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Sample records for chemical u-th-pb dating

  1. Electron microprobe chemical U-Th-Pb and La-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events recorded in minerals of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites (Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Alexandre de Oliveira, E-mail: alochaves@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria (Brazil); Tubrett, Michael [Memorial University of Newfoundland (Canada); Avelar, Simone Cristina Pires; Rios, Francisco Javier; Neves, Jose Marques Correia; Alves, James Vieira; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Prates, Sonia Pinto [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sgarbi, Geraldo Norberto Chaves [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (IG/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Matos, Evando Carele de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil, Caetite, BA (Brazil)

    2009-05-15

    Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites are rocks which went through multiple modifications after formation. Electron microprobe chemical U-Th-Pb and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of minerals of albitites reveal protolith (U-bearing sodic syenites) crystallization and isochemical metamorphism at ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga during the final stages of the Orosirian orogenic event, when the first generation of uraninites was formed. Multiple uranium and lead mobilization promoted by at least five hydrothermal events (ca. 1.7 Ga, ca. 1.5 Ga, ca. 1.3 Ga, ca. 1.1 Ga, and ca. 1.0 Ga) was detected in the albitites. A probable formation of a second uraninite group and/or resetting of UPb clock of older uraninites during the Brasiliano orogenic event at ca. 0.5 Ga also took place.(author)

  2. Chemical U-Th-Pb dating of monazite by 3D-Micro x-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, Susanne; Möller, Andreas; Wilke, Max

    2009-01-01

    A confocal set-up for three-dimensional (3D) micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) was used at the mySpot beamline at BESSY II, which allows compositional depth profiling for various applications. We present results obtained with a confocal 3D micro-XRF set-up for chemical age dating using the U, Th......-XRF set-up is suitable for dating of minerals with low Pb concentrations as long as all Pb is radiogenic, allowing spatial resolution comparable to ion microprobe or laser ablation techniques. The set-up was tested on monazites that are well characterized by isotopic techniques and have a wide range...... of ages, varying from 20 Ma to 1.82 Ga. Reference materials (GM3, F6, 3345) can be reproduced within error. The spread in the ages of all points determined by 3D micro-XRF is within 8 % of the isotopic reference value. The average 3D micro-XRF dates reproduce the reference ages with discrepancies between...

  3. Chemical U-Th-Pb Monazite Dating of Deformations versus Pluton Emplacement and the Proterozoic History of the Arkansas River Region,Colorado, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Hui

    2009-01-01

    Five lengthy periods involving multiple phases of cordierite and andalusite growth were revealed by detailed studies of foliation inflection/intersection axes (FIA) preserved in porphyroblasts in schists from the Arkansas River region in Colorado, USA. The regionally consistent character of the succession of five different FIA trends enabled the relative timing of each FIA with respect to the next to be determined. The FIA succession from first to last is: FIA 1 trending W-E, FIA 2 trending SSW-NNE, FIA 3 trending NNW-SSE, FIA 4 trending NW-SE and FIA 5 trending SW-NE. For four of the FIA sets, samples were found containing monazite grains preserved as inclusions. These were dated on an electron microprobe. The ages obtained concur exactly with the FIA succession, with FIA 1 at 1506±15 Ma, FIA 2 at 1467±23 Ma, FIA 3 at 1425±18 Ma, FIA 4 not dated and FIA 5 at 1366±20 Ma.These ages are directly reflected in a succession of plutons in the surrounding region dated by other isotopic approaches, suggesting that deformation, metamorphism and pluton emplacement occurred together episodically, but effectively continuously, for some 140 Ma.

  4. Constraints on Alpine hydrothermal activity and deformation from U-Th-Pb dating of cleft monazite and xenotime (Western Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand'Homme, Alexis; Janots, Emilie; Bosse, Valerie; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; De Ascencao, Roger

    2016-04-01

    In this large-scale regional study, age of hydrothermal monazite (and xenotime) precipitation has been investigated through in-situ U-Th-Pb dating of crystals collected in 11 clefts (veins) taken in the internal and external massifs (Western Alps). The investigated clefts are composed of quartz, chlorite (± epidote), albite and millimetric accessory minerals (monazite, apatite, xenotime, anatase, rutile). Prior to dating, cleft monazite composition was thoroughly studied to reveal potential zoning. In-situ dating through different compositional domains of single monazite crystal yields well-resolved Th-Pb ages (typically with 0.1-0.3 Ma resolution) indicating for growth episodes with short duration. Comparison of U-Pb and Th-Pb dating indicates that the U-Pb systematics appears successful to date cleft monazite with low Th/U ratio (typically hand, monazite dating in the Argentera (20.6 ± 0.3 Ma) confirms for the regional diachronism observed from South to the North of the ECM in the Western Alps. First ages were here obtained for the hydrothermal activity of the internal massifs of the Western Alps. As expected from other (thermo)chronometers, hydrothermal activity in the Internal Alpine domains (Briançonnais) is older than in the ECM. In the Briançonnais zone, monazite age at 32.1 ± 0.2 Ma coincides with the exhumation along the penninic front. In the second cleft, monazite age at 23.3 ± 0.2 Ma is more complex to attribute to a specific deformation stage.

  5. 40Ar/39Ar and U-Th-Pb dating of separated clasts from the Abee E4 chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, D.D.; Unruh, D.M.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1983-01-01

    Determinations of 40Ar/39Ar and U-Th-Pb are reported for three clasts from the Abee (E4) enstatite chondrite, which has been the object of extensive consortium investigations. The clasts give 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages and/or maximum ages of 4.5 Gy, whereas two of the clasts give average ages of 4.4 Gy. Within the range of 4.4-4.5 Gy these data do not resolve any possible age differences among the three clasts. 206Pb measured in these clasts is only ???1.5-2.5% radiogenic, which leads to relatively large uncertainties in the Pb isochron age and in the 207Pb/206Pb model ages. The Pb data indicate that the initial 207Pb/206Pb was no more than 0.08??0.07% higher than this ratio in Can??on Diablo troilite. The U-Th-Pb data are consistent with the interpretation that initial formation of these clasts occurred 4.58 Gy ago and that the clasts have since remained closed systems, but are contaminated with terrestrial Pb. The 40Ar/39Ar ages could be gas retention ages after clast formation or impact degassing ages. The thermal history of Abee deduced from Ar data appears consistent with that deduced from magnetic data, and suggests that various Abee components experienced separate histories until brecciation no later than 4.4 Gy ago, and experienced no appreciable subsequent heating. ?? 1983.

  6. U-Th-Pb dating of the Brossasco ultrahigh-pressure metagranite, Dora-Maira massif, western Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, J.L.; Montel, J.M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Chopin, C. [Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Geologie

    1999-01-01

    The Brossasco metagranite is part of the coherent ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrane in the Dora-Maira massif and, although it has reached Alpine peak metamorphic conditions of about 725 C/30 kbar, still locally preserves an undeformed magmatic texture. In order to obtain new chronological constraints on this key area of the western Alps, we studied the behaviour of the U-Th-Pb system in zircons and monazites from such an undeformed facies. Only zircon fractions containing very small needle-shaped inclusions are concordant at 304{+-}3 Ma. This result is interpreted as the emplacement age of the granite. All other zircons show an old inherited memory and the more U-rich of these crystals were affected by an episodic Pb loss with a poorly defined lower intercept at 60{+-}45 Ma. Both TIMS (thermo-ionisation mass spectrometry) and electron-microprobe analysis of monazites show that this last event has also disturbed their U-Pb and Th-Pb isotopic systems, without resetting them completely. Comparison with cofacial rock-types which have been completely reworked under these extreme P-T conditions shows that deformation and mass transfer as well as the nature of the protoliths and the characteristics of their zircons have a much more pronounced influence on the behaviour of isotopic systems than the temperature and/or pressure parameters. This evidence is an obvious limitation to the use of the blocking-temperature concept. (orig.)

  7. Petrology and U-Th-Pb chemical monazite dating of the low-P metapelitic granulites at the region of Muzhaerte River in southwestern Tianshan, NW China, and their geological implications%新疆西南天山木扎尔特河一带低压泥质麻粒岩岩石学特征、独居石U-Th-Pb定年及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟龙龙; 张立飞

    2009-01-01

    During the closure of the South Tianshan Paleo-Ocean, a suite of low-pressure pelitic granulite-facies Crd-Grt-Sil-Bt gneiss was formed by the intrusion of arc magma into the landward continental margin of Muzhaerte River in South Tianshan, Xinjiang. Using the thermodynamic software of Theriak-Domino, we performed the NCKFMASH phase equilibria calculation on the Crd-Grt-Sil-Bt gneiss (WQ003) and the sillimanite-bearing Crd-Grt-Bt gneiss (WQ006) , and gained that their peak metamorphic conditions are T = 630 ~674℃ ,P = 5. 2~5.5kbar and T = 645 ~684℃ ,P = 5. 4 ~5. 7kbar, respectively. Moreover, we carried out the geochronological research on three monazite grains in sample WQ006 with the technique of U-Th-Pb chemical monazite dating by electron microprobe and got two characteristic isochron ages, 376 ±8Ma and 280 ±8Ma (2σ). Based on the petrographic study of monazite, 280 ±8Ma can be explained as the age of peak granulite-facies metamorphism, whereas 376 ± 8Ma (2σ) maybe represent the age of detrital or diagenesis, and we conclude that the subduction of South Tianshan oceanic crust began in Late Paleozoic and confirm the opinion that the subduction-collision of Southwest Tianshan orogen occurred after Late-Permian.%古南天山洋闭合过程中,由于洋壳俯冲产生的岛弧岩浆作用加热大陆地壳,在新疆西南天山木扎尔特一带形成了一套低压高温泥质麻粒岩相变质岩石.本文用Theriak-Domino热力学软件对该套岩石中的堇青石榴夕线石黑云母片麻岩和含夕线石堇青石榴黑云母片麻岩进行了岩石学相平衡计算研究,得到它们峰期变质的温压条件分别是:T=630~674℃,P=5.2~5.5kbar和T=645~684℃,P=5.4~5.7kbar.并采用独居石Th-U-Pb电子探针定年方法,对样品WQ006中的3颗独居石进行了原位年龄测定(38个分析点),得到2组等时线年龄,分别是376±8Ma和280σ8Ma(2σ).结合独居石的岩相学特征,提出了新

  8. Laser Ablation ICP-MS Titanite U-Th-Pb Dating of the Tonglushan Cu-Fe-Au Skarn Deposit, Southeastern Hubei Province%Laser Ablation ICP-MS Titanite U-Th-Pb Dating of the Tonglushan Cu-Fe-Au Skarn Deposit,Southeastern Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-wei; DENG Xiao-dong; ZHOU Mei-fu; LIU Yong-sheng

    2009-01-01

    @@ Titanite (CaTi_2SiO_5) is an important accessory mineral not only in magnatic and metamorphic rocks,but also commonly in hydrothermal mineral deposits.It incorporates appreciable amounts (usually 10 ×10~(-6) s to 100 × 10~(-6) s) of U and Th into its structure and has a closure temperature of Pb diffusion higher than 660 ~ 700 ℃ (Scott and St-Onge, 1995),making it an ideal U-Th-Pb geochronometer.

  9. Mid-Late Triassic metamorphic event for Changhai meta-sedimentary rocks from the SE Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, North China Craton: Evidence from monazite U-Th-Pb and muscovite Ar-Ar dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fulai; Wang, Fang; Liou, J. G.; Meng, En; Liu, Jianhui; Yang, Hong; Xiao, Lingling; Cai, Jia; Shi, Jianrong

    2014-11-01

    The precise constraints on the timing of metamorphism of the Changhai metamorphic complex is of great importance considering the prolonged controversial issue of the north margin and the extension of the Sulu-Dabie HP-UHP Belt. While the monazite U-Th-Pb and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar techniques are widely accepted as two of the most powerful dating tools for revealing the thermal histories of medium-low grade metamorphic rocks and precisely constraining the timing of metamorphism. The Changhai metamorphic complex at the SE Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, North China Craton consists of a variety of pelitic schist and Grt-Ky-bearing paragneiss, and minor quartzite and marble. Analyses of mineral inclusions and back-scattered electric (BSE) images of monazites, combined with LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb ages for monazites and 40Ar/39Ar ages for muscovites, provide evidence of the origin and metamorphic age of the Changhai metamorphic complex. Monazites separates from various Grt-Mus schists and Grt-Ky-St-Mus paragneisses exhibit homogeneous BSE images from cores to rims, and contain inclusion assemblages of Grt + Mus + Qtz ± Ctd ± Ky in schist, and Grt + Ky + St + Mus + Pl + Kfs + Qtz inclusions in paragneiss. These inclusion assemblages are very similar to matrix minerals of host rocks, indicating they are metamorphic rather than inherited or detrital in origin. LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb dating reveals that monazites of schist and paragneiss have consistent 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 228.1 ± 3.8 to 218.2 ± 3.7 Ma. In contrast, muscovites from various schists show slightly older 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 236.1 ± 1.5 to 230.2 ± 1.2 Ma. These geochronological and petrological data conclude that the pelitic sediments have experienced a metamorphic event at the Mid-Late Triassic (236.1-218.2 Ma) rather than the Paleoproterozoic (1950-1850 Ma), commonly regarded as the Precambrian basement for the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt. Hence, the Changhai metamorphic complex should be considered as a discrete

  10. 白云鄂博矿床白云石型矿石中独居石单颗粒U-Th-Pb-Sm-Nd定年%Single-grain U-Th-Pb-Sm-Nd dating of monazite from dolomite type ore of the Bayan Obo deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉龙; 陈江峰; 李惠民; 钱卉; 肖国望; 张台荣

    2005-01-01

    使用交换树脂TRU Spec同时分离REE、U、Th、Pb及其他的元素,然后用阴离子交换树脂纯化Pb并用萃淋树脂分离纯化Sm和Nd,Sm、Nd、U和Pb的定量测定借助同位素稀释法,Th的定量测定则用ICP-MS分析,Nd和Pb同位素组成分析用质谱法(TIMS),从而实现独居石U-Th-Pb-Sm-Nd联合定年.用这种方法可以在同一样品上,同时得到U-Th-Pb和Sm-Nd同位素年龄记录.白云鄂博矿床白云石型稀土矿石中12个单颗粒独居石的U-Th-Pb-Sm-Nd同位素联合定年给出Sm-Nd等时线年龄为1008±320 Ma,其中8个独居石的Th-Pb等时线年龄为1231±200Ma,此二年龄在误差范围内相似.在同一组独居石样品上得到一致的Th-Pb与Sm-Nd的中元古年龄,表明白云鄂博在中元古代的稀土成矿作用是可能的.本文独居石的Th-Pb 和Sm-Nd年龄与以前报道的独居石加里东期Th-Pb年龄差别很大,此问题尚需进一步研究.

  11. NanoSIMS mapping and LA-ICP-MS chemical and U-Th-Pb data in monazite from a xenolith enclosed in andesite (Central Slovakia Volcanic Field)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, A.; Bosse, V.; Bouloton, J.; Mostefaoui, S.; Viala, M.; Paquette, J. L.; Devidal, J. L.; Duhamel, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we use NanoSIMS element and isotope ratio mapping and LA-ICP-MS trace element measurements to elucidate the origins of monazites from a restitic xenolith enclosed in a 13.5 ± 0.3 Ma andesitic lava (Slovakia). The xenolith/lava interaction is mainly characterized by the growth of a plagioclase-bearing corona around the xenolith and magmatic garnet overgrowths on primary metamorphic garnets within the xenolith. NanoSIMS images (89Y, 139La, 208Pb, 232Th and 238U) and trace element analyses indicate that variations of HREE, Y and Eu contents in the monazite are correlated with the resorption and the following overgrowth of garnet and plagioclase in the xenolith. Three domains are distinguished in the monazite grains: the inherited Variscan core at ca. 310 Ma (M1 domain) characterized by low Y and HREE contents and a weak negative Eu anomaly; the inner rim (M2 domain) crystallized during the growth of the plagioclase magmatic corona (large negative Eu anomaly) and the resorption of metamorphic garnet (high HREE and Y contents); and the external rim (M3 domain) crystallized during the growth of the plagioclase corona (large negative Eu anomaly) and during the crystallization of magmatic garnet (low Y, HREE contents) at ~13 Ma, i.e. the age of the andesitic lava. The age and chemical zonation of the monazites attest to the preservation of primary monazite in the xenolith despite the interaction with the andesite lava. NanoSIMS imaging provides high-quality sub-µm scale images of the monazite that reveals chemical domains that were not distinguishable on WDS X-ray maps, especially for depleted elements such as U and Pb. Owing to its small size, the M2 domain could not be accurately dated by the LA-ICP-MS method. However, NanoSIMS isotopic maps reveal that the M2 domain has similar 208Pb/232Th isotope ratios to the M3 domain and thus similar ages. These results support the hypothesis that melt-assisted partial dissolution-precipitation in monazite

  12. {mu}-PIXE analysis of monazite for total U-Th-Pb age determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoli, C. E-mail: claudio@dmp.unipd.it; Hanchar, J.M.; Della Mea, G.; Donovan, J.J.; Stern, R.A

    2002-04-01

    U-Th-Pb chemical age determinations of monazite have been successfully determined using {mu}-PIXE at the Legnaro scanning proton microprobe facility, as well as the concentration of rare earth and other trace elements. Experimental details and the analytical procedure are described, and the results obtained are compared with data obtained using EMPA and SHRIMP II on the same analysed monazite grains, indicating that the {mu}-PIXE technique is an extremely powerful tool for monazite geochronology, both for the small error in the age determination, and in terms of detection limit, giving the possibility to date much younger monazite crystals than with EMPA. In addition, the high spatial resolution and the non-destructive character of this technique, potentially allows for the analysis of small monazite crystals along inclusion trails within porphyroblasts and/or present in the surrounding matrix, and to relate their age to that of the deformation in metamorphic rocks.

  13. 利用LA -ICP -MS 在16μm 和10μm 激光束斑条件下测定独居石U-Th-Pb年龄%U-Th-Pb Dating of Monazite by LA-ICP-MS Using Ablation Spot Sizes of 1 6 μm and 1 0 μm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪双双; 韩延兵; 李艳广; 魏小燕; 靳梦琪; 程秀花

    2016-01-01

    独居石是一种常用的地质年代计,但其内部结构复杂,常具有不同成分分区,只有足够小的激光束斑才能获得地质意义明确的U-Th-Pb年龄。本文在优化ICP-MS参数、匹配两路载气流量(Ar和He)的基础上,设计了两组激光剥蚀条件实验,获得适用于小束斑独居石U -Th-Pb定年的激光剥蚀参数(16μm,3 J/cm2,5 Hz)和(10μm,3 J/cm2,4 Hz)。在此条件下分别测定标准样品44069和未知样品15SLS-01,获得标准样品44069的208 Pb/232 Th和206 Pb/238 U值的单点测试精度小于3%,其U -Th -Pb 年龄结果与前人测得SHRIMP U-Pb年龄和TIMS U-Pb年龄一致;未知样品15SLS-01的208Pb/232Th值的单点测试精度小于3%,206Pb/238U值的单点测试精度介于3%~8%,多点测试206 Pb-238 U和208 Pb-232 Th的加权平均年龄在误差范围内一致,其中208 Pb-232 Th年龄更具代表性。本研究表明在16μm和10μm激光束斑下,利用LA-ICP-MS能够实现独居石U-Th-Pb年龄的测定,极大地提高了独居石此种微区定年方法的空间分辨率。%Monazite is a common geological chronometer and has complex textures and different chemical domains.Meaningful U-Th-Pb ages for different domains can be obtained only using a suitably small laser beam spot. Based on optimizing the parameters of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS ) and matching two channels of carrier gas flows (Ar and He ),two groups of laser ablation parameters,16 μm-3 J/cm2 -5 Hz and 10 μm-3 J/cm2 -4 Hz,can be obtained for dating monazite using small ablation spot sizes.A standard sample (44069)and an unknown sample (15SLS-01)were dated using the above laser ablation parameters.For 44069 ,the single-point precision of 208 Pb/232 Th and 206 Pb/238 U ratios were less than 3%,and U-Th-Pb age was found to be consistent with the previous SHRIMP and TIMS U-Pb ages.For 15SLS-01,the single

  14. Genetic feature of monazite and its U-Th-Pb dating: Critical considerations on the tectonic evolution of Sanjiang Tethys%独居石成因特征与U-Th-Pb定年及三江特提斯构造演化研究例析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱昆峰; 杨立强

    2011-01-01

    独居石U-Th-Pb定年在地质年代学研究中占有重要地位,但其成因类型的识别和年龄值的合理地质解释始终是研究的难点.论文通过对比分析岩浆、热液和沉积成因独居石的内部结构、矿物组合以及稀土和微量元素地球化学特征,厘定了不同成因类型独居石的鉴别标志;并以三江特提斯构造演化研究为例,探讨了独居石的U-Th-Pb定年及其合理地质应用.不同地质环境中形成的独居石具有不同的内部结构和矿物组合及元素组成:岩浆独居石可能存在较宽且平直的岩浆环带,常与磷钙钍石共生;相对富集重稀土,具有较高的Y、Sc、Th、U、Sm、Gd等含量和Th/U比值,较低的La、Ce含量和稀土总量,显示为Eu强烈亏损的右倾斜分布模式.而热液独居石可能存在与流体作用有关的扇形环带,常与斜钍石共生;沉积独居石形态多不规则,与自生矿物相伴生.它们具有典型的四分组稀土分布模式,稀土总量较高,相对富集轻稀土(如La、Ce),贫Y、Sc、Th、U、Sm、Gd等,Th/U比值较低.独居石U-Th-Pb定年限定了松潘-甘孜造山带204 - 190Ma的早期变质作用和168~158Ma的局部热干扰,约140~130Ma冈底斯浅色花岗岩的形成与地壳的缩短加厚及快速隆升作用,约33~ 22Ma红河断裂带与伸展作用有关的岩体侵位和左行走滑运动年代(且北部的去顶剥蚀作用要比中部早9Ma),约8~llMyr的东喜马拉雅构造结“挤出”构造变形时限.%Monazite U-Th-Pb dating plays an important role in isotopic geochronology study. Identification of the genesis and interpretation of the age for monazites are the points. The internal texture, mineral assemblage, REE and trace element features are compared in detail in the paper to determine the identification of magmatic, hydrothermal and sedimentary monazites. Study case of monazite U-Th-Pb geochronology on the tectonic evolution of Sanjiang Tethys gets further

  15. Apparent partial resetting of U-Th-Pb systems in experimentally altered monazite resulting from nano-mixtures due to incomplete replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand'homme, Alexis; Janots, Emilie; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; Guillaume, Damien; Bosse, Valérie; Magnin, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal alteration experiments of natural monazite crystals (Manangotry, Madagascar; 555 Ma) under alkali conditions (NaOH 1M in 18O doped solution) at low temperature conditions (300, 400, 500 and 600°C), 200 MPa, were conducted to clarify the origin of unsupported Pb (radiogenic or not) in altered monazite (Seydoux-Guillaume et al., 2012). At 300°C, no evidence of monazite replacement was observed. From 400 to 600°C, experimental products show a replacement texture with pristine monazite (Mnz1) surrounded by an alteration rim with a different composition (SEM and EPMA). In the altered domains, in-situ isotopic and chemical U-Th-Pb dating yields intermediate ages between original monazite (555 Ma) and complete experimental resetting (0 Ma). Incomplete resetting is due to the systematic presence of Pb in altered domains, whose concentration decreases with increasing temperature. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) observations reveal an incomplete replacement of Mnz1 by a secondary monazite (Mnz2), free of Pb, within the altered domain. The latter domain, apparently homogeneous in BSE images, is in fact constituted by closely associated nano-mixtures of Mnz1 and Mnz2. Furthermore, the volume of Mnz2 within the altered domain, i.e. the efficiency of replacement, increases with increasing temperature. Apparent partial resetting of U-Th-Pb systems results from the unavoidable nano-mixture of different proportion of Mnz1 and Mnz2 within the analytical microvolume (EPMA, LA-ICP-MS). This study therefore indicates that the micrometric resolution (even the 5 μm3 for EPMA) of in-situ dating techniques may be not sufficient to solve such nano-replacement domains, especially when alteration occurs at low-temperature. Ref: Seydoux-Guillaume, A.-M., Montel, J.-M., Bingen, B., Bosse, V., de Parseval, P., Paquette, J.-L., Janots, E., and Wirth, R., (2012). Chemical Geology, v. 330-331, p. 140-158.

  16. U-Th-Pb Systematics in Zircon and Apatite from the Chicxulub Crater, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, D. A.; Shaulis, B. J.; Schmieder, M.; Lapen, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    We probe the U-Th-Pb systematics in zircon and apatite to determine if post-impact hydrothermal activity produced discernible effects that are related to the duration, thermal evolution, and chemistry of the hydrothermal system.

  17. U-Th-PbT Monazite Gechronology in the South Carpathian Basement: Variscan Syn-Metamorphic Tectonic Stacking and Long-Lasting Post-Peak Decompressional Overprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Săbău, G.; Negulescu, E.

    2012-12-01

    Dating metamorphic events appears to be unsatisfactorily addressed by most of the widely-employed and otherwise accurate and productive isotopic techniques, because the phases and systems investigated do not directly relate to the metamorphic events themselves. An adequate answer to this challenge is instead provided by microprobe-assisted chemical U-Th-PbT monazite geochronology, by its spatial resolution, truly in situ character and the possibility to reference analyses against well-defined textural environments and features, as well as a qualitative timeframe derived therefrom. Though chemical U-Th-PbT monazite geochronology is increasingly applied to seek answers ranging form a general characterization to fine details of the thermotectonic evolution of magmatic and metamorphic rocks, there are so far, unlike in the case of isotopic geochronological methods, no clearly defined standard analytical and data processing protocols. Two main reasons for this have to be mentioned, namely that chemical U-Th-PbT chronology is actually a proxy for isotopic geochronology, and the quantification of the errors and their propagation cannot be directly assessed because apparent ages are related to the measured element concentrations by an implicit function, the law of radioactive decay. Current approaches rely on treating calculated individual age values as primary data, a priori grouping of analyses supposed (and subsequently tested) to be coeval, and their statistical processing in order to obtain age values. An alternative approach we applied in basement units of the South Carpathians consists in an explicit approximation of the age formula and associated errors propagated from element concentrations to age values, and individual treatment of each age datum. The separation of the age clusters from the overall age spectrum of each sample was operated by tracing the variations of the normalized age gradient on the age spectrum sorted by increasing age values, and fine

  18. Preliminary Report on U-Th-Pb Isotope Systematics of the Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions, and trace element abundances.. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible-element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible-element-rich reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there has been a long debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former clearly requires the ancient martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and U-Th-Pb concentration analyses of the olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint because U-Th-Pb isotope systematics have been intensively used as a powerful radiogenic tracer to characterize old crust/sediment components in mantle- derived, terrestrial oceanic island basalts. The U-Th-Pb analyses are applied to sequential acid leaching fractions obtained from Tissint whole-rock powder in order to search for Pb isotopic source components in Tissint magma. Here we report preliminary results of the U-Th-Pb analyses of acid leachates and a residue, and propose the possibility that Tissint would have experienced minor assimilation of old martian crust.

  19. Evaluation of potential of adsorption of U, Th, Pb, Zn and Ni by coconut fibers; Avaliacao do potencial de adsorcao de U, Th, Pb, Zn e Ni pelas fibras de coco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Raquel Almeida

    2009-07-01

    The residual biomass from agricultural activities has been evaluated as biosorbent for metals and organic composts from aqueous solutions, because of its adsorptive properties, low cost, abundance and to be a renewable resource. In this work, the efficiency of coir pith as biosorbent for the removal of U, Th, Pb, Zn e Ni ions from the aqueous solutions is presented. The coir pith is a by-product of the harvest of the coconut, a renewable natural source. The study was conducted by batch method. The influence of pH from 1 to 8, the dosage of the coir pith and the equilibrium time were studied. The adsorption of metal ions increased with the increase of pH and the dose. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe the adsorption equilibrium isotherm. The kinetic process was studied using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. The Gibbs free energy was calculated. In the concentration range of 100 mg.L{sup -1} - 500 mg.L{sup -1}, the adsorption process was described better by the Langmuir equation for Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} ions and the Freundlich equation for UO{sub 2} 2{sup +}, Th{sup 4+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions, and represented by the pseudo-second order model. The biosorption process for removal of metal ions from the solutions was considered spontaneous. The results were promising, showing perspectives of application of coir pith as biosorbent of U, Th, Pb, Zn and Ni ions in wastewater treatment processes. (author)

  20. Petrology and geochronology of ultra-high temperature granulites of the basic unit of Andriamena (north-central Madagascar). Contribution of in-situ U-Th-Pb geochronology to the interpretation of P-T paths; Petrologie et geochronologie des granulites de ultra-hautes temperatures de l'unite basique d'Andriamena (Centre-Nord Madagascar). Apport de la geochronologie in-situ U-Th-Pb a l'interpretation des trajets P-T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Ph

    2002-10-01

    reached thanks to the punctual and in-situ dating methods which allow to date the minerals in their textural context and thus to correlate the metamorphic mineralogy with the age. Therefore, a new method of in-situ U-Th-Pb dating on monazite has been developed which uses the chemical (microprobe) and conventional isotopic (ID-TIMS) methods. Using both methods, a high spatial resolution is combined to a high analytical precision. The particularity of this new approach is that the isotopic dating is performed on individual grains extracted by micro-drilling on the thin section after their determination by electron microprobe. The textural position of each dated grain is thus recorded. (J.S.)

  1. U-Th-Pb age in hydrothermal monazite applied in geochronological tin mineralization from Greisen zone of the Palanqueta granitic system, Bom Futuro deposit, Rondonia, Brazil; Datacao U-Th-Pb de monazita hidrotermal e sua aplicacao na geocronologia da mineralizacao de estanho em zonas de Greisen do sistema granitico Palanqueta, deposito do Bom Futuro, RO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Valmir da Silva [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Geociencias]. E-mail: valmirsouza@ufam.edu.br; Teixeira, Luciana Miyahara [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: luciana.miyahara@celaf.ibama.gov.br; Botelho, Nilson Francisquini [Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: nilsonfb@unb.br

    2005-03-15

    The ages of hydrothermal events responsible for tin mineralization in the granitic systems from the Rondonia Tin Province are poorly defined so far. Available K-Ar dating in Li-micas of greisens and veins yielded values around 965 Ma, younger than the late mineralized granites ages, around 990 Ma. Electron microprobe U, Th and Pb dating of hydrothermal monazite from the greisen zones of the Palanqueta plutonic system, Bom Futuro tin deposit, yielded an age of 997{+-}48 Ma. Considering that: the K-Ar method is influenced by increasing temperature; critical temperature of Ar retention in micas is 300 deg C; and fluid inclusions and ae {sup 18}O studies indicate, respectively, trapping temperature above 300 deg C and cassiterite crystallization temperature above 400 deg C, we suggest that the K-Ar dating in micas from Rondonia tin deposits are indicative of cooling and closure of the hydrothermal systems. Therefore, ages obtained from U-Th-Pb data in hydrothermal monazite from greisen can be considered a good reference for the tin ore formation in the Bom Futuro deposit, associated with late to post-magmatic processes, and coeval with the end of crystallization of albite granite in the Palanqueta granitic system. (author)

  2. Interpretation of U-Th-Pb in-situ ages of hydrothermal monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y): evidence from a large-scale regional study in clefts from the western alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand'Homme, A.; Janots, E.; Bosse, V.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A. M.; De Ascenção Guedes, R.

    2016-12-01

    In eleven Alpine clefts of the western Alps, in-situ dating of monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) has been attempted to gain insights on possible disturbances of the geochronological U-Th-Pb systems and age interpretations in hydrothermal conditions. In most clefts, monazite-(Ce) in-situ 208Pb/232Th dating using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) yields well-resolved ages (with errors typically 100). Xenotime-(Y) has remarkably high Th/U ratios and U-Pb dating is also disturbed by 206Pb excess, whereas 208Pb/232Th dating gave well-resolved ages (34.9 ± 0.5 Ma), close to but higher than the monazite-(Ce) age obtained in the same cleft (32.3 ± 0.3 Ma). Correlation of the monazite-(Ce) U-Th-Pb age dataset with other geochronological data suggests for monazite-(Ce) precipitation at periods of high tectonic activity. In the external massifs, monazite-(Ce) dating confirms a polyphased transpressive regime with activity periods around 13-11 Ma and 8-6 Ma. Older monazite-(Ce) ages in the Argentera massif (20.6 ± 0.3 Ma) are consistent with the regional diachronism in the western external Alps. In the 2 clefts of the internal massifs, monazite-(Ce) dating provides first ages of hydrothermal activity: the monazite-(Ce) age at 32.3 ± 0.3 Ma coincides with the exhumation along the Penninic front, but the monazite-(Ce) age at 23.3 ± 0.2 Ma is complex to attribute to a specific deformation stage.

  3. Nd Isotope and U-Th-Pb Age Mapping of Single Monazite Grains by Laser Ablation Split Stream Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C. M.; Hanchar, J. M.; Miller, C. F.; Phillips, S.; Vervoort, J. D.; Martin, W.

    2015-12-01

    Monazite is a common accessory mineral that occurs in medium to high grade metamorphic and Ca-poor felsic igneous rocks, and often controls the LREE budget (including Sm and Nd) of the host rock in which it crystallizes. Moreover, it contains appreciable U and Th, making it an ideal mineral for determining U-Th-Pb ages and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions, both of which are readily determined using in situ techniques with very high spatial resolution like LA-MC-ICPMS. Here, we present the results of laser ablation split stream analyses (LASS), which allows for simultaneous determination of the age and initial Nd isotopic composition in a single analysis. Analyses were done using a 20mm laser spot that allowed for detailed Nd isotope mapping of monazite grains (~30 analyses per ~250mm sized grain). Combined with LREE ratios (e.g., Sm/Nd, Ce/Gd, and Eu anomalies) these results yield important petrogenetic constraints on the evolution of peraluminous granites from the Old Woman-Piute batholith in southeastern California. Our findings also allow an improved understanding of the causes of isotope heterogeneity in granitic rocks. U-Th-Pb age mapping across the crystals reveals a single Cretaceous age for all grains with precision and accuracy typical of laser ablation analyses (~2%). In contrast, the concurrent Nd isotope mapping yields homogeneous initial Nd isotope compositions for some grains and large initial intra-grain variations of up to 8 epsilon units in others. The grains that yield homogeneous Nd isotope compositions have REE ratios suggesting that they crystallized in a fractionally crystallizing magma. Conversely, other grains, which also record fractional crystallization of both feldspar and LREE rich minerals, demonstrate a change in the Nd isotope composition of the magma during crystallization of monazite. Comparison of inter- and intra-grain Nd isotope compositions reveals further details on the potential mechanisms responsible for isotope heterogeneity

  4. A method for intercalibration of U-Th-Pb and 40Ar- 39Ar ages in the Phanerozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Mike; Sandeman, Hamish A.; Davis, William J.

    2000-12-01

    The increasing analytical precision of 40Ar- 39Ar geochronological data and its use in studies that combine U-Pb and 40Ar- 39Ar data has necessitated derivation of a means to intercalibrate ages between the two isotopic systems. The primary determinants inhibiting accurate cross calibration are uncertainty in decay constant values and uncertainty in 40Ar∗/ 40K (usually presented as apparent age) for 40Ar- 39Ar standards, notably those derived from the Fish Canyon Tuff. By utilizing a monazite- and biotite bearing Oligocene ash flow tuff (MAC-83) as the primary standard material, precise U-Th-Pb and 40Ar- 39Ar ages can be derived. Because both isotopic systems should reflect closure during the instantaneous eruption event, the 24.21 ± 0.10 Ma 207Pb/ 235U age should match the age resulting from 40Ar- 39Ar biotite analysis. This forced equivalence will partly offset the effects of decay constant uncertainty. Furthermore, by co-irradiating Fish Canyon Tuff sanidine with MAC-83 biotite, the apparent age for Fish Canyon Tuff sanidine is back-calculated to 27.98 ± 0.15 Ma, relative to the MAC-83 207Pb/ 235U age. Hence, intercalibration between the two isotopic systems in a relative sense can be accomplished, allowing for a direct and valid comparison of ages. It is also shown that forcing equivalence of the two isotopic systems minimizes the effect of decay constant uncertainty for samples of Phanerozoic age.

  5. The effect of weathering on U-Th-Pb and oxygen isotope systems of ancient zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, R. T.; Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    We report the result of a SIMS U-Th-Pb and O-OH study of 44 ancient zircons from the Jack Hills in Western Australia with ages ranging from 4.3 Ga to 3.3 Ga. We have investigated the behaviour of oxygen isotopes and water in the grains by determining δ18O and OH values at a number of locations on the polished surfaces of each grain. We have divided the zircons into five groups on the basis of their U-Th-Pb and OH-oxygen isotopic behaviour. The first group has concordant U-Th-Pb ages, minimal common Pb, δ18O values consistent with zircons derived from mantle source rocks and no detectable OH content. U-Th-Pb systems in zircons from Groups 2, 3 and 4 vary from concordant to extremely discordant where influenced by cracks. Discordia intercepts with concordia at approximately zero Ma age are interpreted as disturbance of the zircon U-Th-Pb systems by weathering solutions during the extensive, deep weathering that has affected the Archean Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia since at least the Permian. Weathering solutions entering cracks have resulted in an influx of Th and U. δ18O values of Group 2 grains fall approximately within the "mantle" range and OH is within background levels or slightly elevated. δ18O values of Group 3 grains are characterised by an initial trend of decreasing δ18O with increasing OH content. With further increase in OH this trend reverses and δ18O becomes heavier with increasing OH. Group 4 grains have a distinct trend of increasing δ18O with increasing OH. These trends are explained in terms of the reaction of percolating water with the metamict zircon structure and appear to be independent of analytical overlap with cracks. Group five zircons are characterised by U-Pb systems that appear to consist of more than one age but show only minor U-Pb discordance. Nevertheless trends in δ18O versus OH in this group of grains resemble trends seen in the other groups. The observed trends of δ18O with OH in the Jack Hills zircons are similar

  6. Linking microstructures, petrology and in situ U-(Th)-Pb geochronology to constrain P-T-t-D evolution of the Greather Himalyan Sequences in Western Nepal (Central Himalaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccarino, Salvatore; Montomoli, Chiara; Carosi, Rodolfo; Langone, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Last advances in forward modelling of metamorphic rocks and into the understanding of accessories minerals behaviour, suitable for geochronology (e.g. zircon and monazite), during metamorphism, bring new insights for understanding the evolution of metamorphic tectonites during orogenic cycles (Williams and Jercinovic, 2012 and reference therein). One of the best exposure of high- to medium grade- metamorphic rocks, is represented by the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in the Himalayan Belt, one of the most classic example of collisional orogen. Recent field work in Mugu Karnali valley, Western Nepal (Central Himalaya), identified a compressional top to the South ductile shear zone within the core of the GHS, named Magri Shear Zone (MSZ), developed in a high temperature regime as testified by quartz microstructures and syn-kinematic growth of sillimanite. In order to infer the tectono-metamorphic meaning of MSZ, a microstructural study coupled with pseudosection modelling and in situ U-(Th)-Pb monazite geochronology was performed on selected samples from different structural positions. Footwall sample constituted by (Grt + St ± Ky) micaschist shows a prograde garnet growth (cores to inner rims zoning), from ~500°C, ~0.60GPa (close to garnet-in curve) to ~580°C, ~1.2 GPa temporal constrained between 21-18 Ma, by medium Y cores to very low Y mantles monazite micro-chemical/ages domain . In this sample garnet was still growing during decompression and heating at ~640°C, ~0.75 GPa (rims), and later starts to be consumed, in conjunction with staurolite growth at 15-13 Ma, as revealed by high Y rims monazite micro-chemical/ages domain. Hanging-wall mylonitic samples have a porphyroclastic texture, with garnet preserve little memory of prograde path. Garnet near rim isoplets and matrix minerals intersect at ~700°C and ~0.70 GPa. A previous higher P stage, at ~1.10 GPa ~600°C, is testified by cores of larger white mica porhyroclasts. Prograde zoned allanite (Janots

  7. Monazite and allanite U-Th-Pb vs mica 39Ar-40Ar ages in equilibrated metasediments: closure behavior and closure temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaz, J.; Engi, M.; Berger, A.; Janots, E.; Villa, I. M.

    2009-12-01

    The art of geochronology implies identification of processes, so as to correctly interpret an isotopic age as (1) crystallization, (2) cooling, or (3) meaningless owing to inheritance and/or late mineral recrystallization. We address here a field calibration of 39Ar-40Ar ages against U-Th-Pb ages. We demonstrate that detailed petrological, micro-textural and micro-chemical investigations are a necessary prerequisite for meaningful geochronology. The Barrovian metamorphism in the Alps results from the collision of Europe and Apulia and reaches its thermal maximum (upper amphibolite facies) in the Central Alps. Age estimates for the Alpine orogeny have long been controversial, despite a multitude of studies. Based on the resetting of Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages in muscovite from polymetamorphic gneisses, Jäger [1] had proposed an age of 38±2 Ma for the Barrovian metamorphism, corresponding to a “closure temperature TC” (following [2]) of 350 °C for K-Ar in muscovite. However, a uniform Eocene age for the metamorphism in the Central Alps was in conflict already with early monazite and xenotime U-Pb ages from the same area, namely 30 Ma in the southern, and ~20 Ma in the northern part (e.g. [3]). A recent study [4] both confirmed the young monazite ages in the north (SHRIMP U-Pb of 18-19 Ma near Tmax = 570 °C), and demonstrated that ca. 30 Ma ago this part of the belt was still heating up, as allanite grew prograde near 440 °C. These results once more prove isotopic inheritance, and therefore underestimation of mica K-Ar TC, in Jäger’s [1] samples. To avoid isotopic inheritance problems we selected only Mesozoic metasediments from the northern Central Alps. We screened all samples by PTAX: many had undergone a variety of retrogression reactions and calculations show petrological disequilibrium; we favored those in near-ideal petrological equilibrium. 39Ar-40Ar ages for mica separates from equilibrium samples yield ages between 18.93±0.83 and 15.79±0.11 Ma for

  8. U-Th-Pb zircon geochronology on igneous rocks in the Toija and Salittu Formations, Orijärvi area, southwestern Finland: constraints on the age of volcanism and metamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Kirkland

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zircons from a felsic volcanic rock in the Toija Formation and a synvolcanic gabbro intrusion in the Salittu Formation within the Orijärvi area were dated by U-Th-Pb SIMS in order to provide depositional constraints on these formations. Zircon crystals from the felsic rock preserve a two-stage crystallisation history with zoned core domains and homogeneous rim domains. Inner domains yield a 1878±4 Ma concordia age, interpreted to determine the crystallisation of this rock. Rims yield a 1815±3 Ma concordia age interpretedto determine the regional metamorphism. Small rounded zircon grains from the Salittu gabbro, located within the Jyly shear zone, yield a concordia age of 1792±5 Ma. We interpret the grain textures to suggest that they recrystallised from inherited zircon seeds during the heat and fluid flow into the shear zone. Although no direct ages for the Salittu Formation have been recovered, field relationships imply that it was deposited between 1878−1875 Ma.

  9. Monazite U-Th-Pb EPMA and zircon U-Pb SIMS chronological constraints on the tectonic, metamorphic, and thermal events in the inner part of the Variscan orogen, example from the Sioule series, French Massif Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Couto, Damien; Faure, Michel; Augier, Romain; Cocherie, Alain; Rossi, Philippe; Li, Xian-Hua; Lin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In the northern Variscan French Massif Central, the Sioule metamorphic series exposes from top to bottom the tectonic superposition of the Upper Gneiss Unit (UGU), Lower Gneiss Unit (LGU), and Para-autochthonous Unit (PAU). The nappe stacking developed throughout two prograde syn-metamorphic events: D1 is a top-to-the-SW shearing coeval with a probable Devonian migmatization and D2 is a top-to-the-NW shearing event. Both events were completed before the unconformable deposition of the undeformed and unmetamorphosed "Tufs anthracifères" formation, dated at ca 330 Ma (Late Visean). Furthermore, the UGU experienced a high-pressure metamorphism ascribed to a D0 event during which eclogite or granulite crystallized in several parts of the UGU. Monazite U-Th-Pb and zircon U-Pb SIMS datings were carried out in order to constrain the ages of these D0, D1, and D2 tectono-metamorphic events. These new geochronological results are placed in a P-T-t diagram constructed for the UGU, LGU, and PAU. Monazite sampled in UGU, LGU, and PAU rocks yields similar 365-350 Ma ages consistent with the D2 event dated in other places of the French Massif Central. A zoned monazite grain from a granulitic paragneiss yields 416 ± 15 and 362 ± 14 Ma ages interpreted as those of the D0 and D2 events, respectively. Zircon from the same granulitic paragneiss yields SIMS ages at 343 ± 2 and 328 ± 2 Ma that are interpreted as recrystallization processes associated with post-thickening thermal events, possibly recording the onset of orogenic collapse of the Northern Massif Central. It is worth to note that neither monazite nor zircon recorded the D1 event.

  10. U-Th-Pb Chemical dating of monazite exsolutions in apatite aggregates in quartz veins of UHP rocks from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling ( CCSD ) Project%中国大陆科学钻探(CCSD)UHP岩石石英脉中磷灰石团块独居石出溶物的U-Th-Pb化学定年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤倩; 孙晓明; 徐莉; 翟伟; 梁金龙; 梁业恒; 沈昆

    2006-01-01

    CCSD主孔榴辉岩等UHP岩石石英脉中存在团块状到不规则脉体状的磷灰石集合体,显微镜下观察发现其中存在四种出溶物:磁铁矿和赤铁矿的连生体、赤铁矿、独居石和锶重晶石;出溶物的长轴和生长方向均基本平行于磷灰石之C轴,显示它们可能是基本同时出溶的.其中独居石出溶体多为菱形到板状自形晶体,宽约6~10μm,长约50~75μm.运用CHIME化学定年方法对CCSD磷灰石团块中的独居石出溶物进行了年代学研究,获得其Th-Pb等时线年龄为202±28.3Ma,表明磷灰石团块形成于榴辉岩在折返过程中的重结晶和退变质,时代为晚三叠世.该年龄可能也代表了CCSD中UHP岩石中包裹磷灰石团块的石英脉的形成时代.

  11. EPMA monazite U-Th-Pb chemical dating for monzo-granites from Guangtoushan intrusion in western Qinling Mountains, Central China lind its geological significance%西秦岭勉县北部光头山二长花岗岩独居石电子探针U-Th-Pb化学法定年及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭; 刘树文; 李秋根; 吴峰辉; 杨凯; 张帆; 陈友章

    2009-01-01

    南秦岭勉略缝合带北侧先头山花岗岩体由早期的石英闪长质-英云闪长质岩石和晚期的S型二长花岗岩组成.其中早期侵入相明显地经历了韧性剪切带的改造.形成于勉略构造带闭合之前.晚期的S型二长花岗岩侵位于早期的石英闪长岩、英云闪长岩和韧性剪切带中.是与勉略洋盆闭合密切相关的同碰撞-后碰撞阶段侵位的花岗岩.所以光头山岩体的形成年龄可以较好地限定西秦岭勉略洋盆闭合、扬子板块与微秦岭板块碰撞的时代.2个二长花岗岩样品的独居石电子探针U-Th-Pb定年分析.分别得到3组年龄和4组年龄.结合前人的研究成果、独居石BSE图像和表现年龄分布,确定S型花岗岩的结晶年龄为209-196 Ma.它限定了勉略构造带闭合隆升的时代为晚三叠世-早侏罗世;较老的240 Ma+4Ma、318Ma±5Ma和249Ma±4Ma记录了早期与勉略缝合带闭合洋壳俯冲相关的残留独居石的年龄.年轻的184Ma±3Ma和154Ma±3Ma反映了后期的变形作用和流体活动等的改造作用.

  12. Zirconolite, zircon and monazite-(Ce) U-Th-Pb age constraints on the emplacement, deformation and alteration history of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex, Halls Creek Orogen, Kimberley region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Peter J.; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Fletcher, Ian R.; McNaughton, Neal J.; Rasmussen, Birger; Jaques, A. Lynton; Verrall, Michael; Sweetapple, Marcus T.

    2016-04-01

    In situ SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zirconolite in clinopyroxenite from the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex, situated in the southern Halls Creek Orogen, Kimberley region, Western Australia, has provided a reliable 207Pb/206Pb age of emplacement of 1009 ± 16 Ma. Variably metamict and recrystallised zircons from co-magmatic carbonatites, including a megacryst ~1.5 cm long, gave a range of ages from ~1043-998 Ma, reflecting partial isotopic resetting during post-emplacement deformation and alteration. Monazite-(Ce) in a strongly foliated dolomite carbonatite produced U-Th-Pb dates ranging from ~900-590 Ma. Although the monazite-(Ce) data cannot give any definitive ages, they clearly reflect a long history of hydrothermal alteration/recrystallisation, over at least 300 million years. This is consistent with the apparent resetting of the Rb-Sr and K-Ar isotopic systems by a post-emplacement thermal event at ~900 Ma during the intracratonic Yampi Orogeny. The emplacement of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex probably resulted from the reactivation of a deep crustal structure within the Halls Creek Orogen during the amalgamation of Proterozoic Australia with Rodinia over the period ~1000-950 Ma. This may have allowed an alkaline carbonated silicate magma that was parental to the Cummins Range carbonatites, and generated by redox and/or decompression partial melting of the asthenospheric mantle, to ascend from the base of the continental lithosphere along the lithospheric discontinuity constituted by the southern edge of the Halls Creek Orogen. There is no evidence of a link between the emplacement of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex and mafic large igneous province magmatism indicative of mantle plume activity. Rather, patterns of Proterozoic alkaline magmatism in the Kimberley Craton may have been controlled by changing plate motions during the Nuna-Rodinia supercontinent cycles (~1200-800 Ma).

  13. LASS U-Th-Pb monazite and rutile geochronology of felsic high-pressure granulites (Rhodope, N Greece): Effects of fluid, deformation and metamorphic reactions in local subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzenitz, Nicole; Krohe, Alexander; Baziotis, Ioannis; Mposkos, Evripidis; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.; Romer, Rolf L.

    2015-09-01

    The specific chemical composition of monazite in shear zones is controlled by the syndeformation dissolution-precipitation reactions of the rock-forming minerals. This relation can be used for dating deformation, even when microfabric characteristics like shape preferred orientation or intracrystalline deformation of monazite itself are missing. Monazite contemporaneously formed in and around the shear zones may have different compositions. These depend on the local chemical context rather than reflecting successive crystallization episodes of monazite. This is demonstrated in polymetamorphic, mylonitic high-pressure (HP) garnet-kyanite granulites of the Alpine Sidironero Complex (Rhodope UHP terrain, Northern Greece). The studied mylonitic rocks escaped from regional migmatization at 40-36 Ma and from subsequent shearing through cooling until 36 Ma. In-situ laser-ablation split-stream inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LASS) analyses have been carried out on monazite from micro-scale shear zones, from pre-mylonitic microlithons as well as of monazite inclusions in relictic minerals complimented by U-Pb data on rutile and Rb-Sr data of biotite. Two major metamorphic episodes, Mesozoic and Cenozoic, are constrained. Chemical compositions, isotopic characteristics and apparent ages systematically vary among monazite of four different microfabric domains (I-IV). Within three pre-mylonitic domains (inclusions in (I) pre-mylonitic kyanite and (II) garnet porphyroclasts, and (III) in pre-mylonitic microlithons) monazite yields ages of ca. 130-150 Ma for HP-granulite metamorphism, in line with previous geochronological results in the area. Patchy alteration of the pre-mylonitic monazite by intra-grain dissolution-precipitation processes variably increased negative Eu anomaly and reduced the HREE contents. The apparent age of this altered monazite is reduced. Monazite in the syn-mylonitic shear bands (IV) differs in chemical composition from unaltered and

  14. The Montalet granite, Montagne Noire, France: An Early Permian syn-extensional pluton as evidenced by new U-Th-Pb data on zircon and monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poilvet, Jean-Charles; Poujol, Marc; Pitra, Pavel; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2011-07-01

    Dating the magmatism in the Montagne Noire gneiss dome in the southern French Massif Central is a key point for understanding the Late Palaeozoic evolution of this part of the Variscan belt, which is characterised by compressive tectonics during the Carboniferous and extensional tectonics during Stephanian-Permian times. The Montalet granite crops out in the north-western part of the dome and was first considered as an early syntectonic intrusion related to compressive deformation. More recently, it has been dated at 327 Ma and considered as contemporaneous with the diapiric ascent of the Montagne Noire gneiss dome before the Stephanian-Permian extension. We show that in fact, this pluton was emplaced 294 ± 1 Ma ago and is therefore contemporaneous with the Stephanian-Permian extension. This age is consistent with the interpretation of the Montagne Noire Massif as an extensional gneiss dome.

  15. Accessory mineral U-Th-Pb ages and 40Ar/39Ar eruption chronology, and their bearing on rhyolitic magma evolution in the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J.I.; Vazquez, J.A.; Renne, P.R.; Schmitt, A.K.; Bacon, C.R.; Reid, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    We determined Ar/Ar eruption ages of eight extrusions from the Pleistocene Coso volcanic field, a long-lived series of small volume rhyolitic domes in eastern California. Combined with ion-microprobe dating of crystal ages of zircon and allanite from these lavas and from granophyre geothermal well cuttings, we were able to track the range of magma-production rates over the past 650 ka at Coso. In ??? 230 ka rhyolites we find no evidence of protracted magma residence or recycled zircon (or allanite) from Pleistocene predecessors. A significant subset of zircon in the ???85 ka rhyolites yielded ages between ???100 and 200 Ma, requiring that generation of at least some rhyolites involves material from Mesozoic basement. Similar zircon xenocrysts are found in an ???200 ka granophyre. The new age constraints imply that magma evolution at Coso can occur rapidly as demonstrated by significant changes in rhyolite composition over short time intervals (???10's to 100's ka). In conjunction with radioisotopic age constraints from other young silicic volcanic fields, dating of Coso rhyolites highlights the fact that at least some (and often the more voluminous) rhyolites are produced relatively rapidly, but that many small-volume rhyolites likely represent separation from long-lived mushy magma bodies. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

  16. Interim report task 2: performance testing - task 2.4: natural mineral analog studies physical and chemical characteristics of brannerite in natural systems to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract B345772

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, G R; Colella, M; Leung, S H F

    2000-04-30

    To investigate the long-term alteration behavior of brannerite, we have undertaken a study of 13 natural samples from various geological environments, including granites, granitic pegmatites, quartz veins, and placer deposits. Literature data and U-Th-Pb chemical dating carried out in this work indicate that the samples range in age from approximately 20 Ma to 1580 Ma. Where independent age data or estimates are available for comparison, the U-Th-Pb chemical ages are in reasonable agreement for the younger samples, but the older samples tend to show evidence for Pb loss (up to about 80%), a common feature of metamict Nb, Ta, and Ti oxide minerals. Our results show that many of the samples exhibit only minor alteration, usually within small patches, microfractures, or around the rims of the brannerite crystals. Other samples consist of variable amounts of unaltered and altered brannerite. Heavily altered samples may contain anatase and thorite as fine-grained alteration products. Certain samples exhibited fracturing of the associated rock matrix or mineral phase in the immediate vicinity of the brannerite grains. These fractures contain U bearing material and indicate that some U migrated locally from the source brannerite.

  17. Trans-Amazonian U-Th-Pb monazite ages and P-T-d exhumation paths of garnet-bearing leucogranite and migmatitic country rock of the southeastern Tandilia belt, Rio de la Plata craton in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Cruz; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Frisicale, María Cristina; Dristas, Jorge A.

    2017-03-01

    A garnet-bearing leucogranite and two country rocks from the Transamazonian Tandilia belt of the Rio de la Plata craton were studied in detail. The leucogranite contains garnet with homogeneous composition of pyr6(gros + andr)2spes5alm87. In a garnet-biotite migmatite, the core and rim compositions of garnet are pyr1.7(gros + andr)5spes5.6alm87.7 and pyr1.2(gros + andr)5.5spes6.7alm86.6, respectively. These compositions in a sillimanite-garnet-muscovite migmatite are pyr4(gros + andr)2.7spes2.7alm90.6 and pyr2.7(gros + andr)4spes3.2alm90.1, respectively. We used this information to decipher the P-T evolution of the rocks applying P-T and T-H2O pseudosections with the PERPLE_X computer software package taking into consideration deformational microstructures. The leucogranite records an isothermal decompression from 5.3 to 3.8 kbar at 665 °C. The garnet-biotite migmatite was exhumed from 5.5 kbar at 630 °C to 4.3 kbar at 615 °C and the sillimanite-garnet-muscovite migmatite from supersolidus conditions of 670 °C and 3.6 kbar to 625 °C at 2.4 kbar. Late andalusite formed in this rock. Seventy four analyses of 28 monazite grains of the country rocks yielded three groups of U-Th-Pb ages which were related to a collisional event (I: ca. 2.13-2.14 Ga.), a postcollisional thermal overprint (II: ca. 2.01 Ga) and slow cooling of the orogen (III: 1.80-1.90 Ga). Inherited ages of 2.28 and 2.25 Ga could refer to an early accretionary stage of the orogen. An age of 2.41 Ga indicates the presence of recycled Siderian continental crust. Synkinematic crystallization of melts and the subsolidus development of an S2-foliation, demonstrated by deformational microstructures, occurred during the exhumation of the studied area from depths of 18 km to 8 km in the time interval 2.01-1.90 Ga.

  18. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed.

  19. Cambrian ensialic rift-related magmatism in the Ossa-Morena Zone (Évora Aracena metamorphic belt, SW Iberian Massif): Sm Nd isotopes and SHRIMP zircon U Th Pb geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichorro, M.; Pereira, M. F.; Díaz-Azpiroz, M.; Williams, I. S.; Fernández, C.; Pin, C.; Silva, J. B.

    2008-12-01

    The Late Ediacaran (c. 560-550 Ma) Série Negra sediments of the Évora-Aracena metamorphic belt, Ossa-Morena Zone, SW Iberian Massif, preserve a record of the erosion of an Avalonian-Cadomian magmatic arc and subsequent related turbiditic sedimentation. Detrital zircon from the Série Negra is characterized by predominantly Ediacaran and Cryogenian ages, with few Paleoproterozoic and Archean cores, and a marked lack of Grenvillian ages. These features, when combined with the metasediments' enrichment in LREE (La/Yb = 14), negative Eu-anomalies, low 147Sm/ 144Nd values (0.121) and negative ɛNd 550 = - 5.5, indicate that the protolith Série Negra sediments were derived from a continental magmatic arc. A period of Late Cadomian (ca. 560-540 Ma) tectonism was followed by an extended episode of widespread bimodal magmatism related to Cambrian (ca. 540-500 Ma) rifting. This tectonic inversion is expressed in the geological record by a regional Early Cambrian unconformity. SHRIMP zircon U-Th-Pb ages from four felsic orthogneisses from the Évora Massif record Cambrian (527 ± 10 Ma, 522 ± 5 Ma, 517 ± 6 Ma and 505 ± 5 Ma) crystallization ages for their igneous protoliths. This confirms the existence of widespread Lower Paleozoic igneous activity in the Ossa-Morena Zone: (i) a Lower Cambrian (ca. 535-515 Ma) igneous-felsic dominated-sedimentary complex (with calc-alkaline signature and associated carbonate and siliciclastic deposition), and (ii) a Middle Cambrian-?Ordovician (ca. 515-490 Ma) igneous-bimodal-sedimentary complex (with calc-alkaline and tholeiitic signatures and associated dominant siliciclastic deposition, but also carbonate sediments). The Cambrian felsic magmatism was characterized by negative Eu-anomalies, (La/Lu) N = 0.8-11, 147Sm/ 144Nd = 0.1289-0.1447 and ɛNd 500 ranging from - 1.5 to - 0.8. A tendency towards peraluminous compositions suggests late fractionation, low degrees of partial melting, or the mixing of crustal and mantle

  20. The U-Th-Pb systematics of zircon from the Bishop Tuff: A case study in challenges to high-precision Pb/U geochronology at the millennial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickert, Ryan B.; Mundil, Roland; Magee, Charles W.; Mulcahy, Sean R.

    2015-11-01

    Dating zircon by U-Pb in the Pleistocene Bishop Tuff is challenging because the concentration of radiogenic Pb is low and the correction required for disequilibrium in the intermediate daughter products is large. The dates can be difficult to interpret, because their absolute precision is similar in magnitude to purported timescales of crystallization. Previous estimates of the duration of zircon crystallization span two orders of magnitude and appear to depend on the analytical approach. To reconcile the differing interpretations, we present new SIMS and ID-TIMS zircon Pb/U dates, including some crystals that are dated by both techniques. Both the SIMS and ID-TIMS dates have similar distributions as previous results. Normalized to a Th/Umelt = 2.81, SIMS spot dates from interior regions of sectioned grains range from 769 ± 31 ka to 845 ± 28 ka (2σ) and ID-TIMS dates have a range from 760 ± 7 ka to 793 ± 6 ka. Individual crystals dated by both methods have an average difference of 31 ka, with the SIMS dates being consistently older than the bulk crystal dates. This level of variability precludes the assignment of a geological significance to a mean (or weighted-mean) zircon date. A previous ID-TIMS investigation of single BT zircon that showed apparent statistically significant clustering of zircon ages was compromised by an incorrect treatment of the covariance structure of 230Th-corrected Pb/U data. We show approximate and exact methods for the correct treatment and demonstrate substantially more scatter in that data than previously recognized. Close scrutiny of available partition coefficient data show that they are not adequately precise for Bishop Tuff to <775 ka, which conflicts with some estimates of the 40Ar-39Ar sanidine age of eruption.

  1. Application of U-Th-Pb phosphate geochronology to young orogenic gold deposits: New age constraints on the formation of the Grass Valley gold district, Sierra Foothills province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Monecke, Thomas; Fletcher, Ian R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Kelly, Nigel M.

    2015-01-01

    The Grass Valley orogenic gold district in the Sierra Nevada foothills province, central California, the largest historic gold producer of the North American Cordillera, comprises both steeply dipping east-west (E-W) veins located along lithologic contacts in accreted ca. 300 and 200 Ma oceanic rocks and shallowly dipping north-south (N-S) veins hosted by the Grass Valley granodiorite; the latter have yielded about 70 percent of the 13 million ounces of historic lode gold production in the district. The oceanic host rocks were accreted to the western margin of North America between 200 and 170 Ma, metamorphosed to greenschist and amphibolite facies, and uplifted between 175 and 160 Ma. Large-scale magmatism in the Sierra Nevada occurred between 170-140 Ma and 120-80 Ma, with the Grass Valley granodiorite being emplaced during the older episode of magmatism. Uranium-lead isotopic dating of hydrothermal xenotime yielded the first absolute age of 162±5 Ma for the economically more significant N-S veins. The vein-hosted xenotime, as well as associated monazite, are unequivocally of hydrothermal origin as indicated by textural and chemical characteristics, including grain shape, lack of truncated growth banding, lack of a Eu anomaly, and low U and Th concentrations. Furthermore, the crack-seal texture of the veins, with abundant wallrock slivers, suggests their formation as a result of episodic fluid flow possibly related to reoccurring seismic events, rather than a period of fluid exsolution from an evolving magma. The N-S veins are temporally distinct from a younger 153-151 Ma gold event that was previously reported for the E-W veins. Overlapping U-Pb zircon (159.9±2.2 Ma) and 40Ar/39Ar biotite and hornblende (159.7±0.6 to 161.9±1.4 Ma) ages and geothermobarometric calculations indicate that the Grass Valley granodiorite was emplaced at ca. 160 Ma at elevated temperatures (~800°C) within approximately 3 km of the paleosurface and rapidly cooled to the ambient

  2. U-Th-Pb SHRIMP ages and oxygen isotope composition of zircon from two contrasting late Variscan granitoids, Nisa-Albuquerque batholith, SW Iberian Massif: Petrologic and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solá, A. Rita; Williams, Ian S.; Neiva, Ana M. R.; Ribeiro, M. Luisa

    2009-08-01

    The late Variscan Nisa-Albuquerque batholith in the SW Iberian Massif, consists of a dominant very coarse-grained porphyritic S-type monzogranite to syenogranite (Nisa monzogranite) surrounding a discontinuous central core that includes contrasting very fine-grained I-type tonalite-granodiorite (Aldeia da Mata tonalite). The batholith is located at the boundary between the Central Iberian and Ossa-Morena Zones, a complex segment of crust that was subject to both Cadomian and Variscan tectonism. Variscan zircons in the Nisa monzogranite can be broadly classified into three texturally and chemically distinct types with mutually indistinguishable SHRIMP 206Pb/ 238U ages: 1) high-U, low-Th/U (< 0.1) outermost overgrowths (307.4 ± 4.0 Ma); 2) moderate U and Th/U zircon with concentric zoning occurring both as inner overgrowths and whole grains (305.4 ± 6.2 Ma)";; and 3) texturally discordant cores (309.0 ± 4.6 Ma). Many other cores have ages in the ranges 2.56-1.85 and 0.66-0.51 Ga. The overgrowths and Variscan cores with low Th/U have uniformly high δ18O (9.5 ± 0.2‰). Variscan cores with moderate Th/U have a wide range of δ18O (6.7-10.9‰). Cores older than 500 Ma have an even wider range of composition (4.4-10.0‰). Zircon from the central Aldeia da Mata tonalite, in contrast, contains no inherited cores, has moderate to high Th/U (0.5-1.8), and is uniform in 206Pb/ 238U age (306.2 ± 3.0 Ma) and δ18O (7.4 ± 0.3‰). The zircon in the Nisa monzogranite records a history of magma genesis involving mixing between 1) a metaluminous magma progressively contaminated by a small sedimentary component, and 2) a more voluminous peraluminous magma originating from a largely metasedimentary source. The inherited zircon age pattern closely matches the age pattern of detrital zircon in early Paleozoic sediments from North Africa. The zircon in the Aldeia da Mata tonalite records nothing of the age of the magma's source rocks, but the moderately high δ18O does preclude

  3. 豫西小秦岭地区秦南金矿床热液独居石U-Th-Pb定年及其地质意义%Monazite U-Th-Pb Ages of the Qinnan Gold Deposit, Xiaoqinling District:Implications for Regional Metallogenesis and Tectonic Setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强山峰; 毕诗健; 邓晓东; 郭连巧; 李建威

    2013-01-01

    小秦岭地区是我国最重要的金矿产区之一,目前对该区金矿床成矿作用存在两种不同的观点,即与秦岭造山带造山作用有关的早中生代成矿和与中国东部构造体制大转折有关的晚中生代成矿.在矿床地质研究的基础上,利用激光剥蚀ICP-MS方法对小秦岭矿集区北矿带秦南金矿床的热液独居石进行了U-Th-Pb定年,获得了高精度的年龄数据,为北矿带金矿床成矿时代和成矿构造背景提供了新的制约.岩相学研究表明,所研究的独居石具有完好的晶形,与载金矿物黄铁矿和石英的结构关系表明它们近于同时形成.13个独居石颗粒的UTh-Pb同位素组成在206pb/238 U-207Pb/235U和206 Pb238 U-208 Pb/232 Th图解上均位于谐和线上或其附近,其206pb/238U和208pb/233 Th加权平均年龄分别为120.9±0.9 Ma(MSWD=1.0)和122.6±1.9 Ma(MSWD=2.6),在误差范围内完全一致.本次定年结果与小秦岭南矿带众多典型金矿床的Re-Os年龄和40 Ar/39 Ar年龄一致,表明独居石的U-Th-Pb同位素体系自矿物形成后一直处于封闭体系,其U-Pb和U-Th-Pb年龄可以解释为秦南金矿床的成矿时代,从而表明秦南金矿床形成于燕山期.对已有可靠年龄数据的统计分析表明,小秦岭地区绝大多数金矿床形成于早白垩世,证明该区金成矿作用集中发生于晚中生代,可能与华北克拉通岩石圈减薄作用有关.%Two contrasting models have been proposed to explain the large-scale gold mineralization in the Xiaoqinling gold district , which is the second largest gold producer in China. The first model advocates that gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling district formed in the Triassic in relation to continental collision of the Qinling Orogen, whereas the second indicates that gold mineralization occurred in the Early Cretaceous and was genetically related to lithospheric thinning of the North China Craton. In this paper, we present high precision monazite U-Th-Pb

  4. How I treat. . . evanescent youth. Dating back using chemical peels.

    OpenAIRE

    Xhauflaire, Emmanuelle; Marcq, V.; Pierard, Claudine; Pierard, Gérald

    2005-01-01

    Chemical peels induce the destruction and exfoliation of the epidermis using selected caustic substances. The specific properties of these agents result in a limited and controlled destruction of epidermal layers and of the superficial dermis. The choice of the appropriate method, the preparatory phase and the post-peeling care are very important to reach optimal results. Some types of peeling are routinely used. We briefly report those designed for the superficial and medium depth peelings. ...

  5. [How I treat. . . evanescent youth. Dating back using chemical peels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, E; Marcq, V; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2005-10-01

    Chemical peels induce the destruction and exfoliation of the epidermis using selected caustic substances. The specific properties of these agents result in a limited and controlled destruction of epidermal layers and of the superficial dermis. The choice of the appropriate method, the preparatory phase and the post-peeling care are very important to reach optimal results. Some types of peeling are routinely used. We briefly report those designed for the superficial and medium depth peelings. The topical application of glycolic acid at high concentration induces a superficial peel resulting in shading of small wrinkles. Trichloracetic acid used at an appropriate concentration acts more deeply and thus represents a good indication for more severe signs of ageing. These peels have been used for decades by dermatologists to improve the visible signs of skin ageing and to treat some alterations of the cutaneous relief.

  6. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Pollinated and Non Pollinated Date Fruit of District Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Bux Jatoi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Elemental patterns are often used for the classification or identification of date fruit varieties. Five ripening stages of six date varieties were collected and studied from the pre ripening to the post ripening stage. Pollinated and non-pollinated date fruit of the same varieties were compared for their physical and chemical parameters. Physical parameters such as size, mass, colour, moisture, and pH were measured. In case of chemical characteristics the mineral composition of six different varieties of district Khairpur dates palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit (Gorho, Asul Khurmo, Nur Aseel, Ghuray Wari, Toto, and Allah Wari were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Generally, size, moisture and mineral content of the pollinated fruit increased up to 3rd and 4th stage then declined.

  7. Physico-chemical properties and amino acid profiles of sap from Tunisian date palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Date palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L., also known as “legmi”, is a fresh juice extracted from date palm trees. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of collection time (at the beginning of the tapping period and after seven days of collection on the amino acid profile and physico-chemical properties of date palm sap from both male and female trees. Dry matter, protein, amino acid, and sugar profiles were determined using the Kjeldahl method, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD, respectively. Date palm sap from both male and female trees contained high levels of carbohydrates. HPLC analysis showed that this fraction was dominated by sucrose in the sap sample from female trees compared to that from male trees. Male date palm sap was noted to exhibit lower dry matter content than female date palm sap but higher protein, total polyphenol, ash, and amino acid contents. While the major essential amino acids in the sap from male trees consisted of valine and threonine, they were represented by lysine and phenylalanine in sap samples from female trees. Further, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of a proteinic band of 30 kDa only for the sap from male trees. Taken together, the sap from both male and female date palm trees had a number of properties that are highly valued by the functional food industry.

  8. Shock Deformation Features in Monazite: Implications for Dating Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, T. M.; Cavosie, A. J.; Timms, N. E.; Pearce, M. A.; Kirkland, C. L.; Tohver, E.; Reddy, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    This study presents detailed microstructural and U-Th-Pb analyses of shock deformed monazites from the Vredefort Dome, South Africa and Araguainha, Brazil impact structures, with significant insights on its use as impact indicator and geochronometer.

  9. Sulfate incorporation in monazite lattice: potential for dating the cycle of sulfur in metamorphic belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Antonin; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; Duchene, Stéphanie; Bingen, Bernard; Bosse, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    Monazite is a common accessory mineral in magmatic and metamorphic rocks that often shows complex chemical zoning at the μm- to nm-scale. The large number of cations that may be accommodated in its lattice, makes monazite particularly responsive to changes in the rock-forming minerals and fluid composition. Chemical zoning resulting from replacement or overgrowth may coincide, or not, with age zoning derived from U-Th-Pb isotopes. In this study, we focus on the potential for monazite to record both the redox condition of its crystalizing medium and an absolute U-Th-Pb isotopic age, during polyphase metamorphism in the Proterozoic province of Rogaland, S. Norway. The metamorphic evolution of several samples is derived from phase diagrams and the oxygen fugacity estimated from the FeO/Fe2O3 ratio measured by titration. Monazite grains were mapped at high spatial resolution for minor elements with electron microprobe, revealing convolute chemical zoning. Some of these zones yield appreciable content of S (up to 7000 ppm), accommodated following the Ca2+ + S6+ = REE3+ + P5+ substitution vector. The incorporation of sulfate in monazite has been subsequently investigated by TEM thanks to site specific FIB preparations. Besides, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb isotopic ages of monazite grains show a remarkable correlation with the sulfate content. It is therefore possible to distinguish different generations of monazite based on their S-content. From our petrological study we conclude that sulfate-bearing monazite reflects incongruent melting of Fe-Cu-As sulfides under oxidizing conditions, coeval with biotite dehydration melting. Monazite may therefore be used to probe the presence of sulfur in anatectic melts from high-grade terrains at a specific point in time. This property can be used to investigate the mineralization potential of a given geological event within a larger orogenic framework.

  10. U-Th-Pb analyses of soil from the Sea of Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tera, F.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    Analyses have been made of lead, uranium, and thorium in two soil samples from the Luna 16 mission. Lead was found to be distinctly radiogenic, but significantly less radiogenic than other lunar soils. The Th/U ratio was found to be 3.8, and the uranium concentration was the lowest so far found for lunar soils.

  11. Oxidative weathering recorded by U-Th-Pb behavior in shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogstad, E. J.; Bekker, A.

    2009-12-01

    Pb-isotope data from eleven suites of sedimentary (shales) and metasedimentary rocks (metapelites), new data or from the literature, are studied for indications of their Th/U histories. Variations in 208Pb/204Pb versus 206Pb/204Pb can be interpreted as indicating syn-depositional and/or post-depositional variations in Th/U. REE data can be used to test if apparent Th/U variations resulted from placer concentration of REE-, U-, and Th-rich heavy minerals. Such placer Th- or U-enrichment has not been identified in any of the shale Pb-Pb v. REE data. The early and middle Archean metasedimentary suites described (Isua, Barberton, Buhwa) show no evidence for separation of Th/U, suggesting that surficial conditions were too poor in free oxygen for uranium to be substantially transformed into U6+. A 2.7 Ga graphitic metapelite suite, the Vermilion Lake Formation from NE Minnesota, shows some decrease in Th/U consistent with addition of U upon reduction of U6+to U4+ by the sediments. Younger suites from the Early Proterozoic (Black Hills, 1.8 Ga shelf sediments of the S.W. U.S.A., Belt Supergroup), to samples from the late Paleozoic of the Appalachians, show profound separation of Th from U, consistent with oxic weathering in the modern style. Studies that showed U-enrichment in organic-rich shales as the effect of the rise of atmospheric oxygen neglect the effect of oxidative U-loss in sediments; in this study U-loss in contemporary organic-poor shales is shown to be the necessary, complementary reservoir to account for oxidative U mobility. Both high Th/U in organic-poor shales, or low Th/U in organic-rich shales, therefore, show the effect of oxidation on U.

  12. Chemical process to separate iron oxides particles in pottery sample for EPR dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S.; Farias, T. M. B.; Gennari, R. F.; Ferraz, G. M.; Kunzli, R.; Chubaci, J. F. D.

    2008-12-01

    Ancient potteries usually are made of the local clay material, which contains relatively high concentration of iron. The powdered samples are usually quite black, due to magnetite, and, although they can be used for thermoluminescene (TL) dating, it is easiest to obtain better TL reading when clearest natural or pre-treated sample is used. For electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, the huge signal due to iron spin-spin interaction, promotes an intense interference overlapping any other signal in this range. Sample dating is obtained by dividing the radiation dose, determined by the concentration of paramagnetic species generated by irradiation, by the natural dose so as a consequence, EPR dating cannot be used, since iron signal do not depend on radiation dose. In some cases, the density separation method using hydrated solution of sodium polytungstate [Na 6(H 2W 12O 40)·H 2O] becomes useful. However, the sodium polytungstate is very expensive in Brazil; hence an alternative method for eliminating this interference is proposed. A chemical process to eliminate about 90% of magnetite was developed. A sample of powdered ancient pottery was treated in a mixture (3:1:1) of HCl, HNO 3 and H 2O 2 for 4 h. After that, it was washed several times in distilled water to remove all acid matrixes. The original black sample becomes somewhat clearer. The resulting material was analyzed by plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with the result that the iron content is reduced by a factor of about 9. In EPR measurements a non-treated natural ceramic sample shows a broad spin-spin interaction signal, the chemically treated sample presents a narrow signal in g = 2.00 region, possibly due to a radical of (SiO 3) 3-, mixed with signal of remaining iron [M. Ikeya, New Applications of Electron Spin Resonance, World Scientific, Singapore, 1993, p. 285]. This signal increases in intensity under γ-irradiation. However, still due to iron influence, the additive method yielded too

  13. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Date Seed Oil Grown in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab Salih Mahmoud Abdalla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Studies were conducted on the physical-chemical properties of Sudanese date seed oil extracted from two date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L. ALBarakawi and Alqundeila. The extracted oil from ALBarakawi seeds weighed 6.833% w/w oil, Alqundeila oil extracted weighed 5.064% w/w. Approach: The physical properties of ALBarakawi oil were: viscosity: 17cp, refractive Index: 1.444, density: 0.9116 g cm-3 color: Within the range 1. 6-11.1 (red-yellow. For Alqundeila the physical properties were: viscosity: 20cp, refractive index: 1.458, density: 0.9174 g cm-3 color: 1.8-12.1 (red yellow. Results: The chemical properties were: Acid value 2.55, saponfication value 0.255 mg g-1, iodine value 71.12 gm I2/100 gm fat, peroxide value: 4.8 mg. Peroxide/Kgoil for ALBarakawi. For Alqundeila they were: acid value 2.47, saponfication value 0.267 mg g-1 and iodine value 83.31gm I2/100 gm fat, peroxide value: 7.4 mg Peroxide/Kgoil. In this study, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was utilized for the identification and quantification of vitamin E in these samples. The content of vitamin E for ALBarakawi was 5.821 and 6.054 ppm for Alqundeila. For the fatty acid content in these oils, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS was used. The constituents of fatty acids (calculated % relative to total fatty acid constituents in ALBarakawi were: Saturated lauric acid 37.10%, palmitic acid: 9.24%, Stearic acid 1.71%, Unsaturated fatty acids: Linoleic acid (Omega-6 4.33%, Oleic acid (Omega-9 32.66%. For Alqundeila, the found fatty acids were: Saturated lauric acid o.11%, Palmitic acid: o.42%, Stearic acid 46.93%. Conclusion/Recommendations: The elements types and contents in these oils were: Iron 0.27 ppm, Magnesium 0.204 ppm, Sodium 60 ppm, Potassium 470 ppm, Calcium 25 ppm, Selenium 34.4 ppb for ALBarakawi. The contents of these elements in Alqundeila were: iron 0.27 ppm Magnesium 0.07 ppm, Potassium 2.3 ppm, Selenium 12.6 ppb. The

  14. Chemical compositions and bioactivities of crude polysaccharides from tea leaves beyond their useful date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianbo; Huo, Jianglei; Jiang, Huixian; Yang, Fan

    2011-12-01

    The chemical compositions and bioactivities of crude tea polysaccharides (TPS) from the out-of-date tea leaves (beyond their useful date), namely Xihu Longjing (XTPS), Anxi Tieguanyin (TTPS), Chawentianxia (CTPS) and Huizhoulvcha (HTPS), in market were investigated. These TPS showed similar neutral sugar content and different distribution of molecular weight (1-800 kD). These crude TPS were mainly composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose, and galacturonic acid. IR spectra confirmed that these crude TPS were composed of polysaccharide, protein and uronic acids. These TPS showed similar DPPH scavenging activity and exhibited lower DPPH scavenging activities than Vc within 25-200 μg/mL. However, these TPS with higher concentrations (200-400 μg/mL) showed similar DPPH scavenging activity with Vc. HTPS exhibited significant higher superoxide anion scavenging activity than others TPS and gallic acid. XTPS showed significant higher inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and α-amylase with inhibitory percentages of 64.35% and 82.24% than others TPS. TTPS, XTPS, and HTPS exhibited similar inhibition ability on α-d-glucosidase and α-amylase. The overdue tea leaves can be a resource of tea polysaccharides as function food.

  15. U-Pb dating by zircon dissolution method using chemical abrasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, Lucy, E-mail: lucytakehara@gmail.com.br [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Chemale Junior, Farid [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia; Hartmann, Leo A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Dussin, Ivo A.; Kawashita, Koji [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP, (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Geocronologicas

    2012-06-15

    Chemical abrasion was carried out on zircons grains of the Temora II standard for U-Pb dating prior to analyses using in situ Laser Ablation-Multi Collector Ion Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICPMS) followed by the Isotope Dissolution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (ID-TIMS) method. The proposed methodology was herein applied in order to reduce primarily the effects of secondary Pb loss, the presence of common lead and/or silicate impurities. Nine Temora II zircon grains were analyzed by the laser ablation method yielding an age of 418.3 +- 4.3 Ma. Zircon grains of a same population were separated for chemical abrasion before dissolution and mass spectrometry analyses. Six fractions of them were separated for isotope dissolution using {sup 235}U-{sup 205}Pb mixed spike after we have checked and assured the laboratory conditions of low blank values for total Pb of less than 2 pg/g. The obtained U-Pb zircon age by the ID-TIMS method was 415.7 +- 1.8 Ma (error 0.43 %) based on four successful determinations. The results are consistent with the published ages for the Temora diorite (Temora I - 416.75 +- 1.3 Ma; Temora II - 416.78 +- 0.33 Ma) and established as 416 +- 0.33 Ma. The technique is thus recommended for high precision U-Pb zircon analyses (error < 1 %), mainly for high resolution stratigraphic studies of Phanerozoic sequences. (author)

  16. Physico-chemical characteristics and fungal profile of four Saudi fresh date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Fahad; Nirmal, Nilesh; Chaliha, Mridusmita; Williams, David; Mereddy, Ram; Shelat, Kinnari; Sultanbawa, Yasmina

    2017-04-15

    Physico-chemical and microbial analyses of four commercial fresh date cultivars (Sukari, Barhi, Khalas and Rothana) grown in Saudi Arabia were evaluated. Colorimetric assay indicated that Sukari had the highest total sugar content of 13.21g/100gFW while the lowest was in Rothana with 7.96g/100gFW. Total phenolic content (TPC) ranged from 76.74 to 122.20mgGAE/100gFW in Barhi and Rothana respectively, whereas antioxidant activity was highest in Sukari (105.99μgGAE/gFW) and lowest in Khalas (90.81μgGAE/gFW). The dominant fungal genera were Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp. and Sarocladium sp., occurring at 37, 18, 13 and 12% respectively. The highest fungal occurrence was in Barhi (30%) followed by Sukari (29%), Khalas (26%) and Rothana (15%). The TPC had a negative correlation with fungal occurrence whilst the total sugars had a positive correlation.

  17. Exploitation of chemical profiles by conjugate variable analysis: application to the dating of a tropical ice core (Nevado Illimani, Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, M.; De Angelis, M.; Lacoume, J.-L.

    2013-06-01

    Ice core dating is a key parameter for the interpretation of the ice archives. However, the relationship between ice depth and age can generally not be easily established and requires to combine a large number of investigations and/or modeling effort. This paper presents a new approach of ice core dating based on conjugate variable (depth and spatial frequency) analysis of chemical profiles. The relationship between the depth of a given ice layer and the date it was deposited is determined using ion concentration depth profiles obtained along a one hundred-meters deep ice core recovered in the summit area of the Nevado Illimani (6350 m a.s.l.), located in the Eastern Bolivian Andes (16°37' S, 67°46' W). The results of Fourier conjugate analysis and wavelet tranforms are first compared. Both methods are applied to nitrate concentration depth profile. The resulting chronologies are checked by comparison with the multi-proxy year-by-year dating published by de Angelis et al. (2003) and with volcanic tie points, demonstrating the efficiency of Fourier conjugate analysis when tracking the natural variability of chemical proxies. The Fourier conjugate analysis is then applied to concentration depth profiles of seven other ions thus providing information on the suitability of each of them for dating studies of tropical Andean ice cores.

  18. U-Pb dating by zircon dissolution method using chemical abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Takehara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical abrasion was carried out on zircons grains of the Temora II standard for U-Pb dating prior to analyses using in situ Laser Ablation-MultiCollector Ion Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICPMS followed by the Isotope Dissolution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (ID-TIMS method. The proposed methodology was herein applied in order to reduce primarily the effects of secondary Pb loss, the presence of common lead and/or silicate impurities. Nine Temora II zircon grains were analyzed by the laser ablation method yielding an age of 418.3±4.3 Ma. Zircon grains of a same population were separated for chemical abrasion before dissolution and mass spectrometry analyses. Six fractions of them were separated for isotope dissolution using 235U-205Pb mixed spike after we have checked and assured the laboratory conditions of low blank values for total Pb of less than 2 pg/g. The obtained U-Pb zircon age by the ID-TIMS method was 415.7±1.8 Ma (error 0.43 % based on four successful determinations. The results are consistent with the published ages for the Temora diorite (Temora I – 416.75±1.3 Ma; Temora II – 416.78±0.33 Ma and established as 416±0.33 Ma. The technique is thus recommended for high precision U-Pb zircon analyses (error Este trabalho apresenta a técnica de abrasão química em zircões do padrão Temora II aplicada em datação de U-Pb por Dissolução Isotópica e Espectrometria de Massa por Ionização Térmica, método DI-ESIT. O emprego deste método tem como princípio diminuir os efeitos da perda secundária de Pb radiogênico antes da dissolução. Em primeira instância, os zircões foram analisados pelo método in situ com uso de Microssonda Laser acoplada a um Espectrômetro de Massa Multicoletor com Plasma Acoplado Indutivamente (MC-ICP-MS, cujo objetivo foi identificar os grãos de zircão de fase de cristalização simples sem sobrecrescimento. Nove cristais de zircão analisados com microssonda a

  19. Chemical Analysis of Different Parts of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Using Ultimate, Proximate and Thermo-Gravimetric Techniques for Energy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan A. Nasser; Salem, Mohamed Z. M.; Salim Hiziroglu; Hamad A. Al-Mefarrej; Ahmed S. Mohareb; Manawwer Alam; Aref, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze chemical structure of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by employing ultimate, proximate and thermo-gravimetric techniques. Samples from different anatomical parts of date palm, namely trunk, frond base, frond midrib, leaflets, coir, fruit stem, date stone, and fruit empty bunches were considered for the experiments. Based on the findings in this work palm leaflet samples gave the highest amount of extractives content (32.9%), followed by date palm s...

  20. Irradiation of dates: insect disinfestation, microbial and chemical assessments, and use of thermoluminescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kahtani, Hassan A.; Abu-Tarboush, Hamza M.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; Bajaber, Adnan S. [Food Science and Nutrition Department, College of Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Dryhim, Yousif N.; Adam, El-Shami E. [Plant Protection Department, College of Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); El-Mojaddidi, Mohamed A. [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-08-01

    Irradiation of dates (Khalas variety) at 0.9 kGy was sufficient to eliminate single insect infestation (Oryzaephilus surinamensis) and mixed infestation (O. surinamensis and Tribolium castaneum), whereas 0.3 kGy was effective only in controlling single infestation. Sensory properties were not affected but irradiation contributed to some reduction in microbial counts immediately after irradiation and counts remained low till the end of 6 months storage period. All sugars were significantly reduced immediately after irradiation but they increased gradually with increasing storage time. Thermoluminescence (TL) technique was useful in discriminating between irradiated and unirradiated dates during the entire storage period but was less sensitive as far as the dose estimation is concerned.

  1. Chemical and textural record of REE accessory phases along a well constrained prograde pelitic suite: implications for allanite and monazite petrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyr, M.; Goswami-Banerjee, S.; Engi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Because metamorphism comprises a complex sequence of structural changes and chemical reactions that can be extended over several millions of years, metamorphic rocks cannot in general be said to have "an age". As a consequence, interpreting radiometric age data from metamorphic rocks requires first to establish the behavior of the isotopic system used for dating relative to the P-T conditions that a metamorphic rock experienced. As the U-Th-Pb system in monazite and allanite is not easily reset during subsequent temperature increase, allanite and monazite ages are interpreted as reflecting crystallization ages. Consequently, to interpret allanite and monazite crystallization ages, it is crucial to determine the physical conditions of their crystallization. A detailed account of the textural and chemical evolution of allanite and monazite along a well constrained prograde metamorphic suite of detrital sediments of the Greater Himalaya of Zanskar reveals that: (1) allanite is the stable REE accessory phase in the biotite and garnet zone and (2) at the staurolite-in isograd, allanite disappears abruptly from the metamorphic assemblage, simultaneously with the occurrence of the first metamorphic monazite. The finding of both monazite and allanite as inclusion in staurolite indicates that the breakdown of allanite and the formation of monazite occurred during staurolite crystallization. The preservation of allanite and monazite inclusions in garnet core and rim respectively allows to accurately identify the P-T conditions of the formation of the first metamorphic monazite. Thermobarometry indicates that, in both cases, monazite crystallization occurred at 600 °C. The fact that the substitution of allanite by monazite occurs spatially close, i.e. at similar P-T conditions, in all types of rocks whether they are Al-rich metapelites or more psammitic metasediments indicates that major silicate phases like staurolite or garnet do not play a significant role in the monazite

  2. The effect of dust on the chemical and microbiological qualities of the date palm fruits from Bushehr-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Delkhah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The date palm cultivation has a long history in Bushehr province. Throughout the recent decade the dusts, in addition to direct harmful effects on humans, have adverse effects on health of the population living in this area. The infestation of pests in the southern province of Bushehr has groves. Due to the importance of dates in this area, the total ash and acid insoluble ash as indexes for assessing of chemical pollution and also, mold and yeast as indicators for microbial contamination were evaluated. Recently in a number of dates packaging industries, washing the products after the harvest is done. In current study, the effects of rinsing to decrease the dust pollution on date palm along with, the time effect on the quality and durability of washed and un-washed dates were investigated. Materials and Methods: Overall, 48 washed and un-washed dates were sampled from traditional and technologically advanced packaging industries, equally, and were confirmed according to ISIRI methods. Results: The Averages of total and acid insoluble ashes in washed date samples were:1.05±0.14 and 3.32±0.32%, and for un-washed samples were 1.36±0.27 and 4.59±1.64 percent, respectively. In all date samples were presented the yeast, however, their means were lower than the maximum limit (1×104 CFU. Also, all date samples were moldy. The Mean percentage of total ash samples in un-rinsed and rinsed dates were approximately, 1.84 and 1.33 times more than the maximum permissible limit, respectively. The mean of acid insoluble ash in all samples (100%, and 98% of total ash were higher than acceptable levels (p<0.05. The results revealed that the average percentage difference between the two groups were transpicuous, while this difference was not significant (p=0.13. Under the similar conditions, the average amount of yeast in washed date samples, were significantly different (p<0.05 and more than un-wash samples. The Mold levels in un-rinsed and

  3. U-Pb zircon in situ dating with LA-MC-ICP-MS using a mixed detector configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemale Junior, Farid, E-mail: fchemale@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Kawashita, Koji; Dussin, Ivo A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas; Avila, Janaina N. [Australian National University, Canberra, (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences; Justino, Dayvisson; Bertotti, Anelise [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias

    2012-06-15

    The LA-MC-ICP-MS method applied to U-Pb in situ dating is still rapidly evolving due to improvements in both lasers and ICP-MS. To test the validity and reproducibility of the method, 5 different zircon samples, including the standard Temora-2, ranging in age between 2.2 Ga and 246 Ma, were dated using both LA-MC-ICP-MS and SHRIMP. The selected zircons were dated by SHRIMP and, after gentle polishing, the laser spot was driven to the same site or on the same zircon phase with a 213 nm laser microprobe coupled to a multi-collector mixed system. The data were collected with a routine spot size of 25 {mu}m and, in some cases, of 15 and 40 {mu}m. A careful cross-calibration using a diluted U-Th-Pb solution to calculate the Faraday reading to counting rate conversion factors and the highly suitable GJ-1 standard zircon for external calibrations were of paramount importance for obtaining reliable results. All age results were concordant within the experimental errors. The assigned age errors using the LA-MC-ICP-MS technique were, in most cases, higher than those obtained by SHRIMP, but if we are not faced with a high resolution stratigraphy, the laser technique has certain advantages. (author)

  4. Characterization of mesoporous carbon prepared from date stems by H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} chemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadoun, H., E-mail: hhadoun@hotmail.com [Nuclear Research Center, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, Algiers (Algeria); Laboratory of Reaction Genius, Mechanical and Processes Genius Faculty, University of Sciences and Technology Houari – Boumediene, BP n°32, El alia, bab ezzouar, 16111 Algiers (Algeria); Sadaoui, Z. [Laboratory of Reaction Genius, Mechanical and Processes Genius Faculty, University of Sciences and Technology Houari – Boumediene, BP n°32, El alia, bab ezzouar, 16111 Algiers (Algeria); Souami, N.; Sahel, D.; Toumert, I. [Nuclear Research Center, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, Algiers (Algeria)

    2013-09-01

    The present work was focused on the determination of texture, morphology, crystanillity and oxygenated surface groups characteristics of an activated carbon prepared from date stems. Chemical activation of this precursor at different temperatures (450, 550 and 650 °C) was adopted using phosphoric acid as dehydrating agent at (2/1) impregnation ratio. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study was carried out to identify surface groups in date stems activated carbons. The microscopic structure was examined by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The interlayer spacing (d{sub 200} and d{sub 100}), stack height (L{sub c}), stack width (L{sub a}) and effective dimension L of the turbostratic crystallites (microcrystallite) in the date stems activated carbons were estimated from X-ray diffraction data (XRD). Results yielded a surface area, S{sub BET}, and total pore volume of 682, 1455, 1319 m{sup 2}/g and 0,343, 1,045 and 0.735 cm{sup 3}/g, for the carbon prepared at 450, 550 and 650 °C, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy exhibits a highly developed porosity which is in good agreement with the porous texture derived from gas adsorption data and these results confirm that the activated carbon is dominated by network of slit-shaped mesopores morphology and in some cases by varied micropores morphologies.

  5. Chemical abrasion-SIMS (CA-SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon from the late Eocene Caetano caldera, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kathryn E.; Coble, Matthew A.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Colgan, Joseph P.; John, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Zircon geochronology is a critical tool for establishing geologic ages and time scales of processes in the Earth's crust. However, for zircons compromised by open system behavior, achieving robust dates can be difficult. Chemical abrasion (CA) is a routine step prior to thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) dating of zircon to remove radiation-damaged parts of grains that may have experienced open system behavior and loss of radiogenic Pb. While this technique has been shown to improve the accuracy and precision of TIMS dating, its application to high-spatial resolution dating methods, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is relatively uncommon. In our efforts to U-Pb date zircons from the late Eocene Caetano caldera by SIMS (SHRIMP-RG: sensitive high resolution ion microprobe, reverse geometry), some grains yielded anomalously young U-Pb ages that implicated Pb-loss and motivated us to investigate with a comparative CA and non-CA dating study. We present CA and non-CA 206Pb/238U ages and trace elements determined by SHRIMP-RG for zircons from three Caetano samples (Caetano Tuff, Redrock Canyon porphyry, and a silicic ring-fracture intrusion) and for R33 and TEMORA-2 reference zircons. We find that non-CA Caetano zircons have weighted mean or bimodal U-Pb ages that are 2–4% younger than CA zircons for the same samples. CA Caetano zircons have mean U-Pb ages that are 0.4–0.6 Myr older than the 40Ar/39Ar sanidine eruption age (34.00 ± 0.03 Ma; error-weighted mean, 2σ), whereas non-CA zircons have ages that are 0.7–1.3 Myr younger. U-Pb ages do not correlate with U (~ 100–800 ppm), Th (~ 50–300 ppm) or any other measured zircon trace elements (Y, Hf, REE), and CA and non-CA Caetano zircons define identical trace element ranges. No statistically significant difference in U-Pb age is observed for CA versus non-CA R33 or TEMORA-2 zircons. Optical profiler measurements of ion microprobe pits demonstrate consistent depths of ~ 1.6

  6. An ion microprobe U-Th- Pb study of zircon xenocrysts from the Lahtojoki kimberlite pipe, eastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Peltonen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven relatively large (diameter 1–2 mm zircon grains extracted from the Lahtojoki kimberlite pipe (Eastern Finland Kimberlite Province have been analysed by the ion microprobe NORDSIM for their U- and Pb- isotopic composition. The 207Pb/206Pb ages fall into two concordant age groups: 2.7 Ga and 1.8 Ga. Discordant ages between these two groups are believed to result from partial resetting of Archaean grains in the 1.8 Ga thermal event. Since other datingmethods imply that kimberlites emplaced c. 0.6 Ga ago it is clear that the analysed zircons are xenocrysts inherited from older sources and do not provide the age of the kimberlite magmatism. Their unusual size and morphology, together with very low U- and Pb-concentrations, suggest, however, that these zircon grains are not derived from typical Archaean gneisses. More likely, they originate from lower crustal mafic pegmatites and from hydrous coarse-grained veins within the uppermost lithospheric mantle. The predominance of 1.8 Ga old xenocrystic grains, together with the recovery of mafic granulite xenoliths of similar age in the kimberlites (Hölttä et al. 2000, emphasises the importance of post-collisional lower crustal growth and reworking in central Fennoscandia.

  7. Direct Dating and Physico-Chemical Analyses Cast Doubts on the Coexistence of Humans and Dwarf Hippos in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzo, Antoine; Lebon, Matthieu; Quiles, Anita; Reiche, Ina; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2015-01-01

    In the Mediterranean, the island dwarf megafaunas became extinct around the end of the Pleistocene, during a period of rapid and global climate change. In Cyprus, this coincided with the first human presence on the island, as attested by the rock shelter of Akrotiri-Aetokremnos where an Epipaleolithic anthropogenic layer (stratum 2) was found overlying a massive accumulation of pygmy hippopotamus (Phanourios minor (Desmarest, 1822)) [Boekschoten and Sondaar, 1972] bones (stratum 4). The relationship between the two layers is highly controversial and the role played by humans in hippo extinction remains fiercely debated. Here, we provide new, direct radiocarbon and physico-chemical analyses on calcined bones which elucidates the complex depositional history of the assemblage. Bone turquoise was identified using micro-PIXE analysis and depth-profiling together with Vis spectroscopy, demonstrating that these bones were not freshly burned. Bayesian modeling of the radiocarbon dates indicates that stratum 4 accumulated during the first half of the 13th mill cal BP and that calcination occurred several hundred years later. We conclude that accumulation occurred naturally during the beginning of the Younger Dryas and that Epipalaeolithic visitors subsequently used the bones as fuel, starting from the mid-13th mill cal BP. At that time, dwarf hippos were probably already extinct or at least highly endangered. Our results shed new light on the possible causes of hippo extinction, on the subsequent introduction of the wild boar and on the earliest occupation of the island by humans.

  8. Direct Dating and Physico-Chemical Analyses Cast Doubts on the Coexistence of Humans and Dwarf Hippos in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzo, Antoine; Lebon, Matthieu; Quiles, Anita; Reiche, Ina; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2015-01-01

    In the Mediterranean, the island dwarf megafaunas became extinct around the end of the Pleistocene, during a period of rapid and global climate change. In Cyprus, this coincided with the first human presence on the island, as attested by the rock shelter of Akrotiri-Aetokremnos where an Epipaleolithic anthropogenic layer (stratum 2) was found overlying a massive accumulation of pygmy hippopotamus (Phanourios minor (Desmarest, 1822)) [Boekschoten and Sondaar, 1972] bones (stratum 4). The relationship between the two layers is highly controversial and the role played by humans in hippo extinction remains fiercely debated. Here, we provide new, direct radiocarbon and physico-chemical analyses on calcined bones which elucidates the complex depositional history of the assemblage. Bone turquoise was identified using micro-PIXE analysis and depth-profiling together with Vis spectroscopy, demonstrating that these bones were not freshly burned. Bayesian modeling of the radiocarbon dates indicates that stratum 4 accumulated during the first half of the 13th mill cal BP and that calcination occurred several hundred years later. We conclude that accumulation occurred naturally during the beginning of the Younger Dryas and that Epipalaeolithic visitors subsequently used the bones as fuel, starting from the mid-13th mill cal BP. At that time, dwarf hippos were probably already extinct or at least highly endangered. Our results shed new light on the possible causes of hippo extinction, on the subsequent introduction of the wild boar and on the earliest occupation of the island by humans. PMID:26284623

  9. LiDAR offshore structural mapping and U/Pb zircon/monazite dating of Variscan strain in the Leon metamorphic domain, NW Brittany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Bernard; Authemayou, Christine; Ehrhold, Axel; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Bussien, Denise; Chazot, Gilles; Aouizerat, Arthur; Pastol, Yves

    2014-09-01

    An exceptional structural picture of the immerged Variscan basement, offshore the Leon metamorphic domain, is supplied by high-resolution LiDAR and echosounder data recorded in the Molène archipelago, western Brittany (France). Various types of fabrics are identified and, from in situ rock sample analyses further combined with field structural data, are interpreted on a lineament trajectory map as the trace of magmatic and tectonic structures. Our onshore/offshore study leads us to propose a two-phase kinematic model that emphasizes the role of a strike-slip duplex in an EW-trending relay zone linking the North Armorican and Pierres Noires ductile shear zones (NASZ, PNSZ). Dextral shearing occurred within a transtensional setting, synchronously with magmatic intrusions (St-Renan granite and an offshore gabbro-diorite complex) dated at 314-320 Ma by new U-Th/Pb ages. It post-dated an early regional foliation related to top-to-the-NE ductile transpressional shearing. Our study emphasizes the key role of strike-slip tectonics in the NW part of the Armorica Variscan belt.

  10. Chemical Analysis of Different Parts of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Using Ultimate, Proximate and Thermo-Gravimetric Techniques for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan A. Nasser

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyze chemical structure of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. by employing ultimate, proximate and thermo-gravimetric techniques. Samples from different anatomical parts of date palm, namely trunk, frond base, frond midrib, leaflets, coir, fruit stem, date stone, and fruit empty bunches were considered for the experiments. Based on the findings in this work palm leaflet samples gave the highest amount of extractives content (32.9%, followed by date palm stone specimens with 31.5%. Cellulose content values of 32.8% and 47.5% were obtained for date palm stone and palm coir samples, respectively. Overall the hemicellulose contents of all samples were relatively similar to those of typical wood or non-wood lignocellulosic materials with the two exceptions of palm coir and palm leaflets. Both palm coir and palm leaflet specimens had 12.6% and 16.1% hemicellulose content. Volatile matter values of 74.3% and 87.5% were determined for leaflets and fruit empty bunch samples. The ash content of the samples ranged from 1.4% for date stone to 15.2% for palm leaflet samples. The thermal decomposition was completed below a temperature of 500 °C with an exception of those samples taken from palm leaflets. Taken together the data indicate that date palm stone and palm coir revealed could be more viable for renewable energy production than the other specimens considered in this work.

  11. Chemical composition of alfalfa silage with waste date and its feeding effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbial protein synthesis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, R; Tahmasbi, R; Dayani, O; Khezri, A

    2016-09-07

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding ensiled alfalfa with waste date on ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, protozoa population and blood parameters in sheep. Eight rams were used in a 2 × 2 change over design. Each experimental period consisted of 21 days including 16 days for adaptation and 5 days for sampling. For ensiling, fresh alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with different levels of waste date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were mixed together and ensiled in 100-l containers for 45 days. Chemical composition of silages such as dry matter (DM), crude protein, NH3 -N, organic matter, NDF, ADF and pH were determined. Then, it was used as 30% (DM basis) in diets. The experimental diets were as follows: (i) control (diet containing alfalfa silage without waste date), (ii) diet containing alfalfa silage with 5 g waste date/95 g DM, (iii) diet containing alfalfa silage with 10 g waste date/90 g DM, and (iv) diet containing alfalfa silage with 15 g waste date/85 g DM. The results of this experiment showed that adding waste date to alfalfa during ensiling, improved silage quality, DM and energy level. Total protozoa population and all of holotrich, cellulolytic and entodinia in rumen fluid were increased linearly by increasing the level of waste date. Nitrogen (N) intake, urinary N excretion and nitrogen retention were affected by dietary treatments. Also, allantoin, uric acid, total purine derivatives, microbial protein synthesis, cholesterol level and blood urea nitrogen were significantly different. In conclusion, direct ensilage of alfalfa can be attained by mixing 15 g waste date/85 g DM and positive associative effects such as increased metabolizable energy (ME) and silage quality occurred.

  12. Ion microprobe U-Pb dating and REE abundance of biogenic apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Y.; Terada, K.; Ueki, S.

    2001-12-01

    If the direct U-Pb dating of a fossil itself is possible, the method could have great impact on stratigraphic studies in establishing the absolute chronology of sedimentary sequences. Micro fossil ?conodont? are candidates for this purpose since they consist of apatite (Ca2(PO5)3 (F,Cl,OH)), which would uptake U, Th and Pb after sedimentation no longer than a few million years and is supposed to remain closed to U and Pb under relatively low effective closure temperature. We report here results of direct ion microprobe U-Th-Pb dating of two conodonts; Trichognathus from Kinderhookian stage of Mississippian sedimentary sequence from Illinois Basin region in North America and Panderodus from a Llandoverian sedimentary sequence on Langkawi Island, northern Malaysia. Secondary purpose of the study is to indicate in situ analysis of all REE on the same spots of U-Pb measurements. Samples were cast into epoxy resin discs with a few grains of standard apatite, PRAP, derived from an alkaline rock of Prairie Lake circular complex in the Canadian Shield and polished until they were exposed through their mid-sections. U, Th and REE abundances, and Pb isotopic compositions were measured by using SHRIMP installed at Hiroshima University. Thirteen spots on Trichognathus yield a 238U/206Pb isochron age of 323+/-36 Ma, which is consistent with the depositional and early diagenetic ages. Fifteen spots on Panderodus give 232Th/208Pb isochron age of 429+/-50 Ma, which is again comparable to an early Silurian. Shale-normalized REE of Trichognathus shows a broadly flat pattern from light to middle REE and a decrease from middle to heavy REE with negative anomalies of Ce and Eu. In contrast Panderodus indicates a concave-shape pattern with middle REE enrichment. These characteristics are probably due to a different formation environment as suggested by other workers.

  13. Chemical Composition of Date-Pits and Its Potential for Developing Value-Added Product - a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Mohammad Zakir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture, protein, oil and carbohydrate contents of date-pits varied from 3.1-12.5, 2.3-6.9, 5.0-12.5 and 70.9-86.9 g/100 g date-pits, respectively. BET-monolayer (i.e. strongly bound moisture content, solids-melting peak (at moisture: 6.7 g/100 g date-pits, and melting point of oil were 4.3 g/100 g dry-solids, 106oC, and 1.8oC, respectively. The major fatty acids were lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids and polyphenol content varied from 21.0-62.0 mg/g date-pits depending on the varieties, types of solvent and temperature used for extraction. Date-pits showed effectives in animal and poultry feeds and it could be used as value added products, such as: dietary fibres, functional polysaccharides, caffeine-free drinks (similar to coffee, oil (biofuel or cooking oil, and other functional or medicinal products. Date-pits powder and activated carbon from date–pits showed effective in purifying water by removing different types of pollutants, such as heavy metals, boron, dyes, phenolic compounds, and pesticides. Date-pits also showed effective to be used as ingredient for composed, biomass, and fermentation processes.

  14. Physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, total phenol and mineral profile of seeds of seven different date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Ghafoor, Kashif; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2012-02-01

    The physical and chemical properties of the date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seeds from seven date samples (Soukari, Soulag, Barhi, Khulas, Rozaiz, Soughi and Monaif) were evaluated. Energy values of dried and ground seeds were found between 4340 kcal/kg (Barhi cv) and 4795 kcal/kg (Rozaiz cv). Also, while crude oil content of seeds were established between 4.68% (Khulas cv) and 7.96% (Monaif cv), crude protein contents were found at the levels between 3.71% (Soulag cv) and 5.47% (Barhi cv). The antioxidant activity of seeds obtained from different date fruits changed between 78.03 (mg/ml) (Monaif cv) and 79.94 (mg/ml) (Barhi cv). In addition, the total phenol contents of seeds were found between 1.98 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g (Barhi cv) and 4.65 mg GAE/100 g (Soughi cv). The most abundant fatty acids of the date seed oils were oleic, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids. Ca, Mg, K and P contents of date seeds were found at the high concentrations.

  15. Radiocarbon Dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-20

    Radiocarbon dating can be used to determine the age of objects that contain components that were once alive. In the case of human remains, a radiocarbon date can distinguish between a crime scene and an archeological site. Documents, museum artifacts and art objects can be dated to determine if their age is correct for the historical context. A radiocarbon date does not confirm authenticity, but it can help identify a forgery.

  16. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  17. RESULTS OF A DATING ATTEMPT -CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS RELEVANT TO THE CASE OF THE CRETACEOUS TERTIARY EXTINCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaro, Frank; Michel, Helen V.; Alvarez, Luis W.; Alvarez, Walter

    1980-09-01

    In Gubbio, Italy, a l em layer of clay between extensive limestone formations marks the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods. This clay layer was known to have been deposited about 65 million years ago when many life forms became extinct, but the length of time associated with the deposition was not known. In an attempt to measure this time with normally deposited meteoritic material as a clock, extensive measurements of iridium abundances (and those of many other elements) were made on the Gubbio rocks. Neutron activation analysis was the principal tool used in these studies. About 50 elements are searched for in materials like the earth's crust, about 40 are detected and about 30 are measured with useful precision. We were not able to determine exactly how long the clay deposition took. Instead the laboratory studies on the chemical and physical nature of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary led to the theory that an asteroid collision with the earth was responsible for the extinction of many forms of life including the dinosaurs.

  18. Impact of combining planting date and chemical control to reduce larval densities of stem-infesting pests of sunflower in the central plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Aiken, Robert M; Meyer, Ron F; Gebre-Amlak, Assefa

    2007-08-01

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Dectes texanus texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The incidence of a root boring moth, Pelochrista womonana (Kearfott) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), also has increased. Experiments were conducted in three locations in Colorado and Kansas during 2001-2003 to investigate the potential of combining planting date and foliar and seed treatment insecticide applications to lower insect stalk densities of these three pests. The impact of these strategies on weevil larval parasitoids also was studied. Eight sunflower stem weevil larval parasitoid species were identified. All were Hymenoptera and included the following (relative composition in parentheses): Nealiolus curculionis (Fitch) (42.6%), Nealiolus collaris (Brues) (3.2%) (Braconidae), Quadrastichus ainsliei Gahan (4.2%) (Eulophidae), Eurytoma tylodermatis Ashmead (13.1%) (Eurytomidae), Neocatolaccus tylodermae (Ashmead) (33.7%), Chlorocytus sp. (1.6%), Pteromalus sp. (0.5%) (Pteromalidae), and Eupelmus sp. (1.0%) (Eupelmidae). The results from this 3-yr study revealed that chemical control was often reliable in protecting the sunflower crop from stem pests and was relatively insensitive to application timing. Although results in some cases were mixed, overall, delayed planting can be a reliable and effective management tool for growers in the central Plains to use in reducing stem-infesting pest densities in sunflower stalks. Chemical control and planting date were compatible with natural mortality contributed by C. adspersus larval parasitoids.

  19. Isotopic Constraints (U, Th, Pb, Sr, Ar) on the Timing of Magma Generation, Storage and Eruption of a Late-Pleistocene Subvolcanic Granite, Alid Volcanic Center, Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Charlier, B. L.; Wooden, J. L.; Lanphere, M. A.; Clynne, M. A.; Bullen, T. D.

    2001-12-01

    Isotopic analyses demonstrate that a shallow granophyric intrusion from the Alid volcanic center (AVC) was generated, intruded and crystallized over a 20,000-year period in the latest Pleistocene. The granophyre is not exposed, but was ejected as unmelted blocks within a ~1 km3 pyroclastic flow deposit around 15 ka and is a subvolcanic equivalent of the erupted rhyolitic pumice (Lowenstern et al., 1997: J Petrol 12, p. 1707-1721). The rock contains 2.59) is 15.2+/- 5.8 ka (all errors are 2 σ ). Two other splits with lower density (thus higher in Na) yielded ages older than 24 ka, and may retain some excess Ar. Thus, the time between intrusion and complete crystallization for the granophyre was Danakil Depression and are found as unmelted lithic xenoliths in lavas and tuffs of the AVC. Pb isotopes also rule out significant assimilation of Precambrian basement during genesis of the young granophyre. Similarly zircon grains, analyzed with the Stanford-USGS SHRIMP-RG, show little evidence for inheritance, with only a single 760 Ma zircon (U-Pb age) that was also petrographically different from the 130 other zircons in the mount. The other zircons yielded SHRIMP 238U230Th disequilibrium ages of http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/geologic/jlwnstrn/alid/ Alidpage.html

  20. (U-Th)/He and U-Pb double dating constraints on the interplay between thrust deformation and basin development, Sevier foreland basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujols, E.; Stockli, D. F.; Horton, B. K.; Steel, R. J.; Constenius, K. N.

    2015-12-01

    The degree of connectivity between thrust-belt deformation and foreland basin evolution has been a matter of debate for decades. This is in part due to the lack of temporal constraints on the relationship between thrust-belt deformation and associated deposition. New high-resolution zircon (U-Th)-(Pb-He) double dating of pre- and syn-tectonic sedimentary strata along the Sevier thrust front and basin provide an unprecedented geochronological framework to temporally and spatially link the Sevier foreland basin stratigraphy to deforming hinterland sources. Results improve constraints on timing and magnitude of deformation, depositional ages, sediment dispersal and sources. In Late Cretaceous proximal deposits of the Indianola Group (IG) and Canyon Range Conglomerates (CRC), detrital zircon U-Pb (zUPb) and (U-Th)/He ages (ZHe) chronicle the sequential unroofing of the Charlestone-Nebo Salient (CNS) and Canyon Range (CR) duplexes. Furthermore, short ZHe depositional lag-times indicate rapid hinterland exhumation (>1km/my) associated with active thrusting during Cenomanian and Coniacian-Santonian times as supported by bedrock ZHe ages in the CNS and CR thrust sheets. Detrital zircon analyses on the Late Cretaceous marine Book Cliffs strata suggest a more complex source-to-sink evolution compared to the time-equivalent IG and CRC proximal strata due to mixing of multi-source detrital zircons, sediment recycling and more prominent volcanic input. Nonetheless, the overall cooling history recorded in the Book Cliffs clearly reflects three hinterland exhumational phases, an early phase derived from the frontal thrusts and two additional phases with more integrated hinterland ZHe signatures. These three short lag-time phases correlate with fast clastic progradational wedges in the Sevier foreland. These results strengthen the role played by hinterland deformation on clastic progradation and elucidate the temporal relationship between thrusting and foreland basin architecture.

  1. Copper-bearing encrustations: a tool for age dating and constraining the physical-chemical regime during the late Quaternary in the Wadi Araba, southern Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Techmer, A.; Botz, R.

    2013-07-01

    The alluvial-fluvial drainage system in the Wadi Araba, southern Jordan, incised into Cambrian clastic sedimentary and felsic igneous rocks giving rise to a disseminated Cu-(Mn) mineralization of diagenetic and epigenetic origin along the southern branch of the Dead Sea Transform Fault (=DSTF). During the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, the primary Cu sulfides were replaced by secondary minerals giving rise to hypogene to supergene encrustations, bearing Cu silicates, Cu carbonates, Cu oxychlorides and cupriferous vanadates. They occur in fissures, coat walls and developed even-rim/meniscus and blocky cements in the arenites near the surface. The first generation cement has been interpreted in terms of freshwater vadose hydraulic conditions, while the second-generation blocky cement of chrysocolla and malachite evolved as late cement. The Cu-Si-C fluid system within the Wadi Araba drainage system is the on-shore or subaerial facies of a regressive lacustrine regime called the "Lake Lisan Stage", a precursor of the present-day Dead Sea. Radiocarbon dating (younger than 27,740 ± 1,570 years), oxygen-isotope-based temperature determination (hot brine-related mineralization at 60-80 °C, climate-driven mineralization at 25-30 °C) and thermodynamical calculations let to the subdivision of this secondary Cu mineralization into four stages, whose chemical and mineralogical composition was controlled by the variation of the anion complexes of silica and carbonate and the chlorine contents. The acidity of the pore water positively correlates with the degree of oxidation. The highest aridity and most intensive evaporation deduced from the thermodynamical calculations were achieved during stage 3, which is coeval with late Lake Lisan. Geogene processes causing Cu-enriched encrustations overlap with man-made manganiferous slags. The smelter feed has been derived mainly from Cu ore which developed during Late Pleistocene in the region.

  2. Chemical and physical erosion rhythms of the West African Cenozoic morphogenesis: The 39Ar-40Ar dating of supergene K-Mn oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Anicet; Ruffet, Gilles; HéNocque, Olivier; Colin, Fabrice

    2008-12-01

    Chemical weathering and mechanical erosion are first-order processes of long-term tropical morphogenesis, which is still poorly deciphered for lack of time constraints. We address this issue by laser probe 39Ar-40Ar dating of generations of cryptomelane [K1-2Mn8O16, nH2O] from the manganese ore deposit of Tambao in northern Burkina Faso. This Mn deposit results from the supergene weathering of carbonate and silicate Mn protores underneath lateritic palaeolandsurfaces. It consists of an upper cryptomelane-rich domain and a lower domain where pyrolusite (β-MnO2) is the dominant Mn oxide. The oldest 39Ar-40Ar ages (59-45 Ma) are obtained on surface outcrops while the youngest ones characterize deep oxidation fronts (3.4-2.9 Ma). Apparent correlations of 39Ar-40Ar age groups with δ18O and eustatic curves allow definition of the different stages of morphogenesis. Paleocene-Eocene ages (59-45 Ma) bracket a greenhouse period propitious to bauxitic weathering. The lack of significant ages between ˜45 and 29 Ma characterizes a period dominated by mechanical erosion, during which detrital sediments, including lateritic materials, were accumulated in intracratonic basins allowing the exhumation of a new lateritic landsurface. Two major weathering periods separated by a second erosion episode (24-18 Ma) are also depicted at the end of Oligocene (29-24 Ma) and lower to mid-Miocene (18-11.5 Ma) in the upper domain, during which newly shaped land surfaces conspicuously weathered. The shorter-weathering and erosion episodes recorded in the lower domain from ˜18 to ˜2.9 Ma led to the final geomorphic changes that were conducive to the formation of glacis. The preservation of old cryptomelane (59-45 Ma) in the upper part of the ore deposit indicates a Cenozoic denudation limited to the erosion of previous bauxites, and partly, of ferricretes.

  3. Lunar Science Conference, 5th, Houston, Tex., March 18-22, 1974, Proceedings. Volume 1 - Mineralogy and petrology. Volume 2 Chemical and isotope analyses. Organic chemistry. Volume 3 - Physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Numerous studies on the properties of the moon based on Apollo findings and samples are presented. Topics treated include ages of the lunar nearside light plains and maria, orange material in the Sulpicius Gallus formation at the southwestern edge of Mare Serenitatis, impact-induced fractionation in the lunar highlands, igneous rocks from Apollo 16 rake samples, experimental liquid line of descent and liquid immiscibility for basalt 70017, ion microprobe mass analysis of plagioclase from 'non-mare' lunar samples, grain size and the evolution of lunar soils, chemical composition of rocks and soils at Taurus-Littrow, the geochemical evolution of the moon, U-Th-Pb systematics of some Apollo 17 lunar samples and implications for a lunar basin excavation chronology, volatile-element systematics and green glass in Apollo 15 lunar soils, solar wind nitrogen and indigenous nitrogen in Apollo 17 lunar samples, lunar trapped xenon, solar flare and lunar surface process characterization at the Apollo 17 site, and the permanent and induced magnetic dipole moment of the moon. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  4. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  5. Evolution of chemical and isotopic composition of inorganic carbon in a complex semi-arid zone environment: Consequences for groundwater dating using radiocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, K. T.; Han, L. F.; Hollins, S. E.; Cendón, D. I.; Jacobsen, G. E.; Baker, A.

    2016-09-01

    Estimating groundwater age is important for any groundwater resource assessment and radiocarbon (14C) dating of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) can provide this information. In semi-arid zone (i.e. water-limited environments), there are a multitude of reasons why 14C dating of groundwater and traditional correction models may not be directly transferable. Some include; (1) the complex hydrological responses of these systems that lead to a mixture of different ages in the aquifer(s), (2) the varied sources, origins and ages of organic matter in the unsaturated zone and (3) high evaporation rates. These all influence the evolution of DIC and are not easily accounted for in traditional correction models. In this study, we determined carbon isotope data for; DIC in water, carbonate minerals in the sediments, sediment organic matter, soil gas CO2 from the unsaturated zone, and vegetation samples. The samples were collected after an extended drought, and again after a flood event, to capture the evolution of DIC after varying hydrological regimes. A graphical method (Han et al., 2012) was applied for interpretation of the carbon geochemical and isotopic data. Simple forward mass-balance modelling was carried out on key geochemical processes involving carbon and agreed well with observed data. High values of DIC and δ13CDIC, and low 14CDIC could not be explained by a simple carbonate mineral-CO2 gas dissolution process. Instead it is suggested that during extended drought, water-sediment interaction leads to ion exchange processes within the top ∼10-20 m of the aquifer which promotes greater calcite dissolution in saline groundwater. This process was found to contribute more than half of the DIC, which is from a mostly 'dead' carbon source. DIC is also influenced by carbon exchange between DIC in water and carbonate minerals found in the top 2 m of the unsaturated zone. This process occurs because of repeated dissolution/precipitation of carbonate that is dependent on

  6. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Date Rape KidsHealth > For Teens > Date Rape A A ... Rape en español Violaciones durante citas What Is Date Rape? When people think of rape , they might ...

  7. Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in dated sediment cores: Chemical fingerprinting of the anthropogenic impacts in the Seine River basin, Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorgeoux, C; Moilleron, R; Gasperi, J; Ayrault, S; Bonté, P; Lefèvre, I; Tassin, B

    2016-01-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were extensively produced and used throughout the last century. In the early 1980s, a rising concern on the environmental impact of these chemicals has led to the establishment of regulations and changes of use including bans. Long term monitoring of the environmental impacts of these emissions and regulations is a challenge because regular monitoring was not mandatory at the beginning of the first emissions. Moreover, the analytical methods have been strongly improved over the decades. To overcome the lack of monitoring and accurate data, sediment cores are powerful tools to construct contamination records. In this study, a high resolution record was constructed for four POPs families (13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 15 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 alkylphenols (APs) and 8 polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) to establish their historical trends in a long-term urbanized and industrialized environment: the Seine River basin, France. These specific families were selected because they had different sources, uses and histories. The results showed concentrations up to 90 mg/kg for ∑PAHs, 2.3mg/kg for ∑PCB, 1.2mg/kg for ∑APs and 0.06 mg/kg for ∑PBDE. The vertical distribution profiles were different from one family to another and presented a good correlation with uses (e.g. transition from coal to natural gas for PAHs), and regulation implementation (e.g., AP ban after "OSPAR Convention" in 1992). The study of compounds distribution provided original information on sources, e.g. temporal variations in PAH uses. This study demonstrates the usefulness and accuracy of sedimentary archives in floodplain to assess the fate of POPs through time in continental hydrosystems. These first results give a comprehensive overview of the contamination in the Seine River basin downstream of Paris Megacity. They were in good agreement with previous studies dedicated to European areas and highlighted specificities of this basin

  8. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ennett ST, Cance JD, Bauman KE, Bowling JM. Assessing the effects of Families for Safe Dates, a family-based teen dating abuse prevention program. Journal of Adolescent Health 2012; 51:349-356. ...

  9. Radiometric Dating Does Work!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, G. Brent

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the accuracy of dating methods and creationist arguments that radiometric dating does not work. Explains the Manson meteorite impact and the Pierre shale, the ages of meteorites, the K-T tektites, and dating the Mount Vesuvius eruption. (Author/YDS)

  10. Structural context of the 2015 pair of Nepal earthquakes (Mw 7.8 and Mw 7.3): an analysis based on slip distribution, aftershock growth, and static stress changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poujol, Marc; Pitra, Pavel; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Tartèse, Romain; Ruffet, Gilles; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Poilvet, Jean-Charles

    2016-07-01

    One of the striking features that characterise the late stages of the Variscan orogeny is the development of gneiss and migmatite domes, as well as extensional Late Carboniferous and Permian sedimentary basins. It remains a matter of debate whether the formation of domes was related to the well-documented late orogenic extension or to the contractional tectonics that preceded. Migmatization and magmatism are expected to predate extension if the domes are compression-related regional anticlines, but they must both precede and be contemporaneous with extension if they are extensional core complexes. In the Montagne Noire area (southern French Massif Central), where migmatization, magmatism and the deformation framework are well documented, the age of the extensional event was unequivocally constrained to 300-290 Ma. Therefore, dating migmatization in this area is a key point for discriminating between the two hypotheses and understanding the Late Palaeozoic evolution of this part of the Variscan belt. For this purpose, a migmatite and an associated anatectic granite from the Montagne Noire dome were dated by LA-ICP-MS (U-Th-Pb on zircon and monazite) and laser probe 40Ar-39Ar (K-Ar on muscovite). Although zircon did not record any Variscan age unequivocally related to compression (380-330 Ma), two age groups were identified from the monazite crystals. A first event, at ca. 319 Ma (U-Th-Pb on monazite), is interpreted as a first stage of migmatization and as the emplacement age of the granite, respectively. A second event at ca. 298-295 Ma, recorded by monazite (U-Th-Pb) and by the muscovite 40Ar-39Ar system in the migmatite and in the granite, could be interpreted as a fluid-induced event, probably related to a second melting event identified through the syn-extensional emplacement of the nearby Montalet leucogranite ca. 295 Ma ago. The ages of these two events post-date the Variscan compression and agree with an overall extensional context for the development of the

  11. Two-stage partial melting during the Variscan extensional tectonics (Montagne Noire, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poujol, Marc; Pitra, Pavel; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Tartèse, Romain; Ruffet, Gilles; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Poilvet, Jean-Charles

    2017-03-01

    One of the striking features that characterise the late stages of the Variscan orogeny is the development of gneiss and migmatite domes, as well as extensional Late Carboniferous and Permian sedimentary basins. It remains a matter of debate whether the formation of domes was related to the well-documented late orogenic extension or to the contractional tectonics that preceded. Migmatization and magmatism are expected to predate extension if the domes are compression-related regional anticlines, but they must both precede and be contemporaneous with extension if they are extensional core complexes. In the Montagne Noire area (southern French Massif Central), where migmatization, magmatism and the deformation framework are well documented, the age of the extensional event was unequivocally constrained to 300-290 Ma. Therefore, dating migmatization in this area is a key point for discriminating between the two hypotheses and understanding the Late Palaeozoic evolution of this part of the Variscan belt. For this purpose, a migmatite and an associated anatectic granite from the Montagne Noire dome were dated by LA-ICP-MS (U-Th-Pb on zircon and monazite) and laser probe 40Ar-39Ar (K-Ar on muscovite). Although zircon did not record any Variscan age unequivocally related to compression (380-330 Ma), two age groups were identified from the monazite crystals. A first event, at ca. 319 Ma (U-Th-Pb on monazite), is interpreted as a first stage of migmatization and as the emplacement age of the granite, respectively. A second event at ca. 298-295 Ma, recorded by monazite (U-Th-Pb) and by the muscovite 40Ar-39Ar system in the migmatite and in the granite, could be interpreted as a fluid-induced event, probably related to a second melting event identified through the syn-extensional emplacement of the nearby Montalet leucogranite ca. 295 Ma ago. The ages of these two events post-date the Variscan compression and agree with an overall extensional context for the development of the

  12. Suggested terminology for Quaternary dating methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.; Pierce, K.L.; Birkeland, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Classification of Quaternary dating methods should be based on the level of quantitative information and the degree of confidence contained in the age estimates produced by the dating methods. We recommend the use of the terms numerical-age, calibrated-age, relative-age, and correlated-age to describe these levels. We also classify dating methods by type into sideral, isotopic, radiogenic, chemical and biological, geomorphic, and correlation methods. The use of "absolute" is inappropriate for most dating methods, and should be replaced by "numerical." The use of "date" should be minimized in favor of "age" or "age estimate." We recommend use of the abbreviations ka and Ma for most ages; calender dates can be used where appropriate and yr B.P. can be used for radiocarbon ages. ?? 1987.

  13. Date with Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑慧敏

    2016-01-01

    Have you ever heard about a popular movie called date with an angel? It must be sweet and lovely. But have you ever imagine about dating with death? What is your feeling when you have a chance to talk with death? Excited or afraid? I believe that many people definitely do not think about this question and neither do I.

  14. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  15. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  16. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  17. 'Wiggle matching' radiocarbon dates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsey, CB; van der Plicht, J; Weninger, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper covers three different methods of matching radiocarbon dates to the 'wiggles' of the calibration curve in those situations where the age difference between the C-14 dates is known. These methods are most often applied to tree-ring sequences. The simplest approach is to use a classical Chi

  18. Pests of stored dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dates are a major food crop across a large band of Africa and Eurasia, and to a lesser extent elsewhere. In most of its growing range, dates are threatened with infestation in the field by a complex of pests including nitidulid beetles and pyralid moths of the Subfamily Phycitinae. They are further ...

  19. National Geochronological Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Radiometric ages of geological materials by K-Ar, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, fission track, and U-Th-Pb dating methods. A revision of DDS-14 correcting locations and providing...

  20. NAIP 2012 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2012 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  1. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Expiration Dates Matter ... Should Know CDER FOIA Electronic Reading Room Related Consumer Updates How to Dispose of Unused Medicines Identifying ...

  2. NAIP 2014 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2014 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  3. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video, FDA Pharmacist Ilisa Bernstein explains how expiration dates help determine if medicine is safe to use and will work as intended. ... Lock it Up: Medicine Safety in Your Home Giving Medicine to ...

  4. A Blind Date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A: Talking about girls, I still remember my first time to meet my girlfriend. Iwas so clumsy and very nervous.B: That’s the same case with me. I had the jitters at my blind date, too.A: Did you also meet your girlfriend at a blind date?B: Yeah. I was actually very shy of speaking to girls, you know?

  5. 76 FR 77831 - 2012 Presidential Candidate Matching Fund Submission Dates and Post Date of Ineligibility Dates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... 2012 Presidential Candidate Matching Fund Submission Dates and Post Date of Ineligibility Dates To...: Notice of matching fund submission dates and submission dates for statements of net outstanding campaign... fund submission dates for publicly funded 2012 presidential primary candidates. Eligible candidates...

  6. Constructing deposition chronologies for peat deposits using radiocarbon dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Piotrowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dating is one of the main methods used to establish peat chronologies. This article reviews the basis of the method and its application to dating of peat deposits. Important steps in the radiocarbon dating procedure are described, including selection and extraction of material (and fractions for dating, chemical and physical preparation of media suitable for measurements, measurements of 14C activity or concentration, calculations, calibration of results and age-depth modelling.

  7. Radiocarbon Dating the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, M. A.; Gajewski, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Anthropocene has no agreed start date since current suggestions for its beginning range from Pre-Industrial times to the Industrial Revolution, and from the mid-twentieth century to the future. To set the boundary of the Anthropocene in geological time, we must first understand when, how and to what extent humans began altering the Earth system. One aspect of this involves reconstructing the effects of prehistoric human activity on the physical landscape. However, for global reconstructions of land use and land cover change to be more accurately interpreted in the context of human interaction with the landscape, large-scale spatio-temporal demographic changes in prehistoric populations must be known. Estimates of the relative number of prehistoric humans in different regions of the world and at different moments in time are needed. To this end, we analyze a dataset of radiocarbon dates from the Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database (CARD), the Palaeolithic Database of Europe and the AustArch Database of Australia, as well as published dates from South America. This is the first time such a large quantity of dates (approximately 60,000) has been mapped and studied at a global scale. Initial results from the analysis of temporal frequency distributions of calibrated radiocarbon dates, assumed to be proportional to population density, will be discussed. The utility of radiocarbon dates in studies of the Anthropocene will be evaluated and potential links between population density and changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, climate, migration patterning and fire frequency coincidence will be considered.

  8. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Updates Expiration Dates Matter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Get Consumer Updates by E-mail | ... Updates RSS Feed If your medicine has expired, it may not provide the treatment you need. In ...

  9. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject 12 refs.

  10. Truly Blind Dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Compared to parties,bars and nightclubs,in many countries parks are a site for family leisure and recreation and not a spot to find a date.It is not the case in China.Spouse-hunting fairs in big city parks organized by parents eager to see their children tie the knot have made parks in China a haven for relationshiphunters and their parents.

  11. What's the date of

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘京西

    2009-01-01

    @@ A:What's the date of our final examination? B:I'm not sure.I'll have to look it up.I'll let youknow tomorrow. A:Thank you. A:我们期末考试是哪一天? B:我也说不清.我给你查查,明天告诉你. A:谢谢你.

  12. Sediment dating in review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). Dept. of Mathematical Physics

    1997-12-31

    The paper will comment on a few issues of particular relevance to Australasia. Thermoluminescent (TL) methods applied to open sites have been demonstrated to be effective. A particularly good example of this is to be found in the South East of South Australia, where a sequence of low ranges runs roughly parallel with the coast. They represent relict sand dunes left behind, on a slowly rising land surface by successive interglacial incursions of the sea at roughly 120 ka intervals. Comparison with ages established on independent geological grounds allows a test of quartz TL and IRSL ages that is believable back to 500 ka. Older than this, we do not yet understand the physics of the quartz well enough to go unequivocally forward (backward?). Similar results are emerging elsewhere. With dating limits being pushed ever further back, the time variation of the environmental radiation giving rise to the stored luminescent energy needs to be addressed. Particularly at wet sites, radioactive disequilibrium must be considered. In any case, a time profile of the radiation dose rate needs to be determined.In dating a given site or sites the value of ages obtained by any dating method,including C-14, is enhanced by parallel measurements with an different method. Paper no. 10; extended abstract. 6 refs.

  13. Date and Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangJingxian

    1996-01-01

    Nowadays the pace of social life is very fast.TO make clear date and time is very important to everyone,especially those who are away fromhome.You need to learn ways to express date and time in Chinese.Otherwise how can you make arrangements with your Chinese friends?41.请问,今天(是)几号?Qǐngwèn,jīntiān(shǐ)jǐ hào?(May I ask,what is the date today?)In Chinese,jǐntiān.míngtiān,hòutiān and dàhòutiān are used to express today,tomorrow,the day after tomorrow,and the fourth day fromnow.jǐ(how many)is a character used in questioning the number from two to nine.If one asks the number above nine,then shí(ten),bǎi

  14. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  15. Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…

  16. Physicochemical Evaluation of Flaxseed-Date Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimuna Sultana Mohd. Ateequddin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a flaxseed-date-bar fortified high level of dietary fibre by using functional ingredients. Formulations were developed containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 grams of flaxseed flour. Flaxseed- date bar were evaluated for their, Physic-chemical properties. In the physical evaluation of bar it was found that flaxseed flour increase the hardness from 1076.82g to 1403.12g.The results revealed that the bar containing nuts and oilseeds shows maximum protein content (10.09 percent, dietary fibre content (9.89 percent, and ash content(2.90 percent was found in flaxseed-date bar. The gross energy of the flaxseed-date bar was in the range of 353.75 kcal to 377.08 kcal .The maximum gross energy was recorded by following sample A4were as the minimum was obtained by A0. The result revealed that flaxseed-dates along with nuts can be useful to prepare flaxseed-date bars of good sensory and nutritional value which provide substantial amount of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and dietary fibre.

  17. 210Pb dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Roughly fifty years ago, a small group of scientists from Belgium and the United States, trying to better constrain ice sheet accumulation rates, attempted to apply what was then know about environmental lead as a potential geochronometer. Thus Goldberg (1963) developed the first principles of the 210Pb dating method, which was soon followed by a paper by Crozaz et al. (1964), who examined accumulation history of Antarctic snow using 210Pb. Shortly thereafter, Koide et al. (1972, 1973) adapted this technique to unravel sediment deposition and accumulation records in deep-sea environments. Serendipitously, they chose to work in a deep basin off California, where an independent and robust age model had already been developed. Krishanswami et al. (1971) extended the use of this technique to lacustrine deposits to reconstruct depositional histories of lake sediment, and maybe more importantly, contaminant inputs and burial. Thus, the powerful tool for dating recent (up to about one century old) sediment deposits was established and soon widely adopted. Today almost all oceanographic or limnologic studies that address recent depositional reconstructions employ 210Pb as one of several possible geochronometers (Andrews et al., 2009; Gale, 2009; Baskaran, 2011; Persson and Helms, 2011). This paper presents a short overview of the principles of 210Pb dating and provides a few examples that illustrate the utility of this tracer in contrasting depositional systems. Potential caveats and uncertainties (Appleby et al., 1986; Binford, 1990; Binford et al., 1993; Smith, 2001; Hancock et al., 2002) inherent to the use and interpretation of 210Pb-derived age-models are also introduced. Recommendations as to best practices for most reliable uses and reporting are presented in the summary.

  18. Vulcanism and Radiocarbon Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, L. M.; Libby, W. F.

    1972-10-01

    We consider whether the long term perturbation of radiocarbon dates, which is known to be approximately a sin function of period about 8000 years and amplitude of about 8% peak-to-peak, could have been caused in any major part by vulcanism. We conclude that this is not the case. On the contrary, present day volcanoes are a far less important source of inert CO{sub 2} (about 100 fold less) than is man's burning of fossil fuels which has caused the Suess dilution of about 2%. (auth)

  19. Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Bailey, K.; Jiang, W.; Müller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Zappala, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Due to its simple production and transport processes in the terrestrial environment, the long-lived noble-gas isotope 81Kr (half-life = 230 kyr) is the ideal tracer for studying old water and ice in the age range of 10^5-10^6 years, a range beyond the reach of 14C. 81Kr dating, a concept pursued in the past four decades by numerous laboratories employing a variety of techniques, is now available for the first time to the earth science community at large. This is made possible by the development of ATTA-3 (Jiang et al., GCA 91, 1-6; 2012), an efficient and selective atom counter based on the Atom Trap Trace Analysis method (Chen et al., Science 286, 1139-1141; 1999). The instrument is capable of measuring both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios of environmental samples in the range of 10^-14-10^-10. For 81Kr-dating in the age range of 150 - 1,500 kyr, the required sample size is 5 - 10 micro-L STP of krypton gas, which can be extracted from approximately 100 - 200 kg of water or 40 - 80 kg of ice. For 85Kr/Kr analysis, the required sample size is generally smaller by an order of magnitude because of the isotope's higher initial abundance in the atmosphere. The Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating is currently equipped to analyze up to 120 samples per year. With future equipment upgrades, this limit can be increased as demand grows. In the period since November 2011, the Laboratory has measured both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios in over 50 samples that had been extracted by collaborators from six different continents. The samples were from groundwater wells in the Great Artesian Basin (Australia), Guarani Aquifer (Brazil), and Locust Grove (Maryland); from brine wells of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (New Mexico); from geothermal steam vents in Yellowstone National Park; from near-surface ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica; and from deep mines in South Africa. Sample collection and purification was performed by groups including the University of Illinois at Chicago, University

  20. Flirting in Online Dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2017-01-01

    Various fields have examined the activity of flirting, predominantly based on experimental and reported data; the interactional workings are therefore often overlooked. Based on emails and chats from two Danish online dating sites, this article investigates how users negotiate romantic connections...... through the flirting strategy of ‘imagined togetherness’, linguistically constructing imagery of a shared future. Using the notion of the chronotope (Bakhtin 1981), turn-by-turn analysis demonstrates how users, embedded in the activity of getting to know each other, tenuously communicate romantic interest...... by alluding to future points at which they might be together. Central to the strategy is a sequential pattern of avoiding closure and thereby preserving the imagery’s implicitness. The article concludes by arguing that while imagined togetherness functions a way of probing interests and thus protecting...

  1. Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

  2. Thermoluminescence dating of flint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladas, H.

    Our ancestors have been making flint tools for over a million years. The tools or the flakes left by the flint-knappers have become important markers of prehistoric habitats. The imperishable and ubiquitous nature of flint explains why generations of prehistorians have used it to build a stone age chronology. To be dateable by TL flint must be heated to at least 450°C. While human use of fire may be as old as half a million years, the first true hearths appear late during the Lower Paleolithic period. At Terra-Amata, one of the oldest hearths discovered in France was dated to 230 ± 40 ka BP by Wintle and Aitken (1977). By the dawn of the Middle Paleolithic fire must have become fully domesticated, judging by the accumulations of charred debris that henceforth litter human habitats. For example, at the Middle Paleolithic site of Kebara the profusion of hearths is vividly illustrated by numerous superposed white ash and black charcoal layers extending to a depth of 4 m (Meignen et al., 1989).

  3. Nutritional quality of 18 date fruit varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Hosam M; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze and compare the chemical and physical properties of 18 varieties of the date fruits from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), which are regarded as popular fruit commodities among the populace of the Middle Eastern peninsula. Dietary fiber, proximate analysis, micronutrients (micro-elements and macro-elements) and physical properties (weight, length, and density) of the selected 18 leading varieties of dates cultivated in the United Arab Emirates-namely Khalas, Barhe, Lulu, Shikat alkahlas, Sokkery, Bomaan, Sagay, Shishi, Maghool, Sultana, Fard, Maktoomi, Naptit saif, Jabri, Khodary, Dabbas, Raziz and Shabebe-were determined and compared. Significant differences (P date fruits, depending on the variety, contain significant but quite variable amounts of macro-elements and micro-elements. The macro-elements measured are calcium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium and magnesium, while the essential micro-elements and the possibly essential micro-elements are iron, zinc, copper, manganese, cobalt and molybdenum, and aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, strontium and vanadium, respectively.

  4. Luminescence dating of Netherlands’ sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we review: 1) the development of the methodology; 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands’ sediments; and 3) geological applications of the method in the Netherlands. Our review shows that optically stimulated luminescence dating of quartz grains using the single aliquot regenerative dose method yi...

  5. Monazite chemical age and composition correlations, an insight in the Palaeozoic evolution of the Leaota Massif, South Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Săbău, Gavril; Negulescu, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Notwithstanding remarkable advantages of monazite microprobe U-Th-PbT geochronology of metamorphic formations, such as the direct investigation of a metamorphic mineral in a truly in situ setting, unequalled spatial resolution, and cost-effective analyses, it essentially remains affected by indeterminations as regards the accuracy and the representativity of the results. Besides the experimental hurdles related to trace element analyses with the microprobe (sensitivity, background and overlap effects) the method faces two main biases, firstly its inherently blind status emerging from the aprioric assumption of isotopic equilibrium, and secondly the marked susceptibility of monazite to fluid-stimulated chemical recrystallization and compositional resetting (e. g. Kelly et al. 2012). Age spectra obtained from individual sampled habitually display a significant scatter of calculated age data, in such a way that the separation of coherent and geologically relevant populations may often represent a substantial challenge. The interpretation of the results greatly benefits from the qualitative analysis of the textural and paragenetic setting or a trial-and error quantitative statistical assessment of distinct age clusters (Montel et al., 1996), though still maintaining a variable degree of subjectivity, as in any interpretative process not fully sustained by quantitative analysis. Additional dependable support can be gained from further qualitative parameters characterizing, besides the distribution of individual age data, also the global chemical composition of the analysed monazite grains, as well as the relationship to the corresponding metamorphic assemblages (Săbău & Negulescu, 2013). The quantitative assessment of the age patterns of individual samples can be achieved by plotting the normalized age gradient from the sorted age pattern, allowing distinction of quasi-gaussian distribution domains likely to correspond to coherent age clusters of geologic significance

  6. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  7. 75 FR 16516 - Dates Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Office of the Federal Register Dates Correction Correction In the Notices section... through 15499, the date at the top of each page is corrected to read ``Monday, March 29, 2010''....

  8. Microstructural observation and chemical dating on monazite from the Shilu Group, Hainan Province of South China: Implications for origin and evolution of the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Deru; Kusiak, Monika A.; Wang, Zhilin; Chen, Huayong; Bakun-Czubarow, Nonna; Wu, Chuanjun; Konečný, Patrik; Hollings, Peter

    2015-02-01

    New monazite chemical U-Th-total-Pb (CHIME) ages, combined with microstructural observations, mineral compositions, and whole-rock geochemistry, indicate that the large-scale, banded iron formation (BIF)-type Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district in Hainan Province, South China is a multistage product of sedimentation, metamorphism, and hydrothermal-metasomatic alteration associated with multiple orogenies. Two types of monazite, i.e. "polygenetic" and "metamorphic", were identified. The "polygenetic monazite" comprises a magmatic and/or metamorphic core surrounded by a metamorphic rim, and shows complex zoning. Breakdown corona structure, with a core of monazite surrounded by a mantle of fluorapatite, allanite, and/or epidote as concentric growth rings, is commonly observed. This type of monazite yielded three main CHIME-age peaks at ca. 980 Ma, ca. 880 Ma and ca. 450 Ma. The ages which range up to ca. 880 Ma for detrital cores, record a pre-deformational magmatic and/or metamorphic event(s), and is considered to be the depositional time-interval of the Shilu Group and interbedded BIFs in a marine, back-arc foreland basin likely due to the Grenvillian or South China Sibao orogeny. After deposition, the Shilu district was subjected to an orogenic event, which is recorded by the syndeformational metamorphic monazite with ca. 560-450 Ma population. Probably this event not only caused amphibolite facies metamorphism and associated regional foliation S1 but also enriched the original BIFs, and most likely corresponds to the "Pan-African" and/or the South China Caledonian orogeny. The post-deformational "metamorphic" monazite occurs mostly as inclusions in garnet and shows ca. 260 Ma age. It likely represents the Late Permian post-magmatic hydrothermal and related retrograde event(s) initiated by the Indosinian orogeny due to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys. The breakdown of monazite to secondary coronal mineral phases as well as the Fe-remobilization and associated skarnization

  9. Dating of zircon from high-grade rocks:Which is the most reliable method?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alfred Kröner; Yusheng Wan; Xiaoming Liu; Dunyi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic zircon in high-grade metamorphic rocks is often characterized by complex textures as revealed by cathodoluminenscence (CL) that result from multiple episodes of recrystallization, over-growth, Pb-loss and modifications through fluid-induced disturbances of the crystal structure and the original U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics. Many of these features can be recognized in 2-dimensional CL images, and isotopic analysis of such domains using a high resolution ion-microprobe with only shallow penetration of the zircon surface may be able to reconstruct much of the magmatic and complex post-magmatic history of such grains. In particular it is generally possible to find original magmatic domains yielding concordant ages. In contrast, destructive techniques such as LA-ICP-MS consume a large volume, leave a deep crater in the target grain, and often sample heterogeneous domains that are not visible and thus often yield discordant results which are difficult to interpret. We provide examples of complex magmatic zircon from a southern Indian granulite terrane where SHRIMP II and LA-ICP-MS analyses are compared. The SHRIMP data are shown to be more precise and reliable, and we caution against the use of LA-ICP-MS in deciphering the chronology of complex zircons from high-grade terranes.

  10. Dating of zircon from high-grade rocks: Which is the most reliable method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Kröner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magmatic zircon in high-grade metamorphic rocks is often characterized by complex textures as revealed by cathodoluminenscence (CL that result from multiple episodes of recrystallization, overgrowth, Pb-loss and modifications through fluid-induced disturbances of the crystal structure and the original U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics. Many of these features can be recognized in 2-dimensional CL images, and isotopic analysis of such domains using a high resolution ion-microprobe with only shallow penetration of the zircon surface may be able to reconstruct much of the magmatic and complex post-magmatic history of such grains. In particular it is generally possible to find original magmatic domains yielding concordant ages. In contrast, destructive techniques such as LA-ICP-MS consume a large volume, leave a deep crater in the target grain, and often sample heterogeneous domains that are not visible and thus often yield discordant results which are difficult to interpret. We provide examples of complex magmatic zircon from a southern Indian granulite terrane where SHRIMP II and LA-ICP-MS analyses are compared. The SHRIMP data are shown to be more precise and reliable, and we caution against the use of LA-ICP-MS in deciphering the chronology of complex zircons from high-grade terranes.

  11. 31 CFR 536.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 536.302 Section 536... Definitions § 536.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... of specially designated narcotics traffickers designated after that date, the earlier of the date...

  12. 31 CFR 595.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 595.302 Section 595... § 595.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... of specially designated terrorists designated after that date, the earlier of the date on which...

  13. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  14. Radiocarbon dating of terrestrial carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Rink, W. Jack; Thompson, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial carbonates encompass a wide range of materials that potentially could be used for radiocarbon (14C) dating. Biogenic carbonates, including shells and tests of terrestrial and aquatic gastropods, bivalves, ostracodes, and foraminifera, are preserved in a variety of late Quaternary deposits and may be suitable for 14C dating. Primary calcareous deposits (marls, tufa, speleothems) and secondary carbonates (rhizoliths, fracture fill, soil carbonate) may also be targeted for dating when conditions are favorable. This chapter discusses issues that are commonly encountered in 14C dating of terrestrial carbonates, including isotopic disequilibrium and open-system behavior, as well as methods used to determine the reliability of ages derived from these materials. Recent methodological advancements that may improve the accuracy and precision of 14C ages of terrestrial carbonates are also highlighted.

  15. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  16. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  17. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Küffner, Markus; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Ferreira, Ester S. B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated.

  18. Effect of Algerian Varieties Dates on Glycemic, Arterial Blood Pressure and Satiety Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Gourchala Freha, Mihoub Fatma, Derradj Meriem, Henchiri Cherifa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to determine the Glycemic Indexes (GIs)of three Algerians varieties of dates in healthy subjects, evaluate the satiety and effect on arterial pressure after their consumption. We have first documented the chemical composition of the dates. 10 healthy subjects consumed the dates (carbohydrates content of 50 g) in order to determine the GIs. The responses of glycaemia were monitored during two hours after the dates taking and compared to the reference glucose. In a r...

  19. Re-Os isotopic system and formation age of subcontinental lithosphere mantle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The determination of the formation age of subcontinental Lithosphere Mantle (SCLM) is a widely concerned issue in mantle geochemistry. It is difficult to obtain the formation age of SCLM using lithophile isotopic systems such as Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Th-Pb, etc., but as siderophile elements, the Re-Os isotopic system provides a powerful tool for that work. Here a comprehensive review on the recent development in Re-Os dating for SCLM has been given.

  20. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  1. Kimberley rock art dating project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, G.L. [Takarakka Rock Art Research Centre, NT, (Australia); Morwood, M. [New England University, Armidale, NSW, (Australia). Dept of Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology

    1997-12-31

    The art`s additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a `window` into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it`s potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological `big picture` still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of `apparently old paintings`; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art.

  2. The complexity behind the date

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    For the waiting world, and indeed for most of us here at CERN, ‘the LHC schedule’ simply means the date that the LHC will restart - and we only take notice when that end-date changes. But in fact the schedule is a constantly evolving intricate document coordinating all the repairs, consolidation and commissioning in every part of the machine. So, what actually goes on behind the scenes in timing and planning all the work on one of the most complex scientific instruments ever built?

  3. 31 CFR 593.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 593.302 Section 593... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date...)(2), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice of such person's designation....

  4. 31 CFR 548.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 548.302 Section 548....302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... pursuant to § 548.201(a), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice that such...

  5. 21 CFR 1312.25 - Expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expiration date. 1312.25 Section 1312.25 Food and... SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.25 Expiration date. An export permit shall not be valid after the date specified therein, which date shall conform to the expiration date specified in...

  6. 31 CFR 541.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 541.302 Section 541... § 541.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable....201(a)(2), the earlier of the date on which either actual notice or constructive notice is received...

  7. 31 CFR 544.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 544.302 Section 544... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date... property are blocked pursuant to § 544.201(a)(2), (a)(3), or (a)(4), the earlier of the date of actual...

  8. 31 CFR 547.303 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 547.303 Section 547... General Definitions § 547.303 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the... blocked pursuant to § 547.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice of...

  9. 31 CFR 551.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 551.302 Section 551....302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... the date of actual or constructive notice that such person's property and interests in property...

  10. 31 CFR 546.303 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 546.303 Section 546....303 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... § 546.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice of such person's designation....

  11. 31 CFR 543.303 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 543.303 Section 543... Definitions § 543.303 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... § 543.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date of actual or constructive notice of such person's designation....

  12. 31 CFR 537.303 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 537.303 Section 537....303 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... property of persons designated pursuant to § 537.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date on which either...

  13. 31 CFR 594.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 594.302 Section 594... Definitions § 594.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... to § 594.201(a)(2), (a)(3), or (a)(4), the earlier of the date on which is received actual...

  14. 31 CFR 588.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 588.302 Section 588... Definitions § 588.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable... § 588.201(a)(2), the earlier of the date on which is received actual or constructive notice of...

  15. Online Dating and Conjugal Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Dannagal Goldthwaite; Caplan, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-presentation in the online dating profiles of 241 widowed and 280 divorced individuals between 18 and 40 years old. A content analysis of open-ended user-generated profiles assessed the presence or absence of various themes, including the user's marital status, the backstory of their lost relationship, and whether they…

  16. What to Expect After Your Due Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG What to Expect After Your Due Date Home For ... Your Due Date FAQ069, August 2011 PDF Format What to Expect After Your Due Date Pregnancy What ...

  17. Mold-Ripened Soft Cheeses Fortified with Date Palm Fruit Product as Functional Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Mutlag M; Haddadin, Jamal S; Haddadin, Malik S Y

    2016-01-01

    Date fruit based products are gaining popularity among the consumers in almost all date growing countries due to its added nutritional value. Therefore, novel products were developed by combining two types of foods i.e., soft ripened cheeses and date fruit syrups or date powder. This study is the first to report the surface mold-ripened cheese production with date syrup and date powder. Model cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus, Penicillium camemberti and Geotrichum candidum. Date syrup-1, date syrup-2, date powder or the date mixture were added at the stage of curdling. Based on the kinetic growth of the microbial groups in all the treatments, there was no change in the growth of these in various date palm product. On the contrary It may be said that addition of the date fruit product supports their growth. After 35 days, the amounts of total poly phenols were 128.3 ± 1.01, 81.8 ± 1.11, 33.5 ± 2.19, 156.23 ± 1.27 mg GAE/100 g in the cheeses support with date syrup-1, date syrup-2, date powder or the date mixture, respectively. Antioxidant activity of date fruits ranged from 80.13 IC50 (date syrup-2) to 82.23 IC50 (date syrup-1). Based on the chemical characteristics and sensory analysis, the study results showed the potential for innovative application of date products for developing new functional dairy products as an ideal medium for the delivery of biological active compounds with beneficial health effects over.

  18. Ensilage of cardboard and date palm leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroon, Z; El-Nawawy, A S; Al-Othman, A

    2004-01-01

    Eight treatments of cardboard (CB) and date palm leaves (DPL) with or without alkali treatments plus molasses, dates, and ammonium sulfate were ensiled in laboratory silos. Latobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculants were added at an application rate of 10(5) cfu/g of silage to study their possible influence on the fermentation process. Silos were sealed and incubated at 30 degrees C. The anaerobic ensiling was evaluated for chemical and microbiological variables by opening the silos after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, significantly low pH values (5.2-3.5) were obtained. The percentages of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash were determined. Concentrations of reducing sugars, ether extract, and crude protein tended to be acceptable among treatments. Silages showed a significantly high lactic acid concentration (up to 4.3%) and only traces of butyric acid (below 1%). Also changes in acetic and propionic acids concentrations were determined. Lactobacillus populations remained almost static while yeast and molds populations tended to be lower after 90 days of ensilage. Neither alkali treatment nor microbial inoculants showed a relationship with the ensiling process. Thus, overall, it was concluded that CB and DPL can be effectively ensiled and the resultant silages are acceptable to merit their use as ruminant feed in arid regions.

  19. Current topics in ESR dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Anne R., E-mail: Anne.R.Skinner@williams.edu [Williams College, Williamstown, MA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    After over 25 years, the use of electron spin resonance (ESR) is well-established in dating sites of geological, paleontological and archaeological interest. Like any scientific technique, there have been changes in understanding and in methodology. Improvements have not, however, changed the observation that external dose calculations are still a significant source of uncertainty in ages. Examples from Europe, Africa and the Americans illustrate this point. For Pradayrol Cave (France), the occupation age, 330 ka, is unchallenged, making this the oldest known Neanderthal site in France. For Roc de Marsal, also in France, on the other hand, discrepancies between TL and sedimentary dose rates imply substantial differences in interpretation. In the Western Egyptian Desert, where artifacts and datable material are not well-correlated, the dating results show consistency with expectations based on global climate change, even in deflated sites. Climate change is also the question in geological studies in the Bahamas where, despite concerns about cosmic dose history, ESR dates confirm other evidence for sea level changes. We show that an uncertain age is not the same as an impossible one.

  20. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  1. 9 CFR 381.126 - Date of packing and date of processing; contents of cans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of packing and date of processing... Containers § 381.126 Date of packing and date of processing; contents of cans. (a) Either the immediate... code or otherwise with the date of packing. If calendar dating is used, it must be accompanied by...

  2. Composição físico-química e potencial para ensilagem do sorgo-de-guiné gigante em seis épocas de semeadura Physical-chemical composition and ensiling potential of Giant Guinea sorghum in six different sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pavan Mateus

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de culturas alternativas para o cultivo de outono-inverno é um entrave nos sistemas de produção agrícola, principalmente em regiões de inverno seco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de forragem, o potencial para ensilagem e a composição química do sorgo-de-guiné gigante (Sorghum bicolor subsp. bicolor raça guinea, de acordo com a época de semeadura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e seis épocas de semeadura. Verificou-se antecipação dos estádios de desenvolvimento da planta, à medida que houve atraso na semeadura, em virtude de a espécie apresentar sensibilidade ao fotoperíodo. Semeaduras tardias, apesar de menor produtividade, proporcionaram forragem com características químico-bromatológicas melhores. Diante da boa produção de matéria seca e seu potencial para ensilagem, esse genótipo é uma boa opção a ser utilizada.The lack of alternative crops for fall-winter cultivation is a drawback in the utilization of agricultural production systems, especialy in regions with dry winters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of Giant Guinea sorghum (Sorghum bicolor subsp. bicolor guinea race for forage production, ensiling and plant chemical composition, in different sowing dates. The experimental design was a randomized block, with four replications, and six sowing dates. Although sowing was late, Giant Guinea sorghum showed anticipation in development stages due to sensibility to photoperiod; its dry matter production was low, nevertheless the species presented a better quality of forage mass. Due to the considerable capacity of dry matter production and ensiling potential, this species is a good option.

  3. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Chemical Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Chemical Detection by Ellen L. Holthoff and Paul M. Pellegrino ARL-RP-0410 September 2012...Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-RP-0410 September 2012 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Chemical Detection Ellen L. Holthoff and Paul M...ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) September 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photoacoustic

  4. School Counselors' Role in Dating Violence Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Sikes, April; Healey, Amanda; Hays, Danica

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence among adolescents is a major public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to examine five factors of which school counselors must be aware in order to recognize, intervene, and report incidence of dating violence. These factors are (a) understanding the diverse definitions of dating violence, (b) recognizing dating violence…

  5. 31 CFR 575.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 575.302 Section 575.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable...

  6. 31 CFR 538.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 538.302 Section 538.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the...

  7. 31 CFR 592.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 592.302 Section 592.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 592.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the...

  8. 31 CFR 587.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 587.302 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable prohibitions and directives contained in this part, which...

  9. 10 CFR 2.807 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 2.807 Section 2.807 Energy NUCLEAR... § 2.807 Effective date. The notice of adoption of a regulation will specify the effective date... relieving from restrictions, will be made not less than thirty (30) days prior to the effective date...

  10. 18 CFR 11.7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 11.7... Dams § 11.7 Effective date. All annual charges imposed under this subpart will be computed beginning on the effective date of the license unless some other date is fixed in the license....

  11. 31 CFR 542.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 542.302 Section 542....302 Effective date. With respect to a person whose property or interests in property are blocked pursuant to a designation under § 542.201(a), the effective date is the earlier of the date on which...

  12. 7 CFR 987.5 - Dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dates. 987.5 Section 987.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.5 Dates. Dates means the...

  13. 31 CFR 597.305 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 597.305 Section 597... General Definitions § 597.305 Effective date. Except as that term is used in § 597.201(d), the term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable prohibitions and directives contained in...

  14. 19 CFR 351.701 - Applicability dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability dates. 351.701 Section 351.701... DUTIES Applicability Dates § 351.701 Applicability dates. The regulations contained in this part 351... governed by the regulations in effect on the date the petitions were filed or requests were made for...

  15. 11 CFR 7.28 - Hearing date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing date. 7.28 Section 7.28 Federal... for Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 7.28 Hearing date. (a) Setting of date by examiner. The examiner shall set the hearing at a reasonable time, date, and place. (b) Considerations....

  16. 40 CFR 141.60 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 141.60 Section 141.60... and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.60 Effective dates. (a) The effective dates for § 141.61 are as follows: (1) The effective date for paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(8) of § 141.61 is...

  17. 31 CFR 560.301 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 560.301 Section 560... § 560.301 Effective date. The effective date of the prohibitions and directives contained in subpart B of this part is 12:01 a.m., Eastern Daylight Time, August 20, 1997. For the effective date of...

  18. 31 CFR 596.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 596.302 Section 596.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of...

  19. 40 CFR 469.21 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 469.21 Section 469....21 Compliance dates. The compliance date for the BAT fluoride limitation is as soon as possible as determined by the permit writer but in no event later than November 8, 1985. The compliance date for PSES...

  20. 31 CFR 545.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 545.302 Section 545.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the...

  1. 31 CFR 586.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 586.302 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the applicable prohibitions and directives contained in this part which...

  2. 31 CFR 585.301 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 585.301 Section 585.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.301 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of...

  3. Accounting the Events after the Balance Date

    OpenAIRE

    Ilincuţă Lucian-Dorel; Mareş Marius-Daniel; Mareş Valerica

    2014-01-01

    The events after the balance date are those events, favorable and unfavorable, that occur between the balance date (the end of the reporting period) and the date at which the annual financial statements are authorized for issue by the executive management of the entity (e.g. Board of Directors). We identify two types of events: events after the balance date, which lead to financial statements adjusting and events after the balance date, which do not lead to financ...

  4. Tectonic calibrations in molecular dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ullasa KODANDARAMAIAH

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dating techniques require the use of calibrations, which are usually fossil or geological vicariance-based.Fossil calibrations have been criticised because they result only in minimum age estimates. Based on a historical biogeographic perspective, Ⅰ suggest that vicariance-based calibrations are more dangerous. Almost all analytical methods in historical biogeography are strongly biased towards inferring vicariance, hence vicariance identified through such methods is unreliable. Other studies, especially of groups found on Gondwanan fragments, have simply assumed vicariance. Although it was previously believed that vicariance was the predominant mode of speciation, mounting evidence now indicates that speciation by dispersal is common, dominating vicariance in several groups. Moreover, the possibility of speciation having occurred before the said geological event cannot be precluded. Thus, geological calibrations can under- or overestimate times, whereas fossil calibrations always result in minimum estimates. Another major drawback of vicariant calibrations is the problem of circular reasoning when the resulting estimates are used to infer ages of biogeographic events. Ⅰ argue that fossil-based dating is a superior alternative to vicariance, primarily because the strongest assumption in the latter, that speciation was caused by the said geological process, is more often than not the most tenuous. When authors prefer to use a combination of fossil and vicariant calibrations, one suggestion is to report results both with and without inclusion of the geological constraints. Relying solely on vicariant calibrations should be strictly avoided.

  5. COMPARISON OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DATE PALM FIBER- POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mahdavi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Date Palm Fiber (DPF is one of the most available natural fibers in the Middle East, especially in Iran and the Persian Gulf region. This research provides a new insight into DPF, with consideration of morphological, chemical characteristics, and bulk density, as well as morphological and mechanical properties of DPF/HDPE wood plastic composite. There are three parts of date palm that are used for producing fiber, the trunk, rachis, and petiole. Results indicated that there is significant difference between trunk and petiole on fiber length but rachis has no significant differences relative to the other parts. The aspect ratios have significant differences among of three parts, with the highest and lowest values measured for the petiole and trunk, respectively. The chemical composition of various parts of the date palm tree differed significantly; with the highest amounts of cellulose and lignin content belong to rachis. Bulk density was measured for three parts of date palm, and the lowest amount was 0.082 g/cm3. The highest strengths were achieved in composites with 30 and 40% fiber content, depended on which original parts of the tree were used.

  6. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    and diglossia and textual criticism (Chapters 7, 13), and the significance of extra-biblical sources, including Amarna Canaanite, Ugaritic, Aramaic, Hebrew inscriptions of the monarchic period, Qumran and Mishnaic Hebrew, the Hebrew language of Ben Sira and Bar Kochba, and also Egyptian, Akkadian, Persian....... This is followed by an detailed synthesis of the topics introduced in the first volume, a series of detailed case studies on various linguistic issues, extensive tables of grammatical and lexical features, and a comprehensive bibliography. The authors argue that the scholarly use of language in dating biblical...... texts, and even the traditional standpoint on the chronological development of biblical Hebrew, require a thorough re-evaluation, and propose a new perspective on linguistic variety in biblical Hebrew. Early Biblical Hebrew and Late Biblical Hebrew do not represent different chronological periods...

  7. Retrospective Birth Dating of Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Spalding, K; Bhardwaj, R D; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Frisen, J

    2005-04-19

    The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Extensive testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope {sup 14}C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after the test ban treaty in 1963. We show that the level of {sup 14}C in genomic DNA closely parallels atmospheric levels, and can be used to establish the time point when the DNA was synthesized and cells were born. We use this strategy to determine the age of cells in the cortex of the adult human brain, and show that whereas non-neuronal cells are exchanged, occipital neurons are as old as the individual, supporting the view that postnatal neurogenesis does not take place in this region. Retrospective birth dating is a generally applicable strategy that can be used to measure cell turnover in man under physiological and pathological conditions.

  8. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  9. 40 CFR 62.1352 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.1352 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is September 28, 1998. Air Emissions From Hospital/Medical/Infectious...

  10. 40 CFR 62.11122 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hospital/medical/infectious Waste Incinerators § 62.11122 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of the plan applicable to existing hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators is August 21... Tons Per Day of Municipal Solid Waste...

  11. 40 CFR 62.3342 - Effective Date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Compounds and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Existing Hospital / Medical Infectious Waste Incinerators § 62.3342 Effective Date. The effective date of the Illinois State Plan for existing Hospital/Medical... Day of Municipal Solid Waste...

  12. 40 CFR 62.8602 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.8602 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is February 13, 1998. Air Emissions From Hospital/Medical/Infectious...

  13. 40 CFR 62.8872 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.8872 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is October 6, 1998. Emissions From Hospital, Medical, and Infectious Waste...

  14. 40 CFR 62.6602 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.6602 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is September 8, 1998. Air Emissions From Hospital/Medical/Infectious...

  15. 40 CFR 62.9662 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hospital/medical/infectious Waste Incinerators (hmiwis) (section 111(d)/129 Plan) § 62.9662 Effective date. The effective date of the plan is June 6, 2000. Emissions From Existing Commercial/Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units...

  16. 40 CFR 62.6612 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../medical/infectious Waste Incinerators § 62.6612 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of the plan applicable to existing hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators is August 21, 2000. Fluoride Emissions From Existing Phosphate Fertilizer Plants...

  17. When you pass your due date

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000515.htm When you pass your due date To use the sharing features ... link between you and your baby. As you pass your due date, the placenta may not work ...

  18. Pyrolysis-combustion 14C dating of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Hackley, Keith C.; Panno, Samuel V.; Coleman, Dennis D.; Liu, Jack Chao-li; Brown, Johnie

    2003-11-01

    Radiocarbon ( 14C) dating of total soil organic matter (SOM) often yields results inconsistent with the stratigraphic sequence. The onerous chemical extractions for SOM fractions do not always produce satisfactory 14C dates. In an effort to develop an alternative method, the pyrolysis-combustion technique was investigated to partition SOM into pyrolysis volatile (Py-V) and pyrolysis residue (Py-R) fractions. The Py-V fractions obtained from a thick glacigenic loess succession in Illinois yielded 14C dates much younger but more reasonable than the counterpart Py-R fractions for the soil residence time. Carbon isotopic composition (δ 13C) was heavier in the Py-V fractions, suggesting a greater abundance of carbohydrate- and protein-related constituents, and δ 13C was lighter in the Py-R fractions, suggesting more lignin- and lipid-related constituents. The combination of 14C dates and δ 13C values indicates that the Py-V fractions are less biodegradation resistant and the Py-R fractions are more biodegradation resistant. The pyrolysis-combustion method provides a less cumbersome approach for 14C dating of SOM fractions. With further study, this method may become a useful tool for analyzing unlithified terrestrial sediments when macrofossils are absent.

  19. Memory for time: How people date events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. Janssen; A.G. Chessa; J.M.J. Murre

    2006-01-01

    The effect of different formats on the accuracy of dating news and the distribution of personal events was examined in four conditions. In the first, participants had to date events in the absolute time format (e.g., "July 2004"), and in the second, they had to date events in the relative time forma

  20. THE SETTLEMENT DATE OF ICELAND REVISITED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjornsdottir, Arny E.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Heinemeier, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The settlement time of Iceland has been debated for years as radiocarbon dates of bulk wood samples have been interpreted to set a timing 150-200 yr earlier than indicated by tephrochronology (later than AD 871 +/- 2) and the Sagas (AD 874). This early date is also in conflict with the dating...

  1. 7 CFR 953.120 - Nomination date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STATES Rules and Regulations Change in Date for Completing Nominations, Term of Office, and Fiscal Period § 953.120 Nomination date. The names of committee nominees shall be supplied to the Secretary in such... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination date. 953.120 Section 953.120...

  2. 42 CFR 423.40 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective dates. 423.40 Section 423.40 Public... Effective dates. (a) Initial enrollment period. (1) An enrollment made prior to the month of entitlement to... period specified in § 423.38(c), the effective date is determined by CMS, which, to the...

  3. 40 CFR 469.11 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 469.11 Section 469... Compliance dates. The compliance deadline for the BAT fluoride limitation shall be as soon as possible as... determined by the permit writer, but in no event later than July 1, 1984. The compliance date for PSES...

  4. 40 CFR 75.4 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 75.4 Section 75.4... EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.4 Compliance dates. (a) The provisions of this part apply to each existing... become applicable upon the issuance date of the Acid Rain permit. For combustion sources seeking to...

  5. 40 CFR 1506.12 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 1506.12 Section 1506... Effective date. The effective date of these regulations is July 30, 1979, except that for agencies that... extent practicable to ongoing activities and environmental documents begun before the effective...

  6. 33 CFR 106.110 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 106.110 Section... MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.110 Compliance dates. (a) On or... TWIC under this part may enroll beginning after the date set by the Coast Guard in a Notice to...

  7. 40 CFR 141.152 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 141.152 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Consumer Confidence Reports § 141.152 Effective dates. (a) The... 1, 2000, and by April 1 annually thereafter or (2) On a date mutually agreed upon by the seller...

  8. 40 CFR 425.05 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 425.05 Section 425... STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.05 Compliance dates. The compliance date for new source performance standards (NSPS) and pretreatment standards for...

  9. 75 FR 57252 - Designated Transfer Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... PROTECTION Designated Transfer Date AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... designates July 21, 2011, as the date for the transfer of functions to the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (``CFPB''). On this ``designated transfer date,'' certain authorities will transfer from...

  10. 49 CFR 214.305 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance dates. 214.305 Section 214.305..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.305 Compliance dates. Each program adopted by a railroad shall comply not later than the date specified in the...

  11. 46 CFR 272.44 - Dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dates. 272.44 Section 272.44 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS REQUIREMENTS... Examination, Audit, Review and Appeal Procedures § 272.44 Dates. The dates noted on the letters...

  12. 18 CFR 1308.7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1308.7... General Matters § 1308.7 Effective date. Subject to § 1308.3(a), this part applies to any TVA contract having an effective date on or after March 1, 1979....

  13. 29 CFR 452.137 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 452.137 Section 452.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... OF 1959 Dates and Scope of Application § 452.137 Effective dates. (a) Section 404 states when...

  14. 36 CFR 1258.16 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 1258.16... AVAILABILITY AND USE FEES § 1258.16 Effective date. The fees in this part are effective on October 1, 2007. If your order was received by NARA before this effective date, we will charge the fees in effect at...

  15. 40 CFR 141.6 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 141.6 Section 141.6... PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS General § 141.6 Effective dates. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs...) shall take effect 2 years after the date of promulgation of these regulations for community...

  16. 31 CFR 575.212 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 575.212 Section 575.212 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Effective dates. The effective dates of the prohibitions and directives contained in this subpart B are...

  17. 31 CFR 540.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 540.302 Section 540.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective...

  18. 38 CFR 8a.3 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 8a.3... INSURANCE § 8a.3 Effective date. (a) Where the grant was approved prior to August 11, 1971, VMLI shall be effective August 11, 1971, if on that date, the eligible veteran was obligated under a mortgage loan,...

  19. 33 CFR 105.115 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 105.115 Section... MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.115 Compliance dates. (a) On or before December 31, 2003... required to obtain a TWIC under this part may enroll beginning after the date set by the Coast Guard in...

  20. 34 CFR 105.42 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 105.42 Section 105.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION § 105.42 Effective date. The effective date of this part is October 9, 1990....

  1. 7 CFR 1000.90 - Dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Dates. 1000.90 Section 1000.90 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.90 Dates. If a date required for a payment contained in a Federal milk...

  2. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity dates. 1421.101 Section 1421.101 Agriculture... Maturity dates. (a)(1) All marketing assistance loans shall mature on demand by CCC and no later than the... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date...

  3. 49 CFR 1150.13 - Relevant dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relevant dates. 1150.13 Section 1150.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Designated Operators § 1150.13 Relevant dates. The exact dates of the period of operation which have...

  4. 40 CFR 57.106 - Expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expiration date. 57.106 Section 57.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS General § 57.106 Expiration date. Each NSO shall state its expiration date. No...

  5. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  6. Correlates of cyber dating abuse among teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M; Lachman, Pamela; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith

    2014-08-01

    Recent advancements in technology (e.g., social networking, texting) have created new ways for dating youth to relate to one another, including in abusive ways via "cyber dating abuse." Cyber dating abuse is a form of teen dating violence that overlaps with other types of abuse (e.g., psychological) but also has several unique characteristics. Given the phenomenon's limited presence in dating violence literature, we focus on identifying how experiencing cyber dating abuse relates to youths' individual behaviors and experiences (e.g., substance use, sexual activity), psychosocial adjustment, school connection, family relationships, and partner relationships. A total of 3,745 youth (52% female, 74% White) in three northeastern states participated in the survey and reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. We found that experiences of cyber dating abuse were most significantly correlated with being female, committing a greater variety of delinquent behaviors, having had sexual activity in one's lifetime, having higher levels of depressive symptoms, and having higher levels of anger/hostility. Further, cyber dating abuse appeared somewhat more strongly related to depressive symptoms and delinquency than did other forms of teen dating violence and abuse.

  7. Radiocarbon dating of diatom-bound organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatte, C.; Hodgins, G.; Jull, T.; Cruz, R.; Lange, T.; Biddulph, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present a new method for obtaining radiocarbon dates for the proteins intrinsic to diatom frustules (sillafin). By asserting age models for sediment cores that lack calcium carbonate, this method will improve interpretations of diatom-based paleoproxies either marine or lacustrine. In preparation for radiocarbon dating by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, diatoms were first concentrated out of the sediment. Through chemical and physical treatments that will be discussed and compared here, diatoms frustules are then freed of any surface-bound organic matter. Compounds intrinsic to diatoms frustules are then released from their opal matrix by HF dissolution. Since we have eliminated any of potentially contaminating organic matter, this method differs from approaches based on specific compounds extraction from a complex organic mixture by preparative chromatography such as proposed by Ingalls et al. (2004, Mar. Chem). The advantage of our method is that it does not require heavy cost investment. The method was applied to samples from a marine core collected in the Southern Ocean, that spans the last climatic cycle. Diatoms rich sediments from a Holocene lacustrine/palustrine record from Texas were also investigated. We report on the radiocarbon dating results obtained on organic matter at each step of the chemical treatment, from bulk to sillafin and their interpretation.

  8. 40 CFR 156.159 - Compliance date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance date. 156.159 Section 156... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Container Labeling § 156.159 Compliance date. Any pesticide product...(d)(7), 156.10(f), 156.10(i)(2)(ix), 156.140, 156.144, 156.146, and 156.156. Effective Date Note:...

  9. Constraining the Flux of Impactors Postdating Heavy Bombardment Using U-Pb Ages of Impact Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Norman, M. L.; Ziegler, R. A.; Grange, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Spherules of glass varying in size from a few micrometres to a few millimetres are common in the lunar regolith. While some of these glass beads are products of pyroclastic fire fountains others originate as impact melt ejected from the target that breaks into small droplets and solidifies as spherical particles while raining back to the lunar surface. These glasses preserve information about the chemical composition of the target and often contain sufficient amount of radioactive nuclides such as 40K to enable Ar-40-Ar-39 dating of individual beads. Studies measuring the age of glass beads have been used in attempts to establish variations in the flux of impactors hitting the Moon, particularly during the period that postdates the formation of major impact basins [1,2]. These studies proposed a possibility of spike in the impact flux about 800 Ma [2] and over the last 400 Ma [1]. More recently U-Th-Pb isotopic systems have been also utilized to determine the age of impact glasses from the Apollo 17 regolith [3]. Our aim is to extend the application of the U-Pb system in impact glasses to spherules isolated from Apollo 14 soil 14163 in an attempt to further investigate the applicability of this isotopic system to the chronology of impact glass beads and gain additional information on the impact flux in the inner Solar system.

  10. Research on genetics of rice heading date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Heading date is one of the most important traits for rice adaptation to cultivation area and crop seasons, and it is mainly determined by photoperiod, basic vegetative growth, and temperature of cultivars. The diversity of combinations of photo-sensitive varieties and the basic vegetative, makes the heading date varied. On one hand, this supplies abundant resources for different ecotypes breeding; on the other hand, it complicates the inheritance of heading date. In recent years, transgression of late maturity has often been encountered, especially between indica and japonica subspecies, this had inhabited the use of hybrid vigor. Therefore, understanding the inheritance basis of heading date is very important for breeding practices.

  11. IMPROVEMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTHY VALUES OF YOGHURT BY FORTIFICATION WITH RUTUB DATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy M. Ismail

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, the date fruits are good sources of many nutrients. Also, yoghurt especially bio-yoghurt has a lot of nutritional and healthy benefits. The aim of this study was to combine the benefits of date and bio-yoghurt in one product which can be made by simple manner. Six treatments of yoghurt were made from cow's milk fortified with 10 and 15% rutub date and using classic or ABT-5 cultures. Changes in rheological, chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of yoghurt were monitored during refrigerated storage (4°C of yoghurt for 15 d. Results showed that fortification with date accelerates the rates of fermentation and lowered coagulation time. For rheological analyses, curd tension, viscosity and water holding capacity values increased whereas curd syneresis values decreased in bio-yoghurt fortified with date. Redox potential values were lower in date yoghurt as compared with control. Acidity, carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber and ash contents of yoghurt supplemented with date were higher than those of control. Supplementation of date increased mineral contents (K, Ca, P, Mg, Na and Fe, total nitrogen, water soluble nitrogen, total phenols and total volatile fatty acids of yoghurt. The addition of date improved the viability of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. The bifidobacteria counts were sufficient to yield numbers of beneficial organisms that were higher than the accepted threshold (106cfu.g-1 for a probiotic effect. Also, date adding improved the body, texture and flavor of the yoghurt.

  12. Petrogenesis and zircon U-Pb dating of skarnified pyroxene-bearing dioritic rocks in Bisheh area, south of Birjand, eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Nakhaei

    2014-10-01

    during the melting of the source (Reagan and Gill, 1989. This pattern followed that of calc-alkaline magmas derived from a sub-arc mantle, with scarce or no garnet in the source. Furthermore, Bisheh subvolcanic bodies were enriched in Rb, Ba and Th, indicating that they had experienced interaction with the continental crust (Kuşcu et al., 2002. The chondrite-normalized rare earth element pattern of the studied rocks shows a high ratio of light rare earth elements (LREE to heavy rare earth elements (HREE. All the samples have been plotted in the VAG field. The dioritic rocks from the Bisheh have relatively high Mg# (0.4-0.56, which is consistent with derivation from mantle melts contaminated by continental crust (Rapp and Watson, 1995. The initial 87Sr/86Sr of Bisheh pyroxene diorite porphyry was 0.70606 and the (143Nd/144Ndi isotope compositions and εNd value of these rocks was 0.512424 and -3.05, respectively. These values show that the magma originated from an enriched mantle with crustal contamination. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to Professor Sun-Lin Chung from the Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, for supporting the researchers in the use of U-Th-Pb zircon age dating. References Berberian, M. and King, G.C., 1981. Towards a palaeogeography and tectonics evolution of Iran. Canadian Journal of Earth Science, 18(2: 210–265. Esmaeily, D., Nedelec, A., Valizadeh, M.V., Moore, F. and Cotton, J., 2005. Petrology of the Jurassic Shah-Kuh granite (eastern Iran, with reference to tin mineralization. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 25(6: 961-980. Tarkian, M., Lotfi, M. and Baumann, A., 1983. Tectonic, magmatism and the formation of mineral deposits in the central Lut, east Iran. Geological Survey of Iran, geodynamic project (geotraverse in Iran, Tehran, Report 51, 519 pp. Moradi Noghondar, M., Karimpour, M.H., Farmer, G.L. and Stern, C.R., 2011-2012. Sr-Nd isotopic characteristic, U-Pb zircon geochronology, and petrogenesis of Najmabad

  13. Chromatographic separation of fructose from date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eid, Salah M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a process for separating fructose from a mixture of sugars containing essentially fructose and glucose, obtained from date palm fruits. The extraction procedure of date syrup from fresh dates gave a yield of 86.5% solids after vacuum drying. A process for separating fructose from an aqueous solution of date syrup involved adding the date syrup solutions (20, 30 and 40% by weight) to a chromatographic column filled with Dowex polystyrene strong cation exchange gel matrix resin Ca2 + and divinylbenzene, a functional group, sulfonic acid, particle size 320 microm, with a flow rate of 0.025 and 0.05 bed volume/min, under 30 and 70 degrees C column temperature. After the date sugar solution batch, a calculated quantity of water was added to the column. Glucose was retained by the resin more weakly than fructose and proceeded faster into the water batch flowing ahead. Three fractions were collected: a glucose-rich fraction, a return fraction, and a fructose-rich fraction. The return fraction is based on when the peaks of fructose and glucose were reached, which could be determined by means of an analyzer (polarimeter) based on the property of glucose and fructose solutions to turn the polarization level of polarized light. A high yield of fructose is obtained at 70 degrees C column temperature with a flow rate of 0.025 bed volume/min and date syrup solution containing 40% sugar concentration. The low recovery by weight obtained using date syrup solutions having a sugar concentration of 20 and 30%, encourages the use of a concentration of 40%. However, with the 40% date syrup supply the average concentrations of glucose and fructose in the return fractions were more than 40%, which can be used for diluting the thick date syrup solution extracted from dates.

  14. Composição química, digestibilidade e cinética de degradação ruminal das silagens de híbridos de girassol em diferentes épocas de semeadura Effects of sowing dates on chemical composition, digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of silages from sunflower hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renius Mello

    2006-08-01

    hybrids: Rumbosol-91 (forage, M-734 (double purpose, C-11 (double purpose and BRS-191 (grain sowed in October (early, November (normal and December (late. A randomized complete block design in a 4 x 3 factorial arrangement (four hybrids x three seeding dates with three replicates was used. Dry matter values ranged from 23.2 to 43.0%, pH from 4.0 to 5.1, and NH3-N%/TN from 5.3 to 16.8%. Ash values increased from October to December ranging from 6.8 to 8.8%. The Rumbosol-91 showed the lowest content of EE and the highest contents of N in the cell wall, unavailable N and total carbohydrates (TC. Crude protein contents increased from October to December while the opposite was observed for TC. November sowing and the C-11 gave the lowest contents of NDF, NDFcp and ADF. The C-11 sowed in November gave the lowest ADL values. October sowing and the Rumbosol-91 gave the highest content of ADL%/NDF. The Rumbosol-91 gave higher IVDMD and IVNDFD. November sowing and the C-11 and M-734 hybrids gave the highest value of TDN. Only one degradation profile was necessary to fit DM disappearance data. The proportion of undegradable NDF (I increased from October to December sowing, being the BRS-191 sowed in December gave the highest values. The extent (Vf1 and rate (k1 of degradation of soluble fractions of rapid digestion decreased from October to December sowing, being the Rumbosol-91 sowed in October gave the highest values. The overall nutritive value measured by chemical composition, digestibility, total digestible nutrients and ruminal degradation kinetics was better for the M-734 and C-11 hybrids sowed in November.

  15. 38 CFR 3.54 - Marriage dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage dates. 3.54..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.54 Marriage dates. A surviving spouse may qualify for pension, compensation, or dependency and indemnity compensation if the marriage to...

  16. Accelerator mass spectrometry dating at Catalhoeyuek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goektuerk, E.H. [Dept. of Chemistry, Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Hillegonds, D.J.; Lipschutz, M.E. [Dept. of Chemistry, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hodder, I. [Dept. of Cultural and Social Anthropology, Standford Univ., Standford, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Several charred plant and charcoal samples from various stratigraphic levels of the Neolithic Site, Catalhoeyuek - Turkey, were dated in the AMS facility of Purdue University (PRIME Lab). Radiocarbon dates reveal a complicated chronology, as was foreseen from archeological investigations. Our measurements suggest that this unique Neolithic town may have been initiated at the East mound around 8390 BP. (orig.)

  17. 40 CFR 62.12612 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from Hospital/medical/infectious Waste Incinerators § 62.12612 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of the plan applicable to existing hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators is... Than 250 Tons Per Day of Municipal Solid Waste...

  18. 40 CFR 62.10352 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions from Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.10352 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is August 2, 1999. Air Emissions From Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Source: Sections 62.10360 through 62.10362 appear at 65 FR 38740, June 22,...

  19. 40 CFR 62.5152 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (section 111(d) Plan) § 62.5152 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is November 8, 1999. Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators (HMIWIs)(Section 111(d)/129 Plan) Source: Sections 62.5160...

  20. 40 CFR 62.3632 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.3632 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is May 30, 2000. Metals, Acid Gases, Organic Compounds and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical Infectious Waste Incinerators Source: Sections 62.3640 through...

  1. 40 CFR 62.10362 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions from Hospital/medical/infectious Waste Incinerators § 62.10362 Effective date. The effective date for the portion of the plan applicable to existing hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators is... Than 250 Tons Per Day of Municipal Solid Waste...

  2. 40 CFR 62.11112 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions from Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.11112 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is March 16, 1998. Air Emissions From Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Source: Sections 62.11120 through 62.11122 appear at 65 FR 38740, June 22,...

  3. 40 CFR 62.12602 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions from Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 62.12602 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is July 31, 1998. Air Emissions From Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Source: Sections 62.12610 through 62.12612 appear at 65 FR 38740, June 22,...

  4. 40 CFR 62.12127 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Emissions from Existing Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (section 111(d) Plan) § 62.12127 Effective date. The effective date of the plan for municipal solid waste landfills is July 23, 2001. Emissions From Existing Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators (HMIWIs) (Section 111(d)/129 Plan)...

  5. 40 CFR 63.403 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 63.403 Section 63.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial Process Cooling Towers § 63.403 Compliance dates. The...

  6. Date palm production and pest management challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, is a monocotyledonous species belong- ing to the palm family (Arecaceae or Palmae) which is perennial and dioecious and cultivated mostly in the arid regions of the world. Date palm is important to the agrarian economy of several countries, with the ability ...

  7. ‘Wiggle Matching’ Radiocarbon Dates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronk Ramsey, C.; Plicht, J. van der; Weninger, B.; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    This paper covers three different methods of matching radiocarbon dates to the ‘wiggles’ of the calibration curve in those situations where the age difference between the 14C dates is known. These methods are most often applied to tree-ring sequences. The simplest approach is to use a classical Chi-

  8. Accounting the Events after the Balance Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilincuţă Lucian-Dorel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The events after the balance date are those events, favorable and unfavorable, that occur between the balance date (the end of the reporting period and the date at which the annual financial statements are authorized for issue by the executive management of the entity (e.g. Board of Directors. We identify two types of events: events after the balance date, which lead to financial statements adjusting and events after the balance date, which do not lead to financial statements adjusting. The process of authorizing the publishing of the financial statements depends on the structure of the reporting entity, on normalization and on procedures followed in preparing and finalizing the financial statements. Some entities submit the financial statements for approval to their owners after they have been published. In such cases, the financial statements are authorized for publication on the date of publication, not the date they were approved by the owners. The events after the reporting period include all events up to the date the financial statements are authorized for publication, even if those events occur after the public announcement of profit or of other selected financial information.

  9. 7 CFR 987.13 - Free dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.13 Free dates. Free dates means... to acquire them at prices reasonably comparable with prices received domestically) and which are...

  10. Jealousy during Dating among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanchandani, Laveena; Durham, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between several situational and personality variables and jealousy in dating relationships among 100 college women volunteers who completed a series of questionnaires about themselves and their dating situations. Six research questions were examined. Results showed that jealousy was lower for women in a steady…

  11. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  12. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  13. Dating violence and suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kristin; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the possible consequences of adolescent physical, emotional and sexual dating violence through a review of the literature on the topic. An electronic search of major biomedical bibliographic databases (Pubmed, ISI, PsycINFO) was used to retrieve articles providing information on the prevalence rates, risk factors, associated consequences and possible preventive measures for adolescent dating violence across different populations. Currently, there have been few longitudinal studies conducted to identify potential risk factors for entering a violent dating relationship in adolescence. Risky behaviors such as early sexual intercourse may predispose someone for victimization. Dating violence itself is also a predictor of future dating violence. Adolescent dating violence was associated with an increase in other violence-related behaviors, substance use, depression, poorer educational outcomes, posttraumatic stress, unhealthy weight control and risky sexual behavior. The association between adolescent dating violence and an increase in suicidal behavior is a major public health concern. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies so that a causal relationship between dating violence and suicidality may be better understood.

  14. 44 CFR 206.17 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 206.17 Section 206.17 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE General § 206.17 Effective date....

  15. 31 CFR 357.1 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 357.1 Section 357.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT General Information § 357.1 Effective date. Subpart B of...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1501 - Dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Dates. 63.1501 Section 63.1501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Aluminum Production General § 63.1501 Dates. (a) The owner...

  17. 32 CFR 242a.8 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 242a.8 Section 242a.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... § 242a.8 Effective date. This part shall become effective on March 12, 1977....

  18. 11 CFR 9006.2 - Filing dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing dates. 9006.2 Section 9006.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING REPORTS AND RECORDKEEPING § 9006.2 Filing dates. The reports required to be filed under 11 CFR...

  19. 7 CFR 1730.65 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective dates. 1730.65 Section 1730.65 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... dates. (a) All electric program borrowers with an approved electric program loan as of July 8,...

  20. 31 CFR 10.93 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 10.93 Section 10.93 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE General Provisions § 10.93 Effective date. Except as otherwise provided in each section...

  1. 32 CFR 270.3 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 270.3 Section 270.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Effective date. This part is effective on May 15, 1997....

  2. 49 CFR 325.3 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 325.3 Section 325.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.3 Effective date. The rules in this part are effective on October...

  3. 32 CFR 191.10 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 191.10 Section 191.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS THE DOD CIVILIAN EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY (EEO) PROGRAM § 191.10 Effective date. This part...

  4. 7 CFR 1485.24 - Applicability date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability date. 1485.24 Section 1485.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Market Access Program § 1485.24 Applicability date....

  5. 31 CFR 226.7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 226.7 Section 226.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... LOAN DEPOSITARIES § 226.7 Effective date. The provisions of this part become effective November 2, 1978....

  6. 40 CFR 63.1545 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance dates. 63.1545 Section 63.1545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting § 63.1545 Compliance dates. (a) Each owner...

  7. Strategies for Family Facilitation of Play Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Cynthia R.; Horn, Eva M.

    2010-01-01

    Play dates can serve several functions for young children, including children with social difficulties, such as developmental delays, behavioral disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and shyness. Play dates provide children with additional opportunities to be around peers and to practice skills associated with peer play interactions. Play dates…

  8. 18 CFR 808.19 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 808.19 Section 808.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.19 Effective date. This part shall be effective...

  9. 18 CFR 807.4 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 807.4 Section 807.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION WATER WITHDRAWAL REGISTRATION § 807.4 Effective date. This part shall be effective on January 1, 2007....

  10. Longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katherine A; Sullivan, Terri N; Farrell, Albert D

    2015-03-01

    Dating violence is commonly perpetrated in adolescence, making it imperative to understand risk factors in order to inform prevention efforts. Although individual norms supporting dating violence are strongly related to its perpetration, few studies have examined their longitudinal impact. Moreover, the influence of class norms (i.e., norms for students in the same grade, cohort, and school) supporting dating violence on perpetration has rarely been studied. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence. Participants were two cohorts of sixth graders from 37 schools who were in dating relationships at Wave 1 and 6 months later at Wave 2 (N = 2,022; 43% female; 52% African American, 21% Latino/a, 20% White, and 7% other). The analyses used a multilevel approach, with students represented at Level 1 and classes (n = 74) at Level 2. The models tested direct effects of Wave 1 individual and class norms supporting dating violence on subsequent changes in perpetration of dating violence at Wave 2 and the extent to which gender moderated these relationships. The findings indicated that greater individual norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence and greater individual norms supporting female dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of psychological dating violence. Greater class norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical dating violence; whereas greater class norms supporting female dating violence predicted less change in perpetration of physical dating violence. These findings highlight the need to address norms in early adolescence.

  11. A Phenomenological Investigation of Adolescent Dating Relationships and Dating Violence Counseling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Michel, Rebecca E.; Cole, Rebekah F.; Emelianchik, Kelly; Forman, Julia; Lorelle, Sonya; McBride, Rebecca; Sikes, April

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of dating violence, incidences often go unreported due to a lack of awareness among students as to appropriate dating behaviors. This phenomenology investigated how adolescents conceptualize and experience dating relationships. We explored adolescent females' definitions of healthy and abusive relationships, experiences with…

  12. Parsing and Matching Dates in VIAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny A. Toves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual International Authority File (OCLC Online Computer Library Center 2013 http://viaf.org is built from dozens of authority files with tens of millions of names in more than 150 million authority and bibliographic records expressed in multiple languages, scripts and formats. One of the main tasks in VIAF is to bring together personal names which may have various dates associated with them, such as birth, death or when they were active. These dates can be quite complicated with ranges, approximations, BCE dates, different scripts, and even different calendars. Analysis of the nearly 400,000 unique date strings in VIAF led us to a parsing technique that relies on only a few basic patterns for them. Our goal is to correctly interpret at least 99% of all the dates we find in each of VIAF’s authority files and to use the dates to facilitate matches between authority records. Python source code for the process described here is available at https://github.com/OCLC-Developer-Network/viaf-dates.

  13. TL and EPR dating: some applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The intensity of thermoluminescence light emitted by a crystal is a function of radiation dose. The number of defects or of radicals in a crystal or organic substances is also a function of radiation dose. Since such defects or radicals present EPR signals, the EPR intensity is also a function of radiation dose. These facts are basis for radiation dosimetry and can be applied in dating of archaeological potteries or other materials, as well as in dating geological substances such as sediments, caves speleothemes, animal teeth and bones. Recent investigation on sensitized quartz based dosimeters and dating calcite covering ancient wall painting to find early settlers in Brazil will be presented. (Author)

  14. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors.

  15. The kill date as a management tool for cover cropping success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alonso-Ayuso

    Full Text Available Integrating cover crops (CC in rotations provides multiple ecological services, but it must be ensured that management does not increase pre-emptive competition with the subsequent crop. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of kill date on: (i CC growth and N content; (ii the chemical composition of residues; (iii soil inorganic N and potentially mineralizable N; and (iv soil water content. Treatments were fallow and a CC mixture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and vetch (Vicia sativa L. sown in October and killed on two different dates in spring. Above-ground biomass and chemical composition of CC were determined at harvest, and ground cover was monitored based on digital image analysis. Soil mineral N was determined before sowing and after killing the CC, and potentially mineralizable N was measured by aerobic incubation at the end of the experiment. Soil water content was monitored daily to a depth of 1.1 m using capacitance sensors. Under the present conditions of high N availability, delaying kill date increased barley above-ground biomass and N uptake from deep soil layers; little differences were observed in vetch. Postponing kill date increased the C/N ratio and the fiber content of plant residues. Ground cover reached >80% by the first kill date (∼1250°C days. Kill date was a means to control soil inorganic N by balancing the N retained in the residue and soil, and showed promise for mitigating N losses. The early kill date decreased the risk of water and N pre-emptive competition by reducing soil depletion, preserving rain harvested between kill dates and allowing more time for N release in spring. The soil potentially mineralizable N was enhanced by the CC and kill date delay. Therefore kill date is a crucial management variable for maximizing the CC benefits in agricultural systems.

  16. Radiocarbon dating prehistoric pottery from Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Craig, Oliver; Heron, Carl;

    2012-01-01

    , such as when aquatic products have been prepared in the pottery. Soot can derive from old wood that was used for the hearth fire, or from (potentially aquatic) food that boiled over. Plant remains may have been present in the clay for a long time before manufacture of the pottery. Post......Direct dating of the pottery is an important goal in archaeological research and many attempts have been made using radiocarbon. One important goal has been to date the earliest pottery in a region to assess the origin and dispersal of ceramic technology. Also with the increasing application...... of organic residue analysis to study pottery use, it has become important to combine residue data with direct dates on the artefact being investigated. In this study we have radiocarbon dated different organic materials associated with archaeological potsherds from three Ertebølle sites in Northern Germany...

  17. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  18. Date restricted queries in web search engines

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    Search engines usually offer a date restricted search on their advanced search pages. But determining the actual update of a web page is not without problems. We conduct a study testing date restricted queries on the search engines Google, Teoma and Yahoo!. We find that these searches fail to work properly in the examined engines. We discuss implications of this for further research and search engine development.

  19. Radiometric dating of the Siloam Tunnel, Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Amos; Shimron, Aryeh; Rosenbaum, Jeff

    2003-09-11

    The historical credibility of texts from the Bible is often debated when compared with Iron Age archaeological finds (refs. 1, 2 and references therein). Modern scientific methods may, in principle, be used to independently date structures that seem to be mentioned in the biblical text, to evaluate its historical authenticity. In reality, however, this approach is extremely difficult because of poor archaeological preservation, uncertainty in identification, scarcity of datable materials, and restricted scientific access into well-identified worship sites. Because of these problems, no well-identified Biblical structure has been radiometrically dated until now. Here we report radiocarbon and U-Th dating of the Siloam Tunnel, proving its Iron Age II date; we conclude that the Biblical text presents an accurate historic record of the Siloam Tunnel's construction. Being one of the longest ancient water tunnels lacking intermediate shafts, dating the Siloam Tunnel is a key to determining where and when this technological breakthrough took place. Siloam Tunnel dating also refutes a claim that the tunnel was constructed in the second century bc.

  20. Valorization of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit processing by-products and wastes using bioprocess technology - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, M; Bahkali, Ali H

    2013-04-01

    The date palm Phoenix dactylifera has played an important role in the day-to-day life of the people for the last 7000 years. Today worldwide production, utilization and industrialization of dates are continuously increasing since date fruits have earned great importance in human nutrition owing to their rich content of essential nutrients. Tons of date palm fruit wastes are discarded daily by the date processing industries leading to environmental problems. Wastes such as date pits represent an average of 10% of the date fruits. Thus, there is an urgent need to find suitable applications for this waste. In spite of several studies on date palm cultivation, their utilization and scope for utilizing date fruit in therapeutic applications, very few reviews are available and they are limited to the chemistry and pharmacology of the date fruits and phytochemical composition, nutritional significance and potential health benefits of date fruit consumption. In this context, in the present review the prospects of valorization of these date fruit processing by-products and wastes' employing fermentation and enzyme processing technologies towards total utilization of this valuable commodity for the production of biofuels, biopolymers, biosurfactants, organic acids, antibiotics, industrial enzymes and other possible industrial chemicals are discussed.

  1. Bullying Predicts Reported Dating Violence and Observed Qualities in Adolescent Dating Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reported bullying, reported dating violence, and dating relationship quality measured through couple observations was examined. Given past research demonstrating similarity between peer and dating contexts, we expected that bullying would predict negative dating experiences. Participants with dating experience (n = 585; 238 males, M(age) = 15.06) completed self-report assessments of bullying and dating violence perpetration and victimization. One month later, 44 opposite-sex dyads (M(age) = 15.19) participated in behavioral observations. In 10-min sessions, couples were asked to rank and discuss areas of relationship conflict while being video-recorded. Qualities of the relationship were later coded by trained observers. Regression analysis revealed that bullying positively predicted dating violence perpetration and victimization. Self-reported bullying also predicted observations of lower relationship support and higher withdrawal. Age and gender interactions further qualified these findings. The bullying of boys, but not girls, was significantly related to dating violence perpetration. Age interactions showed that bullying was positively predictive of dating violence perpetration and victimization for older, but not younger adolescents. Positive affect was also negatively predicted by bullying, but only for girls. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that adolescents carry forward strategies learned in the peer context to their dating relationships.

  2. Exploration of making date seed’s flour and its nutritional contents analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahini, M.

    2016-04-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) is one of the oldest fruit plants that identical with people’s lives in the Middle East including The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia since ancient times.The date palm is known and consumed by most of people in the form of fruit flesh, while its seed is discarded tough it is rich in nutrient. Therefore, need to be explored the potential of date seed through product innovation of foodstuffs with a high nutritional value. The aims of this study were to 1) know how to make flour from date seed, and 2) determine nutritional content of date seed’s flour. This study was experiment and conducted in July, 2015 at the laboratory of food technology, Family Welfare Education department. Chemical analysis was used to determine nutrients content. The results showed that 1) the flour of date seed produced from the process of washing, soaking, flushing, boiling, draining, drying, grinding, and sieving; 2) the flour of date seed’s flour have a macro nutrients value. This study explains that date seed is regarded as rubbish, in fact, it has a high value that can be an alternative substitution of wheat flour.

  3. Improved dating of a mid-fifteenth century volcanic marker in ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Dai, J.; Ferris, D. G.; McConnell, J. R.; Sigl, M.; Gao, C.

    2013-12-01

    Ice cores are dated with a variety of techniques with varying degrees of accuracy and precision. Recent advances in ice core chemical analysis have enabled high resolution (i.e., sub-annual) measurements that allow many ice cores to be dated with the technique of annual layer counting (ALC). Dating by ALC, when applied to appropriate ice cores, provides accuracy and precision that are not possible with other dating techniques. Two recent ice cores, one from Antarctica and one from Greenland and dated with the ALC technique, yield an 800 year (1200-2007 C.E.) bipolar record of explosive volcanic eruptions. The age uncertainties of volcanic signals in the period of 1400-2007 are no more than ×1 year. A prominent volcanic signal in the 15th century appears in the layers of 1459-1461 of both ice cores, indicating an eruption date of 1458. The mid-15th century eruption of the Kuwae volcano in the tropical Pacific is believed to be the most explosive in the last 700 years and to have impacted global climate. Examination of previous ice core records found 1454-1457 to be the date range of the prominent volcanic signal, presumed to be from the Kuwae eruption, in most Antarctica ice cores. This led to the suggestion that 1452 or 1453 is the probable eruption date for Kuwae. The new bipolar record places 1458×1 as the date of the eruption responsible for the prominent volcanic signal. The date of 1458 appears to be an improvement of the previously suggested date (1452 or 1453) for the eruption responsible for the prominent volcanic signal in the mid-15th century. However, the presence of another, less prominent signal at 1453-1454 in the new bipolar record makes it difficult at this point to attribute either signal to the Kuwae eruption, although current evidence suggests the later (1458) eruption is probably that of Kuwae.

  4. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  5. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  6. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ., Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  7. Constructing the uncertainty of due dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Sarah C; Anthony, Kathryn E; O'Hair, H Dan

    2014-01-01

    By its nature, the date that a baby is predicted to be born, or the due date, is uncertain. How women construct the uncertainty of their due dates may have implications for when and how women give birth. In the United States as many as 15% of births occur before 39 weeks because of elective inductions or cesarean sections, putting these babies at risk for increased medical problems after birth and later in life. This qualitative study employs a grounded theory approach to understand the decisions women make on how and when to give birth. Thirty-three women who were pregnant or had given birth within the past 2 years participated in key informant or small-group interviews. The results suggest that women interpret the uncertainty of their due dates as a reason to wait for birth and as a reason to start the process early; however, information about a baby's brain development in the final weeks of pregnancy may persuade women to remain pregnant longer. The uncertainties of due dates are analyzed using Babrow's problematic integration, which distinguishes between epistemological and ontological uncertainty. The results point to a third type of uncertainty, axiological uncertainty. Axiological uncertainty is rooted in the values and ethics of outcomes.

  8. Date attachable offline electronic cash scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chun-I; Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling.

  9. Auspicious birth dates among Chinese in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Douglas; Chee, Christine Pal; Sviatschi, Maria Micaela; Zhong, Nan

    2015-07-01

    The number eight is considered lucky in Chinese culture, e.g. the Beijing Olympics began at 8:08 pm on 8/8/2008. Given the potential for discretion in selecting particular dates of labor induction or scheduled Cesarean section (C-section), we consider whether Chinese-American births in California occur disproportionately on the 8th, 18th, or 28th day of the month. We find 2.3% "too many" Chinese births on these auspicious birth dates, whereas Whites show no corresponding increase. The increase in Chinese births is driven by higher parity C-sections: the number of repeat C-sections is 6% "too high" on auspicious birth dates. Sons born to Chinese parents account for the entire increase; daughter deliveries do not seem to be timed to achieve "lucky" birth dates. We also find avoidance of repeat C-section deliveries on the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month, considered unlucky in Chinese culture. Finally, we replicate earlier work finding that Friday the 13th delivery dates are avoided and document a particularly large decrease among Chinese. For Whites and Chinese in California, mothers with higher levels of education are particularly likely to avoid delivering on the 13th.

  10. Internet dating as a project: the commodification and rationalisation of online dating:

    OpenAIRE

    Tjaša Žakelj; Doris Kocon; Alenka Švab; Roman Kuhar

    2015-01-01

    Based on qualitative empirical data from two studies on Internet dating in Slovenia, this paper discusses the social contexts of the Internet dating of heterosexual men and women and homosexual men. Special attention is given to different aspects of the commodification and rationalisation of dating in the process of forming potential (romantic) partnerships. First, we discuss our respondents' reasons for using the Internet to get in touch with potential (romantic) partners. Second, we focus o...

  11. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of rock surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza

    There are many examples of rock surfaces, rock art and stone structures whose ages are of great importance to the understanding of various phenomena in geology, climatology and archaeology. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is a well-established chronological tool that has successfully...... determined the depositional age of a wide variety of fine-grained sediments, from several years to several hundred thousands of years. However, there is no routine OSL dating method applicable to larger clasts such as cobbles, boulders and other rock surfaces. Here the application of quartz OSL to the dating...... of rock surfaces is successfully tested by application to two different quartz-rich rock types (sandstone and quartzite). Together with the measurement of infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals as a function of depth into the surface of different granites it is clear that both OSL and IRSL can...

  12. Thermoluminescence dating of the british coversand deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, M. D.

    Coversand deposits, thought to be of Lateglacial age are found in Britain in North Lincolnshire, South-West Lancashire and Central East Anglia. A comprehensive dating study of them, using thermoluminescence (TL) techniques, is currently underway in an attempt to link the British coversand deposits to the European coversand chronology. Initial results from four of the British coversand sites sampled are presented. The 26 TL dates from 14 samples show that in Lincolnshire aeolian deposition took place from 12.5 ka to I1 ka. Cessation of the initial sand deposition was synchronous with this in Lancashire, but sand deposition occurred significantly earlier in East Anglia. The upper layers of aeolian sand in Lancashire are much younger and are attributed to Holocene reworking. On the basis of these dates, Lincolnshire and Lancashire coversand deposition occurred at a similar time to the Younger Coversand II, whilst East Anglian coversand deposition coincided with the Younger Coversand I phase in the European coversand chronology.

  13. Monazite RW-1: a homogenous natural reference material for SIMS U-Pb and Th-Pb isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xiao-Xiao; Huyskens, Magdalena H.; Li, Qiu-Li; Yin, Qin-Zhu; Werner, Ronald; Liu, Yu; Tang, Guo-Qiang; Yang, Ya-Nan; Li, Xian-Hua

    2016-10-01

    Well-characterized matrix-matched natural mineral references of known age are an important prerequisite for SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) U-Th-Pb dating. We have characterized RW-1, a 44 g yellowish-brown single monazite specimen from a Norwegian pegmatite as an excellent hi-Th reference material for secondary ion mass spectrometric U-Th-Pb dating. A total of 206 secondary ion mass spectrometric analyses over six analytical sessions were performed on different monazite fragments of RW-1. The analyses resulted in 207Pb-based common lead corrected 206Pb/238U ages and Th-Pb ages with overall 2 % (2 SD = standard deviation) variations, indicating the good U-Th-Pb system homogeneity. The homogeneity of Th content of 11.8 ± 1.0 wt% (2 SD) and Th/U of 42 ± 3 (2 SD) make this crystal also a good compositional reference material. We used the combined ID-TIMS(Pb)/ID-MC-ICP-MS(U) technique (i.e. isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry for Pb, and isotope dilution multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for U) to determine U-Pb ages of the monazite samples studied. The mean 207Pb/235U age of 904.15 ± 0.26 Ma (95 % confidence level) is recommended as the best estimate crystallization age for RW-1 monazite. Considering that the most commonly distributed U-Pb monazite reference materials have rather low ThO2, we suggest that this RW-1 monazite with its ThO2 of 13.5 wt% is a suitable reference material providing investigators more confidence when dating high-Th monazite unknowns.

  14. Dating Petroglyphs from Fugoppe Cave, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years, I have tried to establish a relative date for petroglyphs in Fugoppe Cave, Japan. Unsuspected amidst debris accumulating from about 1300 years ago, the petroglyphs were rediscovered accidentally in 1950. From an analysis of petroglyphs on fallen rocks scattered randomly on the site floor, I argue that the artworks date from ca.1900 years ago. The cave itself, formed by wave action, saw its main occupation by pottery-making people from 1700–1500 years ago; although the petroglyphs on the rock walls predated their occupation, it seems unlikely that the occupants attached any meaning to them.

  15. Radiocarbon Dates from a Tomb in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, P T

    1965-02-01

    The first series of radiocarbon dates to be obtained from a deep shaft-and-chamber tomb of the type restricted in Mesoamerica to parts of Nayarit, Jalisco, and Colima in western Mexico ranges from 2230 +/- 100 years to 1710 +/- 80 years. Examination of the evidence indicates that for the present a date equivalent to A.D. 250 should be accepted for at least one phase, possibly a late phase, of the shaft tomb culture and for the hollow, polychrome figurines associated with the tombs.

  16. Computational Age Dating of Special Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-06-30

    This slide-show presented an overview of the Constrained Progressive Reversal (CPR) method for computing decays, age dating, and spoof detecting. The CPR method is: Capable of temporal profiling a SNM sample; Precise (compared with known decay code, such a ORIGEN); Easy (for computer implementation and analysis). We have illustrated with real SNM data using CPR for age dating and spoof detection. If SNM is pure, may use CPR to derive its age. If SNM is mixed, CPR will indicate that it is mixed or spoofed.

  17. 46 CFR 160.066-10 - Expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expiration date. 160.066-10 Section 160.066-10 Shipping....066-10 Expiration date. Each approved signal must have an expiration date marked on it. That date must not be more than forty-two months from date of manufacture....

  18. Pb-Pb dating of individual chondrules from the CBa chondrite Gujba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollard, Jean Francois André; Connelly, James; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The CB chondrites are metal-rich meteorites with characteristics that sharply distinguish them from other chondrite groups. Their unusual chemical and petrologic features and a young formation age of bulk chondrules dated from the CBa chondrite Gujba are interpreted to reflect a single...

  19. REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison. ''U Age Dating - determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venchiarutti, Celia; Richter, Stephan; Jakopic, Rozle; Aregbe, Yetunde [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Geel (Belgium). Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM); Varga, Zsolt; Mayer, Klaus [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU)

    2015-07-01

    The REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison aimed at determining the production date of a uranium certified test sample (i.e. the last chemical separation date of the material). Participants in REIMEP-22 on ''U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample'' received one low-enriched 20 mg uranium sample for mass spectrometry measurements and/or one 50 mg uranium sample for a-spectrometry measurements, with an undisclosed value for the production date. They were asked to report the isotope amount ratios n({sup 230}Th)/n({sup 234}U) for the 20 mg uranium sample and/or the activity ratios A({sup 230}Th)/A({sup 234}U) for the 50 mg uranium sample in addition to the calculated production date of the certified test samples with its uncertainty. Reporting of the {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U ratio and the respective calculated production date was optional. Eleven laboratories reported results in REIMEP-22. Two of them reported results for both the 20 mg and 50 mg uranium certified test samples. The measurement capability of the participants was assessed against the independent REIMEP-22 reference value by means of z- and zeta-scores in compliance with ISO 13528:2005. Furthermore a performance assessment criterion for acceptable uncertainty was applied to evaluate the participants' results. In general, the REIMEP-22 participants' results were satisfactory. This confirms the analytical capabilities of laboratories to determine accurately the age of uranium materials with low amount of ingrown thorium (young certified test sample). The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC-JRC) organised REIMEP-22 in parallel to the preparation and certification of a uranium reference material certified for the production date (IRMM-1000a and IRMM-1000b).

  20. 76 FR 34590 - Bankruptcy Filing Date Treated as Plan Termination Date for Certain Purposes; Guaranteed Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... nonforfeitable as of the bankruptcy filing date are guaranteed. Thus, for example, early retirement subsidies and... guaranteed. Participants who retired under a subsidized early retirement benefit (or a disability or other... retirement benefit or an early retirement subsidy after the bankruptcy filing date but before the...

  1. Oman Traditional Date Palms: Production and Improvement of Date Palms in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Marshudi, AS.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Date production in the world is confined to a small number of countries, most of them being Arab. However, date industry in the Arab world is not yet fully developed and concerted efforts are still needed to fully utilize the tremendous date tree potential as a commodity that can be consumed in the local market or processed for export. Date palm cultivation is one of the most important agricultural activities in Oman. It occupies more than 82% of total fruit crop area and about 42% of total agricultural land. Not only is domestic demand met, but a surplus for export is also generated.Tremendous development has occurred in the production and distribution of dates during the last two decades. However, the contribution of dates to total agriculture exports was found to be low. This paper presents date palm crop in terms of its traditional practice and economic development in Oman. Results show that the quality of dates produced has not yet met approved standards and, therefore, the return to producers is not maximized.

  2. 20 CFR 416.345 - Use of date of oral inquiry as application filing date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... filing date. 416.345 Section 416.345 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Filing of Applications Filing Date Based Upon A Written... of the notice we will send telling of the need to file an application. The notice will say that...

  3. Optimization of laboratory illumination in optical dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Lindvold, Lars René

    2017-01-01

    As part of the development of new laboratory lighting, we present a methodological approach applicable to the characterization of any light source intended for illumination in optical dating laboratories. We derive optical absorption cross-sections for quartz and feldspar from published data...

  4. Dates of Botanical Publications 1788-1792

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, F.A.

    1963-01-01

    Questions of priority often necessitate a search for precise dates of publication. Much research of this kind has already been done, for instance by Britten and Woodward in their “Bibliographical notes” published in the Journal of Botany, by O. Kuntze in his Revisio generum plantarum, by W. T. Stear

  5. 40 CFR 190.12 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 190.12 Section 190.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS Environmental Standards for...

  6. Historical Analysis of College Campus Interracial Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Firebaugh, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Interracial dating on American campuses has had a relatively stormy past. Until the past three decades or so, it was outlawed in some states. Southern institutions, in particular, such as the infamous Bob Jones University have made this issue divisive even among their own constituencies. Age and generation seem to be cogent factors with younger…

  7. 49 CFR 30.5 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO SUPPLIERS OF GOODS AND SERVICES OF COUNTRIES THAT DENY PROCUREMENT MARKET ACCESS TO U.S. CONTRACTORS § 30.5 Effective dates. The... the waiver provisions of § 30.17 of this part. All public works or public buildings contracts...

  8. 31 CFR 539.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 539.302 Section 539.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL...

  9. 40 CFR 280.91 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 280.91 Section 280.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... marketing firms owning 1,000 or more USTs and all other UST owners that report a tangible net worth of...

  10. Dating Preferences in Sex Stereotypic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christine A.

    Although research suggest a general preference by men for attractive partners, attractiveness may be more important for some men than for others. This study was conducted to investigate the role of men's sex stereotypic attitudes on their dating preferences. It was hypothesized that the level of sex stereotyping would correlate with the level…

  11. ESR dating of the fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-01-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs, grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Ulzin nuclear reactor. ESR signals of quartz grains separated from fault rocks collected from the E-W trend fault are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of these faults had occurred before the quaternary period. ESR dates from the NW trend faults range from 300ka to 700ka. On the other hand, ESR date of the NS trend fault is about 50ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity near the Ulzin nuclear reactor continued into the pleistocene.

  12. 24 CFR 100.148 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISCRIMINATORY CONDUCT UNDER THE FAIR HOUSING ACT Discrimination in Residential Real Estate-Related Transactions... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 100.148 Section 100.148 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE...

  13. 38 CFR 21.7631 - Commencing dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reservist is entitled to the increase (“kicker”) as determined by the Secretary of the military department...) Entrance or reentrance including change of program or educational institution. When an eligible reservist... reservist is pursuing, the commencing date of the award of educational assistance is the latest of: (i)...

  14. 17 CFR 450.5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 450.5 Section 450.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY...

  15. 40 CFR 63.826 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 63.826 Section 63.826 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for the Printing and...

  16. Obsidian Hydration Dating in the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manche, Emanuel P.; Lakatos, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Provides an overview of obsidian hydration dating for the instructor by presenting: (1) principles of the method; (2) procedures; (3) applications; and (4) limitations. The theory of the method and one or more laboratory exercises can be easily introduced into the undergraduate geology curriculum. (JN)

  17. When To Let Your Teenager Start Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out on a date. Just look at the words used to describe affection between two young people: “infatuation,” “crush,” “puppy love.” If it ... generous with their time, patience and hugs. A little extra sensitivity helps, ... the right words. Acknowledge your teen’s pain but assure her that ...

  18. 21 CFR 211.137 - Expiration dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appropriate stability testing described in § 211.166. (b) Expiration dates shall be related to any storage conditions stated on the labeling, as determined by stability studies described in § 211.166. (c) If the drug... standards or specifications as demonstrated by stability studies during their use in clinical...

  19. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-20

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  20. 7 CFR 2900.6 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 2900.6 Section 2900.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ESSENTIAL AGRICULTURAL USES AND VOLUMETRIC REQUIREMENTS-NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT § 2900.6...

  1. 40 CFR 1043.5 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 1043.5 Section 1043.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF NOX... Protocol is in effect. (b) The amendments to Annex VI adopted on October 8, 2008 enter into force July...

  2. 38 CFR 21.4131 - Commencing dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—the course or subject leads to a standard college degree. (1) When the student enrolls in a course... first class scheduled for that particular course or subject. (4) When a student enrolls in a resident... assistance will be the date the student began pursuit of the course according to the regularly...

  3. Dating violence among gay men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Liu, Kirin Qilin

    2013-08-01

    This is the first study on the prevalence of dating violence and threats of being forced to "come out of the closet" among Chinese gay men. Data on social demographic information and the experience of dating violence, including types of abuse, threats of "outing," and the gender of abusers were collected from 418 gay men and 330 heterosexual men by self-administered questionnaires. Mann-Whitney U test, χ(2) test, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test group differences. Up to 32.8% of the gay men had experienced one abuse or more. Among those experiencing abuse, 83.9% of the gay men never told anyone about their abuse. The experience of any form of abuse by gay men was 5.07 times higher than the rate of abuse among heterosexual men controlling for age in logistic regression models. In addition, 12.4% of the gay men have experienced the threat of being outed. Overall, dating violence is more prevalent in gay men than in heterosexuals. Efforts to prevent dating violence, especially among gay men, should be made in China.

  4. Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2010-01-01

    The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

  5. The unexpected truth about dates and hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Yasawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dates are a concentrated source of essential nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates (CHOs, which are necessary for the maintenance of optimum health. Most of the CHOs in dates come from sugars including glucose and fructose. Dates are commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia, particularly at the time of breaking the fast to provide instant energy and maintain blood sugar level. However, dates may cause hypoglycemia in a rare condition named as heredity fructose intolerance (HFI, and a few families have been to see us with a history of that nature. This is to report the preliminary results of an on-going study of a group of patients who get symptoms of hypoglycemia following the ingestion of dates and have suffered for years without an accurate diagnosis. Methodology: This report is based on three patients, from the same family, living in a date growing region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The patients had been to several medical centers without getting any definite answers or diagnosis until they were referred to the Gastroenterology Clinic of King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, KSA. The data were obtained by careful history and laboratory investigations, and a final diagnosis of HFI made on fructose intolerance test (FIT. Results: The patients reported that they had avoided eating dates because of various symptoms, such as bloating, nausea, and even hypoglycemia when larger amounts were consumed. Their other symptoms included sleepiness, sweating, and shivering. After full examinations and necessary laboratory tests based on the above symptoms, FIT was performed and the patients were diagnosed with HFI. They were referred to a dietitian who advised a fructose-free diet. They felt well and were free of symptoms. Conclusion: HFI may remain undiagnosed until adulthood and may lead to disastrous complications and even death. The diagnosis can only be suspected after a careful dietary history is taken supported by

  6. Internet dating as a project: the commodification and rationalisation of online dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Žakelj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative empirical data from two studies on Internet dating in Slovenia, this paper discusses the social contexts of the Internet dating of heterosexual men and women and homosexual men. Special attention is given to different aspects of the commodification and rationalisation of dating in the process of forming potential (romantic partnerships. First, we discuss our respondents’ reasons for using the Internet to get in touch with potential (romantic partners. Second, we focus on the demands and strategies of targeted market- ing in personal profile writing and, finally, on the process of selecting potential partners. Our study shows that the primary understanding of Internet dating among people who engage in it is its economic nature. Together with targeted marketing and the predeter- mined criteria for choosing interesting others, Internet dating can thus be understood as a market that encourages rationalisation and commodification in the process of forming intimate relationships.

  7. Effect of Algerian Varieties Dates on Glycemic, Arterial Blood Pressure and Satiety Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourchala Freha, Mihoub Fatma, Derradj Meriem,\tHenchiri Cherifa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to determine the Glycemic Indexes (GIsof three Algerians varieties of dates in healthy subjects, evaluate the satiety and effect on arterial pressure after their consumption. We have first documented the chemical composition of the dates. 10 healthy subjects consumed the dates (carbohydrates content of 50 g in order to determine the GIs. The responses of glycaemia were monitored during two hours after the dates taking and compared to the reference glucose. In a randomized trial, 20 healthy adults consumed the dates after 12h of fast. We reported the level of satiety on a Visual Analog Scale for 2h further to the ingestion of the dates. Furthermore, 28 normotensive and 45 hypertensive individuals ingested the three varieties in randomized order during 21 days to assess their impact on the Pressure Arterial Systolic (PAS and Pressure Arterial Diastolic (PAD. We noted significant differences (p<0.05 for the different fractions of sugars, soluble fibers, polyphenols, K+, Mg2+. The low GIs are denoted among 44.31-52.35, deducting a moderate impact on blood glucose level. The dates reduced hunger and increased satiety. Our varieties studied following their ingestion induced a significant hypotensive activity (p<0.05on the PAS and, PAD from hypertensive subjects.

  8. ANALYSIS OF OUT OF DATE MCU MODIFIER LOCATED IN SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.

    2014-10-22

    SRNL recently completed density measurements and chemical analyses on modifier samples stored in drums within SRNL. The modifier samples date back to 2008 and are in various quantities up to 40 gallons. Vendor information on the original samples indicates a shelf life of 5 years. There is interest in determining if samples that have been stored for more than the 5 year shelf life are still acceptable for use. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent component Cs-7SB [(2,2,3,3- tetraflouropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, CAS #308362-88-1] is used as a diluent modifier to increase extractant solubility and provide physical characteristics necessary for diluent trimming.

  9. Luminescence dating of ancient Darhad basin, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheul Kim, Jin; Yi, Sangheon; Lim, Jaesoo; Kim, Ju-Yong

    2016-04-01

    Darhad basin is located in the northern Mongolia, in the western end of the Baikal Rift Zone. In contrast to the neighboring Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia's largest and deepest lake, the Darhad is a drained lake basin. It is ~100 km long (north-south), 20-40 km wide and covered by sediments which locally exceed 500 m thickness (Zorin et al., 1989). Darhad basin is characterized by alternating episodes of expansion and desiccation that are closely related with the Pleistocene damming events. Previous studies of the Darhad Basin suggest that the last paleolake was dammed by a large glacier or the sediments (Selivanov, 1967, 1968; Krivonogov et al., 2005; Gillespie et al., 2008). Especially, recent expansion of the paleolake might be caused by the two glacial maxima during MIS 4 and 2. However, glacier-dammed lakes might be short-lived, dried up and permafrost occurred in the drained basin during the Holocene period. The uppermost paleolake sediments (13.2 m depth) are exposed following the curvature of the meandering river (called "Hodon outcrop"). It is considered the most likely site for the youngest paleolake sediments because it is distributed in the northern middle part of the paleolake. Krivonogov et al. 2012 described the Hodon outcrop with the sedimentological and chronological data. Age dating of 16 samples (11 mollusk shells, 5 wood fragments) indicated that Hodon outcrop sediments were deposited between 10.1±7 and 4.9±5 ka. However, the ages obtained on shells much older dates than the matched wood samples because of ingestion of old carbon by mollusks. The age difference between shells and wood fragments is a minimum of 1.73 ka and a maximum of 3.41 ka (average 2.5 ka). In this case, 14C ages from shells should be corrected with appropriate correction factor. However, the old carbon effects could vary temperally and spatially in the Darhad paleolake. The limited number of the 14C ages from wood fragments result in a simple linear trend in the depth-age curve

  10. Optoelectronic date acquisition system based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Liu, Chunyang; Song, De; Tong, Zhiguo; Liu, Xiangqing

    2015-11-01

    An optoelectronic date acquisition system is designed based on FPGA. FPGA chip that is EP1C3T144C8 of Cyclone devices from Altera corporation is used as the centre of logic control, XTP2046 chip is used as A/D converter, host computer that communicates with the date acquisition system through RS-232 serial communication interface are used as display device and photo resistance is used as photo sensor. We use Verilog HDL to write logic control code about FPGA. It is proved that timing sequence is correct through the simulation of ModelSim. Test results indicate that this system meets the design requirement, has fast response and stable operation by actual hardware circuit test.

  11. Northern European adolescent attitudes toward dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Erica; Holdsworth, Emma; Leen, Eline; Sorbring, Emma; Helsing, Bo; Jaans, Sebastian; Awouters, Valère

    2013-01-01

    A focus group methodology was used to examine attitudes toward dating violence among 86 adolescents (aged 12-17) from four northern European countries (England, Sweden, Germany, and Belgium). Four superordinate themes were identified from thematic analyses: gender identities, television as the educator, perceived acceptability of dating violence, and the decision to seek help/tell someone. Although violence in relationships was generally not condoned, when violence was used by females, was unintended (despite its consequences), or was in retaliation for infidelity, violence was perceived as acceptable. Adolescents indicated that their views were stereotypical and based solely on stereotypical television portrayals of violence in relationships. Stereotypical beliefs and portrayals generate barriers for victimized males to seek help because of fear of embarrassment.

  12. Should precise numerical dating overrule glacial geomorphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Numerical age dating techniques, namely different types of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND), have achieved an impressive progress in both laboratory precision and regional calibration models during the past few decades. It is now possible to apply precise TCND even to young landforms like Late Holocene moraines, a task seemed hardly achievable just about 15 years ago. An increasing number of studies provide very precise TCND ages for boulders from Late Holocene moraines enabling related reconstruction of glacier chronologies and the interpretation of these glacial landforms in a palaeoclimatological context. These studies may also solve previous controversies about different ages assigned to moraines obtained by different dating techniques, for example relative-age dating techniques or techniques combining relative-age dating with few fixed points derived from numerical age dating. There are a few cases, for example Mueller Glacier and nearby long debris-covered valley glacier in Aoraki/Mt.Cook National Park (Southern Alps, New Zealand), where the apparent "supremacy" of TCND-ages seem to overrule glacial geomorphological principles. Enabled by a comparatively high number of individual boulders precisely dated by TCND, moraine ridges on those glacier forelands have been primarily clustered on basis of these boulder ages rather than on their corresponding morphological position. To the extreme, segments of a particular moraine complex morphologically and sedimentologically proven to be formed during one event have become split and classified as two separate "moraines" on different parts of the glacier foreland. One ledge of another moraine complex contains 2 TCND-sampled boulders apparently representing two separate "moraines"-clusters of an age difference in the order of 1,500 years. Although recently criticism has been raised regarding the non-contested application of the arithmetic mean for calculation of TCND-ages for individual moraines, this

  13. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    The freshwater reservoir effect can result in too high radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers, including the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. In my talk, I will explain the causes and consequences of this effect. Two...... case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  14. Chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  15. Carbon-14 Bomb-Pulse Dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-16

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s doubled the concentration of carbon-14 atmosphere and created a pulse that labeled everything alive in the past 50 years as carbon moved up the food chain. The variation in carbon-14 concentration in time is well-documented and can be used to chronologically date all biological materials since the mid-1950s.

  16. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  17. The Conspicuous Opening Date of CHAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ "The Opening Date of Chad"-an event organized by the Chadian Embassy to China will be held In Beijing on the 28th and 29th of June.It will take up such forms as meeting for discussions and site touring ect.,with the purpose of facilitating the mutual undestanding between Chad and China as well as boosting the international exchanges between the two countries in the area of culture,economy and trade.

  18. ESR dating at Mezmaiskaya Cave, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, A.R. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States)]. E-mail: anne.r.skinner@williams.edu; Blackwell, B.A.B. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States); Martin, Sara [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, 01267 (United States); Ortega, A. [RFK Science Research Institute, Flushing, NY, 11366 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Flushing, NY, 11366 (United States); Golovanova, L.V. [Laboratory of Prehistory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Doronichev, V.B. [Laboratory of Prehistory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    Mezmaiskaya Cave has yielded more than 10,000 artifacts, thousands of very well preserved faunal remains, and hominin remains, found in seven Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) and three Upper Paleolithic levels. A complete Neanderthal infant skeleton was preserved in anatomical juxtaposition lying on a large limestone block, overlain by the earliest Mousterian layer, Layer 3. Twenty-four skull fragments from a 1-2 year-old Neanderthal infant, showing post-mortem deformation, occurred in a pit originating in the Mousterian Layer 2 and penetrating into underlying layers 2A and 2B(1). Bone from Layer 2A was dated by AMS {sup 14}C at 35.8-36.3{+-}0.5 kyr BP. Direct dating of Neanderthal bone from Layer 3 gave an age of 29 kyr, but that is now considered to be due to contamination by modern carbon. Fourteen large mammal teeth from Layers 2 through 3 have been dated by standard electron spin resonance (ESR). Low U concentrations in both the enamel and dentine ensure that ESR ages do not depend significantly on the U uptake model, but do depend strongly on the sedimentary dose rates. Assuming a sedimentary water concentration equal to 20 wt%, ESR ages for the Mousterian layers range from 36.2 to 73.0{+-}5.0 ka.

  19. 10Be dating of Neogene halite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmaker, Reuven; Lazar, Boaz; Beer, Jürg; Christl, Marcus; Tepelyakov, Natalya; Stein, Mordechai

    2013-12-01

    Direct radioactive dating of ancient halite formations is difficult because this mineral typically lacks conventionally datable material. We describe an attempt to date Neogene halite using the cosmogenic isotope 10Be (T1/2 = 1.39 Ma). We dated marine-derived salt deposits from the Sedom and Amora (The Hebrew forms of Sodom and Gomorrah) Formations, Dead Sea basin, Israel. To verify whether Be is incorporated into marine halite we measured the stable isotope 9Be, 7Be (the short lived “cosmogenic brother” of 10Be having T1/2 = 53.3 d), and 10Be in evaporation pans of sea-salt production plants. The data suggest that seawater beryllium is incorporated into the halite with a halite-brine distribution coefficient, (KD) of about unity. A 10Be/9Be decay curve constructed for Sedom Formation halite yielded an age that lies in the range of ∼2-6 Ma. The 10Be decay curve constructed for Sedom Formation halite yielded an age that lies in the range of 3-5 Ma. This age is consistent with previous estimates of the Sedom Formation age. Furthermore, this age lies in the same range of 10Be in situ ages obtained on the lacustrine Erq El Ahmer Formation located in the northern Jordan Valley. This may imply that during the Mid Pliocene the Sedom Lagoon, the water-body that deposited the Sedom Formation, might have been already disconnected from the open sea.

  20. Casual dating online: sexual norms and practices on French heterosexual dating sites

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Marie

    2011-01-01

    "Während über das Internet vermittelte gelegentliche Treffen zwischen homosexuellen Männern bereits ein etablierter Forschungsgegenstand in den Sozialwissenschaften sind, ist die Forschung zu heterosexuellem Online-Dating größtenteils auf die Suche nach romantischen Langzeitbeziehungen fokussiert. Der vorliegende Artikel will damit beginnen, diese Forschungslücke zu füllen, indem er den möglichen neuen sexuellen Bereich untersucht, der durch heterosexuelle Online-Dating-Plattformen entsteht. ...

  1. Date canning: a new approach for the long time preservation of date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayouni, Aziz; Azizi, Aslan; Keshtiban, Ata Khodavirdivand; Amini, Amir; Eslami, Ahad

    2015-04-01

    Dramatic growth in date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) production, makes it clear to apply proper methods to preserve this nutritious fruit for a long time. Numerous methods have been used to gain this goal in recent years that can be classified into non-thermal (fumigation, ozonation, irradiation, and packaging) and thermal (heat treatment, cold storage, dehydration, jam etc.) processing methods. In this paper these methods were reviewed and novel methods for date preservation were presented.

  2. A test case for anomalous fading correction in IRSL dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Bos, A.J.J.; Dorenbos, P.; Murray, A.S.; Schokker, J.

    2007-01-01

    Infrared-stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating of feldspars has the potential to date deposits beyond the age range of quartz optical (OSL) dating. Successful application of feldspar IRSL dating is, however, often precluded due to anomalous-fading, the tunnelling of electrons from one defect site to

  3. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of export. 35.8 Section 35.8 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.8 Date of export. Date of export means the date of loading on board...

  4. 31 CFR 343.2 - Issue date and purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issue date and purchase. 343.2... purchase. (a) Issue date. The issue date must be a business day. The bonds will be issued as of the date of... submitted by mail should be sent by certified or registered mail. (b) Purchase. Tax and loss bonds may...

  5. Dating Violence among High School Students in Southeastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo; Clements, Carrie; McCuiston, Ashley M.; Fox, Jane A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are a high-risk group for dating violence. Using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, this study examined the associations among dating violence (including physical dating violence [PDV] and sexual dating violence [SDV]) and selected health risk behaviors among 375 and 372 high school students, in 2005 and 2007, respectively, in…

  6. 26 CFR 1.771-1 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.771-1 Section 1.771-1 Internal... TAXES Effective Date for Subchapter K, Chapter 1 of the Code § 1.771-1 Effective date. (a) General rule.... Certain provisions of section 771 apply after specific dates in 1954, as follows: (1) Adoption of...

  7. 46 CFR 188.10-1 - Anniversary date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anniversary date. 188.10-1 Section 188.10-1 Shipping... PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-1 Anniversary date. The term anniversary date means the day and the month of each year, which corresponds to the date of expiration of the...

  8. 77 FR 71561 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... organic dyes and pigments, gum and wood chemicals, cyclic crudes and intermediates, and ethyl alcohol... recordkeeping requirements. Dated: November 20, 2012. Wendy C. Hamnett, Director, Office of Pollution...

  9. Asian American dating: important factors in partner choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, T A

    1999-05-01

    The majority of research on romantic relationships has tended to focus on marriage, with relatively less attention paid to dating. This study examined the relationship between Asian American dating, both interracial and intraracial, and a variety of factors thought to be associated with dating in this population, including acculturation, ethnic identity, attractiveness, interracial dating experience, ethnicity of friends, parental influence over dating, and density. Participants were administered measures of these variables and were asked questions regarding their likelihood of dating both Asian Americans and White Americans. An interesting pattern of results emerged when the variables were put into regression equations to predict both interracial and intraracial dating. Findings are presented and implications discussed.

  10. Chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven;

    2015-01-01

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple...... chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI...

  11. Antioxidant therapy effectiveness: an up to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, T; Palmieri, B

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidants are chemical compounds that giving an electron to free radical molecules convert them to an harmless configuration, avoiding damaging chain reaction, which can involve lipids, proteins enzymes carbohydrates, DNA, cell and nuclear membranes up to the cell death. Being either exogenous or endogenous they are addressed to prevent the oxidation induced damage, a process that causes damage in all tissues through free radicals chemical reactivity. A lot of natural, nutraceutical or chemical compounds are being actually marketed with a lot of different claims and are prescribed by doctors or sold over the counter. Unfortunately, in the medical literature many heterogeneous published articles support the use of this class of drugs, but most of them cannot be compared or pooled to achieve statistical significance of effectiveness. Our review aims at defining the state of the art of antioxidant therapy, with specific reference on the evidence based clinical use.

  12. The Rate of Cyber Dating Abuse among Teens and How It Relates to Other Forms of Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M.; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse--abuse via technology and new media--in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three…

  13. Dating Norms and Dating Violence among Ninth Graders in Northeast Georgia: Reports from Student Surveys and Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Patricia M.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study describes the norms supporting male-to-female and female-to-male dating violence in a diverse sample of ninth graders. The quantitative study, based on student surveys (n = 624), compared norms supporting dating violence by sex, race/ethnicity, and dating status, and it examined the relation between dating violence norms…

  14. Dating brittle tectonic movements with cleft monazite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Gnos, E.; Janots, E.;

    2013-01-01

    . Deformation events of the area have been subdivided into three steps: (D1) main thrusting including formation of a new schistosity; (D2) dextral transpression; and (D3) local crenulation including a new schistosity. The two younger deformational structures are related to a subvertically oriented intermediate...... phases. This allows the high precision isotope dating of cleft monazite. 232Th/208Pb ages are not affected by excess Pb and yield growth domain ages between 8.03 ± 0.22 Ma and 6.25 ± 0.60 Ma. Monazite crystallization in brittle structures is coeval or younger than 8 Ma zircon fission track data...

  15. Zechariah and the Dating of Biblical Hebrew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2006-01-01

    The data presented in the article indicate clearly that the ability to write proper EBH did not end with the exile; but when did it end? In the course of the fifth century, or the fourth century, or even later? This is difficult to resolve, on linguistic grounds. On linguistic grounds, can we say...... conclusions of most biblical scholars. Considering only linguistic data, texts in EBH could have been composed after the exile. Other, non-linguistic considerations can make this unlikely, but we can raise no objections from a linguistic viewpoint to such a dating....

  16. Drivers of hemispheric differences in return dates of mid-latitude stratospheric ozone to historical levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Garny

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry-climate models (CCMs project an earlier return of northern mid-latitude total column ozone to 1980 values compared to the southern mid-latitudes. The chemical and dynamical drivers of this hemispheric difference are investigated in this study. The hemispheric asymmetry in return dates is a robust result across different CCMs and is qualitatively independent of the method used to estimate return dates. However, the differences in dates of return to 1980 levels between the southern and northern mid-latitudes can vary between 0 and 30 yr across the range of CCM projections analyzed. An attribution analysis performed with two CCMs shows that chemically-induced changes in ozone are the major driver of the earlier return of ozone to 1980 levels in northern mid-latitudes; transport changes are of minor importance. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the spread in the simulated hemispheric difference in return dates across an ensemble of twelve models is only weakly related to the spread in the simulated hemispheric asymmetry of trends in the strength of the Brewer–Dobson circulation. The causes for chemically-induced asymmetric ozone trends relevant for the total column ozone return date differences are found to be (i stronger increases in ozone production due to enhanced NOx concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere lowermost stratosphere and troposphere, (ii stronger decreases in the destruction rates of ozone by the NOx cycle in the Northern Hemisphere lower stratosphere linked to effects of dynamics and temperature on NOx concentrations and (iii an increasing efficiency of heterogeneous ozone destruction by Cly in the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes as a result of decreasing temperatures.

  17. Quality determination of Mozafati dates using Mamdani fuzzy inference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Alavi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The date fruit, which is produced mostly in the hot arid regions of Southern Asia and North Africa, in large quantities, is marketed all over the world as an important crop. Date grading is an important process for producers and affects the fruit quality evaluation and export market. In this research Mamdani fuzzy inference system (MFIS was applied as a decision making technique to classify the Mozafati dates based on quality. Two date parameters including the length and freshness were measured for 500 date fruits. These dates were graded by both a human expert and MFIS. Grading results obtained from fuzzy system showed 91% general conformity with the experimental results.

  18. Dating mortars: three medieval Spanish architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues in building archaeology is finding the age of elements and structures discovered. Mortars represent a class of material basically constituted by a mixture of different phases (i.e. binder, aggregates, water and are widely used for constructive uses and artworks. Current scientific literature regarding the possibility of accurate radiocarbon dating for mortars reports different and still contradictory results. In this study, a new protocol for radiocarbon dating of mortar developed at the Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE is used to perform 14C measurements on archaeological mortars coming from three medieval architectures of northern Spain (two churches and the walls of a castle. Results observed will be discussed and compared with independent age estimations (i.e. radiocarbon dating performed on organic materials found in the same study site, archaeological analyses in order to frame experimental observations in the actual site knowledge by means of a multidisciplinary approach.Una de las principales problemáticas a las que se enfrenta la arqueología de la arquitectura es datar los elementos y las estructuras. Las argamasas son un tipo de material constituido por una mezcla de diferentes elementos (agregados, agua y empleadas en muchos tipos de construcciones. Los estudios realizados hasta la actualidad en torno a la posibilidad de realizar dataciones radiocarbónicas precisas han proporcionado resultados contradictorios. El objetivo de este artículo es el de presentar un nuevo protocolo para datar la arquitectura histórica desarrollado por el Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Enviromental Heritage (CIRCE, basado en la realización de dataciones radiocarbónicas de argamasas a partir del análisis de tres arquitecturas medievales del norte del España, dos iglesias y la muralla de un castillo. Los resultados obtenidos han sido confrontados y comparados con otros

  19. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, K

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'.

  20. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-03-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  1. Mercury in dated Greenland marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmund, G.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age...... of the sediment for the youngest 100 years. As a rule the mercury decreased with depth in the sediment with various degrees of significance. The increase of the mercury flux during the last 100 years is roughly a doubling. The increase may be of anthropogenic origin as it is restricted to the last 100 years....... In four cores the concentration of manganese was found also to increase in the top layers indicating diagenesis. In the other cases the higher concentrations were not accompanied by higher manganese concentrations. The mercury flux to the sediment surface was generally proportional to the Pb-210 flux...

  2. Seasonal dating of Sappho's 'Midnight Poem' revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuntz, Manfred; Gurdemir, Levent; George, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Sappho was a Greek lyric poet who composed a significant array of pristine poetry. Although much of it has been lost, her reputation has endured thanks to numerous surviving fragments. One of her contributions includes the so-called 'Midnight Poem', which contains a line about the Pleiades, setting sometime before midnight, and supposedly observed from the island of Lesbos. This poem also refers to the setting of the Moon. Sappho's Midnight Poem thus represents a prime example of where ancient poetry and astronomy merge, and it also offers the possibility of seasonal dating. Previously, Herschberg and Mebius (1990) estimated that the poem was composed in late winter/early spring, a time frame that is not unusual for lyrics of an amorous nature. The aim of our paper is to revisit this earlier finding by using modern-day software. Our study confirms Herschberg and Mebius' result, but also conveys further information.

  3. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. It is therefore also called hardwater effect. Although it has been known for more than 60 years, it is still less well-recognized by archaeologists than the marine reservoir effect. The aim of this study is to examine the order...... of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications...

  4. Chronology of Tropical Glaciation from Cosmogenic Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Farber, D. L.; Seltzer, G. O.; Finkel, R. C.; Rodbell, D. T.

    2002-12-01

    Moraines from multiple glaciations dating back more than a million years are preserved in deglaciated valleys bordering the Junin Plain in the Peruvian Andes. We have used cosmogenic dating (10Be) of boulders on moraines in Alcacocha Valley (S 11° 03', W 75° 58', elev. ~4100-4800 m) to identify deposits ranging in age from the last glaciation (~12-33 ka) to >1.5 Ma. This may be the longest and most detailed record of tropical glaciation yet produced. In Alcacocha Valley, lateral moraines of several older glaciations are considerably larger and extend farther downvalley than end moraines of the last glacial maximum. Preservation of the older moraines and of polished surfaces on some old boulders argues for extremely low boulder erosion rates. We estimate a maximum erosion rate of ~0.3 m/Myr, which approaches published rates for Antarctica and suggests that aridity is important in slowing boulder erosion. Our findings are consistent with results from other Andean locations, such as the Cordillera Real in Bolivia, where moraines of older glaciations are also more extensive than those of the last glacial maximum. Tectonics, climate, or a combination of both may have been responsible for the apparent decrease in glacial extent and ice volume in the Junin Plain during the Quaternary. A late Tertiary pulse of tectonism may have resulted in an increase in high-elevation topography in the Junin region, allowing growth of large ice masses. The subsequent trend in decreasing ice volume could have been caused by either a decrease in the area of high-elevation topography through glacial erosion or a decrease in the amplitude of climate variability. These hypotheses could be tested by analyzing the sediment record preserved in the Junin basin.

  5. Role of radiation dating technique - one example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Shigueo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Etchevarne, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas. Dept. Antropologia e Etnologia; Cano, Nilo F.; Munita, C.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The great majority of archaeological or geological dating technique is based on radiation effect. The so called radioactivity method uses radioactive decays of elements. This is the case of the well known radiocarbon or carbon-14 method. Also the method of relating daughter nucleus to decaying nucleus, as in K-40/Ar-40, Th- 230/U-234, etc. Here we will concentrate in the method based on energy deposition in a solid by radiation from the disintegration of U-series and Th-series. {beta}-rays emitted by the decay of K-40 into Ca-40 (80%) and Ar-40 (11%) also contributes. The role of {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} radiation emitted by radionuclides in the U-238 and Th-232 series and of {beta} rays from the decay of K-40, all of them in the soil irradiate anything in their course. For dating, we can have sediments as well as potteries produced by ancient people and became buried. The important process consists in transferring a fraction of the energy of radiation to the solid, mainly liberating electrons from valence band to conduction band and from there to traps. In many case the energy of the radiation is used to create defects which in turn create energy levels (traps) in the forbidden gap (or energy gap). There are three ways to recover the energy stored in the solid: (1) by emission of light optically stimulated (OSL), (2) by emission of light thermally stimulated (TL), (3) by microwave absorption (EPR or ESR). Using these techniques among several applications, we will present one to find the first settlers in the northeaster region of Brazil. (author)

  6. Chemical Mahjong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  7. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  8. 19 CFR 159.32 - Date of exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.32 Date of exportation. The date of exportation for currency conversion shall be fixed in accordance with § 152.1(c) of this chapter....

  9. 38 CFR 21.5831 - Commencing date of subsistence allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... case of a spouse, surviving spouse, or dependent child, the date that transfer of eligibility and... attendance. (Authority: 10 U.S.C. 2144(a)) (d) Reopened application after abandonment. Date of receipt in...

  10. 78 FR 20625 - Extension of Hearing Record Closure Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Extension of Hearing Record Closure Date AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Extension of hearing record closure date. SUMMARY: The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

  11. 77 FR 65871 - Extension of Hearing Record Closure Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Extension of Hearing Record Closure Date AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Extension of hearing record closure date. SUMMARY: The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety...

  12. 7 CFR 987.55 - Outlets for restricted dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Disposition of Other Than Free Dates § 987... than that of whole or pitted dates. To facilitate sales and promote orderly marketing of any variety...

  13. Effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean, an experiment was conducted at Experimental station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years 2004-2005. The experimental treatments comprised all combinations of four sowing dates (11 April, 25 April, 8 May and 22 May and three different fertilizers (cow manure (30 tons/ha, compost (30 tons/ha, chemical fertilizers (100 kg/ha N and 250 kg/ha of super phosphate and no fertilizer as control. Different characteristics such as plant height, main inflorescence height, number of inflorescence per plant, number of secondary stems per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant, 100 seed weight, grain yield, oil percentage and oil yield were recorded. A factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The results showed by delaying sowing date grain yield, seed oil percentage and oil yield were decreased, but there was no significant differences between 25 April, 8 May and 22 May sowing dates. Harvest index and 100 seed weight did not affect by neither sowing dates nor fertilizer treatments. The highest number of branches per plant, number of fertile inflorescences per plant, number of fertile capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant and biological yield were obtained at 8 May sowing date on chemical fertilizer. Percentage of seed oil, grain yield and oil yield was higher at the first sowing date (11 April in compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Keywords: Castor bean, sowing date, fertilizer, grain yield, oil percentage.

  14. Luminescence chronology of "Old Red Sand" in Jinjiang and its implications for optical dating of sediments in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JiaFu; YUAN BaoYin; ZHOU LiPing

    2008-01-01

    A weathered deposit in South China is widespread on the coastal areas of Fujian and Guangdong provinces, China. This deposit consists of slightly cemented, medium- to fine-grained sands, and is characterized by its colors of red, brown red, light reddish brown or dark yellowish orange, and is usually called "Old Red Sand". The uncertainty in its formation age has been a major obstacle to the study of this type of deposit. In this paper, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques were used to date the "Old Red Sand" sediments from Jinjiang, Fujian Province, China. The effect of the geochemical behavior of uranium and thorium in sediment during chemical weathering on estimation of annual dose was investigated. The results show that the change in annual dose due to weathering poses a major problem for the optical,dating of such weathered sediments. The optical dating of these weathered deposits will produce erroneous ages if average annual dose during burial cannot be correctly estimated. For the profiles studied, the OSL dates obtained on samples from the upper part do not represent the burial age of the samples. It is highly likely that they are underestimated due mainly to the accumulated radioactive elements as a result of chemical weathering. It is concluded that changes in annual dose due to chemical weathering must be considered when dating similar sediments in South China. With a detailed analysis of the OSL dating results, the chronology of the marine terraces in this area was suggested. The lowest terrace was formed at -3.5 ka and the second terrace was dated to -74 ka. The age of the highest terrace may not be established accurately, but is inferred to be older than the apparent OSL date of ~77 ka and so is the Paleolithic artifacts from it.

  15. The use of fly-ash particles for dating lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, N.L. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-08-01

    Fly-ash particles comprise two particle types, spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCP) and inorganic ash spheres (IAS). In lake sediments, these particles form an unambiguous record of atmospheric deposition of industrial pollutants. The main temporal trends of these sediment records have been found to be remarkably consistent over wide geographical areas and these features can be used to ascribe dates to cores undated by other means. SCP are the main particle type used in this way as they are easier to extract and enumerate. IAS are morphologically similar to some natural particles (volcanic, meteoritic) and therefore show a natural background concentration at all pre-industrial sediment depths. Apart from this background temporal trends are similar to SCP and IAS could be used for dating in the same way. Gaining an indication of fuel-type change, either from IAS:SCP ratio or chemical characterization of SCP enables additional dates to be added to sediment cores through comparison with documentary evidence. In the future, as {sup 210}Pb becomes progressively unable to date the post-industrial sediment record, dating using fly-ash techniques may become increasingly important. (orig.) 17 refs.

  16. 78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... These restrictions were imposed on July 9, 2002 (see Volume 67 FR Public Notice 4071). Dated: June 21... of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities AGENCY... lift nonproliferation measures on Chinese entities. DATES: Effective Date: Upon publication in...

  17. 5 CFR 880.206 - Date of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of death. 880.206 Section 880.206...) RETIREMENT AND INSURANCE BENEFITS DURING PERIODS OF UNEXPLAINED ABSENCE Procedures § 880.206 Date of death... OPM, the date of death of a missing annuitant who has been determined to be dead by an...

  18. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose...

  19. From Romance to Rocket Science: Speed Dating in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muurlink, Olav; Poyatos Matas, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    This article is the first comprehensive review of speed dating in the tertiary sector. While speed dating has its origins as a networking technique to connect singles, it has only more recently made its way into the academy. Since 2005 universities world-wide have begun to adopt speed dating protocols as a tool for building research culture. An…

  20. 76 FR 20249 - Update Station License Expiration Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ..., Arizona, Utah, New Mexico and Idaho: (i) Radio stations, October 1, 2013. (ii) Television stations... reflect the current license expiration dates for radio and television broadcast stations. The current... through 2015 for television stations; these expiration dates are long out of date. Modifying the rule...

  1. Acculturation and Dating Violence Victimization among Filipino and Samoan Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Do, Jane J.; Goebert, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence victimization is an important public health issue. Recent studies on minority youths have found higher risks of dating violence victimization compared to White youths. This study examined the influence of acculturation components on youths' experiences of dating violence by utilizing data from a survey of 193 Samoan and Filipino…

  2. 48 CFR 1201.301-71 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 1201.301... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-71 Effective date. Unless... therein is “effective upon receipt,” “upon a specified date,” or that changes set forth in the...

  3. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-2 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.410(a)-2 Section 1.410(a)-2...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.410(a)-2 Effective dates. (a) Plans not... plan is merged or consolidated shall also be considered to be in existence on such date. (d)...

  4. 26 CFR 1.679-7 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.679-7 Section 1.679-7...) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-7 Effective dates. (a) In general... an obligation issued on or before February 6, 1995, is modified after that date, and the...

  5. 41 CFR 60-1.47 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effective date. 60-1.47...-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Ancillary Matters § 60-1.47 Effective date. The regulations... said effective date, and for all negotiated contracts which have not been executed as of said...

  6. 26 CFR 1.475(g)-1 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.475(g)-1 Section 1.475(g)-1...) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.475(g)-1 Effective dates. (a)-(b) (c) Section 1.475(a)-3 (concerning... to apply to the security solely because of the effective dates in this paragraph (d) (rather...

  7. 26 CFR 1.411(a)-2 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.411(a)-2 Section 1.411(a)-2...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.411(a)-2 Effective dates. (a) Plan not... plan is merged or consolidated shall also be considered to be in existence on such date. (d)...

  8. 26 CFR 1.453-10 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.453-10 Section 1.453-10...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.453-10 Effective date. (a) Except... other dispositions of installment obligations occurring after such date....

  9. 46 CFR 151.01-30 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 151.01-30 Section 151.01-30 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES General § 151.01-30 Effective date. (a) The regulations in this... effective ninety (90) days after the date of publication in the Federal Register unless the Commandant...

  10. 26 CFR 1.403(b)-11 - Applicable dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable dates. 1.403(b)-11 Section 1.403(b... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.403(b)-11 Applicable dates. (a... of— (1) The date on which the last of the collective bargaining agreements terminates...

  11. 78 FR 1206 - Second Extension of Hearing Record Closure Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... SAFETY BOARD Second Extension of Hearing Record Closure Date AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Second extension of hearing record closure date. SUMMARY: The Defense Nuclear Facilities... closure date to January 2, 2013 (77 FR 65871). Extension of Time: The Board now extends the period of...

  12. 75 FR 10411 - Borrower Rights; Effective Interest Rates; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... 12 CFR Part 617 RIN 3052-AC45 Borrower Rights; Effective Interest Rates; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA or... efficient manner. In accordance with 12 U.S.C. 2252, the effective date of the final rule is 30 days...

  13. 78 FR 63379 - Registration of Mortgage Loan Originators; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... 12 CFR Part 610 RIN 3052-AC78 Registration of Mortgage Loan Originators; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA... interim rule, and we now adopt it as final. In accordance with the law, the effective date of the rule...

  14. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  15. Lead-Lead and Rubidium-Strontium In Situ Dating Using the Chemistry, Organics, and Dating EXperiment (CODEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F. S.; Whitaker, T. J.; Levine, J.; Beck, S.

    2016-10-01

    We describe new results for Pb-Pb dating, and progress on laser development, for the Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr measuring, organics detecting, and elemental abundance mapping Chemistry, Organics, and Dating EXperiment (CODEX) instrument.

  16. Palm Date Fibers: Analysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled to 55% of its initial volume in 12 h. The presence of skin and flesh colloidal fibers results in high viscosity and clogging problems during industrial processes. The settling velocity of the fibers was improved by enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis resulted in 84.3% conversion of the cellulosic part of the fibers as well as reducing the settling time to 10 minutes and the final settled volume to 4% of the initial volume. It implies easier separation of the fibers and facilitates fermentation processes in the corresponding industries. Two kinds of high- and low-lignin fibers were identified from the water-insoluble fibers. The high-lignin fibers (75% lignin settled easily, while the low-lignin fibers (41.4% lignin formed a slurry suspension which settled very slowly. The hydrophilicity of these low-lignin fibers is the major challenge of the industrial processes.

  17. Dating the cyanobacterial ancestor of the chloroplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, Luisa I; Magallón, Susana; Castillo, Amanda

    2010-06-01

    Cyanobacteria have had a pivotal role in the history of life on Earth being the first organisms to perform oxygenic photosynthesis, which changed the atmospheric chemistry and allowed the evolution of aerobic Eukarya. Chloroplasts are the cellular organelles of photoautotrophic eukaryotes in which most portions of photosynthesis occur. Although the initial suggestion that cyanobacteria are the ancestors of chloroplasts was greeted with skepticism, the idea is now widely accepted. Here we attempt to resolve and date the cyanobacterial ancestry of the chloroplast using phylogenetic analysis and molecular clocks. We found that chloroplasts form a monophyletic lineage, are most closely related to subsection-I, N(2)-fixing unicellular cyanobacteria (Order Chroococcales), and heterocyst-forming Order Nostocales cyanobacteria are their sister group. Nostocales and Chroococcales appeared during the Paleoproterozoic and chloroplasts appeared in the mid-Proterozoic. The capability of N(2) fixation in cyanobacteria may have appeared only once during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic eons. Furthermore, we found that oxygen-evolving cyanobacteria could have appeared in the Archaean. Our results suggest that a free-living cyanobacterium with the capacity to store starch through oxygenic CO(2) fixation, and to fix atmospheric N(2), would be a very important intracellular acquisition, which, as can be recounted today from several lines of evidence, would have become the chloroplast by endosymbiosis.

  18. Positives and negatives of online dating according to women 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweerd, Carla; Myers, Jaime; Coulter, Martha; Yalcin, Ali; Corvin, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    To understand the positives and negatives of online dating according to the lived experience of older women, telephone interviews were conducted with 45 women ages 50+ who date online. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically team coded. The opportunity to expand one's social network for both friendships and romantic partners, the ability to control dating risks and pace of relationship formation, and knowing more about one's partner were significant reported benefits of online dating. Dating online also includes unique risks, such as pervasive lying, attempted financial exploitation in the form of scammers, and unwanted electronic sexual aggression.

  19. Pharmacist perception and use of UpToDate®*

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Katie L.; Beckett, Robert D.; Sheehan, Amy Heck

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 1,199 pharmacists was conducted to describe pharmacists' use and perception of UpToDate®. Of 472 (39%) respondents, 217 (46%) reported using UpToDate. Most respondents who used or had heard of UpToDate indicated willingness to change a treatment plan based on UpToDate recommendations (77%). Many believed that UpToDate is updated weekly (31%) or monthly (49%) and that all articles undergo external peer review (51%). In conclusion, the majorit...

  20. Topology, divergence dates, and macroevolutionary inferences vary between different tip-dating approaches applied to fossil theropods (Dinosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapst, D W; Wright, A M; Matzke, N J; Lloyd, G T

    2016-07-01

    Dated phylogenies of fossil taxa allow palaeobiologists to estimate the timing of major divergences and placement of extinct lineages, and to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. Recently developed Bayesian 'tip-dating' methods simultaneously infer and date the branching relationships among fossil taxa, and infer putative ancestral relationships. Using a previously published dataset for extinct theropod dinosaurs, we contrast the dated relationships inferred by several tip-dating approaches and evaluate potential downstream effects on phylogenetic comparative methods. We also compare tip-dating analyses to maximum-parsimony trees time-scaled via alternative a posteriori approaches including via the probabilistic cal3 method. Among tip-dating analyses, we find opposing but strongly supported relationships, despite similarity in inferred ancestors. Overall, tip-dating methods infer divergence dates often millions (or tens of millions) of years older than the earliest stratigraphic appearance of that clade. Model-comparison analyses of the pattern of body-size evolution found that the support for evolutionary mode can vary across and between tree samples from cal3 and tip-dating approaches. These differences suggest that model and software choice in dating analyses can have a substantial impact on the dated phylogenies obtained and broader evolutionary inferences.

  1. Metabolic Analysis of Various Date Palm Fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars from Saudi Arabia to Assess Their Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Ismail; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Al Jaouni, Soad; Zinta, Gaurav; Asard, Han; Hassan, Sherif; Hegab, Momtaz; Hagagy, Nashwa; Selim, Samy

    2015-07-27

    Date palm is an important crop, especially in the hot-arid regions of the world. Date palm fruits have high nutritional and therapeutic value and possess significant antibacterial and antifungal properties. In this study, we performed bioactivity analyses and metabolic profiling of date fruits of 12 cultivars from Saudi Arabia to assess their nutritional value. Our results showed that the date extracts from different cultivars have different free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. Moreover, the cultivars showed significant differences in their chemical composition, e.g., the phenolic content (10.4-22.1 mg/100 g DW), amino acids (37-108 μmol·g-1 FW) and minerals (237-969 mg/100 g DW). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear separation of the cultivars into four different groups. The first group consisted of the Sokary, Nabtit Ali cultivars, the second group of Khlas Al Kharj, Khla Al Qassim, Mabroom, Khlas Al Ahsa, the third group of Khals Elshiokh, Nabot Saif, Khodry, and the fourth group consisted of Ajwa Al Madinah, Saffawy, Rashodia, cultivars. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed clustering of date cultivars into two groups. The first cluster consisted of the Sokary, Rashodia and Nabtit Ali cultivars, and the second cluster contained all the other tested cultivars. These results indicate that date fruits have high nutritive value, and different cultivars have different chemical composition.

  2. Women's Homosocial Constructions of Heterosexual Desire in Online Dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2015-01-01

    Using the notion of homosocial desire (Sedgwick 1985), this article explores how homosociality ties into heterosexual desire in an online dating context. During the past two decades, the number of users has increased rapidly and online dating today forms a key context for negotiating romantic rel...... and partly through the dating site's visual design. The article concludes by arguing for the incorporation of attention to homosocial aspects in research into heterosexual desire.......Using the notion of homosocial desire (Sedgwick 1985), this article explores how homosociality ties into heterosexual desire in an online dating context. During the past two decades, the number of users has increased rapidly and online dating today forms a key context for negotiating romantic...... relations. Thus, online dating practices are rich fields for investigating the workings of desire. Based on audiovisual recordings of two Danish female friends engaging in online dating activities, this article demonstrates how participants, through joint stance-taking, co-construct shared desire and adjust...

  3. TL Dating of Loess in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宝林; 卢良才

    1991-01-01

    TL ages of 56 loess samples collected from Xinjiang and the middle reaches of the Yellow River were determined by using fine-grained quartz and man-made light source bleaching techniques.The results indicate that :1.The well-preserved loess sections in Xinjiang began depositing 400000 a ago.The loess/paleosol series may be comparable with that observed in the middle reaches of the Yellow River but the depositing time was probably delayed by 30000-50000a.2.The bottom boundary age of the Malan loess varies from one place to another.The TL dates can be divided into two group:70000-130000 a and 30000-50000 a.The TL data are con-sistent with the appearance of two warmer climate periods since the Pleistocene,indicating obvious regional differences in stratigraphic development of loess,i.e.,paleosol occurred in the warm climate period in the same location,but loess was deposited in other locations.The initial age of loess deposition tends to become older from west to east and from south to north .In contrast ,the cold cli-matic belt showed an opposite trend.The TL ages of loess provide strong evidence for the Quaternary stratigraphy throughout geological times and the shift tendency of climatic belt.3.The depositing rate of the Malan loess along the middle reaches of the Yellow River varies from place to place but the TL age shows a linear relationship with the depositing thickness.The de-positing rate of loess in the north is higher than that in the south,suggesting that loess materials are derived from desert areas of northern China.

  4. Fluid-driven destabilization of REE-bearing accessory minerals in the granitic orthogneisses of North Veporic basement (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrejka, M.; Putiš, M.; Uher, P.; Schmiedt, I.; Pukančík, L.; Konečný, P.

    2016-10-01

    A variety of rare earth elements-bearing (REE) accessory mineral breakdowns were identified in granitic orthogneisses from the pre-Alpine basement in the Veporic Unit, Central Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The Ordovician granitic rocks were subjected to Variscan metamorphic-anatectic overprint in amphibolite facies. Chemical U-Th-Pb dating of monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) reveal their primary magmatic Lower to Middle Ordovician age (monazite: 472 ± 4 to 468 ± 6 Ma and xenotime: 471 ± 13 Ma) and/or metamorphic-anatectic Variscan (Carboniferous, Visean) age (monazite: 345 ± 3 Ma). Younger fluid-rock interactions caused breakdown of primary magmatic and/or metamorphic-anatectic monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), fluorapatite and allanite-(Ce). Fluid-induced breakdown of xenotime-(Y) produced numerous tiny uraninite inclusions within the altered xenotime-(Y) domains. The monazite-(Ce) breakdown produced secondary egg-shaped coronal structures of different stages with well-developed concentric mineral zones. Secondary sulphatian monazite-(Ce) (up to 0.15 apfu S) occasionally formed along fluorapatite fissures. Localized fluorapatite and monazite-(Ce) recrystallization resulted in a very fine-grained, non-stoichiometric mixture of REE-Y-Fe-Th-Ca-P-Si phases. Finally, allanite-(Ce) decomposed to secondary REE carbonate minerals (members of the bastnäsite and synchysite groups) and calcite in some places. Although the xenotime alteration and formation of uraninite inclusions is believed to be the result of dissolution-reprecipitation between early magmatic xenotime and late-magmatic granitic fluids, the monazite, apatite and allanite breakdowns were driven by metamorphic hydrothermal fluids. While earlier impact of post-magmatic fluids originated probably from Permian acidic volcanic and microgranitic veins crosscutting the orthogneisses, another fluid-rock interaction event most likely occurred during Late Cretaceous metamorphism in the Veporic basement and covering

  5. The physical and chemical evolution of protostellar disks. The growth of protostellar disks: Progress to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Steven W.

    1993-01-01

    This study constitutes one part of our multi-disciplinary approach to the evolution of planet-forming disks. The goal is to establish the disks' thermal and mechanical properties as they grow by the infall of their parent interstellar clouds. Thus far, significant advances toward establishing the evolving surface density of such disks was made.

  6. Genetic Algorithm for Scheduling Problem of Chemical Batch Process with Due Date Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The intense competition in the current marketplace ha s forced firms to reexamine their methods of doing business, using superior manu facturing practices in the form of just-in-time (JIT), production with JIT pra ctices pursue completion on time and zero inventory, which is often instruct ed according to the custom's demand or the sale contract. Earliness and tardine ss are undesirable because both of them will bring the extra cost, cost will als o be increased by some factors such as operation conditio...

  7. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  8. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  9. Radium isotopes in groundwater around Fuji Volcano, Japan -application for groundwater dating on volcanic area-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Young groundwater dating less than 100 years is possible to be obtained from environmental radioactivity with short half life, 3H+3He, 85Kr, or chemical material, CFC-12. The 3H+3He dating method is excellent method to estimate the residence time of shallow groundwater. The one of advantage of the method is small sample volume. The 3He in groundwater is originated by 3 sources, tritiogenic He, mantle He, radiogenic He produced in rock. Especially, as the contribution of the mantle He is greater than the radiogenic and triogenic, when 3H+3He dating apply for groundwater dating on volcanic area, we have to determine ratio of 3 sources. On the other hand, as 85Kr is only originated from atmosphere, it is excellent groundwater dating tracer on volcanic area. However, as 85Kr is ultra low concentration in groundwater, 85Kr is needed to separate from large amount of ground water about 10^5 L. Young groundwater dating by these methods has both advantages and disadvantages, but the disadvantages of the individual methods can be offset by using multiple tracers. Development of a lot of groundwater dating techniques is desired. Therefore, an application of radium isotopes which is simple origin to groundwater dating on volcanic area was tried. Ra-228 and Ra-226 are progenies of Th and U, respectively. The 228Ra/226Ra in ground waters depends on the Th/U in the relevant rocks. As the 228Ra and 226Ra in shallow groundwater on volcanic area are originated from only rock, and the collection of radium isotopes from groundwater is easier than that of 85Kr, implying that it is possible to be good tracer for volcanic area. We aim that groundwater age obtain from 228Ra/226Ra in groundwater and relevant rock on volcanic area. We determined that 228Ra/226Ra observed with river waters and the relevant rocks. The method applied for Kakitagawa around Fuji Volcano, Japan. The relevant rock of Kakitagawa is Mishima lava flow. Our method compared with 3H+3He dating. The residence time of

  10. Strategy of valid 14C dates choice in syngenetic permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Vasil'chuk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of radiocarbon dating within permafrost is the uncertain reliability of the 14C dates. Syngenetic sediments contain allochthonous organic deposit that originated at a distance from its present position. Due to the very good preservation of organic materials in permafrost conditions and numerous re-burials of the fossils from ancient deposits into younger ones the dates could be both younger and older than the true age of dated material. The strategy for the most authentic radiocarbon date selection for dating of syncryogenic sediments is considered taking into account the fluvial origin of the syngenetic sediments. The re-deposition of organic material is discussed in terms of cyclic syncryogenic sedimentation and also the possible re-deposition of organic material in subaerial-subaqueous conditions. The advantages and the complications of dating organic micro-inclusions from ice wedges by the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS method are discussed applying to true age of dated material search. Radiocarbon dates of different organic materials from the same samples are compared. The younger age of the yedoma from cross-sections of Duvanny Yar in Kolyma River and Mamontova Khayata in the mouth of Lena River is substantiated due to the principle of the choice of the youngest 14C date from the set.

  11. Advances in chemical physics advances in liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Prigogine, Ilya; Vij, Jagdish K

    2009-01-01

    Prigogine and Rice's highly acclaimed series, Advances in Chemical Physics, provides a forum for critical, authoritative reviews of current topics in every area of chemical physics. Edited by J.K. Vij, this volume focuses on recent advances in liquid crystals with significant, up-to-date chapters authored by internationally recognized researchers in the field.

  12. Fully biodegradable coronary stents : progress to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramcharitar, Steve; Serruys, Patrick W

    2008-01-01

    The limitations of currently available metallic drug-eluting stents have renewed interest in biodegradable stents (BDS). Apart from removing the (offending) foreign material that may potentiate a thrombotic event, BDS have the advantage of avoiding 'full metal jackets,' and thus can preclude subsequent coronary surgery. In addition, they do not interfere with the diagnostic evaluation of non-invasive imaging such as cardiac magnetic resonance and CT. There are now several BDS in development or in clinical trials that incorporate a variety of biodegradable polymer technologies. Two broad categories of materials are generally used: those made from organic biopolymers and those made from corrodible metals. However, to date, none of the materials/stents tested have been able to establish a perfect balance between biocompatibility, the kinetics of degradation needed to maintain mechanical strength to limit recoil, and inflammation. However, studies, such as the ABSORB trial with the everolimus eluting poly-L-lactide stent, which demonstrated comparable restenotic rates with bare metallic stents and a low incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 12 months of 3.3%, with only one patient having a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction and no target lesion revascularization, suggest that there has been significant progress with respect to the earlier prototypes. The acute recoil observed could potentially be addressed with the polytyrosine REVA stent currently being evaluated in the RESORB trial, which incorporates a novel locking mechanism within its design. Alternative BDS designs include the combination of an antiproliferative drug with endothelial progenitor cell capturing antibodies to facilitate epithelialization and/or dual eluting having, in addition to the antiproliferative drug, polymeric salicyclic acid to limit inflammation. Compared with biodegradable polymers, there are fewer metals used in the manufacture of BDS. The only metal BDS in trials is the

  13. Dating violence among college students: the risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The research review synthesizes the knowledge base on risk and protective factors for dating violence while highlighting its relevance to violence against college women. In particular, the review highlights the personal, family, relationship, and behavioral factors that heighten the risk of dating violence victimization and perpetration while also noting the methodological limitations of the current body of empirical research and identifying directions for future academic work. Researchers have identified the correlation between risky health and behavioral factors and dating violence, most often modeling these as part of the etiology of dating violence among college students. Less often have scholars explored these as co-occurring risk factors. This approach to dating violence may be used to develop meaningful and impactful interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of college dating violence while also addressing the other health risk behaviors that impact academic success and place students' well-being at risk.

  14. Endemic insular and coastal Tunisian date palm genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehdi-Azouzi, Salwa; Cherif, Emira; Guenni, Karim; Abdelkrim, Ahmed Ben; Bermil, Aymen; Rhouma, Soumaya; Salah, Mohamed Ben; Santoni, Sylvain; Pintaud, Jean Christophe; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique; Hannachi, Amel Salhi

    2016-04-01

    The breeding of crop species relies on the valorisation of ancestral or wild varieties to enrich the cultivated germplasm. The Tunisian date palm genetic patrimony is being threatened by diversity loss and global climate change. We have conducted a genetic study to evaluate the potential of spontaneous coastal resources to improve the currently exploited Tunisian date palm genetic pool. Eighteen microsatellite loci of Phoenix dactylifera L. were used to compare the genetic diversity of coastal accessions from Kerkennah, Djerba, Gabès and continental date palm accessions from Tozeur. A collection of 105 date palms from the four regions was analysed. This study has provided us with an extensive understanding of the local genetic diversity and its distribution. The coastal date palm genotypes exhibit a high and specific genetic diversity. These genotypes are certainly an untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes to improve cultivated germplasm in continental date palm.

  15. There's a fine line...adolescent dating violence and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W

    2009-01-01

    Domestic violence is a paramount issue in society today. One component of this is the violence associated with dating and interpersonal relationships in the teen years. Current research demonstrates that a significant percentage of teens have experienced some degree of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse from a dating partner. Pediatric nurses may interface with teens before, during, and after violent episodes. It is important for nurses to know the definitions of dating violence and rape, data about the incidence and prevalence of this issue, risk factors for violence in intimate relationships, dating violence myths, and the potential impact of youth dating violence. Youth perceptions and current research must be analyzed to frame current and potential interventions to reduce teen dating violence. Pediatric nurses have an integral role in counseling teens, ensuring youth safety, and preventing violence in the adolescent years.

  16. Pharmacist perception and use of UpToDate®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Katie L; Beckett, Robert D; Sheehan, Amy Heck

    2014-10-01

    A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 1,199 pharmacists was conducted to describe pharmacists' use and perception of UpToDate®. Of 472 (39%) respondents, 217 (46%) reported using UpToDate. Most respondents who used or had heard of UpToDate indicated willingness to change a treatment plan based on UpToDate recommendations (77%). Many believed that UpToDate is updated weekly (31%) or monthly (49%) and that all articles undergo external peer review (51%). In conclusion, the majority of respondents reported that they would adjust drug therapy based on UpToDate recommendations; however, many pharmacists may hold misconceptions regarding the updating and peer-review processes.

  17. Dating low-temperature alteration of the upper oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, L. A.; Hinton, R. W.; Gillis, K. M.; Dosso, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Off-axis hydrothermal systems lead to extensive chemical exchange between the oceans and upper oceanic crust but it is unclear when this exchange occurs. We address this using a new dating approach and via the re-evaluation of existing data that contain age information. We have developed a method to directly date adularia, a common alkali-rich phase in old oceanic crust, using the 40K to 40Ca radiogenic decay system. In situ analysis, using the Cameca 1270 ion microprobe at the University of Edinburgh, allows small, replacive, secondary mineral grains to be analyzed. In comparison to previous radiogenic dating of low-temperature secondary minerals, using Rb-Sr and K-Ar approaches on mineral separates, this approach has the advantages that: (i) analysis is not limited to large, void filling, grains; (ii) the initial isotopic ratio is well constrained; (iii) contamination and phase heterogeneity are minimized; and (iv) the daughter isotope is relatively immobile. However, the requirement to analyse doubly charged ions, to reduce molecular interferences and suppress the presence of 40K on 40Ca, leads to low count rates [1]; e.g. single spot ages have uncertainties of 10's of millions of years. Combining all analyses for a given sample gives best fitting instantaneous precipitation "ages" of 102 and 70 Myr for DSDP Holes 417A and 543A (versus crustal ages of 120 and 80 Myr). The scatter in the data are consistent with adularia precipitation over >30 Myr. The timing of carbonate precipitation in the upper oceanic crust can be constrained from comparison of their 87Sr/86Sr to the seawater Sr-isotope curve if the proportion of basaltic Sr in the fluid can be constrained. Modeling such data from 12 drill cores shows that they are best fit by a model in which >90% of carbonate precipitation occurs over ≤20 Myr after crustal formation [2]. Evaluation of published Rb-Sr "isochron" data [3,4] shows that these data can be explained in different ways. The "isochron

  18. Determination of heavy metals in the fruit of date palm growing at different locations of Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldjain, Ibrahim M; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Al-Showiman, Salim S; Siddiqui, Manzer H

    2011-04-01

    Exposure of heavy metals to human beings has risen dramatically in the last 50 years. In today's urban and industrial society, there is no escaping from exposure to toxic chemicals and heavy metals. Humans are more likely to be exposed to heavy metal contamination from the dust that adheres to edible plants than from bioaccumulation. This is because it is very difficult to wash off all the dust particles from the plant material before ingesting them. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in washing residues and in the tissues of fruits of date palm growing in 14 sites of Riyadh and also to assess whether the fruits were safe for human consumption. The washing residues and tissue of date palm fruits collected from different sites showed the presence of significant amounts of the Pb and Cd. The concentration of Pb in the dust and fruit tissue increased with increasing anthropogenic sources. Therefore, fruits of date palm might be used as a pollution indicator; it might be recommend that fruits of date palm could be safe for human consumption after washing. The mean concentration of Pb and Cd in all the samples collected from different sites is within the safe limits recommended by FAO/WHO.

  19. The competitive advantage of the Tunisian palm date sector in the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Amor, R.; Aguayo, E.; Miguel-Gómez, M. D. de

    2015-07-01

    In Tunisia, date-palm cultivation and production are of clear strategic importance in terms of economic, social and environmental development. However, the globalization of markets has had a huge impact on the traditional concept of the comparative advantage enjoyed by Tunisia in date exports, highlighting the necessary determinants for competitiveness in the international scenario. In fact, an analysis of the competitive advantage of the Tunisian date industry in the Mediterranean area and Iran over the last 20 years shows that Tunisia is still the main supplier of dates to the EU. The Deglet-Nour variety, in particular, puts Tunisia ahead of traditional competitors such as Algeria and Iran, with average of competitiveness indices as BIS 6405.99, DI 17.38, CMS 41.04 and TBI 99.50 are more stable than those countries during the studied period. But it is currently facing new competitors like Israel and re-exporting countries like France. New business strategies (conditioning, new non-chemical treatments, packing, opening new markets, new distribution channels) would be positive responses to tackle current market limitations, the emergence of new producers and restrictive EU policies. (Author)

  20. The competitive advantage of the Tunisian palm date sector in the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Ben-Amor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, date-palm cultivation and production are of clear strategic importance in terms of economic, social and environmental development. However, the globalization of markets has had a huge impact on the traditional concept of the comparative advantage enjoyed by Tunisia in date exports, highlighting the necessary determinants for competitiveness in the international scenario. In fact, an analysis of the competitive advantage of the Tunisian date industry in the Mediterranean area and Iran over the last 20 years shows that Tunisia is still the main supplier of dates to the EU. The Deglet-Nour variety, in particular, puts Tunisia ahead of traditional competitors such as Algeria and Iran, with average of competitiveness indices as BIS 6405.99, DI 17.38, CMS 41.04 and TBI 99.50 are more stable than those countries during the studied period. But it is currently facing new competitors like Israel and re-exporting countries like France. New business strategies (conditioning, new non-chemical treatments, packing, opening new markets, new distribution channels would be positive responses to tackle current market limitations, the emergence of new producers and restrictive EU policies.

  1. TUNISIAN DATE PALM RACHIS USED AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF FIBRES FOR PAPERMAKING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Khiari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year, significant amounts of date palm rachises are accumulated in Tunisia. The rational valorisation of this renewable resource is therefore imperative, in order to fulfil the sustainability approach. In this context, this work aims to study the potential use of date palm rachises as a raw material for papermaking and to compare it with other sources of lignocellulosic fibres, such as wood, non-wood species, and agricultural wastes. For this purpose, soda-anthraquinone pulping of date palm rachis was performed giving rise to a yield of 45% (w/w. This value is similar to that obtained by pulping non-wood materials and is higher than that corresponding to the pulping of agricultural residues. The resulting pulps were subsequently refined using a PFI mill refiner at 0, 500, 1500, and 3000 revolutions, screened through a 0.15 mm mesh size sieve and used to produce conventional handsheets. Both pulps and papers were fully characterized in terms of morphological, chemical and physical properties, according to commonly used standards. The physical properties of the prepared handsheets were very similar to those displayed by other papers made of common lignocellulosic fibres. Furthermore, the pulps exhibited a good drainability together with excellent mechanical properties of the ensuing papers. For these reasons, date palm rachises could be considered as a potential source of fibres for papermaking applications.

  2. Socio-economic characterisation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) growers and date value chains in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Ghayoor; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Buerkert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Increasing food production to feed its rapidly growing population is a major policy goal of Pakistan. The production of traditional staples such as rice (Oryza sativa L.) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been intensified in many regions, but not in remote, drought-ridden areas. In these arid, marginal environments dates and their by-products are an option to complement staples given their high nutritive value and storability. To fill knowledge gaps about the role of date palm in the household (HH) income of rural communities and the structure of date value chains, this project studied date palm production across six districts in four provinces of Pakistan. During 2012-2013 a total of 170 HHs were interviewed with a structured questionnaire using a snowball sampling approach. The results showed that most of the HH were headed by males (99 %) who were married (74 %) and often illiterate (40 %). Agriculture was the main occupation of date palm growers (56 %), while a few coupled agricultural activities with business (17 %) or extra-farm employment opportunities (government 9 %; private sector 8 %). Date sales contributed >50 % to the total income of 39 % of HH and 90-100 % to 24 % of HH. Overall farmers grew a total of 39 date palm cultivars and cultivated an average of 409 ± 559 mature date palms. The majority of the respondents sold dates to commission agents (35 %), contractors (22 %) and wholesalers (21 %), while 28 % of HH cultivated date palms only for self-consumption. Date palm growers had only limited knowledge about high quality date cultivars, optimized farm management and about effective post-harvest conservation. Changes in extension and marketing efforts are needed to allow farmers to better exploit value chains in date thereby reaping higher benefits from improved market access to secure their often marginal income.

  3. Radiocarbon dating of glacier ice: overview, optimisation, validation and potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Uglietti

    2016-12-01

    of 10 000 years. WIOC 14C dating was not only crucial for interpretation of the embedded environmental and climatic histories, but additionally gave a better insight into glacier flow dynamics close to the bedrock and past glacier coverage. For this the availability of multiple dating points in the deepest parts was essential, which is the strength of the presented WIOC 14C dating method, allowing determination of absolute ages from principally every piece of ice.

  4. 26 CFR 1.408A-9 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.408A-9 Section 1.408A-9...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-9 Effective date. This section contains the following question and answer providing the effective date of §§ 1.408A-1 through 1.408A-8:...

  5. 26 CFR 1.663(c)-6 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.663(c)-6 Section 1.663(c)-6... Effective dates. Sections 1.663(c)-1 through 1.663(c)-5 are applicable for estates and qualified revocable... date that section 1307 of the Tax Reform Act of 1997 became effective but before December 28, 1999,...

  6. Chemical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    As a preliminary study on the effects of chemical aging of polymer materials MERL and TRI have examined two polymeric materials that are typically used for offshore umbilical applications. These two materials were Tefzel, a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene, and Coflon, polyvinylidene fluoride. The Coflon specimens were cut from pipe sections and exposed to H2S at various temperatures and pressures. One of these specimens was tested for methane permeation, and another for H2S permeation. The Tefzel specimens were cut from .05 mm sheet stock material and were exposed to methanol at elevated temperature and pressure. One of these specimens was exposed to methanol permeation for 2 days at 100 C and 2500 psi. An additional specimen was exposed to liquid methanol for 3 days at 150 C and 15 Bar. Virgin specimens of each material were similarly prepared and tested.

  7. Date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): an emerging medicinal food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayalil, Praveen K

    2012-01-01

    Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits are inadequate and hardly recognized as a healthy food by the health professionals and the public. In recent years, an explosion of interest in the numerous health benefits of dates had led to many in vitro and animal studies as well as the identification and quantification of various classes of phytochemicals. On the basis of available documentation in the literature on the nutritional and phytochemical composition, it is apparent that the date fruits are highly nutritious and may have several potential health benefits. Although dates are sugar-packed, many date varieties are low GI diet and refutes the dogma that dates are similar to candies and regular consumption would develop chronic diseases. More investigations in these areas would validate its beneficial effects, mechanisms of actions, and fully appreciate as a potential medicinal food for humans all around the world. Therefore, in this review we summarize the phytochemical composition, nutritional significance, and potential health benefits of date fruit consumption and discuss its great potential as a medicinal food for a number of diseases inflicting human beings.

  8. Effects of light exposure on the TL dating of pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Bleaching experiments on Chinese pottery fine grains were conducted under sunlight and laboratory light conditions. It is found that the thermoluminescence (TL) at high temperatures can be bleached significantly, but no effects were observed on TL signals used for the pre-dose dating technique. It is concluded that the pre-dose dating technique can be applied to samples even after light exposures. Pottery samples of Tang Dynasty and New Stone Age were studied. Modifications to routine pre-dose dating technique are proposed with adding preheat procedures and using saturation exponential fitting for the sensitivity change data. The modified technique can extend the dating range to New Stone Age.

  9. Dating of polyhalite and langbeinite: preliminary results from German Zechstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Franz; Schorn, Anja; Leitner, Christoph; Genser, Johann

    2013-04-01

    Evaporite mélanges often form decollément surfaces of major extensional and contractional allochthons because of the very low shear resistance of halite. Due to the deposition of evaporites during an early stage of passive continental margin formation, evaporites are commonly overlain by thick successions of carbonates and/or siliciclastic rocks deposited during the main thermal subsidence stage of the passive margin formation. The most common cases of evaporite mélanges are such (1) at passive continental margins, where they are deformed during gravity-driven extension, commonly raft tectonics, in an extensional geodynamic setting, (2) in external foreland fold-thrust belts within a convergent geodynamic setting, and (3) in salt diapirs. In all these cases, halite is strongly deformed by late-stage deformation and only sulphate lenses composed of anhydrite and gypsum preserve early deformational stages. Dating of K-sulphates may allow the recognition of early stages of deformation although this method is poorly applied (Renne et al., 2001). Knowledge of the limitations of K-sulphate chronometers of langbeinite and polyhalite may allow, therefore, dating of full history of evaporite mélanges (for polyhalite, see Leitner et al., 2012). Polyhalite has the chemical formula [K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4?2 H2O] and commonly occurs in sedimentary evaporite successions. The mineral can be synthesised under laboratory conditions by a reaction of gypsum with appropriate solutions in the ternary system K2SO4-MgSO4-H2O at temperatures above 70 ° C (Freyer and Voigt, 2003). At lower temperatures, polyhalite crystallisation slows down (Wollmann, 2010). In nature, polyhalite, which is stable between ~ room temperature (0-25 ° C) and 255-343 ° C (Wollmann et al., 2008) or 285 ° C (Fischer et al., 1996), most commonly forms early-diagenetically or secondarily (Warren, 2006 and Leitner et al., 2012 and references therein). The secondary mineral langbeinite [K2Mg2(SO4)3],whose lower

  10. NUTRITIONAL PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME VARIETIES OF DATES AND PALM DOWNGRADED AS RUMINANT FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SELMI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Saharan regions, the date palm which forms the backbone of agriculture, offers a wide range of agricultural by-products, traditionally used for domestic purposes. The determination of chemical composition and nutritional value of these byproducts for rational use in feeding livestock is needed. The analysis showed that the byproducts of palm have total nitrogen content (CP, lipid (FAT and (CB, NDF, ADF and ADL also with a higher nutritional value close to that of straw and hay. The scrap value of dates offers a relatively high energy (0.87 UFL / kg DM which is comparable to the concentrate feed but with relatively low levels of nitrogen or the need for supplementation or nitrogen treatment.

  11. Adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate on granular activated carbon from date pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzougui, Z.; Nedjah, S.; Azoudj, Y.; Addoun, F. [Laboratoire d' etude physic-chimique des materiaux et application a l' environnement, Faculte de Chimie, USTHB (Algeria)], E-mail: zmerzougi@yahoo.fr

    2011-07-01

    Activated carbons, thanks to their versatility, are being used in the water treatment sector to absorb pollutants. Several factors influence the adsorption capacity of activated carbon and the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the porous texture and chemical nature of activated carbons on the adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate. Activated carbons used in this study were prepared from date pits with ZnCl2, KOH and H3PO4 by carbonization without adjuvant and adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate was conducted at 298K. Results showed that activated carbons prepared from date pits have a great potential for removing organic and inorganic pollutants from water and that the adsorption potential depends on the degree of activation of the activated carbons and on the compounds to absorb. This study highlighted that an increase of the carbon surface area and porosity results in a better adsorption capacity.

  12. Photoacoustic Chemical Sensing: Ultracompact Sources and Standoff Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Photoacoustic Chemical Sensing: Ultracompact Sources and Standoff Detection by Logan S Marcus, Ellen L Holthoff, John F Schill, and Paul M...it to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 ARL-RP-0499 August 2014 Photoacoustic Chemical Sensing...REPORT TYPE Reprint 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4/2014–08/2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photoacoustic Chemical Sensing: Ultracompact Sources and

  13. Drinking and Dating: Examining the Link between Relationship Satisfaction, Hazardous Drinking, and Readiness-to-Change in College Dating Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Khaddouma, Alexander; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, JoAnna; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of relationship satisfaction on readiness-to-change alcohol use and the influence of hazardous drinking on readiness-to-change relationship issues in college student dating relationships. A sample of 219 college students in a current dating relationship (aged 18–25) completed self-report measures of dating relationship satisfaction, alcohol use, readiness-to-change alcohol use, and readiness-to-change relationship issues via an online survey from Augus...

  14. Effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-07-01

    The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation.

  15. Social Information Processing in Dating Conflicts: Reciprocal Relationships With Dating Aggression in a One-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; López de Arroyabe, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reciprocal associations among social information processing (SIP) in dating conflicts and the perpetration of dating aggression. A first step involved the development of a measure (The Social Information Processing Questionnaire in Dating Conflicts, SIPQ-DC) to assess social information in scenarios of conflict with dating partners. A sample of 1,272 adolescents (653 girls, 619 boys; Mage = 14.74 years, SD = 1.21) completed measures of SIP and dating aggression perpetration in two different times, which were spaced 1 year apart. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a model with five correlated factors for the SIPQ-DC, namely, hostile attribution, anger, aggressive response access, anticipation of positive consequences for oneself, and anticipation of negative consequences for partners. Although the perpetration of dating aggression at T1 was cross-sectionally associated with all the SIP components, anger was the only component that predicted the residual increase in dating aggression behavior over time. The perpetration of dating aggression predicted a worsening of cognitive-emotional processes involved in dating conflicts. Some longitudinal paths were significant only in male adolescents. In conclusion, relationships among SIP and aggression are reciprocal. Gender differences in longitudinal paths can contribute to explaining men's higher perpetration of violence in adulthood.

  16. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  17. Cognitive strategies employed in trying to arrange a first date

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, A.E.; Jacob, M.N; Landman-Peeters, K; Lanting, A

    2001-01-01

    This article deals with how adolescents go about making a date. It uses a funnelling approach to elicit information which is then studied in more detail in a series of further steps. Study I used a short survey to obtain data concerning subjects' (n = 410) experience of dating. Thereafter, 47 of the

  18. DATING OF LATE PLEISTOCENE TREE-RING SERIES FROM JAPAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plicht, J.; Imamura, M.; Sakamoto, M.; Boaretto, E.; Rebollo Franco, N.R.

    2012-01-01

    We have radiocarbon dated series of tree rings from 2 fossil trees (named ND-113 and the Fuji tree) buried in fossil volcanic avalanche deposits in Japan. They are dendrochronologically floating, dating beyond the tree-ring part of the C-14 calibration curve. The trees show about 350 and 400 annual

  19. Interracial Dating and Marriage Preferences Among Blacks, Chicanos and Anglos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Emory G.; Qualls, Phyllis E.

    The study determined: (1) differences in dating preference attitudes for Black Chicano, and Anglo men regarding women of another race; (2) differences in dating preference attitudes for black, Chicano, and Anglo women regarding men of another race; (3) whether parental influence is perceived by college students to be more determinative in dating…

  20. Suburban Legend: School Cutoff Dates and the Timing of Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickert-Conlin, Stacy; Elder, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Many states require children to reach age 5 by a specified date in the calendar year in order to begin kindergarten. We use birth certificate records from 1999 to 2004 to assess whether parents systematically time childbirth before these eligibility cutoff dates to capture the option value of sending their child to school at a relatively young…

  1. 40 CFR 89.121 - Certificate of conformity effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity effective... Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.121 Certificate of conformity effective dates. The certificate of conformity is valid from the date of issuance by EPA until 31 December of the model year...

  2. Dating, Sexual Activity, and Well-Being in Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciairano, Silvia; Bonino, Silvia; Kliewer, Wendy; Miceli, Renato; Jackson, Sandy

    2006-01-01

    Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender, and adjustment were investigated in 2,273 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated with less alienation, more positive views of the…

  3. Physical Attractiveness, Dating Behavior, and Implications for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreadbury, Constance Lizotte; Reever, Joy Bennett

    1979-01-01

    Examined which of two sociological theories of dating preference was more powerful in predicting women's actual dating frequency. The theories tested were Waller's theory, which emphasizes physical attractiveness, and Blood's theory, which emphasizes personality. Evidence supported Waller's theory. Discussion and implications for women and…

  4. Dating, sexual activity, and well-being in Italian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciairano, S; Bonino, S; Kliewer, W; Miceli, R; Jackson, S

    2006-01-01

    Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender and adjustment were investigated in 2,2 73 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated

  5. Dating violence experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela; Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Media attention and the literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth overwhelmingly focus on violence involving hate crimes and bullying, while ignoring the fact that vulnerable youth also may be at increased risk of violence in their dating relationships. In this study, we examine physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber dating violence experiences among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth--as compared to those of heterosexual youth, and we explore variations in the likelihood of help-seeking behavior and the presence of particular risk factors among both types of dating violence victims. A total of 5,647 youth (51 % female, 74 % White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey, of which 3,745 reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. Results indicated that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth are at higher risk for all types of dating violence victimization (and nearly all types of dating violence perpetration), compared to heterosexual youth. Further, when looking at gender identity, transgender and female youth are at highest risk of most types of victimization, and are the most likely perpetrators of all forms of dating violence but sexual coercion, which begs further exploration. The findings support the development of dating violence prevention programs that specifically target the needs and vulnerabilities of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, in addition to those of female and transgender youth.

  6. 12 CFR 308.158 - Filing papers and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing papers and effective date. 308.158 Section 308.158 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE... Section 19 of the FDIA § 308.158 Filing papers and effective date. (a) Filing with the regional...

  7. 5 CFR 870.1004 - Effective date of insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Benefits for United States Hostages in Iraq and Kuwait and United States Hostages Captured in Lebanon § 870.1004 Effective date of insurance... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date of insurance....

  8. Dating Violence and Substance Use among Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R.; Freeman, Daniel H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Teen dating violence is a serious public health concern with numerous and long-lasting consequences. Although alcohol and drug use have been associated with dating violence, little is known about the role of specific substances, especially the use of club drugs and the nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Thus, the authors examined the…

  9. Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a…

  10. Dating Violence among College Students: Key Issues for College Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine E.; Kardatzke, Kerrie N.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a review of literature examining dating violence among college students. They describe 6 key issues related to dating violence among college students that affect college counselors' work. These key issues relate to the incidence and prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological violence in college students' dating…

  11. 26 CFR 1.684-5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.684-5 Section 1.684-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous § 1.684-5 Effective date. Sections 1.684-1 through 1.684-4 apply to transfers...

  12. Dates of publication of Malaysian phyto-taxonomical literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumée, J.G.B.

    1948-01-01

    Blume, C.L. Museum Botanicum. 2 volumes. The dates given by BLUME for each separate part of volume 1 (1849-1851) seem always to have been considered to be correct. However, those of the 2nd volume are partly wrong: the preface is dated 1852, and may have been printed at that time, but the book was t

  13. 26 CFR 1.441-4 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.441-4 Section 1.441-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Accounting Periods § 1.441-4 Effective date. Sections 1.441-0 through 1.441-3 are applicable...

  14. 26 CFR 301.9000-7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 301.9000-7 Section 301.9000-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Effective date. These regulations are applicable on February 14, 2005....

  15. 26 CFR 301.7430-6 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 301.7430-6 Section 301.7430-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Effective dates. Sections 301.7430-2 through 301.7430-6, other than §§ 301.7430-2(b)(2), (c)(3)(i)(B),...

  16. 26 CFR 1.414(c)-6 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.414(c)-6 Section 1.414(c)-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(c)-6 Effective date. (a)...

  17. 26 CFR 1.6015-9 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.6015-9 Section 1.6015-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-9 Effective date. Sections 1.6015-0 through 1.6015-9...

  18. 41 CFR 50-203.12 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effective date. 50-203.12 Section 50-203.12 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts...-Healey Public Contracts Act § 50-203.12 Effective date. The amendments to Subpart A shall...

  19. 26 CFR 1.642(c)-0 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.642(c)-0 Section 1.642(c)-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(c)-0 Effective dates. The provisions of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.737-5 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.737-5 Section 1.737-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions by A Partnership § 1.737-5 Effective dates. Sections 1.737-1, 1.737-2,...

  1. 41 CFR 60-741.84 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effective date. 60-741.84 Section 60-741.84 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... WITH DISABILITIES Ancillary Matters § 60-741.84 Effective date. This part shall become effective...

  2. Chemical information science coverage in Chemical Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, G

    1987-02-01

    For many years Chemical Abstracts has included in its coverage publications on chemical documentation or chemical information science. Although the bulk of those publications can be found in section 20 of Chemical Abstracts, many relevant articles were found scattered among 39 other sections of CA in 1984-1985. In addition to the scattering of references in CA, the comprehensiveness of Chemical Abstracts as a secondary source for chemical information science is called into question. Data are provided on the journals that contributed the most references on chemical information science and on the languages of publication of relevant articles.

  3. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ricardo, E-mail: ldv1452@gmail.com [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Huels, Matthias [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Nadeau, Marie-Josee; Grootes, Pieter M. [Leibniz Labor for Isotopic and Radiometric Dating, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Garbe-Schoenberg, C.-Dieter [Institute of Geosciences, Marine Climate Research and ICPMS Lab, Kiel University, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany); Hollund, Hege I. [Institute for Geo- and Bioarchaeology, The VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lotnyk, Andriy [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Material Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Graduate School Human Development in Landscapes, Christian Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  4. The Safe Dates program: 1-year follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, V A; Bauman, K E; Greene, W F; Koch, G G; Linder, G F; MacDougall, J E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An earlier report described desirable 1-month follow-up effects of the Safe Dates program on psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence. Mediators of the program-behavior relationship also were identified. The present report describes the 1-year follow-up effects of the Safe Dates program. METHODS: Fourteen schools were in the randomized experiment. Data were gathered by questionnaires in schools before program activities and 1 year after the program ended. RESULTS: The short-term behavioral effects had disappeared at 1 year, but effects on mediating variables such as dating violence norms, conflict management skills, and awareness of community services for dating violence were maintained. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are considered in the context of why program effects might have decayed and the possible role of boosters for effect maintenance. PMID:11029999

  5. Effects of light exposure on the TL dating of pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Shenghua

    2001-01-01

    [1]l.Aitken, M, J., Thermoluminescence Dating, London: Academic, 1985, 153.[2]Wintle, A. G., Huntley, D. J., Thermoluminescence dating of a deep-sea ocean core, Nature, 1979, 279: 710-712.[3]Zirmmerman, D. W., Thermoluminescent dating using fine grains from pottery, Archaeometry 1971, 13: 29-52.[4]Fleming, S. J., The pre-dose technique: a new thermoluminescent dating method, Archaeometry, 1973, 15: 13-30.[5]Zirmmerman, 1., The radiation-induced increase of thermoluminescence sensitivity of fired quartz, Journal of Physics C:Solid Physics, 1971, 4: 3277-3291.[6]Chen, G., Li, S. H., Studies of quartz 110℃ TL peak sensitivity change and its relevance to OSL dating, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2000, 33: 437-443.

  6. Age-dating of rockslides: Methods and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, M.; Sanders, D.; Prager, C.

    2009-04-01

    Age-dating of deposits of catastrophic rockslides is prerequisite to unravel the potential relation between the frequency of mass-wasting events with climatic change or earthquakes. In the Alps, about 250 rockslides exceeding 106 m3 in volume are known, but the age as yet is determined only for a comparatively small number of events. For age determination of rockslide events, different methods are available (e. g. Lang et al., 1999). Radiocarbon Dating In the past few decades, rockslide deposits commonly were proxy-dated by 14C age determination of organic remnants preserved (a) in glacial, fluvio-glacial sediments overridden by the rockslide, (b) within the rockslide mass, or (c) in rockslide-dammed backwater deposits or lakes situated atop the rockslide mass. In each case, the 14C age provides a different constraint on the age of the rockslide event: in case (a), the 14C age represents a maximum age of the event; in case (b), which is quite rare, the 14C age is generally considered as a good proxy of the event age; in case (c) the 14C age represents a minimum age for the rockslide event. Unfortunately, radiocarbon dating often cannot be applied because of absence of suited deposits or exposures thereof, lack of organic remnants or of remnants suited for age-dating, and/or because determined 14C ages are substantially biased. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Proxy-dating of rockslide events by OSL can be applied to silt- to sand-sized quartzose sediments present (a) directly below, (b) within, or (c) above/laterally aside a rockslide mass. For each case (a) to (c), the determined ages are subject to the same constraints as outlined for radiocarbon dating. Unfortunately, situations allowing for application of OSL to rockslide event dating are comparatively rare, and the resulting ages tend to have a wide error range. Surface Exposure Dating with cosmogenic radionuclides Surface exposure ages can be determined for rock samples taken from the sliding planes at

  7. Establishing the date of Maori environmental impact in New Zealand through pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlone, M.S.; Wilmshurst, J.M. [Landcare Research, Lincoln, (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    Full text: Over the last decade there has been an intense debate about whether New Zealand prehistory is long ( > 1500 years) or short ( < 800 years). Pollen and charcoal analyses have played a key role in this debate by helping to pinpoint the transition from relatively undisturbed environments to those deforested by anthropogenic fires. Problems with in situ contamination, reworking of sediments, confusion of natural with anthropogenic impacts, and different theoretical expectations of growth, spread and impact of early Maori populations have led to disparate conclusions. We review pollen based studies carried out on a variety of fossil sites, including peat bogs, swamps, estuaries and lakes, and contribute new results. Different sedimentary environments show varying susceptibilities to contamination and have resulted in a wide spread of ages for initial Maori impact. Datable materials least susceptible to contamination by old or young carbon are pure peat and macrofossils, whereas lake, swamp and silty sediments are most susceptible. Analysis of the radiocarbon ages obtained for the start of Maori deforestation show that ages falling in the `long` prehistory period are exclusively derived from lake sediments and swamps. In contrast, the bulk of the ages falling in the `short` prehistory period are from pure peat and selected plant fragments. We conclude from our analysis of radiocarbon ages for pollen based deforestation that the first evidence of Maori environmental impact began about 700-550 calendar years BP (1250-1400 AD). Finer age resolution is limited by dating techniques, site limitations and the uncertainty associated with identifying the first signs of human impact. The period we have identified corresponds with the oldest dated archaeological sites and supports the short prehistory hypothesis. We discuss how to distinguish reliable fossil sites from those that have a high risk of giving misleading results.

  8. Nature's chemicals and synthetic chemicals: comparative toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, B N; Profet, M; Gold, L S

    1990-01-01

    The toxicology of synthetic chemicals is compared to that of natural chemicals, which represent the vast bulk of the chemicals to which humans are exposed. It is argued that animals have a broad array of inducible general defenses to combat the changing array of toxic chemicals in plant food (nature's pesticides) and that these defenses are effective against both natural and synthetic toxins. Synthetic toxins such as dioxin are compared to natural chemicals, such as indole carbinol (in brocco...

  9. Drinking and Dating: Examining the Link among Relationship Satisfaction, Hazardous Drinking, and Readiness-to-Change in College Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddouma, Alexander; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, Joanna; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    For this study we examined the association between relationship satisfaction and readiness-to-change alcohol use, as well as the associations between hazardous drinking and readiness-to-change relationship issues in college dating relationships. A sample of 219 college students in a current dating relationship (aged 18-25) completed self-report…

  10. The Influence of Dating Anxiety on Normative Experiences of Dating, Sexual Interactions, and Alcohol Consumption among Canadian Middle Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Andrea M.; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents tend to consume alcohol and find romantic and sexual partners in mixed-group settings that are unmonitored by adults. Relatively little is known about the influence that dating anxiety may have with these social interactions. A sample of 163 high school students (aged 14-17 years) completed online surveys assessing dating, sex, and…

  11. Perceptions of adolescents, parents, and school personnel from a predominantly Cuban American community regarding dating and teen dating violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Cummings, Amanda M; Pino, Karen; Malhotra, Krithika; Becerra, Maria M; Lopez, Jessica E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating relationships and teen dating violence prevention within a predominantly Cuban American community in Miami-Dade County. Eight focus groups (n = 74 participants) with adolescents of Hispanic origin (n = 29), their parents (n = 29), and school personnel (n = 16) were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Four themes characterized the nature and context of dating relationships among adolescents of Hispanic origin: YOLO -You Only Live Once, cultural unity but social division, dating is not going out, and the social environment challenges healthy relationships. The information generated from this study can be used to develop culturally tailored teen dating violence prevention programs targeting youth of Hispanic origin.

  12. The moderating effect of social support from a dating partner on the association between dating violence victimization and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Seavey, Amanda E; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Fite, Paula J; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-04-01

    Dating violence victimization is associated with decreased relationship satisfaction and increased mental health symptomatology. Yet, violent dating relationships often remain intact across time, even when the aggression fails to cease. Thus, research is needed to determine the factors that reduce the negative impact of victimization. One factor may be that abusive dating partners are perceived as supportive by their partners, serving to reduce the negative impact of victimization. The current study sought to examine whether perceived support (i.e., perceptions of support) and capitalization support (i.e., perceptions of support for positive events) moderated and reduced the impact of dating violence victimization on decreased relationship satisfaction and increased depressive symptoms. Using a sample of females in dating relationships (N = 253), results provided partial support for our hypotheses. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Paleomagnetic dating of ferricretes in New Caledonia. Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevin, Brice; Ricordel-Prognon, Caroline; Quesnel, Florence; Cluzel, Dominique; Maurizot, Pierre; Robineau, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    Although the description of the emplacement (Cluzel et al., 2001) and the weathering (Trescases, 1975; Latham, 1986; Chevillotte et al., 2006) of the New Caledonia peridotites is well documented in the literature, the knowledge and the age of formation of the landsurfaces formed upon the ultrabasic massifs are poorly documented. Several surfaces have been recognised along the island but no reliable ages could be attributed to the associated regolith. In fact, the overthrust of the Ophiolitic Nappe in the South is stratigraphically constrained by a younger autochthonous olistostrom dated by Late Priabonian pelagic foraminifera (Cluzel et al., 1998). The supergene weathering being still active, the beginning of the ferruginisation of the various plateaux is not well constrained and estimated to have occurred between 34 Ma and Actual. The processes of absolute dating are not relevant to these weathering profiles (K-Mn oxides are poorly concentrated). Ferricretes and various ferruginous materials have the potential to record the ancient geomagnetic field providing means of age determination. In tropical soils, most of the primary remanence carring minerals are dissolved during weathering and secondary magnetic minerals, such as goethite and haematite, are formed in situ acquiring a crystallisation (or chemical) remanent magnetization (CRM). The paleomagnetic pole recovered by demagnetizing the CRMs are plotted on the local apparent polar wandering (APWP) reference curve providing an age for the different parts of the paleoweathering profiles. The data and interpretations we present here are based on paleomagnetic analysis of ferricretes of Goro and Tiebaghi. The preliminary results suggest, for the first time ever, well constrained ages between 20 and 25 Ma of major ferruginisation stages of the peridotites of New Caledonia. References Chevillotte V., Chardon D., Beauvais A, Maurizot P. & Colin F. (2006). Long-term tropical morphogenesis of New Caledonia (Southwest

  14. 76 FR 14970 - National Starch and Chemical Company, Salisbury, Rowan County, NC; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... AGENCY National Starch and Chemical Company, Salisbury, Rowan County, NC; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... National Starch and Chemical Company Site located in Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama for publication. DATES..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2011-0278 or Site name National Starch and Chemical...

  15. 75 FR 4402 - Notice of National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership Council Conference Call Time and Date: 1 p.m.-3 p.m., Friday... National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership Council. The National Conversation... protecting the public's health from harmful chemical exposures. The Leadership Council provides...

  16. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples received for dating in 1985 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 66 samples were dated, 42 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for short-term fading as measured for samples stored at room temperature for ...... for four weeks. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quartz and feldspar were included assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspar....

  17. Gaming Against Violence: A Grassroots Approach to Teen Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecente, Drew

    2014-08-01

    Teen dating violence is a pervasive problem that affects millions of adolescents worldwide. Although there have been various approaches to addressing this problem, using videogames had not been employed before 2008, when Jennifer Ann's Group, an Atlanta, GA-based nonprofit organization, created an annual competition. The Life.Love. Game Design Challenge rewards game developers for creating videogames about teen dating violence without using any violence in the games themselves. The resulting videogames have increased awareness about teen dating violence and provided educational information to assist adolescents, parents, and teachers in identifying abusive relationships.

  18. Technology Corner: Dating of Electronic Hardware for Prior Art Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellam Ismail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In many legal matters, specifically patent litigation, determining and authenticating the date of computer hardware or other electronic products or components is often key to establishing the item as legitimate evidence of prior art. Such evidence can be used to buttress claims of technologies available or of events transpiring by or at a particular date.In 1945, the Electronics Industry Association published a standard, EIA 476-A, standardized in the reference Source and Date Code Marking (Electronic Industries Association, 1988.(see PDF for full tech corner

  19. Do Finns Date? Cultural Interpretations of Romantic Relating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saila Poutiainen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dating, the stage in American romantic relationships, is a popular theme in interpersonal communication research. This article claims that dating is a cultural construct and concept. The claim is supported by two means: (1 by examining the perceptions of relationships, communication, and personhood that are embedded in American women‟s interviews, and (2 by comparing these perceptions with Finnish women‟s interviews about relationship initiation. The cultural meanings of dating should be acknowledged when making generalizations and building theoretical constructs on romantic relationships, as well as in applying American research results in describing Finnish romantic relationships.

  20. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence.

  1. The "Burgundian" hat from Herjolfsnes, Greenland: new discoveries, new dates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Michèle Hayeur; Arneborg, Jette; Smith, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    of the Greenland Norse colony but also its enduring cultural links with continental European fashions, following a comment to this effect published by Nørlund himself. In 1996, the hat was dated to the early fourteenth century by Arneborg, a century earlier than Nørlund’s dating, based on stylistic comparisons...... with European examples. Recent research on North Atlantic textiles led to a re-examination of the hat, with different sections sampled and resubmitted for accelerated mass spectrometry dating. The results suggest that the body of the hat and its crown are of different periods with c. 100 years between them...

  2. Nuclear analysis techniques as a component of thermoluminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J.R.; Hutton, J.T.; Habermehl, M.A. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia); Van Moort, J. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In luminescence dating, an age is found by first measuring dose accumulated since the event being dated, then dividing by the annual dose rate. Analyses of minor and trace elements performed by nuclear techniques have long formed an essential component of dating. Results from some Australian sites are reported to illustrate the application of nuclear techniques of analysis in this context. In particular, a variety of methods for finding dose rates are compared, an example of a site where radioactive disequilibrium is significant and a brief summary is given of a problem which was not resolved by nuclear techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. The effects of the evidence-based Safe Dates dating abuse prevention program on other youth violence outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Luz McNaughton; Agnew-Brune, Christine B; Simon, Thomas R; Vagi, Kevin J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Suchindran, Chiravath

    2014-12-01

    In response to recent calls for programs that can prevent multiple types of youth violence, the current study examined whether Safe Dates, an evidence-based dating violence prevention program, was effective in preventing other forms of youth violence. Using data from the original Safe Dates randomized controlled trial, this study examined (1) the effectiveness of Safe Dates in preventing peer violence victimization and perpetration and school weapon carrying 1 year after the intervention phase was completed and (2) moderation of program effects by the sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Ninety percent (n = 1,690) of the eighth and ninth graders who completed baseline questionnaires completed the 1-year follow-up assessment. The sample was 51 % female and 26 % minority (of whom 69 % was black and 31 % was of another minority race/ethnicity). There were no baseline treatment group differences in violence outcomes. Treatment condition was significantly associated with peer violence victimization and school weapon carrying at follow-up; there was 12 % less victimization and 31 % less weapon carrying among those exposed to Safe Dates than those among controls. Treatment condition was significantly associated with perpetration among the minority but not among white adolescents; there was 23 % less violence perpetration among minority adolescents exposed to Safe Dates than that among controls. The observed effect sizes were comparable with those of other universal school-based youth violence prevention programs. Implementing Safe Dates may be an efficient way of preventing multiple types of youth violence.

  4. Prehistoric peyote use: alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; De Smet, Peter A G M; Beck, Olof; Possnert, Göran; Bruhn, Jan G

    2005-10-01

    Two archaeological specimens of peyote buttons, i.e. dried tops of the cactus Lophophora williamsii (Lem.) Coulter, from the collection of the Witte Museum in San Antonio, was subjected to radiocarbon dating and alkaloid analysis. The samples were presumably found in Shumla Cave No. 5 on the Rio Grande, Texas. Radiocarbon dating shows that the calibrated 14C age of the weighted mean of the two individual dated samples corresponds to the calendric time interval 3780-3660 BC (one sigma significance). Alkaloid extraction yielded approximately 2% of alkaloids. Analysis with thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) led to the identification of mescaline in both samples. No other peyote alkaloids could be identified. The two peyote samples appear to be the oldest plant drug ever to yield a major bioactive compound upon chemical analysis. The identification of mescaline strengthens the evidence that native North Americans recognized the psychotropic properties of peyote as long as 5700 years ago.

  5. Dating violence, social learning theory, and gender: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontodonato, P; Crew, B K

    1992-01-01

    The study of violence between dating partners is a logical extension of interest in marital violence. However, little of this research tests explanations of intimate violence using multivariate techniques, and only recently have such tests occurred within a theoretical framework. Drawing on a recent social learning model of courtship violence (Riggs & O'Leary, 1989), this paper empirically examines constructs hypothesized to be predictive of the use of dating violence and investigates possible gender differences in the underlying causal structure of such violence. Logit analysis indicates that parent-child violence, drug use, and knowledge of use of dating violence by others predict the use of courtship violence by females. Belief that violence between intimates is justifiable, drug use, and parental divorce are related to perpetration of dating aggression by males. Explanations for these results and the importance of a multivariate approach to the problem are discussed.

  6. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  7. Radiocarbon dating of medieval manuscripts from the University of Seville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F.J., E-mail: fsantos@us.e [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Avda. Thomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Seville (Spain); Gomez-Martinez, I.; Garcia-Leon, M. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Avda. Thomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Eleven samples (parchment and paper) from different medieval manuscripts belonging to the cultural heritage of the University of Seville have been radiocarbon dated on the 1 MV AMS facility at the CNA in Seville (Spain). The objective of this study is double. First of all, these are the first real 'unknown' samples treated in the radiocarbon laboratory and dated on our AMS facility, SARA (Spanish Accelerator for Radionuclide Analysis). Besides, some useful information about the manuscripts can be obtained, either to corroborate the dates, or in some cases, to decide between possible dates. As expected, a general agreement is found between radiocarbon results and palaeographical data. Nevertheless, some interesting facts have been learned through this study. We present in this paper the procedure to prepare the samples and the ages obtained with a brief discussion of the results.

  8. Canary Island Date Palm - Orange Co. [ds349

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June,...

  9. Radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The earliest pottery in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany, was produced by the Final Mesolithic Ertebølle culture. Radiocarbon dating of food crusts on Ertebølle pottery indicated that ceramics from inland sites were substantially older than those from the coast. Therefore, a freshwater...... of magnitude and the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect in Schleswig-Holstein. Experiments with copies of Ertebølle vessels yielded reference material for radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analysis. Food crusts, terrestrial samples and fishbones from two Ertebølle inland sites were...... analysed as well. It could be shown that the inland pottery most probably has the same age as the coastal pottery. Furthermore, I will present some methodological considerations about pottery dating and a pilot study where food crusts as well as total lipid extracts were dated....

  10. Luminescence quartz dating of lime mortars. A first research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, N; Mauz, B; Michael, C T

    2002-01-01

    Lime mortars mixed with sand are well suited for connecting structural materials, like stones and bricks, due to the mechanical properties this material exhibits. Their extensive use in architectural and decorative works during the last 4000 years motivated the introduction of the 'Luminescence clock' for age determination of mortars. The same principles as for quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sediments were applied for age estimation of a mortar fragment removed from a Byzantine church monument dated by archaeological means to 1050-1100 years ago (the first half of the 10th century). The OSL from the quartz was monitored under blue light stimulation and UV detection, using a single-aliquot-regenerative-dose protocol. The quartz-OSL dating of the mortar resulted in 870 +/- 230 a. TL polymineral fine grain dating was also performed on a brick fragment which was connected to the mortar, resulting in a TL age of 1095 +/- 190 a.

  11. Radiocarbon dating of a very large African baobab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrut, Adrian; von Reden, Karl F; Lowy, Daniel A; Alberts, Andries H; Pohlman, John W; Wittmann, Rudolf; Gerlach, Dana; Xu, Li; Mitchell, Clark S

    2007-11-01

    In late 2004, Grootboom, probably the largest known African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.), collapsed unexpectedly in northeastern Namibia. Ten wood samples collected from different areas of the trunk were processed and investigated by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating. The radiocarbon dates of three samples were greater than 1000 years BP (radiocarbon years before present, i.e., before AD 1950). The corresponding calibrated calendar age of the oldest sample was 1275 +/- 50 years, making Grootboom the oldest known angiosperm tree with reliable dating results. Variations in radiocarbon dates among the wood samples indicated that, morphologically, Grootboom was a quintuple tree, whereas genetically, it was a single individual. Ages of extreme lateral samples revealed that, over the past 500-600 years, Grootbooom had almost ceased growing, providing information about climate changes in central southern Africa. The sudden demise of Grootboom coincided with the spread of the poorly studied baobab disease, which has become epidemic in Namibia.

  12. 21 CFR 12.38 - Effective date of an order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commissioner will— (1) Publish a final order denying or withdrawing approval of an NDA, NADA, device premarket... effective date of the order; and (2) If the order involves withdrawal of approval of an NADA,...

  13. Teen dating violence: building a research program through collaborative insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulford, Carrie F; Blachman-Demner, Dara R

    2013-06-01

    The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) has an emerging portfolio of research in the area of teen dating violence (also known as adolescent relationship abuse). This article begins with a discussion of the developments that prompted NIJ to focus on teen dating violence. Next, the article highlights specific accomplishments and contributions that NIJ has made to helping develop knowledge and scientific understanding of adolescent relationship abuse, particularly around the prevention of teen dating violence perpetration and victimization. This is followed by a presentation of some of the key findings from NIJ-funded research. We then move to a discussion of some of the complex issues around definition, measurement and research methods and how NIJ has been involved in addressing those issues. The article concludes with some thoughts about the intersection of teen dating violence research, policy, and practice and highlights several research gaps that are in need of additional attention.

  14. 75 FR 13259 - Public Telecommunications Facilities Program: New Closing Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Docket No. 100305127-0127-01 Public Telecommunications Facilities Program: New Closing Date AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information... to increase digital power levels of public radio stations. SUMMARY: The National...

  15. Radiocarbon dating of glacier ice: overview, optimisation, validation and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Zapf, Alexander; Jenk, Theo Manuel; Sigl, Michael; Szidat, Sönke; Salazar, Gary; Schwikowski, Margit

    2016-12-01

    High-altitude glaciers and ice caps from midlatitudes and tropical regions contain valuable signals of past climatic and environmental conditions as well as human activities, but for a meaningful interpretation this information needs to be placed in a precise chronological context. For dating the upper part of ice cores from such sites, several relatively precise methods exist, but they fail in the older and deeper parts, where plastic deformation of the ice results in strong annual layer thinning and a non-linear age-depth relationship. If sufficient organic matter such as plant, wood or insect fragments were found, radiocarbon (14C) analysis would have thus been the only option for a direct and absolute dating of deeper ice core sections. However such fragments are rarely found and, even then, they would not be very likely to occur at the desired depth and resolution. About 10 years ago, a new, complementary dating tool was therefore introduced by our group. It is based on extracting the µg-amounts of the water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC) fraction of carbonaceous aerosols embedded in the ice matrix for subsequent 14C dating. Since then this new approach has been improved considerably by reducing the measurement time and improving the overall precision. Samples with ˜ 10 µg WIOC mass can now be dated with reasonable uncertainty of around 10-20 % (variable depending on sample age). This requires about 300 to 800 g of ice for WIOC concentrations typically found in midlatitude and low-latitude glacier ice. Dating polar ice with satisfactory age precision is still not possible since WIOC concentrations are around 1 order of magnitude lower. The accuracy of the WIOC 14C method was validated by applying it to independently dated ice. With this method, the deepest parts of the ice cores from Colle Gnifetti and the Mt Ortles glacier in the European Alps, Illimani glacier in the Bolivian Andes, Tsambagarav ice cap in the Mongolian Altai, and Belukha glacier in the

  16. Quit playing games with my heart: Understanding online dating scams

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, J M; Stringhini, G.; Yong, P.

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Online dating sites are experiencing a rise in popularity, with one in five relationships in the United States starting on one of these sites. Online dating sites provide a valuable platform not only for single people trying to meet a life partner, but also for cybercriminals, who see in people looking for love easy victims for scams. Such scams span from schemes similar to traditional advertisement of illicit services or goods (i.e., spam...

  17. Can the date of Moses' death be determined astronomically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetsch, T. J.; Osborn, W. H.

    2011-08-01

    There is an early Jewish tradition that the sun darkened on the day of Moses' death. The possibility of this being a reference to a solar eclipse has been investigated. If such were to be the case, identification of the eclipse could be used to derive dates for events recorded in the Bible. A likely candidate eclipse has been found that fits well with Hebrew calendar dates and timelines that are recorded in the biblical books of Deuteronomy and Joshua.

  18. A revised dated phylogeny of the arachnid order Opiliones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant P; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Dating the Opiliones tree of life has become an important enterprise for this group of arthropods, due to their ancient origins and important biogeographic implications. To incorporate both methodological innovations in molecular dating as well as new systematic discoveries of harvestman diversity, we conducted total evidence dating on a data set uniting morphological and/or molecular sequence data for 47 Opiliones species, including all four well-known Palaeozoic fossils, to test the placement of both fossils and newly discovered lineages in a single analysis. Furthermore, we investigated node dating with a phylogenomic data set of 24,202 amino acid sites for 14 species of Opiliones, sampling all extant suborders. In this way, we approached molecular dating of basal harvestman phylogeny using different data sets and approaches to assess congruence of divergence time estimates. In spite of the markedly different composition of data sets, our results show congruence across all analyses for age estimates of basal nodes that are well constrained with respect to fossil calibrations (e.g., Opiliones, Palpatores). By contrast, derived nodes that lack fossil calibrations (e.g., the suborders Cyphophthalmi, and Laniatores) have large uncertainty intervals in diversification times, particularly in the total evidence dating analysis, reflecting the dearth of calibration points and undersampling of derived lineages. Total evidence dating consistently produced older median ages than node dating for ingroup nodes, due to the nested placement of multiple Palaeozoic fossils. Our analyses support basal diversification of Opiliones in the Ordovician-Devonian period, corroborating the inferred ancient origins of this arthropod order, and underscore the importance of diversity discovery-both paleontological and neontological-in evolutionary inference.

  19. AMS radiocarbon dating of cemetery of Jin Marquises in China

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, X; Wang, J; Guo, Z; Liu, K; Lü, X; Ma, H; Li, K; Yuan, J; Cai, L

    2000-01-01

    Bones are very important samples to determine the hosts of the cemetery of Jin Marquises which were excavated at Tianma-Qucun site in Shanxi Province in China. In order to obtain accurate AMS radiocarbon dates, bones were pretreated by two kinds of methods, the gelatin-extraction method and the amino-acid method. Charcoals collected from the same sites were also used. The measured dates agree with historical record.

  20. Introducing an R package for luminescence dating analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutzer, Sebastian; Schmidt, Christoph; Fuchs, Margret C.; Dietze, Michael; Fischer, Manfred; Fuchs, Markus

    2012-01-01

    For routine luminescence dating applications the commonly used Risø readers are bundled with analysis software, such as Viewer or Analyst. These software solutions are appropriate for most of the regular dating and publication jobs, and enable assessment of luminescence characteristics and provide basic statistical data treatment. However, for further statistical analysis and data treatments, this software may reach its limits. In such cases, open programmi...