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Sample records for chemical warfare injuries

  1. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  2. Chemical warfare in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, Gabi

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field expe

  3. Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzihor, A.

    1992-05-15

    World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited to the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.

  4. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: The case of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mottaghi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  5. Chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Reuver, L.P.J. de; Fidder, A.; Tromp, M.; Verschraagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been initiated towards the chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents, in order to support forensic investigations towards synthesis routes, production sites and suspect chemical suppliers. Within the first stage of the project various chemical warfare agents (VX, sulfur mustard, sa

  6. Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This groundbreaking book covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used as weapons of mass destruction and employed in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this one-of-a-kind handbook is prepared in a very user- friendly format that can easily be followed by students, teachers and researchers, as well as lay people. Stand-alone chapters on individual chemicals and major topics allow the reader to easily access required information without searching through the entire book. This is the first book that offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors, biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, prophylactic, therapeutic and countermeasures, and the role of homeland security. Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of chemical warfare toxicology in one reference work. This saves research...

  7. Chemical Warfare: Drugs in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Percy, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    A number of substances have been used by athletes in an attempt to improve performance in sports. The use of these substances, which are referred to as ergogenic aids, has become widespread; some pose serious health hazards. Ergogenic aids are divided into five broad classifications: physiological, physical, psychological, nutritional and chemical. It is possible, although conclusive proof is lacking, that some substances may give an athlete who takes them an advantage over one who does not. ...

  8. History of chemical and biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szinicz, L

    2005-10-30

    Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population. The use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. The first use of chemicals in terms of weapons of mass destruction goes back to World War I, when on April 22, 1915 large amounts of chlorine were released by German military forces at Ypres, Belgium. Until around the 1970s of the 20th century, the awareness of the threat by chemical and biological agents had been mainly confined to the military sector. In the following time, the development of increasing range delivery systems by chemical and biological agents possessors sensitised public attention to the threat emanating from these agents. Their proliferation to the terrorists field during the 1990s with the expanding scale and globalisation of terrorist attacks suggested that these agents are becoming an increasing threat to the whole world community. The following article gives a condensed overview on the history of use and development of the more prominent chemical and biological warfare agents. PMID:16111798

  9. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m3 of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure

  10. Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents (Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beer Singh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical warfare agents (CWA pose inevitable threat, both to soldiers and civilians. Risk on contact with these deadly agents can be avoided by neutralisation of their toxic effects. A suitable media with essential physico-chemical properties is required for this purpose. Considerable efforts have been made to develop several decontamination media suitable for neutralisation of highly toxic CWAs. This paper reviews history and details of recent technological advancements in the development of versatile, broad spectrum decontamination formulations against CWAs, as also nanosized metal oxides as CWA decontaminants.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(4, pp.428-441, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.487

  11. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, A.; HR Koohestani; Z Roosta

    2008-01-01

    ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical ...

  12. Nondestructive inspection of chemical warfare based on API-TOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Real-time, fast, accurate, nondestructive inspection (NDI) and quantitative analysis for chemical warfare are very imperative for chemical defense, anti-terror and nation security. Purpose: Associated Particles Technique (APT)/Neutron Time of Flight (TOF) has been developed for non-invasive inspection of sealed containers with chemical warfare agents. Methods: A prototype equipment for chemical warfare is consisted of an APT neutron generator with a 3×3 matrix of semiconductor detectors of associated alpha-particles, the shielding protection of neutron and gamma-ray, arrayed NaI(Tl)-based detectors of gamma-rays, fully-digital data acquisition electronics, data analysis, decision-making software, support platform and remote control system. Inelastic scattering gamma-ray pulse height spectra of sarin, VX, mustard gas and adamsite induced by 14-MeV neutron are measured. The energies of these gamma rays are used to identify the inelastic scattering elements, and the intensities of the peaks at these energies are used to reveal their concentrations. Results: The characteristic peaks of inelastic scattering gamma-ray pulse height spectra show that the prototype equipment can fast and accurately inspect chemical warfare. Conclusion: The equipment can be used to detect not only chemical warfare agents but also other hazardous materials, such as chemical/toxic/drug materials, if their chemical composition is in any way different from that of the surrounding materials. (authors)

  13. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-05-27

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and

  14. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...

  15. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  16. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Chemical and biological warfare: General studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning federally sponsored and conducted studies into chemical and biological warfare operations and planning. These studies cover areas not addressed in other parts of this series. The topics include production and storage of agents, delivery techniques, training, military and civil defense, general planning studies, psychological reactions to chemical warfare, evaluations of materials exposed to chemical agents, and studies on banning or limiting chemical warfare. Other published searches in this series on chemical warfare cover detection and warning, defoliants, protection, and biological studies, including chemistry and toxicology.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. LIDAR for Detection of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Veerabuthiran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Remote detection of chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic gases in the atmosphere is of current interest to both the military and civilian agencies. Out of all currently available techniques, no single technique provides efficient detection against such threats at significant standoff distances. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR technologies, based on the transmission of laser pulses and analysis of the return signals, have demonstrated impressive capabilities in remote detection of such toxic chemicals. LIDAR is a highly sensitive tool to detect the extremely low concentrations of various toxic agents present in the form of thin clouds at distances of few kilometer. The detection of these toxic clouds is based on the approach of first detecting and measuring the range of the clouds using the scattering phenomena and subsequently identifying the composition of toxic clouds using absorption and fluorescence phenomena. Laser Science and Technology Centre (LASTEC, Delhi has been working on the design and development of LIDAR systems for detection of chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents. In this paper, theoretical analysis of differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL for detection of chemical agents and fluorescence LIDAR for detection of biological agents has been discussed. For some typical parametric conditions, the received power levels from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of chemical or biological clouds have been computed and discussed. The technical details of the indigenously developed backscattering LIDAR, which detects and measures the distance of cloud layers up to 5 km is also presented.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.241-250, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.556

  19. Looming Threat of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Goel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, a dramatic shift has been observed in the strategies of warfare from conventional to non-conventional. Now-a-days, traditional power is of less importance than it used to be earlier. Weapons of mass destruction, which comprise of nuclear weapons, and chemical and biological warfare agents, are posing a great peril to the world due to their devastating potential. Though, there are several bilateral as well as multilateral treaties to control the use and proliferation of these weapons, yet the risk of use of such agents by non-state actors cannot be overlooked. Chances of use of chemical and biological agents are more likely than the nuclear weapons. A comparison of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons in terms of technology, cost, signature, effectiveness on protected and un-protected troops shows that chemical and biological weapon programmes require much lower level of technology and cost than the nuclear weapon programme. Further, there is no or least distinctive and readily observable signature in biological weapon programme in comparison to nuclear and chemical weapon facilities. There can be two possibilities of use of these agents in terrorist attacks. First, there is a risk of transfer of material or know-how of these weapons to terrorists for using against the adversaries and second, the risk of these agents being pilfered due to poor security, thereby sabotaging the national security. The International Committee of Red Cross in February 1918 reckoned these agents as ‘barbarous inventions’ that can ‘only be called criminal’.

  20. SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF WATER BASIN CLEANING FROM CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Tiavlovskaya; V. F. Tamelo

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of reasons that explain pollution of World Ocean waters by chemical warfare agents and ecological dangers which can arise due to their emission. Possible methods for liquidation of chemical warfare agents and water basin cleaning from them have been considered in the paper.

  1. Using cheminformatics to find simulants for chemical warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Summary of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in current use. → Application of method of molecular similarity to CWA and simulants. → Quantitative metric for CWA-simulant similarity. → Rank ordering of simulants in current use. → Potential of method to identify simulants for emerging agents. - Abstract: Direct experimentation with chemical warfare agents (CWA) to study important problems such as their permeation across protective barrier materials, decontamination of equipment and facilities, or the environmental transport and fate of CWAs is not feasible because of the obvious toxicity of the CWAs and associated restrictions on their laboratory use. The common practice is to use 'simulants,' namely, analogous chemicals that closely resemble the CWAs but are less toxic, with the expectation that the results attained for simulants can be correlated to how the CWAs would perform. Simulants have been traditionally chosen by experts, by means of intuition, using similarity in one or more physical properties (such as vapor pressure or aqueous solubility) or in the molecular structural features (such as functional groups) between the stimulant and the CWA. This work is designed to automate the simulant identification process backed by quantitative metrics, by means of chemical similarity search software routinely used in pharmaceutical drug discovery. The question addressed here is: By the metrics of such software, how similar are traditional simulants to CWAs? That is, what is the numerical 'distance' between each CWA and its customary simulants in the quantitative space of molecular descriptors? The answers show promise for finding close but less toxic simulants for the ever-increasing numbers of CWAs objectively and fast.

  2. Respiratory Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Prasad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological warfare (CBW agents pose unavoidable threat, both to soldiers and civilians.Exposure to such deadly agents amidst the CBW agents contaminated environment can be avoided bytaking proper protective measures. Respiratory protection is indispensable when the soldiers or civiliansare surrounded by such deadly environment as contamination-free air is needed for respiration purposes.In this context, an attempt has been made to review the literature for the past five decades on developmentof various protective devices for respiratory protection against aerosols, gases, and vapours of CBWagents. This review covers structural, textural, and adsorption properties of materials used in gas filtersand mechanical filters for the removal of CBW agents.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.686-697, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1692

  3. Diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents: An essential tool to counteract chemical terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Schans, M.J. van der; Bikker, F.J.; Benschop, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Methods to analyze chemical warfare agents (CW-agents) and their decomposition products in environmental samples were developed over the last decades. In contrast herewith, procedures for analysis in biological samples have only recently been developed. Retrospective detection of exposure to CW-agen

  4. Prevalence of Asthma in Children of Chemical Warfare Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Mozaffari, Abolfazl; Attaran, Davood

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exposure of DNA to sulfur mustard gas may increase the inheritance of asthma in chemical warfare victims' (CWV) offspring. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in children of CWV and compare it to asthmatic children in the general population. Methods Four hundred and nine children from 130 CWV fathers and 440 children from 145 asthmatic parents from two cities in Iran participated in this study. The prevalence of asthma was determined by standard questionnaire released for epidemiological survey of asthma in children and compared between two groups. Findings The prevalence of asthma in the CWV group was 15%; this was not significantly different from the control group (12.5%). The children of the CWV group reported a significantly greater incidence of wheezing (1.2±3.1 attacks) per year, but the control group reported more severe attacks leading to speech difficulties (3%) and coughing (7%). Regression analysis showed that with increasing family size in the control group, the number of subjects suffering from asthmatic symptoms decreases significantly (r=0.86, P=0.001). Conclusion Chemical agents may increase the prevalence of asthma in the offspring of CWV. PMID:23056804

  5. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  6. Injuries sustained to the upper extremity due to modern warfare and the evolution of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Eric P; Mazurek, Michael; Ingari, Jack

    2007-10-01

    The formation of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand was related to world conflicts and hostilities. Therefore, it is appropriate that upper-extremity surgeons understand injuries resulting from modern-day combat. Because of ongoing warfare, many countries have experienced a large increase in the number of wounded service members and civilians, particularly wounds of the extremities. As a result of increased rate of survival in battlefield trauma in part because of the use of modern body armor, there is increasing complexity of extremity injuries that require complex reconstructions. Decreased mortality and a consequent increase in the incidence of injured extremities underline the need for the development of new treatment options. The purpose of this presentation is to describe upper-extremity injury patterns in modern warfare, the levels of care available, and the treatment at each level of care based on the experience of the United States Military Medical Support System.

  7. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  8. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator

  9. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  10. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic indutrial chemicals in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelt-Hunt, D.L.; Barlaz, M.A.; Knappe, D.R.U.;

    2006-01-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs......], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from...... CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis halflives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess...

  11. On modeling of the evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westin, S.N.; Winter, S.; Karlsson, E.; Hin, A.; Oeseburg, F.

    1998-01-01

    A model for evaporation of chemical warfare agents on the ground has been developed. The process of evaporation is described in three steps: (1) the immediate drop enlargement due to impact momentum is modeled using an empirical correlation from technical literature; (2) further enlargement caused b

  12. Rapid Ultrasensitive Chemical-Fingerprint Detection of Chemical and Biochemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ASHBY, CAROL I.; SHEPODD, TIMOTHY J.; YELTON, WILLIAM G.; MURON, DAVID J.

    2002-12-01

    Vibrational spectra can serve as chemical fingerprints for positive identification of chemical and biological warfare molecules. The required speed and sensitivity might be achieved with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using nanotextured metal surfaces. Systematic and reproducible methods for preparing metallic surfaces that maximize sensitivity have not been previously developed. This work sought to develop methods for forming high-efficiency metallic nanostructures that can be integrated with either gas or liquid-phase chem-lab-on-a-chip separation columns to provide a highly sensitive, highly selective microanalytical system for detecting current and future chem/bio agents. In addition, improved protein microchromatographic systems have been made by the creation of acrylate-based porous polymer monoliths that can serve as protein preconcentrators to reduce the optical system sensitivity required to detect and identify a particular protein, such as a bacterial toxin.

  13. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable

  14. Comment on “Computed Tomography Imaging Findings in Chemical Warfare Victims with Pulmonary Complications”

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrzad M.Lari

    2013-01-01

    Dr.Mirsadraei and colleagues performed an interesting study about the lung HRCT findings in chemical warfare patients who suffering from long-term pulmonary complications. They found that air trapping and mosaic attenuation were the most common lung HRCT findings. Also they divided patients in different clinical entities according to the lung HRCT findings (Bronchiolitis Oblitrans, pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiectasis, asthma, and COPD). At present, GOLD and GINA recommend the diagnosis of COPD...

  15. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Capoun; Jana Krykorkova

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR) and demons...

  16. Chemical warfare and medical response during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Gerard J

    2008-04-01

    The first large-scale use of a traditional weapon of mass destruction (chemical, biological, or nuclear) involved the successful deployment of chemical weapons during World War I (1914-1918). Historians now refer to the Great War as the chemist's war because of the scientific and engineering mobilization efforts by the major belligerents. The development, production, and deployment of war gases such as chlorine, phosgene, and mustard created a new and complex public health threat that endangered not only soldiers and civilians on the battlefield but also chemical workers on the home front involved in the large-scale manufacturing processes. The story of chemical weapons research and development during that war provides useful insights for current public health practitioners faced with a possible chemical weapons attack against civilian or military populations.

  17. Interleukin-6 and airflow limitation in chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Attaran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Davood Attaran1, Shahrzad M Lari1, Mohammad Towhidi1, Hassan Ghobadi Marallu2, Hossein Ayatollahi1, Mohammad Khajehdaluee1, Mostafa Ghanei3, Reza Basiri11Lung Disease and Tuberculosis Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Science, 2Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, 3Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranObjectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the main late complications of sulfur mustard poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of interleukin (IL-6 in war veterans with pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard poisoning and their correlation with severity of airways disease.Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and stable COPD, and of mean age 46.3 ± 9.18 years were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy men were selected as controls and matched to cases by age and body mass index. Spirometry, arterial blood gas, six-minute walk test, BODE (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity, and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire about quality of life were evaluated. Serum IL-6 was measured in both patient and control groups.Results: Fifty-four percent of patients had moderate COPD. Mean serum IL-6 levels were 15.01 ± standard deviation (SD 0.61 pg/dL and 4.59 ± 3.40 pg/dL in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.03. There was a significant correlation between IL-6 levels and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage (r = 0.25, P = 0.04 and between IL-6 and BODE index (r = 0.38, P = 0.01. There was also a significant negative correlation between serum IL-6 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, r = -0.36, P = 0.016.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that serum IL-6 is increased in patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and COPD, and may have a direct association with airflow limitation.Keywords: sulfur mustard, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  18. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Chemical and biological warfare: Biology, chemistry, and toxicology. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects, physicochemical effects, and toxicology of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss toxic chemicals, chemical agent simulants, detoxification and decontamination, environmental toxicity, and land pollution. Detection techniques and warning systems are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometer for nonintrusive detection and identification of chemical warfare compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Han, W.; Lizon, D.; Kogan, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Electronic Materials and Devices Group

    1997-12-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a nonintrusive liquid characterization technique developed specifically for detecting and identifying chemical warfare (CW) compounds inside sealed munitions. The SFAI technique can rapidly (less than 20 seconds) and accurately determine sound speed and sound attenuation of a liquid inside a container over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 MHz). From the frequency-dependent sound attenuation measurement, liquid density is determined. These three physical properties are used to uniquely identify the CW compounds. In addition, various chemical relaxation processes in liquids and particle size distribution in emulsions can also be determined from the frequency-dependent attenuation measurement. The SFAI instrument is battery-operated and highly portable (< 6 lb.). The instrument has many potential application in industry ranging from sensitive detection (ppm level) of contamination to process control. The theory of the technique will be described and examples of several chemical industry applications will be presented.

  3. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development

  4. Comparison of Selected Methods for Individual Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Capoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the individual decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA and other hazardous substances. The individual decontamination applies to contaminated body surfaces, protective clothing and objects immediately after contamination, performed individually or by mutual assistance using prescribed or improvised devices. The article evaluates the importance of individual decontamination, security level for Fire and Rescue Service Units of the Czech Republic (FRS CR and demonstrates some of the devices. The decontamination efficiency of selected methods (sorbent, glove and sponge, two-chamber foam device and wiping with alcohol was evaluated for protective clothing and painted steel plate contaminated with O-ethyl-S-(diisopropylaminoethyl-methylthiophosphonate (VX, sulfur mustard, o-cresol and acrylonitrile. The methods were assessed from an economic point of view and with regard to specific user parameters, such as the decontamination of surfaces or materials with poor accessibility and vertical surfaces, the need for a water rinse as well as toxic waste and its disposal.

  5. Comment on “Computed Tomography Imaging Findings in Chemical Warfare Victims with Pulmonary Complications”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dr.Mirsadraei and colleagues performed an interesting study about the lung HRCT findings in chemical warfare patients who suffering from long-term pulmonary complications. They found that air trapping and mosaic attenuation were the most common lung HRCT findings. Also they divided patients in different clinical entities according to the lung HRCT findings (Bronchiolitis Oblitrans, pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiectasis, asthma, and COPD. At present, GOLD and GINA recommend the diagnosis of COPD and asthma mainly on spirometry (1, 2. Although the HRCT may have valuable diagnostic points, but the diagnosis of COPD and asthma is according to the spirometry and relevant clinical symptoms. In this article, the authors relied only on clinical symptoms and corresponding lung HRCT findings that may have overlapping points in the diagnosis of asthma and COPD since normal lung HRCT with or without air trapping can be seen in COPD too (3. It has been proposed that saber-sheath trachea (tracheal index

  6. Chemical and Biological Warfare: Should Rapid Detection Techniques Be Researched To Dissuade Usage? A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Hurst

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry, microbiology and genetic engineering have opened new doorways for the human race to propel itself to a better future. However, there is a darker side to Bioengineering. One element of this is the manufacture and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons. It is clearly in the interest of humankind to prevent the future use of such weapons of mass destruction. Though many agents have been proposed as potential biological and chemical weapons, the feasibility of these weapons is a matter of conjecture. The unpredictable and indiscriminate devastation caused by natural epidemics and hazardous chemicals during wartime without medical treatment should warn humans of the dangers of employing them as weapons. This study argues rapid detection techniques may dissuade future use. Many agents are far less toxic to treatment. A quick response time to most attacks will decrease the chances of serious health issues. The agent will be less effective and discourage the attacker from using the weapon. Fortunately, the Chemical and Biological Weapons Convention (CWCIBWC allows defensive work in the area of biological and chemical weapons. Consequently, the review will discuss history, delivery/dispersal systems and specific agents of the warfare. The study presents current developments in biosensors for toxic materials of defense interest. It concludes with future directions for biosensor development.

  7. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yang; Qiang Han; Shuya Cao; Feng Huang; Molin Qin; Chenghai Guo; Mingyu Ding

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant) and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant) were used as probes. Chemical an...

  10. Plastic antibody for the recognition of chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, M; Suryanarayana, M V S; Nigam, Anil Kumar; Pandey, Pratibha; Ganesan, K; Singh, Beer; Sekhar, K

    2006-06-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) known as plastic antibodies (PAs) represent a new class of materials possessing high selectivity and affinity for the target molecule. Since their discovery, PAs have attracted considerable interest from bio- and chemical laboratories to pharmaceutical institutes. PAs are becoming an important class of synthetic materials mimicking molecular recognition by natural receptors. In addition, they have been utilized as catalysts, sorbents for solid-phase extraction, stationary phase for liquid chromatography and mimics of enzymes. In this paper, first time we report the preparation and characterization of a PA for the recognition of blistering chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard (SM). The SM imprinted PA exhibited more surface area when compared to the control non-imprinted polymer (NIP). In addition, SEM image showed an ordered nano-pattern for the PA of SM that is entirely different from the image of NIP. The imprinting also enhanced SM rebinding ability to the PA when compared to the NIP with an imprinting efficiency (alpha) of 1.3.

  11. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies.

  12. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study.

  13. Mechanism of injury and microbiological flora of the geographical location are essential for the prognosis in soldiers with serious warfare injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, Mik; Rose-Larsen, Katrine; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has been engaged in the Afghanistan war and as a result, Rigshospitalet has received a number of multi-traumatized Danish soldiers. Lesions sustained in armed conflict differ from their civilian counterparts and knowledge of the pathophysiology related to these types...... has been and remains a substantial part of warfare, and this review has showed us that the knowledge of the mechanism of injury is indeed essential, and that intelligence on the microbiological flora of the geographical location of the conflict is essential. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  14. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Gordon, Wesley O.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A. [Research and Technology Directorate, U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 (United States); Davis, Erin Durke [OptiMetrics, Inc., Abingdon, Maryland 21009 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome in Chemical Warfare Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad M. Lari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Sulfur mustard (SM, a toxic alkylating gas, can cause serious long-term pulmonary complications such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Metabolic syndrome (MetS is one of the important comorbidities of COPD. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency of metabolic syndrome in Iranian chemical warfare patients (CWPs with COPD. Materials and Methods: Thirty CWPs with a mean age of 46.93± 6.8 were enrolled in this study. The following parameters were studied in: complete pulmonary function tests, health-related quality of life, serum triglycerides (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL and fasting blood sugar (FBS levels. Additionally, 32 COPD patients and 56 healthy persons were considered as control groups who were matched to CWPs. Results: We found a statistically significant difference in the frequency of MetS between the COPD patients and the healthy control group (p=0.04. Additionally, we observed a statistically significant difference in the mean HDL levels among these groups (p=

  16. Mass spectrometric study of selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousková, Barbora; Bednár, Petr; Frysová, Iveta; Stýskala, Jakub; Hlavác, Jan; Barták, Petr; Ulrichová, Jitka; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Lemr, Karel

    2007-12-01

    Selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents namely N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-ols, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides and some of related N-quaternary salts were studied by means of electrospray ionization-multiple tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). Proposed structures were confirmed with accurate mass measurement. General fragmentation patterns of these compounds are discussed in detail and suggested processes are confirmed using deuterated standards. The typical processes are elimination of alkene, hydrogen chloride, or water, respectively. Besides, elimination of ethene from propyl chain under specific conditions was observed and unambiguously confirmed using exact mass measurement and labelled standard. The potential of mass spectrometry to distinguish the positional isomers occurring among the studied compounds is reviewed in detail using two different MS instruments (i.e. ion trap and hybrid quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) analyzer). A new microcolumn liquid chromatography (microLC)/MS(n) method was designed for the cases where the resolution based solely on differences in fragmentation is not sufficient. Low retention of the derivatives on reversed phase (RP) was overcome by using addition of less typical ion pairing agent (1 mM/l, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid) to the mobile phase (mixture water : acetonitrile). PMID:18085550

  17. Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance sorbent for efficient extraction of chemical warfare agents from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud D, Raghavender; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-02-19

    Magnetic hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (MHLB) hybrid resin was prepared by precipitation polymerization using N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) as monomers and Fe2O3 nanoparticles as magnetic material. These resins were successfully applied for the extraction of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their markers from water samples through magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE). By varying the ratios of monomers, resin with desired hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was prepared for the extraction of CWAs and related esters of varying polarities. Amongst different composites Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with 10% PVP+90% DVB exhibited the best recoveries varying between 70.32 and 97.67%. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies, such as extraction time, desorption time, nature and volume of desorption solvent, amount of extraction sorbent and the effect of salts on extraction were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) with correlation ranging from 0.9911-0.9980. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.5-1.0 and 3.0-5.0 ng mL(-1) respectively with RSDs varying from 4.88-11.32% for markers of CWAs. Finally, the developed MDSPE method was employed for extraction of analytes from water samples of various sources and the OPCW proficiency test samples. PMID:26814366

  18. Investigations of emergency destruction methods for recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions: Interim emergency destruction methods - evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M.R.; Cooper, P.W.; Kipp, M.E. [and others

    1995-07-01

    At the request of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Office, the Sandia Explosives Containment System Design Team investigated mature destruction systems for destroying recovered chemical warfare munitions (CWM). The goal of the investigations was to identify and examine available techniques for the destruction of recovered CWM. The result of this study is a recommendation for an interim solution, a solution for use on any munitions found while an optimal, long-term solution is developed. Sandia is also performing the long-term solution study to develop a system that destroys CWM, contains the blast and fragments, and destroys the chemical agent without insult to the environment.

  19. Toxins as weapons of mass destruction. A comparison and contrast with biological-warfare and chemical-warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J M

    2001-09-01

    Toxins are toxic chemical compounds synthesized in nature by living organisms. Classifiable by molecular weight, source, preferred targets in the body, and mechanism of action, they include the most potent poisons on the planet, although considerations of production, weaponization, delivery, environmental stability, and host factors place practical limits on their use as WMD. The two most important toxin threats on the battlefield or in bioterrorism are probably botulinum toxin (a series of seven serotypes, of which botulinum toxin A is the most toxic for humans) and SEB, an incapacitating toxin. Ricin and the trichothecene mycotoxins, including T-2 mycotoxin, are of lesser concern but are still potential threats. Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin, ricin and trichothecene mycotoxins are membrane-damaging proteins, and SEB is a superantigen capable of massive nonspecific activation of the immune system. The clinical intoxications resulting from exposure to and absorption (usually by inhalation) of these agents reflect their underlying pathophysiology. Because of the hybrid nature of toxins, they have sometimes been considered CW agents and sometimes BW agents. The current trend seems to be to emphasize their similarities to living organisms and their differences from CW agents, but examination of all three groups relative to a number of factors reveals both similarities and differences between toxins and each of the other two categories of non-nuclear unconventional WMD. The perspective that groups toxins with BW agents is logical and very useful for research and development and for administrative and treaty applications, but for medical education and casualty assessment, there are real advantages in clinician use of assessment techniques that emphasize the physicochemical behavior of these nonliving, nonreplicating, intransmissible chemical poisons. PMID:11577702

  20. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  1. Limitations and challenges in treatment of acute chemical warfare agent poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Kehe, Kai

    2013-12-01

    Recent news from Syria on a possible use of chemical warfare agents made the headlines. Furthermore, the motivation of terrorists to cause maximal harm shifts these agents into the public focus. For incidents with mass casualties appropriate medical countermeasures must be available. At present, the most important threats arise from nerve agents and sulfur mustard. At first, self-protection and protection of medical units from contamination is of utmost importance. Volatile nerve agent exposure, e.g. sarin, results in fast development of cholinergic crisis. Immediate clinical diagnosis can be confirmed on-site by assessment of acetylcholinesterase activity. Treatment with autoinjectors that are filled with 2mg atropine and an oxime (at present obidoxime, pralidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6) are not effective against all nerve agents. A more aggressive atropinisation has to be considered and more effective oximes (if possible with a broad spectrum or a combination of different oximes) as well as alternative strategies to cope with high acetylcholine levels at synaptic sites should be developed. A further gap exists for the treatment of patients with sustained cholinergic crisis that has to be expected after exposure to persistent nerve agents, e.g. VX. The requirement for long-lasting artificial ventilation can be reduced with an oxime therapy that is optimized by using the cholinesterase status for guidance or by measures (e.g. scavengers) that are able to reduce the poison load substantially in the patients. For sulfur mustard poisoning no specific antidote is available until now. Symptomatic measures as used for treatment of burns are recommended together with surgical or laser debridement. Thus, huge amounts of resources are expected to be consumed as wound healing is impaired. Possible depots of sulfur mustard in tissues may aggravate the situation. More basic knowledge is necessary to improve substantially therapeutic options. The use of stem cells may provide a new

  2. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Research on the Interaction of Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer Sensitive Sensor Materials with Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers are important high affinity materials sensitive to organophosphates in the chemical warfare agent sensor detection process. Interactions between the sensor sensitive materials and chemical warfare agent simulants were studied by inverse gas chromatography. Hydrogen bonded acidic polymers, i.e., BSP3, were prepared for micro-packed columns to examine the interaction. DMMP (a nerve gas simulant and 2-CEES (a blister agent simulant were used as probes. Chemical and physical parameters such as heats of absorption and Henry constants of the polymers to DMMP and 2-CEES were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Details concerning absorption performance are also discussed in this paper.

  5. Secondary ionization of chemical warfare agent simulants: atmospheric pressure ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Wes E; Clowers, Brian H; Haigh, Paul E; Hill, Herbert H

    2003-11-15

    For the first time, the use of a traditional ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry (radioactive nickel ((63)Ni) beta emission ionization) and three alternative ionization sources (electrospray ionization (ESI), secondary electrospray ionization (SESI), and electrical discharge (corona) ionization (CI)) were employed with an atmospheric pressure ion mobility orthogonal reflector time-of-flight mass spectrometer (IM(tof)MS) to detect chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants from both aqueous- and gas-phase samples. For liquid-phase samples, ESI was used as the sample introduction and ionization method. For the secondary ionization (SESI, CI, and traditional (63)Ni ionization) of vapor-phase samples, two modes of sample volatilization (heated capillary and thermal desorption chamber) were investigated. Simulant reference materials, which closely mimic the characteristic chemical structures of CWA as defined and described by Schedule 1, 2, or 3 of the Chemical Warfare Convention treaty verification, were used in this study. A mixture of four G/V-type nerve simulants (dimethyl methylphosphonate, pinacolyl methylphosphonate, diethyl phosphoramidate, and 2-(butylamino)ethanethiol) and one S-type vesicant simulant (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide) were found in each case (sample ionization and introduction methods) to be clearly resolved using the IM(tof)MS method. In many cases, reduced mobility constants (K(o)) were determined for the first time. Ion mobility drift times, flight times, relative signal intensities, and fragmentation product signatures for each of the CWA simulants are reported for each of the methods investigated. PMID:14615983

  6. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. ► Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). ► Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3′-imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants (∼10−2 s−1) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10−8–10−6 s−1). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  7. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  8. Nuclear, biological, and chemical combined injuries and countermeasures on the battlefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Gregory B; Elliott, Thomas B; Brook, Itzhak; Shoemaker, Michael O; Pastel, Ross H; Lowy, Robert J; King, Gregory L; Herzig, Thomas C; Landauer, Michael R; Wilson, Scott A; Peacock, Susan J; Bouhaouala, S Samy; Jackson, William E; Ledney, G David

    2002-02-01

    The Armed Forces Radiobiological Research Institute (AFRRI) has developed a research program to determine the major health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation in combination with biological and chemical warfare agents and to assess the extent to which exposure to ionizing radiation compromises the effectiveness of protective drugs, vaccines, and other biological and chemical warfare prophylactic and treatment strategies. AFRRI's Defense Technology Objective MD22 supports the development of treatment modalities and studies to assess the mortality rates for combined injuries from exposure to ionizing radiation and Bacillus anthracis, and research to provide data for casualty prediction models that assess the health consequences of combined exposures. In conjunction with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, our research data are contributing to the development of casualty prediction models that estimate mortality and incapacitation in an environment of radiation exposure plus other weapons of mass destruction. Specifically, the AFFRI research program assesses the effects of ionizing radiation exposure in combination with B. anthracis, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, Shigella sonnei, nerve agents, and mustard as well as their associated treatments and vaccines. In addition, the long-term psychological effects of radiation combined with nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) injuries are being evaluated. We are also assessing the effectiveness of gamma photons and high-speed neutrons and electrons for neutralizing biological and chemical warfare agents. New protocols based on our NBC bioeffects experiments will enable U.S. armed forces to accomplish military operations in NBC environments while optimizing both survival and military performance. Preserving combatants' health in an NBC environment will improve warfighting operations and mission capabilities.

  9. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars?  ...... administration. While organisation systems continue to make some kind of political control possible, this is not the case in relation to wars. The organisation system is the in-between that should mediatise politics and war but is not functionally equivalent to just and unjust wars. The paper investigates...

  10. Distribution of chemical warfare agent, energetics, and metals in sediments at a deep-water discarded military munitions site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Christian; Shjegstad, Sonia M.; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Edwards, Margo H.

    2016-06-01

    There is a strong need to understand the behavior of chemical warfare agent (CWA) at underwater discarded military munitions (DMM) sites to determine the potential threat to human health or the environment, yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth at which most U.S. chemical munitions were disposed. As part of the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA), sediments adjacent to chemical and conventional DMM at depths of 400-650 m were sampled using human occupied vehicles (HOVs) in order to quantify the distribution of CWA, energetics, and select metals. Sites in the same general area, with no munitions within 50 m in any direction were sampled as a control. Sulfur mustard (HD) and its degradation product 1,4-dithiane were detected at each CWA DMM site, as well as a single sample with the HD degradation product 1,4-thioxane. An energetic compound was detected in sediment to a limited extent at one CWA DMM site. Metals common in munitions casings (i.e., Fe, Cu, and Pb) showed similar trends at the regional and site-wide scales, likely reflecting changes in marine sediment deposition and composition. This study shows HD and its degradation products can persist in the deep-marine environment for decades following munitions disposal.

  11. Factors influencing the sustained-performance capabilities of 155-mm howitzer sections in simulated conventional and chemical warfare environments. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, T.M.; Banderet, L.E.; Tharion, W.J.; Munro, I.; Lussier, A.R.

    1986-04-01

    Factors that limit the performance capabilities of sustained artillery operations in simulated conventional and chemical warfare environments were studied. The results show that perceptions of psychological (mental) fatigue, rather than perceptions of muscular fatigue, were primary factors affecting sustained artillery performance. Furthermore, variations in these psychological states were correlated with artillery task performance during the period. In the simulated chemical warfare environment, extreme symptom and mood changes resulted in medical casualties, combat ineffectiveness, and early termination of all testing. Significant perosnality differences existed between casualties and survivors. The majority of casualties voluntarily terminated operational duties because of intense symptoms associated with wearing the chemical protective mask and clothing system. These symptoms were manifestations of respiratory and thermal stress.

  12. A comparison of {sup 252}Cf and 14-MeV neutron excitation to identify chemical warfare agents by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, A.J.; Harlow, B.D.; Edwards, A.J.; Krebs, K.M.; Jones, J.L.; Yoon, W.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Dougan, A.D.

    2000-07-01

    Since 1992, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectrometry (PINS) system has been widely used for the nondestructive assessment of munitions suspected to contain chemical warfare agents, such as the nerve agent sarin. PINS is a {sup 252}Cf-based prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system. The standard PINS system employs a partially moderated 5-{micro}g {sup 252}Cf source emitting 10{sup 7} n/s to excite the atomic nuclei inside the item under test. The chemical elements inside the item are revealed by their characteristic gamma-ray spectrum, measured by a high-resolution high-purity germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. The system computer then infers the fill compound or mixture from the elemental data extracted from the gamma-ray spectrum. Reliable PINS assessments can be completed in as little as 100 s for favorable cases such as white phosphorus smoke munitions, but normally, a 1000 to 3000 live-second counting interval is required. To improve PINS throughput when hundreds or more munitions must be assessed, they are evaluating the possible advantages of 14-MeV neutron excitation over their current radioisotopic source.

  13. The Findings of HRCT of the Lung in Chemical Warfare Veterans with Previous Sulfur Mustard (SM Gas Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Naghibi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: To identify the findings of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT of the lung in chemical warfare veterans with previous sulfur mustard (SM gas exposure. "nMaterials and Methods: 93 patients were studied prospectively 22 years after exposure. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. HRCT of the lung was performed during expiration and was reported double blinded by two radiologists. HRCT findings include air trapping, mosaic attenuation, ground glass attenuation, nodules, signet ring, fibrosis, bronchial wall thickening, bronchodilation, tree in bud, interlobular wall thickening, bulla, cavity, air consolidation, honey comb and mediastinal and pleural abnormalities that were analyzed. Final diagnosis was identified according to HRCT findings. The relation between HRCT findings, final diagnosis and the distribution of the abnormalities with duration after exposure were evaluated. Distribution of each finding was also evaluated. "nb The most frequent HRCT finding was air trapping (56.7%. Other common findings were mosaic attenuation (35.1%, ground glass attenuation (20.6%, nodules (17.5%, signet ring (15.5% and fibrosis(12.4%. Distribution of the abnormalities were mostly local (79.4% and bilateral (73%. Abnormalities were mostly in the lower lobe (61.3%. No significant correlation was found between the HRCT findings and the duration after exposure or distribution of the abnormalities. The respiratory complications diagnosed according to HRCT included bronchiolitis obliterans (43%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (27.9%, asthma (23.6%, bronchiectasis (13.9%, interstitial lung disease (ILD (9.6%. All abnormalities were seen more frequently in patients with lesser duration of exposure.( P-value < 0.05. "nConclusion: Focal bilateral air trapping was the most common finding seen in expiratory HRCT in this study, and it is highly suggestive of bronchiolitis obliterance (BO. BO can be a late complication of SM

  14. Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

    2013-04-02

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  15. The application of single particle aerosol mass spectrometry for the detection and identification of high explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey Noreen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle (~1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

  16. Decomposition of 2-chloroethylethylsulfide on copper oxides to detoxify polymer-based spherical activated carbons from chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, S; Hofmann, J; Möller, A; Schrage, C; Giebelhausen, J M; Böhringer, B; Gläser, R

    2013-11-15

    For the decomposition of chemical warfare agents, a hybrid material concept was applied. This consists of a copper oxide-containing phase as a component with reactive functionality supported on polymer-based spherical activated carbon (PBSAC) as a component with adsorptive functionality. A corresponding hybrid material was prepared by impregnation of PBSAC with copper(II)nitrate and subsequent calcination at 673K. The copper phase exists predominantly as copper(I)oxide which is homogeneously distributed over the PBSAC particles. The hybrid material containing 16 wt.% copper on PBSAC is capable of self-detoxifying the mustard gas surrogate 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (CEES) at room temperature. The decomposition is related to the breakthrough behavior of the reactant CEES, which displaces the reaction product ethylvinylsulfide (EVS). This leads to a combined breakthrough of CEES and EVS. The decomposition of CEES is shown to occur catalytically over the copper-containing PBSAC material. Thus, the hybrid material can even be considered to be self-cleaning. PMID:24140529

  17. Demonstration of spread-on peel-off consumer products for sampling surfaces contaminated with pesticides and chemical warfare agent signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Deborah L; Smith, Deborah L; Katona, Vanessa R; Lewis, Alan T; Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    A terrorist attack using toxic chemicals is an international concern. The utility of rubber cement and latex body paint as spray-on/spread-on peel-off collection media for signatures attributable to pesticides and chemical warfare agents from interior building and public transportation surfaces two weeks post-deposition is demonstrated. The efficacy of these media to sample escalator handrail, stainless steel, vinyl upholstery fabric, and wood flooring is demonstrated for two pesticides and eight chemicals related to chemical warfare agents. The chemicals tested are nicotine, parathion, atropine, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, dipinacolyl methylphosphonate, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphonic acid, and thiodiglycol. Amounts of each chemical found are generally greatest when latex body paint is used. Analytes with low volatility and containing an alkaline nitrogen or a sulfur atom (e.g., nicotine and parathion) usually are recovered to a greater extent than the neutral phosphonate diesters and acidic phosphonic acids (e.g., dimethyl methylphosphonate and ethyl methylphosphonic acid). PMID:24835029

  18. Sensitive and comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Iura, Kazumitsu; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time field-deployable detection technology, based on counterflow air introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, has been developed for a wide range of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprising gaseous (two blood agents, three choking agents), volatile (six nerve gases and one precursor agent, five blister agents), and nonvolatile (three lachrymators, three vomiting agents) agents in air. The approach can afford effective chemical ionization, in both positive and negative ion modes, for ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The volatile and nonvolatile CWAs tested provided characteristic ions, which were fragmented into MS(3) product ions in positive and negative ion modes. Portions of the fragment ions were assigned by laboratory hybrid mass spectrometry (MS) composed of linear ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometers. Gaseous agents were detected by MS or MS(2) in negative ion mode. The limits of detection for a 1 s measurement were typically at or below the microgram per cubic meter level except for chloropicrin (submilligram per cubic meter). Matrix effects by gasoline vapor resulted in minimal false-positive signals for all the CWAs and some signal suppression in the case of mustard gas. The moisture level did influence the measurement of the CWAs. PMID:24678766

  19. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  20. Computational Investigations of Potential Energy Function Development for Metal--Organic Framework Simulations, Metal Carbenes, and Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioce, Christian R.

    sigma donates, and subsequent back-bonding occurs into a pi* antibonding orbital. This is a different type of interaction not seen in the three existing classes of metal-carbene complexes, namely Fischer, Schrock, and Grubbs. Finally, the virtual engineering of enhanced chemical warfare agent (CWA) detection systems is discussed. As part of a U.S. Department of Defense supported research project, in silico chemical modifications to a previously synthesized zinc-porphyrin, ZnCS1, were made to attempt to achieve preferential binding of the nerve agent sarin versus its simulant, DIMP (diisopropyl methylphosphonate). Upon modification, a combination of steric effects and induced hydrogen bonding allowed for the selective binding of sarin. The success of this work demonstrates the role that high performance computing can play in national security research, without the associated costs and high security required for experimentation.

  1. Environmental toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) - MicrotoxTM and Spontaneous Locomotor Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten Swayne; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    After the 2nd World War the CWAs were prohibited by law and 11,000 tonnes of toxic agents were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. The dumped chemical munitions have not reached attention from politicians and scientists until recently. During earlier projects, such as MERCW (2005...... to be illuminated in which this study hopefully will contribute to. Especially, chronic toxicity needs to be described as this mimics a more environmentally realistic situation. One or two compounds will be accessed based upon various factors such as detection frequencies, found concentrations in both sediment...... to the commercially important cod (Gadus morrhua). The cod migrates down to the seafloor – even crossing the oxycline - where the CWA munitions were dumped. To sum up, this study will obtain novel ecotoxicity data on recently discovered degradation products and assess the potential threat to the commercially...

  2. Chemical Warfare Agents Analyzer Based on Low Cost, Room Temperature, and Infrared Microbolometer Smart Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Corsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced IR emitters and sensors are under development for high detection probability, low false alarm rate, and identification capability of toxic gases. One of the most reliable techniques to identify the gas species is absorption spectroscopy, especially in the medium infrared spectral range, where most of existing toxic compounds exhibit their strongest rotovibrational absorption bands. Following the results obtained from simulations and analysis of expected absorption spectra, a compact nondispersive infrared multispectral system has been designed and developed for security applications. It utilizes a few square millimeters thermal source, a novel design multipass cell, and a smart architecture microbolometric sensor array coupled to a linear variable spectral filter to perform toxic gases detection and identification. This is done by means of differential absorption spectroscopic measurements in the spectral range of the midinfrared. Experimental tests for sensitivity and selectivity have been done with various chemical agents (CAs gases and a multiplicity of vapour organic compounds (VOCs. Detection capability down to ppm has been demonstrated.

  3. Solid-phase microextraction low temperature plasma mass spectrometry for the direct and rapid analysis of chemical warfare simulants in complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumlao, Morphy C; Jeffress, Laura E; Gooding, J Justin; Donald, William A

    2016-06-21

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is directly integrated with low temperature plasma ionisation mass spectrometry to rapidly detect organophosphate chemical warfare agent simulants and their hydrolysis products in chemical mixtures, including urine. In this sampling and ionization method, the fibre serves: (i) to extract molecules from their native environment, and (ii) as the ionization electrode that is used to desorb and ionize molecules directly from the SPME surface. By use of a custom fabricated SPME fibre consisting of a stainless steel needle coated with a Linde Type A (LTA) zeolitic microporous material and low temperature plasma mass spectrometry, protonated dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), diethyl ethylphosphonate (DEEP) and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PinMPA) can be detected at less than 100 ppb directly in water and urine. Organophosphates were not readily detected by this approach using an uncoated needle in negative control experiments. The use of the LTA coating significantly outperformed the use of a high alumina Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5) coating of comparable thickness that is significantly less polar than LTA. By conditioning the LTA probe by immersion in an aqueous CuSO4 solution, the ion abundance for protonated DMMP increased by more than 300% compared to that obtained without any conditioning. Sample recovery values were between 96 and 100% for each analyte. The detection of chemical warfare agent analogues and hydrolysis products required less than 2 min per sample. A key advantage of this sampling and ionization method is that analyte ions can be directly and rapidly sampled from chemical mixtures, such as urine and seawater, without sample preparation or chromatography for sensitive detection by mass spectrometry. This ion source should prove beneficial for portable mass spectrometry applications because relatively low detection limits can be obtained without the use of compressed gases, fluid pumps, and lasers. Moreover, the

  4. Bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, and metals in deep-sea shrimp from discarded military munitions sites off Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Shelby; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Dupra, Vilma; Edwards, Margo

    2016-06-01

    The bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals at former military deep-water disposal sites is poorly understood. This paper presents the results of human-food-item biota sampling to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, arsenic, and additional munitions-related metals in deep-sea shrimp tissue samples collected during the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project to date. The HUMMA investigation area is located within a former munitions sea-disposal site located south of Pearl Harbor on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i, designated site Hawaii-05 (HI-05) by the United States Department of Defense. Indigenous deep-sea shrimp (Heterocarpus ensifer) were caught adjacent to discarded military munitions (DMM) and at control sites where munitions were absent. Tissue analysis results showed that chemical warfare agents and their degradation products were not present within the edible portions of these samples at detectable concentrations, and energetic materials and their degradation products were detected in only a few samples at concentrations below the laboratory reporting limits. Likewise, arsenic, copper, and lead concentrations were below the United States Food and Drug Administration's permitted concentrations of metals in marine biota tissue (if defined), and their presence within these samples could not be attributed to the presence of DMM within the study area based on a comparative analysis of munitions-adjacent and control samples collected. Based on this current dataset, it can be concluded that DMM existing within the HUMMA study area is not contributing to the bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals for the biota species investigated to date.

  5. Analysis of chemical warfare agents in organic liquid samples with magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry for verification of the chemical weapons convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varoon; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Goud, Raghavender D; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Shrivastava, Anchal Roy; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2016-05-27

    A simple, sensitive and low temperature sample preparation method is developed for detection and identification of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) and scheduled esters in organic liquid using magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The method utilizes Iron oxide@Poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) resin (Fe2O3@Poly(MAA-co-EGDMA)) as sorbent. Variants of these sorbents were prepared by precipitation polymerization of methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (MAA-co-EGDMA) onto Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Fe2O3@poly(MAA-co-EGDMA) with 20% MAA showed highest recovery of analytes. Extractions were performed with magnetic microspheres by MDSPE. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, method showed linearity in the range of 0.1-3.0μgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.9966-0.9987). The repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviations (RSDs) %) were in the range of 4.5-7.6% and 3.4-6.2% respectively for organophosphorous esters in dodecane. Limits of detection (S/N=3/1) and limit of quantification (S/N=10/1) were found to be in the range of 0.05-0.1μgmL(-1) and 0.1-0.12μgmL(-1) respectively in SIM mode for selected analytes. The method was successfully validated and applied to the extraction and identification of targeted analytes from three different organic liquids i.e. n-hexane, dodecane and silicon oil. Recoveries ranged from 58.7 to 97.3% and 53.8 to 95.5% at 3μgmL(-1) and 1μgmL(-1) spiking concentrations. Detection of diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP) and O-Ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) in samples provided by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Proficiency Test (OPCW-PT) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals. PMID:27113675

  6. Acute and subacute chemical-induced lung injuries: HRCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akira, Masanori, E-mail: Akira@kch.hosp.go.jp [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, 1180 Nagasone-cho, Kita-ku, Sakai City, Osaka 591-8555 (Japan); Suganuma, Narufumi [Department of Environmental Medicine, Kochi Medical School (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Lung injury caused by chemicals includes bronchitis, bronchiolitis, chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, and sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease. Each chemical induces variable pathophysiology and the situation resembles to the drug induced lung disease. The HRCT features are variable and nonspecific, however HRCT may be useful in the evaluation of the lung injuries and so we should know about HRCT features of lung parenchymal abnormalities caused by chemicals.

  7. Acute and subacute chemical-induced lung injuries: HRCT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung injury caused by chemicals includes bronchitis, bronchiolitis, chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, and sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease. Each chemical induces variable pathophysiology and the situation resembles to the drug induced lung disease. The HRCT features are variable and nonspecific, however HRCT may be useful in the evaluation of the lung injuries and so we should know about HRCT features of lung parenchymal abnormalities caused by chemicals

  8. Ion mobility spectrometric analysis of vaporous chemical warfare agents by the instrument with corona discharge ionization ammonia dopant ambient temperature operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Takafumi; Kishi, Shintaro; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Tachikawa, Masumi; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Nakagawa, Takao; Kitagawa, Nobuyoshi; Tokita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-03-20

    The ion mobility behavior of nineteen chemical warfare agents (7 nerve gases, 5 blister agents, 2 lachrymators, 2 blood agents, 3 choking agents) and related compounds including simulants (8 agents) and organic solvents (39) was comparably investigated by the ion mobility spectrometry instrument utilizing weak electric field linear drift tube with corona discharge ionization, ammonia doping, purified inner air drift flow circulation operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Three alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates, tabun, and four organophosphorus simulants gave the intense characteristic positive monomer-derived ion peaks and small dimer-derived ion peaks, and the later ion peaks were increased with the vapor concentrations. VX, RVX and tabun gave both characteristic positive monomer-derived ions and degradation product ions. Nitrogen mustards gave the intense characteristic positive ion peaks, and in addition distinctive negative ion peak appeared from HN3. Mustard gas, lewisite 1, o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and 2-mercaptoethanol gave the characteristic negative ion peaks. Methylphosphonyl difluoride, 2-chloroacetophenone and 1,4-thioxane gave the characteristic ion peaks both in the positive and negative ion mode. 2-Chloroethylethylsulfide and allylisothiocyanate gave weak ion peaks. The marker ion peaks derived from two blood agents and three choking agents were very close to the reactant ion peak in negative ion mode and the respective reduced ion mobility was fluctuated. The reduced ion mobility of the CWA monomer-derived peaks were positively correlated with molecular masses among structurally similar agents such as G-type nerve gases and organophosphorus simulants; V-type nerve gases and nitrogen mustards. The slope values of the calibration plots of the peak heights of the characteristic marker ions versus the vapor concentrations are related to the detection sensitivity, and within chemical warfare agents examined the slope values for sarin, soman

  9. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  10. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-08-24

    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment. PMID

  11. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-08-24

    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment.

  12. Graphene oxide as sensitive layer in Love-wave surface acoustic wave sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayago, Isabel; Matatagui, Daniel; Fernández, María Jesús; Fontecha, José Luis; Jurewicz, Izabela; Garriga, Rosa; Muñoz, Edgar

    2016-02-01

    A Love-wave device with graphene oxide (GO) as sensitive layer has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. Sensitive films were fabricated by airbrushing GO dispersions onto Love-wave devices. The resulting Love-wave sensors detected very low CWA simulant concentrations in synthetic air at room temperature (as low as 0.2 ppm for dimethyl-methylphosphonate, DMMP, a simulant of sarin nerve gas, and 0.75 ppm for dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether, DPGME, a simulant of nitrogen mustard). High responses to DMMP and DPGME were obtained with sensitivities of 3087 and 760 Hz/ppm respectively. Very low limit of detection (LOD) values (9 and 40 ppb for DMMP and DPGME, respectively) were calculated from the achieved experimental data. The sensor exhibited outstanding sensitivity, good linearity and repeatability to all simulants tested. The detection mechanism is here explained in terms of hydrogen bonding formation between the tested CWA simulants and GO. PMID:26653465

  13. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  14. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  15. Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia. PMID:22080590

  16. Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DAN damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro; Kato, Minoru; Kakehashi, Anna; Fujioka, Masaki; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Kitano, Mistuaki; Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail: wani@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp

    2013-11-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies. - Highlights: • DPAA, an environmental neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis in rats. • DPAA is an activator of AhR signaling pathway. • DPAA promoted oxidative DNA damage in rat livers. • AhR target gene CYP 1B1 might be involved in the metabolism of DPAA.

  17. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%. PMID:26990562

  18. Effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents mediated by trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carlos A; Leif, Roald N; Alcaraz, Armando

    2016-08-24

    The effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents (CWAs) employing trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate (TMO·BF4) for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is presented. The methylation occurs in rapid fashion (1 h) and can be conveniently carried out at ambient temperature, thus providing a safer alternative to the universally employed diazomethane-based methylation protocols. Optimization of the methylation parameters led us to conclude that methylene chloride was the ideal solvent to carry out the derivatization, and that even though methylated products can be observed surfacing after only 1 h, additional time was not found to be detrimental but beneficial to the process particularly when dealing with analytes at low concentrations (∼10 μg mL(-1)). Due to its insolubility in methylene chloride, TMO·BF4 conveniently settles to the bottom during the reaction and does not produce additional interfering by-products that may further complicate the GC-MS analysis. The method was demonstrated to successfully methylate a variety of Schedule 2 phosphonic acids, including their half esters, resulting in derivatives that were readily detected and identified using the instrument's spectral library. Most importantly, the method was shown to simultaneously methylate a mixture of the organophosphorus-based nerve agent hydrolysis products: pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMPA), cyclohexyl methylphosphonate (CyMPA) and ethyl methylphosphonate (EMPA) (at a 10 μg mL(-1) concentration each) in a fatty acid ester-rich organic matrix (OPCW-PT-O3) featured in the 38th Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Proficiency Test. In addition, the protocol was found to effectively methylate N,N-diethylamino ethanesulfonic acid and N,N-diisopropylamino ethanesulfonic acid that are products arising from the oxidative degradation of the V-series agents VR and VX respectively. The

  19. Profile of patients with chemical injury and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziem, G; McTamney, J

    1997-03-01

    Patients reporting sensitivity to multiple chemicals at levels usually tolerated by the healthy population were administered standardized questionnaires to evaluate their symptoms and the exposures that aggravated these symptoms. Many patients were referred for medical tests. It is thought that patients with chemical sensitivity have organ abnormalities involving the liver, nervous system (brain, including limbic, peripheral, autonomic), immune system, and porphyrin metabolism, probably reflecting chemical injury to these systems. Laboratory results are not consistent with a psychologic origin of chemical sensitivity. Substantial overlap between chemical sensitivity, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue syndrome exists: the latter two conditions often involve chemical sensitivity and may even be the same disorder. Other disorders commonly seen in chemical sensitivity patients include headache (often migraine), chronic fatigue, musculoskeletal aching, chronic respiratory inflammation (rhinitis, sinusitis, laryngitis, asthma), attention deficit, and hyperactivity (affected younger children). Less common disorders include tremor, seizures, and mitral valve prolapse. Patients with these overlapping disorders should be evaluated for chemical sensitivity and excluded from control groups in future research. Agents whose exposures are associated with symptoms and suspected of causing onset of chemical sensitivity with chronic illness include gasoline, kerosene, natural gas, pesticides (especially chlordane and chlorpyrifos), solvents, new carpet and other renovation materials, adhesives/glues, fiberglass, carbonless copy paper, fabric softener, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, carpet shampoos (lauryl sulfate) and other cleaning agents, isocyanates, combustion products (poorly vented gas heaters, overheated batteries), and medications (dinitrochlorobenzene for warts, intranasally packed neosynephrine, prolonged antibiotics, and general anesthesia with petrochemicals). Multiple

  20. The Physics of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, I was tasked with the creation and execution of a new themed general education physics class called The Physics of Warfare. In the past, I had used the theme of a class, such as the physics of sports medicine, as a way to create homework and in-class activities, generate discussions, and provide an application to demonstrate that physics…

  1. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  2. Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Colarik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in times of war. This article examines the theoretical underpinning of current cyber warfare research, what we have learned so far about its application, and some of the emerging themes to be considered; it also postulates the development of a (national cyber warfare doctrine (CWD. An endeavor of this scale requires lots of considerations and preparation for its development if it is to be cooperatively embraced. This article considers why information technology systems and their supporting infrastructures should be considered legitimate military targets in conflicts, and offers several events that support this supposition. In addition, it identifies the various forms of doctrine that will become the basis for developing a CWD, discusses a CWD's possible components, and proposes a national collaborative and discussion framework for obtaining a nation's stakeholder buy-in for such an endeavor.

  3. Wound Healing of Cutaneous Sulfur Mustard Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, John S.; Chilcott, Robert P.; Rice, Paul; Milner, Stephen M.; Hurst, Charles G.; Maliner, Beverly I.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is an alkylating chemical warfare agent that primarily affects the eyes, skin, and airways. Sulfur mustard injuries can take several months to heal, necessitate lengthy hospitalizations, and result in significant cosmetic and/or functional deficits. Historically, blister aspiration and/or deroofing (epidermal removal), physical debridement, irrigation, topical antibiotics, and sterile dressings have been the main courses of action in the medical management of cutaneous sulfur m...

  4. The evolution of human warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, George R

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a new theory for the origins and evolution of human warfare as a complex social phenomenon involving several behavioral traits, including aggression, risk taking, male bonding, ingroup altruism, outgroup xenophobia, dominance and subordination, and territoriality, all of which are encoded in the human genome. Among the family of great apes only chimpanzees and humans engage in war; consequently, warfare emerged in their immediate common ancestor that lived in patrilocal groups who fought one another for females. The reasons for warfare changed when the common ancestor females began to immigrate into the groups of their choice, and again, during the agricultural revolution. PMID:22081837

  5. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP)

  6. Iran and Cyberspace Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Kronenfeld

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world decision makers and the general public have undoubtedly realized in recent years that cyberspace must be treated as a genuine realm of warfare. Since the the Stuxnet attack - one of the most destructive cyber attacks to date - Iran has been working hard to improve its cyberspace defenses on the one hand, while building up cyberspace intelligence gathering and offensive capabilities on the other. This article examines the current situation regarding various elements of Iran’s cyberspace development process. The first section analyzes the country’s cyberspace strategy, while the second section describes the organizational and operational response to the formulated strategy. This comprises three components: infrastructures for training and developing technological manpower for work in cyberspace; technological developments that have already been introduced; and the overall processes of cyberspace force construction. Finally, the article focuses on a number of cyberspace incidents attributed to Iran, attempts to gain some insight into the way Iran conducts its cyberspace activities, and examines implications for Israel and other Western nations.

  7. HUMAN AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE GRAFTING: A BOON IN OCULAR CHEMICAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikala

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Amniotic membrane is the innermost layer of the f etal membranes. It has a stromal matrix, a collagen layer, and an overlying basement membrane with a single layer of epithelium. (1 Amniotic membrane has unique properties including an ti-adhesive effects, bacterio-static properties, wound protection, pain redu ction, and epithelialisation effects. Another characteristic of amniotic membrane is the lack of imunogenicity. (2 Amniotic membranes have been used as a dressing to promote he aling of chronic ulcers of the leg and as a biological dressing for burned skin and skin woun ds. (3, 4 It has also been used in surgical reconstruction of artificial vagina, for repairing o mphaloceles, and to prevent tissue adhesion in surgeries of the abdomen, head, or pelvis. (5, 6 Amniotic membrane has been successfully used in ocular conditions like persistent epithelial defects (7, pterygium, (8 Symblepharon (9 and for ocular surface reconstruction. (10, 11 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of cryo- preserved Human amniotic membrane graft( HAMT, with or without limbal autograft transplantation (LAT in patients with previous and fr esh chemical eye injuries respectively. Institutional ethical committee approval was obtained .

  8. How Challenges of Warfare Influences the Laws of Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Benvenisti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The first challenge to laws of warfare comes from the realm of human rights, from the right to life. Today the situation is different. Laws of human rights have trickled into laws of warfare, even though they never mean to apply to them. In the process of formulating human rights laws there was never any intention that they be applied to a state of war. Their starting point was the power that a regime brings to bear on its citizens. This was not a case of horizontal warring - such as a duel or contest - but rather a hierarchy, a vertical relationship in which the one possessing public power controlled the citizen. This essay will deal with the challenges to the laws of warfare posed by fighting in urban zones, the consequent changes to these laws, and the problems these changes have aroused and responses to them.

  9. The doctor and nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 34th World Medical Assembly in Lisbon in 1981 the World Medical Association adopted a motion proposed by the American Medical Association that national medical associations should develop programs to educate the civilian population on the medical consequences of nuclear war. This article discusses the attitude the medical professions should have, should nuclear warfare in some form confront them in the future. The conclusion is drawn that defence against nuclear warfare is only a part of civil defence against any disaster, including the natural disasters such as flood and fire and the man-made disasters of transport accidents, even of problems at nuclear plants designed to supply energy

  10. The Anatomy of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsmose, Jens; Pedersen, Kenneth

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the West has been increasingly involved in a tiresome and rather particular type of conflict: insurgency warfare. The bloody and shocking terrorist attacks on New York and Washington in September 2001 marked the beginning of a new era, and the introducti...

  11. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  12. Physical and chemical injury as causes of sudden cardiac death: the forensic forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, L

    1994-01-01

    Physical and chemical injuries account for the largest number of sudden, unexpected cardiac deaths in persons between the ages of 1 and 44 years. Blunt-force injuries, lacerations, avulsions, and contusions of the heart and great vessels sustained during motor vehicle crashes constitute the most prevalent type of lethal physical trauma to the cardiovascular system. The second most prevalent type of trauma is from penetrating and perforating wounds inflicted by firearms. The mechanisms of these injuries are discussed, with emphasis placed on those factors contributing to lethality. The three most prevalent chemicals associated with sudden cardiac death-ethyl alcohol, cocaine, and tricylic antidepressants-are briefly mentioned.

  13. An isomer-specific high-energy collision-induced dissociation MS/MS database for forensic applications: a proof-of-concept on chemical warfare agent markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Raja; Östin, Anders; Nygren, Yvonne; Juhlin, Lars; Nilsson, Calle; Åstot, Crister

    2011-09-01

    Spectra database search has become the most popular technique for the identification of unknown chemicals, minimizing the need for authentic reference chemicals. In the present study, an isomer-specific high-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS spectra database of 12 isomeric O-hexyl methylphosphonic acids (degradation markers of nerve agents) was created. Phosphonate anions were produced by the electrospray ionization of phosphonic acids or negative-ion chemical ionization of their fluorinated derivatives and were analysed in a hybrid magnetic-sector-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer. A centre-of-mass energy (E(com)) of 65 eV led to an optimal sequential carbon-carbon bond breakage, which was interpreted in terms of charge remote fragmentation. The proposed mechanism is discussed in comparison with the routinely used low-energy CID MS/MS. Even-mass (odd-electron) charge remote fragmentation ion series were diagnostic of the O-alkyl chain structure and can be used to interpret unknown spectra. Together with the odd-mass ion series, they formed highly reproducible, isomer-specific spectra that gave significantly higher database matches and probability factors (by 1.5 times) than did the EI MS spectra of the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the same isomers. In addition, ionization by negative-ion chemical ionization and electrospray ionization resulted in similar spectra, which further highlights the general potential of the high-energy CID MS/MS technique. PMID:21915956

  14. Chemical injuries from assaults: An increasing trend in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaitan Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper describes chemical injuries, which presented to us and were managed at a burn unit in Nigeria. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the etiologies of these injuries, the extent of the injuries as well as to suggest possible ways to prevent chemical injuries in our environment. Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of chemical burns treated at our center. Our sources of information were the burn unit admission registers, case notes of the patients and operation registers. The results were collated and then analyzed. Results: Twenty eight patients presented with chemical burn injuries during the study period between January 2000 and December 2003, constituting 5.7% of all patients with burns treated within that period. Seventeen (60.7% of the patients were males while 11 (29.3% were females with a mean age of 20.6 years. The injuries were sustained from assault in 21 (75%, armed robbery attacks in five (17.8% and suicide attempts in two (7.1%. The agents were usually unknown. Late presentation was observed in all the patients. Raw eggs, palm oil, gentian violet and engine oil were the substances applied immediately after the injuries. Complications observed included septicemia, respiratory distress, blindness, renal failure, mentosternal contractures, ectropion, axillary contractures, hypertrophic scars, keloids and skin depigmentation. Conclusion: Chemical burn injuries are mainly due to assaults in Nigeria and are usually extensive and presented late. Education of the people and penalty for any offender will reduce the current spate of such injuries.

  15. Background chemistry for chemical warfare agents and decontamination processes in support of delisting waste streams at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Small, M.J.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.

    1996-04-01

    The State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW), has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues have been designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). The RCRA regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist,{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) believes that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous and has obtained assistance from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to make the delisting demonstration. The objective of this project is to delist chemical agent decontaminated residues resulting from materials testing activities and to delist a remediation residue (e.g., contaminated soil). To delist these residues, it must be demonstrated that the residues (1) do not contain hazardous quantities of the listed agents; (2) do not contain hazardous quantities of constituents listed in 40 CFR Part 261, Appendix VIII; (3) do not exhibit other characteristics that could define the residues as hazardous; and (4) do not fail a series of acute toxicity tests. The first phase will focus on a subset of the F999 wastes generated at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), where the Army tests the effects of military chemical agents and agent-decontamination procedures on numerous military items. This effort is identified as Phase I of the Delisting Program. Subsequent phases will address other DPG chemical agent decontaminated residues and remediation wastes and similar residues at other installations.

  16. Characterization of chemically induced liver injuries using gene co-expression modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Tawa

    Full Text Available Liver injuries due to ingestion or exposure to chemicals and industrial toxicants pose a serious health risk that may be hard to assess due to a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tests. Mapping chemical injuries to organ-specific damage and clinical outcomes via biomarkers or biomarker panels will provide the foundation for highly specific and robust diagnostic tests. Here, we have used DrugMatrix, a toxicogenomics database containing organ-specific gene expression data matched to dose-dependent chemical exposures and adverse clinical pathology assessments in Sprague Dawley rats, to identify groups of co-expressed genes (modules specific to injury endpoints in the liver. We identified 78 such gene co-expression modules associated with 25 diverse injury endpoints categorized from clinical pathology, organ weight changes, and histopathology. Using gene expression data associated with an injury condition, we showed that these modules exhibited different patterns of activation characteristic of each injury. We further showed that specific module genes mapped to 1 known biochemical pathways associated with liver injuries and 2 clinically used diagnostic tests for liver fibrosis. As such, the gene modules have characteristics of both generalized and specific toxic response pathways. Using these results, we proposed three gene signature sets characteristic of liver fibrosis, steatosis, and general liver injury based on genes from the co-expression modules. Out of all 92 identified genes, 18 (20% genes have well-documented relationships with liver disease, whereas the rest are novel and have not previously been associated with liver disease. In conclusion, identifying gene co-expression modules associated with chemically induced liver injuries aids in generating testable hypotheses and has the potential to identify putative biomarkers of adverse health effects.

  17. Characterization of Chemically Induced Liver Injuries Using Gene Co-Expression Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawa, Gregory J.; AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M.; Yu, Xueping; Kumar, Kamal; Ippolito, Danielle L.; Lewis, John A.; Stallings, Jonathan D.; Wallqvist, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Liver injuries due to ingestion or exposure to chemicals and industrial toxicants pose a serious health risk that may be hard to assess due to a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tests. Mapping chemical injuries to organ-specific damage and clinical outcomes via biomarkers or biomarker panels will provide the foundation for highly specific and robust diagnostic tests. Here, we have used DrugMatrix, a toxicogenomics database containing organ-specific gene expression data matched to dose-dependent chemical exposures and adverse clinical pathology assessments in Sprague Dawley rats, to identify groups of co-expressed genes (modules) specific to injury endpoints in the liver. We identified 78 such gene co-expression modules associated with 25 diverse injury endpoints categorized from clinical pathology, organ weight changes, and histopathology. Using gene expression data associated with an injury condition, we showed that these modules exhibited different patterns of activation characteristic of each injury. We further showed that specific module genes mapped to 1) known biochemical pathways associated with liver injuries and 2) clinically used diagnostic tests for liver fibrosis. As such, the gene modules have characteristics of both generalized and specific toxic response pathways. Using these results, we proposed three gene signature sets characteristic of liver fibrosis, steatosis, and general liver injury based on genes from the co-expression modules. Out of all 92 identified genes, 18 (20%) genes have well-documented relationships with liver disease, whereas the rest are novel and have not previously been associated with liver disease. In conclusion, identifying gene co-expression modules associated with chemically induced liver injuries aids in generating testable hypotheses and has the potential to identify putative biomarkers of adverse health effects. PMID:25226513

  18. A New Generation of Thermal Desorption Technology Incorporating Multi Mode Sampling (NRT/DAAMS/Liquid Agent) for Both on and off Line Analysis of Trace Level Airbone Chemical Warfare Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi functional, twin-trap, electrically-cooled thermal desorption (TD) system (TT24-7) will be discussed for the analysis of airborne trace level chemical warfare agents. This technology can operate in both military environments (CW stockpile, or destruction facilities) and civilian locations where it is used to monitor for accidental or terrorist release of acutely toxic substances. The TD system interfaces to GC, GCMS or direct MS analytical platforms and provides for on-line continuous air monitoring with no sampling time blind spots and within a near real time (NRT) context. Using this technology enables on-line sub ppt levels of agent detection from a vapour sample. In addition to continuous sampling the system has the capacity for off-line single (DAAMS) tube analysis and the ability to receive an external liquid agent injection. The multi mode sampling functionality provides considerable flexibility to the TD system, allowing continuous monitoring of an environment for toxic substances plus the ability to analyse calibration standards. A calibration solution can be introduced via a conventional sampling tube on to either cold trap or as a direct liquid injection using a conventional capillary split/splitless injection port within a gas chromatograph. Low level (linearity) data will be supplied showing the TT24-7 analyzing a variety of CW compounds including free (underivitised) VX using the three sampling modes described above. Stepwise changes in vapor generated agent concentrations will be shown, and this is cross referenced against direct liquid agent introduction, and the tube sampling modes. This technology is in use today in several geographies around the world in both static and mobile analytical laboratories. (author)

  19. Biological toxin warfare: threat, proliferation, and the effects of neutron energy on BTW agents

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Jeffrey R.

    1995-01-01

    The threat of biological weapons presents a special military challenge. Biological toxin warfare (BTW) agents are more potent than chemical warfare agents. Depending on the yield of the nuclear weapon, a biological weapon also can have a higher lethality than nuclear weapons. This thesis examines existing international restricions on the proliferation of BTW technology and identifies their shortcomings. These loopholes contribute to the eay availability of the technology necessary to examine ...

  20. Role of Smokes in Warfare .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Mishra

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The role smokes in warfare is reviewed with particular reference to the world wars, and various types os smokes are discussed. The smokes that can defeat modern opto-electronics including infrared (IR/millimetre wave (MMW guidance and thermal imager are described. Environment-friendly non-toxic smokes are dealt with briefly. The future of smokes in these circumstances is mentioned.

  1. Electronic warfare target location methods

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a

  2. The Different Sensitive Behaviors of a Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymer-Coated SAW Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Simulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Long

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A linear hydrogen-bond acidic (HBA linear functionalized polymer (PLF, was deposited onto a bare surface acoustic wave (SAW device to fabricate a chemical sensor. Real-time responses of the sensor to a series of compounds including sarin (GB, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP, mustard gas (HD, chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (2-CEES, 1,5-dichloropentane (DCP and some organic solvents were studied. The results show that the sensor is highly sensitive to GB and DMMP, and has low sensitivity to HD and DCP, as expected. However, the sensor possesses an unexpected high sensitivity toward 2-CEES. This good sensing performance can’t be solely or mainly attributed to the dipole-dipole interaction since the sensor is not sensitive to some high polarity solvents. We believe the lone pair electrons around the sulphur atom of 2-CEES provide an electron-rich site, which facilitates the formation of hydrogen bonding between PLF and 2-CEES. On the contrary, the electron cloud on the sulphur atom of the HD molecule is offset or depleted by its two neighbouring strong electron-withdrawing groups, hence, hydrogen bonding can hardly be formed.

  3. Toxicology and pharmacology of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard - a review. Final technical report, 29 September 1994-31 January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacre, J.C.; Beers, R.; Goldman, M.

    1995-04-05

    Sulfur mustard is a poisonous chemical agent which exerts a local action on the eyes, skin and respiratory tissue with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, cardiac, and digestive and endocrine systems in man and laboratory animals causing lacrimation, malaise, anorexia, salivation, respiratory distress, vomiting, hyperexcitability, cardiac distress, and death. Sulfur mustard is a cell poison which causes disumption and impairment of a variety of cellular activities which are dependent upon a very specific integral relationship. These cytotoxic effects are manifested in widespread metabolic disturbances whose variable characteristics are observed in enzymatic deficiencies, vesicant action, abnormal mitotic activity and cell division, bone marrow disruption, disturbances in hematopoietic activity and systemic poisoning. Indeed, mustard gas readily combines with various components of the cell such as amino acids, amines and proteins. Sulfur mustard has been shown to be mainly a lung carcinogen in various test animal species; this effect is highly dependent of size of the dose and the route of exposure. In the human, there is evidence of cancers of the respiratory tract in men exposed to mustard gas. Mutagenicity of sulfur mustard, due to the strong alkylating activity, has been reported to occur in many different species of animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi. There is no strong evidence that sulfur mustard is a teratogen but much further research, with particular emphasis on maternal and fetal toxicity, is needed and recommended.

  4. MEANS AND METHODS OF CYBER WARFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Declaration of Saint Petersburg of 1868 “the only legitimate object which States should endeavor to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy”. Thus, International Humanitarian Law prohibits or limits the use of certain means and methods of warfare. The rapid development of technology has led to the emergence of a new dimension of warfare. The cyber aspect of armed conflict has led to the development of new means and methods of warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study how the norms of international humanitarian law apply to the means and methods of cyber warfare.

  5. Cyber warfare building the scientific foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Subrahmanian, VS; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    This book features a wide spectrum of the latest computer science research relating to cyber warfare, including military and policy dimensions. It is the first book to explore the scientific foundation of cyber warfare and features research from the areas of artificial intelligence, game theory, programming languages, graph theory and more. The high-level approach and emphasis on scientific rigor provides insights on ways to improve cyber warfare defense worldwide. Cyber Warfare: Building the Scientific Foundation targets researchers and practitioners working in cyber security, especially gove

  6. Skeletal evidence for Inca warfare from the Cuzco region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrushko, Valerie A; Torres, Elva C

    2011-11-01

    This article addresses the bioarchaeological evidence for Inca warfare through an analysis of 454 adult skeletons from 11 sites in the Inca capital region of Cuzco, Peru. These 11 sites span almost 1000 years (AD 600-1532), which allows for a comparison of the evidence for warfare before the Inca came to power (Middle Horizon AD 600-1000), during the time of Inca ascendency in the Late Intermediate Period (AD 1000-1400), and after the Inca came to power and expanded throughout the Cuzco region and beyond (Inca Imperial Period, AD 1400-1532). The results indicate that 100 of 454 adults (22.0%) showed evidence of cranial trauma. Of these, 23 individuals had major cranial injuries suggestive of warfare, consisting of large, complete, and/or perimortem fractures. There was scant evidence for major injuries during the Middle Horizon (2.8%, 1/36) and Late Intermediate Period (2.5%, 5/199), suggesting that warfare was not prevalent in the Cuzco region before and during the Inca rise to power. Only in the Inca Imperial Period was there a significant rise in major injuries suggestive of warfare (7.8%, 17/219). Despite the significant increase in Inca times, the evidence for major cranial injuries was only sporadically distributed at Cuzco periphery sites and was entirely absent at Cuzco core sites. These findings suggest that while the Inca used warfare as a mechanism for expansion in the Cuzco region, it was only one part of a complex expansion strategy that included economic, political, and ideological means to gain and maintain control. PMID:21959843

  7. "Tetracycline hydrochloride chemical burn" as self-inflicted mucogingival injury: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundoor Manjunath Dayakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to oral soft tissue can be accidental, iatrogenic, and factitious trauma. Chemical, thermal, and physical agents are the main causative agents for oral soft-tissue burns. The present case describes the chemical burn of oral mucosa caused by tetracycline hydrochloride and its management. Diagnosis was made on the basis of definitive history elicited from the patient. The early detection of the lesion by the patient and immediate institution of therapeutic measures ensure a rapid cure and possible prevention of further mucogingival damage. In addition, we believe that proper guidance and education of the patient is an important prophylactic measure in preventing this self-inflicting injury.

  8. Measurement of breakthrough volumes of volatile chemical warfare agents on a poly(2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide)-based adsorbent and application to thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-09-01

    To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were

  9. Identification of chemical warfare agents from vapor samples using a field-portable capillary gas chromatography/membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry instrument with Tri-Bed concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hisayuki; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagoya, Tomoki; Ikeda, Toru; Kurimata, Naoko; Unoke, Shohei; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis. Sample vapors containing as little as 22μg sarin (GB), 100μg soman (GD), 210μg tabun (GA), 55μg cyclohexylsarin (GF), 4.8μg sulfur mustard, 390μg nitrogen mustard 1, 140μg of nitrogen mustard 2, 130μg nitrogen mustard 3, 120μg of 2-chloroacetophenone and 990μg of chloropicrin per cubic meter could be confirmed after Tri-Bed micro-concentration (for 1min) and automated AMDIS search within 12min. Using manual deconvolution by background subtraction of neighboring regions on the extracted ion chromatograms, the above-mentioned CWAs could be confirmed at lower concentration levels. The memory effects were also examined and we found that blister agents showed significantly more carry-over than nerve agents. Gasoline vapor was found to interfere with the detection of GB and GD, raising the concentration limits for confirmation in the presence of gasoline by both AMDIS search and manual deconvolution; however, GA and GF were not subject to interference by gasoline. Lewisite 1, and o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile could also be confirmed by gas chromatography, but it was hard to quantify them. Vapors of phosgene, chlorine, and cyanogen chloride could be confirmed by direct mass spectrometric detection at concentration levels higher than 2, 140, and 10mg/m(3) respectively, by bypassing the micro-concentration trap and gas chromatographic separation. PMID:26118803

  10. Measurement of breakthrough volumes of volatile chemical warfare agents on a poly(2,6-diphenylphenylene oxide)-based adsorbent and application to thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-09-01

    To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C. Logarithmic values of specific breakthrough volume for four nerve agents (sarin, soman, tabun, and VX) showed a nearly linear correlation with the reciprocals of their boiling points, but the data point of sulfur mustard deviated from this linear curve. Next, we developed a method to determine volatile CWAs in ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography (TD-GC/MS). CWA solutions that were spiked into the Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes were analyzed by a two-stage TD-GC/MS using a Tenax(®) TA-packed cold trap tube. Linear calibration curves for CWAs retained in the resin tubes were obtained in the range between 0.2pL and 100pL for sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard; and between 2pL and 100pL for VX and Russian VX. We also examined the stability of CWAs in Tenax(®) TA tubes purged with either dry or 50% relative humidity air under storage conditions at room temperature or 4°C. More than 80% sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and sulfur mustard were recovered from the tubes within 2 weeks. In contrast, the recoveries of VX and Russian VX drastically reduced with storage time at room temperature, resulting in a drop to 10-30% after 2 weeks. Moreover, we examined the trapping efficiency of Tenax TA(®) adsorbent tubes for vaporized CWA samples (100mL) prepared in a 500mL gas sampling cylinder. In the concentration range of 0.2-2.5mg/m(3), >50% of sarin, soman, tabun, cyclohexylsarin, and HD were

  11. Analytic tools for information warfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandewart, R.L.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Information warfare and system surety (tradeoffs between system functionality, security, safety, reliability, cost, usability) have many mechanisms in common. Sandia`s experience has shown that an information system must be assessed from a {ital system} perspective in order to adequately identify and mitigate the risks present in the system. While some tools are available to help in this work, the process is largely manual. An integrated, extensible set of assessment tools would help the surety analyst. This paper describes one approach to surety assessment used at Sandia, identifies the difficulties in this process, and proposes a set of features desirable in an automated environment to support this process.

  12. Undersea Warfare Academic Group Home Page

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Collected from the Internet Archive "Wayback machine". The Undersea Warfare Curriculum educates officers in the engineering fundamentals, physical principles and analytical concepts that govern operational employment of undersea warfare (USW) sensors and weapons systems. Program is interdisciplinary and integrates; mathematics, physics, acoustics, electrical engineering, oceanography, operations analysis, human factors, computer science and meteorology.

  13. A Triage Model for Chemical Warfare Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnevis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context The main objectives of triage are securing patient safety during the process of emergency diagnosis and treatment, and reduction of waiting time for medical services and transport. To date, there is no triage system for nerve agent victims. Evidence Acquisition This systematic review proposes a new triage system for patients exposed to nerve agents. Information regarding clinical signs and symptoms of intoxication with nerve agents, primary treatments, and classification of patients were extracted from the literature. All related articles were reviewed. Subsequently, specialists from different disciplines were invited to discuss and draft protocols. Results Finalized triage tables summarizing the classification methods and required protocols in the field were designed after several meetings. Conclusions The proposed triage protocol encompasses aspects from most of the existing triage systems to create a single overarching guide for unifying the triage process. The proposed protocol can serve as a base for the designing future guidelines.

  14. Information warfare technologies in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpova Anna Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to examine the technology of «information warfare» in this paper. The dominant theme of the paper is that the outcome of the information warfare is important not only for the future of a state itself but for the future of the world balance of forces. The main task of geopolitical actors in information warfare is to introduce ideas corresponding to their interests into mass consciousness. All participants of political conflicts have common features in technologies of Information warfare. The information anomie is the indicator of the great geopolitical actors’ personified interests on the stage of «information warfare» - the process resulted in destroying the communicative line: report-information understanding and disrupting the social order in society. In this paper authors describe the following Information Warfare technologies: "Political volcano" technology; "SPIN" technology; "Widening media resource" technology; "specific gravity" technology; "Cold War 2.0" technology and Information cleaningup technology. It is assumed that in the future there will be new instructions on applying technologies of information warfare. To impart perspective to the paper we consider examples, opinions and trends.

  15. Grid architecture model of network centric warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Tihua; Wang Baoshu

    2006-01-01

    NCW(network centric warfare) is an information warfare concentrating on network. A global network-centric warfare architecture with OGSA grid technology is put forward, which is a four levels system including the user level, the application level, the grid middleware layer and the resource level. In grid middleware layer, based on virtual hosting environment, a BEPL4WS grid service composition method is introduced. In addition, the NCW grid service model is built with the help of Eclipse-SDK-3.0.1 and Bpws4j.

  16. Iris rubeosis and hyphema caused by chemical injury due to household detergent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suto C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikako Suto,1,2 Tetsuya Ishizuka,1 Hiroshi Toshida31Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Kuki, Saitama, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanAbstract: We report an unusual case of iris rubeosis and hyphema caused by chemical injury due to household detergent. A 74-year-old man with a 15-year history of diabetes mellitus was refilling a container with household detergent at home. He splashed the detergent in his eyes. Slit-lamp examination revealed extensive epithelial damage to the left eye, leading to a persistent corneal epithelial defect. We used a bandage soft contact lens with levofloxacin eye drops as concomitant therapy in order to promote healing. However, a strain of fluoroquinolone-resistant Corynebacterium colonized the eye, so that the corneal ulcer eventually became severe. Use of the bandage soft contact lens was discontinued. His antimicrobial agent was changed to cefmenoxime, a drug to which fluoroquinolone-resistant Corynebacterium is sensitive, and topical instillation of autologous serum subsequently promoted improvement of the ulcer. On day 38 after injury, iris rubeosis led to hyphema and ghost cell glaucoma. With improvement of his corneal epithelial defect, the iris rubeosis and hyphema regressed and his visual acuity improved to 20/25 on the left eye. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case resulting in severe complications due to chemical injury by a neutral detergent. Ophthalmologists should be aware that corneal epithelial damage may become prolonged in elderly patients with diabetes, and unexpectedly severe when wearing bandage soft contact lens, with infection of Corynebacterium resistant to fluoroquinolones, even if the chemical agent is a neutral detergent.Keywords: chemical injury, household detergent, persistent corneal

  17. Retention of junior Naval Special Warfare officers

    OpenAIRE

    Davids, Keith B.

    1998-01-01

    The Commander of the Naval Special Warfare Command (NSWC) has identified junior officer retention within the Naval Special Warfare community as a significant problem. In 1997, the community experienced the highest number of resignations on record, and this trend has continued in 1998. NSWC has taken several steps to identify the cause of recent retention trends, one of which was to provide support for this study. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that lead to resignation o...

  18. 77 FR 41406 - Evaluation of In Vitro Tests for Identifying Eye Injury Hazard Potential of Chemicals and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Evaluation of In Vitro Tests for Identifying Eye Injury Hazard Potential of Chemicals and... assess the validation status of in vitro tests and integrated non-animal testing strategies proposed for... tested in in vitro tests for identifying eye injury hazard potential. Of particular interest are...

  19. Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents by Differential Mobility Spectrometry and Drift-time Ion Mobility Spectrometry Hybrid Technology%差分离子迁移谱和迁移时间离子迁移谱联用技术检测化学战剂模拟物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程沙沙; 陈创; 王卫国; 李海洋

    2014-01-01

    Using a novel hybrid technology combined differential ion mobility spectrometry ( DMS) with drift time ion mobility spectrometry DMS-IMS2 , we detected the typical chemical warfare agent simulants dimethyl methylphosphonate ( DMMP ) and methyl salicylate ( MS) . With carrier gas 800 mL/min and DMS RF voltage 1100 V, the chemical warfare agents DMMP and MS could be detected and characterized by DMS-IMS2 under DIMS mode. In addition, DMS-IMS2 is capable to monitor positive and negative ions of DMMP and MS simultaneously, and provides the two-dimensional separation parameters DMS compensation voltage ( CV) and IMS drift time ( Td ) , which provides more information for the identification of two chemical warfare agents. DMS-IMS2 has potential application in on-site detection and instrument miniaturization due to its advantages including small size, low power consumption and rapid response time.%采用平板式差分离子迁移谱( DMS)和迁移时间离子迁移谱( DTIMS)联用技术( DMS-IMS2)对典型化学战剂模拟物甲基膦酸二甲酯(DMMP)和水杨酸甲酯(MS)进行测定。实验结果表明,在载气800 mL/min, DMS射频电压1100 V条件下,DMS-IMS2在DIMS模式能够实现DMMP和MS两种化学战剂模拟物的有效识别和检测。另外,DMS-IMS2能够实现DMMP和MS正、负离子的同时检测,同时获得DMMP和MS的DMS补偿电压( CV)和IMS迁移时间( Td )的二维分离信息,为两种化学战剂模拟物的准确鉴定提供更多的信息。DMS-IMS2具有二维分析能力、可同时分析正负离子、响应速度快、体积小、功耗低等优点,在现场检测中具有广阔的应用前景。

  20. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks.

  1. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks. PMID:24890710

  2. Misleading reference to unpublished wound ballistics data regarding distant injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2008-01-01

    An article (J Trauma 29:10-18, 1989) cites unpublished wound ballistics data to support the authors' view that distant injuries are a myth in wound ballistics. The actual data, published in 1990, actually contains a number of detailed examples of distant injuries. (Bellamy RF, Zajtchuk R. The physics and biophysics of wound ballistics. In: Zajtchuk R, ed. Textbook of Military Medicine, Part I: Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty, Vol. 5, Conventional Warfare: Ballistic, Blast, and Burn Injuri...

  3. Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Mehmet Seyfettin; Şafak OĞUZ

    2015-01-01

    Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main ...

  4. Systems toxicology of chemically induced liver and kidney injuries: histopathology-associated gene co-expression modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Jerez A; AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M; Wallqvist, Anders

    2016-09-01

    Organ injuries caused by environmental chemical exposures or use of pharmaceutical drugs pose a serious health risk that may be difficult to assess because of a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tests. Mapping chemical injuries to organ-specific histopathology outcomes via biomarkers will provide a foundation for designing precise and robust diagnostic tests. We identified co-expressed genes (modules) specific to injury endpoints using the Open Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System (TG-GATEs) - a toxicogenomics database containing organ-specific gene expression data matched to dose- and time-dependent chemical exposures and adverse histopathology assessments in Sprague-Dawley rats. We proposed a protocol for selecting gene modules associated with chemical-induced injuries that classify 11 liver and eight kidney histopathology endpoints based on dose-dependent activation of the identified modules. We showed that the activation of the modules for a particular chemical exposure condition, i.e., chemical-time-dose combination, correlated with the severity of histopathological damage in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the modules could distinguish different types of injuries caused by chemical exposures as well as determine whether the injury module activation was specific to the tissue of origin (liver and kidney). The generated modules provide a link between toxic chemical exposures, different molecular initiating events among underlying molecular pathways and resultant organ damage. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 毒物战的现实威胁%Threats of toxic warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 赵建; 丁日高

    2013-01-01

    2002年,一份美国空军发起的关于毒物战争的研究报告引起了美国军方和平民灾难应急救援组织的关注。该报告通过对在战争中恶意使用有毒工业化学物质的历史事件的回顾,提出了毒物战( toxic warfare )的概念,并讨论了它对美国军事和国土安全的影响。该文综述了毒物战的历史及其对美国军事和国土安全的影响,分析了我国面临的毒物战威胁,并就应对毒物战威胁提出了若干启示。%In 2002, a research report about toxic warfare launched by the United States Air Force attracted the attentionof the U.S.military and civilian disaster emergency rescue organizations .By reviewing historical events related to the malicioususe of toxic industrial chemicals in the war , this report proposed the concept of "Toxic Warfare ", and discussed itsimpact on the United States military and homeland security .In this paper, the concept and history of toxic warfare and itsinfluence on American military and homeland security are reviewed , the threats of toxic warfare facing China and counter -measures against toxic warfare are analyzed.

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Autophagy Provides Cytoprotection from Chemical Hypoxia and Oxidant Injury and Ameliorates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavya B Chandrika

    Full Text Available We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced autophagy provides cytoprotection from renal tubular epithelial cell injury due to oxidants and chemical hypoxia in vitro, as well as from ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in vivo. We demonstrate that the ER stress inducer tunicamycin triggers an unfolded protein response, upregulates ER chaperone Grp78, and activates the autophagy pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells in culture. Inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy accelerated caspase-3 activation and cell death suggesting a pro-survival role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Compared to wild-type cells, autophagy-deficient MEFs subjected to ER stress had enhanced caspase-3 activation and cell death, a finding that further supports the cytoprotective role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Induction of autophagy by ER stress markedly afforded cytoprotection from oxidants H2O2 and tert-Butyl hydroperoxide and from chemical hypoxia induced by antimycin A. In contrast, inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy or autophagy-deficient cells markedly enhanced cell death in response to oxidant injury and chemical hypoxia. In mouse kidney, similarly to renal epithelial cells in culture, tunicamycin triggered ER stress, markedly upregulated Grp78, and activated autophagy without impairing the autophagic flux. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy markedly ameliorated renal IR injury as evident from significant improvement in renal function and histology. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine markedly increased renal IR injury. These studies highlight beneficial impact of ER stress-induced autophagy in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury both in vitro and in vivo.

  7. A case of chemical scalp burns after hair highlights: experimental evidence of oxidative injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Roberta; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Pendolino, Flavio; Facchin, Giangiacomo; Snenghi, Rossella

    2016-12-01

    Hair highlights are quite common procedures carried out in hair salons by using a mixture of a lightening powder containing persulfates with a suspension containing hydrogen peroxide: a representative case of chemical scalp burns is described as a consequence of this treatment. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the strict relationship between the scalp damage and the commercial products used in a case of hair highlighting. The results of some chemical analyses have been reported, showing, in particular, that the chemical reactivity of the mixture changes in the time, thus strongly suggesting that the procedure for the application of the mixture is critical for the occurrence of possible accidents. The presence in the powder of chemical compounds bearing aliphatic chains as surfactants explains the appearance of dramatic symptoms after days due to a slow dissolution of the oxidant compounds in the stratum corneum of skin with no effect in reducing injury of palliative treatments. Safety suggestions and recommendations for producers and workers are also included.

  8. Intelligence, Information Technology, and Information Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Philip H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the use of information technology for intelligence and information warfare in the context of national security and reviews the status of clandestine collection. Discusses hacking, human agent collection, signal interception, covert action, counterintelligence and security, and communications between intelligence producers and consumers…

  9. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  10. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo...

  11. Computational models of intergroup competition and warfare.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Kenneth (University of New Mexico); Abbott, Robert G.

    2011-11-01

    This document reports on the research of Kenneth Letendre, the recipient of a Sandia Graduate Research Fellowship at the University of New Mexico. Warfare is an extreme form of intergroup competition in which individuals make extreme sacrifices for the benefit of their nation or other group to which they belong. Among animals, limited, non-lethal competition is the norm. It is not fully understood what factors lead to warfare. We studied the global variation in the frequency of civil conflict among countries of the world, and its positive association with variation in the intensity of infectious disease. We demonstrated that the burden of human infectious disease importantly predicts the frequency of civil conflict and tested a causal model for this association based on the parasite-stress theory of sociality. We also investigated the organization of social foraging by colonies of harvester ants in the genus Pogonomyrmex, using both field studies and computer models.

  12. Animal plant warfare and secondary metabolite evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wöll, Steffen; Kim, Sun Hee; Greten, Henry Johannes; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The long-lasting discussion, why plants produce secondary metabolites, which are pharmacologically and toxicologically active towards mammals traces back to the eminent role of medicinal plants in the millennia-old history of manhood. In recent years, the concept of an animal plant warfare emerged, which focused on the co-evolution between plants and herbivores. As a reaction to herbivory, plants developed mechanical defenses such as thorns and hard shells, which paved the way for ad...

  13. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    OpenAIRE

    L. Drazan; R. Vrana

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM) is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered b...

  14. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations ...

  15. Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Mehmet Seyfettin; Şafak OĞUZ

    2015-01-01

    Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main ...

  16. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms and remission of vital oxidative injury by low dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, K. [Okayama University Medical School, Okayama (Japan); Nomura, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Kojima, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Excessive active oxygen produced in vivo by various causes is toxic. Accumulation of oxidation injuries due to excessive active causes cell and tissue injuries, inducing various pathologic conditions such as aging and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, there are chemical defense mechanisms in the body that eliminate active oxygen or repair damaged molecules, defending against resultant injury. It is interesting reports that appropriate oxidation stress activate the chemical biological defense mechanisms. In this study, to elucidate these phenomena and its mechanism by low dose radiation, we studied on the below subjects. Activation of chemical biological defense mechanisms by low dose radiation: (1) The effects radiation on lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in the organs, membrane fluidity and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined in rats and rabbits. Rats were irradiated with low dose X-ray over their entire bodies, and rabbits inhaled vaporized radon spring water, which primarily emitted {alpha}-ray. The following results were obtained. Unlike high dose X-ray, low dose X-ray and radon inhalation both reduced LPO levels and made the state of the SH-group on membrane-bound proteins closer to that of juvenile animals, although the sensitivity to radioactivity varied depending on the age of the animals and among different organs and tissues. The SOD activity was elevated, suggesting that low dose X-ray and radon both activate the host defensive function. Those changes were particularly marked in the organs related to immune functions of the animals which received low dose X-ray, while they were particularly marked in the brain after radon inhalation. It was also found that those changes continued for longer periods after low dose X-irradiation. (2) Since SOD is an enzyme that mediates the dismutation of O{sub 2}- to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the question as to whether the resultant H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is further detoxicated into H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} or not must

  17. TRPV4 inhibition counteracts edema and inflammation and improves pulmonary function and oxygen saturation in chemically induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Song, Weifeng; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Doran, Stephen F; Liu, Boyi; Kaelberer, Melanie M; Yu, Zhihong; Sui, Aiwei; Cheung, Mui; Leishman, Emma; Eidam, Hilary S; Ye, Guosen; Willette, Robert N; Thorneloe, Kevin S; Bradshaw, Heather B; Matalon, Sadis; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2014-07-15

    The treatment of acute lung injury caused by exposure to reactive chemicals remains challenging because of the lack of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Recent studies have shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an ion channel expressed in pulmonary tissues, is a crucial mediator of pressure-induced damage associated with ventilator-induced lung injury, heart failure, and infarction. Here, we examined the effects of two novel TRPV4 inhibitors in mice exposed to hydrochloric acid, mimicking acid exposure and acid aspiration injury, and to chlorine gas, a severe chemical threat with frequent exposures in domestic and occupational environments and in transportation accidents. Postexposure treatment with a TRPV4 inhibitor suppressed acid-induced pulmonary inflammation by diminishing neutrophils, macrophages, and associated chemokines and cytokines, while improving tissue pathology. These effects were recapitulated in TRPV4-deficient mice. TRPV4 inhibitors had similar anti-inflammatory effects in chlorine-exposed mice and inhibited vascular leakage, airway hyperreactivity, and increase in elastance, while improving blood oxygen saturation. In both models of lung injury we detected increased concentrations of N-acylamides, a class of endogenous TRP channel agonists. Taken together, we demonstrate that TRPV4 inhibitors are potent and efficacious countermeasures against severe chemical exposures, acting against exaggerated inflammatory responses, and protecting tissue barriers and cardiovascular function. PMID:24838754

  18. Mechanisms of the hepatoprotective effects of tamoxifen against drug-induced and chemical-induced acute liver injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Yukitaka; Miyashita, Taishi; Higuchi, Satonori [Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920‐1192 (Japan); Tsuneyama, Koichi [Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science for Research, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930‐0194 (Japan); Endo, Shinya [Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920‐1192 (Japan); Tsukui, Tohru [Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Yamane, Hidaka 350‐1241 (Japan); Toyoda, Yasuyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki [Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920‐1192 (Japan); Yokoi, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tyokoi@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Drug Metabolism and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920‐1192 (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    Although estrogen receptor (ER)α agonists, such as estradiol and ethinylestradiol (EE2), cause cholestasis in mice, they also reduce the degree of liver injury caused by hepatotoxicants as well as ischemia–reperfusion. The functional mechanisms of ERα have yet to be elucidated in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. The present study investigated the effects of an ERα agonist, selective ER modulators (SERMs) and an ER antagonist on drug-induced and chemical-induced liver injuries caused by acetaminophen, bromobenzene, diclofenac, and thioacetamide (TA). We observed hepatoprotective effects of EE2, tamoxifen (TAM) and raloxifene pretreatment in female mice that were exposed to a variety of hepatotoxic compounds. In contrast, the ER antagonist did not show any hepatoprotective effects. DNA microarray analyses suggested that monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated 2 (Mmd2) protein, which has an unknown function, is commonly increased by TAM and RAL pretreatment, but not by pretreatment with the ER antagonist. In ERα-knockout mice, the hepatoprotective effects of TAM and the increased expression of Mmd2 mRNA were not observed in TA-induced liver injury. To investigate the function of Mmd2, the expression level of Mmd2 mRNA was significantly knocked down to approximately 30% in mice by injection of siRNA for Mmd2 (siMmd2). Mmd2 knockdown resulted in a reduction of the protective effects of TAM on TA-induced liver injury in mice. This is the first report of the involvement of ERα in drug-induced or chemical-induced liver injury. Upregulation of Mmd2 protein in the liver was suggested as the mechanism of the hepatoprotective effects of EE2 and SERMs. -- Highlights: ► Liver injury induced by drugs or chemicals was investigated in mice. ► Liver injury was suppressed by pretreatment with tamoxifen in female mice. ► Mmd2, whose function was unknown, could be a candidate gene for liver protection. ► Tamoxifen up-regulated Mmd2 mRNA expression

  19. OFFICER AND COMMANDER IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the data of a field research conducted among soldiers with asymmetric warfare experiences from nine different countries, the author seeks to identify and shed light on the various problems that officers with command responsibilities had to face during their missions. A picture emerges of feelings and experiences relating to their first impression upon arriving in the theatre, relations with local armed forces, relations with the local population and local authorities, relations with NGOs, relations with other armies, the impact of the rules of engagement (ROEs, training and education, and operational experiences. The paper ends with a discussion of the lessons learned.

  20. Microwave receivers with electronic warfare applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, James

    2005-01-01

    This book by the author of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers willbe like no other one on your book shelf as the definitive word on electronicwarfare (EW) receiver design and performance. Whether you are an EWscientist involved in the test and evaluation of EW receivers or a designerof RWR's and other EW-related receivers, Microwave Receivers withElectronic Warfare Applications is a handy reference through which you canperfect your technical art. Lucidly written, this book is a treatise on EWreceivers that is relevant to you if you are just looking for a top-levelinsight into EW receive

  1. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  2. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  3. Hybrid Warfare Studies and Russia’s Example in Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Seyfettin EROL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Hybrid Warfare is an old concept, theoretical studies in the western countries mainly began in the post-Col War era, focusing on asymmetrical threats against conventional superiority of western countries such as USA or Israel. September 11th attacks and 2006 Israel-Lebanon war played important roles for the evolution of hybrid warfare theories. However, there has not any consensus among scholars on a exact or unique definition of hybrid warfare. Hybrid warfare became one of the main security issues for the West and especially for NATO after the Russia-Ukraine crisis. Russian military strategies, called “hybrid warfare” by the western countries, resulted in the successful annexation of Crimea and, caused a serious security problem for the West resulting important structural and functional changes for the military system of NATO. Russian activities, which have been based on surprise, ambiguity and deniability, presented a unique example for hybrid warfare studies.

  4. The role of CYP2A5 in liver injury and fibrosis: chemical-specific difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Feng; Si, Chuanping; Gao, Pengfei; Cederbaum, Arthur I; Xiong, Huabao; Lu, Yongke

    2016-01-01

    Liver injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) or thioacetamide (TAA) are dependent on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). CYP2A5 can be induced by TAA but not by CCL4. In this study, liver injury including fibrosis induced by CCL4 or TAA were investigated in wild-type (WT) mice and CYP2A5 knockout (cyp2a5 (-/-) ) mice as well as in CYP2E1 knockout (cyp2e1 (-/-) ) mice as a comparison. Acute and subchronic liver injuries including fibrosis were induced by CCL4 and TAA in WT mice but not in cyp2e1 (-/-) mice, confirming the indispensable role of CYP2E1 in CCL4 and TAA hepatotoxicity. WT mice and cyp2a5 (-/-) mice developed comparable acute liver injury induced by a single injection of CCL4 as well as subchronic liver injury including fibrosis induced by 1 month of repeated administration of CCL4, suggesting that CYP2A5 does not affect CCL4-induced liver injury and fibrosis. However, while 200 mg/kg TAA-induced acute liver injury was comparable in WT mice and cyp2a5 (-/-) mice, 75 and 100 mg/kg TAA-induced liver injury were more severe in cyp2a5 (-/-) mice than those found in WT mice. After multiple injections with 200 mg/kg TAA for 1 month, while subchronic liver injury as indicated by serum aminotransferases was comparable in WT mice and cyp2a5 (-/-) mice, liver fibrosis was more severe in cyp2a5 (-/-) mice than that found in WT mice. These results suggest that while both CCL4- and TAA-induced liver injuries and fibrosis are CYP2E1 dependent, under some conditions, CYP2A5 may protect against TAA-induced liver injury and fibrosis, but it does not affect CCL4 hepatotoxicity.

  5. Hepatic injury induces contrasting response in liver and kidney to chemicals that are metabolically activated: Role of male sex hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injury to liver, resulting in loss of its normal physiological/biochemical functions, may adversely affect a secondary organ. We examined the response of the liver and kidney to chemical substances that require metabolic activation for their toxicities in mice with a preceding liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride treatment 24 h prior to a challenging dose of carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen decreased the resulting hepatotoxicity both in male and female mice as determined by histopathological examination and increases in serum enzyme activities. In contrast, the renal toxicity of the challenging toxicants was elevated markedly in male, but not in female mice. Partial hepatectomy also induced similar changes in the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of a challenging toxicant, suggesting that the contrasting response of male liver and kidney was associated with the reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride pretreatment or partial hepatectomy decreased the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in both sexes but elevated the renal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities significantly only in male mice. Increases in Cyp2e1 and Cyp2b expression were also evident in male kidney. Castration of males or testosterone administration to females diminished the sex-related differences in the renal response to an acute liver injury. The results indicate that reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity induced by liver injury may render secondary target organs susceptible to chemical substances activated in these organs. This effect may be sex-specific. It is also suggested that an integrated approach should be taken for proper assessment of chemical hazards

  6. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced.

  7. Inhalation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun Araz; Arash Pirat

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three...

  8. What Lies behind Chinese Cyber Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Siboni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years China has been developing operational capabilities in the field of cyberspace warfare. A cyber attack may be defined as the unauthorized penetration of computer and communications systems belonging to individuals or organizations for the purpose of espionage and information theft, in order thereby to damage or disrupt the functioning of these systems or to damage other systems dependent on them, even to a point of causing actual physical damage. Despite denials by the Chinese government, researchers posit that China is behind a string of cyber attacks against the United States, Japan, France, Australia, and other Western nations. This essay argues that an analysis of the publicly available information about the more recent attacks makes it possible to establish that China does in fact stand behind these attacks and also makes it possible to identify the link between China’s cyberspace warfare strategy and its choice of targets. The analysis includes an examination of the companies attacked to identify possible motives for the attacks. The motives for these attacks are presumably to steal capabilities and conduct industrial espionage against nations and commercial competitors. Attacking companies and organizations in the financial and even political sectors allows access to valuable intelligence in these fields. By contrast, the intelligence value for immediate use in attacking companies providing critical infrastructures and communications services is usually relatively low. Rather, gaining access, if only to some providers of communications and internet services in the West and the United States, is liable to give attackers the ability to damage these services.

  9. Anthropology, Culture, and COIN in a Hybrid Warfare World

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Anna

    2011-01-01

    in Paul Brister, William Natter, and Robert Tomes (eds.), Hybrid Warfare and Transnational Threats: Perspectives for an Era of Persistent Conflict. New York: Council for Emerging National Security Studies, 2011.

  10. Active and Passive Precautions in Air and Missile Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Sassoli, Marco; Quintin, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Based upon state practice, customary international law, Protocol Additional I to the Geneva Conventions and the Harvard Manual on Air and Missile Warfare (which they critically review), the authors discuss the different precautionary measures for the benefit of the civilian population an attacker and a defender must take, in the conduct of hostilities in general, and specifically in air and missile warfare, including in attacks against aircraft.

  11. Corner capping of silsesquioxane cages by chemical warfare agent simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-McPherson, Melinda K; Low, Emily R; Esker, Alan R; Morris, John R

    2005-11-22

    The room-temperature uptake and reactivity of gas-phase methyl dichlorophosphate (MDCP) and trichlorophosphate (TCP) within trisilanolphenyl-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) Langmuir-Blodgett films are investigated. The halogenated phosphate molecules are found to readily diffuse into and react with the hybrid inorganic-organic silicon-oxide films under ambient conditions. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) measurements suggest that the chlorophosphates undergo hydrolysis with the silanol groups of the POSS LB-film. Substitution and elimination reactions appear to cap the corner of the POSS molecules, leaving a surface-bound phosphoryl group and a resulting structure that is highly stable at elevated temperatures. PMID:16285795

  12. Conceptual Lanchester-type Decapitation Warfare Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jau-yeu Menq

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Decapitation operation has existed for a long time in military history; however, it was notuntil March 2003 'decapitation attack' became a well known term in the mass media. This paperis based on the connotation of decapitation based on historical study and refines the term intomilitary strategic concept of decapitation strategy. Ideas derived from detailed studies onLanchester-type combat models are used to describe the effectiveness of conventional regularforces under decapitation warfare, which includes asymmetric, nonlinear, stand-off and specialoperation forces (SOF operations. A conceptual model is presented to describe the effects ofthe decapitation strategy on the regular battlefield. With extensive coverage of operational factorssuch as robustness of forces, time difference between combats, undermining effects, breakpoints,attrition rates, total force level and force allocation, the model is suitable to analyse complexscenario with different types of military operations consisting of decapitation strategy. Anillustrative example is provided to demonstrate the application of the model. The conceptualmodel is built based on hypotheses, assumptions, and criteria. In the absence of historical data,no data analysis and parameter estimation are involved.

  13. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later. PMID:24894605

  14. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later.

  15. Numerical simulation of RCS for carrier electronic warfare airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Kuizhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the radar cross section (RCS of carrier electronic warfare airplanes. Under the typical naval operations section, the mathematical model of the radar wave’s pitch angle incidence range analysis is established. Based on the CATIA software, considering dynamic deflections of duck wing leading edge flaps, flaperons, horizontal tail, and rudder, as well as aircraft with air-to-air missile, anti-radiation missile, electronic jamming pod, and other weapons, the 3D models of carrier electronic warfare airplanes Model A and Model B with weapons were established. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, by the use of the RCSAnsys software, the characteristics of carrier electronic warfare airplanes’ RCS under steady and dynamic flights were simulated under the UHF, X, and S radar bands. This paper researches the detection probability of aircraft by radars under the condition of electronic warfare, and completes the mathematical statistical analysis of the simulation results. The results show that: The Model A of carrier electronic warfare airplane is better than Model B on stealth performance and on discover probability by radar detection effectively.

  16. Minocycline and Doxycycline, but not Other Tetracycline-Derived Compounds, Protect Liver Cells from Chemical Hypoxia and Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun; Lovelace, Gregory L.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasters, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 μM iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were...

  17. Characterization of the Kallikrein-Kinin System Post Chemical Neuronal Injury: An In Vitro Biochemical and Neuroproteomics Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaly Nokkari

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is the result of a mechanical impact on the brain provoking mild, moderate or severe symptoms. It is acknowledged that TBI leads to apoptotic and necrotic cell death; however, the exact mechanism by which brain trauma leads to neural injury is not fully elucidated. Some studies have highlighted the pivotal role of the Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS in brain trauma but the results are still controversial and inconclusive. In this study, we investigated both the expression and the role of Bradykinin 1 and 2 receptors (B1R and B2R, in mediating neuronal injury under chemical neurotoxicity paradigm in PC12 cell lines. The neuronal cell line PC12 was treated with the apoptotic drug Staurosporine (STS to induce cell death. Intracellular calcium release was evaluated by Fluo 4-AM staining and showed that inhibition of the B2R prevented calcium release following STS treatment. Differential analyses utilizing immunofluorescence, Western blot and Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction revealed an upregulation of both bradykinin receptors occurring at 3h and 12h post-STS treatment, but with a higher induction of B2R compared to B1R. This implies that STS-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells is mainly conducted through B2R and partly via B1R. Finally, a neuroproteomics approach was conducted to find relevant proteins associated to STS and KKS in PC12 cells. Neuroproteomics results confirmed the presence of an inflammatory response leading to cell death during apoptosis-mediated STS treatment; however, a "survival" capacity was shown following inhibition of B2R coupled with STS treatment. Our data suggest that B2R is a key player in the inflammatory pathway following STS-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells and its inhibition may represent a potential therapeutic tool in TBI.

  18. Characterization of the Kallikrein-Kinin System Post Chemical Neuronal Injury: An In Vitro Biochemical and Neuroproteomics Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokkari, Amaly; Mouhieddine, Tarek H; Itani, Muhieddine M; Abou-Kheir, Wassim; Daoud, Georges; Zhu, Rui; Mechref, Yehia; Meshref, Yehia; Soueid, Jihane; Al Hariri, Moustafa; Mondello, Stefania; Jaffa, Ayad A; Kobeissy, Firas

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the result of a mechanical impact on the brain provoking mild, moderate or severe symptoms. It is acknowledged that TBI leads to apoptotic and necrotic cell death; however, the exact mechanism by which brain trauma leads to neural injury is not fully elucidated. Some studies have highlighted the pivotal role of the Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS) in brain trauma but the results are still controversial and inconclusive. In this study, we investigated both the expression and the role of Bradykinin 1 and 2 receptors (B1R and B2R), in mediating neuronal injury under chemical neurotoxicity paradigm in PC12 cell lines. The neuronal cell line PC12 was treated with the apoptotic drug Staurosporine (STS) to induce cell death. Intracellular calcium release was evaluated by Fluo 4-AM staining and showed that inhibition of the B2R prevented calcium release following STS treatment. Differential analyses utilizing immunofluorescence, Western blot and Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction revealed an upregulation of both bradykinin receptors occurring at 3h and 12h post-STS treatment, but with a higher induction of B2R compared to B1R. This implies that STS-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells is mainly conducted through B2R and partly via B1R. Finally, a neuroproteomics approach was conducted to find relevant proteins associated to STS and KKS in PC12 cells. Neuroproteomics results confirmed the presence of an inflammatory response leading to cell death during apoptosis-mediated STS treatment; however, a "survival" capacity was shown following inhibition of B2R coupled with STS treatment. Our data suggest that B2R is a key player in the inflammatory pathway following STS-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells and its inhibition may represent a potential therapeutic tool in TBI. PMID:26047500

  19. TAFA4, a chemokine-like protein, modulates injury-induced mechanical and chemical pain hypersensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, Marie-Claire; Mantilleri, Annabelle; Gaillard, Stéphane; Hao, Jizhe; Reynders, Ana; Malapert, Pascale; Alonso, Serge; François, Amaury; Barrere, Christian; Seal, Rebecca; Landry, Marc; Eschallier, Alain; Alloui, Abdelkrim; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Delmas, Patrick; Le Feuvre, Yves; Moqrich, Aziz

    2013-10-31

    C-low-threshold mechanoreceptors (C-LTMRs) are unique among C-unmyelinated primary sensory neurons. These neurons convey two opposite aspects of touch sensation: a sensation of pleasantness, and a sensation of injury-induced mechanical pain. Here, we show that TAFA4 is a specific marker of C-LTMRs. Genetic labeling in combination with electrophysiological recordings show that TAFA4+ neurons have intrinsic properties of mechano-nociceptors. TAFA4-null mice exhibit enhanced mechanical and chemical hypersensitivity following inflammation and nerve injury as well as increased excitability of spinal cord lamina IIi neurons, which could be reversed by intrathecal or bath application of recombinant TAFA4 protein. In wild-type C57/Bl6 mice, intrathecal administration of TAFA4 strongly reversed carrageenan-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, suggesting a potent analgesic role of TAFA4 in pain relief. Our data provide insights into how C-LTMR-derived TAFA4 modulates neuronal excitability and controls the threshold of somatic sensation.

  20. TAFA4, a Chemokine-like Protein, Modulates Injury-Induced Mechanical and Chemical Pain Hypersensitivity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claire Delfini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available C-low-threshold mechanoreceptors (C-LTMRs are unique among C-unmyelinated primary sensory neurons. These neurons convey two opposite aspects of touch sensation: a sensation of pleasantness, and a sensation of injury-induced mechanical pain. Here, we show that TAFA4 is a specific marker of C-LTMRs. Genetic labeling in combination with electrophysiological recordings show that TAFA4+ neurons have intrinsic properties of mechano-nociceptors. TAFA4-null mice exhibit enhanced mechanical and chemical hypersensitivity following inflammation and nerve injury as well as increased excitability of spinal cord lamina IIi neurons, which could be reversed by intrathecal or bath application of recombinant TAFA4 protein. In wild-type C57/Bl6 mice, intrathecal administration of TAFA4 strongly reversed carrageenan-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, suggesting a potent analgesic role of TAFA4 in pain relief. Our data provide insights into how C-LTMR-derived TAFA4 modulates neuronal excitability and controls the threshold of somatic sensation.

  1. Ge{sup 4+} doped TiO{sub 2} for stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared nanodisperse Ge{sup 4+} doped titania by a novel synthesis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis does not involve organic solvents, organometallics nor thermal processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared materials are efficient in removal of chemical warfare agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ge{sup 4+} doping improves rate of removal of soman and agent VX by TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Germanium doped TiO{sub 2} was prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of GeCl{sub 4} and TiOSO{sub 4} with urea. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDS analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). Ge{sup 4+} doping increases surface area and content of amorphous phase in prepared samples. These oxides were used in an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with chemical warfare agent, sulphur mustard, soman and agent VX. Ge{sup 4+} doping worsens sulphur mustard degradation and improves soman and agent VX degradation. The best degree of removal (degradation), 100% of soman, 99% of agent VX and 95% of sulphur mustard, is achieved with sample with 2 wt.% of germanium.

  2. Chemical and thermal injuries of the eyes. Surgical and medical treatment based on clinical and pathophysiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reim, M; Redbrake, C; Schrage, N

    2001-02-01

    Light burns heal well within a few days. Severe chemical and thermal injuries of the eyes destroy surface epithelia and cause ischemic necroses of conjunctiva, cornea, sclera, iris, ciliary body, and lids. An inflammatory response follows with leucocyte infiltration and release of inflammatory mediators. Prostaglandins, lipoxygenase products, cytokines, superoxide radicals and Iysosomal enzymes are known to be active in eye burn disease. Their activities result in corneal, scleral and conjunctival ulceration, tissue proliferation and scarification, which develop within weeks, months and even years after the accident. Pathophysiological events produce defined clinical pictures. Some agents take special actions, e.g. alkali penetrates within seconds into the anterior chamber, sulfuric acid burns as well as quick lime burns forming slaked lime produce considerable heat. Hydrofluoric acid is highly toxic and induces early necroses. Heat causes deep ischemic necroses and lateron strongly shrinking scars. Onset and intensity of first aid decided on the outcome. Immediate rinsing is essential. Cool water, saline, Ringers lactate solution and BSS are good rinsing media. For first aid, buffered Previn seems suitable. Major chemical and thermal injuries need a variety of medical and surgical treatments: Necroses must be excised surgically. Tenon plasty is performed to reconstruct conjunctiva. Amnion-, limbus- and early keratoplasty or artificial epithelium are applied, initially to save the cornea from melting, and later to restore vision. Conjunctical, lid and intraocular surgery may be necessary. The aim of medical treatment is to suppress the inflammatory response and to prevent infection. Corticosteroids, antibiotics, ascorbate and inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes are used. Secondary glaucoma must not be forgotten. Extensive therapy is sometimes rewarding, results are presented. PMID:11228610

  3. Sweeping changes for mine warfare : controlling the mine threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cashman, T. Michael

    1994-01-01

    This thesis proposes that the U.S. Navy deter and, if necessary, combat potential minelayers by pursuing a pro-active' offensive mine warfare strategy. Central to this proposed strategy is the development, acquisition, and use of Remote Controlled (RECO) mines. It is argued that, given the historical problems the United States has had in the area of naval mine warfare, a strategy aimed at the aggressive deterrence of enemy mine laying be embraced so as to project forces ashore in future amphi...

  4. Inhalation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Araz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three types of injury: thermal injury, which is mostly restricted to the upper airway; chemical injury, which affects tracheobronchial tree; and systemic toxicity owing to toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. Inhalation injury increases the burn injury associated morbidity and mortality by causing airway problems and respiratory failure during the early phase and by contributing to the development of pneumonia and atelectasis during the late phase. Additionally, systemic effects of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide may also adversely affect the early and long-term outcome in burn victims. The early diagnosis and therapy of these problems plays a key role in improving the outcome of burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 37-45

  5. Chemical composition and hepatotoxic effect of Geranium schiedeanum in a thioacetamide-induced liver injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gayosso-De-Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major components of some geraniums is geraniin, described by its discoverer as crystallizable tannin, well known as an excellent antioxidant, and also found in fruits such as pomegranate. Recently, natural antioxidants have attracted great attention from consumers over the world due to their lower toxicity than synthetics. But geraniin is not a stable compound, and also is difficult to obtain, that is why in the present study we obtained acetonylgeraniin from Geranium schideanum (Gs, a stable acetone condensate of geraniin. In the present study the effect of Gs acetone-water extract was studied in reference to postnecrotic liver regeneration induced by thioacetamide (TA in rats. Two months male rats were pretreated with daily dose of Gs extract for 4 days (300 mg/kg and the last day also were intraperitoneally injected with TA (6.6 mmol/kg. Samples of blood were obtained from rats at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following TA intoxication. The pre-treatment with the crude extract in the model of thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats decreased and delayed liver injury by 66% at 24 h. This result suggests that Gs extract may be used as an alternative for reduction of liver damage. On the other hand, acute toxicity study revealed that the LD 50 value of the Gs extract is more than the dose 5000 mg/kg in rats, according to the Lorke method.

  6. Public Discussion of Nuclear Warfare: A Time for Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Martha

    Anti-nuclear discourse, which peaked in 1981-82, signaled an emergence of public discourse on the nuclear warfare issue. During the development of the original atomic bomb, public discussion of the issue was severely restricted, but immediately after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, discourse on the subject increased. During the Cold War…

  7. Anti-submarine warfare with continuously active sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, R. van; Beerens, S.P.; Spek, E. van der

    2011-01-01

    Existing surveillance sonar systems for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) use a pulsed sonar deployed at a low duty cycle. Continuously active sonar (CAS) is of special interest since the technique could provide better detection performance than conventional pulsed sonar, and it will provide the operator

  8. Trends in underwater warfare : From an underwater acoustics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ort, C.M.; Driessen, F.P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Technological developments concerning underwater systems for Anti Submarine Warfare (ASW) and Mine Counter Measures (MCM) are directed at optimally countering the underwater threat in the near future. Countering the existing underwater threat is already extremely difficult, but there are several tre

  9. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  10. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@uach.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  11. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury: a new trend of blast injury research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhao; Zheng-Guo Wang

    2015-01-01

    Blast injury has become the major life-and function-threatening injuries in recent warfares.There is increased research interest in the mental disorders caused by blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI),which has been proved as one of the "signature wounds" in modern battlefield.We reviewed the recent progresses in bTBl-related researches and concluded that the new era of blast injury research has shifted from the traditional physical impairments to cognitive dysfunctional/mental disorders that are proved to be more related to the outcome of combat casualty care.

  12. Ending the scourge of chemical weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brin, J.

    1993-04-01

    After more than 20 years of arduous negotiations, representatives from 131 countries gathered in Paris in January to sign a treaty banning the development, production, and transfer to other countries of chemical-warfare agents and their means of delivery. The treaty - called the Chemical Weapons Convention, or CWC - complements the more limited Geneva Protocol of 1925, which bans the use of toxic chemicals in warfare. When the CWC enters into force in about two years, it will prohibit the manufacture for military purposes of lethal chemicals such as sulfur mustard, which causes painful skin blistering and lung damage, and nerve agents, which cause rapid death by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses. The goal is to eliminate from the earth this particularly inhumane form of warfare. The paper discusses facets of the treaty, especially the verification challenge with its inspection on demand features. Short accompanying pieces discuss classifying chemicals and the destruction of chemical weapons under the CWC.

  13. Reproductive toxicity: Male and female reproductive systems as targets for chemical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattison, D.R.; Plowchalk, D.R.; Meadows, M.J.; Al-Juburi, A.Z.; Gandy, J.; Malek, A. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of current knowledge of reproductive biology and toxicology, it is apparent that chemicals affecting reproduction may elicit their effects at a number of sites in both the male and the female reproductive system. This multiplicity of targets is attributable to the dynamic nature of the reproductive system, in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is controlled by precise positive and negative feedback mechanisms among its components. Interference by a xenobiotic at any level in either the male or the female reproductive system may ultimately impair hypothalamic or pituitary function. Normal gonadal processes such as spermatogenesis or oogenesis, ejaculation or ovulation, hormone production by Leydig or granulosa cells, and the structure or function of the accessory reproductive structures (e.g., epididymis, fallopian tube) also appear vulnerable to xenobiotics. The reproductive system is a complex one that requires local and circulating hormones for control. This brief review illustrates a system for characterizing the mechanism of action of reproductive toxicants, as well as for defining the sites available for disruption of reproduction. Unfortunately, at present, data addressing the actual vulnerability of reproduction are sorely lacking. However, when experiments have been conducted and combined with epidemiologic data or clinical observation, it has been possible to demonstrate impairment of reproductive processes by xenobiotics. The role of environmental exposure to xenobiotics in the increase in infertility that has been observed remains to be defined. 87 references.

  14. Chemical injury treated with autologous limbal epithelial stem cell transplantation and subconjunctival bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallini GM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gian Maria Cavallini,1 Graziella Pellegrini,2 Veronica Volante,1 Pietro Ducange,1 Michele De Maria,1 Giulio Torlai,1 Caterina Benatti,1 Matteo Forlini1 1Institute of Ophthalmology, 2Centre for Regenerative Medicine “Stefano Ferrari”, University of Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy Background: Limbal stem cell (LSC deficiency leads to corneal opacity due to a conjunctivalization of the corneal surface. LSC transplantation, which can be followed by corneal keratoplasty, is an effective procedure to restore corneal transparency; however, a common cause of failure of this procedure is neovascularization (NV.Methods: A 59-year-old man with a 21-year history of a corneal chemical burn caused by phosphoric acid in his left eye was examined. He presented with unilateral total LSC deficiency with severe conjunctivalization and a corrected distance visual acuity that was limited to hand motion.Results: We reported the short-term in vivo efficacy of subconjunctival bevacizumab for progressive corneal NV in a patient with LSC deficiency that underwent LSC transplantation. Four months after autologous LSC transplantation and 1 month after the second subconjunctival bevacizumab injection, the patient’s corrected distance visual acuity was 1/10.Conclusion: Subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab can reduce the corneal NV, reducing conjunctival inflammation and supporting restoration of a stable ocular surface that is able to counteract graft failure, with no toxicity for the transplanted LSC. Keywords: stem cells, bevacizumab, limbal stem cell deficiency, transplantation

  15. Impaired skin regeneration and remodeling after cutaneous injury and chemically induced hyperplasia in taps-transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Maike; Rhiemeier, Verena; Hartenstein, Bettina; Lahrmann, Bernd; Grabe, Niels; Angel, Peter; Hess, Jochen

    2010-07-01

    Recently, we identified an AP-1-dependent target gene in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated mouse back skin, which encodes a retroviral-like aspartic proteinase (Taps/Asprv1). Taps expression was detected almost exclusively in stratified epithelia of mouse embryos and adult tissues, and enhanced protein levels were present in several non-neoplastic human skin disorders, implicating a crucial role for differentiation and homeostasis of multilayered epithelia. Here, we generated a mouse model in which Taps transgene expression is under the control of the human ubiquitin C promoter (UBC-Taps). Although no obvious phenotype was observed in normal skin development and homeostasis, these mice showed a significant delay in cutaneous wound closure compared with control animals. Shortly after re-epithelialization, we found an increase in keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum, which express Filaggrin, a late differentiation marker. A hypergranulosum-like phenotype with increased numbers of Filaggrin-positive keratinocytes was also observed in UBC-Taps mice after administration of TPA. In summary, these data show that aberrant Taps expression causes impaired skin regeneration and skin remodeling after cutaneous injury and chemically induced hyperplasia. PMID:20237492

  16. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manzar Hussain; Muhammad Ehsan Bari

    2013-01-01

    Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma,although there are various reports of blast or gunshot injuries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails.In our case,a 30-year-old man presented to neurosurgery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weakness after suicide bomb attack.The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail.Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surrounding normal brain tissue.At 6 months' follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity.

  17. Explosive and chemical threat detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakonen, Aron; Andersson, Per Ola; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk;

    2015-01-01

    Acts of terror and warfare threats are challenging tasks for defense agencies around the world and of growing importance to security conscious policy makers and the general public. Explosives and chemical warfare agents are two of the major concerns in this context, as illustrated by the recent B...

  18. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic. Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.   NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  19. Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran's nuclear program. In the second part, the main features of cyber-warfare in conflict and pre-conflict activities will be discussed and compared to the conventional warfare domains, with also a general view at the international political debate on this topic.   Check the http://pugwash.org web site, an organisation that seeks a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. The lecturer invites comments via email to Gian.Piero.Siroli@cern.ch NB! All Academic Training lectures are recorded and are publicly available. There is no live webcast.

  20. Chemical composition and release in situ due to injury of the invasive coral tubastraea (Cnidaria, Scleractinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno G. Lages

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defensive chemistry may be used against consumers and competitors by invasive species as a strategy for colonization and perpetuation in a new area. There are relatively few studies of negative chemical interactions between scleratinian corals. This study characterizes the secondary metabolites in the invasive corals Tubastraea tagusensis and T. coccinea and relates these to an in situ experiment using a submersible apparatus with Sep-Paks® cartridges to trap substances released by T. tagusensis directly from the sea-water. Colonies of Tubastraea spp were collected in Ilha Grande Bay, RJ, extracted with methanol (MeOH, and the extracts washed with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol, and analyzed by GC/MS. Methyl stearate and methyl palmitate were the major components of the hexane and hexane:MeOH fractions, while cholesterol was the most abundant in the DCM and DCM:MeOH fractions from Tubastraea spp. The organic material retained in Sep-Paks® cartridges was tentatively identified as hydrocarbons. There was a significant difference between treatments and controls for 1-hexadecene, n-hexadecane and n-eicosane contents. The production of defensive substances by the invasive corals may be a threat to the benthic communities of the region, which include endemic species.Substâncias químicas de defesa contra consumidores e competidores podem ser usadas por espécies invasoras marinhas como estratégia de colonização e perpetuação em novo ambiente. Entretanto, há poucos estudos experimentais que demonstrem as possíveis interações negativas entre corais escleractínios. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar os metabólitos secundários dos corais invasores Tubastraea tagusensis e T. coccinea; avaliar através da técnica de amostragem in situ quais são as substâncias de T. tagusensis liberadas na água do mar, com o auxílio de aparelho subaquático com colunas Sep-Paks®. Colônias dos corais invasores Tubastraea spp foram

  1. Annihilation Prediction for Lanchester-Type Models of Modern Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, G G; Taylor, J.

    1983-01-01

    Operations Research, 31, p.752. This paper introduces important new functions for analytic solution of Launch-ester-type equations of modern warfare for combat between two homogeneous forces modeled by power attrtition-rate coefficients with "no offset". Tabulations of these Lanchester-Clifford-Schlatii (or LCS) functions allow one to study this particular variable-coefficient model almost as easily and thoroughly as Lanchester's classic constant-coefficient one. LCS functions allow one ...

  2. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors an...

  3. Factors affecting the retention decisions of female surface warfare officers

    OpenAIRE

    Clifton, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis delineates factors affecting the retention decisions of female Surface Warfare Officers. The data were obtained from in-depth interviews conducted with 12 female senior officers and 15 female junior officers. The transcripts from the interviews revealed 19 general themes. Based on the research, the data regarding the decisions that female officers make to either stay in the Navy or leave leads to four broad categories: economic factors, Navy taste factors., leadership factor...

  4. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposur...

  5. Hepatoprotective and antioxidative effects of total phenolics from Laggera pterodonta on chemical-induced injury in primary cultured neonatal rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yihang; Yang, Leixiang; Wang, Fang; Wu, Xiumei; Zhou, Changxin; Shi, Shuyun; Mo, Jianxia; Zhao, Yu

    2007-08-01

    Although Laggera pterodonta as a folk medicine has been widely used for several centuries to ameliorate some inflammatory ailments as hepatitis in China, there have been no studies of the hepatoprotective and antioxidative effects of this plant. In this paper, the hepatoprotective effect of total phenolics from L. pterodonta (TPLP) against CCI4-, D-GalN-, TAA-, and t-BHP-induced injury was examined in primary cultured neonatal rat hepatocytes. TPLP inhibited the cellular leakage of two enzymes, hepatocyte ASAT and ALAT, caused by these chemicals and improved cell viability. Moreover, TPLP afforded much stronger protection than the reference drug silibinin. Meanwhile, DPPH and superoxide radicals scavenging activities of TPLP were also determined. The present investigation is the first to report chemical-induced injury model in primary cultured neonatal rat hepatocytes and provide evidence for the hepatoprotective and antioxidative effects of L. pterodonta. Neutralizing reactive oxygen species by nonenzymatic mechanisms may be one of main mechanisms of TPLP against chemical-induced hepatocyte injury. Furthermore, The total phenolic content of L. pterodonta and its main component type were quantified, and its principle components isochlorogenic acids were isolated and authenticated. These data support the folkloric uses of L. pterodonta in the treatment of hepatitis. PMID:17329003

  6. Simulation innovation in Naval Special Warfare by utilizing small working groups

    OpenAIRE

    Rainville, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Naval Special Warfare has produced successful innovation by using small working groups. Naval Special Warfare deems an innovation successful if it results in a more efficient, less risky, more cost effective method to conduct special operations. The Quantum Leap program is an example of successful innovation in Naval Special Warfare produced by a small working group. How have these small groups been able to produce successful innovations? Michael McCaskey's Theory offers an explanation of how...

  7. The application of microrobotics in warfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solem, J.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to conduct a detailed theoretical study of military microrobot requirements and performance in conflict situations. The study was directed toward construction of a proof-of-concept prototype with attention to its eventual mass manufacture using microlithographic fabrication techniques. The study included design and performance assessment of payloads for the microvehicle, which might include special sensors and data processing equipment for gathering intelligence, or electrical, mechanical, and chemical disrupters of various sorts.

  8. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical we...

  9. Hydrogen sulfide protects against chemical hypoxia-induced injury by inhibiting ROS-activated ERK1/2 and p38MAPK signaling pathways in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Lan

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S has been proposed as a novel neuromodulator and neuroprotective agent. Cobalt chloride (CoCl(2 is a well-known hypoxia mimetic agent. We have demonstrated that H(2S protects against CoCl(2-induced injuries in PC12 cells. However, whether the members of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, in particular, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2(ERK1/2 and p38MAPK are involved in the neuroprotection of H(2S against chemical hypoxia-induced injuries of PC12 cells is not understood. We observed that CoCl(2 induced expression of transcriptional factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α, decreased cystathionine-β synthase (CBS, a synthase of H(2S expression, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to injuries of the cells, evidenced by decrease in cell viability, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP , caspase-3 activation and apoptosis, which were attenuated by pretreatment with NaHS (a donor of H(2S or N-acetyl-L cystein (NAC, a ROS scavenger. CoCl(2 rapidly activated ERK1/2, p38MAPK and C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. Inhibition of ERK1/2 or p38MAPK or JNK with kinase inhibitors (U0126 or SB203580 or SP600125, respectively or genetic silencing of ERK1/2 or p38MAPK by RNAi (Si-ERK1/2 or Si-p38MAPK significantly prevented CoCl(2-induced injuries. Pretreatment with NaHS or NAC inhibited not only CoCl(2-induced ROS production, but also phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK. Thus, we demonstrated that a concurrent activation of ERK1/2, p38MAPK and JNK participates in CoCl(2-induced injuries and that H(2S protects PC12 cells against chemical hypoxia-induced injuries by inhibition of ROS-activated ERK1/2 and p38MAPK pathways. Our results suggest that inhibitors of ERK1/2, p38MAPK and JNK or antioxidants may be useful for preventing and treating hypoxia-induced neuronal injury.

  10. Electronic Warfare Simulation-based on Service Oriented Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nanda Kishore

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The realisation of service oriented architecture (SOA is embodied in the accomplishments of various simulation applicable functions in the form of service encapsulation and the interconnection and interoperation of services. In this paper, an electronic warfare (EW simulation is structured to SOA and achieved the effect of dynamic sharing and reusability. As a proof of concept, a radar electronic support (ES simulator, which intercepts and classifies radar signals is designed and explained in this paper.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(4, pp.219-222, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.929

  11. Cybersecurity protecting critical infrastructures from cyber attack and cyber warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The World Economic Forum regards the threat of cyber attack as one of the top five global risks confronting nations of the world today. Cyber attacks are increasingly targeting the core functions of the economies in nations throughout the world. The threat to attack critical infrastructures, disrupt critical services, and induce a wide range of damage is becoming more difficult to defend against. Cybersecurity: Protecting Critical Infrastructures from Cyber Attack and Cyber Warfare examines the current cyber threat landscape and discusses the strategies being used by governments and corporatio

  12. THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN LAND WARFARE; THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Jacobs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Bellamy is 'n senior navorser verbonde aan die Sentrum vir Verdedigingstudies, Universiteit van Edinburgh. Sy akademiese opleiding sluit 'n MA-graad in Oorlogstudies aan die King's College in Londen in. Afgesien hiervan was hy ook 'n beroepsoldaat wat sy militêre skoling in die Koninklike Militêre Akademie te Sandhurst deurloop het. Hy het ook in die Britse Artillerie gedien. Bellamy is die skrywer van Red God of War: Soviet Artillery and Rocket Forces en The Future of Land Warfare.

  13. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 μM iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs–Ringer–HEPES buffer at pH 6.2 for 4 h prior to reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca2+ uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and suppressed the Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. - Highlights: • Minocycline and doxycycline are the only cytoprotective tetracyclines of those tested • Cytoprotective tetracyclines inhibit the MPT and mitochondrial calcium and iron uptake. • Cytoprotective tetracyclines protect by

  14. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun; Lovelace, Gregory L; Smith, Charles D; Lemasters, John J

    2013-11-15

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500μM iodoacetic acid plus 1mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs-Ringer-HEPES buffer at pH6.2 for 4h prior to reoxygenation at pH7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca(2+) uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and suppressed the Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. PMID:24012766

  15. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun; Lovelace, Gregory L.; Smith, Charles D. [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Lemasters, John J., E-mail: JJLemasters@musc.edu [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 μM iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs–Ringer–HEPES buffer at pH 6.2 for 4 h prior to reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca{sup 2+} uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and suppressed the Ca{sup 2+}-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. - Highlights: • Minocycline and doxycycline are the only cytoprotective tetracyclines of those tested • Cytoprotective tetracyclines inhibit the MPT and mitochondrial calcium and iron uptake. • Cytoprotective

  16. [Studies on chemical protectors against radiation. XXXIII. Protective mechanisms of various compounds against skin injury induced by radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Kumazawa, N; Suzuki, M; Wang, C M; Ohta, S; Shinoda, M

    1991-01-01

    The radiation protective mechanisms on skin injury induced by soft X-irradiation were investigated by use of various radiation protective agents such as sulfur compounds (MEA, MEG, thiourea), nucleic acid constitutional compounds (adenosine, inosine), antioxidative compounds (sesamol, ferulic acid, ascorbic acid), crude drugs (Rosae Fructus, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Trapae Fructus, Forsythiae Fructus, Aloe arborescens). Scavenge action of activated oxygen, inhibitory effect of lipid peroxidation, induction of antioxidative protein and protective effect against damage of deoxyribonucleic acid and superoxide dismutase by X-irradiation were evaluated as the radiation protective mechanisms, and relationship between these results and protective effect of skin injury induced by radiation was studied. PMID:1905349

  17. Studies on chemical protectors against radiation, 33; Protective mechanisms of various compounds against skin injury induced by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yushi; Kumazawa, Noriko; Suzuki, Makoto; Wang Cheng-Ming; Ohta, Setsuko; Shinoda, Masato (Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    The radiation protective mechanisms on skin injury induced by soft X-irradiation were investigated by use of various radiation protective agents such as sulfur compounds (MEA, MEG, thiourea), nucleic acid constitutional compounds (adenosine, inosine), antioxidative compounds (sesamol, ferulic acid, ascorbic acid), crude drugs (Rosae Fructus, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Trapae Fructus, Forsythiae Fructus, Aloe arborescens). Scavenge action of activated oxygen, inhibitory effect of lipid peroxidation, induction of antioxidative protein and protective effect against damage of deoxyribonucleic acid and superoxide dismutase by X-irradiation were evaluated as the radiation protective mechanisms, and relationship between these results and protective effect of skin injury induced by radiation was studied. (author).

  18. Evanescent planar waveguide detection of biological warfare simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, David M.; Schoonmaker, Kenneth P.; Herron, James N.; Mostert, Michael J.

    2000-04-01

    An evanescent planar waveguide Mark 1.5 instrument was used to detect simulants of biological warfare agents; ovalbumin (OV), MS2 bacteriophage, BG, and Erwinia herbicola (EH). Polyclonal tracer antibodies were labeled with the fluorescent dye, Cy5. Discrete bands of polyclonal capture antibodies were immobilized to a polystyrene planar waveguide with molded integral lenses. An ST-6 CCD camera was used for detection. OV. MS2 and BG were detected in a simultaneous 3 by 3 array; with a total of nine measurements within 6 minutes. EH was analyzed in a separate array. Results were evaluate dat the US Army Joint Field Trials V, at the Dugway Proving Grounds. Over a 10 day period, 32 unknown samples were analyzed daily for each simulant. Detection limits: OV 10 ng/ml, MS2 107 pfu/ml, BG 105 cfu/ml. EH was detectable at 5 X 105 cfu/ml. Overall false positives were 3.0 percent. Therefore, the Mark 1.5 instrument, with a parallel array of detectors, evanescent flourescent excitation, and CCD imaging provides for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of biological warfare agent simulants.

  19. China's Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hjortdal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents three reasons for states to use cyber warfare and shows that cyberspace is—and will continue to be—a decisive element in China's strategy to ascend in the international system. The three reasons are: deterrence through infiltration of critical infrastructure; military technological espionage to gain military knowledge; and industrial espionage to gain economic advantage. China has a greater interest in using cyberspace offensively than other actors, such as the United States, since it has more to gain from spying on and deterring the United States than the other way around. The article also documents China's progress in cyber warfare and shows how it works as an extension of its traditional strategic thinking and the current debate within the country. Several examples of cyber attacks traceable to China are also presented. This includes cyber intrusions on a nuclear arms laboratory, attacks on defense ministries (including the Joint Strike Fighter and an airbase and the U.S. electric grid, as well as the current Google affair, which has proved to be a small part of a broader attack that also targeted the U.S. Government. There are, however, certain constraints that qualify the image of China as an aggressive actor in cyberspace. Some believe that China itself is the victim of just as many attacks from other states. Furthermore, certain actors in the United States and the West have an interest in overestimating China's capabilities in cyberspace in order to maintain their budgets.

  20. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-07-12

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  1. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  2. Chemical munitions dumped at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  3. [Studies on chemical protectors against radiation. XXXI. Protection effects of Aloe arborescens on skin injury induced by X-irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Ohta, S; Shinoda, M

    1990-11-01

    Protective effects of Aloe arborescens (AA) on mouse skin injury induced by soft X-irradiation were examined. The mechanisms on radiation protection by measuring scavenge activity of activated oxygen, protective effects of nucleic acid, induction of antioxidative protein and so on were further investigated. Consequently a significant protective effect of skin injury was observed in AA S6-3-b. As the mechanisms of radiation protection in AA, the following matters were found. AA S6-3-b showed scavenge activity of hydroxyl radicals generated by Haber-Weiss reaction. AA S6-3-b suppressed the changes of activity in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase at 7d after soft X-irradiation. Metallothionein was induced in the skin and liver against normal mice at 24 h after administration of AA S6-3-b. PMID:2082014

  4. Studies on chemical protectors against radiation, 31; Protection effects of Aloe arborescens on skin injury induced by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yushi; Ohta, Setsuko; Shinoda, Masato (Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-11-01

    Protective effects of Aloe arborescens (AA) on mouse skin injury induced by soft X-irradiation were examined. The mechanisms on radiation protection by measuring scavenge activity of activated oxygen, protective effects of nucleic acid, induction of antioxidative protein and so on were further investigated. Consequently a significant protective effect of skin injury was observed in AA S6-3-b. As the mechanisms of radiation protection in AA, the following matters were found. AA S6-3-b showed scavenge activity of hydroxyl radicals generated by Haber-Weiss reaction. AA S6-3-b suppressed the changes of activity in superoxide dismutase and gluthathione peroxidase at 7d after soft X-irradiation. Metallothionein was induced in the skin and liver against normal mice at 24 h after administration of AA S6-3-b. (author).

  5. Protective effects of medical ozone combined with traditional Chinese medicine against chemically-induced hepatic injury in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of medical ozone (O3) combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Yigan Fuzheng Paidu Capsules (YC) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury in dogs.METHODS: Thirty healthy dogs were divided randomly into five groups (n = 6 in each group), namely control,oleanolic acid tablet (OAT), O3, YC and O3 + YC, given either no particular pre-treatment, oral OAT, medical ozone rectal insulfflation every other day, oral YC, or oral YC plus medical ozone rectal insulfflation every other day, respectively, for 30 consecutive days. After pre-treatment, acute hepatic injury was induced in all dogs with a single-dose intraperitoneal injection of CCl4.General condition and survival time were recorded.The biochemical and hematological indexes of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT), serum total bilirubin (TBIL), prothrombin time (PT), blood ammonia (AMMO),and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured after CCl4 injection. Hepatic pathological changes were also observed.RESULTS: Compared to the other four groups, the changes of group O3 + YC dogs' general conditions(motoricity, mental state, eating, urination and defecation) could be better controlled. In group O3 +YC the survival rates were higher (P < 0.05 vs group control). AST/ALT values were kept within a normal level in group O3 + YC. Hepatic histopathology showed that hepatic injury in group O3 + YC was less serious than those in the other four groups.CONCLUSION: Medical ozone combined with TCM YC could exert a protective effect on acute liver injury induced by CCl4.

  6. Editorial: Discovery from Lake Turkana and History of Human Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor S. P. Singh, Ph.D.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Very interesting finds have come to light of violently killed humans from Lake Turkana in the Kenyan Rift Valley around 10000 years ago. A stunning discovery of skeletons of 27 persons who are believed to have been killed at the same time and are supposed to have suffered violent wounds has been reported recently (Nature 529, 394–398, 21 January 2016. These finds belong to a period of late Pleistocene/early Holocene of the hunter-gatherer societies from Nataruk. Among the victims were men, women and children. The individuals were killed with projectiles and blunt weapons. These skeletons were found in the lagoon and were preserved very nicely. Such type of mass killing probably could never happen as a consequence of intra-group conflict. The evidence seems to be towards warfare and aggression in ancient societies. The experts ruled out the possibility of a cemetery and ceremonial burial. This discovery of 27 skeletons points to the fact that there may have been more causalities and many individuals might have escaped death at that time. According to one of the co-authors of this research Dr. R.A. Foley, the groups were elatively more densely packed populations than the hunter gatherers and had more chances of having inter-group conflicts because of sharing the resources which would have been plentiful near the lagoons and water bodies. Violence probably has been in the instinct of early humans and that the warfare among humans has a history of 10000 years or even earlier.

  7. Toxin warfare agents:recognition molecules and drugs for control%生物毒素战剂:检测识别分子与防治药物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景林

    2011-01-01

    There are various types of toxins in nature. However, these toxins. which are characterized by the ready availability, easy production and high toxicity, are likely biological warfare agents. Toxin warfare agents are different from traditional bacterial and viral agents or from chemical warfare agents in that they pose a great threat because of their diverse potency and the lack of efficacious drugs. Therefore, it is quite important to develop specific. sensitive recognition molecules for detection of toxins and drugs against intoxication caused by toxin agents. This review focuses on advances in recognition molecules of toxins and some drugs used as prevention and treatment hased on the characteristics of toxin warfare agents .%自然界中存在着种类繁多的毒素物质,但最有可能用作战剂的是那些获取方便、制备容易、毒性强、施放后可致人死亡或失能的毒素.毒素战剂既不同于传统的细菌、病毒战剂,也不同于化学毒剂,其最大的威胁来自它的高毒性及缺乏有效的治疗手段.因此,发展毒素战剂的检测识别分子与防治药物就显得尤为重要.本文讨论了生物毒素战剂相关概念、特征,重点综述了毒素战剂的检测识别分子与防治药物研究进展.

  8. The Third World War? In The Cyberspace. Cyber Warfare in the Middle East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a brief and comprehensive introduction to the issue of cyber warfare and to display the recent development in this area. Geographically, it focuses on the Middle East region, since the vast majority of the most important recent cyber attacks appeared just in there or were connected to it. The first part of the article tries to define the key notion of cyber warfare, compares it to the standard warfare and presents different types of cyber weapons that are known today. The second part points out examples of the most striking recent cyber attacks and uses them as evidences to demonstrate today's importance and dissemination of cyber warfare. Finally, the article sums up pros and cons of the cyber weapons and, in view of these, predicts a significant increase in their use in any future war conflicts.

  9. Optimizing Armed Forces Capabilities for Hybrid Warfare – New Challenge for Slovak Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter PINDJÁK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optimization of military capabilities of the Slovak Armed Forces for conducting operations in a hybrid conflict, which represents one of the possible scenarios of irregular warfare. Whereas in the regular warfare adversaries intend to eliminate the centers of gravity of each other, most often command and control structures, in irregular conflicts, the center of gravity shifts towards the will and cognitive perception of the target population. Hybrid warfare comprises a thoroughly planned combination of conventional military approaches and kinetic operations with subversive, irregular activities, including information and cyber operations. These efforts are often accompanied by intensified activities of intelligence services, special operation forces, and even mercenary and other paramilitary groups. The development of irregular warfare capabilities within the Slovak Armed Forces will require a progressive transformation process that may turn the armed forces into a modern and adaptable element of power, capable of deployment in national and international crisis management operations.

  10. Why mid-grade Surface Warfare officers are resigning from the Naval service.

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, James Robert

    1980-01-01

    This thesis addresses the reasons for mid-grade (0-2 to 0-4) Surface Warfare officer resignations. It makes recommendations that would possibly increase retention for the mid-grade Surface Warfare Officer Community. Statistical analyses were performed upon data from post-resignation questionnaires. A list of the ten most reported reasons for resigning was then compiled. A series of recommendations which might have a positive effect upon retention were then derived

  11. Detection of biological warfare agents with fiber-optic microsphere-based DNA arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Linan; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Biological warfare agents (BWAs) pose significant threats to both military forces and civilian populations. The increased concern about bioterrorism has promoted the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection systems to provide an early warning for detecting the release of BWAs. We have developed a high-density DNA array to detect BWAs in real environmental samples with fast response times and high sensitivity. An optical fiber bundle containing approximately 50,000 individual 3.1 μm diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield an array of microwells and used as the substrate for the array. 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes designed to be specific for target BWAs were covalently attached to 3.1-μm microspheres, and the microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized high-density DNA array. We demonstrated the applicability of this DNA array for the identification of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a BWA simulant, in real samples. PCR was used to amplify the sequences, introduce fluorescent labels into the target molecules, and provide a second level of specificity. After hybridization of test solutions to the array, analysis was performed by evaluating the specific responses of individual probes on the array.

  12. Platform-level Distributed Warfare Model-based on Multi-Agent System Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The multi-agent paradigm has become a useful tool in solving military problems. However, one of key challenges in multi-agent model for distributed warfare could be how to describe the microcosmic  tactical warfare platforms actions. In this paper, a platform-level distributed warfare model based on multi-agent system framework is designed to tackle this challenge. The basic ideas include:  Establishing multi-agent model by mapping from tactical warfare system’s members, i.e., warfare platforms, to respective agents; performing task decomposition and task allocation by using task-tree decomposition method and improved contract net protocol model technique; and implementing simulation by presenting battlefield terrain environment analysis algorithm based on grid approach. The  simulation demonstration results show that our model provides a feasible and effective approach to supporting the abstraction and representation of microcosmic tactical actions for complex warfare system.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(1, pp.180-186, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.964

  13. Technological, military and social causes for the application of cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber warfare is a specific new form of military conflicts the use of which is growing rapidly in the international community. However, its nature is specific and differs from all previously known forms of warfare. For the purpose of clear understanding of the nature of cyber warfare, this paper covers the basic groups of preconditions for its broad application and fast development from technological, military and social aspects. Understanding the true nature of cyber warfare is a necessary condition for building national capacities for its application that are military justified and harmonized with the international law. The paper explores the characteristic instances of cyber warfare, ranging from information propaganda to physical destruction, with the goal to determine guidelines for the possible development of cyber capacities at the national level. Based on the analysis of previous cyber warfare cases, a prediction of future development directions is made and the necessity to apply suitable methods and techniques for defense against them is analyzed.

  14. A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.

  15. Evaluation of Molecular Markers and Analytical Methods Documenting the Occurrence of Mustard Gas and Arsenical Warfare Agents in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassolini, Alessandro; Brinchi, Giampaolo; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Dionisi, Simone; Dominici, Carola; Fantozzi, Luca; Onofri, Giorgio; Piazza, Rosario; Guidotti, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    The chemicals warfare agents (CWAs) are an extremely toxic class of molecules widely produced in many industrialized countries for decades, these compounds frequently contained arsenic. The plants where the CWAs have been produced or the plants where they have been demilitarized after the Second World War with unacceptable techniques can represent a serious environmental problem. CWAs standards are difficult to find on market so in present work an environmental assessment method based on markers has been proposed. Triphenylarsine, phenylarsine oxide and thiodiglycol have been selected as markers. Three reliable analytical methods based on gaschromatography and mass detection have been proposed and tested for quantitative analysis of markers. Methods performance have been evaluated testing uncertainty, linearity, recovery and detection limits and also comparing detection limits with exposure limits of reference CWAs. Proposed assessment methods have been applied to a case study of a former industrial plant sited in an area characterized by a high background of mineral arsenic. PMID:27385368

  16. Synthetic surfactant containing SP-B and SP-C mimics is superior to single-peptide formulations in rabbits with chemical acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Frans J; Hernández-Juviel, José M; Gordon, Larry M; Waring, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chemical spills are on the rise and inhalation of toxic chemicals may induce chemical acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although the pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS is well understood, the absence of specific antidotes has limited the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Objectives. Surfactant inactivation and formation of free radicals are important pathways in (chemical) ALI. We tested the potential of lipid mixtures with advanced surfactant protein B and C (SP-B and C) mimics to improve oxygenation and lung compliance in rabbits with lavage- and chemical-induced ALI/ARDS. Methods. Ventilated young adult rabbits underwent repeated saline lung lavages or underwent intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid to induce ALI/ARDS. After establishment of respiratory failure rabbits were treated with a single intratracheal dose of 100 mg/kg of synthetic surfactant composed of 3% Super Mini-B (S-MB), a SP-B mimic, and/or SP-C33 UCLA, a SP-C mimic, in a lipid mixture (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight), the clinical surfactant Infasurf(®), a bovine lung lavage extract with SP-B and C, or synthetic lipids alone. End-points consisted of arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance, and protein and lipid content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Potential mechanism of surfactant action for S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA were investigated with captive bubble surfactometry (CBS) assays. Results. All three surfactant peptide/lipid mixtures and Infasurf equally lowered the minimum surface tension on CBS, and also improved oxygenation and lung compliance. In both animal models, the two-peptide synthetic surfactant with S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA led to better arterial oxygenation and lung compliance than single peptide synthetic surfactants and Infasurf. Synthetic surfactants and Infasurf improved lung function further in lavage- than in chemical-induced respiratory failure, with the difference probably due to greater capillary-alveolar protein

  17. Synthetic surfactant containing SP-B and SP-C mimics is superior to single-peptide formulations in rabbits with chemical acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Walther

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chemical spills are on the rise and inhalation of toxic chemicals may induce chemical acute lung injury (ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Although the pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS is well understood, the absence of specific antidotes has limited the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Objectives. Surfactant inactivation and formation of free radicals are important pathways in (chemical ALI. We tested the potential of lipid mixtures with advanced surfactant protein B and C (SP-B and C mimics to improve oxygenation and lung compliance in rabbits with lavage- and chemical-induced ALI/ARDS. Methods. Ventilated young adult rabbits underwent repeated saline lung lavages or underwent intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid to induce ALI/ARDS. After establishment of respiratory failure rabbits were treated with a single intratracheal dose of 100 mg/kg of synthetic surfactant composed of 3% Super Mini-B (S-MB, a SP-B mimic, and/or SP-C33 UCLA, a SP-C mimic, in a lipid mixture (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight, the clinical surfactant Infasurf®, a bovine lung lavage extract with SP-B and C, or synthetic lipids alone. End-points consisted of arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance, and protein and lipid content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Potential mechanism of surfactant action for S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA were investigated with captive bubble surfactometry (CBS assays. Results. All three surfactant peptide/lipid mixtures and Infasurf equally lowered the minimum surface tension on CBS, and also improved oxygenation and lung compliance. In both animal models, the two-peptide synthetic surfactant with S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA led to better arterial oxygenation and lung compliance than single peptide synthetic surfactants and Infasurf. Synthetic surfactants and Infasurf improved lung function further in lavage- than in chemical-induced respiratory failure, with the difference probably due to greater capillary

  18. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: ...

  19. Remote sensing of evaporation ducts for Naval warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geernaert, G. L.

    1989-11-01

    Areas critical to naval operations are the prediction and application of atmospheric refractivity gradients. This report describes the use of the evaporation duct over the ocean and a plan for obtaining information about the evaporation duct by space-borne sensors. There has been little research on the theory and modeling of lower atmospheric refractivity, particularly evaporation ducts over a nonhomogeneous ocean over the past five decades. Much is known about surface layer similarity theory and propagation model techniques, but little attention has been placed on the spatial variabilities in the turbulent propagation medium (such as the atmospheric surface layer) in regions of strategic Navy interest. These regions include the coastal shelf, Gulf Stream, marginal ice zone, and those places where sharp sea surface temperature fronts exist. For tomorrow's Navy, using remote sensing techniques to infer evaporative and tropospheric ducts are a requirement. Although research efforts on ducts must couple the tropospheric and surface layer components, this report summarizes the state of the art for the evaporative duct and assess the potential of new and future results on improving next generation naval warfare capabilities.

  20. Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) containment and mitigation subtask.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wente, William Baker

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this subtask of the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Design project was to demonstrate mitigation technologies for radiological material dispersal and to assist planners with incorporation of the technologies into a concept of operations. The High Consequence Assessment and Technology department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has studied aqueous foam's ability to mitigate the effects of an explosively disseminated radiological dispersal device (RDD). These benefits include particle capture of respirable radiological particles, attenuation of blast overpressure, and reduction of plume buoyancy. To better convey the aqueous foam attributes, SNL conducted a study using the Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion model, comparing the effects of a mitigated and unmitigated explosive RDD release. Results from this study compared health effects and land contamination between the two scenarios in terms of distances of effect, population exposure, and remediation costs. Incorporating aqueous foam technology, SNL created a conceptual design for a stationary containment area to be located at a facility entrance with equipment that could minimize the effects from the detonation of a vehicle transported RDD. The containment design was evaluated against several criteria, including mitigation ability (both respirable and large fragment particle capture as well as blast overpressure suppression), speed of implementation, cost, simplicity, and required space. A mock-up of the conceptual idea was constructed at SNL's 9920 explosive test site to demonstrate the containment design.

  1. Research on performance of ethernet interface in network centric warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永生; 张乃通

    2004-01-01

    The concept of network centric warfare (NCW) and its character, high requirement of real-time synchronization are introduced. The distributed equal-node network architecture in NCW is presented. Based on theoretical analysis on ethernet interface performance, this paper presents that forwarding latency between ethernet interface devices is a key influence factor of real-time synchronization in NCW. Ethernet fundamental is briefly introduced. The model between a switch under test (SUT) and a smartbits card is presented and used for two interconnecting switches in NCW. On condition that ignoring the latency of connecting fiber or twisted pairs and processing latency of the smartbits test system, this paper presents that clock frequency tolerance (CFT) between a SUT and a smartbits card is a leading influence factor of forwarding latency of an ethernet switch. The formulae to calculate internal forwarding latency and forwarding latency caused by its CFT are deduced. Theoretical calculation on forwarding latency of an ethernet switch based on the given CFT and test time is implemented. Experimental study on primary forwarding latency and secondary forwarding latency is implemented and forwarding latency between the SUT and the smartbits card is measured, thus testifying the accuracy of the above theoretical analysis that the CFT is a key influence factor of forwarding latency. The measures to satisfy the needs of forwarding latency in NCW are presented.

  2. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  3. Virtual command center for distributed collaborative undersea warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Robert J., III; Encarnacao, L. M.; Shane, Richard T.; Drew, Ernest; Mulhearn, Jim F.

    2000-08-01

    The Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport (NUWCDIVNPT) and its partners have developed a prototype CTI (Command Technology Initiatives) Test Bed to demonstrate the utility of a facility where warfighters, government, academia and industry can evaluate the application of collaborate decision support and advanced computer graphics technologies to submarine command and control. The CTI Test bed is currently comprised of three components: Collaborative Visualization Environment (CVE) for Submarine Command and Control, which provides a coherent 3-D display of the perceived undersea battlespace. Individual windows can display multi-dimensional data/information to support a common picture of undersea battlespace management and tactical control; Submarine Fleet Mission Programming Library (SFMPL) which provides environmental data, such as transmission loss, to CVE; Command and Control Data Server which provides contact reports, areas of uncertainty, and ownship/contact motion to CVE Facilitated by a CORBA4 (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) compliant architecture, remotely connected collaborators interact via a computer network to generate and share information. Additionally, collaborators communicate orally via network telephony. Currently, the CTI Test bed is configured to provide volumetric displays of: undersea battlespace w/ bathymetry; Detection/Counter-detection regions for a given probability of detection; Contact(s) Volume of Uncertainty The CTI Test Bed provides a CORBA compliant framework, which can be readily expanded to evaluate candidate applications of collaborative command and tactical decision support and advanced computer graphics technologies.

  4. Back to the future: aerial warfare in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Nunes Vicente

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A century after the first air bomb mission, a new intervention in the same geographic space has made evident the changes in Airpower. The Aerial Warfare in Libya has radically changed the civil war, complying with a UN mission to protect Libyan population, imposing a no-fly zone and an arms embargo. Therefore, Operation Unified Protector became one of the most successful campaigns in the history of NATO. We aim to assess the operational efficiency of Airpower in the conflict in Libya, focusing on the challenges of a War essentially Aerial. Despite the military results and the fact that some political objectives were met, we can identify some concerning trends that, if not shifted, may negatively influence future NATO operations. We do not aim to draw general and universal conclusions on the strategic value of Airpower based on the analysis of a specific case. Above all, we focus on identifying some lessons which have influenced OUP operational efficiency. Thus, we must analyze some factors, such as the scope of objectives, the type of opposing action and aerial strategy used by the coalition and then focus on the challenges arising from the OUP.

  5. Influence of ozone, sulfur dioxide, and salinity on leaf injury, stomatal resistance, growth, and chemical composition of bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Taylor, O.C.

    1983-01-01

    Bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) growing in half-strength Hoagland solutions modified to provide three salinity levels of -40, -240, and -440 kPa, were exposed four times to 390 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ O/sub 3/, 520 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ SO/sub 2/, and 390 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ O/sub 3/ + 520 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ SO/sub 2/. Plants fumigated with SO/sub 2/ alone showed no injury. Primary leaves of O/sub 3/-treated plants were injured more than those of plants fumigated with the combination of O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/. Pollutant injury to leaves decreased as salinity increased. Stomatal resistance on the abaxial surface of primary leaves of SO/sub 2/, and especially of (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/)-treated plants, increased sharply during fumigations, and returned to prefumigation levels the next day. Stomatal resistances of O/sub 3/-treated plants were similar to nonfumigated plants during the first phase of the experiment, but after the last fumigation, this resistance returned to essentially normal only in plants growing at the highest salinity level. Plant growth was suppressed by increased salinity. Root growth on O/sub 3/- and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/)-treated plants was reduced at all salinity levels. As salinity increased, plants accumulated Cl and Ca. Sodium increased in stems and roots, and decreased in leaves of plants grown in high Na-nutrient solutions. Plants fumigated with SO/sub 2/ and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) had higher S content in roots than nonfumigated and O/sub 3/-treated plants. The highest S content in leaves was found in SO/sub 2/-treated plants at the -40 kPa salinity level. Accumulation of Ca in leaves and of Mg in roots was lowest in plants fumigated with O/sub 3/ alone and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/). Plants fumigated with O/sub 3/ alone and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) accumulated more K in stems and leaves, and more Fe in roots and leaves, compared with nonfumigated and SO/sub 2/-treated plants. The O/sub 3/ and (O/sub 3/ + SO/sub 2/) effects on mineral content of the plants

  6. Isolated iliotibial band rupture after corticosteroid injection as a cause of subjective instability and knee pain in a military special warfare trainee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Sandeep R; Solomon, Daniel J; Gross, Daniel J; Golijanin, Petar; Provencher, Matthew T

    2014-04-01

    Iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS) of the knee is a common overuse injury in athletes, especially in runners. The syndrome occurs when the ITB, a lateral thickening of the fascia lata of the thigh moves repetitively over the lateral femoral condyle. A variety of nonoperative measures are used for ITBFS treatment, including stretching, core strengthening, and therapeutic injection. Isolated distal ITB rupture is a rare entity and has never yet to be reported in the orthopedic literature. We present a case of isolated ITB rupture as a cause of varus instability and knee pain in a Naval Special Warfare candidate diagnosed with ITBFS and previously treated with several local corticosteroid injections before ITB rupture. Because of continued knee pain and a sense of instability, along with an inability to return to his military special warfare duties, the ITB was surgically repaired. This case highlights the presentation and management of isolated distal ITB rupture and discusses some of the potential risk factors for rupture, including prior local corticosteroid injection.

  7. The Handicap Principle, Strategic Information Warfare and the Paradox of Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhanshan [University of Idaho; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Krings, Axel [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The term asymmetric threat (or warfare) often refers to tactics utilized by countries, terrorist groups, or individuals to carry out attacks on a superior opponent while trying to avoid direct confrontation. Information warfare is sometimes also referred to as a type of asymmetric warfare perhaps due to its asymmetry in terms of cost and efficacy. Obviously, there are differences and commonalities between two types of asymmetric warfare. One major difference lies in the goal to avoid confrontation and one commonality is the asymmetry. Regardless, the unique properties surrounding asymmetric warfare warrant a strategic-level study. Despite enormous studies conducted in the last decade, a consensus on the strategy a nation state should take to deal with asymmetric threat seems still intriguing. In this article, we try to shed some light on the issue from the handicap principle in the context of information warfare. The Handicap principle was first proposed by Zahavi (1975) to explain the honesty or reliability of animal communication signals. He argued that in a signaling system such as one used in mate selection, a superior male is able to signal with a highly developed "handicap" to demonstrate its quality, and the handicap serves "as a kind of (quality) test imposed on the individual" (Zahavi 1975, Searcy and Nowicki 2005). The underlying thread that inspires us for the attempt to establish a connection between the two apparently unrelated areas is the observation that competition, communication and cooperation (3C), which are three fundamental processes in nature and against which natural selection optimize living things, may also make sense in human society. Furthermore, any communication networks, whether it is biological networks (such as animal communication networks) or computer networks (such as the Internet) must be reasonably reliable (honest in the case of animal signaling) to fulfill its missions for transmitting and receiving messages. The strategic

  8. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  9. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  10. THE CYBER DIMENSION OF MODERN HYBRID WARFARE AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR NATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin DUCARU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The technological development and the instant communication possibilities advanced not only economic and social developments, but also evolving threats from those who exploit the vulnerabilities of communication and information systems. The cyber threat landscape points to a significant increase of the frequency, intensity, duration and sophistication of cyber-attacks. One of the new and concerning trends is the use of cyber capabilities in relation with military of hybrid operations – the so-called cyber dimension of hybrid warfare. NATO’s strategy on countering hybrid warfare is based on the triad: prepare-deter-defend, which also applies to cyber. Nations represent the first line of defence in countering hybrid strategies. International cooperation is also a key factor in this sense. It is in this context that NATO’s response to cyber-attacks in the context of hybrid warfare must be further refined.

  11. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...—Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note: Exports and reexports of items in performance of...: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described...

  13. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.

  14. Metabolomics analysis reveals elevation of 3-indoxyl sulfate in plasma and brain during chemically-induced acute kidney injury in mice: Investigation of nicotinic acid receptor agonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigative renal toxicity study using metabolomics was conducted with a potent nicotinic acid receptor (NAR) agonist, SCH 900424. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify small molecule biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) that could aid in a better mechanistic understanding of SCH 900424-induced AKI in mice. The metabolomics study revealed 3-indoxyl sulfate (3IS) as a more sensitive marker of SCH 900424-induced renal toxicity than creatinine or urea. An LC-MS assay for quantitative determination of 3IS in mouse matrices was also developed. Following treatment with SCH 900424, 3IS levels were markedly increased in murine plasma and brain, thereby potentially contributing to renal- and central nervous system (CNS)-related rapid onset of toxicities. Furthermore, significant decrease in urinary excretion of 3IS in those animals due to compromised renal function may be associated with the elevation of 3IS in plasma and brain. These data suggest that 3IS has a potential to be a marker of renal and CNS toxicities during chemically-induced AKI in mice. In addition, based on the metabolomic analysis other statistically significant plasma markers including p-cresol-sulfate and tryptophan catabolites (kynurenate, kynurenine, 3-indole-lactate) might be of toxicological importance but have not been studied in detail. This comprehensive approach that includes untargeted metabolomic and targeted bioanalytical sample analyses could be used to investigate toxicity of other compounds that pose preclinical or clinical development challenges in a pharmaceutical discovery and development. - Research highlights: → Nicotinic acid receptor agonist, SCH 900424, caused acute kidney injury in mice. → MS-based metabolomics was conducted to identify potential small molecule markers of renal toxicity. → 3-indoxyl-sulfate was found to be as a more sensitive marker of renal toxicity than

  15. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: ... Tips: Inline Skating Safety Tips: Skateboarding Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Contact Us Print Resources ...

  16. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  17. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  18. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

  19. THE PECULIARITIES OF SOCIAL PERCEPTION IN THE CONTEXT OF INFORMATION-PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nane Zeynalyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, war fields have moved into the information sphere. Today’s person has reason to “be informed”; as having information provides a sense of security. In the modern world, great effort is invested in expanding information sources, because it serves to articulate both international policies and the context of wars. The exchange of information in domestic and international platforms influences the quality of public debate and ideology, which affects social attitudes and decision-making processes. This article presents the role of information-psychological warfare as a factor in forming public opinion. It discusses the peculiarities of organizing an information-psychological warfare during military conflicts. The goal of our research is to explore how social groups might perceive peculiarities in the information-psychological warfare. The research involves methods of survey, content analysis, and free associations. The effectiveness of psychological warfare significantly depends on how people perceive information. Consequently, in the contemporary world, it is necessary to not only protect or fight on the battlefield, but also to use information weapons. This imposes requirements on psychological scientists to explore peculiarities around the perception of information to help find mechanisms that safeguard people’s lives by way of contributing to the formation of necessary attitudes and stereotypes.

  20. A statistical analysis of the effect of warfare on the human secondary sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graffelman, J.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Many factors have been hypothesized to affect the human secondary sex ratio (the annual percentage of males among all live births), among them race, parental ages, and birth order. Some authors have even proposed warfare as a factor influencing live birth sex ratios. The hypothesis that during and s

  1. From Douhet to drones, air warfare, and the evolution of targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P.B. Osinga; M.P. Roorda

    2016-01-01

    Through the prism of the experience of air warfare, this chapter identifies key factors that have shaped targeting. These include technological developments, organizational structures, and processes and inter-service competition for scarce resources. Moreover, targeting is informed by perspectives o

  2. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the…

  3. (Review of) Reno, William. 2011. Warfare in Independent Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Warfare in Independent Africa is Reno’s bold attempt to analyze the modern history of African insurgencies. The book tackles this task through the prism of five generations of rebel, which left their mark on the continent; anti-colonial rebels, majority rule rebels, reform rebels, warlord rebels ...

  4. Treatment for Sulfur Mustard Lung Injuries; New Therapeutic Approaches from Acute to Chronic Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Poursaleh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sulfur mustard (SM is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988. It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries.Method:This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment.Results:Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion:Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments.

  5. Treatment for sulfur mustard lung injuries; new therapeutic approaches from acute to chronic phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poursaleh Zohreh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Sulfur mustard (SM is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries. Method This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment. Results Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments.

  6. Molecular Mechanism Underlying Pathogenesis of Lewisite-Induced Cutaneous Blistering and Inflammation: Chemical Chaperones as Potential Novel Antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Weng, Zhiping; Croutch, Claire R; Agarwal, Anupam; Elmets, Craig A; Afaq, Farrukh; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Lewisite is a potent arsenic-based chemical warfare agent known to induce painful cutaneous inflammation and blistering. Only a few modestly effective antidotes have so far been described in the literature. However, the discovery of effective antidotes for lewisite was hampered by the paucity of the exact molecular mechanism underlying its cutaneous pathogenesis. We investigated the molecular mechanism underlying lewisite-induced cutaneous blistering and inflammation and describe its novel antidotes. On the basis of our initial screening, we used a highly sensitive murine model that recapitulates the known human pathogenesis of arsenicals-induced cutaneous inflammation and blistering. Topically administered lewisite induced potent acute inflammation and microvesication in the skin of Ptch1(+/-)/SKH-1 mice. Even at a very low dose, lewisite up-regulates unfolded protein response signaling, inflammatory response, and apoptosis. These cutaneous lesions were associated with production of reactive oxygen species and extensive apoptosis of the epidermal keratinocytes. We confirmed that activation of reactive oxygen species-dependent unfolded protein response signaling is the underlying molecular mechanism of skin damage. Similar alterations were noticed in lewisite-treated cultured human skin keratinocytes. We discovered that chemical chaperone 4-phenyl butyric acid and antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, which significantly attenuate lewisite-mediated skin injury, can serve as potent antidotes. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism underlying the cutaneous pathogenesis of lewisite-induced lesions. We also identified novel potential therapeutic targets for lewisite-mediated cutaneous injury. PMID:27528504

  7. Visceral injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, D H; Blaisdell, F W

    1992-06-01

    Abdominal visceral injuries are encountered by every surgeon who deals with trauma. It is simple and useful to divide abdominal visceral injuries into those caused by penetrating mechanisms of injury and those due to blunt mechanisms. Determination of the need for operative intervention is generally easier after penetrating trauma. Gunshot wounds to the abdomen should be explored, as should stab wounds to the anterior abdomen that penetrate the fascia. A midline incision is the standard approach to abdominal visceral injuries because of its ease and versatility. Abdominal exploration should be consistent and systemic so as not to miss significant injuries. Hollow viscus injury is most common after penetrating injury, while blunt injury most often results in injury to solid viscera. Diagnostic and operative aspects of the treatment of specific visceral injuries are reviewed.

  8. [Studies on chemical protectors against radiation. XXVI. Protective effect of various extracts on crude drugs on skin injury induced by X-irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Ohta, S; Sakurai, N; Shinoda, M

    1989-02-01

    The protective potency against skin injury on mice induced by X-irradiation was studied by use of 72 extracts of crude drugs. The protective potency was determined according to the degrees on skin injury after irradiation of 1100R, 30 k Vp soft X-ray. As a result of these study, 16 kinds of crude drugs such as Rosae Fructus, Aloe arborescens (Herba), Citri Leiocarpae Exocarpium, Schizonepetae Spica, Evodiae Fructus, Bupleuri Radix, Corni Fructus, Perillae Herba, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Menthae Herba, Trapae Fructus, Angelicae Dahuricae Radix, Sinomeni Caulis et Rhizoma, Ephedrae Herba, Acer nikoense (Cortex), Forsythiae Fructus, revealed protective potencies on skin injury. PMID:2746469

  9. Syndesmosis injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis commonly result from high-energy ankle injuries. They can occur as isolated ligamentous injuries and can be associated with ankle fractures. Syndesmotic injuries can create a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for musculoskeletal physicians. Recent literature has added considerably to the body of knowledge pertaining to injury mechanics and treatment outcomes, but there remain a number of controversies regarding diagnostic tests, imp...

  10. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megerle, Clifford A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  11. Marital Relationship and Its Associated Factors in Veterans Exposed to High Dose Chemical Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the associates of marital relationship in mustard exposed veterans.Materials and Methods: Two hundred ninety two married Iranian mustard exposed veterans, who had been exposed to single high dose mustard gas in Iraq-Iran war, were assessed for marital adjustment with Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS. Census sampling was done. The patients' quality of life (SF-36, spirometric measures and war related data were also extracted.Results: A total of 189 subjects (65% completed our study. The mean (±SD of the RDAS Total score, RDAS Dyadic Consensus , RDAS Affectional Expression, RDAS Dyadic Satisfaction , and RDAS Dyadic Cohesion were 50.61 (8.16, 16.67 (2.77, 7.62 (1.84, 14.76 (3.39, and 11.54 (3.79, respectively. RDAS Dyadic satisfaction was correlated with SF-36 and all its sub-scores (p<0.05. RDAS total score showed significant correlation with SF-36 total score and most of its sub-scores (p<0.05. RDAS affective expression was significantly correlated with role limitation, social function, general mental health, vitality, General health perceptions, physical composite score (PCS and mental composite score (MCS (p<0.05. RDAS dyadic consensus was not correlated with any SF-36 sub-scores.Conclusion: Veterans health team including physicians, psychologists and/or psychiatrists should know that poorer marital satisfaction is linked with lower quality of life scores, late after mustard exposure, although marital relationship is independent of spirometric findings, age, duration from exposure and comorbidity score.

  12. Semi-continuous high speed gas analysis of generated vapors of chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trap, H.C.; Langenberg, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented for the continuous analysis of generated vapors of the nerve agents soman and satin and the blistering agent sulfur mustard. By using a gas sampling valve and a very short (15 cm) column connected to an on-column injector with a 'standard length' column, the system can either b

  13. 马来西亚西部眼化学伤75例回顾分析%Chemical injuries of eye——A review of 75 cases from West Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S C Reddy; I Tahunisah

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨化学伤的致伤物质种类、最容易发生化学伤的职业,眼部化学伤的严重性和伤后的并发症和视力预后.方法:通过病例回顾性研究,包括伤者的性别、年龄、种族、职业,探讨化学伤的致伤物质种类,就诊时视力,眼部化学伤的严重性和伤后的并发症和视力预后.结果:在75例患者中,90.3%为男性,84% 在工作年龄范围(21-50岁);29.3% 是工厂工人;52% 碱烧伤:65.4% 为制造厂和建筑工人;57.3% 双眼受累;9.3% 就诊时受伤眼视力<6/60;72% 为I级;19.5% 患者并发干眼症,角膜血管翳,角膜混浊,并发性白内障,继发性青光眼等;92%的伤眼最后视力是6/18或以上;6.2%伤眼失明.结论:虽然化学伤常常累及双眼,但多数患者伤情不严重,且视力预后较好.及时充分的冲洗可以缓解眼化学伤.适当的紧急处理可以减少长期的并发症和视力损害,但一些严重的化学伤可致盲.%AIM:To determlne the nature of chemicals involved,type of occupation most at risk,severity of ocular injury,complications and visual outcome in patients with chemical injuries of eye.METHODS:In a retrospective study gender,age,race,occupation of patients,nature of chemical,eye involved,vision at admission,severity of ocular injury,complications and visual outcome were noted from the case records.RESULTs:Among 75 patients reviewed 90.3% of patients were males;84% were in the working age group (21-50 years);29.3% were factory workers;52% Sufiered from alkali injuries;65.4% were factory/construction workers;57.3% had both eyes involvement;9.3% of the affected eyes had vision<6/60 at admission;72% of injuries were of grade I nature;19.5% of the affected eyes developed complications such as dry eye,vascularization of cornea,corneal opacity,complicated cataract,secondary glaucoma etc.; final outcome of vision 6/18 or better was achieved in 92% of eyes;blindness was noted in 6.2% of the affected eyes.CONCLUSION:Even though

  14. The Future of Western Warfare: Coalitions and Capability Gaps; Strategic Insights, v. 10, Special issue (October 2011), 49-60. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare ; Part II: Technological and Doctrinal Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Theo

    2011-01-01

    This article appeared in Strategic Insights, V. 10, Special issue (October 2011), 49-60. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare ; Part II: Technological and Doctrinal Innovation Approved for public display, distribution unlimited This paper starts by making the case for coalition warfare focusing on a core of states within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Then goes on to discuss some of the capability shortfalls of European coalition partners. While technology is the most...

  15. THE TWENTIETH CENTURY DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF BACTERIAL, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND THE PRESENT CAPABILITIES OF NATO AND THE WARSAW PACT IN THIS RESPECT

    OpenAIRE

    A.L.S. Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Over the last twenty years increased attention has been focused on the military uses of Bacterial, Biological and Chemical agents (BBC weapons). This phenomenon can be attributed to a number of reasons. Firstly, BBC weapons are comparatively cheap and simple to produce, they are easy to use as conventional weapons and their effects are short-lived. The mutual deterrence effect of nuclear weapons, furthermore, has necessitated the exploration of other fields of warfare of which - BBC warfare i...

  16. Modeling and Optimal Control of a Class of Warfare Hybrid Dynamic Systems Based on Lanchester Attrition Model

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangyong Chen; Ancai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    For the particularity of warfare hybrid dynamic process, a class of warfare hybrid dynamic systems is established based on Lanchester equation in a (n,1) battle, where a heterogeneous force of n different troop types faces a homogeneous force. This model can be characterized by the interaction of continuous-time models (governed by Lanchester equation), and discrete event systems (described by variable tactics). Furthermore, an expository discussion is presented on an optimal variable tact...

  17. Transport behavior of surrogate biological warfare agents in a simulated landfill: Effect of leachate recirculation and water infiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Saikaly, Pascal

    2010-11-15

    An understanding of the transport behavior of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills is required to evaluate the suitability of landfills for the disposal of building decontamination residue (BDR) following a bioterrorist attack on a building. Surrogate BW agents, Bacillus atrophaeus spores and Serratia marcescens, were spiked into simulated landfill reactors that were filled with synthetic building debris (SBD) and operated for 4 months with leachate recirculation or water infiltration. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was used to monitor surrogate transport. In the leachate recirculation reactors, <10% of spiked surrogates were eluted in leachate over 4 months. In contrast, 45% and 31% of spiked S. marcescens and B. atrophaeus spores were eluted in leachate in the water infiltration reactors. At the termination of the experiment, the number of retained cells and spores in SBD was measured over the depth of the reactor. Less than 3% of the total spiked S. marcescens cells and no B. atrophaeus spores were detected in SBD. These results suggest that significant fractions of the spiked surrogates were strongly attached to SBD. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. The Military-Entertainment Complex: A New Facet of Information Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Muir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The second Gulf War will become synonymous with the emergence of fully-fledged information warfare where the military-entertainment complex has so influenced strategic and logistic possibilities that it becomes apparent that the war was waged as entertainment. This is entertainment not as an amusement or diversion but utilising the techniques and tropes of the burgeoning entertainment industry as a means to achieve military objectives. This paper offers a short history of the military-entertainment complex as reality and simulation become fused in the practices of the US military machine. The paper then briefly explores three central aspects of this phenomenon evident in recent developments: the military function of computer games; the role of the Hollywood scenario and the blurring between news and reality TV. Finally the suggestion is made that subverting, co-opting and reconstructing the military-entertainment complex provides new possibilities for alternative strategies of information warfare.

  19. Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury School sports Injuries can land students in the ER. Text Messaging: Emergency Physicians ... For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency ...

  20. Bits or Shots in Combat? The Generalized Deitchman Model of Guerrilla Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Kress, Moshe; MacKay, Niall J.

    2013-01-01

    Operations Research Letters, accepted. We generalize Deitchman's guerrilla warfare model to account for trade-off between intelligence ('bits') and firepower ('shots'). Intelligent targeting leads to aimed fire, absence of intelligence leads to unaimed fire, dependent on targets' density. We propose a new Lanchester-type model that mixes aimed with unaimed fire, the balance between these being determined by quality of information. We derive the model's conserved quantity, and use it ...

  1. A proficiency-based cost estimate of Surface Warfare Officer on-the-job training

    OpenAIRE

    Macaluso, Anthony D.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2003, the Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) community has changed initial training on two occasions. In 2003, they replaced schoolhouse training (SWOS) with an OJT intensive shipboard computer-based-training in response to criticism that SWOS was a wasteful use of six months. Yet, SWOs considered "SWOS-at-Sea" inadequate fleet preparation, prompting the reestablishment of one month of "SWO Intro." A 2010 Government Accountability Office report concluded the Navy must evaluate how changes to...

  2. Hybrid Airship Multi-Role (HAMR) Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) mission capability

    OpenAIRE

    Agpaoa, Roy; Cawley, Matthew; Cossey, Chad; Galvan, Jose; Giang, Alan; Hanchinamani, Joseph; Ikeda, Jeffrey; Kenney, John; Magnusson, Lance; Martinez, Christopher; Newberry, Mike; Raymond, Eldridge; Rykala, John; Watts, Jason; Wood, Micheal

    2008-01-01

    The Hybrid Airship Multi-Role (HAMR) Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Mission Module project applies established systems engineering principles and processes to the design of an ASW payload module that examines the capability of the HAMR to perform persistent ASW mission support. Critical system functions and objectives are identified and are assigned appropriate quantitative metrics. Additionally, three alternative architectures are generated and evaluated using the appropriate metrics based...

  3. INFORMATION WEAPON CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE METHODS OF CONDUCTING INFORMATION WARFARE

    OpenAIRE

    Levchenko, Oleksandr V.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic development of information technology has led to the development of informational weapon which is becoming the most dangerous tool of warfare between states. With the help of informational weapons can be conduct influence on informational resources of the hostile states and public opinion of the population. In accordance with it, informational weapon classified as information and technical weapon that affect the information resources, networks and systems of government and military ma...

  4. Toward a theory of hybrid warfare: the Russian conduct of war during peace

    OpenAIRE

    Dayspring, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    With the Russian annexation of Crimea and the undeclared conflict in eastern Ukraine, Western policy analysts have asked if Russia’s actions represent a new, more covert approach to warfare. Understanding Russia’s perspective on international relations is imperative to supporting potential targets of future Russian action, and specifically, to updating NATO’s defensive protocols that are predicated on response to clear military violations of sovereignty. This study uses an existing model for ...

  5. Theater level operations: modeling ground unit logistical requirements in the Joint Warfare Analysis Experimental Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Wilk, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology for modeling the logistics processes for ground units in the Joint Warfare Analysis Experimental Prototype (JWAEP) simulation. The model structure presented in this research allows for the representation of the consumption. movement, and distribution of supplies within the combat units modeled in JWAEP. Also presented is an architecture to model logistical units in JWAEP Methodologies are presented to model both the "push" and "pull" systems of supply. The su...

  6. Russia and hybrid warfare: identifying critical elements in successful applications of hybrid tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Neville, Seth B.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014, hybrid war became a buzzword within political and academic circles. This thesis examines hybrid warfare applications using contemporary and historical examples. The analysis seeks to determine why a country was or was not successful in its execution of hybrid war, and it assesses the geo-political context of cost, benefit, and risk for an aggressor state contributing to its decision to eng...

  7. Joint chemical agent detector (JCAD): the future of chemical agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laljer, Charles E.

    2003-08-01

    The Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD) has continued development through 2002. The JCAD has completed Contractor Validation Testing (CVT) that included chemical warfare agent testing, environmental testing, electromagnetic interferent testing, and platform integration validation. The JCAD provides state of the art chemical warfare agent detection capability to military and homeland security operators. Intelligence sources estimate that over twenty countries have active chemical weapons programs. The spread of weapons of mass destruction (and the industrial capability for manufacture of these weapons) to third world nations and terrorist organizations has greatly increased the chemical agent threat to U.S. interests. Coupled with the potential for U.S. involvement in localized conflicts in an operational or support capacity, increases the probability that the military Joint Services may encounter chemical agents anywhere in the world. The JCAD is a small (45 in3), lightweight (2 lb.) chemical agent detector for vehicle interiors, aircraft, individual personnel, shipboard, and fixed site locations. The system provides a common detection component across multi-service platforms. This common detector system will allow the Joint Services to use the same operational and support concept for more efficient utilization of resources. The JCAD detects, identifies, quantifies, and warns of the presence of chemical agents prior to onset of miosis. Upon detection of chemical agents, the detector provides local and remote audible and visual alarms to the operators. Advance warning will provide the vehicle crew and other personnel in the local area with the time necessary to protect themselves from the lethal effects of chemical agents. The JCAD is capable of being upgraded to protect against future chemical agent threats. The JCAD provides the operator with the warning necessary to survive and fight in a chemical warfare agent threat environment.

  8. [Glanders--a potential disease for biological warfare in humans and animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavi, Ofer; Aizenstien, Orna; Katz, Lior H; Hourvitz, Ariel

    2002-05-01

    Infection with Burkholderia mallei (formerly Pseudomonas mallei) can cause a subcutaneous infection known as "farcy" or can disseminate to condition known as Glanders. It is primarily a disease affecting horses, donkeys and mules. In humans, Glanders can produce four types of disease: localized form, pulmonary form, septicemia, and chronic form. Necrosis of the tracheobronchial tree and pustular skin lesions characterize acute infection with B. mallei. Other symptoms include febrile pneumonia, if the organism was inhaled, or signs of sepsis and multiple abscesses, if the skin was the port of entry. Glanders is endemic in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Central and South America. Glanders has low contiguous potential, but because of the efficacy of aerosolized dissemination and the lethal nature of the disease, B. mallei was considered a candidate for biological warfare. During World War I, Glanders was believed to have been spread to infect large numbers of Russian horses and mules on the Eastern front. The Japanese infected horses, civilians and prisoners of war during World War II. The USA and the Soviet Union have shown interest in B. mallei in their biological warfare program. The treatment is empiric and includes mono or poly-therapy with Ceftazidime, Sulfadiazine, Trimethoprim + Sulfamethoxazol, Gentamicin, Imipenem etc. Aggressive control measures essentially eliminated Glanders from the west. However, with the resurgent concern about biological warfare, B. mallei is now being studied in a few laboratories worldwide. This review provides an overview of the disease and presents the only case reported in the western world since 1949.

  9. Operational advantages of using Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) in the battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Nurgul; Yasar, Fatih M.; Topcu, Yucel

    2012-06-01

    While cyberspace is emerging as a new battlefield, conventional Electronic Warfare (EW) methods and applications are likely to change. Cyber Electronic Warfare (CEW) concept which merges cyberspace capabilities with traditional EW methods, is a new and enhanced form of the electronic attack. In this study, cyberspace domain of the battlefield is emphazised and the feasibility of integrating Cyber Warfare (CW) concept into EW measures is researched. The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis method is used to state the operational advantages of using CEW concept in the battlefield. The operational advantages of CEW are assessed by means of its effects on adversary air defense systems, communication networks and information systems. Outstanding technological and operational difficulties are pointed out as well. As a result, a comparison of CEW concept and conventional EW applications is presented. It is concluded that, utilization of CEW concept is feasible at the battlefield and it may yield important operational advantages. Even though the computers of developed military systems are less complex than normal computers, they are not subjected to cyber threats since they are closed systems. This concept intends to show that these closed systems are also open to the cyber threats. As a result of the SWOT analysis, CEW concept provides Air Forces to be used in cyber operations effectively. On the other hand, since its Collateral Damage Criteria (CDC) is low, the usage of cyber electronic attack systems seems to grow up.

  10. Military and civilian burn injuries during armed conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, B S; Gunn, S W A; Hayek, S N

    2007-12-31

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment, and war burns have been described for more than 5,000 years of written history. Fire was probably utilized as a weapon long before that. With the ever-increasing destructive power and efficiency of modern weapons, casualties, both fatal and non-fatal, are reaching new highs, particularly among civilians who are becoming the major wartime targets in recent wars, accounting for most of the killed and wounded. Even though medical personnel usually believe that a knowledge of weaponry has little relevance to their ability to effectively treat injuries and that it may in some way be in conflict with their status, accorded under the Geneva and Hague treaties, it is imperative that they know how weapons are used and understand their effects on the human body. The present review explores various categories of weapons of modern warfare that are unfamiliar to most medical and paramedical personnel responsible for burn treatment. The mechanisms and patterns of injury produced by each class of weapons are examined so that a better understanding of burn management in a warfare situation may be achieved. PMID:21991098

  11. Enhanced formulations for neutralization of chemical, biological and industrial toxants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueque, NM

    2008-06-24

    An enhanced formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The enhanced formulation according to the present invention is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator and water.

  12. Emerging targets for treating sulfur mustard-induced injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shama; Ahmad, Aftab

    2016-06-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM; bis-(2-chlororethyl) sulfide) is a highly reactive, potent warfare agent that has recently reemerged as a major threat to military and civilians. Exposure to SM is often fatal, primarily due to pulmonary injuries and complications caused by its inhalation. Profound inflammation, hypercoagulation, and oxidative stress are the hallmarks that define SM-induced pulmonary toxicities. Despite advances, effective therapies are still limited. This current review focuses on inflammatory and coagulation pathways that influence the airway pathophysiology of SM poisoning and highlights the complexity of developing an effective therapeutic target. PMID:27285828

  13. Establishment of Exposure to Organophosphorus Warfare Agents by Means of SPME-GSMS Analysis of Bodily Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable chemical analytical procedures for revealing an exposure to toxic chemicals, identifying the active substance, and assessing the degree of exposure are necessary as a component of medical and forensic activities in cases of the possible use of highly toxic chemicals in war conflicts and terrorism acts, as well as emergency situations in chemical industry, specifically at chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities. According to Chemical Weapons Convention, Part XI, Appendix 4, e-17, 'samples of importance in the investigation of alleged use include biomedical samples from human or animal sources (blood, urine, excreta, tissue etc.)'. Urinary metabolites, O-alkyl esters of methylphosphic acid, offer one of the simplest means of confirming an exposure to organophosphorus warfare agents (OPWA). Urine, unlike blood or tissues, does not require invasive collection demanding in terms of sterility. Excretion with urine is the major route of elimination of OPWA from an organism. According to published data, 90% of OPWA metabolites are excreted within 48-72 h after intoxication. We developed an SPME-GCMS procedure for the determination of O-alkyl esters methylphosphonic acid in urine, with the following detection limits,: isopropyl and isobutyl esters 5 ng/ml and pinacolyl ester 1 ng/ml. The procedure involves derivatization of the target compounds directly on the microfiber. The total analysis time is 1-1.5 h. In animal experiments in vivo we could establish the exposure to OPWA at a half-LD50 level within no less than 48 h after intoxication. In principle, OPWA metabolites could be detected in urine within two weeks after intoxication but at higher doses. Retrospective analysis of urinary metabolites in cases of the exposure to low doses of OPWA requires lower detection limits (0.1-1 ng/ml). Optimal objects for the retrospective analysis of OPWA in an organism are long-lived blood protein adducts. We developed a procedure for revealing an exposure to

  14. Head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  15. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a Weight-of-Evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part II: corrosion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    This is part II of an in silico investigation of chemical-induced eye injury that was conducted at FDA's CFSAN. Serious eye damage caused by chemical (eye corrosion) is assessed using the rabbit Draize test, and this endpoint is an essential part of hazard identification and labeling of industrial and consumer products to ensure occupational and consumer safety. There is an urgent need to develop an alternative to the Draize test because EU's 7th amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (EC, 2003; 76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans animal testing on all cosmetic product ingredients and EU's REACH Program limits animal testing for chemicals in commerce. Although in silico methods have been reported for eye irritation (reversible damage), QSARs specific for eye corrosion (irreversible damage) have not been published. This report describes the development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) for assessing eye corrosion potential of chemicals using a large and diverse CFSAN data set of 504 chemicals, ADMET Predictor's three sensitivity analyses and ANNE classification functionalities with 20% test set selection from seven different methods. QSAR-21 models were internally and externally validated and exhibited high predictive performance: average statistics for the training, verification, and external test sets of these models were 96/96/94% sensitivity and 91/91/90% specificity. PMID:25510831

  16. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a weight-of-evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part I: irritation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of potential chemical-induced eye injury through irritation and corrosion is required to ensure occupational and consumer safety for industrial, household and cosmetic ingredient chemicals. The historical method for evaluating eye irritant and corrosion potential of chemicals is the rabbit Draize test. However, the Draize test is controversial and its use is diminishing - the EU 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans marketing of new cosmetics having animal testing of their ingredients and requires non-animal alternative tests for safety assessments. Thus, in silico and/or in vitro tests are advocated. QSAR models for eye irritation have been reported for several small (congeneric) data sets; however, large global models have not been described. This report describes FDA/CFSAN's development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) to predict eye irritation using the ADMET Predictor program and a diverse training data set of 2928 chemicals. The 21 models had external (20% test set) and internal validation and average training/verification/test set statistics were: 88/88/85(%) sensitivity and 82/82/82(%) specificity, respectively. The new method utilized multiple artificial neural network (ANN) molecular descriptor selection functionalities to maximize the applicability domain of the battery. The eye irritation models will be used to provide information to fill the critical data gaps for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredient chemicals. PMID:25497990

  17. Studies on chemical protectors against radiation, 29; Protective effects of methanol extracts of various Chinese traditional medicines on skin injury induced by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng-Ming; Ohta, Setsuko; Shinoda, Masato (Hoshi Coll. of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-03-01

    In order to investigate useful protective medicines for the relief of skin injury induced by irradiation, 60 methanol extracts of Chinese traditional medicines were used in the test of protective potency on skin injury. ICR male mice at 6 weeks of age were whole-body irradiated with 1100R by using a soft X-ray generator (30 kVp, 10 mA, 190 R/min). Each methanol extract of these medicines was injected intraperitoneally into mice before or after irradiation. The degrees of skin injury were determined by a score system of skin reaction within the observation period from 21st to 40th day after irradiation. Protective potency of each medicine on skin injury was calculated from the maximum mean scores of administrated group and un-administrated group. As a result of these studies, the protective potency was detected in Unsei-in, Kumibinro-to, Keisi-syakuyaku-chimo-to, Keigai-rengyo-to, Gosyuyu-to, Koso-san, Saiko-seikan-to, Syo-kankyo-to, Syo-saiko-to, Syoma-kakkon-to, Sen-kan-meimoku-to, Zokumei-to, Sokei-kakketu-to, Bokuryo-in, Mao-to and Rikkunsi-to by intraperitoneal injection before irradiation. Of these effective medicines, only Unsei-in and Mao-to are shown to have a significant protective effect by intraperitoneal injection after irradiation. (author).

  18. Bicycling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  19. The Mixture of Salvianolic Acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Total Flavonoids from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Attenuate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH, which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50 SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (p < 0.05 reversal in SM-induced GSH depletion. Gene expression profiles revealed that treatment with MSTF had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by SM. Treatment with MSTF prevented SM-induced differential expression of 93.8% (973 genes of 1037 genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries.

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Psychological Issues After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury The Psychologist's Role After ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities After Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  3. DIFFERENTIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF HUMAN SP-B GENETIC VARIANTS ON LUNG INJURY CAUSED BY BACTERIAL PNEUMONIA AND THE EFFECT OF A CHEMICALLY MODIFIED CURCUMIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongan; Ge, Lin; Abdel-Razek, Osama; Jain, Sumeet; Liu, Zhiyong; Hong, Yucai; Nieman, Gary; Johnson, Francis; Golub, Lorne M; Cooney, Robert N; Wang, Guirong

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of nosocomial pneumonia frequently resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Surfactant protein B (SP-B) gene expresses two proteins involved in lowering surface tension and host defense. Genotyping studies demonstrate a significant association between human SP-B genetic variants and ARDS. Curcumins have been shown to attenuate host inflammation in many sepsis models. Our hypothesis is that functional differences of SP-B variants and treatment with curcumin (CMC2.24) modulate lung injury in bacterial pneumonia. Humanized transgenic mice, expressing either SP-B T or C allele without mouse SP-B gene, were used. Bioluminescent labeled S. aureus Xen 36 (50 μL) was injected intratracheally to cause pneumonia. Infected mice received daily CMC2.24 (40 mg/kg) or vehicle alone by oral gavage. Dynamic changes of bacteria were monitored using in vivo imaging system. Histological, cellular, and molecular indices of lung injury were studied in infected mice 48 h after infection. In vivo imaging analysis revealed total flux (bacterial number) was higher in the lung of infected SP-B-C mice compared with infected SP-B-T mice (P < 0.05). Infected SP-B-C mice demonstrated increased mortality, lung injury, apoptosis, and NF-κB expression compared with infected SP-B-T mice. Compared with controls, CMC2.24 treatment significantly reduced the following: mortality, total bacterial flux and lung tissue apoptosis, inflammatory cells, NF-κB expression (P < 0.05), and MMPs-2, -9, -12 activities (P < 0.05). We conclude that mice with SP-B-C allele are more susceptible to S. aureus pneumonia than mice with SP-B-T allele, and that CMC2.24 attenuates lung injury thus reducing mortality. PMID:26863117

  4. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  5. THE CONTRIBUTION MADE BY T.E. LAWRENCE TO THE THEORY OF REVOLUTIONARY WARFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K.B. Barron

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence was basically an academic thrown into the hurly-burly of leading an Arab revolt against Turkish domination. It could be said that the war in the Middle East was a sideshow of the First World War and Lawrence's part was a ' ... sideshow to the sideshow'l Why then has Lawrence been remembered when greater military men have been forgotten? The romanticism of his exploits are surely the reason, and yet the fact that he is the first modern theorist and possibly the "father" of modern revolutionary warfare, tends to be forgotten.

  6. Fear as a medium of communication in asymmetric forms of warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    of fear evolves in asymmetric warfare. Asymmetric war induces fear in both parties, but in a communicative form that leads to very different experiences of fear. Fear is observed and analysed with Niklas Luhmann’s theory of self-referential systems of communication and well as his theory of risk....... Following Luhmann and in continuation of Clausewitz’ conceptual tools, yet with other means, the article proposes to observe war as a system that can de-ontologize itself and thereby concern moving centres of gravity such as communication lines, motivation, public fear as well as perceptions of risk...

  7. New concepts and their applications in underwater acoustic warfare simulation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yangze; YAO Lan

    2004-01-01

    An underwater acoustic warfare simulation system (UAWSS) with a structure of high level architecture (HLA) is studied based upon a previous research project. With the experience and lessons learned, some new concepts are adopted in the implementation of UAWSS according to the essence of simulation and the objective of the system, among which are simulation synthetic environment, signal processing at other simulation nodes, decomposition of underwater sound channel, channel varying law and rules on system and parts evaluation, etc. Applications of these new ideas show that they are effective.

  8. Women, rape and warfare: a gendered critique of Just War theory and the Immunity principle

    OpenAIRE

    Banwell, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    The just war tradition is based on two principles: jus ad bellum - just war-making, and jus in bello - just war-fighting. Jus in bello contains the non-combatant immunity principle. This “protects” civilians during war giving them “immunity” from the violence of war-fighting. Women are, for the most part, non-combatants. Still, their experiences during war are far from “protected”. Rape has been a feature of both traditional and civil warfare. The just war tradition is fundamentally ill-equ...

  9. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Matatagui; José Luis Fontecha; María Jesús Fernández; Isabel Gràcia; Carles Cané; José Pedro Santos; María Carmen Horrillo

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentr...

  10. International humanitarian law applied to cyber-warfare: Precautions, proportionality and the notion of ‘attack’ under the humanitarian law of armed conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.D. Gill

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the application of international humanitarian law to cyber warfare in the sense of rising to the level of an armed conflict. Building upon the work of the Tallinn Manual on the Application of International Law to Cyber Warfare, it places particular emphasis on the application o

  11. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ballesteros, M. F., Sleet, D. A. (2008). CDC childhood injury report: patterns of unintentional injuries among 0-19 ... American Academy of Pediatrics. (2008). Management of pediatric trauma. Pediatrics, 121 , 849–854. [top] How many people are ... may slightly increase childhood risk of neurological impairment, NIH study suggests All ...

  12. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Repetitive Stress Injuries Print ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  13. Academic Training Lectures | Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare | 13-14 January 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that the next series of Academic Training Lectures will take place on 13 and 14 January 2016. The lectures will be given by Gian Piero Siroli (Università e INFN, Bologna (IT))   Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (1/2)​ on Wednesday, 13 January from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. http://indico.cern.ch/event/438525/ Stuxnet and Cyber-Warfare (2/2) on Thursday, 14 January from 11 a.m. to 12 p.m. http://indico.cern.ch/event/438526/ at CERN, Council Chamber (503-1-001)  Description: The first part of the lecture is devoted to the description of the Stuxnet worm, the first cyber-weapon whose existence has been made public, discovered in 2010 and targeting a specific industrial control system; the worm is responsible for the damaging of many centrifuges at an uranium enrichment facility, with the goal of sabotaging Iran&...

  14. Investigating the Relationship Between Drone Warfare and Civilian Casualties in Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ann Rogers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, better known as drones, are increasingly touted as ‘humanitarian’ weapons that contribute positively to fighting just wars and saving innocent lives. At the same time, civilian casualties have become the most visible and criticized aspect of drone warfare. It is argued here that drones contribute to civilian casualties not in spite of, but because of, their unique attributes. They greatly extend war across time and space, pulling more potential threats and targets into play over long periods, and because they are low-risk and highly accurate, they are more likely to be used. The assumption that drones save lives obscures a new turn in strategic thinking that sees states such as Israel and the US rely on large numbers of small, highly discriminating attacks applied over time to achieve their objectives. This examination of Israel’s 2014 war in Gaza argues that civilian casualties are not an unexpected or unintended consequence of drone warfare, but an entirely predictable outcome.

  15. An Empirical Examination of the Warfare Metaphor with Respect to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.; Davis, Edward B.; Terpstra, Jeff

    2013-08-01

    Since its origination in the late nineteenth century, the warfare metaphor has been used to characterize the relationship between science and religion, especially orthodox Christianity. Though thoroughly discredited by historians of science, the ideological descendants of Thomas Huxley, who spoke of science in quasi-religious terms, have kept the warfare metaphor alive. On the other hand, there are substantial numbers of Christians who at least appear to oppose science given their high-profile opposition to the general theory of evolution. The research reported in this paper asked, "Does anti-science sentiment increase with increasing orthodox Christian belief?" Two validated, published instruments were used: The Thinking about Science Survey Instrument and the Christian Fundamentalist Belief Scale. The subjects for the study were 545 preservice elementary teachers. The analysis did not show that anti-science sentiment increases with increasing Christian belief. Subjects with strong Christian beliefs were found to be just as supportive of science, if not more so, than subjects with no Christian beliefs. The study concludes with a caution against projecting attitudes toward science "on the whole" based on attitudes specifically toward evolution when working with preservice elementary teachers. Such a projection could well be counterproductive. The study has implications for other modern countries having highly religious populations such as Turkey.

  16. Implications for studying team cognition and team performance in network-centric warfare paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Gerald P; Banderet, Louis E

    2007-05-01

    Network-centric warfare's (NCW) information-rich systems involving sophisticated sensors, tracking systems, smart weapons, and enhanced digital communications threaten to overload combatants with voluminous amounts of data. It is unclear whether warfighters will perceive such extensive data as actionable information to which they will respond accurately in a timely enough manner. Members of small teams in command and control centers, operating in crew-served vehicles, or simply "grunting it out" as ground-pounding infantrymen, may be disparately separated by space, but will communicate and be connected by electronic linkages, e.g., radio, text messages, situation displays, or global positioning data. However, team members will also have to remember shared mental models of tasks at hand, pay attention to and share common situation awareness in complex operational environments, perform team cognition and team coordination, and integrate both lower and higher cognitive processes with those of team behaviors. Such exceptional capabilities are required more now than ever before; such capabilities today are far from assured. After two workshops to establish performance metrics for assessing cognitive performance of military personnel in NCW, this preface introduces five manuscripts addressing team cognition and team performance from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. The authors of this preface question if NCW, and perhaps the politico-social ramifications of modern warfare, have already outstripped behavioral scientists' approach to researching team cognition and team performance-expertise that is so crucially needed for combatants on the rapidly changing 21st-century battlegrounds.

  17. Evaluating the Special Needs of The Military for Radiation Biodosimetry for Tactical Warfare Against Deployed Troops: Comparing Military to Civilian Needs for Biodosimetry Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Ann Barry; Ali, Arif N; Boyle, Holly K; Du, Gaixin; Satinsky, Victoria A; Swarts, Steven G; Williams, Benjamin B; Demidenko, Eugene; Schreiber, Wilson; Swartz, Harold M

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to delineate characteristics of biodosimetry most suitable for assessing individuals who have potentially been exposed to significant radiation from a nuclear device explosion when the primary population targeted by the explosion and needing rapid assessment for triage is civilians vs. deployed military personnel. The authors first carry out a systematic analysis of the requirements for biodosimetry to meet the military's needs to assess deployed troops in a warfare situation, which include accomplishing the military mission. Then the military's special capabilities to respond and carry out biodosimetry for deployed troops in warfare are compared and contrasted systematically, in contrast to those available to respond and conduct biodosimetry for civilians who have been targeted by terrorists, for example. Then the effectiveness of different biodosimetry methods to address military vs. civilian needs and capabilities in these scenarios was compared and, using five representative types of biodosimetry with sufficient published data to be useful for the simulations, the number of individuals are estimated who could be assessed by military vs. civilian responders within the timeframe needed for triage decisions. Analyses based on these scenarios indicate that, in comparison to responses for a civilian population, a wartime military response for deployed troops has both more complex requirements for and greater capabilities to use different types of biodosimetry to evaluate radiation exposure in a very short timeframe after the exposure occurs. Greater complexity for the deployed military is based on factors such as a greater likelihood of partial or whole body exposure, conditions that include exposure to neutrons, and a greater likelihood of combined injury. These simulations showed, for both the military and civilian response, that a very fast rate of initiating the processing (24,000 d) is needed to have at least some methods capable of

  18. Evaluating the Special Needs of The Military for Radiation Biodosimetry for Tactical Warfare Against Deployed Troops: Comparing Military to Civilian Needs for Biodosimetry Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Ann Barry; Ali, Arif N; Boyle, Holly K; Du, Gaixin; Satinsky, Victoria A; Swarts, Steven G; Williams, Benjamin B; Demidenko, Eugene; Schreiber, Wilson; Swartz, Harold M

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to delineate characteristics of biodosimetry most suitable for assessing individuals who have potentially been exposed to significant radiation from a nuclear device explosion when the primary population targeted by the explosion and needing rapid assessment for triage is civilians vs. deployed military personnel. The authors first carry out a systematic analysis of the requirements for biodosimetry to meet the military's needs to assess deployed troops in a warfare situation, which include accomplishing the military mission. Then the military's special capabilities to respond and carry out biodosimetry for deployed troops in warfare are compared and contrasted systematically, in contrast to those available to respond and conduct biodosimetry for civilians who have been targeted by terrorists, for example. Then the effectiveness of different biodosimetry methods to address military vs. civilian needs and capabilities in these scenarios was compared and, using five representative types of biodosimetry with sufficient published data to be useful for the simulations, the number of individuals are estimated who could be assessed by military vs. civilian responders within the timeframe needed for triage decisions. Analyses based on these scenarios indicate that, in comparison to responses for a civilian population, a wartime military response for deployed troops has both more complex requirements for and greater capabilities to use different types of biodosimetry to evaluate radiation exposure in a very short timeframe after the exposure occurs. Greater complexity for the deployed military is based on factors such as a greater likelihood of partial or whole body exposure, conditions that include exposure to neutrons, and a greater likelihood of combined injury. These simulations showed, for both the military and civilian response, that a very fast rate of initiating the processing (24,000 d) is needed to have at least some methods capable of

  19. Nuclear warfare

    CERN Multimedia

    Broda

    1981-01-01

    Le Prof.Broda a étudié à Vienne et Berlin et a travaillé pendant la dernière guerre mondiale en Grande Bretagne pour le conseil de la recherche médicale, notamment sur la chimie de la vision. Il est maintenant Prof. de la chimie, physique et radiochimie à l'Université de Vienne, où il concentre ses travaux sur les méchanisme de transport d'énergie à travers les cellules de membranes.

  20. Mobile Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEBASTIAN COHEN

    2008-01-01

    @@ In 1984, US computer manufacturer Apple spent almost USD 1.5 million on a lavish, Ridley Scott-directed commercial for its new Macintosh 128k personal computer. A year later, Microsoft released Microsoft Windows for IBM PC, signaling the start of the battle for domi-nation of the personal computer market which has waged ever since.

  1. Mechanical Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Parman, Julian; Juuti, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä luotiin tornipuolustuspeli Unityllä käyttäen 3D-malleja. Opinnäytetyön peli on demoversio. Peli on suunniteltu käyttäen suppeaa pelisuunnitelmaa. Pelin 3D-mallit on luotu käyttäen Blender 3D-mallinnusohjelmaa. Pelin grafiikat on tuotettu GIMP2-kuvankäsittelyohjelmalla. Pelin viholliset ja tornit on toteutettu 3D-malleina. Pelissä on tarkoituksena puolustaa omaa tukikohtaa vihollisaalloilta, jotka tulevat tietä pitkin. Lopputuloksena saatiin aikaan toimiva demoversio Mech...

  2. Rowing Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously publish...

  3. 76 FR 10522 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Upper Machodoc Creek and the Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 69033) with the docket number COE-2010-0038 and no comments were received... and the Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION... danger zone in the vicinity of Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, in King George County,...

  4. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, July 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2016-05-18

    Previous investigations indicate that concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision for the site.

  5. Warfare has changed - so should have methods: Ammunition and weapon performance induced operational risk and safety issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.L.A.; Voorde, M.J. van de

    2010-01-01

    Warfare has changed. Out-of-area operations have increased the awareness that we are unfamiliar with the performance of the current conventional medium and large calibre ammunitions in day-to-day practice. Current ammunition is primarily developed and procured to defeat the traditional ‘steel’ targe

  6. Warfare tourism experiences and national identity: The case of Airborne Museum ‘Hartenstein’ in Oosterbeek, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines through an analysis of Dutch warfare tourism whether there is a relationship between the subjective perceived salience of Dutch identity and heritage tourists' motives, emotions and overall satisfaction. Using a social identity theory framework, this study provides a view of moti

  7. The use of a new design irrigator for the emergency treatment of chemical eye injuries in an accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, M T; Mulira, A

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of a hand-held drench hose into a district general hospital accident and emergency department, for the emergency irrigation of chemically injured eyes is reported. The hose is described, together with the technique of irrigation. The advantages that a high-flow, low pressure system affords over conventional irrigation methods are discussed. The system appears to offer a simple, immediately available, effective tool for emergency eye care, which is suitable for use by a variet...

  8. Inhalation injury: epidemiology, pathology, treatment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dries, David J; Endorf, Frederick W

    2013-01-01

    Lung injury resulting from inhalation of smoke or chemical products of combustion continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Combined with cutaneous burns, inhalation injury increases fluid resuscitation requirements, incidence of pulmonary complications and overall mortality of thermal injury. While many products and techniques have been developed to manage cutaneous thermal trauma, relatively few diagnosis-specific therapeutic options have been identified for patie...

  9. Diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (dlco) in chemical lung injuries due to the use of mustard gas in the poisoned soldiers of Iran-Iraq war 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the Mustard gas exposure effects on pulmonary system, particularly on diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (DLCO) and simple spirometry. Sixty-five sulfur mustard- poisoned soldiers from Mostazafan and Janbazan organization were referred to our center in 2005. Complete history, physical examination, chest X ray, Echocardiography, Arterial blood gas, high - resolution computerized tomography, diffusion capacity for lung carbon monoxide and spirometry of these were performed and compared this result with normal value. The mean value of indices in studied injured subjects was: Spirometry: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) = 70.4, Forced vital capacity (FVC) = 66.5, EFE 25-75=81.1, FEV1/FVC=101.9, Flow 25% = 28.7, Flow 50%= 72.9, Flow 75%= 100.1, Sample volume: Functional residual capacity of lungs (FRC) = 131.5, residual volume (RV) = 157.3, RV/TLC= 169.1, Total lung capacity (TLC) = 91.3, KCO= 131.6, TLCO= 116.3. No significant correlation was observed between TLCO values with HRCT, echocardiography, ABG and spirometry values (P>0.05). We recommend TLCO and RV/TLV tests to assess severity of Injuries as there is no a suitable criterion to measure the real consequences of mustard gas on affected combatants. and Biological markers are also needed to determine cause effect relations. (author)

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  11. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  12. Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matatagui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs. The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13, and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR. Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.

  13. View the information-based battlefield environment system from network-centric warfare (NCW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengbin; You, Xiong

    2007-06-01

    Battlefield environment is a general designation for all kinds of objective things and conditions which surround battlefield and affect military actions. With the development of modern high technology, and information technology, traditional battlefield environment is developing in the both factors of space and constitutive, and takes on an integrated tendency. The U.S. military consider that the war of information age is NCW, and to successfully implement the theory of the NCW capabilities, the four domains of warfare-physical, information, cognitive, social, and their relationship must be understood. According to the theory of system, this paper puts forward the conception of Battlefield Environment System and its tetrahedron structure. The correlation of constitutive factors in Generalized Battlefield Environment System and the relationship between Generalized Battlefield Environment System and NCW are analyzed. Moreover, the spatial scope and constitutive factors of Specific Battlefield Environment System are also discussed.

  14. Approximation and Filtering Techniques for Navigation Data in Time-critical Electronic Warfare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a holistic solution to the navigation requirements in a time critical electronic warfare systems like missile warning systems (MWS. In a passive MWS using IR sensors the efficiency of the system is determined by attributes such as low false alarm rate, minimal response time and ability to track different IR radiating objects by association and correlation of consecutive detections through time. Such a system is required to be supported by a navigation system capable of accurate estimation of the aircraft position, attitude angles and altitude. In this paper, estimation techniques used to accurately calculate aircraft navigation data at the time of capture of IR frames are discussed. The paper discusses about synchronization of INGPS, IR sensors & Processor on to same timeline. The paper also intends to evaluate the performance of wavelet transform filter in effective elimination of noise in navigation parameters like acceleration and attitude angle rates for a better estimation of position and attitude.

  15. A review of current and future components for electronic warfare receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J. H.; Grant, P. M.

    1981-05-01

    This paper addresses the role of conventional and new components in passive electronic warfare (EW) receivers. The various areas of EW are defined before restricting the discussion predominantly to the radar intercept problem at microwave frequencies. The operational parameters of conventional components are then reviewed including the multiplexer; crystal video, instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM), and scanning superheterodyne receivers. The significance of modularity, digital control, and hybrid combinations of components is highlighted. A brief description follows of the operational Cutlass EW equipment. New components based on surface-acoustic waves (SAW) and acoustooptic (AO) Bragg cells are then presented and their particular importance in channelized receivers, IFM's, and microscan receivers noted. Finally, a number of conclusions are drawn covering likely trends in EW receivers and the need for continuing development of large-scale integrated (LSI) circuits for signal sorting and overall digital management.

  16. NETWORK-CENTRIC WARFARE AND SOME PARTICULAR ASPECTS OF LOGISTICS BASED ON NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrişor JALBĂ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the current revolution in military affairs, at the End of the Cold War a new concept was born: the concept of War Based on Computer Networking or NCW Network Centric-Warfare which was established as a central element of modern military operations. Determined by theprogress recorded in the field of communication systems of all types, technology of information (HI-Tech, IT, war based on computer networking brings a change in the war paradigm and its inherent components In this respect, logistics based on computer networking represents one of the ways in which the reality of the battlefield is preserved which enhances the joint perspective upon the military forces.

  17. Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282

  18. A Role for Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Sulfur Mustard Analog 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide-Induced Lung Cell Injury and Antioxidant Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Neal S; White, Carl W; Day, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfur mustards (SMs) have been used as warfare agents since World War I and still pose a significant threat against civilian and military personnel. SM exposure can cause significant blistering of the skin, respiratory injury, and fibrosis. No antidote currently exists for SM exposure, but recent studies, using the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), have focused on the ability of antioxidants to prevent toxicity. Although antioxidants can prevent CEES-induc...

  19. Naval electronic warfare simulation for effectiveness assessment and softkill programmability facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lançon, F.

    2011-06-01

    The Anti-ship Missile (ASM) threat to be faced by ships will become more diverse and difficult. Intelligence, rules of engagement constraints, fast reaction-time for effective softkill solution require specific tools to design Electronic Warfare (EW) systems and to integrate it onboard ship. SAGEM Company provides decoy launcher system [1] and its associated Naval Electronic Warfare Simulation tool (NEWS) to permit softkill effectiveness analysis for anti-ship missile defence. NEWS tool generates virtual environment for missile-ship engagement and counter-measure simulator over a wide spectrum: RF, IR, EO. It integrates EW Command & Control (EWC2) process which is implemented in decoy launcher system and performs Monte-Carlo batch processing to evaluate softkill effectiveness in different engagement situations. NEWS is designed to allow immediate EWC2 process integration from simulation to real decoy launcher system. By design, it allows the final operator to be able to program, test and integrate its own EWC2 module and EW library onboard, so intelligence of each user is protected and evolution of threat can be taken into account through EW library update. The objectives of NEWS tool are also to define a methodology for trial definition and trial data reduction. Growth potential would permit to design new concept for EWC2 programmability and real time effectiveness estimation in EW system. This tool can also be used for operator training purpose. This paper presents the architecture design, the softkill programmability facility concept and the flexibility for onboard integration on ship. The concept of this operationally focused simulation, which is to use only one tool for design, development, trial validation and operational use, will be demonstrated.

  20. Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare, from Past to the Present: A classic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zare Bidaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioterrorism is defined as any terrorist action of intentional release or dissemination of highly pathogenic biological agents, including a variety of microorganisms or biological toxins. With the growing threat of terrorism, is necessary that the potential danger of various microorganisms – as a powerful tool of aggression and threat- to be taken seriously. This review tries to explain the concept of biological weapons and their historical development process with an emphasis on efforts to control the proliferation of these types of weapons over the last century. Potential impact of infectious diseases on people and armed forces was known from since 600 BC. Using the victims of the plague as a weapon in medieval warfare and spread of smallpox as a weapon during the war against the Indians when initially America was discovered, the development of biological weapons during the World War I, World War II and the Cold War, and even since the beginning of the third millennium, all show the strategic importance of pathogenic microorganisms as a deterrent power for the superiority of some governments and cults. Historical attempts to use infectious diseases as biological weapons reveal that the distinction between a natural outbreak of an infectious disease and that of a deliberate biological attack is very difficult. Abusing this characteristic of infectious diseases has made it possible for the purposes of superiority. International agreements to control the development of biological weapons, such as “the 1925 Geneva Protocol” and “the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Biological and Toxic Weapons” have not been able to control the development and using of biological warfare.  The current paper is a classic review (Overview article aiming at increasing the knowledge and awareness of people especially of health authorities and government officials.

  1. Hand chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby

    2015-03-01

    There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical burns make up a small proportion of all skin burns, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical burns, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical burns require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical burns, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes.

  2. Biomaterials in the repair of sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducheyne, Paul; Mauck, Robert L.; Smith, Douglas H.

    2012-08-01

    The optimal stimulation of tissue regeneration in bone, cartilage and spinal cord injuries involves a judicious selection of biomaterials with tailored chemical compositions, micro- and nanostructures, porosities and kinetic release properties for the delivery of relevant biologically active molecules.

  3. Wrestling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    The sport of wrestling has a history dating back to ancient times as one of the original Olympic sports. It particularly appeals to adolescents as equally matched opponents engage in competition. There can be no argument that participation in sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity, those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. This article will discuss wrestling injuries and recommend prevention strategies to keep athletes safe. PMID:18521035

  4. Accidental Laser Injury to the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandari, Jamal Al; Raizada, Seemant; Razzak, Ahmed Abdul

    2010-03-01

    The unprotected human eye is extremely sensitive to laser radiation and can be permanently damaged from direct or reflected beams. Two cases of retinal injury by laser exposure outside hospital setting are reported. Two patients presented in retina clinic in Al-Bahar eye center in Kuwait with complaints of decrease in vision following exposure to unknown light. Case 1 was exposed to a laser used in military warfare and Case 2 exposed to laser pointer. Routine slit lamp examination and fundus examination of the patient was done along with fundus fluorescien angiography (FFA) and Optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients were followed up in out patient department for 6 months. Patient with military laser exposure had severe permanent vision loss and persisted even after 6 months. Patient exposed to laser pointer beam had transient visual loss, which improved to 20/25 at 7 months follow-up. Laser retinal damage should be suspected in any patient with visual complaints after obvious exposure to unknown strong light. The treatment for laser retinal injuries is extremely limited and hence prevention is essential. PMID:20337345

  5. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  6. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  7. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Spinal Cord Injury 101 Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... in countries outside the US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to ...

  9. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  10. Device for collecting chemical compounds and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Groenewold, Gary S.; Rae, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from the fixed surfaces so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  11. Research on Electronic Warfare Operational Simulation Experiment Design%电子对抗作战仿真实验设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶玉; 耿松涛; 王枭犇

    2013-01-01

      针对目前电子对抗作战仿真实验设计中存在的突出问题,对电子对抗作战仿真实验设计进行研究。介绍我军电子对抗作战仿真实验设计的发展现状,分析电子对抗作战仿真实验设计中存在的问题,提出结合实验目的规范电子对抗作战仿真实验设计的思路。该研究为实现电子对抗作战仿真实验设计的规范化、标准化做出了有益探索。%Aiming at the problems existed in designing electronic warfare operational simulation experiment, electronic warfare operational simulation experiment design is researched. It introduces the development situation of PLA’s electronic warfare operational simulation experiment firstly, analyses the problems in designing electronic warfare operational simulation experiment, and brings a design idea that combines it with experiment goals for electronic warfare operational simulation experiment. The research can offer reference for realize the normalization and standardization of electronic warfare campaign simulation experimental design.

  12. Injuries to Scots pine mycorrhizas and chemical gradients in forest soil in the environment of a pulp mill in Central Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence and condition of Scots pine mycorrhizas were studied at different distances from a pulp mill in Central Finland. The chemical analyses of the soil humus layer in the vicinity of the mill revealed increased levels of ammonium-nitrogen, sulphur and calcium but unaltered concentrations of phosphorus and magnesium. Higher nitrate levels and nitrification were clearly detected at some sites which had recently been limed. Significant decreases in root ramification index and number of living mycorrhizas were found in a 0-0.6 km zone surrounding the factory but these parameters increased with increasing distance. Within a 2 km zone around the mill there were abundant Cenococcum geophilus and Paxilus involutus-type mycorrhizas while lowered frequencies of several other mycorrhizal types were detected. An ultrastructural study revealed changes in several types of mycorrhizas, the clearest of which were increased tannin deposition in cortical cells, intracellular growth of hyphae in cortical cells and the appearance of electron dense accumulations in the vacuoles of the funal cells. The ultrastructural changes observed were distributed at least to a distance of 3 km from the mill and occurred in the roots of trees that had only a slight loss of needle mass. Nitrogen deposition is suspected to be the primary cause of root decline but atmospheric SO2 through the tree crown is also likely to be a contributing factor. 37 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Psychological casualties resulting from chemical and biological weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, J A; King, J M

    2001-12-01

    This symposium addresses the complications encountered by medical planners when confronted by the use or threat of the use of weapons of mass destruction. The types of chemical warfare agents (CWA), their principal target organs, and physiological effects are discussed. We have reviewed the use of CWA in 20th century warfare and otherwise with emphasis on five cases: (1) use of sulfur mustard during World War I; (2) use by Italy against Ethiopia; (3) use in the Sino-Japanese War; (4) relatively well-studied use in the Iran-Iraq conflict; and (5) the use of sarin in the Tokyo subway terrorist incident. We reviewed the additional physiological and psychological consequences of their use and threat of use. Results from training and simulation are discussed. Finally, we present our conclusions derived from the analysis of these historical situations.

  14. Modeling and Optimal Control of a Class of Warfare Hybrid Dynamic Systems Based on Lanchester (n,1 Attrition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyong Chen

    2014-01-01

    hybrid dynamic systems is established based on Lanchester equation in a (n,1 battle, where a heterogeneous force of n different troop types faces a homogeneous force. This model can be characterized by the interaction of continuous-time models (governed by Lanchester equation, and discrete event systems (described by variable tactics. Furthermore, an expository discussion is presented on an optimal variable tactics control problem for warfare hybrid dynamic system. The optimal control strategies are designed based on dynamic programming and differential game theory. As an example of the consequences of this optimal control problem, we take the (2, 1 case and solve the optimal strategies in a (2, 1 case. Simulation results show the feasibility of warfare hybrid system model and the effectiveness of the optimal control strategies designed.

  15. From energy-rich phosphate compounds to warfare agents: A review on the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Albino Giusti; Vanderlei Gageiro Machado

    2008-01-01

    The chemistry of the phosphorus-oxygen bond is widely used in biological systems in many processes, such as energy transduction and the storage, transmission and expression of genetic information, which are essential to living beings in relation to a wide variety of functions. Compounds containing this bond have been designed for many purposes, ranging from agricultural defense systems, in order to increase food production, to nerve agents, for complaining use in warfare. In this review, feat...

  16. An analysis of the Civilian Employee Reward System in use at Naval Air Warfare Center, Patuxent River, Maryland

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An incentive system should motivate employees to increase productivity and find innovative ways to control costs. In 1998, Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division, (NAWCAD) instituted a new reward system. At the request of the NAWCAD, this thesis sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the new reward system from the perspective of the employees affected by the system. The thesis examined current literature on motivation theory with...

  17. Preconditioning for traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokobori, Shoji; Mazzeo, Anna T; Hosein, Khadil; Gajavelli, Shyam; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Bullock, M. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) treatment is now focused on the prevention of primary injury and reduction of secondary injury. However, no single effective treatment is available as yet for the mitigation of traumatic brain damage in humans. Both chemical and environmental stresses applied before injury, have been shown to induce consequent protection against post-TBI neuronal death. This concept termed “preconditioning” is achieved by exposure to different pre-injury stressors, to achieve the induction of “tolerance” to the effect of the TBI. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this “tolerance” phenomenon are not fully understood in TBI, and therefore even less information is available about possible indications in clinical TBI patients. In this review we will summarize TBI pathophysiology, and discuss existing animal studies demonstrating the efficacy of preconditioning in diffuse and focal type of TBI. We will also review other non-TBI preconditionng studies, including ischemic, environmental, and chemical preconditioning, which maybe relevant to TBI. To date, no clinical studies exist in this field, and we speculate on possible futureclinical situation, in which pre-TBI preconditioning could be considered. PMID:24323189

  18. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel: the head injury that may have prolonged the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Heather A; Mullin, Jeffrey P; Sloffer, Chris A

    2016-07-01

    War-related head injury, indeed neurological injury in general, has been a part of the history of humankind for as long as there has been warfare. Such injuries can result in the removal of the individual from combat, thus eliminating any subsequent contribution that he or she might have made to the battle. However, at times, the injuries can have more wide-reaching effects. In the case of commanders or leaders, the impact of their injuries may include the loss of their influence, planning, and leadership, and thus have a disproportionate effect on the battle, or indeed the war. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel was a talented military strategist and leader who was respected by friends and foes alike. He held an honored reputation by the German people and the military leadership. His head injury on July 17, 1944, resulted in his being removed from the field of battle in northern France, but also meant that he was not able to lend his stature to the assassination attempt of Adolph Hitler on July 20. It is possible that, had he been able to lend his stature to the events, Hitler's hold on the nation's government might have been loosened, and the war might have been brought to an end a year earlier. The authors review Rommel's career, his injury, the subsequent medical treatment, and his subsequent death. PMID:27364261

  19. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel: the head injury that may have prolonged the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Heather A; Mullin, Jeffrey P; Sloffer, Chris A

    2016-07-01

    War-related head injury, indeed neurological injury in general, has been a part of the history of humankind for as long as there has been warfare. Such injuries can result in the removal of the individual from combat, thus eliminating any subsequent contribution that he or she might have made to the battle. However, at times, the injuries can have more wide-reaching effects. In the case of commanders or leaders, the impact of their injuries may include the loss of their influence, planning, and leadership, and thus have a disproportionate effect on the battle, or indeed the war. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel was a talented military strategist and leader who was respected by friends and foes alike. He held an honored reputation by the German people and the military leadership. His head injury on July 17, 1944, resulted in his being removed from the field of battle in northern France, but also meant that he was not able to lend his stature to the assassination attempt of Adolph Hitler on July 20. It is possible that, had he been able to lend his stature to the events, Hitler's hold on the nation's government might have been loosened, and the war might have been brought to an end a year earlier. The authors review Rommel's career, his injury, the subsequent medical treatment, and his subsequent death.

  20. Molecules for Fluorescence Detection of Specific Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Steve

    2008-01-01

    A family of fluorescent dye molecules has been developed for use in on-off fluorescence detection of specific chemicals. By themselves, these molecules do not fluoresce. However, when exposed to certain chemical analytes in liquid or vapor forms, they do fluoresce (see figure). These compounds are amenable to fixation on or in a variety of substrates for use in fluorescence-based detection devices: they can be chemically modified to anchor them to porous or non-porous solid supports or can be incorporated into polymer films. Potential applications for these compounds include detection of chemical warfare agents, sensing of acidity or alkalinity, and fluorescent tagging of proteins in pharmaceutical research and development. These molecules could also be exploited for use as two-photon materials for photodynamic therapy in the treatment of certain cancers and other diseases. A molecule in this family consists of a fluorescent core (such as an anthracene or pyrene) attached to two end groups that, when the dye is excited by absorption of light, transfer an electron to the core, thereby quenching the fluorescence. The end groups can be engineered so that they react chemically with certain analytes. Upon reaction, electrons on the end groups are no longer available for transfer to the core and, consequently, the fluorescence from the core is no longer quenched. The chemoselectivity of these molecules can be changed by changing the end groups. For example, aniline end groups afford a capability for sensing acids or acid halides (including those contained in chemical warfare agents). Pyridine or bipyridyl end groups would enable sensing of metal ions. Other chemicals that can be selectively detected through suitable choice of end groups include glucose and proteins. Moreover, the fluorescent cores can be changed to alter light-absorption and -emission characteristics: anthracene cores fluoresce at wavelengths around 500 nm, whereas perylene cores absorb and emit at

  1. China’s Three Warfares Strategy Mitigates Fallout From Cyber Espionage Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Iasiello

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available China is engaged in longstanding cyber espionage against the U.S., as well as other nations, to collect sensitive public and private information in support of national objectives laid out in its 12th Five Year Plan. Foreign governments citing China’s malfeasance have rebuked these activities, a claim vehemently denied by Beijing. In response, China is leveraging the “Three Warfares” an integrated three-prong information warfare strategy to combat these accusations by leveraging Media, Legal, and Psychological components designed to influence the international community. While the United States has threatened the imposition of economic sanctions, Beijing has successfully parried consequential actions by arresting U.S.-identified hackers, thereby demonstrating its commitment toward preserving a stable and peaceful cyberspace. These interrelated “Three Warfares” disciplines have targeted the cognitive processes of the U.S. leadership, as well as the international public’s perception of China as a global threat, thereby having successfully forestalled the implementation of any effective punitive or economic deterrence strategy to include the imposition of cyber sanctions.

  2. Extraordinary Measures: Drone Warfare, Securitization, and the “War on Terror”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniuk Scott Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles or “drones,” as part of the United States’ (US targeted killing (TK program dramatically increased after the War on Terror (WoT was declared. With the ambiguous nature and parameters of the WoT, and stemming from the postulation of numerous low-level, niche-, and other securitizations producing a monolithic threat, US drone operations now constitute a vital stitch in the extensive fabric of US counterterrorism policy. This article employs the theories of securitization and macrosecuritization as discussed by Buzan (1991, 2006, and Buzan and Wæver (2009 to understand targeted killing, by means of weaponized drones, as an extraordinary measure according to the Copenhagen School’s interpretation. An overarching securitization and the use of the “security” label warrants the emergency action of targeted killing through the use of drones as an extraordinary measure. We argue that the WoT serves as a means of securitizing global terrorism as a threat significant enough to warrant the use of drone warfare as an extraordinary use of force. By accepting the WoT as a securitization process we can reasonably accept that the US’ response(s against that threat are also securitized and therefore become extraordinary measures.

  3. Approximation and Filtering Techniques for Navigation Data in Time-critical Electronic Warfare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a holistic solution to the navigation requirements in a time critical electronic warfare systems like missile warning systems (MWS. In a passive MWS using IR sensors the efficiency of the system is determined by attributes such as low false alarm rate, minimal response time and ability to track different IR radiating objects by association and correlation of consecutive detections through time. Such a system is required to be supported by a navigation system capable of accurate estimation of the aircraft position, attitude angles and altitude. In this paper, estimation techniques used to accurately calculate aircraft navigation data at the time of capture of IR frames are discussed. The paper discusses about synchronization of INGPS, IR sensors & Processor on to same timeline. The paper also intends to evaluate the performance of wavelet transform filter in effective elimination of noise in navigation parameters like acceleration and attitude angle rates for a better estimation of position and attitude.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.204-209, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4265

  4. Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2016-05-01

    The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium's somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources.

  5. Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2016-05-01

    The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium's somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources. PMID:27002520

  6. Stem-loop oligonucleotide beacons as switches for amplifying-fluorescent-polymer-based biological warfare sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D.; Ramachandran, Akhilesh; Malayer, Jerry R.; Moon, Joong Ho; Hancock, Lawrence F.

    2003-09-01

    Sensors that are exceptionally sensitive with real-time outputs and minimal consumption of reagents are needed to continuously monitor air and water against bioterrorist incidents. Amplifying fluorescent polymers (AFP) provide exceptionally sensitive real-time reagentless sensor platforms as applied to detection of nitroaromatic explosives. This platform technology has the potential to be adapted to detect biological warfare (BW) agents by covalently attaching the 5" end of stem-loop molecular beacons to AFP as DNA hybridization signal transduction switches. Molecular beacons with loop sequences specific for sequence signatures of a target BW agent are configured with a quencher on the end of the 3" arm of the stem-loop. The AFP is quenched in the absence of target DNA, but upon hybridization with target the stem is melted, the duplex loop extended, and the AFP dequenched. This signal transduction is reversible upon removal of the target sequence with the molecular beacon reforming the stem-loop conformation. Proof-of-concept research has demonstrated that molecular beacons for signature sequences of Francisella tularensis result in correct identification of the presence of this agent in samples, but no false positives were seen with Escherichia coli.

  7. Healthcare and warfare. Medical space, mission and apartheid in twentieth century northern Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Catharina

    2014-07-01

    In the year 1966, the first government hospital, Oshakati hospital, was inaugurated in northern South-West Africa. It was constructed by the apartheid regime of South Africa which was occupying the territory. Prior to this inauguration, Finnish missionaries had, for 65 years, provided healthcare to the indigenous people in a number of healthcare facilities of which Onandjokwe hospital was the most important. This article discusses these two agents' ideological standpoints. The same year, the war between the South-West African guerrillas and the South African state started, and continued up to 1988. The two hospitals became involved in the war; Oshakati hospital as a part of the South African war machinery, and Onandjokwe hospital as a 'terrorist hospital' in the eyes of the South Africans. The missionary Onandjokwe hospital was linked to the Lutheran church in South-West Africa, which became one of the main critics of the apartheid system early in the liberation war. Warfare and healthcare became intertwined with apartheid policies and aggression, materialised by healthcare provision based on strategic rationales rather than the people's healthcare needs. When the Namibian state took over a ruined healthcare system in 1990, the two hospitals were hubs in a healthcare landscape shaped by missionary ambitions, war and apartheid logic.

  8. Global physics: from percolation to terrorism, guerilla warfare and clandestine activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galam, Serge

    2003-12-01

    The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism with worldwide range of destruction. It is argued to result from the first worldwide percolation of passive supporters. They are people sympathetic to the terrorism cause but without being involved with it. They just do not oppose it in case they could. This scheme puts suppression of the percolation as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Acting on the population is shown to be useless. Instead a new strategic scheme is suggested to increase the terrorism percolation threshold and in turn suppress the percolation. The relevant associated space is identified as a multi-dimensional social space including both the ground earth surface and all various independent flags displayed by the terrorist group. Some hints are given on how to shrink the geographical spreading of terrorism threat. The model apply to a large spectrum of clandestine activities including guerilla warfare as well as tax evasion, corruption, illegal gambling, illegal prostitution and black markets.

  9. THE TWENTIETH CENTURY DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF BACTERIAL, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND THE PRESENT CAPABILITIES OF NATO AND THE WARSAW PACT IN THIS RESPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.S. Hudson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years increased attention has been focused on the military uses of Bacterial, Biological and Chemical agents (BBC weapons. This phenomenon can be attributed to a number of reasons. Firstly, BBC weapons are comparatively cheap and simple to produce, they are easy to use as conventional weapons and their effects are short-lived. The mutual deterrence effect of nuclear weapons, furthermore, has necessitated the exploration of other fields of warfare of which - BBC warfare is a field. Another reason for this interest is the employment, on a limited scale, of such weapons in certain conflicts over this period.

  10. Effect of matrine hydrochloride on liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-bo; XU Feng; MA Wen-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective Searching the function that the Injection of the matrine hydrochloride prevents and cures acute chemical liver injury of mice、 immunity liver injury of mice and chronic liver injury of rats. Methods Acute hepatic injury models of mice induced by Chemical poison carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), thioacetamide(TAA), D-galactosamine(D-GalN), immunity hepatic injury model of mice induced by BCG and fat polysaccharide (LPS), chronic liver injury model of rats induced by CCI, were introduced in the experiment. The serum ALT and AST were measured in acute hepatic injury experiments. Serum ALT, AST, AKP, ALB, TP, BiL-T, ereatinine, triglyceride, sialie acid, larninin, hyaluronic acid, type Ⅲ proeollagen and type Ⅳ collagen, hepatic hydroxyproline (HyP) of rats in chronic liver injury animals were determined after Injection of the matrine hydrochloride. Results The Injection of the matrine hydrochloride reduced serum ALT and AST level of acute chemical liver injury of mice induced by CCl4, TAA and D-GaIN. The index of the liver and the spleen of immunity liver injury of mice induced by BCG and LPS were decreased after the injection of matrine hydrochloride treatment. Compared with the model group, the injection may obviously inhibited serum ALT, AST, TP, AKP, TRI, BiL-T, creatinine, triglyceride, sialic acid, laminin , hyaluronic acid , type Ⅲ procollagen and type Ⅳ collagen activity of chronic liver injury of rats induced by CCl4, elevated ALB、A/G, reduced the liver HyP, decreased the index of the liver and the spleen. The liver visual observation, the pathology inspection and the HAI grading result showed the injection may reduce the inflammatory activity in liver tissue, restrain the liver cell damage, reduce the pseudolobuli formation. Conclusions The Injection of matrine hydrochloride had the protective function to acute chemical hepatic injury of mice induced by CCl4、TAA、D-GalN、immunity hepatic injury of mice induced by the BCG and LPS and

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Coping with a New Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair ... after an injury? What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? What are the ...

  12. Spinal injury - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  13. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? What is the "Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems" program? ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ...

  15. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient After Spinal ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work ...

  18. Sports injuries of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G A

    1972-07-01

    The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

  19. Modern warfare as a significant form of zoogeomorphic disturbance upon the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupy, Joseph P.; Koehler, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    The damage exerted by warfare on the physical landscape is one, of many, anthropogenic impacts upon the environment. Bombturbation is a term that describes the impacts of explosive munitions upon the landscape. Bombturbation, like many other forms of zoogeomorphology, is a disruptive force, capable of moving large amounts of sediments, and denuding landscapes to the point where changes in micro and mesotopography have long-term implications. The long term implication of bombturbative actions depends on the type and duration of explosive device that rendered the disturbance, and the geographic context of the landscape disturbed; i.e. cultural and physical factors. Recovery from bombturbative activity, in the context of this research, is measured by vegetative regrowth and soil development in cratered disturbances. A comparison and contrast between the two battlefields of Verdun, France and Khe Sanh, Vietnam show that bombturbative actions have significantly altered the topography at each location, thus influencing surface runoff and processes of soil development. Principals of the Runge pedogenic model, or the energy of water moving through the soil profile, best explain how the varying climate and parent material at each location influence post disturbance soil development rates. Whereas the data collected at Verdun suggest that explosive munitions have put that landscape on diverging path of development, thus rendering it much different post-disturbance landscape, Khe Sanh displays much different recovery patterns. Preliminary research at Khe Sanh indicates that reforestation and soil development following disturbance are not so much influenced by bombturbative patterns as land use activities in the area of study.

  20. Surface plasmon resonance detection of biological warfare agent Staphylococcal enterotoxin B using high affinity monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel sensitive method was developed for the detection as well as quantification of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). It is well known that the amount of SEB needed to cause the intoxication to human beings is very less and this concentration (0.02 μg/kg) is highly dangerous, hence, it is used as biological warfare agent. Thus, the need to develop a reliable and potential detection system against SEB is warranted. In the present work, SEB antibody was immobilized on carboxymethyldextran modified gold chip. The immobilization of SEB antibody and interaction of antigen with immobilized antibody were in-situ characterized by SPR and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A sample solution containing SEB antigen was injected in a working channel and the results revealed linearity in the concentration from 2.0 to 32.0 pM with a detection limit of 1.0 pM. By using kinetic evaluation software, KD (equilibrium constant) and Bmax (maximum binding capacity of analyte) values were calculated and found to be 13 pM and 424.23, respectively. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameter, change in Gibb's free energy was deduced and found to be -62.08 kJ/mol and this value shows the spontaneous interaction between SEB antigen and SEB antibody. In order to optimize the detection method, temperature and pH variation studies were also performed. Interference study was conducted to know the selectivity for the antigen-antibody interaction of SEB. The selectivity efficiency of SEB, SEC, SEA and SED were 100, 27.15, 20.01 and 12.05%, respectively towards SEB antibody.

  1. Multiple functional UV devices based on III-Nitride quantum wells for biological warfare agent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Savage, Susan; Persson, Sirpa; Noharet, Bertrand; Junique, Stéphane; Andersson, Jan Y.; Liuolia, Vytautas; Marcinkevicius, Saulius

    2009-02-01

    We have demonstrated surface normal detecting/filtering/emitting multiple functional ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices based on InGaN/GaN, InGaN/AlGaN and AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with operation wavelengths ranging from 270 nm to 450 nm. Utilizing MQW structure as device active layer offers a flexibility to tune its long cut-off wavelength in a wide UV range from solar-blind to visible by adjusting the well width, well composition and barrier height. Similarly, its short cut-off wavelength can be adjusted by using a GaN or AlGaN block layer on a sapphire substrate when the device is illuminated from its backside, which further provides an optical filtering effect. When a current injects into the device under forward bias the device acts as an UV light emitter, whereas the device performs as a typical photodetector under reverse biases. With applying an alternating external bias the device might be used as electroabsorption modulator due to quantum confined Stark effect. In present work fabricated devices have been characterized by transmission/absorption spectra, photoresponsivity, electroluminescence, and photoluminescence measurements under various forward and reverse biases. The piezoelectric effect, alloy broadening and Stokes shift between the emission and absorption spectra in different InGaN- and AlGaN-based QW structures have been investigated and compared. Possibilities of monolithic or hybrid integration using such multiple functional devices for biological warfare agents sensing application have also be discussed.

  2. Contaminated open fracture and crush injury:a murine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shawn R Gilbert; Justin Camara; Richard Camara; Lynn Duffy; Ken Waites; Hyunki Kim; Kurt Zinn

    2015-01-01

    Modern warfare has caused a large number of severe extremity injuries, many of which become infected. In more recent conflicts, a pattern of co-infection with Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged. We attempted to recreate this pattern in an animal model to evaluate the role of vascularity in contaminated open fractures. Historically, it has been observed that infected bones frequently appear hypovascular, but vascularity in association with bone infection has not been examined in animal models. Adult rats underwent femur fracture and muscle crush injury followed by stabilization and bacterial contamination with A. baumannii complex and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Vascularity and perfusion were assessed by microCT angiography and SPECT scanning, respectively, at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after injury. Quantitative bacterial cultures were also obtained. Multi-bacterial infections were successfully created, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus predominating. There was overall increase in blood flow to injured limbs that was markedly greater in bacteria-inoculated limbs. Vessel volume was greater in the infected group. Quadriceps atrophy was seen in both groups, but was greater in the infected group. In this animal model, infected open fractures had greater perfusion and vascularity than non-infected limbs.

  3. Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pitschmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

  4. Injuries in Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS KOSTOPOULOS & DIMITRIOS PHILLIPOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety players of 8 teams in 2 male team basketball senior divisions were observed prospectively for 1 season to study the injury incidence in relation to exposure in games and practices. Forty-six injuries were recorded. Injury incidence was evaluated at 2.5 injuries per 1000 player-hours, with a significantly higher incidence in game injuries (14.3 injuries per 1000 game-hours compared with practice injuries(0.6 injuries per 1000 practice-hours.Practice injury incidence was higher in the lower performance level group, and game injury incidence was higher in the high-level group. The upper extremity was involved in 37% of the injuries, and the lower extremity in 54%.The knee was the most commonly injured joint, followed by the finger, ankle, and shoulder. Knee injuries were the most severe injuries, and they were more frequent in high-level players. There was an increase in the severity of injury with respect to performance level. The injury mechanism revealed a high number of offensive injuries, one-third of them occurring during a counterattack. The injury pattern showed certain variations with respect to player position and performance level.

  5. Managing traumatic brain injury secondary to explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess Paula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosions and bombings are the most common deliberate cause of disasters with large numbers of casualties. Despite this fact, disaster medical response training has traditionally focused on the management of injuries following natural disasters and terrorist attacks with biological, chemical, and nuclear agents. The following article is a clinical primer for physicians regarding traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by explosions and bombings. The history, physics, and treatment of TBI are outlined.

  6. Information Warfare and New Organizational Landscapes: An Inquiry into the ExxonMobil–Greenpeace Dispute over Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Brad; Munro, I.

    2012-01-01

    A defining characteristic of the emergence of new organizational landscapes is that information is not just being used as a tool by organizations, as it is more usually understood, but also as a weapon in a ‘war of position’. As organizations seek to influence public perception over such emotive issues as climate change, conflict at the ideation level can give rise to information warfare campaigns. In this article, we analyse the ways in which ExxonMobil and Greenpeace employ distinctive info...

  7. 竞技排球运动心理战理论模型的构建%Theoretical Models of Psychological Warfare Built in Competitive Volleyball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪庆

    2011-01-01

    通过对军事心理学中心理战思想的精心研读,结合竞技排球运动与战场心理战的共通之处,从理论建设、专业人才建设、规章制度建设、谋略创新建设以及球队心理素质建设五个方面构建了竞技排球运动心理战的理论模型。%This article through the study of thoughts of psychological warfare in military psychology carefully, combined with the commons of volleyball and psychological warfare, from five aspects that construction of theory, construction of professional, and construction of rules and regulations, construction of counsel innovation and construction of team psychological quality to construct the theoretical model of psychological warfare of volleyball.

  8. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflicted traumatic brain injury (ITBI), is a leading cause of child maltreatment deaths in the United States. Meeting the ... Awareness Additional Prevention Resources Childhood Injuries Concussion in Children and Teens Injuries from Violence Injuries from Motor Vehicle Crashes Teen Driver Safety ...

  9. Managing iatrogenic tracheal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goonasekera C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases of iatrogenic tracheal injury. Two patients suffered acute tracheal injuries during anesthesia/surgery, one was managed surgically and the other conservatively. The third case is a delayed tracheal injury presenting as a fistula. The reasons for surgical vs conservative management of tracheal injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  10. Managing iatrogenic tracheal injuries

    OpenAIRE

    A. Goonasekera C; Esufali S

    2005-01-01

    We present three cases of iatrogenic tracheal injury. Two patients suffered acute tracheal injuries during anesthesia/surgery, one was managed surgically and the other conservatively. The third case is a delayed tracheal injury presenting as a fistula. The reasons for surgical vs conservative management of tracheal injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  11. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt;

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  12. Injuries in professional footballers.

    OpenAIRE

    Muckle, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of injuries in footballers is described. Nearly half of footballer's injuries involve the knee, with vertical tearing of the meniscus being common; surgical intervention may be required. Approximately one third of injuries involve the ankle, and will often require immobilisation. Other injuries include muscle damage, spondylosis of L4 or L5, concussion, and dislocations. The importance of prompt and correct treatment of injuries is emphasised.

  13. Injuries in orienteering.

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, F.

    1986-01-01

    In a one-year prospective study of 42 elite orienteers, 73 recent injuries (1.7 per runner per year) were found. Acute injuries totalled 52% and 48% were due to overuse. Ankle sprains made up 37% of acute injuries while the remaining were mainly contusions caused by falls or bumps against branches or rocks. Medial shin pain, Achilles peritendinitis, peroneal tenosynovitis and iliotibial band friction syndrome were the most frequent overuse injuries. All overuse injuries were located in the lo...

  14. Coalition Warfare Program (CWP): secure policy controlled information query and dissemination over a Bices network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Andrew; Pham, Tien; Karr, Todd; Bent, Graham; Harries, Dominic; Knox, Alan

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) established a collaborative research alliance with academia and industry, called the International Technology Alliance (ITA) to address fundamental issues concerning Network and Information Sciences. Under the ITA research program, a US-UK transition project on "ITA Policy Controlled Information Query and Dissemination" was funded in 2011 by OSD's Coalition Warfare Program (CWP). The goal of this CWP project is to develop an extensible capability of performing distributed federated query and information dissemination across a coalition network of distributed disparate data/information sources with access­ controlled policies. The CWP project is lead by US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and UK Defence Science Technology Laboratory (Dstl) with software development by IBM UK and IBM US. The CWP project exploits two key technology components developed within the ITA, namely the Gaian Database and integrated Access Policy Decision and Enforcement mechanisms. The Gaian Database (GaianDB) is a Dynamic Distributed Federated Database (DDFD) that addresses a need to share information among coalition members by providing a means for policy-controlled access to data across a network of heterogeneous data sources. GaianDB implements a SQL-compliant Store-Locally-Query-Anywhere (SLQA) approach providing software applications with global access to data from any node in the database network via standard SQL queries. Security policy is stored locally and enforced at the database node level, reducing potential for unauthorized data access and waste of network bandwidth. A key metric of success for a CWP project is the transition of coalition-related technology from TRL-3 or 4 to TRL-6 or higher. Thus, the end goal of this CWP project was to demonstrate the GaianDB and policy technology within an operational environment at the NATO Intelligence Fusion Centre (NIFC) at Molesworth RAF. An initial

  15. Optimization of a chemical identification algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, Thomas H.; Fisk, Brian; Gunning, Christin; Farley, Kevin; Polizzi, Amber; Baughman, David; Simpson, Steven; Slamani, Mohamed-Adel; Almassy, Robert; Da Re, Ryan; Li, Eunice; MacDonald, Steve; Slamani, Ahmed; Mitchell, Scott A.; Pendell-Jones, Jay; Reed, Timothy L.; Emge, Darren

    2010-04-01

    A procedure to evaluate and optimize the performance of a chemical identification algorithm is presented. The Joint Contaminated Surface Detector (JCSD) employs Raman spectroscopy to detect and identify surface chemical contamination. JCSD measurements of chemical warfare agents, simulants, toxic industrial chemicals, interferents and bare surface backgrounds were made in the laboratory and under realistic field conditions. A test data suite, developed from these measurements, is used to benchmark algorithm performance throughout the improvement process. In any one measurement, one of many possible targets can be present along with interferents and surfaces. The detection results are expressed as a 2-category classification problem so that Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) techniques can be applied. The limitations of applying this framework to chemical detection problems are discussed along with means to mitigate them. Algorithmic performance is optimized globally using robust Design of Experiments and Taguchi techniques. These methods require figures of merit to trade off between false alarms and detection probability. Several figures of merit, including the Matthews Correlation Coefficient and the Taguchi Signal-to-Noise Ratio are compared. Following the optimization of global parameters which govern the algorithm behavior across all target chemicals, ROC techniques are employed to optimize chemical-specific parameters to further improve performance.

  16. Smart phones: platform enabling modular, chemical, biological, and explosives sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Amethist S.; Coppock, Matthew; Bickford, Justin R.; Conn, Marvin A.; Proctor, Thomas J.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2013-05-01

    Reliable, robust, and portable technologies are needed for the rapid identification and detection of chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) materials. A key to addressing the persistent threat to U.S. troops in the current war on terror is the rapid detection and identification of the precursor materials used in development of improvised explosive devices, homemade explosives, and bio-warfare agents. However, a universal methodology for detection and prevention of CBE materials in the use of these devices has proven difficult. Herein, we discuss our efforts towards the development of a modular, robust, inexpensive, pervasive, archival, and compact platform (android based smart phone) enabling the rapid detection of these materials.

  17. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  18. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  19. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S; Traystman, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of individuals incur ischemic brain injury from stroke, cardiac arrest, or traumatic brain injury. These acquired brain injuries can lead to death or long-term neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. The mechanisms of ischemic and traumatic brain injury that lead to these deficiencies result from a complex interplay of interdependent molecular pathways, including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This article reviews several mechanisms of brain injury and discusses recent developments. Although much is known from animal models of injury, it has been difficult to translate these effects to humans. PMID:27521191

  20. Lisfranc Joint Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Chinn

    2009-01-01

    @@ The ankle and foot are the most common sites for athletic injuries.[1]Midfoot,or Lisfranc,injuries are the second most common foot injury and have a high in cidence in particular sports.They account for 4% of all football injuries per year,occurring frequently in linemen.[2]They are also common in equestrians,surfers,and windsurfers.[2]Lisfranc injuries are often misdiagnosed and if not treated properly can have lingering symptoms.It is estimated that Lisfranc joint injuries occur in 1 in every 55,000 persons every year.[3,4

  1. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  2. Teeth Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Teeth Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Teeth Injuries ... or young child injures the gums or baby teeth: Apply pressure to the area (if it's bleeding) ...

  3. What Are Sports Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  4. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? What is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? ...

  6. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children are admitted to the hospital for these reasons or if they were unconscious even briefly or had a seizure. Children are also admitted to the hospital if child abuse is suspected. Severe head injury If the injury ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Partnerships How Social Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work How Occupational Therapists Work Occupational Therapy Enables Daily ...

  8. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis and detection of mid-spectrum biological warfare agents. Suffield memorandum No. 1463

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Mid-spectrum biological warfare agents such as proteins, peptides, and toxins are often difficult to analyze and often require individually developed assay methods for detection and identification. In this regard, capillary electrophoresis is an important, emerging technique for separation and quantitation of peptides and proteins, providing separation efficiencies up to two orders of magnitude greater than high performance liquid chromatography. The technique can also analyze a broad range of compounds, has a simple instrument design which can be automated, and has low sample volume requirements. In this study, a highly efficient and reproducible capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed to separate and identify a series of nine peptides of defense interest including bradykinin, leucine enkephalin, and oxytocin. The paper demonstrates three strategies which could be used in a fully automated field detection and identification system for unknown peptides.

  9. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life ...

  11. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  12. Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  13. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  14. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    1992-01-01

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26 years

  15. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  16. 网络电磁空间作战威胁分析%Analysis of Cyber Electromagnetic Space Warfare Threat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾胜利

    2014-01-01

    提出了网电空间作战几个需要关注的问题以及解决方案,使得部队可以根据战场具体环境,进行适应性的应用。首先陈述了网电空间作战的特点,接着阐述了在网电空间中军队所要面临、应对的现实威胁。然后针对这些威胁进行了进一步分析,并且确定了战场环境下所需要的基础安全条件。最后从四个层面阐述了网电空间的脆弱性,同时给出了防御措施。该工作可以对确立可实施的网电空间战术以及有效地组织网电空间行动形成支撑。%A cyber warfare scenario is shown ,which is applicable on the basis of modern battlefield situations .The sce-nario removes misconceptions about present cyber warfare properties and defines actual dangers that should be prepared for in the background of the cyberspace .The dangers are analyzed further and the basic security prerequisites are determined . Technologies are proposed that offer the basic necessary for achieving these prerequisites .An organization of cyberspace weaknesses and the correlative defenses in four levels is shown .Conclusions are drawn that demonstrate the manner in which cyber threats should be determined ,their likelihood assessed and averted .This knowledge leads to the determination of im-plementable cyber tactics and effective organization of cyber operations .

  17. [Trampoline injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  18. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  19. United States chemical policy: Response considerations. Master's Thesis 1 Aug 90-7 Jun 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanDyke, L.L.

    1991-06-07

    Chemical weapons have been a controversial subject for years. Even before the Germans introduced modern chemical warfare on 22 April 1915 during World War I, issues concerning use of asphyxiating gases and other chemical agents surfaced. Discussions often became emotional and clouded the issues of the effects of this type of warfare. Propaganda and sensationalism contributed to negative public opinion and impacted on policy development. This study examines the development of the US's chemical policy by looking at significant events over time and analyzing developments and trends. An answer to the question of whether or not the US will respond with chemical weapons following use by a third world country against US military forces is concluded based on study findings. This study concluded that the US will not respond with chemical weapons against a third world country such as Iraq. Such use of chemical weapons would reverse the developments the US has made in recent years. The political considerations and the impact on future negotiations toward the banning of chemical weapons would be detrimental if the US did retaliate with chemical weapons.

  20. Clinical and forensic signs related to chemical burns: a mechanistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Carvalho, Félix; Moreira, Roxana; Proença, Jorge Brandão; Santos, Agostinho; Duarte, José Alberto; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Magalhães, Teresa

    2015-06-01

    This manuscript highlights and critically analyses clinical and forensic signs related to chemical burns. Signs that may lead to suspicion of a particular chemical are thoroughly discussed regarding its underlying mechanisms. Burns due to sulfuric, hydrofluoric, nitric, hydrochloric (muriatic) and acetic (including derivatives) acids, hydrogen sulphide, sodium (caustic soda) and calcium (cement) hydroxides, paraquat, burns after inflation and rupture of airbags, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine/alcohol (in preterm infants), laxatives, and vesicants (warfare agents), will be reviewed since these are the most common agents found in daily practice, for which relevant and timed information may be helpful in formulating an emergency treatment protocols and toxicological analysis.

  1. Hydrogeologic and chemical data for the O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoff, P.R.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    O-Field, located at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground , Maryland, was periodically used for disposal of munitions, waste chemicals, and chemical-warfare agents from World War II through the 1950' s. This report includes various physical, geologic, chemical, and hydrologic data obtained from well-core, groundwater, surface water, and bottom-sediment sampling sites at and near the O-Field disposal area. The data are presented in tables and hydrographs. Three site-location maps are also included. Well-core data include lithologic logs for 11 well- cluster sites, grain-size distributions, various chemical characteristics, and confining unit characteristics. Groundwater data include groundwater chemistry, method blanks for volatile organic carbon, available data on volatile and base/neutral organics, and compilation of corresponding method blanks, chemical-warfare agents, explosive-related products, radionuclides, herbicides, and groundwater levels. Surface-water data include field-measured characteristics; concentrations of various inorganic constituents including arsenic; selected organic constituents with method blanks; detection limits of organics; and a compilation of information on corresponding acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. Bottom- sediment data include inorganic properties and constituents; organic chemistry; detection limits for organic chemicals; a compilation of information on acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles; and method blanks corresponding to acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. A set of 15 water- level hydrographs for the period March 1986 through September 1987 also is included in the report. (USGS)

  2. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  3. Biomechanics of whiplash injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-bin; King H YANG; WANG Zheng-guo

    2009-01-01

    Despite a large number of rear-end collisions on the road and a high frequency of whiplash injuries reported, the mechanism of whiplash injuries is not completely understood. One of the reasons is that the injury is not necessarily accompanied by obvious tissue damage detectable by X-ray or MRI. An extensive series of biomechanics studies, including injury epidemiology, neck kinematics,facet capsule ligament mechanics, injury mechanisms and injury criteria, were undertaken to help elucidate these whiplash injury mechanisms and gain a better understanding of cervical facet pain. These studies provide the following evidences to help explain the mechanisms of the whiplash injury: (1) Whiplash injuries are generally considered to be a soft tissue injury of the neck with symptoms such as neck pain and stiffness, shoulder weakness, dizziness, headache and memory loss, etc. (2) Based on kinematical studies on the cadaver and volunteers, there are three distinct periods that have the potential to cause injury to the neck. In the first stage, flexural deformation of the neck is observed along with a loss of cervical lordosis; in the second stage, the cervical spine assumes an S-shaped curve as the lower vertebrae begin to extend and gradually cause the upper vertebrae to extend; during the final stage, the entire neck is extended due to the extension moments at both ends. (3)The in vivo environment afforded by rodent models of injury offers particular utility for linking mechanics, nociception and behavioral outcomes. Experimental findings have examined strains across the facet joint as a mechanism of whiplash injury, and suggested a capsular strain threshold or a vertebral distraction threshold for whiplash-related injury,potentially producing neck pain. (4) Injuries to the facet capsule region of the neck are a major source of post-crash pain. There are several hypotheses on how whiplash-associated injury may occur and three of these injuries are related to strains within

  4. Injuries in Irish dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury. PMID:24565331

  5. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanizaki S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shinsuke Tanizaki Department of Emergency Medicine, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui, Japan Abstract: Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. Keywords: inhalation injury, burn, carbon monoxide poisoning, cyanide poisoning

  6. 未来海上信息战的舰载雷达技术发展研究%Development of Shipborne Radar Technology in Future Information Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱文

    2015-01-01

    This paper first analyzes the demand of shipborne radar in the future information warfare at sea .And then the development ideas about shipborne radar technique adapted for future information warfare at sea are elaborated including shipborne radar networking ,multi‐sensor information fusion ,shipborne electronic equipment integration .%从未来海上信息战对舰载雷达提出的要求出发,阐述了适应未来海上信息战的舰载雷达技术发展思路:舰载雷达组网、多传感器信息融合、与舰载电子设备的一体化和集成化等。

  7. Soccer injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Radiology Department, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  8. Soccer injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  9. Lisfranc injuries in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeOrio, Matthew; Erickson, Melissa; Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Easley, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Injuries to the Lisfranc ligament complex have traditionally been associated with high energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions and industrial accidents. Recently, there has been a greater appreciation of mid-foot sprains that represent a spectrum of injury to the Lisfranc ligament complex. As a result, there has been an increased incidence of such injury resulting from low-energy trauma in activities ranging from recreational activity to elite athletic activity. This article discusses issues related to anatomy, clinical presentation, mechanism of injury, and diagnosis that are necessary to provide appropriate treatment for these injuries. There should be a high index of suspicion of this injury, and prompt diagnosis is important to allow athletes to return to sport with the best possible outcome. PMID:19501801

  10. Assessing victory: how to identify the correct measures of success in counterinsurgency warfare-the case of the FARC in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Alexander B.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis applies net assessment to the Colombian Governments protracted campaign against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) in order to determine proper metrics to track progress in counterinsurgency warfare. Net assessment is used to analyze potential centers of gravity to determine the correct center of gravity. Armed with the correct center of gravity, potential critical vulnerabilities are examined. Finally, once ...

  11. Development of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection and Quantification of Surrogate Biological Warfare Agents in Building Debris and Leachate▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal E. Saikaly; Barlaz, Morton A.; de los Reyes, Francis L.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of the fate and transport of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills requires the development of specific and sensitive detection assays. The objective of the current study was to develop and validate SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assays for the specific detection and quantification of surrogate BW agents in synthetic building debris (SBD) and leachate. Bacillus atrophaeus (vegetative cells and spores) and Serratia marcescens were used as surrogates for Bacillus...

  12. 数据挖掘在现代作战中的应用研究%Research on the Application of Data Mining to Modern Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑

    2012-01-01

    随着装备技术的发展,现代作战具有作战单元种类数量多、攻防战术复杂、干扰性欺骗性数据充斥等特点,尤其是协同作战能力和数据交换能力逐步增强,以上都使得现代作战中涉及的信息呈现“海量”特征.为了取得理想的作战效果,指挥员必须对以上海量信息进行处理,从中提取出有用的信息和知识.近年来迅速发展的数据挖掘技术,在处理海量信息方面具有非常明显的优势.文章在介绍现代作战特点和数据挖掘技术的基础上,对数据挖掘技术在现代作战中的应用做了初步的研究.%The development of equipment technology makes the modern warfare has large numbers and many types of combat units, more complex offensive and defensive tactics, so full of interference and fraudulent data, and especially the cooperative engagement capability and data exchange capability are gradually increasing. Above features lead to massive information involved in modern warfare. In order to a-chieve the desired combat effect, commanders must handle massive information involved to extract useful information and knowledge. Data mining technology which is developing rapidly in recent years has a big advantage in handling massive information. This paper describes the characteristics of modern warfare and data mining technology, and makes a preliminary study on the application of data mining technology to modem warfare.

  13. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record. PMID:9196622

  14. Karate and karate injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    McLatchie, G

    1981-01-01

    The origins of karate and its evolution as a sport are described. Karate injuries tend to occur in three main areas: the head and neck, the viscera, and the limbs. Effective legislation controlling karate, which could help prevent injuries, is lacking at the moment and should be established. Recommendations for the prevention of injury include the introduction of weight classes, mandatory provision of protective equipment such as padded flooring, and the outlawing of certain uncontrollable m...

  15. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  16. Protective Effects of Different Dosing Position of Misgurnus Anguillicaudatus Lyophilized Power on Chemical Liver Injury in Mice Induced by CCl4%泥鳅不同部位冻干粉对小鼠四氯化碳化学性肝损伤保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商萌萌; 凌去非; 汪务诚; 刘春宇

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate different dosing position of Misgurnus Anguiliicaudatus lyophilized power on chemical liver injury in mice induced by CCl4, screening of the best effective part. Methods: A mouse model of acute liver injury was induced by carbon tetraohloride, determining of serum ALT and AST activities so as to observe different parts of Misgurnus Anguiliicaudatus lyophilized power protective effect. Results: Misgurnus Anguiliicaudatus whole lyophilized power and muscle lyophilized power can significantly reduce the mice serum ALT and AST activities ( P0.05 ) . Conclusion: The Misgurnus Anguiliicaudatus lyophilized power had significant effect on mice liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride. The effect of Misgurnus Anguiliicaudatus whole lyophilized power is most obvious, which is the main effective part of liver protection.%目的:本文研究不同部位泥鳅冻干粉对小鼠四氯化碳肝损伤的保护作用,筛选有效部位.方法:采用小鼠四氯化碳急性肝损伤模型,测定小鼠血清ALT、AST活性,观察泥鳅不同部位冻干粉的保护作用.结果:泥鳅全冻干粉和泥鳅肌肉冻干粉显著降低小鼠血清中ALT、AST活性(P<0.05),而泥鳅皮冻干粉的作用不明显(P>0.05).结论:泥鳅冻干粉对小鼠四氯化碳肝损伤具有显著的保护作用,其中泥鳅全冻干粉的作用最明显,是泥鳅保肝的主要有效部位.

  17. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury How Occupational Therapists Work How Occupational Therapists Work Occupational Therapy Enables Daily Life Occupational Therapy Enables Daily Life Occupational Therapy Creates ...

  19. Acute injuries in Taekwondo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter-Brust, K; Leistenschneider, P; Dargel, J; Springorum, H P; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P

    2011-08-01

    Although Taekwondo is becoming an increasingly popular sport, there is a lack of reliable epidemiologic data on Taekwondo injuries. To perform an epidemiologic study on the variety of types of injury in professional and amateur Taekwondo athletes and to find a relation between Taekwondo style, skill level, weight-class and warm-up routine and the occurrence of injuries, we analysed the injury data using a 7-page questionnaire from a total of 356 Taekwondo athletes who were randomly selected. Overall, we registered a total of 2,164 injuries in 356 athletes. Most traumas were contusions and sprains in the lower extremities. Professional Taekwondo athletes have an increased risk of injury in comparison to recreational athletes. Taekwondo style, weight class and tournament frequency have an influence on the athlete's injury profile. Warm-up routines were found to have a positive effect on injury rates. Overall, Taekwondo may be considered a rather benign activity, if injuries during Taekwondo tournaments can be avoided. If not, Taekwondo can result in serious musculoskeletal problems.

  20. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPIC Sports Physicals Safety Tips: Basketball Safety Tips: Running Knee Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Safety Tips: Soccer Physical Therapy Sports Center Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ...

  1. 大数据在现代战争中的价值探析%Research on the Big Data’s Value in Modern Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新乐

    2014-01-01

    Modern warfare is information-dominated. Information penetrates the all aspects of the warfare and becomes one of the key factors which influence the success of the warfare. Effective acquisition, storage, processing and distribution of military in-formation via big data technology can promote the ability of intelligence acquisition and command decision-making, handle the choke point of information flow, advance the integration of operational system, and strengthen the information security and pro-tection.%现代战争是“信息主导”的战争,信息渗透到战争的方方面面,成为影响战争胜负的重要因素之一,利用大数据技术对军事信息进行高效获取、存储、处理和分发,能够有效提升情报获取、指挥决策能力,疏通信息流瓶颈,推进作战体系融合,增强信息安全防护能力。

  2. Warfare and Socio-political hierarchies: reflections on non-State societies of the predynastic Nile Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayubas, Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article, anthropologist Robert L. Carneiro reassessed his most debated hypothesis about the emergence of chiefdoms and the State as a result of environmental or social circumscription, theorized for a series of historical contexts including that of the Predynastic Nile Valley. The problem of the origin of the State is beyond our scope, but regarding the emergence of institutionalized leadership and chiefdoms in the Nile Valley, Carneiro’s ideas about warfare as a main factor in the process of social change remain interesting, even when his insistence in circumscription is still debatable. The aim of the present paper is to briefly review the available archaeological evidence of warfare among non-State societies of the Predynastic Nile Valley, and to evaluate its possible relation to the emergence of socio-political hierarchies, in turn refering to and criticizing some of Carneiro’s recent ideas about the issue.En un artículo reciente, Robert L. Carneiro presentó una reconsideración de su muy debatida hipótesis acerca de la emergencia de sociedades de jefatura y del Estado como resultado de un contexto de circunscripción ambiental, teorizada para una serie de situaciones históricas, entre ellas el valle del Nilo predinástico. El problema del origen del Estado excede las posibilidades de este trabajo, pero en lo que respecta al surgimiento de jefaturas, consideramos que las ideas de Carneiro acerca de la guerra como factor de importancia en el proceso revisten cierto interés, aun cuando su insistencia en la circunscripción continúa siendo discutible. El objetivo del presente artículo es considerar la evidencia arqueológica de guerra disponible para las sociedades no estatales del valle del Nilo predinástico y evaluar la posible relación entre dichos testimonios y la emergencia de jerarquías sociopolíticas, refiriendo y criticando algunas de las ideas recientes de Carneiro sobre el problema.

  3. Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James

    2011-05-01

    Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

  4. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Lott, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in c...

  5. Chemical-Sensing Cables Detect Potential Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Intelligent Optical Systems Inc. (IOS) completed Phase I and II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA's Langley Research Center to develop moisture- and pH-sensitive sensors to detect corrosion or pre-corrosive conditions, warning of potentially dangerous conditions before significant structural damage occurs. This new type of sensor uses a specially manufactured optical fiber whose entire length is chemically sensitive, changing color in response to contact with its target, and demonstrated to detect potentially corrosive moisture incursions to within 2 cm. After completing the work with NASA, the company received a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Phase III SBIR to develop the sensors further for detecting chemical warfare agents, for which they proved just as successful. The company then worked with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to fine tune the sensors for detecting potential threats, such as toxic industrial compounds and nerve agents. In addition to the work with government agencies, Intelligent Optical Systems has sold the chemically sensitive fiber optic cables to major automotive and aerospace companies, who are finding a variety of uses for the devices. Marketed under the brand name Distributed Intrinsic Chemical Agent Sensing and Transmission (DICAST), these unique continuous-cable fiber optic chemical sensors can serve in a variety of applications: Corrosive-condition monitoring, aiding experimentation with nontraditional power sources, as an economical means of detecting chemical release in large facilities, as an inexpensive "alarm" systems to alert the user to a change in the chemical environment anywhere along the cable, or in distance-resolved optical time domain reflectometry systems to provide detailed profiles of chemical concentration versus length.

  6. Hand injuries as an indicator of other associated severe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossoughi, Faranak; Krantz, Brent; Fann, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Retrospective data were collected from a level 1 trauma center registry. A total of 472 patients with hand injuries were admitted to the trauma unit between January 2000 and March 2004. Forty-four per cent of patients with hand injuries had life-threatening injuries. Fifty-one per cent of them had motor vehicle crash-related injuries. Motorcycle crashes were the next most common cause followed by explosions, falls, gunshots, machinery, stabs, bites, crushes, and so on. Frequency of associated injuries was as follows: head injuries, 31 per cent, including skull fractures, 22 per cent; spine injuries, 18 per cent, including spine fractures 18 per cent; chest injuries, 36 per cent, including rib fractures, 15 per cent; and abdominal injuries, 13 per cent. The authors focused on the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Motor vehicle crashes were most common cause of hand injuries. The most common organs to be injured were chest and head. The most common head injury was skull fracture. Other injuries in decreasing order were spine and rib fractures. These data may be helpful in assessing ambulatory patients in the emergency room, in those hand injuries maybe indicative of other simultaneous life-threatening or disabling injuries.

  7. Injury Free Coalition for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sites Awards Safety Resources Staff Donate Online! Injury Free News The Great Trade-In Event Returns to ... Free Site -- Injury Free Call for Proposals Injury Free is supported by the generous contributions of organizations ...

  8. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... knee. It prevents the knee from bending out. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is in the middle of the knee. ...

  9. Interpretation of a New Found Japanese Biological Warfare File%对一份新发现日本细菌战档案的解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫文婧

    2016-01-01

    Unit 731 focused on the research of Biological Warfare theory in the plan of biological warfare , But be-cause? of lack of evidence chain , this research is relatively backward .Entry Hojo who was the core member of Unit 731 , his speech draft On Biological Warfareis the recently found materials and evidences , has great academic research value.Through the interpretation of the Biological Warfare , analyzing the biological warfare is the vital criterion to e-valuate the research level and research competence , which is also an effective supplement to the evidences for the Jap-anese biological warfare war of aggression against China .%七三一部队在细菌战谋划中注重对细菌战理论的研究,但囿于相关证据链的缺失,致使此项研究相对滞后。七三一部队核心成员北条圆了的演讲稿《关于细菌战》作为新资料、新证据,具有重大的学术研究价值,是对国内所藏相关资料的重要补充,有助于丰富学术界对于日本细菌战理论问题的认知。《关于细菌战》是北条圆了在长期实践基础上积累形成的细菌战理论,可以在一定程度上还原战时日本细菌战的研究情况。通过对北条圆了其人及《关于细菌战》的梳理和解读,进而剖析日本细菌战理论是评估二战时期日本细菌战研究水平和研究能力的重要尺度,也是对日本侵华细菌战证据链的有效补充。

  10. Traumatic injuries: imaging of peripheral musculoskeletal injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohndorf, K. [Department of Radiology, Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany); Kilcoyne, R.F. [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The current dominant role of conventional radiography must be reassessed at increasingly shorter intervals in view of the continuing emergence of new imaging modalities that are available to diagnose peripheral musculoskeletal injuries. In comparison with conventional radiography, digital radiographic techniques offer advantages for optimization of image quality and dose, such as a wider dynamic range and post-processing of images. Currently, digital luminescence radiography (storage phosphor radiography) is the most commonly used digital method for obtaining radiographs, using the established positioning projections and routines of the film-screen technique. A new process, radiography with flat-panel amorphous silicon detectors, is still under development. Computed tomography is a valuable tool for diagnosing injuries of the peripheral musculoskeletal system, especially when three-dimensional data sets are acquired; these allow reformating images in all planes desired (2D technique) or in a volumetric format (3D technique). Established indications for CT in the peripheral skeleton are hip fractures, wrist injuries and calcaneal fractures; however, CT may be used as a supplement to radiography in every region of the body. Sonography is beginning to play an increasingly important role in trauma. Muscle and tendon injuries are the most common indications, but worthwhile information can be gained of the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee joints, supplementing conventional or digital radiography. Magnetic resonance imaging effectively visualizes traumatic changes of the skeleton and the peripheral soft tissues. It is the method of choice to detect occult fractures. It can be used to diagnose muscle and tendon injuries. Joint injuries, especially in the knee and the shoulder joint, are common indications for MRI in the posttraumatic setting. (orig.)

  11. Child Soldiery as a Tool of Modern Warfare(?: the Role of Child Soldiers in “New Wars”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra SZIJJ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The hardly-known but regrettably prevalent phenomenon of child soldiery, which can be considered as a new development of modern warfare, might affect approximately 250,000 – 300,000 children worldwide. According to the estimates, 40% of our planet’s armed forces or armed groups deploy “child combatants” for different tasks, while the international community is still struggling against this form of the abuse of children. The global nature of child soldiery raises many questions in many fields, because it has deep political, social, economic, military, environmental, ethnic and religious etc. roots and far reaching consequences in the so-called Third World. Moreover, if we focus on the African peacekeeping missions of the European Union, child soldiery might also have indirect impacts on the European community. The aim of this study is to offer a comprehensive approach in connection with child soldiery, and pointing out the links between the post-colonial conflicts and this form of human rights breaches.

  12. Maximum Likelihood Estimator for Bearings-only Passive Target Tracking in Electronic Surveillance Measure and Electronic Warfare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koteswara Rao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Maximum likelihood estimator is a suitable algorithm for passive target tracking applications. Nardone, Lindgren and Gong introduced this approach using batch processing. In this paper, the batch processing is converted into sequential processing for real-time applications like passive target tracking using bearings-only measurements. Adaptively, the variance of each measurement is computed and is used along with the measurement in such a way that the effect of false bearings can be reduced. The transmissions made by radar on a target ship are assumed to be intercepted by an electronic warfare (EW system of own ship. The generated bearings in intercept mode are processed through maximum likelihood estimator (MLE to find out target motion parameters. Instead of assuming some arbitrary values, pseudo linear estimator outputs are used for the initialisation of MLE. The algorithm is tested in Monte-Carlo simulation and its results are presented for two typical scenarios.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.197-203, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.340

  13. From energy-rich phosphate compounds to warfare agents: A review on the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Albino Giusti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of the phosphorus-oxygen bond is widely used in biological systems in many processes, such as energy transduction and the storage, transmission and expression of genetic information, which are essential to living beings in relation to a wide variety of functions. Compounds containing this bond have been designed for many purposes, ranging from agricultural defense systems, in order to increase food production, to nerve agents, for complaining use in warfare. In this review, features related to the chemistry of organic phosphate compounds are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of phosphate compounds in biochemical events and in nerve agents. To this aim, the energy-rich phosphate compounds are focused, particularly the mode of their use as energy currency in cells. Historical and recent studies carried out by research groups have tried to elucidate the mechanism of action of enzymes responsible for energy transduction through the use of biochemical studies, enzyme models, and artificial enzymes. Finally, recent studies on the detoxification of nerve agents based on phosphorous esters are presented, and on the utilization of chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors for the detection of these phosphate species.

  14. Extraordinary Adaptive Plasticity of Colorado Potato Beetle: “Ten-Striped Spearman” in the Era of Biotechnological Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Cingel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Expanding from remote areas of Mexico to a worldwide scale, the ten-striped insect, the Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, has risen from being an innocuous beetle to a prominent global pest. A diverse life cycle, phenotypic plasticity, adaptation to adverse conditions, and capability to detoxify or tolerate toxins make this insect appear to be virtually “indestructible”. With increasing advances in molecular biology, tools of biotechnological warfare were deployed to combat CPB. In the last three decades, genetically modified potato has created a new challenge for the beetle. After reviewing hundreds of scientific papers dealing with CPB control, it became clear that even biotechnological means of control, if used alone, would not defeat the Colorado potato beetle. This control measure once again appears to be provoking the potato beetle to exhibit its remarkable adaptability. Nonetheless, the potential for adaptation to these techniques has increased our knowledge of this pest and thus opened possibilities for devising more sustainable CPB management programs.

  15. Conquering Athletic Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul M., Ed.; Taylor, Diane K., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to be a source of complete, reliable, and practical sports medicine information. Experts from the American Running and Fitness Association describe in clear language how overuse injuries occur, how to recognize and self-treat them, when to seek professional help, and how to prevent future injuries. The book also…

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information ... spinal cord injuries and the members of their families. Our website has more than 1,500 videos ...

  17. Peroneal Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FootNotes Newsletter Current Issue Archive Subscribe Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Peroneal Tendon Injuries A A A | Print | Share Javascript is required ... cases, subluxation occurs following trauma, such as an ankle sprain. Damage or injury to the tissues that stabilize the tendons (retinaculum) ...

  18. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stretch their limits and learn sportsmanship and discipline. But any sport also carries the potential for injury. By knowing the causes of sports injuries and how to prevent them, you can help make athletics a positive experience for your child. Kids can be particularly ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes ... Patient Partnerships How Social Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help ... advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. ...

  20. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...

  1. Fatal Injuries in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid S. Khodasevich; Aleksei L. Khodasevich; Sergei G. Kuzin

    2013-01-01

    The literary review, related to fatal injuries in sports, contains epidemiology, their mechanisms, causes of death in sports. Injuries in different sports have their own features, concerned with sports equipment, performed exercises, sports facilities equipment and protective equipment, used by the athletes.

  2. Healing of Genital Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  3. Mild traumatic brain injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.E.; Alekseenko, Y.; Battistin, L.; Ehler, E.; Gerstenbrand, F.; Muresanu, D.F.; Potapov, A.; Stepan, C.A.; Traubner, P.; Vecsei, L.; Wild, K. von

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is among the most frequent neurological disorders. Of all TBIs 90% are considered mild with an annual incidence of 100-300/100.000. Intracranial complications of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) are infrequent (10%), requiring neurosurgical intervention in a minority o

  4. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also show

  5. Traumatic injuries: imaging of spinal injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, H.; Fuchsjaeger, M. [Department of Osteology, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2002-06-01

    Severe (high-energy) spinal injuries are common sequelae of acute traumas. The task of radiology is to establish the radiological diagnosis, classify it, judge stability and instability and lead further radiological evaluation in cases of non-agreement between the radiological diagnosis and the clinical (neurological) findings. While skeletal abnormalities are best diagnosed with spiral CT and to a lesser degree with plain-film radiographs, soft tissue lesions, such as cord injuries or ligament ruptures, are best outlined with emergency MRI. The classification of fractures depends on fracture (trauma)-biomechanics and location. All these efforts are necessary to get the best clinical outcome for the patient. (orig.)

  6. Computational Enzymology and Organophosphorus Degrading Enzymes: Promising Approaches Toward Remediation Technologies of Warfare Agents and Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Teodorico C; de Castro, Alexandre A; Silva, Daniela R; Cristina Silva, Maria; Franca, Tanos C C; Bennion, Brian J; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    The re-emergence of chemical weapons as a global threat in hands of terrorist groups, together with an increasing number of pesticides intoxications and environmental contaminations worldwide, has called the attention of the scientific community for the need of improvement in the technologies for detoxification of organophosphorus (OP) compounds. A compelling strategy is the use of bioremediation by enzymes that are able to hydrolyze these molecules to harmless chemical species. Several enzymes have been studied and engineered for this purpose. However, their mechanisms of action are not well understood. Theoretical investigations may help elucidate important aspects of these mechanisms and help in the development of more efficient bio-remediators. In this review, we point out the major contributions of computational methodologies applied to enzyme based detoxification of OPs. Furthermore, we highlight the use of PTE, PON, DFP, and BuChE as enzymes used in OP detoxification process and how computational tools such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics have and will continue to contribute to this very important area of research. PMID:26898655

  7. Computational Enzymology and Organophosphorus Degrading Enzymes: Promising Approaches Toward Remediation Technologies of Warfare Agents and Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Teodorico C; de Castro, Alexandre A; Silva, Daniela R; Silva, Maria Cristina; Franca, Tanos C C; Bennion, Brian J; Kuca, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    The re-emergence of chemical weapons as a global threat in hands of terrorist groups, together with an increasing number of pesticides intoxications and environmental contaminations worldwide, has called the attention of the scientific community for the need of improvement in the technologies for detoxification of organophosphorus (OP) compounds. A compelling strategy is the use of bioremediation by enzymes that are able to hydrolyze these molecules to harmless chemical species. Several enzymes have been studied and engineered for this purpose. However, their mechanisms of action are not well understood. Theoretical investigations may help elucidate important aspects of these mechanisms and help in the development of more efficient bio-remediators. In this review, we point out the major contributions of computational methodologies applied to enzyme based detoxification of OPs. Furthermore, we highlight the use of PTE, PON, DFP, and BuChE as enzymes used in OP detoxification process and how computational tools such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics have and will continue to contribute to this very important area of research.

  8. An Unusual Laryngeal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kohli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Blunt injuries to the anterior neck are most commonly due to road traffic accidents but the incidence of such types of injuries are decreasing probably due to stricter laws pertaining to seat belts and drunken driving. Experience in managing such injuries is limited due to their rarity. The mainstay of management revolves around establishing and maintaining a patent airway and integrity of the spine. Here we document a case of a 25 year old male who met with a Road traffic accident while driving a motorbike and sustained a clear cut linear wound on the right side of the neck with minimal airleak due to the helmet clip. On exploration, he was found to have massive epiglottic edema, mucosal abrasions, lacerations and a thyroid cartilage fracture. The mechanism of injury was probably a combination of penetrating and blunt trauma neck. This case highlights the mechanism of laryngeal injury, its presentation and management

  9. Mole gun injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds.

  10. Ankle ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A.F.H. Renström

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL. For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL, posterotalofibular (PTFL and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability

  11. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  12. Lightning and thermal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Arthur; Gamelli, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Electrical burns are classified as either high voltage (1000 volts and higher) or low voltage (release of myoglobin, the presence of heme pigments in the urine must be evaluated promptly. Presence of these products of breakdown of myoglobin and hemoglobin puts the injured at risk for acute renal failure and must be treated. The exact mechanism of nerve injury has not been explained, but both direct injury by electrical current overload or a vascular cause receive the most attention. Because electrical injuries carry both externally visible cutaneous injuries and possible hidden musculoskeletal damage, conventional burn resuscitation formulas based on body surface area injured may not provide enough fluid to maintain urine output. Damaged muscle resulting in swelling within the investing fascia of an extremity may result in compartment syndromes, requiring further attention. If myoglobin has been detected in the urine, treatment is aggressive volume resuscitation and possibly alkalinization of the urine or mannitol is given IV push to minimize pigment precipitation in the renal tubules. Approximately 15% of electrical burn victims also sustain traumatic injuries. This is because of falls from height or being thrown against an object. The tetanic contractions that result from exposure to electrical injury cause imbalance in flexor versus extensor muscles, with the flexor groups being stronger. Not only is the victim unable to release from the electrical contact, but they are at risk for fracture of bones from this prolonged muscular contracture. Neurologic and psychological symptoms were the most common sequelae of electrical and lightning injuries. Many of these symptoms are nonspecific, and they often do not appear until several months after the injury. A full neurologic examination must be performed on admission, documenting initial presentation and at any change in symptoms. Electrical injuries can have devastating consequences. Prevention of electrical injuries

  13. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Habelt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.

  14. Muscle strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  15. Sports injuries and adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axe, M J; Newcomb, W A; Warner, D

    1991-06-01

    A one-year study was undertaken investigating adolescent sports injury experiences at a major sports clinic in the state of Delaware. A total of 619 athletes sustained 870 injuries, for an overall injury rate of 1.4 injuries per athlete. The largest number of injuries was recorded in football (40.2 percent), followed by boys' soccer, wrestling, baseball and girls' basketball. Severity of injury was measured by the number of days lost per injury. Cheerleading had the highest average days lost per injury (28.8), followed by girls' basketball, wrestling, boys' cross-country and girls' tennis. Inflammation, fractures and dislocations comprised 50.6 percent of all the injuries, while 50.5 percent of the injuries were located in the knee, thigh, and shoulder. Twenty-seven of the 870 injuries required surgery. PMID:1874345

  16. Comparison of radiation and chemical risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injury to living cells is caused by mechanisms which in many cases are similar for radiation and chemicals. It is thus not surprising that radiation and many chemicals can cause similar biological effects, e.g. cancer, fetal injury and hereditary disease. Both radiation and chemicals are always found in our environment. One agent may strengthen or weaken the effect of another, be it radiation in combination with chemicals or one chemical with another. The implications of such synergistic or antagonistic effects are discussed. Intricate mechanisms help the body to defend itself against threats to health from radiation and chemicals, even against cancer risks. In a strategy for health, it might be worth to exploit actively these defense mechanisms, in parallel with decreasing the exposures. On particular interest are the large exposures from commonly known sources such as smoking, sun tanning and high fat contents of food. (author)

  17. Role of Metabolomics in Traumatic Brain Injury Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolahan, Stephanie M; Hirt, Daniel; Braas, Daniel; Glenn, Thomas C

    2016-10-01

    Metabolomics is an important member of the omics community in that it defines which small molecules may be responsible for disease states. This article reviews the essential principles of metabolomics from specimen preparation, chemical analysis, to advanced statistical methods. Metabolomics in traumatic brain injury has so far been underutilized. Future metabolomics-based studies focused on the diagnoses, prognoses, and treatment effects need to be conducted across all types of traumatic brain injury. PMID:27637396

  18. Tissue Injury and Related Mediators of Pain Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya, Fumimasa; Izumi, Yuta; Matsuda, Megumi; Sasaki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Tissue injury and inflammation result in release of various mediators that promote ongoing pain or pain hypersensitivity against mechanical, thermal and chemical stimuli. Pro-nociceptive mediators activate primary afferent neurons directly or indirectly to enhance nociceptive signal transmission to the central nervous system. Excitation of primary afferents by peripherally originating mediators, so-called “peripheral sensitization”, is a hallmark of tissue injury-related pain. Many kinds of p...

  19. Power lawnmower injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William W

    2003-04-01

    Power lawnmowers are among the most ubiquitous household tools, yet they pose significant danger to operator and bystanders. Despite of the United States Consumer Products Safety Commission's push to have safety standards established for walk-behind mowers in 1982 and for ride-on mowers in 1986, by 2000 approximately 80,000 injuries nationwide were estimated to be associated with power mowers. Large numbers of these injuries are thought to be preventable, especially those to individuals younger than 14 years. Orthopaedic surgeons treat a significant number of the injuries associated with mower use including lacerations, amputations, fractures, infections, and skin defects. Therefore, the orthopaedic community has a stake in the prevention and outcome of these injuries. To date, changes in mower design have seemed to be more successful than user education programs in decreasing the numbers of these injuries. Involving orthopaedists in safety education programs to help prevent injuries associated with power mower use may be one method of increasing user knowledge and preventing injury. PMID:12671483

  20. Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries are not frequent in comparison to general hand trauma, but they have a specific mechanism of occurrence and are very severe. This investigation included 221 hand injuries. The sex distribution shows a general male dominance (85.25% in their active age (84.44%. These are, seasonal injuries mostly occurring in October (75.11%. By type of injuries, mutilating crush injuries are most frequent (64.25%. After completing the treatment, in most cases the functional result were estimated as bad (50.68%. Data concerning education and training for operating agricultural machines (96.38% - patients without training and carrying out safety measures (63.35% of injured patients did not apply any protection measures are devastating. The number of these injuries, as well as consequent permanent disabilities, may be considerably reduced by preventive measures, including public health services and media. Use of contemporary agricultural machinery, as well as obligatory training for operating these machines and application of protective measures, may also reduce the incidence of hand injuries during corn picking.

  1. Regulating the introduction of new chemicals under section 5 of TSCA: improving the efficiency of the process and reducing potential injury in the workplace through the use of operational MSDS and exposure limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, I; Jayjock, M A; Keener, R L; Plamondon, J E

    1991-10-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) authorizes the EPA to take appropriate actions to ensure that new and existing chemicals do not pose "unreasonable risk" to health or the environment. Section 2(b)(3) of the Act directs the Agency to accomplish this objective in a manner that does "not impede unduly or create unnecessary economic barriers to technological innovation." In recent years, critics have felt that the EPA has failed to achieve these primary goals of TSCA. This paper considers some of the reasons for this criticism and advocates an alternate approach of exposure limits and operationally sufficient controls to assist in achieving these goals. An illustration of how this alternate approach might work under practical conditions is presented, using as an example a new chemical substance from the class of acrylate monomers. These concepts and risk assessments provide data for a better design of future studies according to good laboratory practice and quality assurance. PMID:1669965

  2. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  3. Sports injuries Lesiones deportivas

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Patiño Giraldo; Elkín Arango V.; Mónica Paola Clavijo Rodríguez; Jorge Alberto Osorio Ciro; Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-01-01

    Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6....

  4. Work injuries and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feveile, Helene;

    2009-01-01

    of 4,217 male and 4,105 female employees from a national survey were followed up for subsequent DPR. RESULTS AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT: Having had a work injury was a strong predictor of DPR among men. After control for age, smoking, body mass index, body postures, and physical demands......, the hazard ratio (HR) among those employees who had ever experienced a work injury was 1.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.68). No association was found among women. SUMMARY: Having had a reportable work injury is a strong predictor of subsequent DPR for men....

  5. Soda pop vending machine injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, M Q

    1988-11-11

    Fifteen male patients, 15 to 24 years of age, sustained injuries after rocking soda machines. The machines fell onto the victims, resulting in a variety of injuries. Three were killed. The remaining 12 required hospitalization for their injuries. Unless changes are made to safeguard these machines, people will continue to suffer severe and possibly fatal injuries from what are largely preventable accidents. PMID:3184337

  6. Nano-based chemical sensor array systems for uninhabited ground and airborne vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Christina; Ruffin, Paul B.; Edwards, Eugene

    2009-03-01

    In a time when homemade explosive devices are being used against soldiers and in the homeland security environment, it is becoming increasingly evident that there is an urgent need for high-tech chemical sensor packages to be mounted aboard ground and air vehicles to aid soldiers in determining the location of explosive devices and the origin of bio-chemical warfare agents associated with terrorist activities from a safe distance. Current technologies utilize relatively large handheld detection systems that are housed on sizeable robotic vehicles. Research and development efforts are underway at the Army Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) to develop novel and less expensive nano-based chemical sensors for detecting explosives and chemical agents used against the soldier. More specifically, an array of chemical sensors integrated with an electronics control module on a flexible substrate that can conform to and be surface-mounted to manned or unmanned vehicles to detect harmful species from bio-chemical warfare and other explosive devices is being developed. The sensor system under development is a voltammetry-based sensor system capable of aiding in the detection of any chemical agent and in the optimization of sensor microarray geometry to provide nonlinear Fourier algorithms to characterize target area background (e.g., footprint areas). The status of the research project is reviewed in this paper. Critical technical challenges associated with achieving system cost, size, and performance requirements are discussed. The results obtained from field tests using an unmanned remote controlled vehicle that houses a CO2/chemical sensor, which detects harmful chemical agents and wirelessly transmits warning signals back to the warfighter, are presented. Finally, the technical barriers associated with employing the sensor array system aboard small air vehicles will be discussed.

  7. Measurement of 100 B. anthracis Ames spores within 15 minutes by SERS at the US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Ctr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Huang, Hermes; Sperry, Jay; Sickler, Todd; Prugh, Amber; Guicheteau, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Since the distribution of Bacillus anthracis-Ames spores through the US Postal System, there has been a persistent fear that biological warfare agents will be used by terrorists against our military abroad and our civilians at home. While there has been substantial effort since the anthrax attack of 2001 to develop analyzers to detect this and other biological warfare agents, the analyzers remain either too slow, lack sensitivity, produce high false-positive rates, or cannot be fielded. In an effort to overcome these limitations we have been developing a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy system. Here we describe the use of silver nanoparticles functionalized with a short peptide to selectively capture Bacillus anthracis spores and produce SER scattering. Specifically, measurements of 100 B. anthracis-Ames spores/mL in ~25 minutes performed at the US Army's Edgewood Chemical Biological Center are presented. The measurements provide a basis for the development of systems that can detect spores collected from the air or water supplies with the potential of saving lives during a biological warfare attack.

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we expect ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  10. Toe Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe arthritis, can cause toe problems and pain. Gout often causes pain in the big toe. Common toe problems include Corns and bunions Ingrown toenails Sprains and dislocations Fractures Treatments for toe injuries and disorders vary. They might ...

  11. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  12. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  13. Injury prophylaxis in paragliding

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, W.; Richter, J; Schulze, B.; Esenwein, S; Buttner-Janz, K

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To show trends in paragliding injuries and derive recommendations for safety precautions for paraglider pilots on the basis of accident statistics, interviews, questionnaires, medical reports, and current stage of development of paragliding equipment.

  14. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injuries do not happen. This includes making the bathroom safe, for either a child or an adult , and protecting against falls . Family and caregivers may need to help the person with the following: Exercising ...

  15. Photobiomodulation on sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

    2003-12-01

    Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

  16. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-01-01

    Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial s...

  17. Study of aeroball injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, A; McGlone, R G; Montgomery, K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present the risks of aeroball, a new sport played by either two or four players on a trampoline court surrounded by specially constructed fabric walls, and to propose ways to increase awareness and reduce the incidence of injury, in particular, ankle injury. METHOD: A study was carried out to document the nature of aeroball related incidents, between 1991 and 1995, at Lancaster University Sports Centre. Lace-up ankle supports were introduced in April 1992, and their effect on th...

  18. Injuries in classical ballet

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães; Joseani Paulini Neves Simas

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external ...

  19. Pars Injuries in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Jonathan H; Gallina, Jason M

    2016-03-01

    Pars injuries are common causes of low back pain in adolescent athletes. Workup traditionally has included lumbar radiographs with oblique views and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, recent literature has demonstrated the accuracy of MRI as a diagnostic modality. Acute injuries may be amenable to bracing with the goal of a healed lesion. Most cases of spondylolysis will result in asymptomatic non-union, though pars repair is an option for symptomatic pars defects without spondylolisthesis. PMID:26977552

  20. Hysteria following brain injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Eames, P

    1992-01-01

    Of 167 patients referred to a unit treating severe behaviour disorders after brain injury, 54 showed clinical features closely resembling those of gross hysteria as described by Charcot. Close correlation was found with very diffuse insults (hypoxia and hypoglycaemia), but not with severity of injury or with family or personal history of hysterical or other psychiatric disorder. The findings may have implications for the understanding of the nature of hysteria.