapons to protect themselves or to kill other organisms. Excellent examples for such systems are entomopathogenic nematodes of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema that live in mutualistic symbiosis with bacteria of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, respectively. Although these systems have been used successfully in organic farming on an industrial scale, it was only shown during the last 15 years that several different natural products (NPs) produced by the bacteria play key roles in the complex life cycle of the bacterial symbionts, the nematode host and the insect prey that is killed by and provides nutrients for the nematode-bacteria pair. Since the bacteria can switch from mutualistic to pathogenic lifestyle, interacting with two different types of higher eukaryotes, and since the full system with all players can be established in the lab, they are promising model systems to elucidate the natural function of microbial NPs. This review summarizes the current knowledge as well as open questions for NPs from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus and tries to assign their roles in the tritrophic relationship.

  13. TNO Verification of exposure to chemical warfare agents and pesticides: Analysis of protein adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, M.J. van der; Noort, D.


    Introduction. Diagnosis of exposure to organophosphate anti-cholinesterases can play a pivotal role in case of a military or terrorist attack with such agents, e.g. for forensic or medical purposes. Current methods used for assessment of such exposure include the determination of cholinesterase

  14. Procedures, Requirements and Challenges Associated with Analysis of Environmental Samples for Chemical Warfare Material (CWM) (United States)


    instrumentation and analytical equipment • Registered Quality System w/ CASARM ISO 9001 • ISO17025 in BWM; working toward in CWM Approved for... Center (ECBC),Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML),5183 Blackhawk RD,Aberdeen Proving Ground,MD,21010-5424 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT... DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the 9th Annual DoD Environmental

  15. Chemical Warfare Agent Operational Exposure Hazard Assessment Research: FY07 Report and Analysis (United States)


    Psychopharmacologia. 1973, 28, pp 121-145. 30. Sidell, F.R.; Kaminskis, A. Influence of age, sex, and oral contraceptives on human blood cholinesterase...for effects ranging from lethality to threshold acetylcholinesterase depression were estimated. Comparison of neat and dilute VX doses indicates that...Compartment 48 14. ED50s as a Function of Endpoint for IV Exposures 54 15. VX-lnduced AChE Depression as a Function of Dosage and Severity of Effects—IV

  16. Diagnosis of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents: A Comprehensive Literature Survey 1990-2005 (United States)


    major fraction of an absorbed dose of a CW agent is likely to be eliminated as urinary metabolites, a much lesser amount being excreted in the faeces ...and methods for the analysis of metabolites in urine or blood. Examples are provided of detection in cases of human exposure. The review Urinary excretion of 35S had a half-life of - 1.4 days. Much lower amounts of radioactivity were excreted in faeces , typically 5-15% of the dose

  17. A new General Purpose Decontamination System for Chemical and Biological Warfare and Terrorism Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khetan, Sushil; Banerjee, xdDeboshri; Chanda, Arani; Collins, Terry


    ...,Optimization of Reaction Conditions,Use of Cationic Surfactant, Time Dependence of Spore Kill,Enhanced Spore Mortality, Oxidative Detoxification of Organophosphorus Triesters and Dialkyl sulfides,TAML...

  18. From Clouds of Chemical Warfare to Blue Skies of Peace: The Tehran Peace Museum, Iran (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Khateri, Shahriar


    Despite the limited number of peace museums around the world, there exists an essential role for existing peace museums to promote a culture of peace and peace education. The purpose of this article was to introduce the origins, rationale, scope and work of the Tehran Peace Museum in Iran. The concept of the museum is to facilitate peace education…

  19. Heme-Containing Metal-Organic Frameworks for the Oxidative Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents (United States)


    P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 metal-organic frameworks, catalysis , metalloporphyrins, oxidation chemistry REPORT DOCUMENTATION...respectively; hydrogen atoms are omitted for clarity. ARO Final Progress, gray, bright green, and dark green represent Fe, N, O, C, F, and Cl respectively; hydrogen atoms omitted from clarity. Right: Diffuse

  20. Biodegradation of an Organophosphate Chemical Warfare Agent Simulant by Activated Sludge with Varying Solid Retention Times (United States)


    2008; Hoening 2002). Later, in 1952, Dr. Ranajit Ghosh discovered what is now known in the military as VX while conducting research into pesticides ...nutrient content utilized in land applications such as farming . The amount of solids that gets wasted is dependent on each facility’s solid retention occur, the toxic OPs may follow disposed waste sludge where it may be applied as fertilizer in agricultural areas. Furthermore, should

  1. A statistical analysis of the effect of warfare on the human secondary sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graffelman, J.; Hoekstra, R.F.


    Many factors have been hypothesized to affect the human secondary sex ratio (the annual percentage of males among all live births), among them race, parental ages, and birth order. Some authors have even proposed warfare as a factor influencing live birth sex ratios. The hypothesis that during and

  2. A Proficiency-Based Cost Estimate of Surface Warfare Officer On-the-Job Training (United States)


    for “better schooling, and a surface warfare pin equivalent to the dolphins worn by submariners or the wings by the aviators” (Robinson, 2008...Historical Perspective from World War II to 2008. Fort Leavenworth: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Rocci, R. (2003). A Cognitive and

  3. 75 FR 69032 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone (United States)


    ... Warfare Center, Dahlgren's patrol boats. Oystering and fishing boats or other craft may cross the river in... energy technology, and manned or unmanned water craft operations; (2) change the latitude and longitude... shoreline for commercial fishing and waterfowl hunting blinds under existing Navy and state regulations. The...

  4. The Evolution of Naval Warfare Technology and the Impact of Space Systems (United States)


    or Greek fire. Larger missile devices such as the trebuchet were commonly used in land warfare, particularly in siege operations. However, the...were being used more widely in the Mediterranean. Mangonels and trebuchets were used to heave a variety of projectiles. Their adaptation for use on

  5. Information Warfare: Legal, Regulatory, Policy and Organizational Considerations for Assurance. Second Edition. (United States)


    2-19 2-2-1 State Com puter Crim e Statutes ....................................................................... 2-44...2-2-2 Com puter Crim e Jurisdiction .......................................................................... 2-45 2-4-1 Information Warfare Policy...infrastructures from physical and cyber threats. * Propose statutory and regulatory changes. The Infrastructure Protection Task Force (IPTF): * Increase

  6. Above the Influence: The Strategic Effects of Airpower in Irregular Warfare (United States)


    using the methods of Mao Zedong , working at the individual village level to subvert central government authority, which effectively stopped at the...Nagl, ―Principles, Imperatives, and Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency,‖ 50; Mao Tse-Tung, Problems of Strategy in Guerrilla Warfare, 215-216; Gray...outposts, 63 General (Ret.) William W. Momyer, Airpower in Three Wars ( WWII , Korea, Vietnam

  7. Ge 4+ doped TiO 2 for stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Opluštil, F.; Němec, T.


    Roč. 227, AUGUST (2012), s. 62-67 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : germanium * homogeneous hydrolysis * titania * urea * warfare agent degradation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.925, year: 2012

  8. (Review of) Reno, William. 2011. Warfare in Independent Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias


    Warfare in Independent Africa is Reno’s bold attempt to analyze the modern history of African insurgencies. The book tackles this task through the prism of five generations of rebel, which left their mark on the continent; anti-colonial rebels, majority rule rebels, reform rebels, warlord rebels ...

  9. Urban Warfare at the Operational Level: Identifying Centers of Gravity and Key Nodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCleskey, Edward


    .... The intent of this paper is to focus the reader on the operational level of urban warfare. A key task for the Joint Force Commander and his staff will be to identify the targets against which he will employ his component forces...

  10. The influence of the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle on mobile warfare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article traces the story of how the author and a number of daring young commanders and soldiers had cast aside military textbooks in developing their own military doctrine for mobile warfare, South African style. It is clear that the Ratel infantry fighting vehicle had wielded huge influence on the development and ...

  11. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63). (United States)

    Charters, Erica


    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.

  12. Evolution of war and cyber attacks in the concept of conventional warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kuru


    Full Text Available Humanity have witnessed many confrontations of states whose interests challenge at some points and their struggle to neutralize problems in battlefield. While war was perceived as a way of eliminating deadlocks for some parties, some considered it as one of the international policy materials. The definition and content of conventional warfare have been subject to change for centuries, while the new weapons and technologies have been developed by human beings that it has brought constant change in the law of war and at the same time more lethal and devastating consequences. The struggle for superiority in international relations played an impulsive role in the development of weapons used in the battlefield. Countries have used their labor and financial resources to improve their military skills. Beginning with stones and sticks in the battlefield, this struggle has reached the point of using the next generation satellite controlled unmanned and armed aircrafts and having nuclear weapons has become more deterrent than using them. The struggle between strong countries and the limited countries in terms of technology and armed groups that do not have enough technology and skills completely changed the definition of conventional warfare. This fight has led Asymmetric warfare born which can turn commercial airline planes full of innocent people into a weapon like September-11 attacks. In this study, the historical development and the change in the content of the warfare were briefly explained and then cyber-attacks in the concept of the fourth generation warfare was analyzed taking into account of prominent attacks.

  13. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: Effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal


    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  14. Bench-Scale Investigation of Composting for Remediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soils from Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, Indiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preston, Kurt


    ...), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7- tetrazocine (HMX). The Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Crane, Indiana, provides material and logistic support to the Navy's weapon systems, including expendable and nonexpendable ordnance items...

  15. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of the "Sea to SWOS" Training Initiative on the Surface Warfare Officer Qualification Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gavino, Christopher


    ... (combat effectiveness) while the quantitative analysis shows additional costs to the Navy Personnel Command and savings in training costs for the Naval Education and Training Command and OPNAV N76, the Surface Warfare Resource Sponsor...

  16. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Computer-based Training for Newly Commissioned Surface Warfare Division Officers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowman, William R; Crawford, Alice M; Mehay, Stephen; Stoker, Carol; Paynter, Robert


    ...) on-board an officer's ship. The study relied on a variety of analytical techniques, including a literature review of CBT and OJT training, interviews and focus groups with junior and senior surface warfare officers...

  17. Measurement of Toxic industrial Chemicals, Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Simulants: A LWIR Passive Standoff Detection Study (United States)


    Les mesures ont été effectuées à différentes concentrations et à faibles contrastes thermiques dans un environnement à ciel ouvert. Les mesures... thermique (LWIR) pour la détection en retrait dans un environnement militaire est maintenant une priorité. Le projet CATSI-EDM est le premier...fitting procedure. Figure 42 shows simulations performed with the Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) [12] incorporating the same

  18. Multi Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Treatment of Chemical Warfare Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries (United States)


    experienced sleep deprivation . The commander would have to decide whether the Service members should be allowed to sleep or be awakened to take the...Theater validation identification descriptors ........................................................ G-3 Table G-4. Definitive identification...This publication uses joint terms where applicable. Selected joint and Army terms and definitions appear in both the glossary and the text. Terms

  19. The German Military Entrepreneur Ernst von Mansfeld and His Conduct of Asymmetrical Warfare in the Thirty Years War


    Bäckström, Olli


    The dissertation examines aspects of asymmetrical warfare in the war-making of the German military entrepreneur Ernst von Mansfeld during his involvement in the Thirty Years War. Due to the nature of the inquiry, which combines history with military-political theory, the methodological approach of the dissertation is interdisciplinary. The theoretical framework used is that of asymmetrical warfare. The primary sources used in the dissertation are mostly political pamphlets and newsl...

  20. Chemical terrorism: a primer for 2002. (United States)

    Goozner, Barry; Lutwick, Larry I; Bourke, Edmund


    Agents of chemical warfare have inflicted mass casualties on military and civilian personnel. Although not yet deployed on populations in the United States, stockpiles exist in countries that view the United States with enmity. There are four groups of such agents. The inhalants, chlorine and phosgene, were the earliest such weapons. Cyanide gases, because of their volatility, exert their lethal consequences in enclosed spaces. The vesicants and nerve agents, currently the most successful agents of chemical mass destruction, are the major focus of this overview. Mustard, the prototype of the vesicants, and its sulfur and nitrogen analogues are aerosolized liquids that linger on victims, incapacitating through their effects on the skin, eye, and respiratory tract. Mortality is low, but morbidity is substantial and mass casualties strain health care resources. Nerve agents, by contrast, are designed to kill. All, including Tabun, Sarin, Soman, and VX, are organophosphates that inactivate acetylcholinesterase. Widespread manifestations of peripheral and central neuronal dysfunction can be fatal without timely administration of antidotes. Decontamination, axiomatic in the management of agents of chemical warfare, is outlined, and therapeutic strategies are summarized in the light of current understanding.

  1. Establishment of Exposure to Organophosphorus Warfare Agents by Means of SPME-GSMS Analysis of Bodily Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saveleva, E. I.; Koryagina, N. L.; Radilov, A. S.; Khlebnikova, N. S.; Khrustaleva, V. S.; Feld, V. E.


    Reliable chemical analytical procedures for revealing an exposure to toxic chemicals, identifying the active substance, and assessing the degree of exposure are necessary as a component of medical and forensic activities in cases of the possible use of highly toxic chemicals in war conflicts and terrorism acts, as well as emergency situations in chemical industry, specifically at chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities. According to Chemical Weapons Convention, Part XI, Appendix 4, e-17, 'samples of importance in the investigation of alleged use include biomedical samples from human or animal sources (blood, urine, excreta, tissue etc.)'. Urinary metabolites, O-alkyl esters of methylphosphic acid, offer one of the simplest means of confirming an exposure to organophosphorus warfare agents (OPWA). Urine, unlike blood or tissues, does not require invasive collection demanding in terms of sterility. Excretion with urine is the major route of elimination of OPWA from an organism. According to published data, 90% of OPWA metabolites are excreted within 48-72 h after intoxication. We developed an SPME-GCMS procedure for the determination of O-alkyl esters methylphosphonic acid in urine, with the following detection limits,: isopropyl and isobutyl esters 5 ng/ml and pinacolyl ester 1 ng/ml. The procedure involves derivatization of the target compounds directly on the microfiber. The total analysis time is 1-1.5 h. In animal experiments in vivo we could establish the exposure to OPWA at a half-LD50 level within no less than 48 h after intoxication. In principle, OPWA metabolites could be detected in urine within two weeks after intoxication but at higher doses. Retrospective analysis of urinary metabolites in cases of the exposure to low doses of OPWA requires lower detection limits (0.1-1 ng/ml). Optimal objects for the retrospective analysis of OPWA in an organism are long-lived blood protein adducts. We developed a procedure for revealing an exposure to

  2. U.S. Army Chemical Corps Historical Studies. Gas Warfare in World War I: Gas Warfare at Belleau Wood, June 1918 (United States)


    companies (over 400 men) against the Rouvrols sector occupied by the 9th Infantry at 11$00 porno that same night, 13 April, apparently to highly probable that until gas is dissipated no infantry attack need be fearedo" The bombardment continued on the 14th when about 4|30 porno the...40 the next morningo Between liOO and 6t00 porno on 18 June^ 100 HE and gas 105s fell in the Bois des Clerembaut8s and between 6r00 and lljOO

  3. How Power-Laws Re-Write The Rules Of Cyber Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Bibighaus


    Full Text Available All warfare contains and element of randomness. This article will argue that, the kind uncertainty encountered in cyber warfare (Power-Law randomness is fundamentally different from the uncertainty the military has evolved to deal with in the physical world (Gaussian-Randomness. The article will explain the difference between these two kinds of randomness, and how cyber weapons appear to operate under Power-Law randomness. It then will show how in cyberspace, key aspects of strategic thought are based on a flaws assumption of randomness. Finally, this article shall argue that if the American military is going to be effective in cyberspace, it must re-examine the way the military assumes risk, recruits is forces, plans for war and maintains the peace.

  4. Air University Research Paper: Asymmetric Warfare - Exposing America’s Weaknesses (United States)


    AU/ACSC/ 03-1261R/2003-04 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PAPER ASYMMETRIC WARFARE - EXPOSING AMERICA’S...Air University Research Paper : Asymmetric Wafare - Exposing America’s Weaknesses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Std Z39-18 Disclaimer The views expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author(s) and do not reflect the official policy or

  5. Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the United States Army (United States)


    Figure 3). However, a 2016 Department of Defense (DoD) report explained that in 2013 “China launched an object into space on a ballistic trajectory with...well as other non-kinetic counter- space capabilities.42 The USCC report also provided detailed analysis of Chinese developments of co-orbital...Satellite and Ground Communication Systems: Space and Electronic Warfare Threats to the

  6. Equipping Network Warfare: Industrial-Era Bureaucracies for Information-Era Weapons (United States)


    to operational shortfalls. Clearly, there are benefits in following known methods in organizing the cyberspace mission and its capabilities...sid26_gci853845,00.html (accessed 15 December 2008). 9 Terminology Reference, “Web Year,” ecommerce /Web_year.cfm... benefits of the process, while amplifying the negative aspects of the bureaucracy. Network warfare capabilities are much more vulnerable to

  7. A cost and operational effectiveness analysis of alternative anti-surface warfare platforms


    Skinner, Walter Mark.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) is performed for three alternative anti-surface warfare (ASUW) platforms that will conduct operations in multi-service regional scenarios. Estimated program costs, historical cost variances, and measures of operational effectiveness are determined for each COEA alternative, and service life extension effects are examined. The data is merged in a mixed-integer optimization model, MPA...

  8. Deterrence in the Human Domain: A COIN Framework to Deterring Unconventional Warfare in Shaping Operations (United States)


    protecting ethnic Russians, providing stability to neighbors, defending “self- determination,” and protecting human rights . Protection of Russian...Deterrence in the Human Domain: A COIN Framework to Deterring Unconventional Warfare in Shaping Operations A Monograph by MAJ Matthew P...should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of

  9. Cyberspace as a Complex Adaptive System and the Policy and Operational Implications for Cyber Warfare (United States)


    accessed 13 February 2014). 66Teresa Degenhard “Between War and Crime: The Overlap between War and Crime: Unpacking Foucault and Agamben’s Studies...Article-2-Revision- for- Foucault -and-Agamben-Degenhardt-July-2013.pdf (accessed 5 April 2014). 26... Foucault and Agamben’s Studies within the Context of the War on Terror.”, 34. 68US Department of Defense, Electronic Warfare, Joint Publication 3-13, I-2

  10. Efficacy Evaluation of Current and Future Naval Mine Warfare Neutralization Method (United States)


    MCM-1) Operates off the Coast of Hawaii during Exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2004. ID: 040710-N-6551H-229. U.S. Navy, Arlington, VA...The Mine Countermeasure Ship USS Avenger (MCM-1) Operates off the Coast of Hawaii during Exercise Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 2004. ID: 040710-N... fire -scout-following-two-crashes/. Accessed December 5, 2016. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command. 2011. “Marine Mammal Program.” SSC Pacific

  11. Discrete Electronic Warfare Signal Processing using Compressed Sensing Based on Random Modulator Pre-Integrator


    M. Sreenivasa Rao; Chandan C. Mishra; K. Krishna Naik; K. Maheshwara Reddy


    Electronic warfare receiver works in the wide electromagnetic spectrum in dense radar signal environment. Current trends in radar systems are ultra wideband and low probability of intercept radar technology. Detection of signals from various radar stations is a concern. Performance and probability of intercept are mainly dependent on high speed ADC technology. The sampling and reconstruction functions have to be optimized to capture incoming signals at the receiver to extract characteristics ...

  12. Vital Interests, Virtual Threats: Reconciling International Law with Information Warfare and United States Security (United States)


    1985 workforce of 406,000 by two thirds. Volkswagen intends to reduce its present workforce by one third. Proctor and Gamble has rising sales, yet is...of the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee , named “China, Russia, Libya, Iran, Iraq, and at least seven other countries... audit uses four recent Stanford Technology Law Journal articles not related to information warfare. Granted, hypothetical environments make certainty

  13. Lawfare and hybrid warfare-how Russia is using the law as a weapon


    Mosquera, A.; Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik


    This short paper introduces the reader to the mutating military concept of hybrid warfare and one of its implementing methods, the use of law as a weapon. We aim to provide a current, comprehensive definition of the terms “hybrid warfare” and “lawfare”. This submission focuses on the following areas: where law has been/is being used as a method of war, namely the Jus ad bellum, the jus in bello and the law of treaties in international relations.

  14. Special Operations, Irregular Warfare, and Operational Art: A Theory of Special Operations (United States)


    modern militaries: Ian F. W. Beckett , Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies (New York: Routledge, 2003), 213. 1...the dynamics that influence other coalition members. They do not have the 71Mao Zedong, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. Samuel B. Griffith (Breiningville...2004. Beckett , Ian F. W. Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies. New York: Routledge, 2003. Bergen, Peter. “Analysis: Bin Laden might find

  15. Russian Perspectives on Network-Centric Warfare: The Key Aim of Serdyukov’s Reform (United States)


    has faced with its GLObal’naya NAvigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema —(GLONASS) system, and introducing advanced digitized communications in the armed...of targeting data will be accomplished by organizing virtual channels for data transmission or via a web -portal. The successful function- ing of the...Operations: Tactical Web Takes Shape,” Signal, November 2003; Col. Alan D. Campen, USAF (Ret.), “Look Closely At Network-Centric Warfare: Technology Can

  16. Incorporating AFEWC IMOM as an instructional asset for NPS radar and electronic warfare curricula


    Van Splinter, Gregg A.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In this thesis, effort is made to incorporate the computer program, Improved Many(Jammers)-on-Many(Radars) (IMOM), into radar and electronic warfare curricula at the Naval Postgraduate School. The IMOM program is used operationally by the U.S. Air Force for electronic combat mission planning. IMOM allows the user to evaluate electronic combat effects through computer color graphics display of the electronic order of battle including ...

  17. Past and Potential Theory for Special Warfare Operational Art: People’s War and Contentious Politics (United States)


    the scientific method could be used to examine historical case studies.114 His examination of the English , American, French, and Russian Revolutions...its full evaluation as a grammar of revolutionary war. Finally, a translation of basic concepts from contentious politics into useful outlines founded upon distinct and sound theories of war and warfare. This monograph argues that from 1952-1965, the US Army Special Forces developed two

  18. Puncturing the Counterinsurgency Myth: Britain and Irregular Warfare in the Past, Present, and Future (United States)


    FUTURE INTRODUCTION Britain’s irregular warfare experience in the post- World War II era presented the military with numer- ous insurgent challenges where...STRATEGICALLY PERCEPTIVE This myth points to a painful element of British COIN conduct, namely, the short -circuiting of con- text. The preference for...military to plan for long-term coalition commitments: “Increasing globalisation ties our security to that of our allies. . . . Therefore we must

  19. Evaluation of Littoral Combat Ships for Open-Ocean Anti-Submarine Warfare (United States)


    submarines that were considered in detail for this report. Adapted from Michaele Lee Huygen, 2003, “Submarine Warfare in the 20th & 21st Centuries : A...development, architecture , capability, functional decomposition, modeling and simulation, ASW, LCS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 99 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...2015/05/revealed-chinas-new-carrier- killer-sub-simulator/. General Dynamics. 2015. “Combat Power for the 21st Century .” Sales brochure, General

  20. Evaluating Effectiveness of a Frigate in an Anti-Air Warfare (AAW) Environment (United States)


    anti-air warfare (AAW) mission, weapons and radar systems influence each other and interact with the combat software system (Figure 1). Figure 1...similar to our approach include UAV contributions to expeditionary operations (Raffetto, 2004), counter- piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden (Tsilis...statistical discovery software offers both powerful statistics and dynamic graphics capabilities to its users. In the thesis, JMP statistical discovery

  1. Cyber crime and cyber warfare with international cyber collaboration for RSA – preparing communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M


    Full Text Available Warfare with International Cyber Collaboration for RSA ? Preparing Communities Dr Marthie Grobler, Joey Jansen van Vuuren', Dr Jannie Zaaiman? Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa1 University of Venda2 ABSTRACT... with the technological revolution is that cyberspace is full of complex and dynamic technological innovations that are not well suited to any legal system. A further complication is the lack of comprehensive treaties facilitating international cooperation...

  2. Global Trends and Future Warfare (Strategic Insights. Special Issue, October 2011) (United States)


    Li Future Warfare and China regional and ethnic discrimination, and the spread of the internet and proliferation of sensational media. In a...communications, we have near-worldwide instant exchange of ideas and spread of ideas. Images and information of living standards, role models, and unusually seductive form of military strength, in part because, like modern courtship, it appears to offer gratification without commitment.’15

  3. Hybrid Warfare Dilemmas in the Middle Colonies during the American Revolution (United States)


    prisoners and forcing the British to reinforce and area they thought they controlled.65 These militia groups grew larger and more emboldened after...British prisoners , Washington told him that he could not “answer for the militia who are resorting to Arms in most parts of the State, and exceedingly...the tension between punishing the colonists and welcoming them back into British rule prevented him from solving the hybrid warfare dilemmas posed



    vulnerability in networks across the world as supervisory control and data acquisition ( SCADA ) systems, similar to the ones attacked in Iran, are...used worldwide to perform tasks such as traffic control, managing power grids and management of other utility systems. The heavy reliance on SCADA ...standpoint, this document will never become the agreed upon standard for today’s warfare, unless it is substantially updated . AU/ACSC/2015 28

  5. Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield (United States)

    Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel


    While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

  6. The Covert Use of the Global Special Operations Network and the Militarization of Covert Action in Political Warfare and the Gray Zone (United States)


    84 Psychological Warfare Operations...Oxford University Press, 1971). 16 Charles Cruickshank,. The Fourth Arm: Psychological Warfare 1938-1945 (London, UK: Davis-Poynter, 1977), 69. 13...capability for clandestine intelligence collection and sabotage operations, in 1950, the Army only had about 20 personnel trained in psychological

  7. International humanitarian law applied to cyber-warfare: Precautions, proportionality and the notion of ‘attack’ under the humanitarian law of armed conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, T.D.; Tsagourias, N.; Buchan, R.


    This chapter examines the application of international humanitarian law to cyber warfare in the sense of rising to the level of an armed conflict. Building upon the work of the Tallinn Manual on the Application of International Law to Cyber Warfare, it places particular emphasis on the application

  8. Desert Testing of Military Materiel. (United States)


    ria’ he I’ilrrts’ tar long Periord,, eseil’ fticn o% cred bV humi111d air ott (tic (tif of Miexico if no ss leis ’irisrng uplift ot thai tiurild air...sunrise arnd remiaininig at approiiately that lei el duritng tire day’" Irhese generalities apply ito plains areas of lo%%er elesation (abotit 4W8 Ilaill I’ rcei’ed I11 bh ’.IIilll’ mmd wrliter . \\’leralc’ anld c’.11c111 -Chiuc’ tiCI ’.illcr an~d %%Ine 1111 m p CiClt( MeC ’ mei. A1o’ci

  9. The concept of guerrilla warfare in Lithuania in the 1920—1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokubauskas Vytautas


    Full Text Available This article analyses the military and tactical training of the members of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union for guerrilla warfare in the interwar period. Small nations, such as Lithuania and other Baltic states, being unable to build up military strength in order to ensure national security, were forced to seek for unconventional methods of warfare, including guerrilla strategies. The study places emphasis on the development of the guerrilla war concept in the Union periodicals. The author retraces a change in the intensity of the guerrilla warfare concept propagation amongst Lithuanian population and riflemen, in particular, through publications in the Trimitas — a periodical of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union. The author also identifies the narratives associated with the guerrilla matters employed for propaganda purposes in order to create an image of a guerrilla as a defender of the Homeland — Lithuania. Additionally, the structure and numbers of the Union are analysed through a comparison with similar organisations of the other «small nations» of the Baltic North-East. The author addresses the issue of military missions planned by the Lithuanian Army, as well as the way riflemen implemented them. Since the Union did not only offer military training, but was also engaged in the patriotic propaganda, the article focuses on the network of cultural institutions, homes of riflemen, orchestras, libraries, choirs, and athletic clubs used by the Union. The article sets out to establish whether the loss of Lithuanian sovereignty could have been possible without giving rise to a protracted guerrilla war.

  10. Structure and behavior as determinants: United States nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.C.


    US efforts to control chemical and biological warfare and nuclear testing are examined with the aim of explaining the paucity of US backed agreements in these areas. Two theoretical perspectives, the behavioral and structural approaches, are used to explore US arms control outcomes. In the behavioral approach, the effects of governmental organization and the bargaining dynamics of policy-making elites with different cognitive styles are posited as important influences on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes. The behavioral perspective accounts for the timing of all US failed and successful entries (with one exception) into nuclear test bans and chemical and biological warfare restraints. A shortcoming of the behavior approach, however, is that it tends to overemphasize the chances for successful US entry into nuclear test and chemical and biological warfare limitations. Analysis of the same events from the structural perspective helps to correct for expectations generated by behavioral variables for a higher success rate than ultimately resulted. In the structural approach, the focus is on the effect of the organization of international politics on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes

  11. U.S. Army Land Warfare Laboratory. Volume 1. Project Report, Appendix A. Documentation (United States)


    10) "EXPLOSIVES DETECTING DOGS", Final Report. Krauss, flax , Bliological Sciences Branch. U. S. Ariqy Land Warfare Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving...Readei .•,al uat ed by Alaska Nau inl i 1 :uli d. IC SI’ID ret onilt dt’d yN, ( ;,Iaid, a l ,., by PISARAi.. ROC he inu, prteparted. I1 lt ninat ion UISARV. Ret : ansmission >;ystni Evaluation qty 0l 0 sup li,-d to I Ag\\’N and USAkV which rt-comin• l:dt-d I( \\’I I mod i f cat io. Riot Col: rol

  12. Total Control: How the Nazis Countered Unconventional Warfare in the Netherlands During World War Two (United States)


    11:mrnn ’ cc11rit) pnlic) :.incc I >t66. l·Dlkm ing the (jcrman ’ ict ori1.:~ ~) f 1939- 19-10. I titler grantccl I limmlcr rrnthority over la" :md...better deterrent in the c;mall " Durch cnmmunity. the Scc11rit) :-1.:n ict ’’i pro’ idcd the names of death candidates 3nu c"<ccu tcd people tu thl...Total Control: I low the Nazis Countered Unconventional Warfare in the Netherlands During World War Two A Monograph by Major Jeroen F van

  13. Unconventional War and Warfare in the Gray Zone. The New Spectrum of Modern Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Banasik


    Full Text Available Experiences of the last couple of years indicate that political objectives are increasingly achieved without official declarations of war. Armed forces are used in untraditional ways and the so-called substitute troops begin to play an increasingly bigger part. The article aims to characterize the conflicts of alternative nature below the level of open war that are on the border between war and peace. The content of the article presents the theory of unconventional warfare and its description, and familiarizes the reader with the concept of grey zone conflicts. It further shows the challenges linked to rivalry for influence zones and security provisions.

  14. Battle-Wise: Seeking Time-Information Superiority in Networked Warfare (United States)


    it best about learning from mistakes in life: “There is no wisdom in the second kick of a mule .” Although he did not have 21st-century warfare in...part of our military leadership—can we expect to avoid the “second kick of a mule .” xii BATTLE-WISE PREFACE xiii xiii Preface This book is an inquiry...recruiting meth - ods. Depending on work experience before joining the military, it may be possible actually to identify battle-wise traits in recruits. For

  15. Chemical Emergencies (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  16. Information warfare as ICT influence on public consciousness and public opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Stadnyk


    Full Text Available The article defines the key aspects of the merits and impact of information warfare on public consciousness and public opinion. In the article, we review the information war not as an auxiliary mechanism for real war, but as a mechanism of affecting the public opinion. The public opinion can not be formed completely (while there is information content, public opinion changes constantly because the information in the hands of the media acts as a real weapon aimed at the mass consciousness. The article discusses in detail the four main factors that determine the effectiveness of the impact of information: 1 information warfare agents that affect the population, mass consciousness, public opinion; 2 information weapon of war; 3 the content itself, the content that is broadcast during the information war; 4 the specifics of mass awareness in different countries, the formation and functioning of their public opinion. And how much information war characteristic of the crisis (as an example to Ukraine since the beginning of the Maidan in 2013, the presentation of information aimed at manipulating public consciousness and, accordingly, the public opinion as the outward expression of consciousness.

  17. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers (United States)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff


    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the warfare metaphor alive. On the other hand, there are substantial numbers of Christians who at least appear to oppose science given their high-profile opposition to the general theory of evolution. The research reported in this paper asked, "Does anti-science sentiment increase with increasing orthodox Christian belief?" Two validated, published instruments were used: The Thinking about Science Survey Instrument and the Christian Fundamentalist Belief Scale. The subjects for the study were 545 preservice elementary teachers. The analysis did not show that anti-science sentiment increases with increasing Christian belief. Subjects with strong Christian beliefs were found to be just as supportive of science, if not more so, than subjects with no Christian beliefs. The study concludes with a caution against projecting attitudes toward science "on the whole" based on attitudes specifically toward evolution when working with preservice elementary teachers. Such a projection could well be counterproductive. The study has implications for other modern countries having highly religious populations such as Turkey.

  18. Investigating the Relationship Between Drone Warfare and Civilian Casualties in Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ann Rogers


    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, better known as drones, are increasingly touted as ‘humanitarian’ weapons that contribute positively to fighting just wars and saving innocent lives. At the same time, civilian casualties have become the most visible and criticized aspect of drone warfare. It is argued here that drones contribute to civilian casualties not in spite of, but because of, their unique attributes. They greatly extend war across time and space, pulling more potential threats and targets into play over long periods, and because they are low-risk and highly accurate, they are more likely to be used. The assumption that drones save lives obscures a new turn in strategic thinking that sees states such as Israel and the US rely on large numbers of small, highly discriminating attacks applied over time to achieve their objectives. This examination of Israel’s 2014 war in Gaza argues that civilian casualties are not an unexpected or unintended consequence of drone warfare, but an entirely predictable outcome.

  19. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico. (United States)

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice


    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Academic Training Lectures | Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare | 13-14 January 2016

    CERN Multimedia


    Please note that the next series of Academic Training Lectures will take place on 13 and 14 January 2016. The lectures will be given by Gian Piero Siroli (Università e INFN, Bologna (IT))   Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)​ on Wednesday, 13 January from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2) on Thursday, 14 January from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. at CERN, Council Chamber (503-1-001)  Description: The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran&...

  1. 76 FR 10522 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Upper Machodoc Creek and the Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone (United States)


    ... Warfare Center, Dahlgren's patrol boats. Oystering and fishing boats or other craft may cross the river in... bombing, directed energy technology, and manned or unmanned water craft operations; expand the Middle... manned or unmanned watercraft. (ii) When hazardous operations are in progress, no person, or fishing or...

  2. Warfare tourism experiences and national identity: The case of Airborne Museum ‘Hartenstein’ in Oosterbeek, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, Johannes


    This paper examines through an analysis of Dutch warfare tourism whether there is a relationship between the subjective perceived salience of Dutch identity and heritage tourists' motives, emotions and overall satisfaction. Using a social identity theory framework, this study provides a view of

  3. Warfare has changed - so should have methods: Ammunition and weapon performance induced operational risk and safety issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.L.A.; Voorde, M.J. van de


    Warfare has changed. Out-of-area operations have increased the awareness that we are unfamiliar with the performance of the current conventional medium and large calibre ammunitions in day-to-day practice. Current ammunition is primarily developed and procured to defeat the traditional ‘steel’

  4. Detection of hazardous chemicals using field-portable Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Wright, Cherylyn W.; Harvey, Scott D.; Wright, Bob W.


    A major challenge confronting emergency response, border control, and other security-related functions is the accurate, rapid, and safe identification of potentially hazardous chemicals outside a laboratory environment. Raman spectroscopy is a rapid, non-intrusive technique that can be used to confidently identify many classes of hazardous and potentially explosive compounds based on molecular vibration information. Advances in instrumentation now allow reliable field - portable measurements to be made. Before the Raman technique can be effectively applied and be accepted within the scientific community, realistic studies must be performed to develop methods, define limitations, and rigorously evaluate its effectiveness. Examples of a variety of chemicals (including neat and diluted chemical warfare [CW] agents, a CW agent precursor, a biological warfare (BW)-related compound, an illicit drug, and explosives) identified using Raman spectroscopy in various types of containers and on surfaces are given, as well as results from a blind field test of 29 unknown samples which included CW agent precursors and/or degradation products, solvents associated with CW agent production, pesticides, explosives, and BW toxins (mostly mycotoxins). Additionally, results of experimental studies to evaluate the analysis of flammable organic solvents, propellants, military explosives, mixtures containing military explosives, shock-sensitive explosives, and gun powders are described with safety guidelines. Spectral masks for screening unknown samples for explosives and nerve agents are given.

  5. Parameters for the Evaluation of the Fate, Transport, and Environmental Impacts of Chemical Agents in Marine Environments (United States)


    included in this review. Ecotoxicological parameters used for assessing potential ecological effects have also been reviewed elsewhere,11 although the...Perspective, in Textbook of Military Medicine : Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, US...the Marine Environment, Nantes, France, 15-19 March 2004. 287 Neff, M. N., Ecotoxicology of arsenic in the marine environment, Environ. Tox. Chem

  6. In-Water Treatment of Biofouling in Internal Systems: Field Validation of Quaternary Ammonium Compound (QAC) Chemical Treatment Protocols (United States)


    Corrosion Test Facility, BAE Williamstown Shipbuilding Facility. During all trials, one system was dosed with the chemical treatment solutions while the...Little, USS PRINCETON (CG59): microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and macrofouling status of seawater piping systems, 1990, Naval Surface Warfare...p. 227-271. 28. Bax, N.J., et al. Man-made marinas as sheltered islands for alien marine organisms: Establishment and eradiction of an alien

  7. An Analysis of the Impact of Network-Centric Warfare on the Doctrine and Tactics, Techniques and Procedures of Intelligence at the Operational Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, Charles


    This project sought to determine the impacts of network centric warfare (NCW) on the planning and direction of intelligence at the operational level, and what changes in joint intelligence doctrine (JID...

  8. An Evaluation of the Environmental Fate and Behavior of Munitions Materiel (Tetryl and Polar Metabolites of TNT) in Soil and Plant Systems. Environmental Fate and Behavior of Tetryl (United States)


    accumulated the majority of the available label supplied. Chemical analyses of hydroponically treated bush bean leaf tissues indicated that acid hydrolysis, as...Fractions of Bush Bean Plants Exposed to Tetryl-Amended Hydroponic Cultures for 1 Day ......... 59 3.12 Percentage of Total Radioactivity in the Various...Chemical Fractions of Bush Bean Plants Exposed to Tetryl-Amended Hydroponic Cultures for 7 Days..,.,,-_,.. 59 xvii 3.13 Percentage of Total

  9. United States chemical policy: Response considerations. Master's Thesis 1 Aug 90-7 Jun 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanDyke, L.L.


    Chemical weapons have been a controversial subject for years. Even before the Germans introduced modern chemical warfare on 22 April 1915 during World War I, issues concerning use of asphyxiating gases and other chemical agents surfaced. Discussions often became emotional and clouded the issues of the effects of this type of warfare. Propaganda and sensationalism contributed to negative public opinion and impacted on policy development. This study examines the development of the US's chemical policy by looking at significant events over time and analyzing developments and trends. An answer to the question of whether or not the US will respond with chemical weapons following use by a third world country against US military forces is concluded based on study findings. This study concluded that the US will not respond with chemical weapons against a third world country such as Iraq. Such use of chemical weapons would reverse the developments the US has made in recent years. The political considerations and the impact on future negotiations toward the banning of chemical weapons would be detrimental if the US did retaliate with chemical weapons.

  10. Nuclear radiation in warfare. A SIPRI publication. Strahlungswirkungen beim Einsatz von Kernwaffen. Eine SIPRI-Publikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotblat, J.


    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion.

  11. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matatagui


    Full Text Available The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs. The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13, and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR. Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  12. Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents. (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen


    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  13. Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare, from Past to the Present: A classic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zare Bidaki


    Full Text Available Bioterrorism is defined as any terrorist action of intentional release or dissemination of highly pathogenic biological agents, including a variety of microorganisms or biological toxins. With the growing threat of terrorism, is necessary that the potential danger of various microorganisms – as a powerful tool of aggression and threat- to be taken seriously. This review tries to explain the concept of biological weapons and their historical development process with an emphasis on efforts to control the proliferation of these types of weapons over the last century. Potential impact of infectious diseases on people and armed forces was known from since 600 BC. Using the victims of the plague as a weapon in medieval warfare and spread of smallpox as a weapon during the war against the Indians when initially America was discovered, the development of biological weapons during the World War I, World War II and the Cold War, and even since the beginning of the third millennium, all show the strategic importance of pathogenic microorganisms as a deterrent power for the superiority of some governments and cults. Historical attempts to use infectious diseases as biological weapons reveal that the distinction between a natural outbreak of an infectious disease and that of a deliberate biological attack is very difficult. Abusing this characteristic of infectious diseases has made it possible for the purposes of superiority. International agreements to control the development of biological weapons, such as “the 1925 Geneva Protocol” and “the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Biological and Toxic Weapons” have not been able to control the development and using of biological warfare.  The current paper is a classic review (Overview article aiming at increasing the knowledge and awareness of people especially of health authorities and government officials.

  14. Media Discourse in an Atmosphere of Information Warfare: From Manipulation to Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Иванович Озюменко


    Full Text Available In todays atmosphere of information warfare the biased impact of the media has increased, pushing behind other functions, including the informative one. The forms of media influence have also changed: direct persuasion has been replaced by implicit manipulation, which develops into outright aggression. Since, in the media discourse aggression can be both verbal and non-verbal, we propose to use the term information (or media aggression , which is broader than verbal aggression . Media aggression can be considered as a binary process - in relation to the referent (affective aggression and in relation to the audience (cognitive aggression. As a result, the information under media aggression refers to the expression of open hostility and animosity towards the referent and meaningful impact on the consciousness of the recipient (the target audience to its ideological subordination. The purpose of this article is to justify the hypothesis that the growing media aggression is a feature of modern media discourse in the atmosphere of information warfare, and this function can be analysed within the framework of manipulative discourse as manipulative persuasion. The data has been taken from quality British and American newspapers, news websites of The BBC, The Economist, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Washington Post, and some others covering the relations between Russia and the USA, the situation in the Middle East, particularly in Syria. The the study was conducted using critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 2001, Van Dijk 2006, 2009; Wodak 2007; Weiss, Wodak 2007 and the multimodal approach (Ivanova, Spodarets 2010; Ponton 2016, and reveals various strategies and means of linguistic manipulation and media aggression. It also shows that the main aim of linguistic manipulation accentuated by verbal and non-verbal aggression is to deliberately mislead the audience imposing on it the desired idea of ideological subordination. Therefore, a

  15. Millennial Warfare (United States)

    2017-06-09 blog / cutting-edge-leadership/201005/how-lead-the-millennial-generation. 8 Elizabeth Bodine-Barron, Todd C. Helmus, Madeline...environment. ISIL has taken the message boards and blog post of the 1990s and jumped in with both feet to the modern digital environment. They push content...57 Riggio. 58 Stern and Berger, 81-84. 59 Anwar Alawlaki, “The State of Ummah,” Anwar Alawaki Blog , April 23, 2009, accessed March 15, 2017

  16. Nuclear warfare

    CERN Multimedia



    Le Prof.Broda a étudié à Vienne et Berlin et a travaillé pendant la dernière guerre mondiale en Grande Bretagne pour le conseil de la recherche médicale, notamment sur la chimie de la vision. Il est maintenant Prof. de la chimie, physique et radiochimie à l'Université de Vienne, où il concentre ses travaux sur les méchanisme de transport d'énergie à travers les cellules de membranes.

  17. Electronic Warfare (United States)


    nuclear burst. A high-altitude electromagnetic pulse ( HEMP ) can generate significant disruptive field strengths over a continental-size area. The...portion of the EMS most affected by EMP and HEMP is the radio spectrum. Planning for communications system protection is significant when the law (e.g., Protocol IV of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons that prohibits the use of laser weapons with a combat function to

  18. Decontamination of chemical agents from drinking water infrastructure: a literature review and summary. (United States)

    Szabo, Jeff; Minamyer, Scott


    This report summarizes the current state of knowledge on the persistence of chemical contamination on drinking water infrastructure (such as pipes) along with information on decontamination should persistence occur. Decontamination options for drinking water infrastructure have been explored for some chemical contaminants, but important data gaps remain. In general, data on chemical persistence on drinking water infrastructure is available for inorganics such as arsenic and mercury, as well as select organics such as petroleum products, pesticides and rodenticides. Data specific to chemical warfare agents and pharmaceuticals was not found and data on toxins is scant. Future research suggestions focus on expanding the available chemical persistence data to other common drinking water infrastructure materials. Decontaminating agents that successfully removed persistent contamination from one infrastructure material should be used in further studies. Methods for sampling or extracting chemical agents from water infrastructure surfaces are needed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion (United States)

    Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James


    Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

  20. The Concentration Probability Density Function With Implications for Probabilistic Modeling of Chemical Warfare Agent Detector Responses for Source Reconstruction (United States)


    quantité d’agent émis et l’heure de l’émission détectée par un réseau de capteurs CBR. Pour être en mesure de combler cette lacune, le Programme de...tions CBR provenant de réseaux de capteurs éloignés pouvant être déployés et ayant des données de modèles de concentrations obtenues par des...Cette mise au point permet d’intégrer le paradigme de modélisation à base de capteurs dans des systèmes opérationnels de signal d’avertissement et

  1. Evaluation of Silver-Exchanged Zeolites Under Development by University of Maine for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brickhouse, Mark D; Lalain, Teri A; D'Onofrio, Terrence G; Procell, Lawrence R; Zander, Zachary B


    This effort is for the evaluation of a non-toxic photo-catalytic decontamination technology based on silver-exchanged zeolites being developed by the University of Maine research team under the direction of Dr. Howard H...

  2. Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination Efficacy Testing Large-Scale Chamber mVHP (registered trademerk) Decontamination System Evaluation (United States)


    was limited by arm length. Several extension pole- clutching tools were evaluated. These tools were well suited for short lengths. The placement of...flnaptin.) Rt>c«vfwJ by (won A print) - for notes O through <S> see back of form APPENDIX D 178 Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society...SCOPE: The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES) Journal hereinafter known as the ACES Journal is devoted to the exchange of

  3. Evaporation Rates of Chemical Warfare Agents Using 5-CM Wind Tunnels I. CASARM Sulfur Mustard (HD) from Glass (United States)


    8217 : 1 1 to f3 O <M 3 < 4 8 o m y. v u-: tl Of 1 >_’. tA i« U « «n n •n ro re rd C6 a c a a...N. *"*- K tO cU fVj x- t- • •>- tsg »- ,_ PJ ^ _. ,- r- ,.. •• NrNrrN(N1(\\0)(\\ nif ) c^ it o o> O E O O 9 O 9

  4. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.; Gordon, Richard K.; Rezk, Peter E.; Katos, Alexander M.; Wajda, Nikolai A.; Moran, Theodore S.; Steele, Keith E.; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Sciuto, Alfred M.


    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m 3 of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure

  5. Relationship Between the Dose-Response Curves for Lethality and Severe Effects for Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sommerville, Douglas R


    ... (involving acute inhalation exposures to G-type nerve agents) were reviewed and analyzed. For all three studies, slightly more than one standard deviation separated an effective concentration (ECxx...

  6. Carbon Textiles Modified with Copper-Based Reactive Adsorbents as Efficient Media for Detoxification of Chemical Warfare Agents. (United States)

    Florent, Marc; Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A; Wallace, Rajiv; Bandosz, Teresa J


    Carbon textile swatch was oxidized and impregnated with copper hydroxynitrate. A subsample was then further heated at 280 °C to form copper oxide. The swatches preserved their integrity through the treatments. As final products, they exhibited remarkable detoxification properties for the nerve agent surrogate dimethyl chlorophosphate (DMCP). Based on the amount of reactive copper phases deposited on the fibers, their adsorption capacities were higher than those of the bulk powders. After 1 day exposure to DMCP (1:1 weight ratio adsorbent/DMCP), 99% of the initial amount of DMCP was eliminated. A synergistic effect of the composite components was clearly seen. GC-MS results showed that the main surface reaction product was chloromethane. Its formation indicated hydrolysis as a detoxification path. Surface analyses showed phosphate bonding to the fibers and formation of copper chloride. The appearance of the latter species results in a clear textile color change, which suggests the application of these fabrics not only as catalytic protection agents but also as sensors of nerve agents.

  7. Reduced weight decontamination formulation utilizing a solid peracid compound for neutralization of chemical and biological warfare agents (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuquerque, NM


    A reduced weight decontamination formulation that utilizes a solid peracid compound (sodium borate peracetate) and a cationic surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride) that can be packaged with all water removed. This reduces the packaged weight of the decontamination formulation by .about.80% (as compared to the "all-liquid" DF-200 formulation) and significantly lowers the logistics burden on the warfighter. Water (freshwater or saltwater) is added to the new decontamination formulation at the time of use from a local source.

  8. A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses. Volume 5. Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Augerson, William


    ..., chest pain, sleep disturbance, and hair loss. Surveys indicate that roughly 4 percent developed their symptoms before the war, 25 percent during the war, and 25 percent in the year following the war...

  9. Evaluation of Silver-Exchanged Zeolites Under Development by University of Maine for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brickhouse, Mark D; Lalain, Teri A; D'Onofrio, Terrence G; Procell, Lawrence R; Zander, Zachary B


    .... The hypothesis under investigation is that rapid decontamination can be achieved by the interaction of agent with silver metal clusters within zeolites coupled with subsequent photo-catalytic excitation...

  10. Evaporation Rates of Chemical Warfare Agents using 5 CM Wind Tunnels. 5. VX From Sand and Concrete (United States)


    io n ra te (u gm in 1 ) o © o © NO d rNi d en d o d i d 00 d r- r-- rN r~- ON d ON d NO d CM d NO CN d m d d NO d...tococowcD^OOv-©u>op^o3KiOt-(KinK©o rrSOUJltiBrit’ripiNPl{Jr^rr’’ rNI <irif;r 88Sfe888SI:5Ei6!;8RS28888S6« B-48 < t I |Z £ CO i«$ 8 8 li 111 ft

  11. Metal Ion-Catalyzed Alcoholysis as a Strategy for the High Loading Destruction of Chemical Warfare Organophosphorus Agents (United States)


    13283. 21. Cleland, W.W.; Frey, P.A.; Gerlt, J.A. The Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond in Enzymic Catalysis . Biol. Chem. 1998, 273, pp 25529–25532. 22...fluoride- releasing agents. Variation of the alcohol solvent indicated that ethanol and monoethylamine are equally effective in this system. Synthetic...1 3. EFFECTS OF METAL ION CATALYSIS OF PHOSPHORYL TRANSFER IN METHANOL MEDIUM

  12. Multifunctional Ultra-High Vacuum Apparatus for Studies of the Interactions of Chemical Warfare Agents on Complex Surfaces (United States)


    45 Briefly, a vacuum manifold with known volume is backfilled to a de- sired pressure with the gas, as measured by a capacitance manometer (MKS...accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure , compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not...developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure , compounds

  13. Mutagenicity in Salmonella of dyes used by defence personnel for the detection of liquid chemical warfare agents. (United States)

    Nestmann, E R; Kowbel, D J; Wheat, J A


    Paper strips containing indicator dyes have been developed by defence scientists to change color upon exposure to certain agents but not to common solvents. As a preliminary step in studies on their possible genetic or carcinogenic hazard, 6 dyes used in these detection papers were tested with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome assay. The 3 nitro arenes tested were found to be mutagenic. Two of them, Orasol Navy Blue 2RB (without metabolic activation) and Eastman Fast Blue B-GLF (with metabolic activation), induced higher yields of mutations in the frameshift revertible strains, but base substitution mutations also were found. The third nitro arene, ethyl-bis-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) acetate, induced only frameshift reversions, the greatest yields without metabolic activation. Because of weak but consistent mutagenic activation. Because of weak but consistent mutagenic effects with a fourth dye, thiodiphenyl-4,4'-diazo-bis-salicylic acid, fluctuation tests using Salmonella strain TA98 were performed, and dose-related, statistically-significant mutagenic responses were observed. Two remaining dyes, Fluorescent Brilliant Yellow R and 2,5,2',5'-tetramethyltriphenylmethane-4,4'-diazo-bis-beta-hydroxynaphthoic anilide, were not mutagenic in experiments using doses extending into the toxic range. Spot tests were performed on different paper strips containing the dyes. When the papers were eluted with dimethyl sulfoxide, responses were found to be qualitatively similar to those in the plate tests. Although microbial test results cannot be used to assess risk in man, these results indicate a potential mutagenic or carcinogenic hazard for individuals exposed to these dyes, especially the nitro aromatics.

  14. Ultrahigh Vacuum Studies of the Fundamental Interactions of Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Simulants with Amorphous Silica (United States)


    catalysts depends largely on the size and shape of the Au nanoparticles , which is strongly affected by the structure of the oxide support and monitored by a type K thermocouple spot- welded to the top of the mesh. Based on similar nanoparticle types, this sample pretreatment process...noble metal clusters on oxide supports. Bulk gold is a noble metal and very inert; however, gold nanoparticles demonstrate surprisingly high catalytic

  15. Models, Analysis, and Recommendations Pertaining to the Retention of Naval Special Warfare s Mid-Level Officers (United States)


    I would like to thank Sarah Ashby, an amazing human being and friend; you spent countless hours researching information that was absolutely critical...The Analytic Hierarch/Network Process,” in Rev. R. Acad. Cien. Serie A. Mat (RACSAM), submitted by Francisco Javier Giron (Real Academia de Ciencias ...Academia de Ciencias : Spain. Scott, Nathan. Naval Special Warfare Officer Retention Survey. Monterey, CA: NPS Press, September 2013. Whittenberger

  16. Capability of the People’s Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation (United States)


    resurgence of similar large scale hacker wars. Some groups, rallying around politically “safe” topics such as anti- Tibetan independence, however, still...also described Peng as an “experienced hacker” (see Figure 5).88 • Following this exposure on Henderson’s blog, the Coolswallow and Buddhist ...the Tibetan Government in Exile in India. The Canadian-based Information Warfare Monitor (IWM) notes the compromise of numerous government and

  17. Application of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) to Compare Legacy and Future Forces in Mine Warfare (MIW) Missions (United States)


    airborne mine neutralization system AoA analysis of alternatives API application programming interface ASuW anti-surface warfare ASW...upon stakeholder feedback, an operational scenario was developed and ACRS was selected as the primary MOE for comparison. Lifecycle cost and risks...MIW Team was unfamiliar with some of the more advanced features of ExtendSim, such as 3-D animation, application programming inter- faces ( APIs ) to

  18. A hybrid method for protection against threats to a network infrastructure for an electronic warfare management system (United States)

    Byłak, Michał; RóŻański, Grzegorz


    The article presents the concept of ensuring the security of network information infrastructure for the management of Electronic Warfare (EW) systems. The concept takes into account the reactive and proactive tools against threats. An overview of the methods used to support the safety of IT networks and information sources about threats is presented. Integration of mechanisms that allow for effective intrusion detection and rapid response to threats in a network has been proposed. The architecture of the research environment is also presented.

  19. Special Operations Forces in the People’s Liberation Army and the Development of an Integral Unconventional Warfare Mission (United States)


    Yahuda , Michael . The International Politics of the Asia-Pacific, 1945-1995 (New York; Routledge, 1996). Yang, Andrew N.D. and Liao, Milton Wen...Action: The Challenge of Unconventional Warfare (Portland: Frank Cass Press, 2001), 3-4. 9. Michael J.Strack, “China: Special Operations Forces of...weapons/scud.html; Internet; accessed 21 March 2005. 59. Michael B. Gordon and General Bernard E. Trainor, “ The General’s War: The Inside Story of

  20. Potential Science and Technology Game Changers for the Ground Warfare of 2050: Selected Projections Made in 2017 (United States)


    effect, it is a living document that is not intended to offer arguments or recommendations for programmatic investments or priorities. It touches on the ...reports might offer different projections or update those already discussed. In effect, it is a living document. It is also important to emphasize and 2050; these are depicted by the stars inside the left circle. Most of them will not have a game-changing importance for ground warfare in