WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical transport problems

  1. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  2. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  3. Framework of synchromodal transportation problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juncker, M.A.M. de; Huizing, D.; Vecchyo, M.R.O. del; Phillipson, F.; Sangers, A.

    2017-01-01

    Problem statements and solution methods in mathematical synchromodal transportation problems depend greatly on a set of model choices for which no rule of thumb exists. In this paper, a framework is introduced with which the model choices in synchromodal transportation problems can be classified,

  4. Framework of Synchromodal Transportation Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huncker, M.A.M. de; Huizing, D.; Ortega del Vecchyo, M.R.; Phillipson, F.; Sangers, A.

    2017-01-01

    Problem statements and solution methods in mathematical synchromodal transportation problems depend greatly on a set of model choices for which no rule of thumb exists. In this paper, a framework is introduced with which the model choices in synchromodal transportation problems can be classified,

  5. Handling and Transport Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J. [Head of Technical Section, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France); Savouyaud, J. [Head of Electro-Mechanical Sub-Division, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    Arrangements for special or dangerous transport operations by road arising out of the activities of the Atomic Energy Commission are made by the Works and Installations Division which acts in concert with the Monitoring and Protection Division (MPD) whenever radioactive substances or appliances are involved. In view of the risk of irradiation and contamination entailed in handling and transporting radioactive substances, including waste, a specialized transport and storage team has been formed as a complement to the emergency and decontamination teams.

  6. Heavy transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    Assuming that very often a long transport route from the factory of the manufacturer to the provided site has to be reckoned with, in general only transport with a ship is possible. As each site is only called by a certain steamship line, at a very early stage of planning the nuclear power plant the possibilities and capacities of the lines and means of transportation under discussion should be investigated. In planning the unloading equipment at the site, due consideration should be given to the fact that at a later time this equipment should also be suitable for the transport of heavy components and spent fuel assemblies. (orig.) [de

  7. On linear transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatovich, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    The equations. governing the transport of radiation in plane media of finite thickness are formulated and solved in terms reflection and extintion of radiation inthe case of semi infinite media. 13 refs

  8. Charge transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    In a recent report (UCID 17346, ''Relativistic Particle Beam in a Semi-Infinite Axially Symmetric conducting channel extending from a perfectly conducting plane,'' Dec. 13, 1976) Cooper and Neil demonstrate that the net charge transported by a beam pulse injected into a channel of finite conductivity equals the charge of the beam itself. The channel is taken to be infinite in the positive z direction, has finite radius and is terminated by a conducting ground plane at z =0. This result is not an obvious one, and it is restricted in its applicability by the special model assumed for the channel. It is the purpose to explain the result of Cooper and Neil in more qualitative terms and to make similar calculations using several other channel models. It must be emphasized that these calculations are not concerned with the fate of the transported charge after the pulse has stopped, but rather with how much charge leaves the ground plane assuming the pulse does not stop

  9. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics transport

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; Laricchiuta, Annarita

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Tranpsort develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma transport to the modern treatment of the Chapman-Enskog method for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The book invites the reader to consider actual problems of the transport of thermal plasmas with particular attention to the derivation of diffusion- and viscosity-type transport cross sections, stressing the role of resonant charge-exchange processes in affecting the diffusion-type collision calculation of viscosity-type collision integrals. A wide range of topics is then discussed including (1) the effect of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions on the transport of vibrational energy, (2) the role of electronically excited states in the transport properties of thermal plasmas, (3) the dependence of transport properties on the multitude of Saha equations for multi-temperature plasmas, and (4) the effect of the magnetic field on transport properties. Throughout the book, worked examples ...

  10. A Problem on Optimal Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechlarova, Katarina

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical optimization problems are not typical in the classical curriculum of mathematics. In this paper we show how several generalizations of an easy problem on optimal transportation were solved by gifted secondary school pupils in a correspondence mathematical seminar, how they can be used in university courses of linear programming and…

  11. Traveling Salesman Problem with Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Ungureanu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP is a generic name that includes diverse practical models. Motivated by applications, a new model of TSP is examined – a synthesis of classical TSP and classical Transportation Problem. Algorithms based on Integer Programming cutting-plane methods and Branch and Bound Techniques are obvious.

  12. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  13. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  14. Spent nuclear fuel transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of shipping spent fuel from nuclear power stations to reprocessing plants and also the principal ways of solving these problems with a view to achieving maximum economy and safety in transport. The increase in the number of nuclear power plants in the USSR will entail an intensification of spent-fuel shipments. Higher burnup and the need to reduce cooling time call for heavier and more complex shipping containers. The problem of shipping spent fuel should be tackled comprehensively, bearing in mind the requirements of safety and economy. One solution to these problems is to develop rational and cheap designs of such containers. In addition, the world-wide trend towards more thorough protection of the environment against pollution and of the health of the population requires the devotion of constant attention to improving the reliability and safety of shipments. The paper considers the prospects for nuclear power development in the USSR and in other member countries of the CMEA (1976-1980), the composition and design of some Soviet packaging assemblies, the appropriate cooling time for spent fuel from thermal reactor power stations, procedures for reducing fuel-shipping costs, some methodological problems of container calculation and design, and finally problems of testing and checking containers on test rigs. (author)

  15. Chemical problems associated with reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesne, A.

    1981-09-01

    This paper is an attempt to pinpoint the chemical problems raised by the reprocessing of oxide base fuels. Taking the reprocessing of slightly irradiated metallic fuels as a reference, for which long experience has been gained, a review is made of the various stages of the Purex process, in which the increase in mass and activity of the actinides and fission products engenders constraints related to the recovery of fissile materials, their purification, the release rate and, in general, the operation of the installations. The following subjects are discussed: dissolution from the standpoint of dissolution residues and iodine trapping, extraction cycles with respect to the behavior of ruthenium, neptunium, plutonium, technetium and palladium, the recycling of medium activity wastes

  16. JIT-transportation problem and its algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Guozhong; Gan, Xiao-Xiong

    2011-12-01

    This article introduces the (just-in-time) JIT-transportation problem, which requires that all demanded goods be shipped to their destinations on schedule, at a zero or minimal destination-storage cost. The JIT-transportation problem is a special goal programming problem with discrete constraints. This article provides a mathematical model for such a transportation problem and introduces the JIT solution, the deviation solution, the JIT deviation, etc. By introducing the B(λ)-problem, this article establishes the equivalence between the optimal solutions of the B(λ)-problem and the optimal solutions of the JIT-transportation problem, and then provides an algorithm for the JIT-transportation problems. This algorithm is proven mathematically and is also illustrated by an example.

  17. Chemical Equilibrium And Transport (CET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    Powerful, machine-independent program calculates theoretical thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Aids in design of compressors, turbines, engines, heat exchangers, and chemical processing equipment.

  18. Coordinated Transportation: Problems and Promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Examines the legal, administrative, and logistical barriers that have prevented the wide acceptance of coordinating community and school transportation services and why these barriers may be breaking down. Two examples of successful implementation of coordinated transportation are examined: employing a single system to serve all transportation…

  19. Handling and transport problems (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarola, J.; Savouyaud, J.

    1960-01-01

    I. The handling and transport of radioactive wastes involves the danger of irradiation and contamination. It is indispensable: - to lay down a special set of rules governing the removal and transport of wastes within centres or from one centre to another; - to give charge of this transportation to a group containing teams of specialists. The organisation, equipment and output of these teams is being examined. II. Certain materials are particularly dangerous to transport, and for these special vehicles and fixed installations are necessary. This is the case especially for the evacuation of very active liquids. A transport vehicle is described, consisting of a trailer tractor and a recipient holding 500 litres of liquid of which the activity can reach 1000 C/l; the decanting operation, the route to be followed by the vehicle, and the precautions taken are also described. (author) [fr

  20. Coupling between solute transport and chemical reactions models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samper, J.; Ajora, C.

    1993-01-01

    During subsurface transport, reactive solutes are subject to a variety of hydrodynamic and chemical processes. The major hydrodynamic processes include advection and convection, dispersion and diffusion. The key chemical processes are complexation including hydrolysis and acid-base reactions, dissolution-precipitation, reduction-oxidation, adsorption and ion exchange. The combined effects of all these processes on solute transport must satisfy the principle of conservation of mass. The statement of conservation of mass for N mobile species leads to N partial differential equations. Traditional solute transport models often incorporate the effects of hydrodynamic processes rigorously but oversimplify chemical interactions among aqueous species. Sophisticated chemical equilibrium models, on the other hand, incorporate a variety of chemical processes but generally assume no-flow systems. In the past decade, coupled models accounting for complex hydrological and chemical processes, with varying degrees of sophistication, have been developed. The existing models of reactive transport employ two basic sets of equations. The transport of solutes is described by a set of partial differential equations, and the chemical processes, under the assumption of equilibrium, are described by a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. An important consideration in any approach is the choice of primary dependent variables. Most existing models cannot account for the complete set of chemical processes, cannot be easily extended to include mixed chemical equilibria and kinetics, and cannot handle practical two and three dimensional problems. The difficulties arise mainly from improper selection of the primary variables in the transport equations. (Author) 38 refs

  1. Intelligent transportation systems problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pamuła, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of problems encountered in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). It puts emphasis on the early tasks of designing and proofing the concept of integration of technologies in Intelligent Transport Systems. In its first part the book concentrates on the design problems of urban ITS. The second part of the book features case studies representative for the different modes of transport. These are freight transport, rail transport and aerospace transport encompassing also space stations. The book provides ideas for deployment which may be developed by scientists and engineers engaged in the design of Intelligent Transport Systems. It can also be used in the training of specialists, students and post-graduate students in universities and transport high schools.    .

  2. Collection of problems in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaper, H.G.

    1975-01-01

    Problems presented are: (1) definition of transport operators; (2) relation between the integro-differential and integral form of the transport equation; (3) asymptotic behavior of the scalar density near curved boundaries and interfaces; (4) singularities at a corner; (5) regularity of the solution of the transport equation; (7) transport equations on a manifold; (8) numerical analysis; (9) cubature; (10) point spectrum of the transport operator; (11) convergence of the multigroup approximation; (12) convergence of discrete ordinates approximations; (13) the finite double-norm property; (14) convergence of discrete ordinates approximation. The presentation of the problems is intended to direct attention to gaps in the existing knowledge of transport theory and to stimulate research into new areas of transport theory

  3. Surface chemical problems in coal flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Miller, K. J.; Deurbrouck, A. W.

    1981-02-01

    As the use of coal increases and more fine material is produced by mining and processing, the need for improved methods of coal beneficiation increases. While flotation techniques can help meet these needs, the technique is beset with many problems. These problems involve surface chemical and interfacial properties of the coal-mineral-water slurry systems used in coal flotation. The problems associated with coal flotation include non-selectivity, inefficient reagent utilization, and excessive variablity of results. These problems can be broadely classified as a lack of predictability. The present knowledge of coal flotation is not sufficient, in terms of surface chemical parameters, to allow prediction of the flotation response of a given coal. In this paper, some of the surface chemical properties of coal and coal minerals that need to be defined will be discussed in terms of the problems noted above and their impact on coal cleaning.

  4. Multi-Stage Transportation Problem With Capacity Limit

    OpenAIRE

    I. Brezina; Z. Čičková; J. Pekár; M. Reiff

    2010-01-01

    The classical transportation problem can be applied in a more general way in practice. Related problems as Multi-commodity transportation problem, Transportation problems with different kind of vehicles, Multi-stage transportation problems, Transportation problem with capacity limit is an extension of the classical transportation problem considering the additional special condition. For solving such problems many optimization techniques (dynamic programming, linear programming, special algor...

  5. Algorithm for the Stochastic Generalized Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Anholcer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The equalization method for the stochastic generalized transportation problem has been presented. The algorithm allows us to find the optimal solution to the problem of minimizing the expected total cost in the generalized transportation problem with random demand. After a short introduction and literature review, the algorithm is presented. It is a version of the method proposed by the author for the nonlinear generalized transportation problem. It is shown that this version of the method generates a sequence of solutions convergent to the KKT point. This guarantees the global optimality of the obtained solution, as the expected cost functions are convex and twice differentiable. The computational experiments performed for test problems of reasonable size show that the method is fast. (original abstract

  6. Biosensor discovery of thyroxine transport disrupting chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Meimaridou, A.; Haasnoot, W.; Meulenberg, E.; Albertus, F.; Mizuguchi, M.; Takeuchi, M.; Irth, H.; Murk, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Ubiquitous chemicals may interfere with the thyroid system that is essential in the development and physiology of vertebrates. We applied a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor-based screening method for the fast screening of chemicals with thyroxine (T4) transport disrupting activity. Two

  7. Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Matthew P; Gordon, Wesley; Lalain, Teri; Mantooth, Brent

    2013-09-15

    A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100 μm) within approximately 107 min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Integrating routing decisions in public transportation problems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Marie E

    2014-01-01

    This book treats three planning problems arising in public railway transportation planning: line planning, timetabling, and delay management, with the objective to minimize passengers’ travel time. While many optimization approaches simplify these problems by assuming that passengers’ route choice is independent of the solution, this book focuses on models which take into account that passengers will adapt their travel route to the implemented planning solution. That is, a planning solution and passengers’ routes are determined and evaluated simultaneously. This work is technically deep, with insightful findings regarding complexity and algorithmic approaches to public transportation problems with integrated passenger routing. It is intended for researchers in the fields of mathematics, computer science, or operations research, working in the field of public transportation from an optimization standpoint. It is also ideal for students who want to gain intuition and experience in doing complexity proofs ...

  9. Inverse problems in linear transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, K.

    1988-01-01

    Inverse problems for a class of linear kinetic equations are investigated. The aim is to identify the scattering kernel of a transport equation (corresponding to the structure of a background medium) by observing the 'albedo' part of the solution operator for the corresponding direct initial boundary value problem. This means to get information on some integral operator in an integrodifferential equation through on overdetermined boundary value problem. We first derive a constructive method for solving direct halfspace problems and prove a new factorization theorem for the solutions. Using this result we investigate stationary inverse problems with respect to well posedness (e.g. reduce them to classical ill-posed problems, such as integral equations of first kind). In the time-dependent case we show that a quite general inverse problem is well posed and solve it constructively. (orig.)

  10. Monte Carlo method in radiation transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, G.; Nimal, J.C.; Vergnaud, T.

    1986-11-01

    In neutral radiation transport problems (neutrons, photons), two values are important: the flux in the phase space and the density of particles. To solve the problem with Monte Carlo method leads to, among other things, build a statistical process (called the play) and to provide a numerical value to a variable x (this attribution is called score). Sampling techniques are presented. Play biasing necessity is proved. A biased simulation is made. At last, the current developments (rewriting of programs for instance) are presented due to several reasons: two of them are the vectorial calculation apparition and the photon and neutron transport in vacancy media [fr

  11. CHMTRNS, Non-Equilibrium Chemical Transport Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorishad, J.; Carnahan, C.L.; Benson, L.V.

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CHMTRNS simulates solute transport for steady one-dimensional fluid flow by convection and diffusion or dispersion in a saturated porous medium based on the assumption of local chemical equilibrium. The chemical interactions included in the model are aqueous-phase complexation, solid-phase ion exchange of bare ions and complexes using the surface complexation model, and precipitation or dissolution of solids. The program can simulate the kinetic dissolution or precipitation for calcite and silica as well as irreversible dissolution of glass. Thermodynamic parameters are temperature dependent and are coupled to a companion heat transport simulator; thus, the effects of transient temperature conditions can be considered. Options for oxidation-reduction (redox) and C-13 fractionation as well as non-isothermal conditions are included. 2 - Method of solution: The governing equations for both reactive chemical and heat transport are discretized in time and space. For heat transport, the Crank-Nicolson approximation is used in conjunction with a LU decomposition and backward substitution solution procedure. To deal with the strong nonlinearity of the chemical transport equations, a generalized Newton-Raphson method is used

  12. CET89 - CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM WITH TRANSPORT PROPERTIES, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, B.

    1994-01-01

    Scientists and engineers need chemical equilibrium composition data to calculate the theoretical thermodynamic properties of a chemical system. This information is essential in the design and analysis of equipment such as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical processing equipment. The substantial amount of numerical computation required to obtain equilibrium compositions and transport properties for complex chemical systems led scientists at NASA's Lewis Research Center to develop CET89, a program designed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of these systems. CET89 is a general program which will calculate chemical equilibrium compositions and mixture properties for any chemical system with available thermodynamic data. Generally, mixtures may include condensed and gaseous products. CET89 performs the following operations: it 1) obtains chemical equilibrium compositions for assigned thermodynamic states, 2) calculates dilute-gas transport properties of complex chemical mixtures, 3) obtains Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties for gaseous species, 4) calculates incident and reflected shock properties in terms of assigned velocities, and 5) calculates theoretical rocket performance for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion. The rocket performance function allows the option of assuming either a finite area or an infinite area combustor. CET89 accommodates problems involving up to 24 reactants, 20 elements, and 600 products (400 of which may be condensed). The program includes a library of thermodynamic and transport properties in the form of least squares coefficients for possible reaction products. It includes thermodynamic data for over 1300 gaseous and condensed species and transport data for 151 gases. The subroutines UTHERM and UTRAN convert thermodynamic and transport data to unformatted form for faster processing. The program conforms to the FORTRAN 77 standard, except for

  13. Chemical controls on subsurface radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, K.J.; Killey, R.W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical and biochemical processes can affect the movement of contaminants in groundwater. Materials can be almost completely removed from circulation by processes such as precipitation and coprecipitation. Organic compounds or contaminants that are hazardous may be degraded or formed during groundwater transport. Studies at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL have focused on radionuclide transport, although other contaminants have been and are being investigated. This paper summarizes findings from research that extends back more than 30 years. Much of the work on reactive contaminant transport has centered on 90 Sr; other contaminants have also been considered, however, and features of their behaviour are also reviewed. (25 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.)

  14. Hub location problems in transportation networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a 4-index formulation for the uncapacitated multiple allocation hub location problem tailored for urban transport and liner shipping network design. This formulation is very tight and most of the tractable instances for MIP solvers are optimally solvable at the root node....... also introduce fixed cost values for Australian Post (AP) dataset....

  15. Resolving beam transport problems in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of problem areas in beam transmission which are frequently encountered during the design, operation and upgrading of electrostatic accelerators. Examples are provided of analytic procedures that clarify accelerator ion optics and lead to more effective beam transport. Suggestions are made for evaluating accelerator design with the goal of improved performance

  16. Resolving beam transport problems in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews problem areas in beam transmission which are frequently encountered during the design, operation and upgrading of electrostatic accelerators. Examples are provided of analytic procedures that clarify accelerator ion optics and lead to more effective beam transport. Suggestions are made for evaluating accelerator design with the goal of improved performance

  17. Drug Transport and Pharmacokinetics for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laurent; Kanneganti, Kumud; Kim, Kwang Seok

    2010-01-01

    Experiments in continuous-stirred vessels were proposed to introduce methods in pharmacokinetics and drug transport to chemical engineering students. The activities can be incorporated into the curriculum to illustrate fundamentals learned in the classroom. An appreciation for the role of pharmacokinetics in drug discovery will also be gained…

  18. Biosensor discovery of thyroxine transport disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesini, Gerardo R.; Meimaridou, Anastasia; Haasnoot, Willem; Meulenberg, Eline; Albertus, Faywell; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Takeuchi, Makoto; Irth, Hubertus; Murk, Albertinka J.

    2008-01-01

    Ubiquitous chemicals may interfere with the thyroid system that is essential in the development and physiology of vertebrates. We applied a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor-based screening method for the fast screening of chemicals with thyroxine (T4) transport disrupting activity. Two inhibition assays using the main thyroid hormone transport proteins, T4 binding globulin (TBG) and transthyretin (TTR), in combination with a T4-coated biosensor chip were optimized and automated for screening chemical libraries. The transport protein-based biosensor assays were rapid, high throughput and bioeffect-related. A library of 62 chemicals including the natural hormones, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and metabolites, halogenated bisphenol A (BPA), halogenated phenols, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other potential environmentally relevant chemicals was tested with the two assays. We discovered ten new active compounds with moderate to high affinity for TBG with the TBG assay. Strikingly, the most potent binding was observed with hydroxylated metabolites of the brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) BDE 47, BDE 49 and BDE 99, that are commonly found in human plasma. The TTR assay confirmed the activity of previously identified hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs and PBDEs, halogenated BPA and genistein. These results show that the hydroxylated metabolites of the ubiquitous PBDEs not only target the T4 transport at the TTR level, but also, and to a great extent, at the TBG level where most of the T4 in humans is circulating. The optimized SPR biosensor-based transport protein assay is a suitable method for high throughput screening of large libraries for potential thyroid hormone disrupting compounds

  19. Biosensor discovery of thyroxine transport disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Gerardo R; Meimaridou, Anastasia; Haasnoot, Willem; Meulenberg, Eline; Albertus, Faywell; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Takeuchi, Makoto; Irth, Hubertus; Murk, Albertinka J

    2008-10-01

    Ubiquitous chemicals may interfere with the thyroid system that is essential in the development and physiology of vertebrates. We applied a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor-based screening method for the fast screening of chemicals with thyroxine (T4) transport disrupting activity. Two inhibition assays using the main thyroid hormone transport proteins, T4 binding globulin (TBG) and transthyretin (TTR), in combination with a T4-coated biosensor chip were optimized and automated for screening chemical libraries. The transport protein-based biosensor assays were rapid, high throughput and bioeffect-related. A library of 62 chemicals including the natural hormones, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and metabolites, halogenated bisphenol A (BPA), halogenated phenols, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other potential environmentally relevant chemicals was tested with the two assays. We discovered ten new active compounds with moderate to high affinity for TBG with the TBG assay. Strikingly, the most potent binding was observed with hydroxylated metabolites of the brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) BDE 47, BDE 49 and BDE 99, that are commonly found in human plasma. The TTR assay confirmed the activity of previously identified hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs and PBDEs, halogenated BPA and genistein. These results show that the hydroxylated metabolites of the ubiquitous PBDEs not only target the T4 transport at the TTR level, but also, and to a great extent, at the TBG level where most of the T4 in humans is circulating. The optimized SPR biosensor-based transport protein assay is a suitable method for high throughput screening of large libraries for potential thyroid hormone disrupting compounds.

  20. A Coupled Chemical and Mass Transport Model for Concrete Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Mønster; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2012-01-01

    -Raphson iteration scheme arising from the non-linearity. The overall model is a transient problem, solved using a single parameter formulation. The sorption hysteresis and chemical equilibrium is included as source or sink terms. The advantages with this formulation is that each node in the discrete system has...... their individual sorption hysteresis isotherm which is of great importance when describing non fully water saturated system e.g. caused by time depended boundary conditions. Chemical equilibrium is also established in each node of the discrete system, where the rate of chemical degradation is determined.......g. charge balance, from the mass transport calculation could cause the above mentioned numerical problems. Two different test cases are studied, the sorption hysteresis in different depth of the sample, caused by time depended boundary condition and the chemical degradation of the solid matrix in a ten year...

  1. Multi-Stage Transportation Problem With Capacity Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Brezina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The classical transportation problem can be applied in a more general way in practice. Related problems as Multi-commodity transportation problem, Transportation problems with different kind of vehicles, Multi-stage transportation problems, Transportation problem with capacity limit is an extension of the classical transportation problem considering the additional special condition. For solving such problems many optimization techniques (dynamic programming, linear programming, special algorithms for transportation problem etc. and heuristics approaches (e.g. evolutionary techniques were developed. This article considers Multi-stage transportation problem with capacity limit that reflects limits of transported materials (commodity quantity. Discussed issues are: theoretical base, problem formulation as way as new proposed algorithm for that problem.

  2. Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez, Alfredo A; Cortés, Cristián E

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems develops methods for the design of predictive control strategies for nonlinear-dynamic hybrid discrete-/continuous-variable systems. The methodology is designed for real-time applications, particularly the study of dynamic transport systems. Operational and service policies are considered, as well as cost reduction. The control structure is based on a sound definition of the key variables and their evolution. A flexible objective function able to capture the predictive behaviour of the system variables is described. Coupled with efficient algorithms, mainly drawn from the area of computational intelligence, this is shown to optimize performance indices for real-time applications. The framework of the proposed predictive control methodology is generic and, being able to solve nonlinear mixed-integer optimization problems dynamically, is readily extendable to other industrial processes. The main topics of this book are: ●hybrid predictive control (HPC) ...

  3. A method for unbalanced transportation problems in fuzzy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Among linear programming problems, the transportation problem is very popular. ... Therefore, Zadeh (1965) introduced the concept of fuzzy numbers. ... While solving unbalanced transportation problems we come across two type of cases.

  4. Sharp fronts within geochemical transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindrod, P.

    1995-01-01

    The authors consider some reactive geochemical transport problems in groundwater systems. When incoming fluid is in disequilibrium with the mineralogy sharp transition fronts may develop. They show that this is a generic property for a class of systems where the timescales associated with reaction and diffusion phenomena are much shorter than those associated with advective transport. Such multiple timescale problems are relevant to a variety of processes in natural systems: mathematically methods of singular perturbation theory reduce the dimension of the problems to be solved locally. Furthermore, they consider how spatial heterogeneous mineralogy can impact upon the propagation of sharp geochemical fronts. The authors developed an asymptotic approach in which they solve equations for the evolving geometry of the front and indicate how the non-smooth perturbations due to natural heterogeneity of the mineralogy on underlying ground water flow field are balanced against the smoothing effect of diffusion/dispersive processes. Fronts are curvature damped, and the results here indicate the generic nature of separate front propagation within both model (idealized) and natural (heterogeneous) geochemical systems

  5. Nonlinear acceleration of transport criticality problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.; Knoll, D.A.; Newman, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    We present a nonlinear acceleration algorithm for the transport criticality problem. The algorithm combines the well-known nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) with a recently developed, Newton-based, nonlinear criticality acceleration (NCA) algorithm. The algorithm first employs the NDA to reduce the system to scalar flux, then the NCA is applied to the resulting drift-diffusion system. We apply a nonlinear elimination technique to eliminate the eigenvalue from the Jacobian matrix. Numerical results show that the algorithm reduces the CPU time a factor of 400 in a very diffusive system, and a factor of 5 in a non-diffusive system. (author)

  6. Cumulus parameterizations in chemical transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahowald, Natalie M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1995-12-01

    Global three-dimensional chemical transport models (CTMs) are valuable tools for studying processes controlling the distribution of trace constituents in the atmosphere. A major uncertainty in these models is the subgrid-scale parametrization of transport by cumulus convection. This study seeks to define the range of behavior of moist convective schemes and point toward more reliable formulations for inclusion in chemical transport models. The emphasis is on deriving convective transport from meteorological data sets (such as those from the forecast centers) which do not routinely include convective mass fluxes. Seven moist convective parameterizations are compared in a column model to examine the sensitivity of the vertical profile of trace gases to the parameterization used in a global chemical transport model. The moist convective schemes examined are the Emanuel scheme [Emanuel, 1991], the Feichter-Crutzen scheme [Feichter and Crutzen, 1990], the inverse thermodynamic scheme (described in this paper), two versions of a scheme suggested by Hack [Hack, 1994], and two versions of a scheme suggested by Tiedtke (one following the formulation used in the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting) and ECHAM3 (European Centre and Hamburg Max-Planck-Institut) models [Tiedtke, 1989], and one formulated as in the TM2 (Transport Model-2) model (M. Heimann, personal communication, 1992). These convective schemes vary in the closure used to derive the mass fluxes, as well as the cloud model formulation, giving a broad range of results. In addition, two boundary layer schemes are compared: a state-of-the-art nonlocal boundary layer scheme [Holtslag and Boville, 1993] and a simple adiabatic mixing scheme described in this paper. Three tests are used to compare the moist convective schemes against observations. Although the tests conducted here cannot conclusively show that one parameterization is better than the others, the tests are a good measure of the

  7. Spatial domain decomposition for neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, M.; Larsen, E.W.

    1989-01-01

    A spatial Domain Decomposition method is proposed for modifying the Source Iteration (SI) and Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) algorithms for solving discrete ordinates problems. The method, which consists of subdividing the spatial domain of the problem and performing the transport sweeps independently on each subdomain, has the advantage of being parallelizable because the calculations in each subdomain can be performed on separate processors. In this paper we describe the details of this spatial decomposition and study, by numerical experimentation, the effect of this decomposition on the SI and DSA algorithms. Our results show that the spatial decomposition has little effect on the convergence rates until the subdomains become optically thin (less than about a mean free path in thickness)

  8. Chemical Disarmament: Current Problems in Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek, J.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC is briefly characterised by stressing its main pillars, such as verified destruction ofCWstockpiles and destruction/conversion ofCWproduction facilities (CWPFs, verified non-production of CW by the chemical industries, assistance and protection, and international cooperation. The CWC´s leading principle in defining theCW(protecting it generally against scientific and technological development, i. e. so called General Purpose Criterion is thoroughly elucidated showing its relation to the CWC´s sophisticated verification system. Status of implementation (as of August 2005 shows main data obligatory declared by the States Parties (SP, among them 6 possessors of CW stockpiles (Russia, USA, India, South Korea, Albania and Libya. From the declared 71 373 agent-tons, 12 889 have been destroyed, from the declared 8 679 M items of munitions (containers, 2 420 have been destroyed, which means that the anticipated 10 years deadline for CW destruction (after entry into force – EIF will be not managed. For Russia and USA the allowed extension by another 5 years has been already agreed. From the 64 CWPFs (operational after 1946, declared by 12 SPs, 53 have been certified as destroyed/converted. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW is briefly presented and main results of the First Review Conference (2003 analysed on the base of the adopted principal documents. Future problems of implementing the CWC are connected in the first line with its universality, because among 16 non-SPs, several countries (located mainly in the Near East and on the Korean peninsula are presumed to be CW-possessors. Special emphasis is laid on both, threats and benefits of the scientific and technological development for current implementing the CWC as well as of its implementation in future after all CW stockpiles have been destroyed.

  9. THE PROBLEMS OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATIONS IN AN INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Barash

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic aspects of international passenger transportations in Ukraine are represented. The analysis of present situation in these transportations is carried out. Some variants of solving the problems of passenger transportations in an international communication are considered.

  10. Modeling Complex Chemical Systems: Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Non-equilibrium plasmas in complex gas mixtures are at the heart of numerous contemporary technologies. They typically contain dozens to hundreds of species, involved in hundreds to thousands of reactions. Chemists and physicists have always been interested in what are now called chemical reduction techniques (CRT's). The idea of such CRT's is that they reduce the number of species that need to be considered explicitly without compromising the validity of the model. This is usually achieved on the basis of an analysis of the reaction time scales of the system under study, which identifies species that are in partial equilibrium after a given time span. The first such CRT that has been widely used in plasma physics was developed in the 1960's and resulted in the concept of effective ionization and recombination rates. It was later generalized to systems in which multiple levels are effected by transport. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in tools for chemical reduction and reaction pathway analysis. An example of the latter is the PumpKin tool. Another trend is that techniques that have previously been developed in other fields of science are adapted as to be able to handle the plasma state of matter. Examples are the Intrinsic Low Dimension Manifold (ILDM) method and its derivatives, which originate from combustion engineering, and the general-purpose Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique. In this contribution we will provide an overview of the most common reduction techniques, then critically assess the pros and cons of the methods that have gained most popularity in recent years. Examples will be provided for plasmas in argon and carbon dioxide.

  11. Chemical Transport Models on Accelerator Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J.; Sandu, A.

    2008-12-01

    Heterogeneous multicore chipsets with many layers of polymorphic parallelism are becoming increasingly common in high-performance computing systems. Homogeneous co-processors with many streaming processors also offer unprecedented peak floating-point performance. Effective use of parallelism in these new chipsets is paramount. We present optimization techniques for 3D chemical transport models to take full advantage of emerging Cell Broadband Engine and graphical processing unit (GPU) technology. Our techniques achieve 2.15x the per-node performance of an IBM BlueGene/P on the Cell Broadband Engine, and a strongly-scalable 1.75x the per-node performance of an IBM BlueGene/P on an NVIDIA GeForce 8600.

  12. Renormalization-group approach to nonlinear radiation-transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapline, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    A Monte Carlo method is derived for solving nonlinear radiation-transport problems that allows one to average over the effects of many photon absorptions and emissions at frequencies where the opacity is large. This method should allow one to treat radiation-transport problems with large optical depths, e.g., line-transport problems, with little increase in computational effort over that which is required for optically thin problems

  13. A class of ejecta transport test problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerberg, James E.; Buttler, William T.; Oro, David M.; Rousculp, Christopher L.; Morris, Christopher; Mariam, Fesseha G.

    2011-01-01

    Hydro code implementations of ejecta dynamics at shocked interfaces presume a source distribution function ofparticulate masses and velocities, f 0 (m, v;t). Some of the properties of this source distribution function have been determined from extensive Taylor and supported wave experiments on shock loaded Sn interfaces of varying surface and subsurface morphology. Such experiments measure the mass moment of f o under vacuum conditions assuming weak particle-particle interaction and, usually, fully inelastic capture by piezo-electric diagnostic probes. Recently, planar Sn experiments in He, Ar, and Kr gas atmospheres have been carried out to provide transport data both for machined surfaces and for coated surfaces. A hydro code model of ejecta transport usually specifies a criterion for the instantaneous temporal appearance of ejecta with source distribution f 0 (m, v;t 0 ). Under the further assumption of separability, f 0 (m,v;t 0 ) = f 1 (m)f 2 (v), the motion of particles under the influence of gas dynamic forces is calculated. For the situation of non-interacting particulates, interacting with a gas via drag forces, with the assumption of separability and simplified approximations to the Reynolds number dependence of the drag coefficient, the dynamical equation for the time evolution of the distribution function, f(r,v,m;t), can be resolved as a one-dimensional integral which can be compared to a direct hydro simulation as a test problem. Such solutions can also be used for preliminary analysis of experimental data. We report solutions for several shape dependent drag coefficients and analyze the results of recent planar dsh experiments in Ar and Xe.

  14. Chemicals in Household Products: Problems with Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glegg, Gillian A.; Richards, Jonathan P.

    2007-12-01

    The success of a regulatory regime in decreasing point-source emissions of some harmful chemicals has highlighted the significance of other sources. A growing number of potentially harmful chemicals have been incorporated into an expanding range of domestic household products and are sold worldwide. Tighter regulation has been proposed, and the European Commission has introduced the Regulation on the Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals to address this concern. However, it is clear that in addition to the regulation, there is a potential to effect change through retailer and consumer attitudes and behaviours. Interviews were conducted with 7 key stakeholder groups to identify critical issues, which were then explored using a public survey questionnaire (1,008 respondents) and 8 subsequent focus groups. The findings demonstrated that the issue of chemicals in products is of concern to consumers for reasons of personal health rather than environmental protection. Key obstacles to the wider purchase of “green-alternative” products included perceived high cost and poor performance, lack of availability of products, and poor information concerning such products. Although improved regulation was seen as part of the solution, consumers must also play a role. It was clear from this study that consumers are not currently able to make informed choices about the chemicals they use but that they would be receptive to moving toward a more sustainable use of chemicals in the future if empowered to do so.

  15. Problems Of Transport Energetics In Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrazevicius, A.; Baublys, J.

    2001-01-01

    Lithuania has more than one million of transport means, the thermal capacity of which is about 50 mill. kW, i.e. 10 times more than the capacity of all thermal power stations. In the 21st century electrical energy will be used for transport means instead of petrol, and new capacities of electric stations in Lithuania will be necessary. All perspective transport means are described and conclusions for Lithuanian energetics are presented. (author)

  16. Potential for Intermodal Transport of Chemical Goods in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagelčák Juraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with intermodal transport of chemical goods in Slovak republic. Analysis is based on information from interviews with companies and logistics service providers. The first part of the article describes importance of Intermodal transport and basic transport routes for intermodal transport. Respondents considered advantages and disadvantages of intermodal transport. Possible improvements inside companies and improvements of external framework conditions to promote modal shift are described in the second part of the paper.

  17. Ship Block Transportation Scheduling Problem Based on Greedy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ship block transportation problems are crucial issues to address in reducing the construction cost and improving the productivity of shipyards. Shipyards aim to maximize the workload balance of transporters with time constraint such that all blocks should be transported during the planning horizon. This process leads to three types of penalty time: empty transporter travel time, delay time, and tardy time. This study aims to minimize the sum of the penalty time. First, this study presents the problem of ship block transportation with the generalization of the block transportation restriction on the multi-type transporter. Second, the problem is transformed into the classical traveling salesman problem and assignment problem through a reasonable model simplification and by adding a virtual node to the proposed directed graph. Then, a heuristic algorithm based on greedy algorithm is proposed to assign blocks to available transporters and sequencing blocks for each transporter simultaneously. Finally, the numerical experiment method is used to validate the model, and its result shows that the proposed algorithm is effective in realizing the efficient use of the transporters in shipyards. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the promising application of the proposed method to efficiently improve the utilization of transporters and to reduce the cost of ship block logistics for shipyards.

  18. Chemical Solutions of Fire Protection Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhitova, L.M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern approaches to the creation of fire protective coatings by modifying intumescent systems by nanomaterials with study of the chemical reaction mechanisms under the high temperatures influence were considered. A systematic study of the interactions of components of polyphosphate type intumescent blend were carried out, a well-defined correlations between the directions of chemical processes and fire retardant properties of intumescent coatings were found. Efficient ways to simultaneous increase of fireprotective efficiency and performance characteristics of intumescent coatings (operatin life, resistance to environmental factors and bioсontamination were proposed. The results of fundamental research allowed to develop new formulations of flame retardant compositions, whose properties have been confirmed by tests in accordance with existing standardized methods, these results were introduced into production.

  19. Exponential convergence on a continuous Monte Carlo transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    For more than a decade, it has been known that exponential convergence on discrete transport problems was possible using adaptive Monte Carlo techniques. An adaptive Monte Carlo method that empirically produces exponential convergence on a simple continuous transport problem is described

  20. Thermodynamic and transport properties of gaseous tetrafluoromethane in chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. L.; Boney, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    Equations and in computer code are presented for the thermodynamic and transport properties of gaseous, undissociated tetrafluoromethane (CF4) in chemical equilibrium. The computer code calculates the thermodynamic and transport properties of CF4 when given any two of five thermodynamic variables (entropy, temperature, volume, pressure, and enthalpy). Equilibrium thermodynamic and transport property data are tabulated and pressure-enthalpy diagrams are presented.

  1. Paradox in a non-linear capacitated transportation problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahiya Kalpana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a paradox in fixed charge capacitated transportation problem where the objective function is the sum of two linear fractional functions consisting of variables costs and fixed charges respectively. A paradox arises when the transportation problem admits of an objective function value which is lower than the optimal objective function value, by transporting larger quantities of goods over the same route. A sufficient condition for the existence of a paradox is established. Paradoxical range of flow is obtained for any given flow in which the corresponding objective function value is less than the optimum value of the given transportation problem. Numerical illustration is included in support of theory.

  2. A mesoscale chemical transport model (MEDIUM) nested in a global chemical transport model (MEDIANTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claveau, J; Ramaroson, R [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1998-12-31

    The lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (UT-LS) are frequently subject to mesoscale or local scale exchange of air masses occurring along discontinuities. This exchange (e.g. downward) can constitute one of the most important source of ozone from the stratosphere down to the middle troposphere where strong mixing dilutes the air mass and competing the non-linear chemistry. The distribution of the chemical species in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere depends upon various source emissions, e.g. from polluted boundary layer or from aircraft emissions. Global models, as well as chemical transport models describe the climatological state of the atmosphere and are not able to describe correctly the stratosphere and troposphere exchange. Mesoscale models go further in the description of smaller scales and can reasonably include a rather detailed chemistry. They can be used to assess the budget of NO{sub x} from aircraft emissions in a mesoscale domain. (author) 4 refs.

  3. A mesoscale chemical transport model (MEDIUM) nested in a global chemical transport model (MEDIANTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claveau, J.; Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (UT-LS) are frequently subject to mesoscale or local scale exchange of air masses occurring along discontinuities. This exchange (e.g. downward) can constitute one of the most important source of ozone from the stratosphere down to the middle troposphere where strong mixing dilutes the air mass and competing the non-linear chemistry. The distribution of the chemical species in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere depends upon various source emissions, e.g. from polluted boundary layer or from aircraft emissions. Global models, as well as chemical transport models describe the climatological state of the atmosphere and are not able to describe correctly the stratosphere and troposphere exchange. Mesoscale models go further in the description of smaller scales and can reasonably include a rather detailed chemistry. They can be used to assess the budget of NO{sub x} from aircraft emissions in a mesoscale domain. (author) 4 refs.

  4. Current problems in chemical track etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1984-01-01

    A schematic survey is given on the current relevant problems of the etching (or revelation) of multi-track and single-track events in dielectric solids. Some aspects of the research trends and possible new applications of the effects observable here, are also considered. (author)

  5. Distributed Graphs for Solving Co-modal Transport Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Karama , Jeribi; Hinda , Mejri; Hayfa , Zgaya; Slim , Hammadi

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The paper presents a new approach based on a special distributed graphs in order to solve co-modal transport problems. The co-modal transport system consists on combining different transport modes effectively in terms of economic, environmental, service and financial efficiency, etc. However, the problem is that these systems must deal with different distributed information sources stored in different locations and provided by different public and private companies. In...

  6. Solving fully fuzzy transportation problem using pentagonal fuzzy numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, P. Uma; Ganesan, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple approach for the solution of fuzzy transportation problem under fuzzy environment in which the transportation costs, supplies at sources and demands at destinations are represented by pentagonal fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy transportation problem is solved without converting to its equivalent crisp form using a robust ranking technique and a new fuzzy arithmetic on pentagonal fuzzy numbers. To illustrate the proposed approach a numerical example is provided.

  7. Solving a chemical batch scheduling problem by local search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brucker, P.; Hurink, Johann L.

    1999-01-01

    A chemical batch scheduling problem is modelled in two different ways as a discrete optimization problem. Both models are used to solve the batch scheduling problem in a two-phase tabu search procedure. The method is tested on real-world data.

  8. TOPICAL PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES OF INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Sulce, Anastasija

    2014-01-01

    The title of thesis is Typical Problems and Development Perspectives of International Freight Transport. This work is dedicated to different modes of international transportation, freight and logistics their advantages and disadvantages. Another essential part of the work related to different way for transport development and its efficient usage The objective is to explore modes of freight transport and logistics in details and, thereof, reveal advantages and disadvantages. On the basis ...

  9. Problems of linear electron (polaron) transport theory in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Klinger, M I

    1979-01-01

    Problems of Linear Electron (Polaron) Transport Theory in Semiconductors summarizes and discusses the development of areas in electron transport theory in semiconductors, with emphasis on the fundamental aspects of the theory and the essential physical nature of the transport processes. The book is organized into three parts. Part I focuses on some general topics in the theory of transport phenomena: the general dynamical theory of linear transport in dissipative systems (Kubo formulae) and the phenomenological theory. Part II deals with the theory of polaron transport in a crystalline semicon

  10. Dynamic Flow Management Problems in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sarah Stock

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, over six hundred thousand licensed pilots flew nearly thirty-five million flights into over eighteen thousand U.S. airports, logging more than 519 billion passenger miles. Since demand for air travel has increased by more than 50% in the last decade while capacity has stagnated, congestion is a problem of undeniable practical significance. In this thesis, we will develop optimization techniques that reduce the impact of congestion on the national airspace. We start by determining the optimal release times for flights into the airspace and the optimal speed adjustment while airborne taking into account the capacitated airspace. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Problem (TFMP). We address the complexity, showing that it is NP-hard. We build an integer programming formulation that is quite strong as some of the proposed inequalities are facet defining for the convex hull of solutions. For practical problems, the solutions of the LP relaxation of the TFMP are very often integral. In essence, we reduce the problem to efficiently solving large scale linear programming problems. Thus, the computation times are reasonably small for large scale, practical problems involving thousands of flights. Next, we address the problem of determining how to reroute aircraft in the airspace system when faced with dynamically changing weather conditions. This is called the Air Traffic Flow Management Rerouting Problem (TFMRP) We present an integrated mathematical programming approach for the TFMRP, which utilizes several methodologies, in order to minimize delay costs. In order to address the high dimensionality, we present an aggregate model, in which we formulate the TFMRP as a multicommodity, integer, dynamic network flow problem with certain side constraints. Using Lagrangian relaxation, we generate aggregate flows that are decomposed into a collection of flight paths using a randomized rounding heuristic. This collection of paths is used in a packing integer

  11. Chemical physics of decomposition of energetic materials. Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Lev P

    2004-01-01

    The review is concerned with analysis of the results obtained in the kinetic and mechanistic studies on decomposition of energetic materials (explosives, powders and solid propellants). It is shown that the state-of-the art in this field is inadequate to the potential of modern chemical kinetics and chemical physics. Unsolved problems are outlined and ways of their solution are proposed.

  12. ASYMPTOTICS OF a PARTICLES TRANSPORT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmina Ludmila Ivanovna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject: a groundwater filtration affects the strength and stability of underground and hydro-technical constructions. Research objectives: the study of one-dimensional problem of displacement of suspension by the flow of pure water in a porous medium. Materials and methods: when filtering a suspension some particles pass through the porous medium, and some of them are stuck in the pores. It is assumed that size distributions of the solid particles and the pores overlap. In this case, the main mechanism of particle retention is a size-exclusion: the particles pass freely through the large pores and get stuck at the inlet of the tiny pores that are smaller than the particle diameter. The concentrations of suspended and retained particles satisfy two quasi-linear differential equations of the first order. To solve the filtration problem, methods of nonlinear asymptotic analysis are used. Results: in a mathematical model of filtration of suspensions, which takes into account the dependence of the porosity and permeability of the porous medium on concentration of retained particles, the boundary between two phases is moving with variable velocity. The asymptotic solution to the problem is constructed for a small filtration coefficient. The theorem of existence of the asymptotics is proved. Analytical expressions for the principal asymptotic terms are presented for the case of linear coefficients and initial conditions. The asymptotics of the boundary of two phases is given in explicit form. Conclusions: the filtration problem under study can be solved analytically.

  13. Monte Carlo method for neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, Takumi

    1977-01-01

    Some methods for decreasing variances in Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations are presented together with the results of sample calculations. A general purpose neutron transport Monte Carlo code ''MORSE'' was used for the purpose. The first method discussed in this report is the method of statistical estimation. As an example of this method, the application of the coarse-mesh rebalance acceleration method to the criticality calculation of a cylindrical fast reactor is presented. Effective multiplication factor and its standard deviation are presented as a function of the number of histories and comparisons are made between the coarse-mesh rebalance method and the standard method. Five-group neutron fluxes at core center are also compared with the result of S4 calculation. The second method is the method of correlated sampling. This method was applied to the perturbation calculation of control rod worths in a fast critical assembly (FCA-V-3) Two methods of sampling (similar flight paths and identical flight paths) are tested and compared with experimental results. For every cases the experimental value lies within the standard deviation of the Monte Carlo calculations. The third method is the importance sampling. In this report a biased selection of particle flight directions discussed. This method was applied to the flux calculation in a spherical fast neutron system surrounded by a 10.16 cm iron reflector. Result-direction biasing, path-length stretching, and no biasing are compared with S8 calculation. (Aoki, K.)

  14. Efficient decomposition and linearization methods for the stochastic transportation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, K.

    1993-01-01

    The stochastic transportation problem can be formulated as a convex transportation problem with nonlinear objective function and linear constraints. We compare several different methods based on decomposition techniques and linearization techniques for this problem, trying to find the most efficient method or combination of methods. We discuss and test a separable programming approach, the Frank-Wolfe method with and without modifications, the new technique of mean value cross decomposition and the more well known Lagrangian relaxation with subgradient optimization, as well as combinations of these approaches. Computational tests are presented, indicating that some new combination methods are quite efficient for large scale problems. (authors) (27 refs.)

  15. Optimal calculational schemes for solving multigroup photon transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, A.A.; Kurachenko, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    A scheme of complex algorithm for solving multigroup equation of radiation transport is suggested. The algorithm is based on using the method of successive collisions, the method of forward scattering and the spherical harmonics method, and is realized in the FORAP program (FORTRAN, BESM-6 computer). As an example the results of calculating reactor photon transport in water are presented. The considered algorithm being modified may be used for solving neutron transport problems

  16. Fundaments of transport equation splitting and the eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancic, V.

    2000-01-01

    In order to remove some singularities concerning the boundary conditions of one dimensional transport equation, a split form of transport equation describing the forward i.e. μ≥0, and a backward μ<0 directed neutrons is being proposed here. The eigenvalue problem has also been considered here (author)

  17. Problem Sets: Fundamentals Of Transportation And Traffic Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Daganzo, Carlos F.

    1998-01-01

    These problem sets comprise a supplement to Fundamentals of Transportation and Traffic Operations (C. Daganzo, Pergamon, 1997). Academicians can also obtain a companion set of solutions by writing to "Institute of Transportation Studies, Publications Office, 109 McLaughlin Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720" or by sending e-mail to .

  18. Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calado, V.E.; Zhu, S.E.; Goswami, S.; Xu, Q.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be

  19. A Coupled Chemical and Mass Transport Model for Concrete Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Mønster; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a general continuum theory is used to evaluate the service life of cement based materials, in terms of mass transport processes and chemical degradation of the solid matrix. The model established is a reactive mass transport model, based on an extended version of the Poisson-Nernst-...

  20. Toward a comprehensive model of chemical transport in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.

    1983-02-01

    A chemical transport model, CHEMTRN, that includes advection, dispersion/diffusion, complexation, sorption, precipitation or dissolution of solids, and the dissociation of water has been written. The transport, mass action and site constraint equations are written in a differential/algebraic form and solved simultaneously. The sorption process is modelled by either ion-exchange or surface complexation. The model has been used to investigate the applicability of a k/sub D/ model for simulating the transport of chemical species in groundwater systems, to simulate precipitation/dissolution of minerals, and to consider the effect of surface complexation on sorption

  1. On the Structure of the Fixed Charge Transportation Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, K.

    2005-01-01

    This work extends the theory of the fixed charge transportation problem (FCTP), currently based mostly on a forty-year-old publication by Hirsch and Danzig. This paper presents novel properties that need to be considered by those using existing, or those developing new methods for optimizing FCTP. It also defines the problem in an easier way,…

  2. Determination of chemical solute transport parameters effecting radiostrontium interbed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemming, C.; Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The extent to which radionuclides migrate in an aquifer system is a function of various physical, chemical, and biological processes. A measure of this migration rate is of primary concern when locating suitable storage sites for such species. Parameters including water-rock interactions, infiltration rates, chemical phase modification, and biochemical reactions all affect solute transport. While these different types of chemical reactions can influence solute transport in subsurface waters, distribution coefficients (Kd) can be send to effectively summarize the net chemical factors which dictate transport efficiency. This coefficient describes the partitioning of the solute between the solution and solid phase. Methodology used in determining and interpreting the distribution coefficient for radiostrontium in well characterized sediments will be presented

  3. Transport-constrained extensions of collision and track length estimators for solutions of radiative transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Rong; Spanier, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we develop novel extensions of collision and track length estimators for the complete space-angle solutions of radiative transport problems. We derive the relevant equations, prove that our new estimators are unbiased, and compare their performance with that of more conventional estimators. Such comparisons based on numerical solutions of simple one dimensional slab problems indicate the the potential superiority of the new estimators for a wide variety of more general transport problems

  4. The problem of living in a world contaminated with chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, R.L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The proliferation of xenobiotic chemicals in the global environment poses living problems for each of us aboard {open_quotes}spaceship earth.{close_quotes} Seven case studies are presented that illustrate the magnitude of the problem that can result from waiting to identify toxic hazards until there have been decades of {open_quotes}human guinea pig{close_quotes} exposure. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Handling and transport problems (1960); Problemes de manipulation et de transport (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J; Savouyaud, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    I. The handling and transport of radioactive wastes involves the danger of irradiation and contamination. It is indispensable: - to lay down a special set of rules governing the removal and transport of wastes within centres or from one centre to another; - to give charge of this transportation to a group containing teams of specialists. The organisation, equipment and output of these teams is being examined. II. Certain materials are particularly dangerous to transport, and for these special vehicles and fixed installations are necessary. This is the case especially for the evacuation of very active liquids. A transport vehicle is described, consisting of a trailer tractor and a recipient holding 500 litres of liquid of which the activity can reach 1000 C/l; the decanting operation, the route to be followed by the vehicle, and the precautions taken are also described. (author) [French] I. La manipulation et le transport des dechets radioactifs presentent des dangers d'irradiation et de contamination. Il est necessaire: - d'edicter des consignes speciales applicables a l'enlevement et au transport des dechets dans les centres ou de centre a centre; - de confier les transports a un groupe dont relevent des equipes specialisees; - on examine l'organisation, les moyens, le rendement de ces equipes. II. Certains transports sont particulierement dangereux et necessitent des engins speciaux et des installations fixes. C'est le cas, notamment de l'evacuation des liquides tres actifs. On decrit: - un engin de transport compose d'un ensemble a tracteur semi-remorque et d'un recipient qui contient 500 litres de liquide dont l'activite peut atteindre 1000 C/l; - les operations de transvasement, l'acheminement de l'engin, les precautions prises. (auteur)

  6. On the Use of Importance Sampling in Particle Transport Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, B.

    1965-06-01

    The idea of importance sampling is applied to the problem of solving integral equations of Fredholm's type. Especially Bolzmann's neutron transport equation is taken into consideration. For the solution of the latter equation, an importance sampling technique is derived from some simple transformations at the original transport equation into a similar equation. Examples of transformations are given, which have been used with great success in practice

  7. On the Use of Importance Sampling in Particle Transport Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, B

    1965-06-15

    The idea of importance sampling is applied to the problem of solving integral equations of Fredholm's type. Especially Bolzmann's neutron transport equation is taken into consideration. For the solution of the latter equation, an importance sampling technique is derived from some simple transformations at the original transport equation into a similar equation. Examples of transformations are given, which have been used with great success in practice.

  8. Transport casks help solve spent fuel interim storage problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierkes, P.; Janberg, K.; Baatz, H.; Weinhold, G.

    1980-01-01

    Transport casks can be used as storage modules, combining the inherent safety of passive cooling with the absence of secondary radioactive waste and the flexibility to build up storage capacity according to actual requirements. In the Federal Republic of Germany, transport casks are being developed as a solution to its interim storage problems. Criteria for their design and licensing are outlined. Details are given of the casks and the storage facility. Tests are illustrated. (U.K.)

  9. Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem: example of planning choice in transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tao; Young, Rhonda

    2010-05-01

    Transportation programming, a process of selecting projects for funding given budget and other constraints, is becoming more complex as a result of new federal laws, local planning regulations, and increased public involvement. This article describes the use of an integer programming tool, Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem (MCKP), to provide optimal solutions to transportation programming problems in cases where alternative versions of projects are under consideration. In this paper, optimization methods for use in the transportation programming process are compared and then the process of building and solving the optimization problems is discussed. The concepts about the use of MCKP are presented and a real-world transportation programming example at various budget levels is provided. This article illustrates how the use of MCKP addresses the modern complexities and provides timely solutions in transportation programming practice. While the article uses transportation programming as a case study, MCKP can be useful in other fields where a similar decision among a subset of the alternatives is required. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is radioactive mixed waste packaging and transportation really a problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, D.L.; Calihan, T.W. III.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, there has been significant concern expressed in the nuclear community over the packaging and transportation of radioactive mixed waste under US Department of Transportation regulation. This concern has grown more intense over the last 5 to 10 years. Generators and regulators have realized that much of the waste shipped as ''low-level radioactive waste'' was in fact ''radioactive mixed waste'' and that these wastes pose unique transportation and disposal problems. Radioactive mixed wastes must, therefore, be correctly identified and classed for shipment. If must also be packaged, marked, labeled, and otherwise prepared to ensure safe transportation and meet applicable storage and disposal requirements, when established. This paper discusses regulations applicable to the packaging and transportation of radioactive mixed waste and identifies effective methods that waste shippers can adopt to meet the current transportation requirements. This paper will include a characterization and description of the waste, authorized packaging, and hazard communication requirements during transportation. Case studies will be sued to assist generators in understanding mixed waste shipment requirements and clarify the requirements necessary to establish a waste shipment program. Although management and disposal of radioactive mixed waste is clearly a critical issue, packaging and transportation of these waste materials is well defined in existing US Department of Transportation hazardous material regulations

  11. Efficient modeling of reactive transport phenomena by a multispecies random walk coupled to chemical equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfingsten, W.

    1996-01-01

    Safety assessments for radioactive waste repositories require a detailed knowledge of physical, chemical, hydrological, and geological processes for long time spans. In the past, individual models for hydraulics, transport, or geochemical processes were developed more or less separately to great sophistication for the individual processes. Such processes are especially important in the near field of a waste repository. Attempts have been made to couple at least two individual processes to get a more adequate description of geochemical systems. These models are called coupled codes; they couple predominantly a multicomponent transport model with a chemical reaction model. Here reactive transport is modeled by the sequentially coupled code MCOTAC that couples one-dimensional advective, dispersive, and diffusive transport with chemical equilibrium complexation and precipitation/dissolution reactions in a porous medium. Transport, described by a random walk of multispecies particles, and chemical equilibrium calculations are solved separately, coupled only by an exchange term. The modular-structured code was applied to incongruent dissolution of hydrated silicate gels, to movement of multiple solid front systems, and to an artificial, numerically difficult heterogeneous redox problem. These applications show promising features with respect to applicability to relevant problems and possibilities of extensions

  12. UTMTOX, Toxic Chemical Transport in Atmosphere, Ground Water, Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A - Description of program or function: UTMTOX is a unified transport model for toxic materials. It combines hydrologic, atmospheric, and sediment transport in one computer code and extends the scope to predict the transport of not only trace metals but also many chemical compounds, including organics. UTMTOX is capable of calculating 1) the atmospheric dispersion of up to 20 chemicals from a maximum of 10 point, 10 line, and 10 area sources; 2) deposition of one chemical at a time in both wet and dry form on foliage or the surface of the earth; 3) surface flow and erosion; 4) percolation through the soil to a stream channel; and 5) flow in the stream channel to the outfall of a watershed. B - Method of solution: UTMTOX calculates rates of flux of chemicals from release to the atmosphere, through deposition on a watershed, infiltration, and runoff from the soil to flow in the stream channel and the associated sediment transport. From these values, mass balances can be established, budgets for the chemical can be made, and concentrations in many environmental compartments can be estimated. Since the coupling is established among three major submodels, they can share data

  13. Particle swarm optimization - Genetic algorithm (PSOGA) on linear transportation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmalia, Dinita

    2017-08-01

    Linear Transportation Problem (LTP) is the case of constrained optimization where we want to minimize cost subject to the balance of the number of supply and the number of demand. The exact method such as northwest corner, vogel, russel, minimal cost have been applied at approaching optimal solution. In this paper, we use heurisitic like Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for solving linear transportation problem at any size of decision variable. In addition, we combine mutation operator of Genetic Algorithm (GA) at PSO to improve optimal solution. This method is called Particle Swarm Optimization - Genetic Algorithm (PSOGA). The simulations show that PSOGA can improve optimal solution resulted by PSO.

  14. Transport and Fate of Volatile Organic Chemical in Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lis Wollesen

    Recently much attention has been paid to the behavior of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in the environment. This is due to the fact that the environmental pollution with these hazardous chemicals has drastically increased during the last decades. The present study is limited to consider...... the transport and fate of VOCs in the gaseous phase, thus contributing to the overall understanding of VOCs behavior in soil, which eventually will facilitate future cleanup....

  15. Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calado, V. E.; Goswami, S.; Xu, Q.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Zhu, Shou-En; Janssen, G. C. A. M.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be ballistically directed by a magnetic field (transverse magnetic focussing) over length scales of ∼1 μm. Comparison with atomic force microscope measurements suggests a correlation between the absence of wrinkles and the presence of ballistic transport in CVD graphene

  16. Ballistic transport in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calado, V. E.; Goswami, S.; Xu, Q.; Vandersypen, L. M. K., E-mail: l.m.k.vandersypen@tudelft.nl [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Zhu, Shou-En; Janssen, G. C. A. M. [Micro and Nano Engineering Laboratory, Precision and Microsystems Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T. [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-01-13

    In this letter, we report the observation of ballistic transport on micron length scales in graphene synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Transport measurements were done on Hall bar geometries in a liquid He cryostat. Using non-local measurements, we show that electrons can be ballistically directed by a magnetic field (transverse magnetic focussing) over length scales of ∼1 μm. Comparison with atomic force microscope measurements suggests a correlation between the absence of wrinkles and the presence of ballistic transport in CVD graphene.

  17. Coupling between solute transport and chemical reactions models. Acoplamiento de modelos de transporte de solutos y de modelos de reacciones quimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samper, J.; Ajora, C. (Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC, Barcerlona (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    During subsurface transport, reactive solutes are subject to a variety of hydrodynamic and chemical processes. The major hydrodynamic processes include advection and convection, dispersion and diffusion. The key chemical processes are complexation including hydrolysis and acid-base reactions, dissolution-precipitation, reduction-oxidation, adsorption and ion exchange. The combined effects of all these processes on solute transport must satisfy the principle of conservation of mass. The statement of conservation of mass for N mobile species leads to N partial differential equations. Traditional solute transport models often incorporate the effects of hydrodynamic processes rigorously but oversimplify chemical interactions among aqueous species. Sophisticated chemical equilibrium models, on the other hand, incorporate a variety of chemical processes but generally assume no-flow systems. In the past decade, coupled models accounting for complex hydrological and chemical processes, with varying degrees of sophistication, have been developed. The existing models of reactive transport employ two basic sets of equations. The transport of solutes is described by a set of partial differential equations, and the chemical processes, under the assumption of equilibrium, are described by a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. An important consideration in any approach is the choice of primary dependent variables. Most existing models cannot account for the complete set of chemical processes, cannot be easily extended to include mixed chemical equilibria and kinetics, and cannot handle practical two and three dimensional problems. The difficulties arise mainly from improper selection of the primary variables in the transport equations. (Author) 38 refs.

  18. Two-stage optimization in a transportation problem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stewart, TJ

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the economic distribution of maize throughout South Africa is reported. Although the problem of minimizing total transportation costs in such a situation is a classical one, and its solution is well known, there was in this case a high...

  19. Finite element method for solving neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.M.; Greenbaum, A.

    1984-01-01

    A finite element method is introduced for solving the neutron transport equations. Our method falls into the category of Petrov-Galerkin solution, since the trial space differs from the test space. The close relationship between this method and the discrete ordinate method is discussed, and the methods are compared for simple test problems

  20. A numerical study for global atmospheric transport-chemistry problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Spee (Edwin); J.G. Verwer (Jan); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); J.G. Blom (Joke); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    1998-01-01

    htmlabstractAtmospheric air quality modeling relies in part on numerical simulation. Required numerical simulations are often hampered by lack of computer capacity and computational speed. This problem is most severe in the field of global modeling where transport and exchange of trace constituents

  1. A numerical study for global atmospheric transport-chemistry problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Spee (Edwin); J.G. Verwer (Jan); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); J.G. Blom (Joke); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAtmospheric air quality modeling relies in part on numerical simulation. Required numerical simulations are often hampered by lack of computer capacity and computational speed. This problem is most severe in the field of global modeling where transport and exchange of trace constituents

  2. Selecting The Best Initial Method For A Transportation Problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is concerned with determining the best initial method for a transportation problem. Seven initial methods are considered and compared. One is a new method that has not been reported in the literature. Comparison is done on the basis of the number of iterations required to reach the final solution if the concerned ...

  3. Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichner, R.P.; Jolley, R.L.; Gat, U.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1984-10-01

    This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly

  4. The isotope density inverse problem in multigroup neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zazula, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The inverse problem for stationary multigroup anisotropic neutron transport is discussed in order to search for isotope densities in multielement medium. The spatial- and angular-integrated form of neutron transport equation, in terms of the flux in a group - density of an element spatial correlation, leads to a set of integral functionals for the densities weighted by the group fluxes. Some methods of approximation to make the problem uniquently solvable are proposed. Particularly P 0 angular flux information and the spherically-symetrical geometry of an infinite medium are considered. The numerical calculation using this method related to sooner evaluated direct problem data gives promising agreement with primary densities. This approach would be the basis for further application in an elemental analysis of a medium, using an isotopic neutron source and a moving, energy-dependent neutron detector. (author)

  5. Problem-based learning biotechnology courses in chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Charles E; Gonzalez, Ramon; Huba, Mary E; Mallapragada, Surya K; Narasimhan, Balaji; Reilly, Peter J; Saunders, Kevin P; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a series of upper undergraduate/graduate lecture and laboratory courses on biotechnological topics to supplement existing biochemical engineering, bioseparations, and biomedical engineering lecture courses. The laboratory courses are based on problem-based learning techniques, featuring two- and three-person teams, journaling, and performance rubrics for guidance and assessment. Participants initially have found them to be difficult, since they had little experience with problem-based learning. To increase enrollment, we are combining the laboratory courses into 2-credit groupings and allowing students to substitute one of them for the second of our 2-credit chemical engineering unit operations laboratory courses.

  6. Measurement of gas transport properties for chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1996-12-01

    In the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for fabricating ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), transport of gas phase reactant into the fiber preform is a critical step. The transport can be driven by pressure or by concentration. This report describes methods for measuring this for CVI preforms and partially infiltrated composites. Results are presented for Nicalon fiber cloth layup preforms and composites, Nextel fiber braid preforms and composites, and a Nicalon fiber 3-D weave composite. The results are consistent with a percolating network model for gas transport in CVI preforms and composites. This model predicts inherent variability in local pore characteristics and transport properties, and therefore, in local densification during processing; this may lead to production of gastight composites.

  7. Approximation of scalar and vector transport problems on polyhedral meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyzes, at the continuous and at the discrete level on polyhedral meshes, the scalar and the vector transport problems in three-dimensional domains. These problems are composed of a diffusive term, an advective term, and a reactive term. In the context of Friedrichs systems, the continuous problems are analyzed in Lebesgue graph spaces. The classical positivity assumption on the Friedrichs tensor is generalized so as to consider the case of practical interest where this tensor takes null or slightly negative values. A new scheme converging at the order 3/2 is devised for the scalar advection-reaction problem using scalar degrees of freedom attached to mesh vertices. Two new schemes considering as well scalar degrees of freedom attached to mesh vertices are devised for the scalar transport problem and are robust with respect to the dominant regime. The first scheme converges at the order 1/2 when advection effects are dominant and at the order 1 when diffusion effects are dominant. The second scheme improves the accuracy by converging at the order 3/2 when advection effects are dominant. Finally, a new scheme converging at the order 1/2 is devised for the vector advection-reaction problem considering only one scalar degree of freedom per mesh edge. The accuracy and the efficiency of all these schemes are assessed on various test cases using three-dimensional polyhedral meshes. (author)

  8. Modified Monte Carlo procedure for particle transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, W.

    1978-01-01

    The simulation of photon transport in the atmosphere with the Monte Carlo method forms part of the EURASEP-programme. The specifications for the problems posed for a solution were such, that the direct application of the analogue Monte Carlo method was not feasible. For this reason the standard Monte Carlo procedure was modified in the sense that additional properly weighted branchings at each collision and transport process in a photon history were introduced. This modified Monte Carlo procedure leads to a clear and logical separation of the essential parts of a problem and offers a large flexibility for variance reducing techniques. More complex problems, as foreseen in the EURASEP-programme (e.g. clouds in the atmosphere, rough ocean-surface and chlorophyl-distribution in the ocean) can be handled by recoding some subroutines. This collision- and transport-splitting procedure can of course be performed differently in different space- and energy regions. It is applied here only for a homogeneous problem

  9. The transportation management division institutional program: Networking and problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, K.A.; Peterson, J.M.

    1989-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has several programs related to transportation. While these programs may have differing missions and legislative authority, the required activities are frequently similar. To ensure a DOE-wide perspective in developing transportation policies and procedures, a DOE Transportation Institutional Task Force (Task Force) has been formed, which is the primary focus of this paper. The Task Force, composed of representatives from each of the major DOE transportation programs, meets periodically to exchange experiences and insights on institutional issues related to Departmental shipping. The primary purpose of the group is to identify opportunities for productive interactions with the transportation community, including interested and affected members of the public. This paper will also focus sharply on the networking of DOE with the State, Tribal, and local officials in fostering better understanding and in solving problems. An example of such activity is the DOE's cooperative agreement with the Energy Task Force of the Urban Consortium. A major effort is to encourage cooperative action in identifying, addressing, and resolving issues that could impede the transportation of radioactive materials

  10. Transport synthetic acceleration for long-characteristics assembly-level transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zika, M R; Adams, M L

    2000-02-01

    The authors apply the transport synthetic acceleration (TSA) scheme to the long-characteristics spatial discretization for the two-dimensional assembly-level transport problem. This synthetic method employs a simplified transport operator as its low-order approximation. Thus, in the acceleration step, the authors take advantage of features of the long-characteristics discretization that make it particularly well suited to assembly-level transport problems. The main contribution is to address difficulties unique to the long-characteristics discretization and produce a computationally efficient acceleration scheme. The combination of the long-characteristics discretization, opposing reflecting boundary conditions (which are present in assembly-level transport problems), and TSA presents several challenges. The authors devise methods for overcoming each of them in a computationally efficient way. Since the boundary angular data exist on different grids in the high- and low-order problems, they define restriction and prolongation operations specific to the method of long characteristics to map between the two grids. They implement the conjugate gradient (CG) method in the presence of opposing reflection boundary conditions to solve the TSA low-order equations. The CG iteration may be applied only to symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices; they prove that the long-characteristics discretization yields an SPD matrix. They present results of the acceleration scheme on a simple test problem, a typical pressurized water reactor assembly, and a typical boiling water reactor assembly.

  11. Transport synthetic acceleration for long-characteristics assembly-level transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zika, M.R.; Adams, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The authors apply the transport synthetic acceleration (TSA) scheme to the long-characteristics spatial discretization for the two-dimensional assembly-level transport problem. This synthetic method employs a simplified transport operator as its low-order approximation. Thus, in the acceleration step, the authors take advantage of features of the long-characteristics discretization that make it particularly well suited to assembly-level transport problems. The main contribution is to address difficulties unique to the long-characteristics discretization and produce a computationally efficient acceleration scheme. The combination of the long-characteristics discretization, opposing reflecting boundary conditions (which are present in assembly-level transport problems), and TSA presents several challenges. The authors devise methods for overcoming each of them in a computationally efficient way. Since the boundary angular data exist on different grids in the high- and low-order problems, they define restriction and prolongation operations specific to the method of long characteristics to map between the two grids. They implement the conjugate gradient (CG) method in the presence of opposing reflection boundary conditions to solve the TSA low-order equations. The CG iteration may be applied only to symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices; they prove that the long-characteristics discretization yields an SPD matrix. They present results of the acceleration scheme on a simple test problem, a typical pressurized water reactor assembly, and a typical boiling water reactor assembly

  12. Transport Synthetic Acceleration for Long-Characteristics Assembly-Level Transport Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zika, Michael R.; Adams, Marvin L.

    2000-01-01

    We apply the transport synthetic acceleration (TSA) scheme to the long-characteristics spatial discretization for the two-dimensional assembly-level transport problem. This synthetic method employs a simplified transport operator as its low-order approximation. Thus, in the acceleration step, we take advantage of features of the long-characteristics discretization that make it particularly well suited to assembly-level transport problems. Our main contribution is to address difficulties unique to the long-characteristics discretization and produce a computationally efficient acceleration scheme.The combination of the long-characteristics discretization, opposing reflecting boundary conditions (which are present in assembly-level transport problems), and TSA presents several challenges. We devise methods for overcoming each of them in a computationally efficient way. Since the boundary angular data exist on different grids in the high- and low-order problems, we define restriction and prolongation operations specific to the method of long characteristics to map between the two grids. We implement the conjugate gradient (CG) method in the presence of opposing reflection boundary conditions to solve the TSA low-order equations. The CG iteration may be applied only to symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices; we prove that the long-characteristics discretization yields an SPD matrix. We present results of our acceleration scheme on a simple test problem, a typical pressurized water reactor assembly, and a typical boiling water reactor assembly

  13. Solved and unsolved problems of chemical graph theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinajstic, N.; Klein, D.J.; Randic, M.

    1986-01-01

    The development of several novel graph theoretical concepts and their applications in different branches of chemistry are reviewed. After a few introductory remarks they follow with an outline of selected important graph theoretical invariants, introducing some new results and indicating some open problems. They continue with discussing the problem of graph characterization and construction of graphs of chemical interest, with a particular emphasis on large systems. Finally they consider various problems and difficulties associated with special subgraphs, including subgraphs representing Kekule valence structures. The paper ends with a brief review of structure-property and structure-activity correlations, the topic which is one of prime motivations for application of graph theory to chemistry

  14. Class and Home Problems: Humidification, a True "Home" Problem for p. Chemical Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoret, Jean-Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The problem of maintaining hygrothermal comfort in a house is addressed using the chemical engineer's toolbox. A simple dynamic modelling proved to give a good description of the humidification of the house in winter, using a domestic humidifier. Parameters of the model were identified from a simple experiment. Surprising results, especially…

  15. Chemical and kinetic equilibrations via radiative parton transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin; Wortman, Warner A

    2011-01-01

    A hot and dense partonic system can be produced in the early stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision. How it equilibrates is important for the extraction of Quark-Gluon Plasma properties. We study the chemical and kinetic equilibrations of the Quark-Gluon Plasma using a radiative transport model. Thermal and Color-Glass-Condensate motivated initial conditions are used. We observe that screened parton interactions always lead to partial pressure isotropization. Different initial pressure anisotropies result in the same asymptotic evolution. Comparison of evolutions with and without radiative processes shows that chemical equilibration interacts with kinetic equilibration and radiative processes can contribute significantly to pressure isotropization.

  16. Criticality problems in energy dependent neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victory, H.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The criticality problem is considered for energy dependent neutron transport in an isotropically scattering, homogeneous slab. Under a positivity assumption on the scattering kernel, an expression can be found relating the thickness of the slab to a parameter characterizing production by fission. This is accomplished by exploiting the Perron-Frobenius-Jentsch characterization of positive operators (i.e. those leaving invariant a normal, reproducing cone in a Banach space). It is pointed out that those techniques work for classes of multigroup problems were the Case singular eigenfunction approach is not as feasible as in the one-group theory, which is also analyzed

  17. A contribution to problems of clean transport of bulk materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedora Jaroslav

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The lecture analyses the problem of development of the pipe conveyor with a rubber belt, the facitities of its application in the practice and environmental aspects resulting from its application. The pipe conveyor is a new perspective transport system. It enables ransporting bulk materials (coal, crushed, rock, coke, plant ash, fertilisers, limestones, time in a specific operations (power plants, heating plants.cellulose, salt, sugar, wheat and other materials with a minimum effect on the environment. The transported material is enclosed in the pipeline so that there is no escape of dust, smell or of the transported material itself. The lecture is aimed at: - the short description of the operating principle and design of the pipe conveyor which was developed in the firm Matador Púchov in cooperation with the firm TEDO, - the analysis of experiencie in working some pipe conveyors which were under operation for a certain

  18. The spectral volume method as applied to transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClarren, Ryan G.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new spatial discretization for transport problems: the spectral volume method. This method, rst developed by Wang for computational fluid dynamics, divides each computational cell into several sub-cells and enforces particle balance on each of these sub-cells. Also, these sub-cells are used to build a polynomial reconstruction in the cell. The idea of dividing cells into many cells is a generalization of the simple corner balance and other similar schemes. The spectral volume method preserves particle conservation and preserves the asymptotic diffusion limit. We present results from the method on two transport problems in slab geometry using discrete ordinates and second through sixth order spectral volume schemes. The numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and preservation of the diffusion limit of the spectral volume method. Future work will explore possible bene ts of the scheme for high-performance computing and for resolving diffusive boundary layers. (author)

  19. Engineering solutions of traffic safety problems of road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bogdevičius

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper focus on the simulation of the motor vehicle movement (taking into consideration motor vehicle dynamics, motor vehicle hydraulic brake system influence on motor vehicle movement, interaction between its wheels with road pavements, road guardrail characteristics, interaction between motor vehicle and road guardrail on a certain road section and propose their specific solution of this problem. The presented results, illustrating the motor vehicle movement trajectories (motor vehicle braking and interaction between motor vehicle and road guardrail at various initial conditions and at various certain pavement surface of the road section under investigation and work of a motor vehicle hydraulic brake system. Taking into consideration the presented general mathematical model and computer aided test results it is possible to investigate various road transport traffic situations as well as to investigate various transport traffic safety problems.

  20. A review on fuzzy and stochastic extensions of the multi index transportation problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sungeeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical transportation problem (having source and destination as indices deals with the objective of minimizing a single criterion, i.e. cost of transporting a commodity. Additional indices such as commodities and modes of transport led to the Multi Index transportation problem. An additional fixed cost, independent of the units transported, led to the Multi Index Fixed Charge transportation problem. Criteria other than cost (such as time, profit etc. led to the Multi Index Bi-criteria transportation problem. The application of fuzzy and stochastic concept in the above transportation problems would enable researchers to not only introduce real life uncertainties but also obtain solutions of these transportation problems. The review article presents an organized study of the Multi Index transportation problem and its fuzzy and stochastic extensions till today, and aims to help researchers working with complex transportation problems.

  1. Efficient solution of a multi objective fuzzy transportation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhya, V.; Ganesan, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for the solution of multi-objective fuzzy transportation problem when all the cost and time coefficients are trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and the supply and demand are crisp numbers. Using a new fuzzy arithmetic on parametric form of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and a new ranking method all efficient solutions are obtained. The proposed method is illustrated with an example.

  2. Development of the Contiguous-cells Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Charles-Owaba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of scheduling a long string of multi-period activities which have to be completed without interruption has always been an industrial challenge. The existing production/maintenance scheduling algorithms can only handle situations where activities can be split into two or more sets of activities carried out in non-contiguous sets of work periods. This study proposes a contiguous-periods production/maintenance scheduling approach using the Transportation Model. Relevant variables and parameters of contiguous-cells scheduling problem were taken from the literature. A scheduling optimization problem was defined and solved using a contiguous-cells transportation algorithm (CCTA which was applied in order to determine the optimal maintenance schedule of a fleet of ships at a dockyard in South-Western Nigeria. Fifteen different problems were solved. It is concluded that the contiguous-cells transportation approach to production/ maintenance scheduling is feasible. The model will be a useful decision support tool for scheduling maintenance operations.

  3. An Algorithm for the Mixed Transportation Network Design Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Qun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, the dimension-down iterative algorithm (DDIA), for solving a mixed transportation network design problem (MNDP), which is generally expressed as a mathematical programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC). The upper level of the MNDP aims to optimize the network performance via both the expansion of the existing links and the addition of new candidate links, whereas the lower level is a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE) problem. The idea of the proposed solution algorithm (DDIA) is to reduce the dimensions of the problem. A group of variables (discrete/continuous) is fixed to optimize another group of variables (continuous/discrete) alternately; then, the problem is transformed into solving a series of CNDPs (continuous network design problems) and DNDPs (discrete network design problems) repeatedly until the problem converges to the optimal solution. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that its solution process is very simple and easy to apply. Numerical examples show that for the MNDP without budget constraint, the optimal solution can be found within a few iterations with DDIA. For the MNDP with budget constraint, however, the result depends on the selection of initial values, which leads to different optimal solutions (i.e., different local optimal solutions). Some thoughts are given on how to derive meaningful initial values, such as by considering the budgets of new and reconstruction projects separately.

  4. An Algorithm for the Mixed Transportation Network Design Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Liu

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, the dimension-down iterative algorithm (DDIA, for solving a mixed transportation network design problem (MNDP, which is generally expressed as a mathematical programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC. The upper level of the MNDP aims to optimize the network performance via both the expansion of the existing links and the addition of new candidate links, whereas the lower level is a traditional Wardrop user equilibrium (UE problem. The idea of the proposed solution algorithm (DDIA is to reduce the dimensions of the problem. A group of variables (discrete/continuous is fixed to optimize another group of variables (continuous/discrete alternately; then, the problem is transformed into solving a series of CNDPs (continuous network design problems and DNDPs (discrete network design problems repeatedly until the problem converges to the optimal solution. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that its solution process is very simple and easy to apply. Numerical examples show that for the MNDP without budget constraint, the optimal solution can be found within a few iterations with DDIA. For the MNDP with budget constraint, however, the result depends on the selection of initial values, which leads to different optimal solutions (i.e., different local optimal solutions. Some thoughts are given on how to derive meaningful initial values, such as by considering the budgets of new and reconstruction projects separately.

  5. Transport Coefficients for the NASA Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehla, Roger A.

    1995-01-01

    The new transport property data that will be used in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Chemical Equilibrium and Applications Program (CEA) is presented. It complements a previous publication that documented the thermodynamic and transport property data then in use. Sources of the data and a brief description of the method by which the data were obtained are given. Coefficients to calculate the viscosity, thermal conductivity, and binary interactions are given for either one, or usually, two temperature intervals, typically 300 to 1000 K and 1000 to 5000 K. The form of the transport equation is the same as used previously. The number of species was reduced from the previous database. Many species for which the data were estimated were eliminated from the database. Some ionneutral interactions were added.

  6. On the use of antithetic variates in particle transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgram, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The possible use of antithetic variates as a method of variance reduction in particle transport problems is investigated, by performing some numerical experiments. It is found that if variance reduction is not very carefully defined, it is possible, with antithetic variates, to spuriously detect reduction, or not detect true reduction. Once such subtleties are overcome, it is shown that antithetic variates can reduce variance in multidimensional integration up to a point. The phenomenon of spontaneous correlation is defined and identified as the cause of failure. The surprising result that it sometimes pays to track non-contributing particle histories is demonstrated by means of a zero variance integration analogue. The principles developed in the investigation of multi-variable integration are then employed in a simple calculation of energy deposition using the EGS4 computer code. Promising results are obtained for the total energy deposition problem, but the depth/dose problem remains unsolved. Possible means of overcoming the difficulties are suggested

  7. The intelligence of dual simplex method to solve linear fractional fuzzy transportation problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanamoorthy, S; Kalyani, S

    2015-01-01

    An approach is presented to solve a fuzzy transportation problem with linear fractional fuzzy objective function. In this proposed approach the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is decomposed into two linear fuzzy transportation problems. The optimal solution of the two linear fuzzy transportations is solved by dual simplex method and the optimal solution of the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is obtained. The proposed method is explained in detail with an example.

  8. The Intelligence of Dual Simplex Method to Solve Linear Fractional Fuzzy Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narayanamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach is presented to solve a fuzzy transportation problem with linear fractional fuzzy objective function. In this proposed approach the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is decomposed into two linear fuzzy transportation problems. The optimal solution of the two linear fuzzy transportations is solved by dual simplex method and the optimal solution of the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is obtained. The proposed method is explained in detail with an example.

  9. Monte Carlo methods for flux expansion solutions of transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanier, J.

    1999-01-01

    Adaptive Monte Carlo methods, based on the use of either correlated sampling or importance sampling, to obtain global solutions to certain transport problems have recently been described. The resulting learning algorithms are capable of achieving geometric convergence when applied to the estimation of a finite number of coefficients in a flux expansion representation of the global solution. However, because of the nonphysical nature of the random walk simulations needed to perform importance sampling, conventional transport estimators and source sampling techniques require modification to be used successfully in conjunction with such flux expansion methods. It is shown how these problems can be overcome. First, the traditional path length estimators in wide use in particle transport simulations are generalized to include rather general detector functions (which, in this application, are the individual basis functions chosen for the flus expansion). Second, it is shown how to sample from the signed probabilities that arise as source density functions in these applications, without destroying the zero variance property needed to ensure geometric convergence to zero error

  10. Mixed-hybrid finite element method for the transport equation and diffusion approximation of transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartier, J.

    2006-04-01

    This thesis focuses on mathematical analysis, numerical resolution and modelling of the transport equations. First of all, we deal with numerical approximation of the solution of the transport equations by using a mixed-hybrid scheme. We derive and study a mixed formulation of the transport equation, then we analyse the related variational problem and present the discretization and the main properties of the scheme. We particularly pay attention to the behavior of the scheme and we show its efficiency in the diffusion limit (when the mean free path is small in comparison with the characteristic length of the physical domain). We present academical benchmarks in order to compare our scheme with other methods in many physical configurations and validate our method on analytical test cases. Unstructured and very distorted meshes are used to validate our scheme. The second part of this thesis deals with two transport problems. The first one is devoted to the study of diffusion due to boundary conditions in a transport problem between two plane plates. The second one consists in modelling and simulating radiative transfer phenomenon in case of the industrial context of inertial confinement fusion. (author)

  11. ON PROBLEM OF REGIONAL WAREHOUSE AND TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Miretskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests an approach of solving the problem of warehouse and transport infrastructure optimization in a region. The task is to determine the optimal capacity and location of the support network of warehouses in the region, as well as power, composition and location of motor fleets. Optimization is carried out using mathematical models of a regional warehouse network and a network of motor fleets. These models are presented as mathematical programming problems with separable functions. The process of finding the optimal solution of problems is complicated due to high dimensionality, non-linearity of functions, and the fact that a part of variables are constrained to integer, and some variables can take values only from a discrete set. Given the mentioned above complications search for an exact solution was rejected. The article suggests an approximate approach to solving problems. This approach employs effective computational schemes for solving multidimensional optimization problems. We use the continuous relaxation of the original problem to obtain its approximate solution. An approximately optimal solution of continuous relaxation is taken as an approximate solution of the original problem. The suggested solution method implies linearization of the obtained continuous relaxation and use of the separable programming scheme and the scheme of branches and bounds. We describe the use of the simplex method for solving the linearized continuous relaxation of the original problem and the specific moments of the branches and bounds method implementation. The paper shows the finiteness of the algorithm and recommends how to accelerate process of finding a solution.

  12. Chemical engineering problems of radioactive waste fixation by vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Basic features are reviewed of the chemical engineering problems faced in the vitrification of the high-level radioactive liquid wastes resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. After an outline of glass solution properties and formation kinetics the constituent elements of the vitrification route are examined in turn: waste feed evaporation and denitration, calcination, offgas treatment, and finally melting and product quality. Plant and experimental data for each stage are discussed with comparison between process routes and with reference to the underlying principles. Attention is drawn to the future need for higher trapping efficiencies and for dealing with a wider range of species in offgas treatments as higher burnup fuels are processed after shorter cooling times from reactor. Two areas of present study where deeper insight into underlying process mechanics is needed are, firstly, the association of waste material with glass formers in the wet or sinter stages and secondly their incorporation and mixing reaction in the melt. Fuller understanding here would bring direct benefit to process performance and handling. The problems discussed are not of a nature to jeopardize the vitrification routes but if product quality does come to rely heavily on process control then demonstrable confidence in the behaviour of the central physico-chemical interactions is indispensable. (author)

  13. PROBLEMS OF CLASSIFICATION AND FORMATION LAND OF AVIATION TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novakovska I. O.

    2017-08-01

    territories. Land-use restrictions on aviation transport on adjacent airport territories cover large areas of land. Formation of aviation land-use and ecologically safe use of land of aviation transport is an extremely topical subject of scientific research in modern conditions. The main task is the development of scientific bases and methodological provisions for the formation, operation and regulation of the use of land potential of the aviation industry and methodological recommendations of land management of objects of aviation transport. The indicated problems were almost not investigated by Ukrainian scientists. The separation of land and property of airports of state, communal and private property is the serious problem in modern time. Due to the violation of the principle that an aerodrome is a strategic object that is not able to privatized, and a terminal is an investment object, including private property, only in 5 years it was possible to return the communal property to the Odessa airport, which in 2011 was transferred to offshore investors. The registration of land occupied has not been completed by other airports, and the corresponding legal documents have been issued to them. In accordance with the State Target Program for the Development of Airports, it is planned to implement a range of appropriate measures to ensure the construction, reconstruction and modernization of facilities. It is necessary to reflect in the State Land Cadastre the data on the registration of aerodrome territories as restrictions on land use associated with the operation of aviation transport, to make necessary changes to the Law of Ukraine "On State Land Cadastre" and the Procedure for State Land Cadastre.

  14. Problems the chemical industry of Japan faces and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Shin' ichi

    1989-01-01

    Industry proceeds for the fiscal 1988 are expected to increase remarkably as they did in the previous year with 4.9% increase in revenue and 18.8% increase in profit (ordinary profit) from the previous year. The conditions of material industry are especially favorable and chemical industry is also expected to prosper as it did in the previous year. Problems this prospering chemical industry is facing are introduced in this report. Firstly, it is necessary to improve productivity by adopting more information and promoting factory automation in order to strengthen competition. The future of chemical industry depends on the introduction of information. Secondly, as demands of users are becoming more diversified, and cycles of products shorter, shortening of development terms is essential. It is necessary, therefore, to predict the demands of users in advance and seek after custom products. Thirdly, selection of product bases is required; it might be necessary to consider producing some product items abroad. Moreover, it is desirable to increase investments in investigation and pursue creativity putting much stress on basic investigations. 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Krylov Techniques for 3D Problems in Transport Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben Panta Pazos

    2006-01-01

    When solving integral-differential equations by means of numerical methods one has to deal with large systems of linear equations, such as happens in transport theory [10]. Many iterative techniques are now used in Transport Theory in order to solve problems of 2D and 3D dimensions. In this paper, we choose two problems to solve the following transport equation, [Equation] where x: represents the spatial variable, μ: the cosine of the angle, ψ: the angular flux, h(x, μ): is the collision frequency, k(x, μ, μ'): the scattering kernel, q(x, μ): the source. The aim of this work is the straightforward application of the Krylov spaces technique [2] to the governing equation or to its discretizations derived of the discrete ordinates method (choosing a finite number of directions and then approximating the integral term by means of a proper sum). The equation (1) can be written in functional form as [Equation] with ψ in the Hilbert space L 2 ([0,a] x [-1,1])., and q is the source function. The operator derived from a discrete ordinates scheme that approximates the operator [Equation] generates the following subspace [Equation] i.e. the subspace generated by the iterations of order 0, 1, 2,..., m-1 of the source function q. Two methods are specially outstanding, the Lanczos method to solve the problem given by equation (2) with certain boundary conditions, and the conjugate gradient method to solve the same problem with identical boundary conditions. We discuss and accelerate the basic iterative method [8]. An important conclusion is the generation of these methods to solve linear systems in Hilbert spaces, if verify the convergence conditions, which are outlined in this work. The first problem is a cubic domain with two regions, one with a source near the vertex at the origin and the shield region. In this case, the Cartesian planes (specifically 0 < x < L, 0 < y < L, 0 < z < L) are reflexive boundaries and the rest faces of the cube are vacuum boundaries. The

  16. Natural Gas Container Transportation: the Alternative Way to Solve the World’s Energy Transportation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Shendrik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The container gas transportation for low and medium level consumers as an alternative to pipelines is considered. The options for gas supply schemes, based on road and rail transport are given. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of gas transporting are described, the areas of their effective using are separated in the article. Promising implementations of technology in environment of economic crisis and also considering world trends of energy development are presented. The most advanced organization of compressed gas condensate transportation of unprepared gas fields in large diameter universal cylindrical balloons (up to 1000 mm are reasoned. The problem of compressed gas sea transportation are well disclosed, but the alternative ways of gas transportation by land are not investigated enough. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG Technology - is new promising technology for natural gas transportation by specially designed vessels – CNG-vessels. The feature of this technology is that natural gas can be downloaded directly near gas deposits and unloaded - directly into the customer's network. This eliminates significant capital investments in underwater pipelining or gas liquefaction plants. The main objects of investment are CNG-vessels themselves. The most attractive places for implementation of CNG-technology are sea (offshore natural gas deposits. Numerous international experts estimate the natural gas transportation by CNG-vessels in 1.5-2.0 times more cost-beneficial in comparison with offshore pipelines transportation, or in comparison with LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shipping with natural gas transportation volume between 0.5 and 4.0 billion cubic meters per year on the route from 250 to 2,500 sea miles. This technology makes possible to provide gas supplement to the mountain and abounding in water areas, remote and weakly gasified regions. Described technology deserves special attention in the case of depleted and low-power oil and

  17. Cellular automaton model of coupled mass transport and chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karapiperis, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mass transport, coupled with chemical reactions, is modelled as a cellular automaton in which solute molecules perform a random walk on a lattice and react according to a local probabilistic rule. Assuming molecular chaos and a smooth density function, we obtain the standard reaction-transport equations in the continuum limit. The model is applied to the reactions a + b ↔c and a + b →c, where we observe interesting macroscopic effects resulting from microscopic fluctuations and spatial correlations between molecules. We also simulate autocatalytic reaction schemes displaying spontaneous formation of spatial concentration patterns. Finally, we propose and discuss the limitations of a simple model for mineral-solute interaction. (author) 5 figs., 20 refs

  18. 1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report. Applying chemical innovation to environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Gay, E.C.; Green, D.W.; Miller, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented

  19. Nodal methods for problems in fluid mechanics and neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1985-01-01

    A new high-accuracy, coarse-mesh, nodal integral approach is developed for the efficient numerical solution of linear partial differential equations. It is shown that various special cases of this general nodal integral approach correspond to several high efficiency nodal methods developed recently for the numerical solution of neutron diffusion and neutron transport problems. The new approach is extended to the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations of fluid mechanics; its extension to these equations leads to a new computational method, the nodal integral method which is implemented for the numerical solution of these equations. Application to several test problems demonstrates the superior computational efficiency of this new method over previously developed methods. The solutions obtained for several driven cavity problems are compared with the available experimental data and are shown to be in very good agreement with experiment. Additional comparisons also show that the coarse-mesh, nodal integral method results agree very well with the results of definitive ultra-fine-mesh, finite-difference calculations for the driven cavity problem up to fairly high Reynolds numbers

  20. Discontinuous finite element treatment of duct problems in transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A. M.; Qamar, S.

    1998-01-01

    A discontinuous finite element approach is presented to solve the even-parity Boltzmann transport equation for duct problems. Presence of ducts in a system results in the streaming of particles and hence requires the employment of higher order angular approximations to model the angular flux. Conventional schemes based on the use of continuous trial functions require the same order of angular approximations to be used everywhere in the system, resulting in wastage of computational resources. Numerical investigations for the test problems presented in this paper indicate that the discontinuous finite elements eliminate the above problems and leads to computationally efficient and economical methods. They are also found to be more suitable for treating the sharp changes in the angular flux at duct-observer interfaces. The new approach provides a single-pass alternate to extrapolation and interactive schemes which need multiple passes of the solution strategy to acquire convergence. The method has been tested with the help of two case studies, namely straight and dog-leg duct problems. All results have been verified against those obtained from Monte Carlo simulations and K/sup +/ continuous finite element method. (author)

  1. Transport synthetic acceleration scheme for multi-dimensional neutron transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modak, R S; Kumar, Vinod; Menon, S V.G. [Theoretical Physics Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Gupta, Anurag [Reactor Physics Design Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2005-09-15

    The numerical solution of linear multi-energy-group neutron transport equation is required in several analyses in nuclear reactor physics and allied areas. Computer codes based on the discrete ordinates (Sn) method are commonly used for this purpose. These codes solve external source problem and K-eigenvalue problem. The overall solution technique involves solution of source problem in each energy group as intermediate procedures. Such a single-group source problem is solved by the so-called Source Iteration (SI) method. As is well-known, the SI-method converges very slowly for optically thick and highly scattering regions, leading to large CPU times. Over last three decades, many schemes have been tried to accelerate the SI; the most prominent being the Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) scheme. The DSA scheme, however, often fails and is also rather difficult to implement. In view of this, in 1997, Ramone and others have developed a new acceleration scheme called Transport Synthetic Acceleration (TSA) which is much more robust and easy to implement. This scheme has been recently incorporated in 2-D and 3-D in-house codes at BARC. This report presents studies on the utility of TSA scheme for fairly general test problems involving many energy groups and anisotropic scattering. The scheme is found to be useful for problems in Cartesian as well as Cylindrical geometry. (author)

  2. Transport synthetic acceleration scheme for multi-dimensional neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, R.S.; Vinod Kumar; Menon, S.V.G.; Gupta, Anurag

    2005-09-01

    The numerical solution of linear multi-energy-group neutron transport equation is required in several analyses in nuclear reactor physics and allied areas. Computer codes based on the discrete ordinates (Sn) method are commonly used for this purpose. These codes solve external source problem and K-eigenvalue problem. The overall solution technique involves solution of source problem in each energy group as intermediate procedures. Such a single-group source problem is solved by the so-called Source Iteration (SI) method. As is well-known, the SI-method converges very slowly for optically thick and highly scattering regions, leading to large CPU times. Over last three decades, many schemes have been tried to accelerate the SI; the most prominent being the Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) scheme. The DSA scheme, however, often fails and is also rather difficult to implement. In view of this, in 1997, Ramone and others have developed a new acceleration scheme called Transport Synthetic Acceleration (TSA) which is much more robust and easy to implement. This scheme has been recently incorporated in 2-D and 3-D in-house codes at BARC. This report presents studies on the utility of TSA scheme for fairly general test problems involving many energy groups and anisotropic scattering. The scheme is found to be useful for problems in Cartesian as well as Cylindrical geometry. (author)

  3. A model problem concerning ionic transport in microstructured solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto Sillamoni, Ignacio J.; Idiart, Martín I.

    2015-11-01

    We consider ionic transport by diffusion and migration through microstructured solid electrolytes. The assumed constitutive relations for the constituent phases follow from convex energy and dissipation potentials which guarantee thermodynamic consistency. The effective response is determined by homogenizing the relevant field equations via the notion ofmulti-scale convergence. The resulting homogenized response involves several effective tensors, but they all require the solution of just one standard conductivity problem over the representative volume element. A multi-scale model for semicrystalline polymer electrolytes with spherulitic morphologies is derived by applying the theory to a specific class of two-dimensional microgeometries for which the effective response can be computed exactly. An enriched model accounting for a random dispersion of filler particles with interphases is also derived. In both cases, explicit expressions for the effective material parameters are provided. The models are used to explore the effect of crystallinity and filler content on the overall response. Predictions support recent experimental observations on doped poly-ethylene-oxide systems which suggest that the anisotropic crystalline phase can actually support faster ion transport than the amorphous phase along certain directions dictated by the morphology of the polymeric chains. Predictions also support the viewpoint that ceramic fillers improve ionic conductivity and cation transport number via interphasial effects.

  4. Impacts of Transportation Cost on Distribution-Free Newsboy Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A distribution-free newsboy problem (DFNP has been launched for a vendor to decide a product’s stock quantity in a single-period inventory system to sustain its least maximum-expected profits when combating fierce and diverse market circumstances. Nowadays, impacts of transportation cost on determination of optimal inventory quantity have become attentive, where its influence on the DFNP has not been fully investigated. By borrowing an economic theory from transportation disciplines, in this paper the DFNP is tackled in consideration of the transportation cost formulated as a function of shipping quantity and modeled as a nonlinear regression form from UPS’s on-site shipping-rate data. An optimal solution of the order quantity is computed on the basis of Newton’s approach to ameliorating its complexity of computation. As a result of comparative studies, lower bounds of the maximal expected profit of our proposed methodologies surpass those of existing work. Finally, we extend the analysis to several practical inventory cases including fixed ordering cost, random yield, and a multiproduct condition.

  5. Condensed history Monte Carlo methods for photon transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, Katherine; Spanier, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    We study methods for accelerating Monte Carlo simulations that retain most of the accuracy of conventional Monte Carlo algorithms. These methods - called Condensed History (CH) methods - have been very successfully used to model the transport of ionizing radiation in turbid systems. Our primary objective is to determine whether or not such methods might apply equally well to the transport of photons in biological tissue. In an attempt to unify the derivations, we invoke results obtained first by Lewis, Goudsmit and Saunderson and later improved by Larsen and Tolar. We outline how two of the most promising of the CH models - one based on satisfying certain similarity relations and the second making use of a scattering phase function that permits only discrete directional changes - can be developed using these approaches. The main idea is to exploit the connection between the space-angle moments of the radiance and the angular moments of the scattering phase function. We compare the results obtained when the two CH models studied are used to simulate an idealized tissue transport problem. The numerical results support our findings based on the theoretical derivations and suggest that CH models should play a useful role in modeling light-tissue interactions

  6. The quasidiffusion method for transport problems on unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieselquist, William A.

    2009-06-01

    In this work, we develop a quasidiffusion (QD) method for solving radiation transport problems on unstructured quadrilateral meshes in 2D Cartesian geometry, for example hanging-node meshes from adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) applications or skewed quadrilateral meshes from radiation hydrodynamics with Lagrangian meshing. The main result of the work is a new low-order quasidiffusion (LOQD) discretization on arbitrary quadrilaterals and a strategy for the efficient iterative solution which uses Krylov methods and incomplete LU factorization (ILU) preconditioning. The LOQD equations are a non-symmetric set of first-order PDEs that in second-order form resembles convection- diffusion with a diffusion tensor, with the difference that the LOQD equations contain extra cross-derivative terms. Our finite volume (FV) discretization of the LOQD equations is compared with three LOQD discretizations from literature. We then present a conservative, short characteristics discretization based on subcell balances (SCSB) that uses polynomial exponential moments to achieve robust behavior in various limits (e.g. small cells and voids) and is second- order accurate in space. A linear representation of the isotropic component of the scattering source based on face-average and cell-average scalar fluxes is also proposed and shown to be effective in some problems. In numerical tests, our QD method with linear scattering source representation shows some advantages compared to other transport methods. We conclude with avenues for future research and note that this QD method may easily be extended to arbitrary meshes in 3D Cartesian geometry.

  7. A transportronic solution to the problem of interorbital transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William C.

    1992-01-01

    An all-electronic transportation system described by the term 'transportronics' is examined as a means of solving the current problem of the high cost of transporting material from low-Earth orbit (LEO) to geostationary orbit (GEO). In this transportation system, low cost electric energy at the surface of the Earth is efficiently converted into microwave power which is then efficiently formed into a narrow beam which is kept incident upon the orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) by electronic tracking. The incident beam is efficiently captured and converted into DC power by a device which has a very high ratio of DC power output to its mass. Because the mass of the electric thruster is also low, the resulting acceleration is unprecedented for electric-propelled vehicles. However, the performance of the system in terms of transit times from LEO to GEO is penalized by the short time of contact between the beam and the vehicle in low-Earth orbits. This makes it necessary to place the Earth based transmitters and the vehicles in the equatorial plane thus introducing many geopolitical factors. Technically, however, such a system as described in the report may out-perform any other approach to transportation in the LEO to GEO regime. The report describes and analyzes all portions of the beamed microwave power transmission system in considerable detail. An economic analysis of the operating and capital costs is made with the aid of a reference system capable of placing about 130,000 kilograms of payload into GEO each year. More mature states of the system are then examined, to a level in which 60,000 metric tons per year could be placed into GEO.

  8. OGRE, Monte-Carlo System for Gamma Transport Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The OGRE programme system was designed to calculate, by Monte Carlo methods, any quantity related to gamma-ray transport. The system is represented by two examples - OGRE-P1 and OGRE-G. The OGRE-P1 programme is a simple prototype which calculates dose rate on one side of a slab due to a plane source on the other side. The OGRE-G programme, a prototype of a programme utilizing a general-geometry routine, calculates dose rate at arbitrary points. A very general source description in OGRE-G may be employed by reading a tape prepared by the user. 2 - Method of solution: Case histories of gamma rays in the prescribed geometry are generated and analyzed to produce averages of any desired quantity which, in the case of the prototypes, are gamma-ray dose rates. The system is designed to achieve generality by ease of modification. No importance sampling is built into the prototypes, a very general geometry subroutine permits the treatment of complicated geometries. This is essentially the same routine used in the O5R neutron transport system. Boundaries may be either planes or quadratic surfaces, arbitrarily oriented and intersecting in arbitrary fashion. Cross section data is prepared by the auxiliary master cross section programme XSECT which may be used to originate, update, or edit the master cross section tape. The master cross section tape is utilized in the OGRE programmes to produce detailed tables of macroscopic cross sections which are used during the Monte Carlo calculations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum cross-section array information may be estimated by a given formula for a specific problem. The number of regions must be less than or equal to 50

  9. Cellular automaton model of mass transport with chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karapiperis, T.; Blankleider, B.

    1993-10-01

    The transport and chemical reactions of solutes are modelled as a cellular automaton in which molecules of different species perform a random walk on a regular lattice and react according to a local probabilistic rule. The model describes advection and diffusion in a simple way, and as no restriction is placed on the number of particles at a lattice site, it is also able to describe a wide variety of chemical reactions. Assuming molecular chaos and a smooth density function, we obtain the standard reaction-transport equations in the continuum limit. Simulations on one-and two-dimensional lattices show that the discrete model can be used to approximate the solutions of the continuum equations. We discuss discrepancies which arise from correlations between molecules and how these discrepancies disappear as the continuum limit is approached. Of particular interest are simulations displaying long-time behaviour which depends on long-wavelength statistical fluctuations not accounted for by the standard equations. The model is applied to the reactions a + b ↔ c and a + b → c with homogeneous and inhomogeneous initial conditions as well as to systems subject to autocatalytic reactions and displaying spontaneous formation of spatial concentration patterns. (author) 9 figs., 34 refs

  10. Finite element based composite solution for neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A.N.; Mirza, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    A finite element treatment for solving neutron transport problems is presented. The employs region-wise discontinuous finite elements for the spatial representation of the neutron angular flux, while spherical harmonics are used for directional dependence. Composite solutions has been obtained by using different orders of angular approximations in different parts of a system. The method has been successfully implemented for one dimensional slab and two dimensional rectangular geometry problems. An overall reduction in the number of nodal coefficients (more than 60% in some cases as compared to conventional schemes) has been achieved without loss of accuracy with better utilization of computational resources. The method also provides an efficient way of handling physically difficult situations such as treatment of voids in duct problems and sharply changing angular flux. It is observed that a great wealth of information about the spatial and directional dependence of the angular flux is obtained much more quickly as compared to Monte Carlo method, where most of the information in restricted to the locality of immediate interest. (author)

  11. Accounting for chemical kinetics in field scale transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, N.D.

    2005-01-01

    The modelling of column experiments has shown that the humic acid mediated transport of metal ions is dominated by the non-exchangeable fraction. Metal ions enter this fraction via the exchangeable fraction, and may transfer back again. However, in both directions these chemical reactions are slow. Whether or not a kinetic description of these processes is required during transport calculations, or an assumption of local equilibrium will suffice, will depend upon the ratio of the reaction half-time to the residence time of species within the groundwater column. If the flow rate is sufficiently slow or the reaction sufficiently fast then the assumption of local equilibrium is acceptable. Alternatively, if the reaction is sufficiently slow (or the flow rate fast), then the reaction may be 'decoupled', i.e. removed from the calculation. These distinctions are important, because calculations involving chemical kinetics are computationally very expensive, and should be avoided wherever possible. In addition, column experiments have shown that the sorption of humic substances and metal-humate complexes may be significant, and that these reactions may also be slow. In this work, a set of rules is presented that dictate when the local equilibrium and decoupled assumptions may be used. In addition, it is shown that in all cases to a first approximation, the behaviour of a kinetically controlled species, and in particular its final distribution against distance at the end of a calculation, depends only upon the ratio of the reaction first order rate to the residence time, and hence, even in the region where the simplifications may not be used, the behaviour is predictable. In this way, it is possible to obtain an estimate of the migration of these species, without the need for a complex transport calculation. (orig.)

  12. An Improved Cuckoo Search for a Patient Transportation Problem with Consideration of Reducing Transport Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many government agencies and business organizations have realized that it is necessary to consider not only the economic cost but also the road transport emissions when they determine the transport policies and operations. In this study, a patient transportation problem with the aim of reducing transport emissions has been formulated by implementing CVRP model. In order to determine the routes of patient transportation with optimized emissions for targeted hospital, an improved Cuckoo Search (ICS algorithm is proposed. In this study, a ‘split’ procedure has been implemented to simplify the individual’s representation. A new category of cuckoos has been introduced to improve the ICS’s search ability. Two heuristics have been applied to improve the quality of initial population. A local search mechanism has been embedded in the search procedure to improve the quality of solutions obtained at the end of each iteration. The computational results were encouraging and demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution method.

  13. Wavelet-based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Method for Global Atmospheric Chemical Transport Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastigejev, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Numerical modeling of global atmospheric chemical transport presents enormous computational difficulties, associated with simulating a wide range of time and spatial scales. The described difficulties are exacerbated by the fact that hundreds of chemical species and thousands of chemical reactions typically are used for chemical kinetic mechanism description. These computational requirements very often forces researches to use relatively crude quasi-uniform numerical grids with inadequate spatial resolution that introduces significant numerical diffusion into the system. It was shown that this spurious diffusion significantly distorts the pollutant mixing and transport dynamics for typically used grid resolution. The described numerical difficulties have to be systematically addressed considering that the demand for fast, high-resolution chemical transport models will be exacerbated over the next decade by the need to interpret satellite observations of tropospheric ozone and related species. In this study we offer dynamically adaptive multilevel Wavelet-based Adaptive Mesh Refinement (WAMR) method for numerical modeling of atmospheric chemical evolution equations. The adaptive mesh refinement is performed by adding and removing finer levels of resolution in the locations of fine scale development and in the locations of smooth solution behavior accordingly. The algorithm is based on the mathematically well established wavelet theory. This allows us to provide error estimates of the solution that are used in conjunction with an appropriate threshold criteria to adapt the non-uniform grid. Other essential features of the numerical algorithm include: an efficient wavelet spatial discretization that allows to minimize the number of degrees of freedom for a prescribed accuracy, a fast algorithm for computing wavelet amplitudes, and efficient and accurate derivative approximations on an irregular grid. The method has been tested for a variety of benchmark problems

  14. The Chemical Technology Division at Argonne National Laboratory: Applying chemical innovation to environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Chemical Technology Division is one of the largest technical divisions at Argonne National Laboratory, a leading center for research and development related to energy and environmental issues. Since its inception in 1948, the Division has pioneered in developing separations processes for the nuclear industry. The current scope of activities includes R ampersand D on methods for disposing of radioactive and hazardous wastes and on energy conversion processes with improved efficiencies, lower costs, and reduced environmental impact. Many of the technologies developed by CMT can be applied to solve manufacturing as well as environmental problems of industry

  15. Density control problems in large stellarators with neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassberg, H.; Beidler, C.D.; Simmet, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    With respect to the particle flux, the off-diagonal term in the neoclassical transport matrix becomes crucial in the stellarator long-mean-free-path regime. Central heating with peaked temperature profiles can make an active density profile control by central particle refuelling mandatory. The neoclassical particle confinement can significantly exceed the energy confinement at the outer radii. As a consequence, the required central refuelling may be larger than the neoclassical particle fluxes at outer radii leading to the loss of the global density control. Radiative losses as well as additional 'anomalous' electron heat diffusivities further exacerbate this problem. In addition to the analytical formulation of the neoclassical link of particle and energy fluxes, simplified model simulations as well as time-dependent ASTRA code simulations are described. In particular, the 'low-' and 'high-mirror' W7-X configurations are compared. For the W7-X 'high-mirror' configuration especially, the appearance of the neoclassical particle transport barrier is predicted at higher densities. (author)

  16. Bayesian Mars for uncertainty quantification in stochastic transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripling, Hayes F.; McClarren, Ryan G.

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for estimating solutions to partial differential equations with uncertain parameters using a modification of the Bayesian Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (BMARS) emulator. The BMARS algorithm uses Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to construct a basis function composed of polynomial spline functions, for which derivatives and integrals are straightforward to compute. We use these calculations and a modification of the curve-fitting BMARS algorithm to search for a basis function (response surface) which, in combination with its derivatives/integrals, satisfies a governing differential equation and specified boundary condition. We further show that this fit can be improved by enforcing a conservation or other physics-based constraint. Our results indicate that estimates to solutions of simple first order partial differential equations (without uncertainty) can be efficiently computed with very little regression error. We then extend the method to estimate uncertainties in the solution to a pure absorber transport problem in a medium with uncertain cross-section. We describe and compare two strategies for propagating the uncertain cross-section through the BMARS algorithm; the results from each method are in close comparison with analytic results. We discuss the scalability of the algorithm to parallel architectures and the applicability of the two strategies to larger problems with more degrees of uncertainty. (author)

  17. Adaptive sampling method in deep-penetration particle transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruihong; Ji Zhicheng; Pei Lucheng

    2012-01-01

    Deep-penetration problem has been one of the difficult problems in shielding calculation with Monte Carlo method for several decades. In this paper, a kind of particle transport random walking system under the emission point as a sampling station is built. Then, an adaptive sampling scheme is derived for better solution with the achieved information. The main advantage of the adaptive scheme is to choose the most suitable sampling number from the emission point station to obtain the minimum value of the total cost in the process of the random walk. Further, the related importance sampling method is introduced. Its main principle is to define the importance function due to the particle state and to ensure the sampling number of the emission particle is proportional to the importance function. The numerical results show that the adaptive scheme under the emission point as a station could overcome the difficulty of underestimation of the result in some degree, and the adaptive importance sampling method gets satisfied results as well. (authors)

  18. Mass transport measurements and modeling for chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.; Chiang, D.Y.; Fiadzo, O.G.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    This project involves experimental and modeling investigation of densification behavior and mass transport in fiber preforms and partially densified composites, and application of these results to chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process modeling. This supports work on-going at ORNL in process development for fabrication of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) tubes. Tube-shaped composite preforms are fabricated at ORNL with Nextel{trademark} 312 fiber (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) by placing and compressing several layers of braided sleeve on a tubular mandrel. In terms of fiber architecture these preforms are significantly different than those made previously with Nicalon{trademark} fiber (Nippon Carbon Corp., Tokyo, Japan) square weave cloth. The authors have made microstructure and permeability measurements on several of these preforms and a few partially densified composites so as to better understand their densification behavior during CVI.

  19. Absorption, transport, and chemical fate of plutonium in soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption of plutonium (Pu) by soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Williams) is limited by Pu solubility in soils. Changes in Pu concentration in different tissues with time to senescence indicate Pu is freely transported through the xylem during growth but not subject to remobilization on flowering. Studies in which the DTPA complex of 238 Pu was supplied to the plant suggest a change in chemical form following root absorption. Of the Pu in roots, stems, and leaves at senescence, 28, 54, and 67%, respectively, were soluble. The Pu in the solluble fraction was primarily associated with components of >10000 equivalent molecular weight in leaves and roots, whereas stems exhibited an equal distribution between components in the >10000 and <500 molecular weight fractions. Plutonium associated with mature seeds is concentrated in the seed hull (85%) and cotyledons (14%). The Pu associated with the cotyledon was primarily in the insoluble residues and soluble soy whey

  20. Assimilation of stratospheric ozone in the chemical transport model STRATAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grassi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a sequential assimilation approach useful for assimilating tracer measurements into a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM of the stratosphere. The numerical code, developed largely according to Kha00, uses parameterizations and simplifications allowing assimilation of sparse observations and the simultaneous evaluation of analysis errors, with reasonable computational requirements. Assimilation parameters are set by using χ2 and OmF (Observation minus Forecast statistics. The CTM used here is a high resolution three-dimensional model. It includes a detailed chemical package and is driven by UKMO (United Kingdom Meteorological Office analyses. We illustrate the method using assimilation of Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite/Microwave Limb Sounder (UARS/MLS ozone observations for three weeks during the 1996 antarctic spring. The comparison of results from the simulations with TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer measurements shows improved total ozone fields due to assimilation of MLS observations. Moreover, the assimilation gives indications on a possible model weakness in reproducing polar ozone values during springtime.

  1. Assimilation of stratospheric ozone in the chemical transport model STRATAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grassi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a sequential assimilation approach useful for assimilating tracer measurements into a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM of the stratosphere. The numerical code, developed largely according to Kha00, uses parameterizations and simplifications allowing assimilation of sparse observations and the simultaneous evaluation of analysis errors, with reasonable computational requirements. Assimilation parameters are set by using χ2 and OmF (Observation minus Forecast statistics. The CTM used here is a high resolution three-dimensional model. It includes a detailed chemical package and is driven by UKMO (United Kingdom Meteorological Office analyses. We illustrate the method using assimilation of Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite/Microwave Limb Sounder (UARS/MLS ozone observations for three weeks during the 1996 antarctic spring. The comparison of results from the simulations with TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer measurements shows improved total ozone fields due to assimilation of MLS observations. Moreover, the assimilation gives indications on a possible model weakness in reproducing polar ozone values during springtime.

  2. Modified Approach for Optimization of Real Life Transportation Problem in Neutrosophic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge, there is only one approach for solving neutrosophic cost minimization transportation problems. Since neutrosophic transportation problems are a new area of research, other researchers may be attracted to extend this approach for solving other types of neutrosophic transportation problems like neutrosophic solid transportation problems, neutrosophic time minimization transportation problems, neutrosophic transshipment problems, and so on. However, after a deep study of the existing approach, it is noticed that a mathematical incorrect assumption has been used in these existing approaches; therefore there is a need to modify these existing approaches. Keeping the same in mind, in this paper, the existing approach is modified. Furthermore, the exact results of some existing transportation problems are obtained by the modified approach.

  3. Problems relating to international transport of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, U.E.

    1985-01-01

    Owing to the tremendous geographic distances between uranium deposits of interest, to the various degrees of sophistication of nuclear industry in industrialized countries and to the close international cooperation in the field of nuclear energy, safe international transports, physical protection and transport handling play an important role. It is suggested to better coordinate the activities of nuclear power plant operators, the nuclear industry and specialized transport companies with respect to all national and international issues of nuclear fuel transports. (DG) [de

  4. The main chemical safety problems in main process of nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Fengli; Zhao Shangui; Liu Xinhua; Zhang Chunlong; Lu Dan; Liu Yuntao; Yang Xiaowei; Wang Shijun

    2014-01-01

    There are many chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing. The reaction conditions and the products are different so that the chemical safety problems are different. In the paper the chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing are described and the main chemical safety problems are analyzed. The reference is offered to the design and accident analysis of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. (authors)

  5. Nodal collocation approximation for the multidimensional PL equations applied to transport source problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdu, G.; Capilla, M.; Talavera, C. F.; Ginestar, D.

    2012-01-01

    PL equations are classical high order approximations to the transport equations which are based on the expansion of the angular dependence of the angular neutron flux and the nuclear cross sections in terms of spherical harmonics. A nodal collocation method is used to discretize the PL equations associated with a neutron source transport problem. The performance of the method is tested solving two 1D problems with analytical solution for the transport equation and a classical 2D problem. (authors)

  6. Nodal collocation approximation for the multidimensional PL equations applied to transport source problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Y Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, 14, 46022. Valencia (Spain); Capilla, M.; Talavera, C. F.; Ginestar, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, 14, 46022. Valencia (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    PL equations are classical high order approximations to the transport equations which are based on the expansion of the angular dependence of the angular neutron flux and the nuclear cross sections in terms of spherical harmonics. A nodal collocation method is used to discretize the PL equations associated with a neutron source transport problem. The performance of the method is tested solving two 1D problems with analytical solution for the transport equation and a classical 2D problem. (authors)

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Transport in Melasomatic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine­ teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu­ dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...

  8. DNA Charge Transport: From Chemical Principles to the Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Anna R.; Grodick, Michael A.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2016-01-01

    The DNA double helix has captured the imagination of many, bringing it to the forefront of biological research. DNA has unique features that extend our interest into areas of chemistry, physics, material science and engineering. Our laboratory has focused on studies of DNA charge transport (CT), wherein charges can efficiently travel long molecular distances through the DNA helix while maintaining an exquisite sensitivity to base pair π-stacking. Because DNA CT chemistry reports on the integrity of the DNA duplex, this property may be exploited to develop electrochemical devices to detect DNA lesions and DNA-binding proteins. Furthermore, studies now indicate that DNA CT may also be used in the cell by, for example, DNA repair proteins, as a cellular diagnostic, in order to scan the genome to localize efficiently to damage sites. In this review, we describe this evolution of DNA CT chemistry from the discovery of fundamental chemical principles to applications in diagnostic strategies and possible roles in biology. PMID:26933744

  9. On bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad MURAD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the optimum distribution of goods between sources and destinations is one of the important topics in projects economics. This importance comes as a result of minimizing the transportation cost, deterioration, time, etc. The classical transportation problem constitutes one of the major areas of application for linear programming. The aim of this problem is to obtain the optimum distribution of goods from different sources to different destinations which minimizes the total transportation cost. From the practical point of view, the transportation problems may differ from the classical form. It may contain one or more objective function, one or more stage to transport, one or more type of commodity with one or more means of transport. The aim of this paper is to construct an optimization model for transportation problem for one of mill-stones companies. The model is formulated as a bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem with a special structure depending on the capacities of suppliers, warehouses and requirements of the destinations. A solution algorithm is introduced to solve this class of bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem to obtain the set of non-dominated extreme points and the efficient solutions accompanied with each one that enables the decision maker to choose the best one. The solution algorithm mainly based on the fruitful application of the methods for treating transportation problems, theory of duality of linear programming and the methods of solving bi-criteria linear programming problems.

  10. Computational chemical product design problems under property uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Cignitti, Stefano; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Three different strategies of how to combine computational chemical product design with Monte Carlo based methods for uncertainty analysis of chemical properties are outlined. One method consists of a computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) solution and a post-processing property uncertainty...... fluid design. While the higher end of the uncertainty range of the process model output is similar for the best performing fluids, the lower end of the uncertainty range differs largely....

  11. Evaluation of cloud convection and tracer transport in a three-dimensional chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Feng

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the performance of cloud convection and tracer transport in a global off-line 3-D chemical transport model. Various model simulations are performed using different meteorological (reanalyses (ERA-40, ECMWF operational and ECMWF Interim to diagnose the updraft mass flux, convective precipitation and cloud top height.

    The diagnosed upward mass flux distribution from TOMCAT agrees quite well with the ECMWF reanalysis data (ERA-40 and ERA-Interim below 200 hPa. Inclusion of midlevel convection improves the agreement at mid-high latitudes. However, the reanalyses show strong convective transport up to 100 hPa, well into the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, which is not captured by TOMCAT. Similarly, the model captures the spatial and seasonal variation of convective cloud top height although the mean modelled value is about 2 km lower than observed.

    The ERA-Interim reanalyses have smaller archived upward convective mass fluxes than ERA-40, and smaller convective precipitation, which is in better agreement with satellite-based data. TOMCAT captures these relative differences when diagnosing convection from the large-scale fields. The model also shows differences in diagnosed convection with the version of the operational analyses used, which cautions against using results of the model from one specific time period as a general evaluation.

    We have tested the effect of resolution on the diagnosed modelled convection with simulations ranging from 5.6° × 5.6° to 1° × 1°. Overall, in the off-line model, the higher model resolution gives stronger vertical tracer transport, however, it does not make a large change to the diagnosed convective updraft mass flux (i.e., the model results using the convection scheme fail to capture the strong convection transport up to 100 hPa as seen in the archived convective mass fluxes. Similarly, the resolution of the forcing winds in the higher resolution CTM does not make a

  12. Solving wood chip transport problems with computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Bradley; Sharon A. Winsauer

    1976-01-01

    Efficient chip transport operations are difficult to achieve due to frequent and often unpredictable changes in distance to market, chipping rate, time spent at the mill, and equipment costs. This paper describes a computer simulation model that allows a logger to design an efficient transport system in response to these changing factors.

  13. Photo-chemical transport modelling of tropospheric ozone: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Sharma, Prateek; Khare, Mukesh

    2017-06-01

    Ground level ozone (GLO), a secondary pollutant having adverse impact on human health, ecology, and agricultural productivity, apart from being a major contributor to global warming, has been a subject matter of several studies. In order to identify appropriate strategies to control GLO levels, accurate assessment and prediction is essential, for which elaborate simulation and modelling is required. Several studies have been undertaken in the past to simulate GLO levels at different scales and for various applications. It is important to evaluate these studies, widely spread over in literature. This paper aims to critically review various studies that have been undertaken, especially in the past 15 years (2000-15) to model GLO. The review has been done of the studies that range over different spatial scales - urban to regional and continental to global. It also includes a review of performance evaluation and sensitivity analysis of photo-chemical transport models in order to assess the extent of application of these models and their predictive capability. The review indicates following major findings: (a) models tend to over-estimate the night-time GLO concentrations due to limited titration of GLO with NO within the model; (b) dominance of contribution from far-off regional sources to average ozone concentration in the urban region and higher contribution of local sources during days of high ozone episodes; requiring strategies for controlling precursor emissions at both regional and local scales; (c) greater influence of NOx over VOC in export of ozone from urban regions due to shifting of urban plumes from VOC-sensitive regime to NOx-sensitive as they move out from city centres to neighbouring rural regions; (d) models with finer resolution inputs perform better to a certain extent, however, further improvement in resolutions (beyond 10 km) did not show improvement always; (e) future projections show an increase in GLO concentrations mainly due to rise in

  14. Transport of radioactive sources-an environmental problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merckaert, G.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The transport of dangerous goods is submitted to various regulations. These can be international, national or regional and they can differ from country to country. The basis for the regulations for dangerous goods can be found in the recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods, issued by the United Nations committee of experts on the transport of dangerous goods (orange book). For radioactive material the regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material, issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are applied. The UN recommendations provide for 9 classes of dangerous goods. With regard to class 7, specifically related to the transport of radioactive material special recommendation relating to class 70, the IAEA regulations are referred to. These IAEA regulations for their part provide for 13 schedules, varying between weakly and highly radioactive. The radioactive sources which are used for non-destructive testing or for medical purposes are mostly sealed sources, i.e. the radioactive material is contained in a metallic shell. According to the nature of the isotope and their activity, the sources are transported either in industrial packagings, type A or type B packagings. According to the mode of transport, either air, sea, rail or road, various specific rules are applied, which however, are fortunately nearly completely harmonized. Special attention is paid to radiation protection, heat removal and the testing and fabrication of packagings. As a general rule, the safety of transport is based on the safety of the packagings, i.e. their ability to maintain, even in accident conditions, their capacity of tightness, shielding against radiation and removing the heat generated by the transported material

  15. A symmetrized quasi-diffusion method for solving multidimensional transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miften, M.M.; Larsen, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose a 'symmetrized' QD (SQD) method in which the non-self-adjoint QD diffusion problem is replaced by two self-adjoint diffusion problems. These problems are more easily discretized and more efficiently solved than in the standard QD method. They also give SQD calculational results for transport problems in x-y geometry

  16. Hybrid subgroup decomposition method for solving fine-group eigenvalue transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasseri, Saam; Rahnema, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An acceleration technique for solving fine-group eigenvalue transport problems. • Coarse-group quasi transport theory to solve coarse-group eigenvalue transport problems. • Consistent and inconsistent formulations for coarse-group quasi transport theory. • Computational efficiency amplified by a factor of 2 using hybrid SGD for 1D BWR problem. - Abstract: In this paper, a new hybrid method for solving fine-group eigenvalue transport problems is developed. This method extends the subgroup decomposition method to efficiently couple a new coarse-group quasi transport theory with a set of fixed-source transport decomposition sweeps to obtain the fine-group transport solution. The advantages of the quasi transport theory are its high accuracy, straight-forward implementation and numerical stability. The hybrid method is analyzed for a 1D benchmark problem characteristic of boiling water reactors (BWR). It is shown that the method reproduces the fine-group transport solution with high accuracy while increasing the computational efficiency up to 12 times compared to direct fine-group transport calculations

  17. The mass transportation problem in Illinois : a final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-06-01

    Prepared by the State Mass Transportation Commission for the Honorable William G. Stratton, Governor of Illinois and the Honorable Members of the 71st General Assembly. The study contains the findings and recommendations of the Illinois State Mass Tr...

  18. A reduced-cost iterated local search heuristic for the fixed-charge transportation problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buson, Erika; Roberti, Roberto; Toth, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The fixed-charge transportation problem (FCTP) is a generalization of the transportation problem where an additional fixed cost is paid for sending a flow from an origin to a destination. We propose an iterated local search heuristic based on the utilization of reduced costs for guiding the restart

  19. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials 5a...directions for future decontamination formulation approaches. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent... DECONTAMINANTS TO PROVIDE HAZARD MITIGATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS FROM MATERIALS 1. INTRODUCTION Decontamination of materials is the

  20. Zero point and zero suffix methods with robust ranking for solving fully fuzzy transportation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngastiti, P. T. B.; Surarso, Bayu; Sutimin

    2018-05-01

    Transportation issue of the distribution problem such as the commodity or goods from the supply tothe demmand is to minimize the transportation costs. Fuzzy transportation problem is an issue in which the transport costs, supply and demand are in the form of fuzzy quantities. Inthe case study at CV. Bintang Anugerah Elektrik, a company engages in the manufacture of gensets that has more than one distributors. We use the methods of zero point and zero suffix to investigate the transportation minimum cost. In implementing both methods, we use robust ranking techniques for the defuzzification process. The studyresult show that the iteration of zero suffix method is less than that of zero point method.

  1. Computation of optimal transport and related hedging problems via penalization and neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, Stephan; Kupper, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a widely applicable approach to solving (multi-marginal, martingale) optimal transport and related problems via neural networks. The core idea is to penalize the optimization problem in its dual formulation and reduce it to a finite dimensional one which corresponds to optimizing a neural network with smooth objective function. We present numerical examples from optimal transport, martingale optimal transport, portfolio optimization under uncertainty and generative adversa...

  2. The single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem: Applications and solution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goertz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem (SSFCTP) consists in finding a minimum cost flow from a number of supplier nodes to a single demand node. Shipping costs comprise costs proportional to the amount shipped as well as a fixed-charge. Although the SSFCTP is an important special case...... of the well-known fixed-charge transportation problem, just a few methods for solving this problem have been proposed in the literature. After summarising some applications of this problem arising in manufacturing and transportation, we give an overview on approximation algorithms and worst-case results...

  3. Application of Walsh functions to neutron transport problems. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.J.; Albrecht, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    An approximation to the neutron transport equation is made by representing the angular flux with an expansion of the angular dependence in the orthogonal, complete, and binary valued sets of Walsh function. The Walsh approximation is applied to the one-speed, isotropic-scattering, rectangular-geometry form of the neutron transport equation. Sets of partial differential equations for the expansion coefficients are derived along with appropriate boundary conditions for their solution. The sets of the Walsh expansion to one- and two-dimensional forms of the transport equation are also obtained. The two-dimensional expansion coefficient equations are shown to be not only hyperbolic but also transformable to a set of S/sub N/-like equations that are coupled only through the scattering term. Such transformal sets of equations are termed Walsh-derived quadrature sets

  4. Theoretical and practical aspects of improving the durability of steel reinforcement in transport designs, using passivation and plasticizing chemical additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, Evgenij; Talipov, Linar

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with the problem of steel reinforcement corrosion in reinforced concrete structures exposed to aggressive media, in particular in reinforced concrete construction of transport infrastructure, in snowy areas, and subject to the influence of chlorides contained in applied deicing agents. Basic schemes for preventing the reinforcement corrosion in reinforced-concrete structures have been considered and analyzed. Prospects of primary protection against corrosion of reinforcement by introducing chemical additives with plasticizing/passivating action in a concrete mixture with mixing water have been considered in detail. The physical/chemical mechanism of the protective action of a superplasticizer together with a passivator has been highlighted.

  5. New computational methodology for large 3D neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmani, M.; Roy, R.; Koclas, J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a new computational methodology, based on 3D characteristics method, dedicated to solve very large 3D problems without spatial homogenization. In order to eliminate the input/output problems occurring when solving these large problems, we set up a new computing scheme that requires more CPU resources than the usual one, based on sweeps over large tracking files. The huge capacity of storage needed in some problems and the related I/O queries needed by the characteristics solver are replaced by on-the-fly recalculation of tracks at each iteration step. Using this technique, large 3D problems are no longer I/O-bound, and distributed CPU resources can be efficiently used. (authors)

  6. Modelling stratospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummukainen, M [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory

    1996-12-31

    Numerical modelling of atmospheric chemistry aims to increase the understanding of the characteristics, the behavior and the evolution of atmospheric composition. These topics are of utmost importance in the study of climate change. The multitude of gases and particulates making up the atmosphere and the complicated interactions between them affect radiation transfer, atmospheric dynamics, and the impacts of anthropogenic and natural emissions. Chemical processes are fundamental factors in global warming, ozone depletion and atmospheric pollution problems in general. Much of the prevailing work on modelling stratospheric chemistry has so far been done with 1- and 2-dimensional models. Carrying an extensive chemistry parameterisation in a model with high spatial and temporal resolution is computationally heavy. Today, computers are becoming powerful enough to allow going over to 3-dimensional models. In order to concentrate on the chemistry, many Chemical Transport Models (CTM) are still run off-line, i.e. with precalculated and archived meteorology and radiation. In chemistry simulations, the archived values drive the model forward in time, without interacting with the chemical evolution. This is an approach that has been adopted in stratospheric chemistry modelling studies at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. In collaboration with the University of Oslo, a development project was initiated in 1993 to prepare a stratospheric chemistry parameterisation, fit for global 3-dimensional modelling. This article presents the parameterisation approach. Selected results are shown from basic photochemical simulations

  7. Modelling stratospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummukainen, M. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory

    1995-12-31

    Numerical modelling of atmospheric chemistry aims to increase the understanding of the characteristics, the behavior and the evolution of atmospheric composition. These topics are of utmost importance in the study of climate change. The multitude of gases and particulates making up the atmosphere and the complicated interactions between them affect radiation transfer, atmospheric dynamics, and the impacts of anthropogenic and natural emissions. Chemical processes are fundamental factors in global warming, ozone depletion and atmospheric pollution problems in general. Much of the prevailing work on modelling stratospheric chemistry has so far been done with 1- and 2-dimensional models. Carrying an extensive chemistry parameterisation in a model with high spatial and temporal resolution is computationally heavy. Today, computers are becoming powerful enough to allow going over to 3-dimensional models. In order to concentrate on the chemistry, many Chemical Transport Models (CTM) are still run off-line, i.e. with precalculated and archived meteorology and radiation. In chemistry simulations, the archived values drive the model forward in time, without interacting with the chemical evolution. This is an approach that has been adopted in stratospheric chemistry modelling studies at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. In collaboration with the University of Oslo, a development project was initiated in 1993 to prepare a stratospheric chemistry parameterisation, fit for global 3-dimensional modelling. This article presents the parameterisation approach. Selected results are shown from basic photochemical simulations

  8. Modeling of reactive chemical transport of leachates from a utility fly-ash disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.; Zhu, M.; Kitanidis, P.K.; Freyberg, D.L.; Ronan, A.D.; Itakagi, S.

    1991-04-01

    Fly ash from fossil-fuel power plants is commonly slurried and pumped to disposal sites. The utility industry is interested in finding out whether any hazardous constituents might leach from the accumulated fly ash and contaminate ground and surface waters. To evaluate the significance of this problem, a representative site was selected for modeling. FASTCHEM, a computer code developed for the Electric Power Research Institute, was utilized for the simulation of the transport and fate of the fly-ash leachate. The chemical evolution of the leachate was modeled as it migrated along streamtubes defined by the flow model. The modeling predicts that most of the leachate seeps through the dam confining the ash pond. With the exception of ferrous, manganous, sulfate and small amounts of nickel ions, all other dissolved constituents are predicted to discharge at environmentally acceptable concentrations

  9. Chemical and Nuclear Waste Disposal: Problems and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    James P. Murray; Joseph J. Harrington; Richard Wilson

    1982-01-01

    The problems of waste disposal have always been with us. In biblical times, the residents of Jerusalem always burnt their wastes inthehideousValeofGehenna.Thisgavewaytoburialofwasteor sometimes dumping it in shallow oceans. All too often the sewage pipes of the seaside towns did not even take the waste to the low tide mark; and the use of the deep oceans as a disposal site has been almost unknown...

  10. My Experience. My Perspective. Transportation to Work Presents Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegers, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Transportation challenges can often be one of the biggest stumbling blocks to having a successful vocational experience. The author presents a personal account of the difficulties people with disabilities encounter in trying to get themselves to their workplaces due to the limitations of various mobility services.

  11. Nonlinear radiation transport problems involving widely varying mean free paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapline, G. Jr.; Wood, L.

    1976-01-01

    In this report a method is given for modifying the Monte-Carlo approach so that one can accurately treat problems that involve both large and small mean free paths. This method purports to offer the advantages of the general Monte Carlo technique as far as relatively great accuracy of simulation of microscopic physical phenomena is concerned, and the advantage of a diffusion theory approach as far as decent time steps in thick problems are concerned; it does suffer from something of the statistical fluctuation problems of the Monte Carlo, although in analytically attenuated and modified form

  12. New York City's healthcare transportation during a disaster: a preparedness framework for a wicked problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Ernest; Lee, George C

    2009-01-01

    During a disaster, victims with varied morbidities are located at incident sites, while healthcare facilities with varied healthcare resources are distributed elsewhere. Transportation serves an essential equilibrating role: it helps balance the patients' need for care with the supply of care. Studying the special case of New York City, this article sets out the healthcare transportation components as: (1) incident morbidity; (2) transportation assets; and (3) healthcare capacity. The relationship between these three components raises an assignment problem: the management of healthcare transportation within a dynamic and partly unpredictable incident-transportation-healthcare nexus, under urban disruption. While the routine dispatch problem can be tackled through better geographic allocation software and technical algorithms, the disaster assignment problem must be confronted through real-time, mutual adjustment between institutions. This article outlines institutional alternatives for managing the assignment problem and calls for further research on the merits of alternative institutional models.

  13. Study on Multi-Depot Collaborative Transportation Problem of Milk-Run Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Zhenkai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyze the relevance between Milk Run mode and collaborative transportation problem, put forward collaborative transportation problem of multiple-depot on Milk Run mode under the supply and demand separate nodes, consider the value of transport and transport costs, introduce the concept of node - arc flow, by comparing the size of traffic flow determine nodes collection, and then constructed multi-transport model of the problem. Considering one-way pickup and delivery closed, construct two-stage algorithm model, use dynamic programming recursive solution to determine the best route to pick up, and then solving delivery routing problem with different start and return point based on geometric method of Cosine. Finally use a numerical example illustrates the effectiveness of the algorithm and reasonable model.

  14. Algorithms for solving the single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem is an important subproblem of the fixed-charge transportation problem. Just a few methods have been proposed in the literature to solve this problem. In this paper, solution approaches based on dynamic programming and implicit enumeration...... are revisited. It is shown how the problem size as well as the search space of a recently published dynamic programming method can be reduced by exploiting reduced cost information. Additionally, a further implicit enumeration approach relying on solution concepts for the binary knapsack problem is introduced...

  15. Self-directed questions to improve students' ability in solving chemical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, Rahmat Eko; Muna, Khairiatul; Suharto, Bambang; Syahmani

    2017-12-01

    Students' ability in solving chemical problems is seen from their ability to solve chemicals' non-routine problems. It is due to learning faced directly on non-routine problems will generate a meaningful learning for students. Observations in Banjarmasin Public High School 1 (SMA Negeri 1 Banjarmasin) showed that students did not give the expected results when they were given the non-routine problems. Learning activities by emphasizing problem solving was implemented based on the existence of knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition. Both of these elements are components of metacognition. The self-directed question is a strategy that involves metacognition in solving chemical problems. This research was carried out using classroom action research design in two cycles. Each cycle consists of four stages: planning, action, observation and reflection. The subjects were 34 students of grade XI-4 at majoring science (IPA) of SMA Negeri 1 Banjarmasin. The data were collected using tests of the students' ability in problem solving and non-tests instrument to know the process of implementation of the actions. Data were analyzed with descriptivequantitativeand qualitative analysis. The ability of students in solving chemical problems has increased from an average of 37.96 in cycle I became 61.83 in cycle II. Students' ability to solve chemical problems is viewed based on their ability to answer self-directed questions. Students' ability in comprehension questions increased from 73.04 in the cycle I became 96.32 in cycle II. Connection and strategic questions increased from 54.17 and 16.50 on cycle I became 63.73 and 55.23 on cycle II respectively. In cycle I, reflection questions were 26.96 and elevated into 36.27 in cycle II. The self-directed questions have the ability to help students to solve chemical problems through metacognition questions. Those questions guide students to find solutions in solving chemical problems.

  16. On the problem of the chemical composition of β Lyrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahyl, V.

    1982-01-01

    Two determinations of helium abundance in the primary β Lyrae's component existed before 1975. According to Boyarchuk (1959) helium is 631 times overabundant relative to hydrogen and according to Hack and Job (1965) the ratio He/H varies from 1 to 2.25 depending on the effective temperature. The author has examined this problem with the aim of deciding between these extreme results. He started from models of the atmosphere and calculated the theoretical profiles. He has found the best fit for the model Boehm-Vitense (1967), Tsub(eff) = 12,900K, log g = 2 and He/H = 2.72. (Auth.)

  17. Corrosion problems of materials for mechanical, power and chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouska, P.; Cihal, V.; Malik, K.; Vyklicky, M.; Stefec, R.

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings contain 47 contributions, out of which 8 have been inputted in INIS. These are concerned with various corrosion problems of WWER primary circuit components and their testing. The factors affecting the corrosion resistance are analyzed, the simultaneous corrosion action of decontamination of steels is assessed, and the corrosion cracking of special steels is dealt with. The effects of deformation on the corrosion characteristics are examined for steel to be used in fast reactors. The corrosion potentials were measured for various steels. A testing facility for corrosion-mechanical tests is briefly described. (M.D.). 5 figs., 5 tabs., 25 refs

  18. A Survey on Transport Management Practices Associated with Injuries and Health Problems in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Barbara; Raidal, Sharanne L; Hall, Evelyn; Knight, Peter; Celi, Pietro; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was conducted to determine associations between transport management and transport-related injuries and diseases in horses in Australia. The survey was composed of three sections: respondents' demographic information, transport management strategies or procedures (before, during and after transportation) and transport diseases experienced in the previous two year period. Univariate and multivariate modelling was performed exploring associations between variables (respondents' details and transport management strategies) and the following transport-related diseases as outcomes: traumatic injuries, diarrhoea, heat stroke, muscular problems, laminitis, transport pneumonia and colic. The survey generated 797 responses. Traumatic injuries were the most common transport-related problem, with a reported incidence of 45.0%. Younger respondents (30 in a week) were more likely to report transport-related injuries. Injury risk was also linked to the use of protections and tranquilizers prior to transport, and checking horses after the journey. Diarrhoea (20.0%) and heat stroke (10.5%) were reported more by amateur than professional horse carers. Increased risk of heat stroke was linked to the restriction of hay and water prior to transportation. Muscular problems (13.0%) appeared to be exacerbated when horse health was not assessed before journey; whilst the risk of laminitis (2.9%) was around three fold greater when post transport recovery strategies were not applied. Associations were made between transport pneumonia (9.2%) and duration of journey, and with activity (horses involved in racing at greater risk). No associations were seen between the incidence of colic (10.3%) and the variables examined. Study findings should be interpreted with caution as they represent participant perceptions and recall. Nevertheless, results support many current recommendations for safe transportation of horses. They also highlight the need to further investigate many of

  19. Improving the problem analysis in cost-benefit analysis for transport projects : An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, J.A.; Mouter, N.

    2013-01-01

    Key actors (consultants, scientists and policy makers) in the Netherlands transport policy cost-benefit analysis (CBA) practice consider ‘problem analysis’ to be one of the important CBA substantive problems. Their idea is that a good-quality problem analysis can help to identify proper solutions,

  20. Fixing or Transferring Environmental Problems in the Transport Sector?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walnum, Hans Jakob

    Transport accounts for 25 percent of global energy related greenhouse gas emissions and over half of the world’s oil consumption. The energy consumption is growing at a rate higher than any other sector. The thesis addresses some of the shortcomings with current policy strategies for reducing...... give an improved foundation for policy makers to find strategies and actions to limit such effects and their consequences....

  1. Usefulness of the risk assessment technique in solving transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.F.; Hall, R.J.

    1976-08-01

    The purpose was to develop and use a model to assess the risk associated with the shipment of nuclear and non-nuclear hazardous energy-related materials. The analysis method comprises the steps of describing the system, identifying the release sequence, evaluating the sequence, and calculating and assessing the risk. Plutonium shipment is used as an example. Uses of this method to improve transportation safety are discussed. 12 fig

  2. Analysis of forward and inverse problems in chemical dynamics and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabitz, H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The overall scope of this research concerns the development and application of forward and inverse analysis tools for problems in chemical dynamics and chemical kinetics. The chemical dynamics work is specifically associated with relating features in potential surfaces and resultant dynamical behavior. The analogous inverse research aims to provide stable algorithms for extracting potential surfaces from laboratory data. In the case of chemical kinetics, the focus is on the development of systematic means to reduce the complexity of chemical kinetic models. Recent progress in these directions is summarized below.

  3. Multi-level nonlinear diffusion acceleration method for multigroup transport k-Eigenvalue problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) method is an efficient and flexible transport iterative scheme for solving reactor-physics problems. This paper presents a fast iterative algorithm for solving multigroup neutron transport eigenvalue problems in 1D slab geometry. The proposed method is defined by a multi-level system of equations that includes multigroup and effective one-group low-order NDA equations. The Eigenvalue is evaluated in the exact projected solution space of smallest dimensionality, namely, by solving the effective one- group eigenvalue transport problem. Numerical results that illustrate performance of the new algorithm are demonstrated. (author)

  4. The problem of criticality and initial-value problem in neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyncl, J.

    1984-10-01

    The problem of criticality and the initial value problem are studied in the case of a linear Boltzmann equation and of both finite and infinite media. The space of functions where the problems are solved is chosen in such a way as to cover a wide range of physical situations. The asymptotic time behavior of the solution to the initial-value problem is also discussed, and main results are summarized in three basic theorems. (author)

  5. Towards electron transport measurements in chemically modified graphene: effect of a solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Arnhild; Ensslin, Klaus [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Koehler, Fabian M; Stark, Wendelin J, E-mail: arnhildj@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: fabian.koehler@chem.ethz.ch [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    The chemical functionalization of graphene modifies the local electron density of carbon atoms and hence electron transport. Measuring these changes allows for a closer understanding of the chemical interaction and the influence of functionalization on the graphene lattice. However, not only chemistry, in this case diazonium chemistry, has an effect on electron transport. The latter is also influenced by defects and dopants resulting from different processing steps. Here, we show that the solvents used in the chemical reaction process change the transport properties. In more detail, the investigated combination of isopropanol and heating treatment reduces the doping concentration and significantly increases the mobility of graphene. Furthermore, isopropanol treatment alone increases the concentration of dopants and introduces an asymmetry between electron and hole transport, which might be difficult to distinguish from the effect of functionalization. The results shown in this work demand a closer look at the influence of solvents used for chemical modification in order to understand their influence.

  6. Towards electron transport measurements in chemically modified graphene: effect of a solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Arnhild; Ensslin, Klaus; Koehler, Fabian M; Stark, Wendelin J

    2010-01-01

    The chemical functionalization of graphene modifies the local electron density of carbon atoms and hence electron transport. Measuring these changes allows for a closer understanding of the chemical interaction and the influence of functionalization on the graphene lattice. However, not only chemistry, in this case diazonium chemistry, has an effect on electron transport. The latter is also influenced by defects and dopants resulting from different processing steps. Here, we show that the solvents used in the chemical reaction process change the transport properties. In more detail, the investigated combination of isopropanol and heating treatment reduces the doping concentration and significantly increases the mobility of graphene. Furthermore, isopropanol treatment alone increases the concentration of dopants and introduces an asymmetry between electron and hole transport, which might be difficult to distinguish from the effect of functionalization. The results shown in this work demand a closer look at the influence of solvents used for chemical modification in order to understand their influence.

  7. Problems and issues for short-haul air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of developing an efficient short-haul air system are not primarily technical, but economic and political. The key issues are whether the community will accept new and expanded air facilities, what standards of service the passengers will demand and how the system will evolve. The solutions recommended are national in scope and require the federal government to take a leading role.

  8. Uncertain multi-objective multi-product solid transportation problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepika Rani

    ... made more effective by incorporating some other factors, which make it useful in real life .... For the above problem to be balanced it should satisfy: ..... Now, first step is to balance the ...... In this work, the fuzzy optimal compromise solution is.

  9. Monte Carlo methods in electron transport problems. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleri, F.

    1989-01-01

    The condensed-history Monte Carlo method for charged particles transport is reviewed and discussed starting from a general form of the Boltzmann equation (Part I). The physics of the electronic interactions, together with some pedagogic example will be introduced in the part II. The lecture is directed to potential users of the method, for which it can be a useful introduction to the subject matter, and wants to establish the basis of the work on the computer code RECORD, which is at present in a developing stage

  10. Solving the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem by Dynamic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauff Lind Christensen, Tue; Klose, Andreas; Andersen, Kim Allan

    important aspects of supplier selection, an important application of the SSFCTP, this does not reflect the real life situation. First, transportation costs faced by many companies are in fact piecewise linear. Secondly, when suppliers offer discounts, either incremental or all-unit discounts, such savings......The Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem (SSFCMCTP) is a problem with versatile applications. This problem is a generalization of the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge Transportation Problem (SSFCTP), which has a fixed-charge, linear cost structure. However, in at least two...... are neglected in the SSFCTP. The SSFCMCTP overcome this problem by incorporating a staircase cost structure in the cost function instead of the usual one used in SSFCTP. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for the resulting problem. To enhance the performance of the generic algorithm a number...

  11. Transport systems - solid indigenous fuels. [Identification of fuel transport problems in Sweden]. Transportsystem foer fasta inhemska braenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colliander, J

    1985-12-01

    The following problems have been indentified: - A rational structure of transporting requires an established and relatively open market. - The necessary rolling stock for fuel conveyance by rail is not available. - Roads have to be improved and new roads have to be built. Railways with low load now might get a motivation for reinforcement. - Because of the irregular spread of consumption storing and terminals problems will arise and increase the cost of transport. - Terminals and stores are situated at a convenient place for one single enterprice. On a far-away aim this will not be rational.

  12. Response to Contradiction: Conflict Resolution Strategies Used by Students in Solving Problems of Chemical Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates how a novel problem of chemical equilibrium based on a closely related sequence of items can facilitate students' conceptual understanding. Students were presented with a chemical reaction in equilibrium to which a reactant was added as an external effect. Three studies were conducted to assess alternative conceptions. (Author/SAH)

  13. Identification and Analysis of Student Conceptions Used To Solve Chemical Equilibrium Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voska, Kirk W.; Heikkinen, Henry W.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies and quantifies the chemistry conceptions used by students when solving chemical equilibrium problems requiring application of LeChatelier's Principle, and explores the feasibility of designing a paper and pencil test to accomplish these purposes. Eleven prevalent incorrect student conceptions about chemical equilibrium were identified…

  14. An Inverse Analysis Approach to the Characterization of Chemical Transport in Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Matthew P.; Stevenson, Shawn M.; Pearl, Thomas P.; Mantooth, Brent A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to directly characterize chemical transport and interactions that occur within a material (i.e., subsurface dynamics) is a vital component in understanding contaminant mass transport and the ability to decontaminate materials. If a material is contaminated, over time, the transport of highly toxic chemicals (such as chemical warfare agent species) out of the material can result in vapor exposure or transfer to the skin, which can result in percutaneous exposure to personnel who interact with the material. Due to the high toxicity of chemical warfare agents, the release of trace chemical quantities is of significant concern. Mapping subsurface concentration distribution and transport characteristics of absorbed agents enables exposure hazards to be assessed in untested conditions. Furthermore, these tools can be used to characterize subsurface reaction dynamics to ultimately design improved decontaminants or decontamination procedures. To achieve this goal, an inverse analysis mass transport modeling approach was developed that utilizes time-resolved mass spectroscopy measurements of vapor emission from contaminated paint coatings as the input parameter for calculation of subsurface concentration profiles. Details are provided on sample preparation, including contaminant and material handling, the application of mass spectrometry for the measurement of emitted contaminant vapor, and the implementation of inverse analysis using a physics-based diffusion model to determine transport properties of live chemical warfare agents including distilled mustard (HD) and the nerve agent VX. PMID:25226346

  15. Optimal solution of full fuzzy transportation problems using total integral ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam’an, M.; Farikhin; Hariyanto, S.; Surarso, B.

    2018-03-01

    Full fuzzy transportation problem (FFTP) is a transportation problem where transport costs, demand, supply and decision variables are expressed in form of fuzzy numbers. To solve fuzzy transportation problem, fuzzy number parameter must be converted to a crisp number called defuzzyfication method. In this new total integral ranking method with fuzzy numbers from conversion of trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to hexagonal fuzzy numbers obtained result of consistency defuzzyfication on symmetrical fuzzy hexagonal and non symmetrical type 2 numbers with fuzzy triangular numbers. To calculate of optimum solution FTP used fuzzy transportation algorithm with least cost method. From this optimum solution, it is found that use of fuzzy number form total integral ranking with index of optimism gives different optimum value. In addition, total integral ranking value using hexagonal fuzzy numbers has an optimal value better than the total integral ranking value using trapezoidal fuzzy numbers.

  16. Dynamic Scheduling for Cloud Reliability using Transportation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    P. Balasubramanie; S. K. Senthil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Cloud is purely a dynamic environment and the existing task scheduling algorithms are mostly static and considered various parameters like time, cost, make span, speed, scalability, throughput, resource utilization, scheduling success rate and so on. Available scheduling algorithms are mostly heuristic in nature and more complex, time consuming and does not consider reliability and availability of the cloud computing environment. Therefore there is a need to implement a sch...

  17. Magnon spin transport driven by the magnon chemical potential in a magnetic insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, L J; Peters, K J H; Bauer, G. E. W.; Duine, R A; van Wees, B J

    2016-01-01

    We develop a linear-response transport theory of diffusive spin and heat transport by magnons in magnetic insulators with metallic contacts. The magnons are described by a position-dependent temperature and chemical potential that are governed by diffusion equations with characteristic relaxation

  18. Magnon spin transport driven by the magnon chemical in a magnetic insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, L.J.; Peters, K.J.H.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Duine, R.A.; van Wees, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a linear-response transport theory of diffusive spin and heat transport by magnons in magnetic insulators with metallic contacts. The magnons are described by a position-dependent temperature and chemical potential that are governed by diffusion equations with characteristic relaxation

  19. Magnon spin transport driven by the magnon chemical potential in a magnetic insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, L.J.; Peters, K. J H; Bauer, G.E.; Duine, R. A.; Van Wees, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a linear-response transport theory of diffusive spin and heat transport by magnons in magnetic insulators with metallic contacts. The magnons are described by a position-dependent temperature and chemical potential that are governed by diffusion equations with characteristic relaxation

  20. Magnon spin transport driven by the magnon chemical potential in a magnetic insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Ludo J.; Peters, Kevin J. H.; Duine, Rembert A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Wees, Bart J. van

    2016-01-01

    We develop a linear-response transport theory of diffusive spin and heat transport by magnons in magnetic insulators with metallic contacts. The magnons are described by a position dependent temperature and chemical potential that are governed by diffusion equations with characteristic relaxation

  1. CONSISTENT USE OF THE KALMAN FILTER IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS (CTMS) FOR DEDUCING EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past research has shown that emissions can be deduced using observed concentrations of a chemical, a Chemical Transport Model (CTM), and the Kalman filter in an inverse modeling application. An expression was derived for the relationship between the "observable" (i.e., the con...

  2. An application of reactor noise techniques to neutron transport problems in a random medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron transport problems in a random medium are considered by defining a joint Markov process describing the fluctuations of one neutron population and the random changes in the medium. Backward Chapman-Kolmogorov equations are derived which yield an adjoint transport equation for the average neutron density. It is shown that this average density also satisfied the direct transport equation as given by the phenomenological model. (author)

  3. Simulation of neutron transport equation using parallel Monte Carlo for deep penetration problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekar, K. K.; Tombakoglu, M.; Soekmen, C. N.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron transport equation is simulated using parallel Monte Carlo method for deep penetration neutron transport problem. Monte Carlo simulation is parallelized by using three different techniques; direct parallelization, domain decomposition and domain decomposition with load balancing, which are used with PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) software on LAN (Local Area Network). The results of parallel simulation are given for various model problems. The performances of the parallelization techniques are compared with each other. Moreover, the effects of variance reduction techniques on parallelization are discussed

  4. Calculation of neutron and gamma transport at the FOA:type of problems and calculation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefvert, T.

    1975-11-01

    Protection against the effects of nuclear warfare involves the analysis of the forms of results of a nuclear charge explosion producing neutron and gamma radiation. It brings out problems leading to the calculation of criticality, leakage, and deep transmission. Methods have been developed for various kinds of particle transport problems. Applications to radiation therapy, storage of fissile materials, and fast reactors are discussed. A list (with brief description) of all neutron and gamma transport programmes of the FOA is given. (J.S.)

  5. INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: CONSIDERATIONS IN PREFERENCE AND THE PROBLEMS BETWEEN EUROPE AND TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Balca Berfin UYGUÇ; Bengü SEVİL OFLAÇ

    2017-01-01

    Intermodal transportation has become increasingly important, as global supply chains tend to spread their activities in diversified countries. Intermodal transportation has its own issues that should be investigated in a deeper sense. Therefore, through conducting semi-structured interviews with logistics companies, this study aims to analyze the considerations in intermodal preference and problems faced during intermodal operations between Europe and Turkey.

  6. Opportunity Structure for Gambling and Problem Gambling among Employees in the Transport Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revheim, Tevje; Buvik, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Working conditions for employees in the transport sector might present an opportunity structure for gambling by providing access to gambling during the workday. This study investigates connections between opportunity structure, gambling during the workday, and gambling problems among employees in the transport sector. Data has been collected from…

  7. Conclusions and recommendations. [for problems in energy situation, air transportation, and hydrogen fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Conclusions and recommendations are presented for an analysis of the total energy situation; the effect of the energy problem on air transportation; and hydrogen fuel for aircraft. Properties and production costs of fuels, future prediction for energy and transportation, and economic aspects of hydrogen production are appended.

  8. Some problems and prospects for marine transportation of oil in the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannetos, Z. S.

    1973-01-01

    The problems associated with, and the financial resources required for ocean transportation of petroleum in the 1970s are discussed in terms of the energy crisis. Spot rate fluctuations for tankers are examined along with the financial requirements for ocean transportation.

  9. The problems and suggestions on supervision of the radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Fangfang; Que Ji; Zhang Min; Pan Yuting

    2012-01-01

    The developing background and importance of the rules on supervision of the radioactive material transport are discussed in the paper. Based on the existing problems found in the process of implementing the rule 'Regulations for the safe transport of Radioactive Material', some countermeasures are proposed. (authors)

  10. Transport Properties of a Kinetic Model for Chemical Reactions without Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Giselle M.; Kremer, Gilberto M.; Soares, Ana Jacinta

    2011-01-01

    A kinetic model of the Boltzmann equation for chemical reactions without energy barrier is considered here with the aim of evaluating the reaction rate and characterizing the transport coefficient of shear viscosity for the reactive system. The Chapman-Enskog solution of the Boltzmann equation is used to compute the chemical reaction effects, in a flow regime for which the reaction process is close to the final equilibrium state. Some numerical results are provided illustrating that the considered chemical reaction without energy barrier can induce an appreciable influence on the reaction rate and on the transport coefficient of shear viscosity.

  11. Chemical disorder and charge transport in ferromagnetic manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, W.E.; Singh, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Disorder broadening due to randomly distributed La 3+ and A 2+ (A=Ca,Sr,Ba) cations is combined with a virtual-crystal treatment of the average system to evaluate the effects on both majority and minority transport in the ferromagnetic La 2/3 A 1/3 MnO 3 system. The low-density minority carriers which lie in the band tail are localized by disorder, while the majority carriers retain long mean free paths reflected in the observed strongly metallic conductivity. In addition to obtaining transport parameters, we provide evidence that local distortions are due to nearby ionic charges rather than to ion size considerations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Energy material transport, now through 2000, system characteristics and potential problems. Task 3. Final report - petroleum transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, J.G.

    1979-03-01

    This report contains a summary characterization of the petroleum transportation system and an assessment of some potential problems that may impact petroleum transportation in the United States during the balance of the century. A primary purpose of this task is to provide information and perspective that contribute to the evaluation of research and development needs and priorities in future programs. The system characterization in Section 3 includes a review of petroleum product movements, modal operations and comparisons, and transportation regulations and safety. This system overview summarizes domestic production and consumption scenarios to the year 2000. A median scenario based on published projections shows that the US will probably rely on foreign oil to supply between 40 and 50 percent of domestic petroleum needs throughout the balance of the century. Potential problems in petroleum transportation were identified by the analysis and prioritization of current issues. The relative priorities of problem concerns were judged on the basis of their overall impact on the system and the immediacy of this potential impact. Two classes of concern are distinguished: 1. Potential problems that appear to require new programmatic action, in addition to effort already committed, to minimize the possible future impact of these concerns. 2. Latent concerns that may increase or decrease in priority or entirely change in nature as they develop. While the trend of these concerns should be monitored, new program action does not appear necessary at this time.

  13. Chemical and mechanical control of corrosion product transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hede Larsen, O; Blum, R [I/S Fynsvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Odense (Denmark); Daucik, K [I/S Skaerbaekvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The corrosion products formed in the condensate and feedwater system of once-through boilers are precipitated and deposited inside the evaporator tubes mainly in the burner zone at the highest heat flux. Depositions lead to increased oxidation rate and increased metal temperature of the evaporator tubes, hereby decreasing tube lifetime. This effect is more important in the new high efficiency USC boilers due to increased feedwater temperature and hence higher thermal load on the evaporator tubes. The only way to reduce the load on the evaporator tubes is to minimise corrosion product transport to the boiler. Two general methods for minimising corrosion product transport to the boiler have been evaluated through measurement campaigns for Fe in the water/steam cycle in supercritical boilers within the ELSAM area. One method is to reduce corrosion in the low temperature condensate system by changing conditioning mode from alkaline volatile treatment (AVT) to oxygenated treatment (OT). The other method is to filtrate part of the condensate with a mechanical filter at the deaerator. The results show, that both methods are effective at minimising Fe-transport to the boiler, but changing to OT has the highest effect and should always be used, whenever high purity condensate is maintained. Whether mechanical filtration also is required, depends on the boiler, specifically the load on the evaporator. A simplified calculation model for lifetime evaluation of evaporator tubes has been developed. This model has been used for evaluating the effect of corrosion product transport to the boiler on evaporator tube lifetime. Conventional supercritical boilers generally can achieve sufficient lifetime by AVT and even better by OT, whereas all measures to reduce Fe-content of feedwater, including OT and mechanical filtration, should be taken, to ensure sufficient lifetime for the new boilers with advanced steam data - 290 bar/580 deg. C and above. (au)

  14. TRU waste transportation -- The flammable gas generation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed a flammable gas (i.e., hydrogen) concentration limit of 5% by volume on transuranic (TRU) waste containers to be shipped using the TRUPACT-II transporter. This concentration is the lower explosive limit (LEL) in air. This was done to minimize the potential for loss of containment during a hypothetical 60 day period. The amount of transuranic radionuclide that is permissible for shipment in TRU waste containers has been tabulated in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP, 1) to conservatively prevent accumulation of hydrogen above this 5% limit. Based on the SARP limitations, approximately 35% of the TRU waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab (INEEL), Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) cannot be shipped in the TRUPACT-II. An even larger percentage of the TRU waste drums at the Savannah River Site (SRS) cannot be shipped because of the much higher wattage loadings of TRU waste drums in that site's inventory. This paper presents an overview of an integrated, experimental program that has been initiated to increase the shippable portion of the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste inventory. In addition, the authors will estimate the anticipated expansion of the shippable portion of the inventory and associated cost savings. Such projection should provide the TRU waste generating sites a basis for developing their TRU waste workoff strategies within their Ten Year Plan budget horizons

  15. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  16. Combined evaluation. Plutonium transports in France. Problems of safety and reliability of transport container FS47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignac, Y.; Coeytaux, X.; Large, J.H.

    2004-09-01

    This report concerns the safety and the protection of plutonium dioxide transported from Cogema La Hague to the mixed oxide fuel plant of Marcoule and Cadarache. The French approach of the transport safety is based on the combining of two essential principles: the first one affirms that the performances of the FS47 container in regard of containment (norms TS-R-1 from IAEA for the accidental conditions) is conceived to resist in any situation even terrorism or sabotage. In fact, the IAEA norm follows a probabilistic study without a voluntary attack such a terrorist one. The second principle rests on the ability to prevent the treat of terrorism acts, because of a secrecy policy on the plutonium transport. It appeared that the Green peace association has succeeded several times to know exactly the hours, the trips of the plutonium transport and this simple thing raises more questions than it solves. (N.C.)

  17. Ionic Diffusion and Kinetic Homogeneous Chemical Reactions in the Pore Solution of Porous Materials with Moisture Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Results from a systematic continuum mixture theory will be used to establish the governing equations for ionic diffusion and chemical reactions in the pore solution of a porous material subjected to moisture transport. The theory in use is the hybrid mixture theory (HMT), which in its general form......’s law of diffusion and the generalized Darcy’s law will be used together with derived constitutive equations for chemical reactions within phases. The mass balance equations for the constituents and the phases together with the constitutive equations gives the coupled set of non-linear differential...... general description of chemical reactions among constituents is described. The Petrov – Galerkin approach are used in favour of the standard Galerkin weighting in order to improve the solution when the convective part of the problem is dominant. A modified type of Newton – Raphson scheme is derived...

  18. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: II. Model evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rong; Yang Fuquan; Sloan, James J; Trevor Scholtz, M

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides have adverse health effects and can be transported over long distances to contaminate sensitive ecosystems. To address problems caused by environmental pesticides we developed a multimedia multi-pollutant modeling system, and here we present an evaluation of the model by comparing modeled results against measurements. The modeled toxaphene air concentrations for two sites, in Louisiana (LA) and Michigan (MI), are in good agreement with measurements (average concentrations agree to within a factor of 2). Because the residue inventory showed no soil residues at these two sites, resulting in no emissions, the concentrations must be caused by transport; the good agreement between the modeled and measured concentrations suggests that the model simulates atmospheric transport accurately. Compared to the LA and MI sites, the measured air concentrations at two other sites having toxaphene soil residues leading to emissions, in Indiana and Arkansas, showed more pronounced seasonal variability (higher in warmer months); this pattern was also captured by the model. The model-predicted toxaphene concentration fraction on particles (0.5-5%) agrees well with measurement-based estimates (3% or 6%). There is also good agreement between modeled and measured dry (1:1) and wet (within a factor of less than 2) depositions in Lake Ontario. Additionally this study identified erroneous soil residue data around a site in Texas in a published US toxaphene residue inventory, which led to very low modeled air concentrations at this site. Except for the erroneous soil residue data around this site, the good agreement between the modeled and observed results implies that both the US and Mexican toxaphene soil residue inventories are reasonably good. This agreement also suggests that the modeling system is capable of simulating the important physical and chemical processes in the multimedia compartments.

  19. Iterated local search and record-to-record travel applied to the fixed charge transportation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeanne; Klose, Andreas

    The fixed charge transportation problem (FCTP) is a well-known and difficult optimization problem with lots of applications in logistics. It consists in finding a minimum cost network flow from a set of suppliers to a set of customers. Beside costs proportional to quantities transported......, transportation costs do, however, include a fixed charge. Iterated local search and record-to-record travel are both simple local search based meta-heuristics that, to our knowledge, not yet have been applied to the FCTP. In this paper, we apply both types of search strategies and combine them into a single...

  20. Applying ant colony optimization metaheuristic to solve forest transportation planning problems with side constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco A. Contreras; Woodam Chung; Greg Jones

    2008-01-01

    Forest transportation planning problems (FTPP) have evolved from considering only the financial aspects of timber management to more holistic problems that also consider the environmental impacts of roads. These additional requirements have introduced side constraints, making FTPP larger and more complex. Mixed-integer programming (MIP) has been used to solve FTPP, but...

  1. To the development of numerical methods in problems of radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germogenova, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Review of studies on the development of numerical methods and the discrete ordinate method in particular, used for solution of radiation protection physics problems is given. Consideration is given to the problems, which arise when calculating fields of penetrating radiation and when studying processes of charged-particle transport and cascade processes, generated by high-energy primary radiation

  2. The analysis by several neutron transport methods of a small PWR model problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, M.J.

    1980-09-01

    A small model problem in x-y co-ordinate geometry is specified in detail to permit readers to make their own calculations. The problem is analysed using diffusion theory, differential and integral transport methods and a Monte Carlo code, and a best estimate eigenvalue is deduced. (author)

  3. Mapping online transportation service quality and multiclass classification problem solving priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsyah, Andry; Rachmadiansyah, Imam

    2018-03-01

    Online transportation service is known for its accessibility, transparency, and tariff affordability. These points make online transportation have advantages over the existing conventional transportation service. Online transportation service is an example of disruptive technology that change the relationship between customers and companies. In Indonesia, there are high competition among online transportation provider, hence the companies must maintain and monitor their service level. To understand their position, we apply both sentiment analysis and multiclass classification to understand customer opinions. From negative sentiments, we can identify problems and establish problem-solving priorities. As a case study, we use the most popular online transportation provider in Indonesia: Gojek and Grab. Since many customers are actively give compliment and complain about company’s service level on Twitter, therefore we collect 61,721 tweets in Bahasa during one month observations. We apply Naive Bayes and Support Vector Machine methods to see which model perform best for our data. The result reveal Gojek has better service quality with 19.76% positive and 80.23% negative sentiments than Grab with 9.2% positive and 90.8% negative. The Gojek highest problem-solving priority is regarding application problems, while Grab is about unusable promos. The overall result shows general problems of both case study are related to accessibility dimension which indicate lack of capability to provide good digital access to the end users.

  4. Solving the Single-Sink, Fixed-Charge, Multiple-Choice Transportation Problem by Dynamic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tue; Andersen, Kim Allan; Klose, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a minimum-cost network flow problem in a bipartite graph with a single sink. The transportation costs exhibit a staircase cost structure because such types of transportation cost functions are often found in practice. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for solving...... this so-called single-sink, fixed-charge, multiple-choice transportation problem exactly. The method exploits heuristics and lower bounds to peg binary variables, improve bounds on flow variables, and reduce the state-space variable. In this way, the dynamic programming method is able to solve large...... instances with up to 10,000 nodes and 10 different transportation modes in a few seconds, much less time than required by a widely used mixed-integer programming solver and other methods proposed in the literature for this problem....

  5. Survey of projected growth and problems facing air transportation, 1975 - 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.; Wilson, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey conducted to determine the current opinion of people working in air transportation demand forecasting on the future of air transportation over the next ten years. In particular, the survey included questions on future demand growth, load factor, fuel prices, introduction date for the next new aircraft, the priorities of problems facing air transportation, and the probability of a substantial change in air transportation regulation. The survey participants included: airlines, manufacturers, universities, government agencies, and other organizations (financial institutions, private research companies, etc.). The results are shown for the average responses within the organization represented as well as the overall averages.

  6. Problems of economic security in Russian transportation and intermediate carrier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatol'evich Tsvetkov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the basic problems of economic security in infrastructural ensuring of the implementation of transportation and intermediate carrier potential of Russia: development and reconstruction of communication lines, usage of innovative transportation methods, building a network of transportation and logistics centers, development of regional airport hubs and others. Particular attention is paid to the problems of transportation and transit potential implementation of Siberia and the Far East. It is shown that the increase of transit facilities in the territory of Russia takes place in a competitive market of infrastructure projects. At the same time it is emphasized that along with exhausting the possibilities of commodity economy development, a natural competitive advantage of Russia as a transport bridge between Europe, Asia and America will be implemented in full force.

  7. Problems of economic security in Russian transportation and intermediate carrier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatol'evich Tsvetkov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the basic problems of economic security in infrastructural ensuring of the implementation of transportation and intermediate carrier potential of Russia: development and reconstruction of communication lines, usage of innovative transportation methods, building a network of transportation and logistics centers, development of regional airport hubs and others. Particular attention is paid to the problems of transportation and transit potential implementation of Siberia and the Far East. It is shown that the increase of transit facilities in the territory of Russia takes place in a competitive market of infrastructure projects. At the same time it is emphasized that along with exhausting the possibilities of commodity economy development, a natural competitive advantage of Russia as a transport bridge between Europe, Asia and America will be implemented in full force.

  8. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Chemical engineering of nanomaterials. Energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes and problems of their intensification. Processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics. Ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of nanomaterials, energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes, processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics, ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  9. Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-06-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  10. Some Sensitivity Studies of Chemical Transport Simulated in Models of the Soil-Plant-Litter System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, C.L.

    2002-10-28

    Fifteen parameters in a set of five coupled models describing carbon, water, and chemical dynamics in the soil-plant-litter system were varied in a sensitivity analysis of model response. Results are presented for chemical distribution in the components of soil, plants, and litter along with selected responses of biomass, internal chemical transport (xylem and phloem pathways), and chemical uptake. Response and sensitivity coefficients are presented for up to 102 model outputs in an appendix. Two soil properties (chemical distribution coefficient and chemical solubility) and three plant properties (leaf chemical permeability, cuticle thickness, and root chemical conductivity) had the greatest influence on chemical transport in the soil-plant-litter system under the conditions examined. Pollutant gas uptake (SO{sub 2}) increased with change in plant properties that increased plant growth. Heavy metal dynamics in litter responded to plant properties (phloem resistance, respiration characteristics) which induced changes in the chemical cycling to the litter system. Some of the SO{sub 2} and heavy metal responses were not expected but became apparent through the modeling analysis.

  11. A numerical method for two-dimensional anisotropic transport problem in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Mingsheng; Feng Tiekai; Fu Lianxiang; Cao Changshu; Liu Yulan

    1988-01-01

    The authors deal with the triangular mesh-discontinuous finite element method for solving the time-dependent anisotropic neutron transport problem in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry. A prior estimate of the numerical solution is given. Stability is proved. The authors have computed a two dimensional anisotropic neutron transport problem and a Tungsten-Carbide critical assembly problem by using the numerical method. In comparision with DSN method and the experimental results obtained by others both at home and abroad, the method is satisfactory

  12. Synthetic acceleration methods for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.M.; Larsen, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    The diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) algorithm effectively accelerates the iterative solution of transport problems with isotropic or mildly anisotropic scattering. However, DSA loses its effectiveness for transport problems that have strongly anisotropic scattering. Two generalizations of DSA are proposed, which, for highly anisotropic scattering problems, converge at least an order of magnitude (clock time) faster than the DSA method. These two methods are developed, the results of Fourier analysis that theoretically predict their efficiency are described, and numerical results that verify the theoretical predictions are presented. (author). 10 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Synthetic acceleration methods for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.M.; Larsen, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) algorithm that effectively accelerates the iterative solution of transport problems with isotropic or mildly anisotropic scattering. However, DSA loses its effectiveness for transport problems that have strongly anisotropic scattering. Two generalizations of DSA are proposed, which, for highly anisotropic scattering problems, converge at least an order of magnitude (clock time) faster than the DSA method. These two methods are developed, the results of Fourier analyses that theoretically predict their efficiency are described, and numerical results that verify the theoretical predictions are presented

  14. Nonlinear Projective-Iteration Methods for Solving Transport Problems on Regular and Unstructured Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Adrian Constantinescu; Loren Roberts; William Wieselquist

    2007-01-01

    This is a project in the field of fundamental research on numerical methods for solving the particle transport equation. Numerous practical problems require to use unstructured meshes, for example, detailed nuclear reactor assembly-level calculations, large-scale reactor core calculations, radiative hydrodynamics problems, where the mesh is determined by hydrodynamic processes, and well-logging problems in which the media structure has very complicated geometry. Currently this is an area of very active research in numerical transport theory. main issues in developing numerical methods for solving the transport equation are the accuracy of the numerical solution and effectiveness of iteration procedure. The problem in case of unstructured grids is that it is very difficult to derive an iteration algorithm that will be unconditionally stable

  15. Risk factors in equine transport-related health problems: A survey of the Australian equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, B; Raidal, S L; Hall, E; Knight, P; Celi, P; Jeffcott, L; Muscatello, G

    2017-07-01

    Transportation can affect equine health and is a potential source of economic loss to the industry. To identify journey (duration, vehicle, commercial or noncommercial) and horse (sex, age, breed, use, amateur or professional status) characteristics associated with the development of transport-related health problems in horses. Cross-sectional online survey. An online survey was conducted targeting amateur and professional participants in the Australian equine industry; eligible respondents were required to organise horse movements at least monthly. Respondents provided details of the last case of a transport-related health problem that had affected their horse(s). Associations between type of health problem, journey and horse characteristics were examined with multivariable multinomial regression analysis. Based on 214 responses, health problems were classified as injuries, muscular problems, heat stroke, gastrointestinal and respiratory problems, and death or euthanasia. Respiratory problems were reported most frequently (33.7%), followed by gastrointestinal problems (23.8%) and traumatic injuries (16.3%). The type of health problem was associated with journey duration (Pproblems, and death or euthanasia) were more likely to occur on long journeys. Using Standardbreds as the reference group, Thoroughbreds, Arabians and Warmbloods were more likely to experience a severe illness than an injury. Self-selected participation in the study and the self-reported nature of transport-related problems. Horses undertaking journeys of longer than 24 h are at greater risk for the development of severe disease or death. Further studies on long-haul transportation effects are required to safeguard the welfare of horses moved over long distances. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Analysis of some greedy algorithms for the single-sink fixed-charge transportation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    -charge transportation problem. Nevertheless, just a few methods for solving this problem have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, some greedy heuristic solutions methods for the SSFCTP are investigated. It is shown that two greedy approaches for the SSFCTP known from the literature can be arbitrarily bad......, whereas an approximation algorithm proposed in the literature for the binary min-knapsack problem has a guaranteed worst case bound if adapted accordingly to the case of the SSFCTP....

  17. Finite element modeling of contaminant transport in soils including the effect of chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, A A; Al-Najjar, M M

    2007-05-17

    The movement of chemicals through soils to the groundwater is a major cause of degradation of water resources. In many cases, serious human and stock health implications are associated with this form of pollution. Recent studies have shown that the current models and methods are not able to adequately describe the leaching of nutrients through soils, often underestimating the risk of groundwater contamination by surface-applied chemicals, and overestimating the concentration of resident solutes. Furthermore, the effect of chemical reactions on the fate and transport of contaminants is not included in many of the existing numerical models for contaminant transport. In this paper a numerical model is presented for simulation of the flow of water and air and contaminant transport through unsaturated soils with the main focus being on the effects of chemical reactions. The governing equations of miscible contaminant transport including advection, dispersion-diffusion and adsorption effects together with the effect of chemical reactions are presented. The mathematical framework and the numerical implementation of the model are described in detail. The model is validated by application to a number of test cases from the literature and is then applied to the simulation of a physical model test involving transport of contaminants in a block of soil with particular reference to the effects of chemical reactions. Comparison of the results of the numerical model with the experimental results shows that the model is capable of predicting the effects of chemical reactions with very high accuracy. The importance of consideration of the effects of chemical reactions is highlighted.

  18. The influence of vertical sorbed phase transport on the fate of organic chemicals in surface soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Michael S; Czub, Gertje; Wania, Frank

    2002-11-15

    Gaseous exchange between surface soil and the atmosphere is an important process in the environmental fate of many chemicals. It was hypothesized that this process is influenced by vertical transport of chemicals sorbed to soil particles. Vertical sorbed phase transport in surface soils occurs by many processes such as bioturbation, cryoturbation, and erosion into cracks formed by soil drying. The solution of the advection/diffusion equation proposed by Jury et al. to describe organic chemical fate in a uniformly contaminated surface soil was modified to include vertical sorbed phase transport This process was modeled using a sorbed phase diffusion coefficient, the value of which was derived from soil carbon mass balances in the literature. The effective diffusivity of the chemical in a typical soil was greater in the modified model than in the model without sorbed phase transport for compounds with log K(OW) > 2 and log K(OA) > 6. Within this chemical partitioning space, the rate of volatilization from the surface soil was larger in the modified model than in the original model by up to a factor of 65. The volatilization rate was insensitive to the value of the sorbed phase diffusion coefficient throughout much of this chemical partitioning space, indicating that the surface soil layer was essentially well-mixed and that the mass transfer coefficient was determined by diffusion through the atmospheric boundary layer only. When this process was included in a non-steady-state regional multimedia chemical fate model running with a generic emissions scenario to air, the predicted soil concentrations increased by upto a factor of 25,whilethe air concentrations decreased by as much as a factor of approximately 3. Vertical sorbed phase transport in the soil thus has a major impact on predicted air and soil concentrations, the state of equilibrium, and the direction and magnitude of the chemical flux between air and soil. It is a key process influencing the environmental

  19. Intermodal safety research needs report of the sixth workshop on national transportation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warshawer, A.J. (ed.)

    1976-04-01

    This conference brought together DOT policymakers, university principal investigators and other professionals to consider the intermodal safety research requirements of the Department of Transportation. The objectives of the conference were: (1) to highlight safety problems and needed transportation safety research identified by DOT modal safety managers and to stimulate university or university/industry teams to respond with research proposals which emphasize multi-modal applicability and a system view; and (2) to provide a forum for university research groups to inform DOT safety managers of promising new directions in transportation safety research and new tools with which to address safety related problems. The conference addressed the research requirements for safety as identified by the Statement of National Transportation Policy and by the modal safety managers in three principal contexts, each a workshop panel: I, Inter-Institutional Problems of Transportation Safety. Problems were described as: Federal-State, local; Federal-Industry; Federal-Public, Consumer groups. II, Goal Setting and Planning for Transportation Safety Programs. Issues were: modifying risk behavior, safety as a social value, and involving citizens in development of standards as a way of increasing probability of achieving program objectives. III, DOT Information, Management, and Evaluation Systems Requirements. Needs were: data requirements and analytic tools for management of safety programs.

  20. Handling and Transport Problems; Problemes de Manipulation et de Transport; 041f 0420 041e 0414 ; Problemas de Manipulacion y de Transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J.; Savouyaud, J. [Service de Controle des Radiations et de Genie Radioactif, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    I. The handling and transport of radioactive waste involves the risk of irradiation and contamination. It is necessary to draw up special regulations governing the removal and transport of waste within the centres or from one centre to another, and to entrust transport to a group in charge of specialized teams. The organization, equipment and efficiency of such teams is then considered. II. Certain types of transport operation are particularly dangerous and require special transport units and fixed installations. This applies, in particular, to the disposal of highly radioactive liquids. A description is given of a composite transport unit, consisting of a towing vehicle, semi-trailer and tank holding 500 l of liquid with an activity of up to 1,000 c/l. The drawing-off of the liquid waste, routing of the transport unit and precautions to be taken are discussed. (author) [French] I - La manipulation et le j transport des dechets radioactifs presentent des dangers d'irradiation et de contamination. Il est necessaire: - d'edicter des consignes speciales applicables a l'enlevement et au transport des dechets dans les centres ou de centre a centre. - de confier les transports a un groupe dont relevent des equipes specialisees. On examine l'organisation, les moyens, le rendement de ces equipes. II - Certains transports sont particulierement dangereux et necessitent des engins speciaux et des installations fixes. C'est le cas, notamment, de l'evacuation des liquides tres actifs. On decrit : Inverted-Exclamation-Mark - un engin de transport compose d'un ensemble: tracteur, semi- remorque et d'un recipient qui contient 500 litres de liquide dont l'activite peut atteindre 1.000 c/l. - les operations de transvasement, l'acheminement de l'engin, les precautions prises. (author) [Spanish] I - La manipulacion y el transporte de desechos radiactivos ofrecen riesgos de irradiacion y de contaminacion. Es necesario: - dictar consignas especiales para retirar los desechos y para su

  1. Metaheuristics for the dynamic stochastic dial-a-ride problem with expected return transports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilde, M; Doerner, K F; Hartl, R F

    2011-12-01

    The problem of transporting patients or elderly people has been widely studied in literature and is usually modeled as a dial-a-ride problem (DARP). In this paper we analyze the corresponding problem arising in the daily operation of the Austrian Red Cross. This nongovernmental organization is the largest organization performing patient transportation in Austria. The aim is to design vehicle routes to serve partially dynamic transportation requests using a fixed vehicle fleet. Each request requires transportation from a patient's home location to a hospital (outbound request) or back home from the hospital (inbound request). Some of these requests are known in advance. Some requests are dynamic in the sense that they appear during the day without any prior information. Finally, some inbound requests are stochastic. More precisely, with a certain probability each outbound request causes a corresponding inbound request on the same day. Some stochastic information about these return transports is available from historical data. The purpose of this study is to investigate, whether using this information in designing the routes has a significant positive effect on the solution quality. The problem is modeled as a dynamic stochastic dial-a-ride problem with expected return transports. We propose four different modifications of metaheuristic solution approaches for this problem. In detail, we test dynamic versions of variable neighborhood search (VNS) and stochastic VNS (S-VNS) as well as modified versions of the multiple plan approach (MPA) and the multiple scenario approach (MSA). Tests are performed using 12 sets of test instances based on a real road network. Various demand scenarios are generated based on the available real data. Results show that using the stochastic information on return transports leads to average improvements of around 15%. Moreover, improvements of up to 41% can be achieved for some test instances.

  2. Bi-objective optimization for multi-modal transportation routing planning problem based on Pareto optimality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of study is to solve the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem that aims to select an optimal route to move a consignment of goods from its origin to its destination through the multi-modal transportation network. And the optimization is from two viewpoints including cost and time. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. Minimizing the total transportation cost and the total transportation time are set as the optimization objectives of the model. In order to balance the benefit between the two objectives, Pareto optimality is utilized to solve the model by gaining its Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier of the model can provide the multi-modal transportation operator (MTO and customers with better decision support and it is gained by the normalized normal constraint method. Then, an experimental case study is designed to verify the feasibility of the model and Pareto optimality by using the mathematical programming software Lingo. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case. Findings: The calculation results indicate that the proposed model and Pareto optimality have good performance in dealing with the bi-objective optimization. The sensitivity analysis also shows the influence of the variation of the demand and supply on the multi-modal transportation organization clearly. Therefore, this method can be further promoted to the practice. Originality/value: A bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. The Pareto frontier based sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case.

  3. Solution of stochastic media transport problems using a numerical quadrature-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Prinja, A. K.; Olson, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new conceptual framework for analyzing transport problems in random media. We decompose such problems into stratified subproblems according to the number of material pseudo-interfaces within realizations. For a given subproblem we assign pseudo-interface locations in each realization according to product quadrature rules, which allows us to deterministically generate a fixed number of realizations. Quadrature integration of the solutions of these realizations thus approximately solves each subproblem; the weighted superposition of solutions of the subproblems approximately solves the general stochastic media transport problem. We revisit some benchmark problems to determine the accuracy and efficiency of this approach in comparison to randomly generated realizations. We find that this method is very accurate and fast when the number of pseudo-interfaces in a problem is generally low, but that these advantages quickly degrade as the number of pseudo-interfaces increases. (authors)

  4. SITE-94. Chemical and physical transport parameters for SITE-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Technical Environmental Planning

    1996-02-01

    Important parameters are the interactions of radionuclides with solid surfaces, parameters describing the geometrical conditions like porosity, data on water composition (ionic strength, pH, redox conditions, complex formers etc) and data on the solids that may be of importance to the water and radionuclide chemistry. In this report some of these data of relevance for the Aespoe site are discussed. Based on a literature survey, sorption data as well as values for some other parameters have been selected for rock, fracture fillings and bentonite relevant to the chemical conditions in and around a repository at Aespoe. A comparison to data used for earlier, site-specific as well as general, safety assessments of underground repositories has been performed. The data are recommendations for modelling of radionuclide release from a hypothetical high level waste repository at Aespoe. Since the data to a large extent are not based on experimental measurements, more accurate predictions may be expected if more experimental data are available. Before such studies are performed for a specific site, a variational analysis in order to evaluate the importance of the single parameters is recommended. After such a study, the key parameters may be investigated in detail and the modelling can be expected to be more accurate what concerns influence of single parameters. However, the uncertainty in conceptual areas like how to model accurately the long term hydrology of the site etc still remains. 32 refs.

  5. Predicting soil formation on the basis of transport-limited chemical weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Hunt, Allen Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Soil production is closely related to chemical weathering. It has been shown that, under the assumption that chemical weathering is limited by solute transport, the process of soil production is predictable. However, solute transport in soil cannot be described by Gaussian transport. In this paper, we propose an approach based on percolation theory describing non-Gaussian transport of solute to predict soil formation (the net production of soil) by considering both soil production from chemical weathering and removal of soil from erosion. Our prediction shows agreement with observed soil depths in the field. Theoretical soil formation rates are also compared with published rates predicted using soil age-profile thickness (SAST) method. Our formulation can be incorporated directly into landscape evolution models on a point-to-point basis as long as such models account for surface water routing associated with overland flow. Further, our treatment can be scaled-up to address complications associated with continental-scale applications, including those from climate change, such as changes in vegetation, or surface flow organization. The ability to predict soil formation rates has implications for understanding Earth's climate system on account of the relationship to chemical weathering of silicate minerals with the associated drawdown of atmospheric carbon, but it is also important in geomorphology for understanding landscape evolution, including for example, the shapes of hillslopes, and the net transport of sediments to sedimentary basins.

  6. Effects of coupled thermal, hydrological and chemical processes on nuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1987-03-01

    Coupled thermal, hydrological and chemical processes can be classified in two categories. One category consists of the ''Onsager'' type of processes driven by gradients of thermodynamic state variables. These processes occur simultaneously with the direct transport processes. In particular, thermal osmosis, chemical osmosis and ultrafiltration may be prominent in semipermeable materials such as clays. The other category consists of processes affected indirectly by magnitudes of thermodynamic state variables. An important example of this category is the effect of temperature on rates of chemical reactions and chemical equilibria. Coupled processes in both categories may affect transport of radionuclides. Although computational models of limited extent have been constructed, there exists no model that accounts for the full set of THC-coupled processes. In the category of Onsager coupled processes, further model development and testing is severely constrained by a deficient data base of phenomenological coefficients. In the second category, the lack of a general description of effects of heterogeneous chemical reactions on permeability of porous media inhibits progress in quantitative modeling of hydrochemically coupled transport processes. Until fundamental data necessary for further model development have been acquired, validation efforts will be limited necessarily to testing of incomplete models of nuclide transport under closely controlled experimental conditions. 34 refs., 2 tabs

  7. INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: CONSIDERATIONS IN PREFERENCE AND THE PROBLEMS BETWEEN EUROPE AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balca Berfin UYGUÇ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermodal transportation has become increasingly important, as global supply chains tend to spread their activities in diversified countries. Intermodal transportation has its own issues that should be investigated in a deeper sense. Therefore, through conducting semi-structured interviews with logistics companies, this study aims to analyze the considerations in intermodal preference and problems faced during intermodal operations between Europe and Turkey.

  8. SOLVING TRANSPORT LOGISTICS PROBLEMS IN A VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE THROUGH ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    PAVLENKO, Vitaliy; PAVLENKO, Tetiana; MOROZOVA, Olga; KUZNETSOVA, Anna; VOROPAI, Olena

    2017-01-01

    The paper offers a solution to the problem of material flow allocation within a virtual enterprise by using artificial intelligence methods. The research is based on the use of fuzzy relations when planning for optimal transportation modes to deliver components for manufactured products. The Fuzzy Logic Toolbox is used to determine the optimal route for transportation of components for manufactured products. The methods offered have been exemplified in the present research. The authors have b...

  9. Application of direct discrete method (DDM) to multigroup neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Salehi, Ali Akbar; Shahriari, Majid

    2003-01-01

    The Direct Discrete Method (DDM), which produced excellent results for one-group neutron transport problems, has been developed for multigroup energy. A multigroup neutron transport discrete equation has been produced for a cylindrical shape fuel element with and without associated coolant regions with two boundary conditions. The calculations are illustrated for two-group energy by graphs showing the fast and thermal fluxes. The validity of the results are tested against the results obtained by the ANISN code. (author)

  10. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  11. Selection of organic chemicals for subsurface transport. Subsurface transport program interaction seminar series. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachara, J.M.; Wobber, F.J.

    1984-11-01

    Model compounds are finding increasing use in environmental research. These individual compounds are selected as surrogates of important contaminants present in energy/defense wastes and their leachates and are used separately or as mixtures in research to define the anticipated or ''model'' environmental behavior of key waste components and to probe important physicochemical mechanisms involved in transport and fate. A seminar was held in Germantown, Maryland, April 24-25, 1984 to discuss the nature of model organic compounds being used for subsurface transport research. The seminar included participants experienced in the fields of environmental chemistry, microbiology, geohydrology, biology, and analytic chemistry. The objectives of the seminar were two-fold: (1) to review the rationale for the selection of organic compounds adopted by research groups working on the subsurface transport of organics, and (2) to evaluate the use of individual compounds to bracket the behavior of compound classes and compound constructs to approximate the behavior of complex organic mixtures

  12. The problems of international transport corridors development on the territory of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustamzade M.N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available in the transition of the leading countries of the world on an innovative way of development, transport is considered as one of the most important factors of socio-economic growth in Russia. Transport contributes to strengthening the unity of the economic area of the country, improves the interregional and international transport and economic relations, increases the efficient using of natural resources, develops entrepreneurship and international cooperation. However, there is a number of obstacles before implementation of transport and transit potential of Russia. The paper deals with features of international and national transport corridors on the territory of Russia and the key problems of their functioning and possible ways to overcome them.

  13. An LP-based heuristic for the fixed charge transportation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The fixed charge transportation problem consists in finding a minimum cost network flow from a set of suppliers to a set of customers. Beside costs proportional to quantities transported, transportation costs also include a fixed charge. The paper describes a linear programming based heuristic...... approach for computing lower and upper bounds on the minimal cost. To this end, the LP relaxation is iteratively strengthened by means of adding cuts; in each iteration the current LP solution is then used to guide a local search heuristic. In addition to standard polyhedral cuts as lifted cover...

  14. SOLVING TRANSPORT LOGISTICS PROBLEMS IN A VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE THROUGH ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy PAVLENKO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a solution to the problem of material flow allocation within a virtual enterprise by using artificial intelligence methods. The research is based on the use of fuzzy relations when planning for optimal transportation modes to deliver components for manufactured products. The Fuzzy Logic Toolbox is used to determine the optimal route for transportation of components for manufactured products. The methods offered have been exemplified in the present research. The authors have built a simulation model for component transportation and delivery for manufactured products using the Simulink graphical environment for building models.

  15. PROBLEMS OF THE EFFICIENCY INCREASING OF TRANSPORTATION BY AIR OF UKRAINIAN SSR (1960-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Gorban

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the efficiency increasing of the air transportation. The difficulties of increasing the efficiency of transportation by air in Ukrainian SSR in 1960-1980 were researched, factors that adversely affected the organization of the transport sector were determined and depicted. The article analyzes what caused such difficulties and it was found out that the causes of these difficulties are connected with the organizational problems of air transport of Ukrainian SSR, which negatively affected the operation of the industry. The central aim of the research is to focus on the main problems of air transport of Ukrainian SSR. So, we should say that the transport operation of those years was distributed too unevenly and was dependent on the population density of the territory of the republic. Purpose of the article is to determine, compile and analyze the factors that negatively affected the organization of air transportation of the Ukrainian republic and reduced the efficiency of its operation. Results of the research shows technical, organization and economical deficiency of air transport of Ukrainian SSR which caused the ineffectiveness of this type of transport and determines the nature of such difficulties. Statement of the problem. During the specified period (1960–1980 the air transport had undergone rapid development. Many new airlines were opened, airports were being built and reconstructed, the terms of exploiting of turbojet aircrafts were increased, the speed of planes was increasing. All these facts ensured safe and reliable air connection of all district centers, connected Ukraine with the other Soviet republics and foreign countries by air corridors. Ukrainian Department of Civil Aviation became the biggest regional Department of the Ministry of Civil Aviation of the USSR. But, at the same time the intensity of the increase of cargo and passenger transportation since 1970s led to accumulation of

  16. THE PROBLEM OF PROPER CARGO SECURING IN ROAD TRANSPORT – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CIEŚLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of improper security of cargo in trucks as the cause of about 25% of the accidents that takes place in road transport. Attention was drawn to aspects of legal liability for errors resulting from incorrect load securing according to polish law. Article was enriched with practical examples illustrating the effects of improper cargo securing on transport unit and shows how it had to be prepared properly. When planning the proper transport protection of metal sheets rolled both calculation methods and computer applications were used.

  17. The spectral element approach for the solution of neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarino, A.; Dulla, S.; Ravetto, P.; Mund, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a possible application of the Spectral Element Method to neutron transport problems is presented. The basic features of the numerical scheme on the one-dimensional diffusion equation are illustrated. Then, the AN model for neutron transport is introduced, and the basic steps for the construction of a bi-dimensional solver are described. The AN equations are chosen for their structure, involving a system of coupled elliptic-type equations. Some calculations are carried out on typical benchmark problems and results are compared with the Finite Element Method, in order to evaluate their performances. (author)

  18. FORMULATION OF MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM DESCRIBING PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES AT CONCRETE CORROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Fedosov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relevance of new scientific research focused on modeling of physical and chemical processes occurring in the cement concrete at their exploitation. The basic types of concrete corrosion are described. The problem of mass transfer processes in a flat reinforced concrete wall at concrete corrosion of the first and the second types has been mathematically formulated.

  19. Becoming a law to regulate the production and use of chemicals: the problems of technical regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. С. Бабенко

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The system of legal regulation of the management of chemicals in Ukraine, although it has become a development, but is very imperfect. The main problems concerning technical legislation, the resolution of which will improve the systems of standardization and certification focused on European practice.

  20. Systematic Approach to Calculate the Concentration of Chemical Species in Multi-Equilibrium Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Baeza, Juan Jose; Garcia-Alvarez-Coque, Maria Celia

    2011-01-01

    A general systematic approach is proposed for the numerical calculation of multi-equilibrium problems. The approach involves several steps: (i) the establishment of balances involving the chemical species in solution (e.g., mass balances, charge balance, and stoichiometric balance for the reaction products), (ii) the selection of the unknowns (the…

  1. Approximate solutions for the two-dimensional integral transport equation. Solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard.

    1980-11-01

    This work is divided into two parts: the first part deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one (note CEA-N-2166) treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. A set of approximate solutions for the isotropic two-dimensional neutron transport problem has been developed using the interface current formalism. The method has been applied to regular lattices of rectangular cells containing a fuel pin, cladding, and water, or homogenized structural material. The cells are divided into zones that are homogeneous. A zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a direct collision probability problem within a cell. The coupling of the cells is effected by making extra assumptions on the currents entering and leaving the interfaces. Two codes have been written: CALLIOPE uses a cylindrical cell model and one or three terms for the flux expansion, and NAUSICAA uses a two-dimensional flux representation and does a truly two-dimensional calculation inside each cell. In both codes, one or three terms can be used to make a space-independent expansion of the angular fluxes entering and leaving each side of the cell. The accuracies and computing times achieved with the different approximations are illustrated by numerical studies on two benchmark problems and by calculations performed in the APOLLO multigroup code [fr

  2. Chemical vapour transport of pyrite (FeS 2) with halogen (Cl, Br, I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, S.; Mai, J.; Ennaoui, A.; Szacki, W.

    1986-12-01

    A systematic study of chemical vapour transport (CVT) of pyrite with halogen, hydrogen halides and ammonium halides as transporting agents has shown that the transport with chlorine and bromine in a temperature gradient Δ T = 920-820 K yields the highest transport rates (˜6 mg/h) with crystals up to 5 mm edge length. Computing thermochemical equilibria and flux functions in the system Fe-S-Hal (Hal = Cl, Br, I) it has been confirmed that the transport velocity of pyrite is limited by the concentration of FeHal 2 in the vapour phase, the equilibrium position between FeHal 2(g) and FeHal 3(g) and the flux directions of the iron gas species.

  3. A Fuzzy Approach Using Generalized Dinkelbach’s Algorithm for Multiobjective Linear Fractional Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Cetin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a multiobjective linear fractional transportation problem (MLFTP with several fractional criteria, such as, the maximization of the transport profitability like profit/cost or profit/time, and its two properties are source and destination. Our aim is to introduce MLFTP which has not been studied in literature before and to provide a fuzzy approach which obtain a compromise Pareto-optimal solution for this problem. To do this, first, we present a theorem which shows that MLFTP is always solvable. And then, reducing MLFTP to the Zimmermann’s “min” operator model which is the max-min problem, we construct Generalized Dinkelbach’s Algorithm for solving the obtained problem. Furthermore, we provide an illustrative numerical example to explain this fuzzy approach.

  4. A Compensatory Approach to Multiobjective Linear Transportation Problem with Fuzzy Cost Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Gonce Kocken

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Multiobjective Linear Transportation Problem that has fuzzy cost coefficients. In the solution procedure, many objectives may conflict with each other; therefore decision-making process becomes complicated. And also due to the fuzziness in the costs, this problem has a nonlinear structure. In this paper, fuzziness in the objective functions is handled with a fuzzy programming technique in the sense of multiobjective approach. And then we present a compensatory approach to solve Multiobjective Linear Transportation Problem with fuzzy cost coefficients by using Werner's and operator. Our approach generates compromise solutions which are both compensatory and Pareto optimal. A numerical example has been provided to illustrate the problem.

  5. Chemical Transport Knockout for Oxidized Vitamin C, Dehydroascorbic Acid, Reveals Its Functions in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Tu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its transport by glucose transporters (GLUTs in vitro, it is unknown whether dehydroascorbic acid (oxidized vitamin C, DHA has any in vivo function. To investigate, we created a chemical transport knockout model using the vitamin C analog 6-bromo-ascorbate. This analog is transported on sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters but its oxidized form, 6-bromo-dehydroascorbic acid, is not transported by GLUTs. Mice (gulo−/− unable to synthesize ascorbate (vitamin C were raised on 6-bromo-ascorbate. Despite normal survival, centrifugation of blood produced hemolysis secondary to near absence of red blood cell (RBC ascorbate/6-bromo-ascorbate. Key findings with clinical implications were that RBCs in vitro transported dehydroascorbic acid but not bromo-dehydroascorbic acid; RBC ascorbate in vivo was obtained only via DHA transport; ascorbate via DHA transport in vivo was necessary for RBC structural integrity; and internal RBC ascorbate was essential to maintain ascorbate plasma concentrations in vitro/in vivo.

  6. Enhancing the design of in situ chemical barriers with multicomponent reactive transport modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevougian, S.D.; Steefel, C.I.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses the need for systematic control of field-scale performance in the emplacement and operation of in situ chemical treatment barriers; in particular, it addresses the issue of how the local coupling of reaction kinetics and material heterogeneities at the laboratory or bench scale can be accurately upscaled to the field. The authors have recently developed modeling analysis tools that can explicitly account for all relevant chemical reactions that accompany the transport of reagents and contaminants through a chemically and physically heterogeneous subsurface rock or soil matrix. These tools are incorporated into an enhanced design methodology for in situ chemical treatment technologies, and the new methodology is demonstrated in the ongoing design of a field experiment for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) project at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The ISRM design approach, which systematically integrates bench-scale and site characterization information, provides an ideal test for the new reactive transport techniques. The need for the enhanced chemistry capability is demonstrated by an example that shows how intra-aqueous redox kinetics can affect the transport of reactive solutes. Simulations are carried out on massively parallel computer architectures to resolve the influence of multiscale heterogeneities on multicomponent, multidimensional reactive transport. The technology will soon be available to design larger-scale remediation schemes

  7. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Gon; Byun, Hun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks

  8. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Gon [Hanwha Chemical Ulsan Site, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hun Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks.

  9. Modeling non-isothermal multiphase multi-species reactive chemical transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianfu Xu; Gerard, F.; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.

    1997-07-01

    The assessment of mineral deposits, the analysis of hydrothermal convection systems, the performance of radioactive, urban and industrial waste disposal, the study of groundwater pollution, and the understanding of natural groundwater quality patterns all require modeling tools that can consider both the transport of dissolved species as well as their interactions with solid (or other) phases in geologic media and engineered barriers. Here, a general multi-species reactive transport formulation has been developed, which is applicable to homogeneous and/or heterogeneous reactions that can proceed either subject to local equilibrium conditions or kinetic rates under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions. Two numerical solution methods, the direct substitution approach (DSA) and sequential iteration approach (SIA) for solving the coupled complex subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes, are described. An efficient sequential iteration approach, which solves transport of solutes and chemical reactions sequentially and iteratively, is proposed for the current reactive chemical transport computer code development. The coupled flow (water, vapor, air and heat) and solute transport equations are also solved sequentially. The existing multiphase flow code TOUGH2 and geochemical code EQ3/6 are used to implement this SIA. The flow chart of the coupled code TOUGH2-EQ3/6, required modifications of the existing codes and additional subroutines needed are presented.

  10. Students’ conceptions and problem-solving ability on topic chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diawati, Chansyanah, E-mail: chansyanahd@yahoo.com [Program Studi Pendidikan Kimia Jurusan PMIPA FKIP, Universitas Lampung, Jl. Prof. Dr. Soemantri Brodjonegoro No. 1 Gedung Meneng, Bandar Lampung35145 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    The enthalpy concept and its change were introduced to describe the forms of internal energy transfer in chemical reactions. Likewise, the concepts of exothermic and endothermic reactions introduced as a consequence of heat transfer form. In the heat measurement process at constant pressure, work is often ignored. The exothermic or endothermic reactions, usually only based on the increase or decrease of the reaction temperature, without associated with the internal energy. Depictions of enthalpy and its change assumed closely related to students’ problem-solving ability. Therefore, the study to describe pre-service chemistry teacher student’s conceptions and problem-solving ability on topic chemical thermodynamics has been done. This research was a case study of chemical education course in Provinsi Lampung. The subjects of this study were 42 students who attend the chemical thermodynamics course. Questions about exothermic and endothermic reactions, enthalpy and its change, as well as internal energy and its change were given in the form of an essay exam questions. Answers related to conception qualitatively categorized, while problem solving answers were scored and assessed. The results showed that, in general, students were having problems in enthalpy and describe the changes in the form of heat and work. The highest value of problem solving ability obtained 26.67 from the maximum value of 100. The lowest value was 0, and the average value was 14.73. These results show that the problem-solving ability of pre-service chemistry teacher students was low. The results provide insight to researchers, and educators to develop learning or lab work on this concept.

  11. Problem formulation for risk assessment of combined exposures to chemicals and other stressors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Wilks, Martin F; Bachman, Ammie; Boobis, Alan; Moretto, Angelo; Pastoor, Timothy P; Phillips, Richard; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-11-01

    When the human health risk assessment/risk management paradigm was developed, it did not explicitly include a "problem formulation" phase. The concept of problem formulation was first introduced in the context of ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the pragmatic reason to constrain and focus ERAs on the key questions. However, this need also exists for human health risk assessment, particularly for cumulative risk assessment (CRA), because of its complexity. CRA encompasses the combined threats to health from exposure via all relevant routes to multiple stressors, including biological, chemical, physical and psychosocial stressors. As part of the HESI Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) Project, a framework for CRA was developed in which problem formulation plays a critical role. The focus of this effort is primarily on a chemical CRA (i.e., two or more chemicals) with subsequent consideration of non-chemical stressors, defined as "modulating factors" (ModFs). Problem formulation is a systematic approach that identifies all factors critical to a specific risk assessment and considers the purpose of the assessment, scope and depth of the necessary analysis, analytical approach, available resources and outcomes, and overall risk management goal. There are numerous considerations that are specific to multiple stressors, and proper problem formulation can help to focus a CRA to the key factors in order to optimize resources. As part of the problem formulation, conceptual models for exposures and responses can be developed that address these factors, such as temporal relationships between stressors and consideration of the appropriate ModFs.

  12. Students’ conceptions and problem-solving ability on topic chemical thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diawati, Chansyanah

    2016-01-01

    The enthalpy concept and its change were introduced to describe the forms of internal energy transfer in chemical reactions. Likewise, the concepts of exothermic and endothermic reactions introduced as a consequence of heat transfer form. In the heat measurement process at constant pressure, work is often ignored. The exothermic or endothermic reactions, usually only based on the increase or decrease of the reaction temperature, without associated with the internal energy. Depictions of enthalpy and its change assumed closely related to students’ problem-solving ability. Therefore, the study to describe pre-service chemistry teacher student’s conceptions and problem-solving ability on topic chemical thermodynamics has been done. This research was a case study of chemical education course in Provinsi Lampung. The subjects of this study were 42 students who attend the chemical thermodynamics course. Questions about exothermic and endothermic reactions, enthalpy and its change, as well as internal energy and its change were given in the form of an essay exam questions. Answers related to conception qualitatively categorized, while problem solving answers were scored and assessed. The results showed that, in general, students were having problems in enthalpy and describe the changes in the form of heat and work. The highest value of problem solving ability obtained 26.67 from the maximum value of 100. The lowest value was 0, and the average value was 14.73. These results show that the problem-solving ability of pre-service chemistry teacher students was low. The results provide insight to researchers, and educators to develop learning or lab work on this concept

  13. Parallel algorithms for 2-D cylindrical transport equations of Eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Yang, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, aimed at the neutron transport equations of eigenvalue problem under 2-D cylindrical geometry on unstructured grid, the discrete scheme of Sn discrete ordinate and discontinuous finite is built, and the parallel computation for the scheme is realized on MPI systems. Numerical experiments indicate that the designed parallel algorithm can reach perfect speedup, it has good practicality and scalability. (authors)

  14. Vectorization and parallelization of a numerical scheme for 3D global atmospheric transport-chemistry problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Spee (Edwin); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul); J.G. Verwer (Jan); J.G. Blom (Joke); W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractAtmospheric air quality modeling relies in part on numerical simulation. Required numerical simulations are often hampered by lack of computer capacity and computational speed. This problem is most severe in the field of global modeling where transport and exchange of trace constituents

  15. Positive solution of a time and energy dependent neutron transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, C.V.

    1975-01-01

    A constructive method is given for the determination of a solution and an existence--uniqueness theorem for some nonlinear time and energy dependent neutron transport problems, including the linear transport system. The geometry of the medium under consideration is allowed to be either bounded or unbounded which includes the geometry of a finite or infinite cylinder, a half-space and the whole space R/subm/ (m=1,2,center-dotcenter-dotcenter-dot). Our approach to the problem is by successive approximation which leads to various recursion formulas for the approximations in terms of explicit integrations. It is shown under some Lipschitz conditions on the nonlinear functions, which describe the process of neutrons absorption, fission, and scattering, that the sequence of approximations converges to a unique positive solution. Since these conditions are satisfied by the linear transport equation, all the results for the nonlinear system are valid for the linear transport problem. In the general nonlinear problem, the existence of both local and global solutions are discussed, and an iterative process for the construction of the solution is given

  16. A Case Study: Problem-Based Learning for Civil Engineering Students in Transportation Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies where problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to undergraduate civil engineering students in University College Dublin. PBL has recently been put in place in the penultimate and final year transport engineering classes in the civil engineering degree in University College Dublin. In this case study,…

  17. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

    1998-08-31

    This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

  18. A consistent formulation of the finite element method for solving diffusive-convective transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, E.G.D. do; Galeao, A.C.N.R.

    1986-01-01

    A new method specially designed to solve highly convective transport problems is proposed. Using a variational approach it is shown that this weighted residual method belongs to a class of Petrov-Galerkin's approximation. Some examples are presented in order to demonstrate the adequacy of this method in predicting internal or external boundary layers. (Author) [pt

  19. The regulations and the problems of their implementation in UF6 transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Grenier, M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.

    1988-12-01

    UF 6 is currently transported in packagings which were developed in the sixties - standardized and used all over the world, these packagings perform their duty adequately. Nevertheless, the growing amounts of UF 6 and the changes in the regulations now raises the problem of compliance of these packagings with the latter. The problems which deserve special attention are: selection of the packaging type in terms of the origin and the enrichment, design of valve covers, behaviour at low temperatures, regulatory requirements in handling, tying down cleaning and unloading, allowable dose rate increase in case of minor mishaps, behaviour in fire, taking into account the toxicity, identification of special features required in the case of controlled moderation of fissile packages, transport conditions of empty packagings containing heels. In this paper are reviewed the results of this analysis, which is limited to the case of transport using cylinders of 48Y and 30B

  20. Practical adjoint Monte Carlo technique for fixed-source and eigenfunction neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    An adjoint Monte Carlo technique is described for the solution of neutron transport problems. The optimum biasing function for a zero-variance collision estimator is derived. The optimum treatment of an analog of a non-velocity thermal group has also been derived. The method is extended to multiplying systems, especially for eigenfunction problems to enable the estimate of averages over the unknown fundamental neutron flux distribution. A versatile computer code, FOCUS, has been written, based on the described theory. Numerical examples are given for a shielding problem and a critical assembly, illustrating the performance of the FOCUS code. 19 refs

  1. Multi-level methods for solving multigroup transport eigenvalue problems in 1D slab geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anistratov, D. Y.; Gol'din, V. Y.

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for solving eigenvalue problems for the multigroup neutron transport equation in 1D slab geometry is presented. In this paper we formulate and compare different variants of nonlinear multi-level iteration methods. They are defined by means of multigroup and effective one-group low-order quasi diffusion (LOQD) equations. We analyze the effects of utilization of the effective one-group LOQD problem for estimating the eigenvalue. We present numerical results to demonstrate the performance of the iteration algorithms in different types of reactor-physics problems. (authors)

  2. Solution of the neutron transport problem with anisotropic scattering in cylindrical geometry by the decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, G.A.; Bogado Leite, S.Q.; Vilhena, M.T. de

    2009-01-01

    An analytical solution has been obtained for the one-speed stationary neutron transport problem, in an infinitely long cylinder with anisotropic scattering by the decomposition method. Series expansions of the angular flux distribution are proposed in terms of suitably constructed functions, recursively obtainable from the isotropic solution, to take into account anisotropy. As for the isotropic problem, an accurate closed-form solution was chosen for the problem with internal source and constant incident radiation, obtained from an integral transformation technique and the F N method

  3. On some examples of pollutant transport problems solved numerically using the boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, Moh. Ivan; Kasbawati; Haddade, Amiruddin; Astuti Thamrin, Sri

    2018-03-01

    A boundary element method (BEM) is obtained for solving a boundary value problem of homogeneous anisotropic media governed by diffusion-convection equation. The application of the BEM is shown for two particular pollutant transport problems of Tello river and Unhas lake in Makassar Indonesia. For the two particular problems a variety of the coefficients of diffusion and the velocity components are taken. The results show that the solutions vary as the parameters change. And this suggests that one has to be careful in measuring or determining the values of the parameters.

  4. Perceived health problems in swimmers according to the chemical treatment of water in swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luna, Álvaro; Burillo, Pablo; Felipe, José Luis; del Corral, Julio; García-Unanue, Jorge; Gallardo, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which chemical treatment used for disinfecting water in indoor swimming pools had the least impact on users' perceptions of health problems, and which generated the greatest satisfaction with the quality of the water. A survey on satisfaction and perceived health problems was given to 1001 users at 20 indoor swimming pools which used different water treatment methods [chlorine, bromine, ozone, ultraviolet lamps (UV) and salt electrolysis]. The findings suggest that there is a greater probability of perceived health problems, such as eye and skin irritation, respiratory problems and skin dryness, in swimming pools treated with chlorine than in swimming pools using other chemical treatment methods. Pools treated with bromine have similar, although slightly better, results. Other factors, such as age, gender, time of day of use (morning and afternoon) and type of user (competitive and recreational), can also affect the probability of suffering health problems. For all of the above, using combined treatment methods as ozone and UV, or salt electrolysis produces a lower probability of perceived health problems and greater satisfaction.

  5. Island Megalopolises: Tunnel Systems as a Critical Alternative in Solving Transport Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Makarov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A principal difficulty with island megalopolises is the transport problem, which results from limited surface land on an already developed island, on which roads and car parking can be placed. This limitation leads to traffic jams on the small number of roads and to intrusive car parking in any available surface location, resulting in safety issues. The city of Vladivostok is located on the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula in the Russia Far East region (the Primorsky Krai. This city is essentially the third capital of Russia because of its important geopolitical location. To address the car traffic problems in Vladivostok, and because of the absence of places to build new roads, the city administration has proposed the usage of the beaches and waterfronts along the sea coast in this regard. This decision is in sharp conflict with Vladivostok’s ecological and social aspirations to be recognized as a world-class city. It also neglects the lessons that have been learned in many other waterfront cities around the world, as such cities have first built aboveground waterfront highways and later decided to remove them at great expense, in order to allow their citizens to properly enjoy the environmental and historical assets of their waterfronts. A key alternative would be to create an independent tunneled transport system along with added underground parking so that the transport problems can be addressed in a manner that enhances the ecology and livability of the city. A comparison of the two alternatives for solving the transport problem, that is, underground versus aboveground, shows the significant advantages of the independent tunnel system. Complex efficiency criteria have been developed in order to quantify the estimation of the alternative variants of the Vladivostok transport system. It was determined that the underground project is almost 1.8 times more advantageous than the aboveground alternative. Keywords: Megalopolises, Transport, Tunnels

  6. Evaluate transport processes in MERRA driven chemical transport models using updated 222Rn emission inventories and global observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Fairlie, T. D.; Chen, G.; Chambers, S. D.; Kang, C. H.; Williams, A. G.; Zhang, K.; Considine, D. B.; Payer Sulprizio, M.; Yantosca, R.

    2015-12-01

    Convective and synoptic processes play a major role in determining the transport and distribution of trace gases and aerosols in the troposphere. The representation of these processes in global models (at ~100-1000 km horizontal resolution) is challenging, because convection is a sub-grid process and needs to be parameterized, while synoptic processes are close to the grid scale. Depending on the parameterization schemes used in climate models, the role of convection in transporting trace gases and aerosols may vary from model to model. 222Rn is a chemically inert and radioactive gas constantly emitted from soil and has a half-life (3.8 days) comparable to synoptic timescale, which makes it an effective tracer for convective and synoptic transport. In this study, we evaluate the convective and synoptic transport in two chemical transport models (GMI and GEOS-Chem), both driven by the NASA's MERRA reanalysis. Considering the uncertainties in 222Rn emissions, we incorporate two more recent scenarios with regionally varying 222Rn emissions into GEOS-Chem/MERRA and compare the simulation results with those using the relatively uniform 222Rn emissions in the standard model. We evaluate the global distribution and seasonality of 222Rn concentrations simulated by the two models against an extended collection of 222Rn observations from 1970s to 2010s. The intercomparison will improve our understanding of the spatial variability in global 222Rn emissions, including the suspected excessive 222Rn emissions in East Asia, and provide useful feedbacks on 222Rn emission models. We will assess 222Rn vertical distributions at different latitudes in the models using observations at surface sites and in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Results will be compared with previous models driven by other meteorological fields (e.g., fvGCM and GEOS4). Since the decay of 222Rn is the source of 210Pb, a useful radionuclide tracer attached to submicron aerosols, improved

  7. Solving lot-sizing problem with quantity discount and transportation cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy H. I.; Kang, He-Yau; Lai, Chun-Mei

    2013-04-01

    Owing to today's increasingly competitive market and ever-changing manufacturing environment, the inventory problem is becoming more complicated to solve. The incorporation of heuristics methods has become a new trend to tackle the complex problem in the past decade. This article considers a lot-sizing problem, and the objective is to minimise total costs, where the costs include ordering, holding, purchase and transportation costs, under the requirement that no inventory shortage is allowed in the system. We first formulate the lot-sizing problem as a mixed integer programming (MIP) model. Next, an efficient genetic algorithm (GA) model is constructed for solving large-scale lot-sizing problems. An illustrative example with two cases in a touch panel manufacturer is used to illustrate the practicality of these models, and a sensitivity analysis is applied to understand the impact of the changes in parameters to the outcomes. The results demonstrate that both the MIP model and the GA model are effective and relatively accurate tools for determining the replenishment for touch panel manufacturing for multi-periods with quantity discount and batch transportation. The contributions of this article are to construct an MIP model to obtain an optimal solution when the problem is not too complicated itself and to present a GA model to find a near-optimal solution efficiently when the problem is complicated.

  8. Chemical Vapor Transport Deposition of Molybdenum Disulfide Layers Using H2O Vapor as the Transport Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 layers show excellent optical and electrical properties and have many potential applications. However, the growth of high-quality MoS2 layers is a major bottleneck in the development of MoS2-based devices. In this paper, we report a chemical vapor transport deposition method to investigate the growth behavior of monolayer/multi-layer MoS2 using water (H2O as the transport agent. It was shown that the introduction of H2O vapor promoted the growth of MoS2 by increasing the nucleation density and continuous monolayer growth. Moreover, the growth mechanism is discussed.

  9. Chain segmentation for the Monte Carlo solution of particle transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.M.H.

    1984-01-01

    A Monte Carlo approach is proposed where the random walk chains generated in particle transport simulations are segmented. Forward and adjoint-mode estimators are then used in conjunction with the firstevent source density on the segmented chains to obtain multiple estimates of the individual terms of the Neumann series solution at each collision point. The solution is then constructed by summation of the series. The approach is compared to the exact analytical and to the Monte Carlo nonabsorption weighting method results for two representative slowing down and deep penetration problems. Application of the proposed approach leads to unbiased estimates for limited numbers of particle simulations and is useful in suppressing an effective bias problem observed in some cases of deep penetration particle transport problems

  10. Time-frequency analysis of the restricted three-body problem: transport and resonance transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vela-Arevalo, Luz V; Marsden, Jerrold E

    2004-01-01

    A method of time-frequency analysis based on wavelets is applied to the problem of transport between different regions of the solar system, using the model of the circular restricted three-body problem in both the planar and the spatial versions of the problem. The method is based on the extraction of instantaneous frequencies from the wavelet transform of numerical solutions. Time-varying frequencies provide a good diagnostic tool to discern chaotic trajectories from regular ones, and we can identify resonance islands that greatly affect the dynamics. Good accuracy in the calculation of time-varying frequencies allows us to determine resonance trappings of chaotic trajectories and resonance transitions. We show the relation between resonance transitions and transport in different regions of the phase space

  11. A mixed integer programming model for a continuous move transportation problem with service constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fabian Lopez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a Pickup and Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem (PDP commonly encountered in real-world logistics operations. The problem involves a set of practical complications that have received little attention in the vehicle routing literature. In this problem, there are multiple vehicle types available to cover a set of pickup and delivery requests, each of which has pickup time windows and delivery time windows. Transportation orders and vehicle types must satisfy a set of compatibility constraints that specify which orders cannot be covered by which vehicle types. In addition we include some dock service capacity constraints as is required on common real world operations. This problem requires to be attended on large scale instances (orders ≥ 500, (vehicles ≥ 150. As a generalization of the traveling salesman problem, clearly this problem is NP-hard. The exact algorithms are too slow for large scale instances. The PDP-TWDS is both a packing problem (assign order to vehicles, and a routing problem (find the best route for each vehicle. We propose to solve the problem in three stages. The first stage constructs initials solutions at aggregate level relaxing some constraints on the original problem. The other two stages imposes time windows and dock service constraints. Our results are favorable finding good quality solutions in relatively short computational times.

  12. Electrical resistivity tomography as monitoring tool for unsaturated zone transport: an example of preferential transport of deicing chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrer, Markus; Lissner, Heidi; Bloem, Esther; French, Helen; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive spatially resolved monitoring techniques may hold the key to observe heterogeneous flow and transport behavior of contaminants in soils. In this study, time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was employed during an infiltration experiment with deicing chemical in a small field lysimeter. Deicing chemicals like potassium formate, which frequently impact soils on airport sites, were infiltrated during snow melt. Chemical composition of seepage water and the electrical response was recorded over the spring period 2010. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomographs are able to show the infiltration of the melt water loaded with ionic constituents of deicing chemicals and their degradation product hydrogen carbonate. The tomographs indicate early breakthrough behavior in parts of the profile. Groundtruthing with pore fluid conductivity and water content variations shows disagreement between expected and observed bulk conductivity. This was attributed to the different sampling volume of traditional methods and ERT due to a considerable fraction of immobile water in the soil. The results show that ERT can be used as a soil monitoring tool on airport sites if assisted by common soil monitoring techniques.

  13. The use of the dusty-gas model for the description of mass transport with chemical reaction in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldsink, J.W.; Veldsink, J.W.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, mass transport accompanied by chemical reactions in porous media is studied according to the Fick model and the dusty-gas model. For mass transport accompanied by a chemical reaction in catalyst structures showing a plane, line, or point of symmetry, the approximate analytical

  14. A vector/parallel method for a three-dimensional transport model coupled with bio-chemical terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.P. Sommeijer (Ben); J. Kok (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA so-called fractional step method is considered for the time integration of a three-dimensional transport-chemical model in shallow seas. In this method, the transport part and the chemical part are treated separately by appropriate integration techniques. This separation is motivated

  15. New Potentiometric Wireless Chloride Sensors Provide High Resolution Information on Chemical Transport Processes in Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Smettem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the travel times, pathways, and dispersion of solutes moving through stream environments is critical for understanding the biogeochemical cycling processes that control ecosystem functioning. Validation of stream solute transport and exchange process models requires data obtained from in-stream measurement of chemical concentration changes through time. This can be expensive and time consuming, leading to a need for cheap distributed sensor arrays that respond instantly and record chemical transport at points of interest on timescales of seconds. To meet this need we apply new, low-cost (in the order of a euro per sensor potentiometric chloride sensors used in a distributed array to obtain data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The application here is to monitoring in-stream hydrodynamic transport and dispersive mixing of an injected chemical, in this case NaCl. We present data obtained from the distributed sensor array under baseflow conditions for stream reaches in Luxembourg and Western Australia. The reaches were selected to provide a range of increasingly complex in-channel flow patterns. Mid-channel sensor results are comparable to data obtained from more expensive electrical conductivity meters, but simultaneous acquisition of tracer data at several positions across the channel allows far greater spatial resolution of hydrodynamic mixing processes and identification of chemical ‘dead zones’ in the study reaches.

  16. Atmospheric emissions and long-range transport of persistent organic chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheringer M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic chemicals include several groups of halogenated compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs, and polyfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs. These chemicals remain for long times (years to decades in the environment and cycle between different media (air, water, sediment, soil, vegetation, etc.. The environmental distribution of this type of chemicals can conveniently be analyzed by multimedia models. Multimedia models consist of a set of coupled mass balance equations for the environmental media considered; they can be set up at various scales from local to global. Two applications of multimedia models to airborne chemicals are discussed in detail: the day-night cycle of PCBs measured in air near the surface, and the atmospheric long-range transport of volatile precursors of PFCAs, formation of PFCAs by oxidation of these precursors, and subsequent deposition of PFCAs to the surface in remote regions such as the Arctic.

  17. FASTREACT – An efficient numerical framework for the solution of reactive transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchero, Paolo; Molinero, Jorge; Román-Ross, Gabriela; Berglund, Sten; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a tool for the efficient solution of reactive transport problems. • The tool is used to simulate radionuclide transport in a two-dimensional medium. • The results are successfully compared with those obtained using an Eulerian approach. • A large-scale application example is also solved. • The results show that the proposed tool can efficiently solve large-scale models. - Abstract: In the framework of safety assessment studies for geological disposal, large scale reactive transport models are powerful inter-disciplinary tools aiming at supporting regulatory decision making as well as providing input to repository engineering activities. Important aspects of these kinds of models are their often very large temporal and spatial modelling scales and the need to integrate different non-linear processes (e.g., mineral dissolution and precipitation, adsorption and desorption, microbial reactions and redox transformations). It turns out that these types of models may be computationally highly demanding. In this work, we present a Lagrangian-based framework, denoted as FASTREACT, that aims at solving multi-component-reactive transport problems with a computationally efficient approach allowing complex modelling problems to be solved in large spatial and temporal scales. The tool has been applied to simulate radionuclide migration in a synthetic heterogeneous transmissivity field and the results have been successfully compared with those obtained using a standard Eulerian approach. Finally, the same geochemical model has been coupled to an ensemble of realistic three-dimensional transport pathways to simulate the migration of a set of radionuclides from a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel to the surface. The results of this modelling exercise, which includes key processes such as the exchange of mass between the conductive fractures and the matrix, show that FASTREACT can efficiently solve large-scale reactive transport models

  18. Variance analysis of the Monte-Carlo perturbation source method in inhomogeneous linear particle transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, K.

    1982-01-01

    The perturbation source method may be a powerful Monte-Carlo means to calculate small effects in a particle field. In a preceding paper we have formulated this methos in inhomogeneous linear particle transport problems describing the particle fields by solutions of Fredholm integral equations and have derived formulae for the second moment of the difference event point estimator. In the present paper we analyse the general structure of its variance, point out the variance peculiarities, discuss the dependence on certain transport games and on generation procedures of the auxiliary particles and draw conclusions to improve this method

  19. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: Groundwater contaminant transport. Final project report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The over-reaching goal of the Groundwater Grand Challenge component of the Partnership in Computational Science (PICS) was to develop and establish the massively parallel approach for the description of groundwater flow and transport and to address the problem of uncertainties in the data and its interpretation. This necessitated the development of innovative algorithms and the implementation of massively parallel computational tools to provide a suite of simulators for groundwater flow and transport in heterogeneous media. This report summarizes the activities and deliverables of the Groundwater Grand Challenge project funded through the High Performance Computing grand challenge program of the Department of Energy from 1995 through 1997

  20. Criticality problems for slabs and spheres in energy dependent neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victory, H.D. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The steady-state equation for energy-dependent neutron transport in isotropically scattering slabs and spheres is formulated as an integral equation. The Perron-Frobenius-Jentzsch theory of positive operators is used to analyze criticality problems for transport in slab and spherical media consisting of core and reflector. In addition, with an adroit selection of diffusion-like solutions, this theory is used to obtain an expression relating the critical radius of a homogeneous sphere to a parameter characterizing fission production. 21 refs

  1. Comprehensive analysis of pipeline transportation systems for CO2 sequestration. Thermodynamics and safety problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Rusin, Andrzej; Majkut, Mirosław; Rulik, Sebastian; Stolecka, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive analysis of the efficiency and safety strategies of transport CO 2 . • Selection of safety zones around pipelines transporting CO 2 . • Optimization of CO 2 pipeline transportation conditions. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze CO 2 compression and transportation processes with safety issues for post-combustion CO 2 capture applications for basic technological concepts of a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant. Four various types of compressors including a conventional multistage centrifugal compressor, an integrally geared centrifugal compressor, a supersonic shock wave compressor, and pump machines were used. This study emphasizes that total compression power is a strong function of the thermodynamic process and is not only determined by the compressor efficiency. The compressor increases the CO 2 pressure from normal pressure to critical pressure and the boosting pump continues to increase the pressure to the required pressure for the pipeline inlet. Another problem analyzed in this study is the transport of CO 2 by pipeline from the compressor outlet site to the disposal site under heat transfer conditions. Simulations were made to determine maximum safe pipeline distance to subsequent booster stations depending on inlet pressure, environmental temperature, the thermal insulation thickness and the ground level heat transfer conditions. From the point of view of environmental protection, the most important problem is to identify the hazards which indirectly affect CO 2 transportation in a strict and reliable manner. This identification is essential for effective hazard management. A failure of pipelines is usually caused by corrosion, material defects, ground movement or third party interference. After the rupture of the pipeline transporting liquid CO 2 , a large pressure drop will occur. The pressure will continue to fall until the liquid becomes a mixture of saturated vapour/liquid. In the vicinity of the

  2. Growth and characterization of Bi2Se3 crystals by chemical vapor transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Jiao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regularly-shaped high-quality Bi2Se3 crystals were grown by a chemical vapor transport using iodine as the transport agent. In addition to exhibiting a characteristic Dirac cone for a topological insulator, the Bi2Se3 crystals show some outstanding properties including additional crystallographic surfaces, large residual resistance ratio (∼10, and high mobility (∼8000 cm2·V−1·s−1. The low-temperature resistivity abnormally increases with applying pressures up to 1.7 GPa, and no superconductivity was observed down to 0.4 K.

  3. Ion transport by gating voltage to nanopores produced via metal-assisted chemical etching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Toan, Nguyen; Inomata, Naoki; Toda, Masaya; Ono, Takahito

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we report a simple and low-cost way to create nanopores that can be employed for various applications in nanofluidics. Nano sized Ag particles in the range from 1 to 20 nm are formed on a silicon substrate with a de-wetting method. Then the silicon nanopores with an approximate 15 nm average diameter and 200 μm height are successfully produced by the metal-assisted chemical etching method. In addition, electrically driven ion transport in the nanopores is demonstrated for nanofluidic applications. Ion transport through the nanopores is observed and could be controlled by an application of a gating voltage to the nanopores.

  4. Mixed-integer programming methods for transportation and power generation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damci Kurt, Pelin

    This dissertation conducts theoretical and computational research to solve challenging problems in application areas such as supply chain and power systems. The first part of the dissertation studies a transportation problem with market choice (TPMC) which is a variant of the classical transportation problem in which suppliers with limited capacities have a choice of which demands (markets) to satisfy. We show that TPMC is strongly NP-complete. We consider a version of the problem with a service level constraint on the maximum number of markets that can be rejected and show that if the original problem is polynomial, its cardinality-constrained version is also polynomial. We propose valid inequalities for mixed-integer cover and knapsack sets with variable upper bound constraints, which appear as substructures of TPMC and use them in a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve this problem. The second part of this dissertation studies a unit commitment (UC) problem in which the goal is to minimize the operational cost of power generators over a time period subject to physical constraints while satisfying demand. We provide several exponential classes of multi-period ramping and multi-period variable upper bound inequalities. We prove the strength of these inequalities and describe polynomial-time separation algorithms. Computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed inequalities when used as cuts in a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve the UC problem. The last part of this dissertation investigates the effects of uncertain wind power on the UC problem. A two-stage robust model and a three-stage stochastic program are compared.

  5. Mathematical and numerical analysis of PN models for photons transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Computational costs for direct numerical simulations of photon transport problems are very high in terms of CPU time and memory. One way to tackle this issue is to develop reduced models that a cheaper to solve numerically. There exists number of these models: moments models, discrete ordinates models (S N ), diffusion-like models... In this thesis, we focus on P N models in which the transport operator is approached by mean of a truncated development on the spherical harmonics basis. These models are arbitrary accurate in the angular dimension and are rotationally invariants (in multiple space dimensions). The latter point is fundamental when one wants to simulate inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments where the spherical symmetry plays an important part in the accuracy of the numerical solutions. We study the mathematical structure of the PN models and construct a new numerical method in the special case of a one dimensional space dimension with spherical symmetry photon transport problems. We first focus on a linear transport problem in the vacuum. Even in this simple case, it appears in the P N equations geometrical source terms that are stiff in the neighborhood of r = 0 and thus hard to discretize. Existing numerical methods are not satisfactory for multiple reasons: (1) inaccuracy in the neighborhood of r = 0 ('flux-dip'), (2) do not capture steady states (well-balanced scheme), (3) no stability proof. Following recent works, we develop a new well-balanced scheme for which we show the L 2 stability. We then extend the scheme for photon transport problems within a no moving media, the linear Boltzmann equation, and interest ourselves on its behavior in the diffusion limit (asymptotic-preserving property). In a second part, we consider radiation hydrodynamics problems. Since modelization of these problems is still under discussion in the literature, we compare a set of existing models by mean of mathematical analysis and establish a hierarchy

  6. Modeling the transport of chemical warfare agents and simulants in polymeric substrates for reactive decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Thomas; Mantooth, Brent; Varady, Mark; Willis, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are often used for environmental testing in place of highly toxic agents. This work sets the foundation for modeling decontamination of absorbing polymeric materials with the focus on determining relationships between agents and simulants. The correlations of agents to simulants must consider the three way interactions in the chemical-material-decontaminant system where transport and reaction occur in polymer materials. To this end, diffusion modeling of the subsurface transport of simulants and live chemical warfare agents was conducted for various polymer systems (e.g., paint coatings) with and without reaction pathways with applied decontamination. The models utilized 1D and 2D finite difference diffusion and reaction models to simulate absorption and reaction in the polymers, and subsequent flux of the chemicals out of the polymers. Experimental data including vapor flux measurements and dynamic contact angle measurements were used to determine model input parameters. Through modeling, an understanding of the relationship of simulant to live chemical warfare agent was established, focusing on vapor emission of agents and simulants from materials.

  7. Transportation of liquid mixed waste in the US: Is it really a problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborti, S.; DeBiase, T.

    1993-01-01

    The transportation of liquid radioactive wastes has often been perceived to be a problem because of the potential consequences from hypothetical accident scenarios and the difficulties that may be encountered in the handling and containment of liquids. This paper focuses specifically to determine if the transportation of these wastes are severely restricted by the regulations. The paper also compares current practices for the transportation of liquid mixed waste in the US with that of France to provide an international perspective on the issue. The review of the regulations and current practices shows that the transportation of liquid mixed waste is by no means prohibited, and also that the majority of the regulations do not impose any additional restrictions because of the physical form of the waste. Rather, the selection of an authorized package primarily depends on the quantity of radioactivity and the specific radionuclides involved. Although the selection process for an authorized package for liquid mixed wastes is fairly straightforward, it seems that the difficulties in transporting liquid mixed waste can be attributed to the lack of readily available Type A packages designed for transporting liquids

  8. Methods for computing SN eigenvalues and eigenvectors of slab geometry transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Musa

    1998-01-01

    We discuss computational methods for computing the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of single energy-group neutral particle transport (S N ) problems in homogeneous slab geometry, with an arbitrary scattering anisotropy of order L. These eigensolutions are important when exact (or very accurate) solutions are desired for coarse spatial cell problems demanding rapid execution times. Three methods, one of which is 'new', are presented for determining the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of such S N problems. In the first method, separation of variables is directly applied to the S N equations. In the second method, common characteristics of the S N and P N-1 equations are used. In the new method, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be computed provided that the cell-interface Green's functions (transmission and reflection factors) are known. Numerical results for S 4 test problems are given to compare the new method with the existing methods

  9. Methods for computing SN eigenvalues and eigenvectors of slab geometry transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, M.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss computational methods for computing the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of single energy-group neutral particle transport (S N ) problems in homogeneous slab geometry, with an arbitrary scattering anisotropy of order L. These eigensolutions are important when exact (or very accurate) solutions are desired for coarse spatial cell problems demanding rapid execution times. Three methods, one of which is 'new', are presented for determining the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of such S N problems. In the first method, separation of variables is directly applied to the S N equations. In the second method, common characteristics of the S N and P N-1 equations are used. In the new method, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be computed provided that the cell-interface Green's functions (transmission and reflection factors) are known. Numerical results for S 4 test problems are given to compare the new method with the existing methods. (author)

  10. Alternate mutation based artificial immune algorithm for step fixed charge transportation problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Moustafa El-Sherbiny

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Step fixed charge transportation problem (SFCTP is considered as a special version of the fixed-charge transportation problem (FCTP. In SFCTP, the fixed cost is incurred for every route that is used in the solution and is proportional to the amount shipped. This cost structure causes the value of the objective function to behave like a step function. Both FCTP and SFCTP are considered to be NP-hard problems. While a lot of research has been carried out concerning FCTP, not much has been done concerning SFCTP. This paper introduces an alternate Mutation based Artificial Immune (MAI algorithm for solving SFCTPs. The proposed MAI algorithm solves both balanced and unbalanced SFCTP without introducing a dummy supplier or a dummy customer. In MAI algorithm a coding schema is designed and procedures are developed for decoding such schema and shipping units. MAI algorithm guarantees the feasibility of all the generated solutions. Due to the significant role of mutation function on the MAI algorithm’s quality, 16 mutation functions are presented and their performances are compared to select the best one. For this purpose, forty problems with different sizes have been generated at random and then a robust calibration is applied using the relative percentage deviation (RPD method. Through two illustrative problems of different sizes the performance of the MAI algorithm has been compared with most recent methods.

  11. The ADO-nodal method for solving two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barichello, L.B.; Picoloto, C.B.; Cunha, R.D. da

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-dimensional discrete ordinates neutron transport. • Analytical Discrete Ordinates (ADO) nodal method. • Heterogeneous media fixed source problems. • Local solutions. - Abstract: In this work, recent results on the solution of fixed-source two-dimensional transport problems, in Cartesian geometry, are reported. Homogeneous and heterogeneous media problems are considered in order to incorporate the idea of arbitrary number of domain division into regions (nodes) when applying the ADO method, which is a method of analytical features, to those problems. The ADO-nodal formulation is developed, for each node, following previous work devoted to heterogeneous media problem. Here, however, the numerical procedure is extended to higher number of domain divisions. Such extension leads, in some cases, to the use of an iterative method for solving the general linear system which defines the arbitrary constants of the general solution. In addition to solve alternative heterogeneous media configurations than reported in previous works, the present approach allows comparisons with results provided by other metodologies generated with refined meshes. Numerical results indicate the ADO solution may achieve a prescribed accuracy using coarser meshes than other schemes.

  12. Variational P1 approximations of general-geometry multigroup transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rulko, R.P.; Tomasevic, D.; Larsen, E.W.

    1995-01-01

    A variational approximation is developed for general-geometry multigroup transport problems with arbitrary anisotropic scattering. The variational principle is based on a functional that approximates a reaction rate in a subdomain of the system. In principle, approximations that result from this functional ''optimally'' determine such reaction rates. The functional contains an arbitrary parameter α and requires the approximate solutions of a forward and an adjoint transport problem. If the basis functions for the forward and adjoint solutions are chosen to be linear functions of the angular variable Ω, the functional yields the familiar multigroup P 1 equations for all values of α. However, the boundary conditions that result from the functional depend on α. In particular, for problems with vacuum boundaries, one obtains the conventional mixed boundary condition, but with an extrapolation distance that depends continuously on α. The choice α = 0 yields a generalization of boundary conditions derived earlier by Federighi and Pomraning for a more limited class of problems. The choice α = 1 yields a generalization of boundary conditions derived previously by Davis for monoenergetic problems. Other boundary conditions are obtained by choosing different values of α. The authors discuss this indeterminancy of α in conjunction with numerical experiments

  13. An analytical approach for a nodal scheme of two-dimensional neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barichello, L.B.; Cabrera, L.C.; Prolo Filho, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nodal equations for a two-dimensional neutron transport problem. → Analytical Discrete Ordinates Method. → Numerical results compared with the literature. - Abstract: In this work, a solution for a two-dimensional neutron transport problem, in cartesian geometry, is proposed, on the basis of nodal schemes. In this context, one-dimensional equations are generated by an integration process of the multidimensional problem. Here, the integration is performed for the whole domain such that no iterative procedure between nodes is needed. The ADO method is used to develop analytical discrete ordinates solution for the one-dimensional integrated equations, such that final solutions are analytical in terms of the spatial variables. The ADO approach along with a level symmetric quadrature scheme, lead to a significant order reduction of the associated eigenvalues problems. Relations between the averaged fluxes and the unknown fluxes at the boundary are introduced as the usually needed, in nodal schemes, auxiliary equations. Numerical results are presented and compared with test problems.

  14. Adjacent-cell Preconditioners for solving optically thick neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1994-01-01

    We develop, analyze, and test a new acceleration scheme for neutron transport methods, the Adjacent-cell Preconditioner (AP) that is particularly suited for solving optically thick problems. Our method goes beyond Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) methods in that it's spectral radius vanishes with increasing cell thickness. In particular, for the ID case the AP method converges immediately, i.e. in one iteration, to 10 -4 pointwise relative criterion in problems with dominant cell size of 10 mfp or thicker. Also the AP has a simple formalism and is cell-centered hence, multidimensional and high order extensions are easier to develop, and more efficient to implement

  15. Transportation for maternal emergencies in Tanzania: empowering communities through participatory problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T; Kanenda, O; Ahluwalia, I; Kouletio, M

    2001-10-01

    Inadequate health care and long delays in obtaining care during obstetric emergencies are major contributors to high maternal death rates in Tanzania. Formative research conducted in the Mwanza region identified several transportation-related reasons for delays in receiving assistance. In 1996, the Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began an effort to build community capacity for problem-solving through participatory development of community-based plans for emergency transportation in 50 villages. An April 2001 assessment showed that 19 villages had begun collecting funds for transportation systems; of 13 villages with systems available, 10 had used the system within the last 3 months. Increased support for village health workers and greater participation of women in decision making were also observed.

  16. Problems in manufacturing and transport of pressure vessels of integral reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralovec, J.

    1997-01-01

    Integral water-cooled reactors are typical with eliminating large-diameter primary pipes and placing primary components, i.e. steam generators and pressurizers in reactor vessels. This arrangement leads to reactor pressure vessels of large dimensions: diameters, heights and thick walls and subsequently to great weights. Thus, even medium power units have pressure vessels which are on the very limit of present manufacturing capabilities. Principal manufacturing and inspection operations as well as pertinent equipment are concerned: welding, cladding, heat treatment, machining, shop-handling, non-destructive testing, hydraulic pressure tests etc. Tile transport of such a large and heavy component makes a problem which effects its design as well as the selection of the plant site. Railway, road and ship are possible ways of transport each of them having its advantages and limitations. Specific features and limits of the manufacture and transport of large pressure vessels are discussed in the paper. (author)

  17. Discrete and continuum links to a nonlinear coupled transport problem of interacting populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, M. H.; Muntean, A.; Richardson, O. M.

    2017-07-01

    We are interested in exploring interacting particle systems that can be seen as microscopic models for a particular structure of coupled transport flux arising when different populations are jointly evolving. The scenarios we have in mind are inspired by the dynamics of pedestrian flows in open spaces and are intimately connected to cross-diffusion and thermo-diffusion problems holding a variational structure. The tools we use include a suitable structure of the relative entropy controlling TV-norms, the construction of Lyapunov functionals and particular closed-form solutions to nonlinear transport equations, a hydrodynamics limiting procedure due to Philipowski, as well as the construction of numerical approximates to both the continuum limit problem in 2D and to the original interacting particle systems.

  18. Problems associated with the emissions limitations from road transport in the Lubuskie Province (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikuć, Maciej; Adamczyk, Janusz; Piwowar, Arkadiusz

    2017-07-01

    According to the report of the World Health Organization (WHO) on the list of 50 cities with the most polluted air in Europe as many as 33 are located in Poland. All the cities that are on the list exceed the maximum concentration of dust recommended by WHO at least three times. In the Lubuskie Province there is a very serious problem of maintaining good air quality. The air in Poland is among the most polluted in the European Union and this also applies to less-industrialized areas, such as Lubuskie, where the concentration levels of substances hazardous to human health and the environment are recorded as exceeded. One of the main factors affecting the poor air quality in the region is road transport. It is not just a problem near roads with heavy traffic, but also applies to the cities, where there is a large movement of cars, which are often old and do not meet current environmental standards. This article aims to identify the main sources of low emission from road transport and identify potential solutions to help reduce emission from this sector. The actions aimed at limiting low emission from road transport can bring a significant positive ecological effect. The aim of this article is to review one of the main sources of low emission in the province of Lubuskie, which is transportation. Moreover, the authors of the paper indicate the main problems associated with the emission coming from road transport and describe the possibilities for opportunities to reduce pollution from this sector. In addition, the article presents the three-scenario simulation of annual emissions from passenger cars that could take place in 2020.

  19. A kinetic model for chemical reactions without barriers: transport coefficients and eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Giselle M; Kremer, Gilberto M; Marques, Wilson Jr; Soares, Ana Jacinta

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic model of the Boltzmann equation proposed in the work of Kremer and Soares 2009 for a binary mixture undergoing chemical reactions of symmetric type which occur without activation energy is revisited here, with the aim of investigating in detail the transport properties of the reactive mixture and the influence of the reaction process on the transport coefficients. Accordingly, the non-equilibrium solutions of the Boltzmann equations are determined through an expansion in Sonine polynomials up to the first order, using the Chapman–Enskog method, in a chemical regime for which the reaction process is close to its final equilibrium state. The non-equilibrium deviations are explicitly calculated for what concerns the thermal–diffusion ratio and coefficients of shear viscosity, diffusion and thermal conductivity. The theoretical and formal analysis developed in the present paper is complemented with some numerical simulations performed for different concentrations of reactants and products of the reaction as well as for both exothermic and endothermic chemical processes. The results reveal that chemical reactions without energy barrier can induce an appreciable influence on the transport properties of the mixture. Oppositely to the case of reactions with activation energy, the coefficients of shear viscosity and thermal conductivity become larger than those of an inert mixture when the reactions are exothermic. An application of the non-barrier model and its detailed transport picture are included in this paper, in order to investigate the dynamics of the local perturbations on the constituent number densities, and velocity and temperature of the whole mixture, induced by spontaneous internal fluctuations. It is shown that for the longitudinal disturbances there exist two hydrodynamic sound modes, one purely diffusive hydrodynamic mode and one kinetic mode

  20. A kinetic model for chemical reactions without barriers: transport coefficients and eigenmodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Giselle M.; Kremer, Gilberto M.; Marques, Wilson, Jr.; Jacinta Soares, Ana

    2011-03-01

    The kinetic model of the Boltzmann equation proposed in the work of Kremer and Soares 2009 for a binary mixture undergoing chemical reactions of symmetric type which occur without activation energy is revisited here, with the aim of investigating in detail the transport properties of the reactive mixture and the influence of the reaction process on the transport coefficients. Accordingly, the non-equilibrium solutions of the Boltzmann equations are determined through an expansion in Sonine polynomials up to the first order, using the Chapman-Enskog method, in a chemical regime for which the reaction process is close to its final equilibrium state. The non-equilibrium deviations are explicitly calculated for what concerns the thermal-diffusion ratio and coefficients of shear viscosity, diffusion and thermal conductivity. The theoretical and formal analysis developed in the present paper is complemented with some numerical simulations performed for different concentrations of reactants and products of the reaction as well as for both exothermic and endothermic chemical processes. The results reveal that chemical reactions without energy barrier can induce an appreciable influence on the transport properties of the mixture. Oppositely to the case of reactions with activation energy, the coefficients of shear viscosity and thermal conductivity become larger than those of an inert mixture when the reactions are exothermic. An application of the non-barrier model and its detailed transport picture are included in this paper, in order to investigate the dynamics of the local perturbations on the constituent number densities, and velocity and temperature of the whole mixture, induced by spontaneous internal fluctuations. It is shown that for the longitudinal disturbances there exist two hydrodynamic sound modes, one purely diffusive hydrodynamic mode and one kinetic mode.

  1. Simulating the Fate and Transport of Coal Seam Gas Chemicals in Variably-Saturated Soils Using HYDRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Mallants

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The HYDRUS-1D and HYDRUS (2D/3D computer software packages are widely used finite element models for simulating the one-, and two- or three-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably-saturated media, respectively. While the standard HYDRUS models consider only the fate and transport of individual solutes or solutes subject to first-order degradation reactions, several specialized HYDRUS add-on modules can simulate far more complex biogeochemical processes. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the HYDRUS models and their add-on modules, and to demonstrate possible applications of the software to the subsurface fate and transport of chemicals involved in coal seam gas extraction and water management operations. One application uses the standard HYDRUS model to evaluate the natural soil attenuation potential of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and their transformation products in case of an accidental release. By coupling the processes of retardation, first-order degradation and convective-dispersive transport of the biocide bronopol and its degradation products, we demonstrated how natural attenuation reduces initial concentrations by more than a factor of hundred in the top 5 cm of the soil. A second application uses the UnsatChem module to explore the possible use of coal seam gas produced water for sustainable irrigation. Simulations with different irrigation waters (untreated, amended with surface water, and reverse osmosis treated provided detailed results regarding chemical indicators of soil and plant health, notably SAR, EC and sodium concentrations. A third application uses the HP1 module to analyze trace metal transport involving cation exchange and surface complexation sorption reactions in a soil leached with coal seam gas produced water following some accidental water release scenario. Results show that the main process responsible for trace metal migration in soil is complexation of

  2. An improved computational version of the LTSN method to solve transport problems in a slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona, Augusto V.; Oliveira, Jose Vanderlei P. de; Vilhena, Marco Tullio de; Segatto, Cynthia F.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we present an improved computational version of the LTS N method to solve transport problems in a slab. The key feature relies on the reordering of the set of S N equations. This procedure reduces by a factor of two the task of evaluating the eigenvalues of the matrix associated to SN approximations. We present numerical simulations and comparisons with the ones of the classical LTS N approach. (author)

  3. FUNDAMENTAL MATRIX OF LINEAR CONTINUOUS SYSTEM IN THE PROBLEM OF ESTIMATING ITS TRANSPORT DELAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Dudarenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of quantitative estimation for transport delay of linear continuous systems. The main result is received by means of fundamental matrix of linear differential equations solutions specified in the normal Cauchy form for the cases of SISO and MIMO systems. Fundamental matrix has the dual property. It means that the weight function of the system can be formed as a free motion of systems. Last one is generated by the vector of initial system conditions, which coincides with the matrix input of the system being researched. Thus, using the properties of the system- solving for fundamental matrix has given the possibility to solve the problem of estimating transport linear continuous system delay without the use of derivation procedure in hardware environment and without formation of exogenous Dirac delta function. The paper is illustrated by examples. The obtained results make it possible to solve the problem of modeling the pure delay links using consecutive chain of aperiodic links of the first order with the equal time constants. Modeling results have proved the correctness of obtained computations. Knowledge of transport delay can be used when configuring multi- component technological complexes and in the diagnosis of their possible functional degeneration.

  4. Spatial and Angular Moment Analysis of Continuous and Discretized Transport Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, Patrick S.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2000-01-01

    A new theoretical tool for analyzing continuous and discretized transport equations is presented. This technique is based on a spatial and angular moment analysis of the analytic transport equation, which yields exact expressions for the 'center of mass' and 'squared radius of gyration' of the particle distribution. Essentially the same moment analysis is applied to discretized particle transport problems to determine numerical expressions for the center of mass and squared radius of gyration. Because this technique makes no assumption about the optical thickness of the spatial cells or about the amount of absorption in the system, it is applicable to problems that cannot be analyzed by a truncation analysis or an asymptotic diffusion limit analysis. The spatial differencing schemes examined (weighted- diamond, lumped linear discontinuous, and multiple balance) yield a numerically consistent expression for computing the squared radius of gyration plus an error term that depends on the mesh spacing, quadrature constants, and material properties of the system. The numerical results presented suggest that the relative accuracy of spatial differencing schemes for different types of problems can be assessed by comparing the magnitudes of these error terms

  5. Kelvin probe microscopy and electronic transport measurements in reduced graphene oxide chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayias, Christopher E; MacNaughton, Samuel; Sonkusale, Sameer; Staii, Cristian

    2013-06-21

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an electronically hybrid material that displays remarkable chemical sensing properties. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of the chemical gating effects in RGO-based chemical sensors. The gas sensing devices are patterned in a field-effect transistor geometry, by dielectrophoretic assembly of RGO platelets between gold electrodes deposited on SiO2/Si substrates. We show that these sensors display highly selective and reversible responses to the measured analytes, as well as fast response and recovery times (tens of seconds). We use combined electronic transport/Kelvin probe microscopy measurements to quantify the amount of charge transferred to RGO due to chemical doping when the device is exposed to electron-acceptor (acetone) and electron-donor (ammonia) analytes. We demonstrate that this method allows us to obtain high-resolution maps of the surface potential and local charge distribution both before and after chemical doping, to identify local gate-susceptible areas on the RGO surface, and to directly extract the contact resistance between the RGO and the metallic electrodes. The method presented is general, suggesting that these results have important implications for building graphene and other nanomaterial-based chemical sensors.

  6. Kelvin probe microscopy and electronic transport measurements in reduced graphene oxide chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayias, Christopher E.; MacNaughton, Samuel; Sonkusale, Sameer; Staii, Cristian

    2013-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an electronically hybrid material that displays remarkable chemical sensing properties. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of the chemical gating effects in RGO-based chemical sensors. The gas sensing devices are patterned in a field-effect transistor geometry, by dielectrophoretic assembly of RGO platelets between gold electrodes deposited on SiO2/Si substrates. We show that these sensors display highly selective and reversible responses to the measured analytes, as well as fast response and recovery times (tens of seconds). We use combined electronic transport/Kelvin probe microscopy measurements to quantify the amount of charge transferred to RGO due to chemical doping when the device is exposed to electron-acceptor (acetone) and electron-donor (ammonia) analytes. We demonstrate that this method allows us to obtain high-resolution maps of the surface potential and local charge distribution both before and after chemical doping, to identify local gate-susceptible areas on the RGO surface, and to directly extract the contact resistance between the RGO and the metallic electrodes. The method presented is general, suggesting that these results have important implications for building graphene and other nanomaterial-based chemical sensors.

  7. Effect of chemical and physical heterogeneities on colloid-facilitated cesium transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, Kenton; Um, Wooyong; Chun, Jaehun; Wu, Ning; Yin, Xialong; Wang, Guohui; Neeves, Keith

    2018-06-01

    A set of column experiments was conducted to investigate the chemical and physical heterogeneity effect on colloid facilitated transport under slow pore velocity conditions. Pore velocities were kept below 100 cm d-1 for all experiments. Glass beads were packed into columns establishing four different conditions: 1) homogeneous, 2) mixed physical heterogeneity, 3) sequentially layered physical heterogeneity, and 4) chemical heterogeneity. The homogeneous column was packed with glass beads (diameter 500-600 μm), and physical heterogeneities were created by sequential layering or mixing two sizes of glass bead (500-600 μm and 300-400 μm). A chemical heterogeneity was created using 25% of the glass beads coated with hydrophobic molecules (1H-1H-2H-2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane) mixed with 75% pristine glass beads (all 500-600 μm). Input solution with 0.5 mM CsI and 50 mg L-1 colloids (1-μm diameter SiO2) was pulsed into columns under saturated conditions. The physical heterogeneity in the packed glass beads retarded the transport of colloids compared to homogeneous (R = 25.0), but showed only slight differences between sequentially layered (R = 60.7) and mixed heterogeneity(R = 62.4). The column with the chemical, hydrophobic/hydrophilic, heterogeneity removed most of the colloids from the input solution. All column conditions stripped Cs from colloids onto the column matrix of packed glass beads.

  8. Tripartite equilibrium strategy for a carbon tax setting problem in air passenger transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Qiu, Rui; Tao, Zhimiao; Xie, Heping

    2018-03-01

    Carbon emissions in air passenger transport have become increasing serious with the rapidly development of aviation industry. Combined with a tripartite equilibrium strategy, this paper proposes a multi-level multi-objective model for an air passenger transport carbon tax setting problem (CTSP) among an international organization, an airline and passengers with the fuzzy uncertainty. The proposed model is simplified to an equivalent crisp model by a weighted sum procedure and a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) transformation method. To solve the equivalent crisp model, a fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithm with entropy-Bolitzmann selection (FLC-GA with EBS) is designed as an integrated solution method. Then, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the optimization method. Results show that the cap tax mechanism is an important part of air passenger trans'port carbon emission mitigation and thus, it should be effectively applied to air passenger transport. These results also indicate that the proposed method can provide efficient ways of mitigating carbon emissions for air passenger transport, and therefore assist decision makers in formulating relevant strategies under multiple scenarios.

  9. The TOMCAT global chemical transport model v1.6: description of chemical mechanism and model evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Monks

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the tropospheric chemical mechanism scheme used in the TOMCAT 3-D chemical transport model. The current scheme includes a more detailed representation of hydrocarbon chemistry than previously included in the model, with the inclusion of the emission and oxidation of ethene, propene, butane, toluene and monoterpenes. The model is evaluated against a range of surface, balloon, aircraft and satellite measurements. The model is generally able to capture the main spatial and seasonal features of high and low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3, volatile organic compounds (VOCs and reactive nitrogen. However, model biases are found in some species, some of which are common to chemistry models and some that are specific to TOMCAT and warrant further investigation. The most notable of these biases are (1 a negative bias in Northern Hemisphere (NH winter and spring CO and a positive bias in Southern Hemisphere (SH CO throughout the year, (2 a positive bias in NH O3 in summer and a negative bias at high latitudes during SH winter and (3 a negative bias in NH winter C2 and C3 alkanes and alkenes. TOMCAT global mean tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH concentrations are higher than estimates inferred from observations of methyl chloroform but similar to, or lower than, multi-model mean concentrations reported in recent model intercomparison studies. TOMCAT shows peak OH concentrations in the tropical lower troposphere, unlike other models which show peak concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere. This is likely to affect the lifetime and transport of important trace gases and warrants further investigation.

  10. A dispersion model of transport media in radiotracer investigations on selected chemical installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, E.

    1999-01-01

    Tracer investigations of media transport through chemical reactors play a significant role in the chemical technology. They provide the basis for the determination of some important process parameters, such as flow character of the transported medium, degree of utilisation of the reactor volume during chemical transitions of substrates or even indicate possible mechanisms of chemical reactions. Determination of the medium flow characteristics is closely connected with the mathematical description of the process - a mathematical model of transport. The method of assessment of radiotracers suitability for the investigation of distillation processes presented in this paper allows to determine, in a simple manner, the parameters of distillation characteristics of the radionuclides, the average distillation temperature, the range of distillation temperatures, a suitable radiochemical purity. These parameters precisely determine the behavior of tracers to be expected in a wide range of variable conditions of the distillation process. Applications of tracer tested in such a manner to the investigations of dynamics of media in the industrial rectification columns has resulted in obtaining a dependable evaluation of the performance of these columns in a wide range of changes of their operational parameters. Particular attention has been paid to dynamics of the liquid [phase on the column plate. A dispersion model of liquid flow with hold-up zones has been proposed for the description of the liquid phase transport in the plate - overall assembly.The model consists of a number of flow and stagnant zones, with mass transfer between them. Another example of practical application of results from radiotracer investigation is an analysis of of phase dynamics in the installations designed for the process of liquefaction of Polish coals by means of their catalytic hydrogenation. For the analysis of phase transport in a reaction vessel various mathematical models were applied with

  11. Lagrangian transport model forecasts and a transport climatology for the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2002 (ITCT 2K2) measurement campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Caroline; Cooper, Owen; Stohl, Andreas; Eckhardt, Sabine; James, Paul; Dunlea, Edward; Nicks, Dennis K.; Holloway, John S.; Hübler, Gerd; Parrish, David D.; Ryerson, Tom B.; Trainer, Michael

    2004-04-01

    On the basis of Lagrangian tracer transport simulations this study presents an intercontinental transport climatology and tracer forecasts for the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2002 (ITCT 2K2) aircraft measurement campaign, which took place at Monterey, California, in April-May 2002 to measure Asian pollution arriving at the North American West Coast. For the climatology the average transport of an Asian CO tracer was calculated over a time period of 15 years using the particle dispersion model FLEXPART. To determine by how much the transport from Asia to North America during ITCT 2K2 deviated from the climatological mean, the 15-year average for April and May was compared with the average for April and May 2002 and that for the ITCT 2K2 period. It was found that 8% less Asian CO tracer arrived at the North American West Coast during the ITCT 2K2 period compared to the climatological mean. Below 8-km altitude, the maximum altitude of the research aircraft, 13% less arrived. Nevertheless, pronounced layers of Asian pollution were measured during 3 of the 13 ITCT 2K2 flights. FLEXPART was also successfully used as a forecasting tool for the flight planning during ITCT 2K2. It provided 3-day forecasts for three different anthropogenic CO tracers originating from Asia, North America, and Europe. In two case studies the forecast abilities of FLEXPART are analyzed and discussed by comparing the forecasts with measurement data and infrared satellite images. The model forecasts underestimated the measured CO enhancements by about a factor of 4, mainly because of an underestimation of the Asian emissions in the emission inventory and because of biomass-burning influence that was not modeled. Nevertheless, the intercontinental transport and dispersion of pollution plumes were qualitatively well predicted, and on the basis of the model results the aircraft could successfully be guided into the polluted air masses.

  12. C5 Benchmark Problem with Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Code DENOVO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesilyurt, Gokhan [ORNL; Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Davidson, Gregory G [ORNL; Fox, Patricia B [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The C5 benchmark problem proposed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency was modeled to examine the capabilities of Denovo, a three-dimensional (3-D) parallel discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) radiation transport code, for problems with no spatial homogenization. Denovo uses state-of-the-art numerical methods to obtain accurate solutions to the Boltzmann transport equation. Problems were run in parallel on Jaguar, a high-performance supercomputer located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Both the two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D configurations were analyzed, and the results were compared with the reference MCNP Monte Carlo calculations. For an additional comparison, SCALE/KENO-V.a Monte Carlo solutions were also included. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed for the optimal angular quadrature and mesh resolution for both the 2-D and 3-D infinite lattices of UO{sub 2} fuel pin cells. Denovo was verified with the C5 problem. The effective multiplication factors, pin powers, and assembly powers were found to be in good agreement with the reference MCNP and SCALE/KENO-V.a Monte Carlo calculations.

  13. Reactive dispersive contaminant transport in coastal aquifers: Numerical simulation of a reactive Henry problem

    KAUST Repository

    Nick, H.M.

    2013-02-01

    The reactive mixing between seawater and terrestrial water in coastal aquifers influences the water quality of submarine groundwater discharge. While these waters come into contact at the seawater groundwater interface by density driven flow, their chemical components dilute and react through dispersion. A larger interface and wider mixing zone may provide favorable conditions for the natural attenuation of contaminant plumes. It has been claimed that the extent of this mixing is controlled by both, porous media properties and flow conditions. In this study, the interplay between dispersion and reactive processes in coastal aquifers is investigated by means of numerical experiments. Particularly, the impact of dispersion coefficients, the velocity field induced by density driven flow and chemical component reactivities on reactive transport in such aquifers is studied. To do this, a hybrid finite-element finite-volume method and a reactive simulator are coupled, and model accuracy and applicability are assessed. A simple redox reaction is considered to describe the degradation of a contaminant which requires mixing of the contaminated groundwater and the seawater containing the terminal electron acceptor. The resulting degradation is observed for different scenarios considering different magnitudes of dispersion and chemical reactivity. Three reactive transport regimes are found: reaction controlled, reaction-dispersion controlled and dispersion controlled. Computational results suggest that the chemical components\\' reactivity as well as dispersion coefficients play a significant role on controlling reactive mixing zones and extent of contaminant removal in coastal aquifers. Further, our results confirm that the dilution index is a better alternative to the second central spatial moment of a plume to describe the mixing of reactive solutes in coastal aquifers. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Vadose Zone Fate and Transport Simulation of Chemicals Associated with Coal Seam Gas Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunek, J.; Mallants, D.; Jacques, D.; Van Genuchten, M.

    2017-12-01

    The HYDRUS-1D and HYDRUS (2D/3D) computer software packages are widely used finite element models for simulating the one-, and two- or three-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably-saturated media, respectively. While the standard HYDRUS models consider only the fate and transport of individual solutes or solutes subject to first-order degradation reactions, several specialized HYDRUS add-on modules can simulate far more complex biogeochemical processes. The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of the HYDRUS models and their add-on modules, and to demonstrate applications of the software to the subsurface fate and transport of chemicals involved in coal seam gas extraction and water management operations. One application uses the standard HYDRUS model to evaluate the natural soil attenuation potential of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and their transformation products in case of an accidental release. By coupling the processes of retardation, first-order degradation and convective-dispersive transport of the biocide bronopol and its degradation products, we demonstrated how natural attenuation reduces initial concentrations by more than a factor of hundred in the top 5 cm of the vadose zone. A second application uses the UnsatChem module to explore the possible use of coal seam gas produced water for sustainable irrigation. Simulations with different irrigation waters (untreated, amended with surface water, and reverse osmosis treated) provided detailed results regarding chemical indicators of soil and plant health, notably SAR, EC and sodium concentrations. A third application uses the coupled HYDRUS-PHREEQC module to analyze trace metal transport involving cation exchange and surface complexation sorption reactions in the vadose zone leached with coal seam gas produced water following some accidental water release scenario. Results show that the main process responsible for trace metal migration is complexation of

  15. Internal Domains of Natural Porous Media Revealed: Critical Locations for Transport, Storage, and Chemical Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Brantley, Susan L.; Chorover, Jon D.; Ewing, Robert P.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Liu, Chongxuan; Perfect, E.; Rother, Gernot; Stack, Andrew G.

    2016-03-16

    Internal pore domains exist within rocks, lithic fragments, subsurface sediments and soil aggregates. These domains, which we term internal domains in porous media (IDPM), contain a significant fraction of their porosity as nanopores, dominate the reactive surface area of diverse porous media types, and are important locations for chemical reactivity and hydrocarbon storage. Traditionally difficult to interrogate, advances in instrumentation and imaging methods are providing new insights on the physical structures and chemical attributes of IDPM. In this review we: discuss analytical methods to characterize IDPM, evaluate what has been learned about their size distributions, connectivity, and extended structures; determine whether they exhibit unique chemical reactivity; and assess potential for their inclusion in reactive transport models. Three key findings are noteworthy. 1) A combination of methods now allows complete characterization of the porosity spectrum of natural materials and its connectivity; while imaging microscopies are providing three dimensional representations of the interconnected pore network. 2) Chemical reactivity in pores <10 nm is expected to be different from micro and macropores, yet research performed to date is inconclusive on the nature, direction, and magnitude of effect. 3) Existing continuum reactive transport models treat IDPM as a sub-grid feature with average, empirical, scale-dependent parameters; and are not formulated to include detailed information on pore networks. Overall we find that IDPM are key features controlling hydrocarbon release from shales in hydrofracking systems, organic matter stabilization and recalcitrance in soil, weathering and soil formation, and long term inorganic and organic contaminant behavior in the vadose zone and groundwater. We conclude with an assessment of impactful research opportunities to advance understanding of IDPM, and to incorporate their important effects in reactive transport models

  16. A multilevel cost-space approach to solving the balanced long transportation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Kevin J.; Henson, Van Emden

    1993-01-01

    We develop a multilevel scheme for solving the balanced long transportation problem, that is, given a set (c(sub kj)) of shipping costs from a set of M supply nodes S(sub k) to a set of N demand nodes D(sub j), we seek to find a set of flows, (x(sub kj)), that minimizes the total cost Sigma(sub k=1)(exp M) Sigma(sub j=1)(exp N) x(sub kj)c(sub kj). We require that the problem be balanced, that is, the total demand must equal the total supply. Solution techniques for this problem are well known from optimization and linear programming. We examine this problem, however, in order to develop principles that can then be applied to more intractible problems of optimization. We develop a multigrid scheme for solving the problem, defining the grids, relaxation, and intergrid operators. Numerical experimentation shows that this line of research may prove fruitful. Further research directions are suggested.

  17. Problems in the development of autonomous mobile laser systems based on a cw chemical DF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, B P; Bashkin, A S; Beznozdrev, V N; Parfen'ev, M V; Pirogov, N A; Semenov, S N

    2003-01-01

    The problems involved in designing autonomous mobile laser systems based on high-power cw chemical DF lasers, whose mass and size parameters would make it possible to install them on various vehicles, are discussed. The need for mobility of such lasers necessitates special attention to be paid to the quest for ways and means of reducing the mass and size of the main laser systems. The optimisation of the parameters of such lasers is studied for various methods of scaling their systems. A complex approach to analysis of the optical scheme of the laser system is developed. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

  18. An Overview of Problems and Solutions for Urban Freight Transport in Brazilian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leise K. Oliveira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban freight transport is a challenge for Brazilian cities due to the lack of adequate planning for freight flow movement. Public managers also show negligence and a lack of awareness when dealing with urban logistics. Decision-support data on urban freight transport are still scarce, despite being of fundamental value to economic development. With this in mind, this paper presents problems and solutions regarding urban freight transport in Brazilian cities. Data were obtained through a survey conducted in nine cities and analysed by means of descriptive statistics and the successive intervals method. Additionally, a cluster analysis was performed to identify patterns regarding the typical characteristics of each city in order to compare and generalise the perception of retailers regarding problems and solutions at the national level. The results indicate divergent opinions among retailers from different cities, even from cities with similar socioeconomic profiles and urban dynamics. The municipalities which demonstrated the most similarities were (i Betim and Niteroi, in the Southeast of Brazil; (ii Palmas and Quixada, in the North and Northeast, respectively; and (iii Palmas and Caruaru, also in the North and Northeast. The results reinforce the importance of studying the local context and involving stakeholders in the process of planning urban logistics solutions.

  19. The Problem of Assessment for Radionuclide and Chemical Hazard to People Heredity and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suskov, Igor I.; Glouchtchenko, Alexandre I.

    2003-01-01

    In the 21th century the assessment of the hazard to human heredity and health from the radionuclide and chemical environmental pollution becomes of prime social importance since it is related to the problems of utilization of great amounts of radioactive and chemical wastes, spent nuclear fuel, weapon plutonium, nuclear reactors and emergency discharges of isotopes which in total is higher than 1 billion Ci. Long-term cytogenetic monitoring of nuclear and chemical plant workers, local human populations of radioactive waste areas and radionuclide polluted territories has revealed that the level and spectrum of induced chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes correlate with the type, dose and duration of exposure. There is very strong evidence that the yield of chromosome aberrations (Y) is related to the dose (D) by the equation: Y=Ao+aD+bD 2 . Therefore the radiation/radionuclide risk (R(D) ) will correspond to a absorbed dose and its aberrational/mutational consequences ('doubling dose' coefficient). Increased levels of chromosome aberrations in the human body very often precede the development of several syndromes: chronic fatigue, secondary immune deficiency, early aging, reproductive dysfunction, oncological diseases and etc. The increased levels of chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes can serve as objective bio indicators of radiation and chemical risk to human heredity and health. Thus, monitoring of chromosome and genome aberrations must be of strategical importance in the system of governmental service for minimization of radionuclide and chemical hazard to human heredity and health the necessity of organization of which has already matured. The above mentioned confirms the necessity of founding a European network for ecological-genetic monitoring with 'Internet' translation of information on radionuclide composition and chromosome aberration levels in people, inhabiting polluted areas

  20. Electromechanical and Chemical Sensing at the Nanoscale: DFT and Transport Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Amitesh

    Of the many nanoelectronic applications proposed for near to medium-term commercial deployment, sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) and metal-oxide nanowires are receiving significant attention from researchers. Such devices typically operate on the basis of the changes of electrical response characteristics of the active component (CNT or nanowire) when subjected to an externally applied mechanical stress or the adsorption of a chemical or bio-molecule. Practical development of such technologies can greatly benefit from quantum chemical modeling based on density functional theory (DFT), and from electronic transport modeling based on non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF). DFT can compute useful quantities like possible bond-rearrangements, binding energy, charge transfer, and changes to the electronic structure, while NEGF can predict changes in electronic transport behavior and contact resistance. Effects of surrounding medium and intrinsic structural defects can also be taken into account. In this work we review some recent DFT and transport investigations on (1) CNT-based nano-electromechanical sensors (NEMS) and (2) gas-sensing properties of CNTs and metal-oxide nanowires. We also briefly discuss our current understanding of CNT-metal contacts which, depending upon the metal, the deposition technique, and the masking method can have a significant effect on device performance.

  1. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: I. Model development and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rong; Yang Fuquan; Sloan, James J; Scholtz, M Trevor

    2011-01-01

    We have combined the US EPA MM5/MCIP/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system with a dynamic soil model, the pesticide emission model (PEM), to create a multimedia chemical transport model capable of describing the important physical and chemical processes involving pesticides in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on the surface of vegetation. These processes include: agricultural practices (e.g. soil tilling and pesticide application mode); advection and diffusion of pesticides, moisture, and heat in the soil; partitioning of pesticides between soil organic carbon and interstitial water and air; emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; gas-particle partitioning and transport in the atmosphere; and atmospheric chemistry and dry and wet deposition of pesticides to terrestrial and water surfaces. The modeling system was tested by simulating toxaphene in a domain that covers most of North America for the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000. The results show obvious transport of the pesticide from the heavily contaminated soils in the southern United States and Mexico to water bodies including the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes, leading to significant dry and wet deposition into these ecosystems. The spatial distributions of dry and wet depositions differ because of their different physical mechanisms; the former follows the distribution of air concentrations whereas the latter is more biased to the North East due to the effect of precipitation.

  2. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: I. Model development and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Rong; Yang Fuquan; Sloan, James J [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Scholtz, M Trevor, E-mail: sloanj@connect.uwaterloo.ca [ORTECH Environmental, 2395 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, ON L5K 1B3 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    We have combined the US EPA MM5/MCIP/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system with a dynamic soil model, the pesticide emission model (PEM), to create a multimedia chemical transport model capable of describing the important physical and chemical processes involving pesticides in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on the surface of vegetation. These processes include: agricultural practices (e.g. soil tilling and pesticide application mode); advection and diffusion of pesticides, moisture, and heat in the soil; partitioning of pesticides between soil organic carbon and interstitial water and air; emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; gas-particle partitioning and transport in the atmosphere; and atmospheric chemistry and dry and wet deposition of pesticides to terrestrial and water surfaces. The modeling system was tested by simulating toxaphene in a domain that covers most of North America for the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000. The results show obvious transport of the pesticide from the heavily contaminated soils in the southern United States and Mexico to water bodies including the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes, leading to significant dry and wet deposition into these ecosystems. The spatial distributions of dry and wet depositions differ because of their different physical mechanisms; the former follows the distribution of air concentrations whereas the latter is more biased to the North East due to the effect of precipitation.

  3. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: I. Model development and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Scholtz, M. Trevor; Yang, Fuquan; Sloan, James J.

    2011-07-01

    We have combined the US EPA MM5/MCIP/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system with a dynamic soil model, the pesticide emission model (PEM), to create a multimedia chemical transport model capable of describing the important physical and chemical processes involving pesticides in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on the surface of vegetation. These processes include: agricultural practices (e.g. soil tilling and pesticide application mode); advection and diffusion of pesticides, moisture, and heat in the soil; partitioning of pesticides between soil organic carbon and interstitial water and air; emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; gas-particle partitioning and transport in the atmosphere; and atmospheric chemistry and dry and wet deposition of pesticides to terrestrial and water surfaces. The modeling system was tested by simulating toxaphene in a domain that covers most of North America for the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000. The results show obvious transport of the pesticide from the heavily contaminated soils in the southern United States and Mexico to water bodies including the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes, leading to significant dry and wet deposition into these ecosystems. The spatial distributions of dry and wet depositions differ because of their different physical mechanisms; the former follows the distribution of air concentrations whereas the latter is more biased to the North East due to the effect of precipitation.

  4. Directed transport by surface chemical potential gradients for enhancing analyte collection in nanoscale sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Amit; Hess, Henry

    2015-05-13

    Nanoscale detectors hold great promise for single molecule detection and the analysis of small volumes of dilute samples. However, the probability of an analyte reaching the nanosensor in a dilute solution is extremely low due to the sensor's small size. Here, we examine the use of a chemical potential gradient along a surface to accelerate analyte capture by nanoscale sensors. Utilizing a simple model for transport induced by surface binding energy gradients, we study the effect of the gradient on the efficiency of collecting nanoparticles and single and double stranded DNA. The results indicate that chemical potential gradients along a surface can lead to an acceleration of analyte capture by several orders of magnitude compared to direct collection from the solution. The improvement in collection is limited to a relatively narrow window of gradient slopes, and its extent strongly depends on the size of the gradient patch. Our model allows the optimization of gradient layouts and sheds light on the fundamental characteristics of chemical potential gradient induced transport.

  5. Quantification of chemical transport processes from the soil to surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kun; Huang, Chi-Hua; Wang, Guang-Qian; Fu, Xu-Dong; Parker, Gary

    2013-01-01

    There is a good conceptual understanding of the processes that govern chemical transport from the soil to surface runoff, but few studies have actually quantified these processes separately. Thus, we designed a laboratory flow cell and experimental procedures to quantify the chemical transport from soil to runoff water in the following individual processes: (i) convection with a vertical hydraulic gradient, (ii) convection via surface flow or the Bernoulli effect, (iii) diffusion, and (iv) soil loss. We applied different vertical hydraulic gradients by setting the flow cell to generate different seepage or drainage conditions. Our data confirmed the general form of the convection-diffusion equation. However, we now have additional quantitative data that describe the contribution of each individual chemical loading process in different surface runoff and soil hydrological conditions. The results of this study will be useful for enhancing our understanding of different geochemical processes in the surface soil mixing zone. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Continuous Energy, Multi-Dimensional Transport Calculations for Problem Dependent Resonance Self-Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downar, T.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multi-dimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system. The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multidimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system. Specifically, the methods here utilize the existing continuous energy SCALE5 module, CENTRM, and the multi-dimensional discrete ordinates solver, NEWT to develop a new code, CENTRM( ) NEWT. The work here addresses specific theoretical limitations in existing CENTRM resonance treatment, as well as investigates advanced numerical and parallel computing algorithms for CENTRM and NEWT in order to reduce the computational burden. The result of the work here will be a new computer code capable of performing problem dependent self-shielding analysis for both existing and proposed GENIV fuel designs. The objective of the work was to have an immediate impact on the safety analysis of existing reactors through improvements in the calculation of fuel temperature effects, as well as on the analysis of more sophisticated GENIV/NGNP systems through improvements in the depletion/transmutation of actinides for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiatives.

  7. On the adequacy of message-passing parallel supercomputers for solving neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1990-01-01

    A coarse-grained, static-scheduling parallelization of the standard iterative scheme used for solving the discrete-ordinates approximation of the neutron transport equation is described. The parallel algorithm is based on a decomposition of the angular domain along the discrete ordinates, thus naturally producing a set of completely uncoupled systems of equations in each iteration. Implementation of the parallel code on Intcl's iPSC/2 hypercube, and solutions to test problems are presented as evidence of the high speedup and efficiency of the parallel code. The performance of the parallel code on the iPSC/2 is analyzed, and a model for the CPU time as a function of the problem size (order of angular quadrature) and the number of participating processors is developed and validated against measured CPU times. The performance model is used to speculate on the potential of massively parallel computers for significantly speeding up real-life transport calculations at acceptable efficiencies. We conclude that parallel computers with a few hundred processors are capable of producing large speedups at very high efficiencies in very large three-dimensional problems. 10 refs., 8 figs

  8. Production of lightning NOx and its vertical distribution calculated from three-dimensional cloud-scale chemical transport model simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Ott, Lesley E.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Allen, Dale J.; DeCaria, Alex J.; Ridley, Brian; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Lang, Stephen; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) cloud-scale chemical transport model that includes a parameterized source of lightning NOx on the basis of observed flash rates has been used to simulate six midlatitude and subtropical thunderstorms observed during four

  9. Heuristic geometric ''eigenvalue universality'' in a one-dimensional neutron transport problem with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, G.A.; Vilhena, M.T. de; Bodmann, B.E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we propose a heuristic construction of a transport equation for neutrons with anisotropic scattering considering only the radial cylinder dimension. The eigenvalues of the solutions of the equation correspond to the positive values for the one dimensional case. The central idea of the procedure is the application of the S N method for the discretisation of the angular variable followed by the application of the zero order Hankel transformation. The basis the construction of the scattering terms in form of an integro-differential equation for stationary transport resides in the hypothesis that the eigenvalues that compose the elementary solutions are independent of geometry for a homogeneous medium. We compare the solutions for the cartesian one dimensional problem for an infinite cylinder with azimuthal symmetry and linear anisotropic scattering for two cases. (orig.)

  10. Standard problem exercise to validate criticality codes for spent LWR fuel transport container calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitesides, G.H.; Stephens, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    During the past two years, a Working Group established by the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD-NEA) has been developing a set of criticality benchmark problems which could be used to help establish the validity of criticality safety computer programs and their associated nuclear data for calculation of ksub(eff) for spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel transport containers. The basic goal of this effort was to identify a set of actual critical experiments which would contain the various material and geometric properties present in spent LWR transport contrainers. These data, when used by the various computational methods, are intended to demonstrate the ability of each method to accurately reproduce the experimentally measured ksub(eff) for the parameters under consideration

  11. The discrete cones methods for two-dimensional neutral particle transport problems with voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Maynard, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    One of the most widely applied deterministic methods for time-independent, two-dimensional neutron transport calculations is the discrete ordinates method (DSN). The DSN solution, however, fails to be accurate in a void due to the ray effect. In order to circumvent this drawback, the authors have been developing a novel approximation: the discrete cones method (DCN), where a group of particles in a cone are simultaneously traced instead of particles in discrete directions for the DSN method. Programs, which apply to the DSN method in a non-vacuum region and the DCN method in a void, have been written for transport calculations in X-Y coordinates. The solutions for test problems demonstrate mitigation of the ray effect in voids without loosing the computational efficiency of the DSN method

  12. Three-dimensional transport theory: An analytical solution of an internal beam searchlight problem-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a number of methods for obtaining analytical solutions and numerical results for three-dimensional one-speed neutron transport problems in a half-space containing a variety of source shapes which emit neutrons mono-directionally. For example, we consider an off-centre point source, a ring source and a disk source, or any combination of these, and calculate the surface scalar flux as a function of the radial and angular co-ordinates. Fourier transforms in the transverse directions are used and a Laplace transform in the axial direction. This enables the Wiener-Hopf method to be employed, followed by an inverse Fourier-Hankel transform. Some additional transformations are introduced which enable the inverse Hankel transforms involving Bessel functions to be evaluated numerically more efficiently. A hybrid diffusion theory method is also described which is shown to be a useful guide to the general behaviour of the solutions of the transport equation.

  13. Improved method for solving the neutron transport problem by discretization of space and energy variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosevski, T.

    1971-01-01

    The polynomial interpolation of neutron flux between the chosen space and energy variables enabled transformation of the integral transport equation into a system of linear equations with constant coefficients. Solutions of this system are the needed values of flux for chosen values of space and energy variables. The proposed improved method for solving the neutron transport problem including the mathematical formalism is simple and efficient since the number of needed input data is decreased both in treating the spatial and energy variables. Mathematical method based on this approach gives more stable solutions with significantly decreased probability of numerical errors. Computer code based on the proposed method was used for calculations of one heavy water and one light water reactor cell, and the results were compared to results of other very precise calculations. The proposed method was better concerning convergence rate, decreased computing time and needed computer memory. Discretization of variables enabled direct comparison of theoretical and experimental results

  14. The importance of anisotropic scattering in high energy neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prillinger, G.; Mattes, M.

    1984-01-01

    To describe the highly anisotropic scattering of very fast neutrons adequately the transport code ANISN has been improved. Fokker-Planck terms have been introduced into the transport equation which accurately describe the small changes in energy and angle. The new code has been tested for a d(50)-Be neutron source in a deep penetration iron problem. The influence of the forward peaked elastic scattering on the fast neutron spectrum is shown to be significant and can be handled efficiently in the new ANISN version. Since common cross-section libraries are limited by Legendre expansion, or by their upper energy boundary, or exclude elastic scattering above 20 MeV a special library has been created. (Auth.)

  15. RESOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER GENERATED BY CAR WASHES AND TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna

    2012-12-01

    big cities of Russia. At the same time, the quality of the waste water treated by local water treatment stations fails to meet the present-day standard requirements. Moreover, potable water shall not be used for the purpose of washing transport vehicles. Within the recent 10 years, MGSU has developed a number of research projects aimed at the resolution of this problem. The concept developed by the MGSU specialists is to attain the highest quality of treated waste water generated by car washes and transport enterprises using the most advanced technologies of water treatment rather than to design new water treatment plants. Various methods may be applied for this purpose: restructuring of water treatment facilities, advanced feed, updated regulations governing the operation of water treatment plants.

  16. The physico-chemical problems involved in condenser cooling, circuit sealing and stain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropars, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    Today thermal production of electric energy requiers the use of steam turbines and then needs cold sources (condensers), the latter being obtained by means of a water circulation. Considerable amounts of water are involved. For instance, as for a 900MW power plant of the PWR type, a 12 deg C heating needs 40m 3 /s of cooling water. The needs in water introduce a limitation in the possible site selection for power plant settling (seaside or river with an important steady flow). The important amounts of heat involved create environmental problems. Means for limiting the heat amount released consist in using atmospheric cooling systems. A further constraint relating to scaling is added to the usual corrosion and stain problems when operating the devices. Changes in the carbon dioxide equilibrium and concentration due to the passage through the air cooling systems causes such scaling formation. The evolution of the physico-chemical parameters of the cooling water is described with the risks resulting for the circuits. Means to be developed for preventing scaling, stain and corrosion are presented. The solutions kept by E.D.F. for the exploitation of cooling circuits are indicated. The procedure developed must avoid any chemical pollution of water wastes [fr

  17. The electron transport problem sampling by Monte Carlo individual collision technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsenko, P.A.; Belousov, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of electron transport is of most interest in all fields of the modern science. To solve this problem the Monte Carlo sampling has to be used. The electron transport is characterized by a large number of individual interactions. To simulate electron transport the 'condensed history' technique may be used where a large number of collisions are grouped into a single step to be sampled randomly. Another kind of Monte Carlo sampling is the individual collision technique. In comparison with condensed history technique researcher has the incontestable advantages. For example one does not need to give parameters altered by condensed history technique like upper limit for electron energy, resolution, number of sub-steps etc. Also the condensed history technique may lose some very important tracks of electrons because of its limited nature by step parameters of particle movement and due to weakness of algorithms for example energy indexing algorithm. There are no these disadvantages in the individual collision technique. This report presents some sampling algorithms of new version BRAND code where above mentioned technique is used. All information on electrons was taken from Endf-6 files. They are the important part of BRAND. These files have not been processed but directly taken from electron information source. Four kinds of interaction like the elastic interaction, the Bremsstrahlung, the atomic excitation and the atomic electro-ionization were considered. In this report some results of sampling are presented after comparison with analogs. For example the endovascular radiotherapy problem (P2) of QUADOS2002 was presented in comparison with another techniques that are usually used. (authors)

  18. The electron transport problem sampling by Monte Carlo individual collision technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androsenko, P.A.; Belousov, V.I. [Obninsk State Technical Univ. of Nuclear Power Engineering, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    The problem of electron transport is of most interest in all fields of the modern science. To solve this problem the Monte Carlo sampling has to be used. The electron transport is characterized by a large number of individual interactions. To simulate electron transport the 'condensed history' technique may be used where a large number of collisions are grouped into a single step to be sampled randomly. Another kind of Monte Carlo sampling is the individual collision technique. In comparison with condensed history technique researcher has the incontestable advantages. For example one does not need to give parameters altered by condensed history technique like upper limit for electron energy, resolution, number of sub-steps etc. Also the condensed history technique may lose some very important tracks of electrons because of its limited nature by step parameters of particle movement and due to weakness of algorithms for example energy indexing algorithm. There are no these disadvantages in the individual collision technique. This report presents some sampling algorithms of new version BRAND code where above mentioned technique is used. All information on electrons was taken from Endf-6 files. They are the important part of BRAND. These files have not been processed but directly taken from electron information source. Four kinds of interaction like the elastic interaction, the Bremsstrahlung, the atomic excitation and the atomic electro-ionization were considered. In this report some results of sampling are presented after comparison with analogs. For example the endovascular radiotherapy problem (P2) of QUADOS2002 was presented in comparison with another techniques that are usually used. (authors)

  19. Inverse problem for extragalactic transport of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ptuskin, V.S.; Rogovaya, S.I.; Zirakashvili, V.N.

    2015-01-01

    The energy spectra and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are changing in a course of propagation in the expanding Universe filled with background radiation. We developed a numerical code for solution of inverse problem for cosmic-ray transport equations that allows the determination of average source spectra of different nuclei from the cosmic ray spectra observed at the Earth. Employing this approach, the injection spectra of protons and Iron nuclei in extragalactic sources are found assuming that only these species are accelerated at the source. The data from the Auger experiment and the combined data from the Telescope Array + HiRes experiments are used to illustrate the method

  20. Inverse problem for extragalactic transport of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptuskin, V.S.; Rogovaya, S.I.; Zirakashvili, V.N., E-mail: vptuskin@izmiran.ru, E-mail: rogovaya@izmiran.ru, E-mail: zirak@izmiran.ru [Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow, 142190 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-01

    The energy spectra and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are changing in a course of propagation in the expanding Universe filled with background radiation. We developed a numerical code for solution of inverse problem for cosmic-ray transport equations that allows the determination of average source spectra of different nuclei from the cosmic ray spectra observed at the Earth. Employing this approach, the injection spectra of protons and Iron nuclei in extragalactic sources are found assuming that only these species are accelerated at the source. The data from the Auger experiment and the combined data from the Telescope Array + HiRes experiments are used to illustrate the method.

  1. The criticality problem in reflected slab type reactor in the two-group transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.D.M.

    1978-01-01

    The criticality problem in reflected slab type reactor is solved for the first time in the two group neutron transport theory, by singular eingenfunctions expansion, the singular integrals obtained through continuity conditions of angular distributions at the interface are regularized by a recently proposed method. The result is a coupled system of regular integral equations for the expansion coefficients, this system is solved by an ordinary interactive method. Numerical results that can be utilized as a comparative standard for aproximation methods, are presented [pt

  2. UN Method For The Critical Slab Problem In One-Speed Neutron Transport Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztuerk, Hakan; Guengoer, Sueleyman

    2008-01-01

    The Chebyshev polynomial approximation (U N method) is used to solve the critical slab problem in one-speed neutron transport theory using Marshak boundary condition. The isotropic scattering kernel with the combination of forward and backward scattering is chosen for the neutrons in a uniform finite slab. Numerical results obtained by the U N method are presented in the tables together with the results obtained by the well-known P N method for comparison. It is shown that the method converges rapidly with its easily executable equations.

  3. Simulator Investigations of the Problems of Flying a Swept-Wing Transport Aircraft in Heavy Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Richard S.; Larsen, William E.

    1965-01-01

    An investigation of several factors which may contribute to the problem of piloting jet transport aircraft in heavy turbulence was conducted by using a piloted simulator that included the most significant airplane response and cockpit vibrations induced by rough air. Results indicated that the primary fuselage structural frequency contributed significantly to a distracting cockpit environment, and there was obtained evidence of severely reduced instrument flight proficiency during simulated maneuvering flight in heavy turbulence. It is concluded that the addition of similar rough-air response capabilities to training simulators would be of value in pilot indoctrination in turbulent-flight procedures.

  4. Estimation of Atmospheric Methane Surface Fluxes Using a Global 3-D Chemical Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Prinn, R.

    2003-12-01

    Accurate determination of atmospheric methane surface fluxes is an important and challenging problem in global biogeochemical cycles. We use inverse modeling to estimate annual, seasonal, and interannual CH4 fluxes between 1996 and 2001. The fluxes include 7 time-varying seasonal (3 wetland, rice, and 3 biomass burning) and 3 steady aseasonal (animals/waste, coal, and gas) global processes. To simulate atmospheric methane, we use the 3-D chemical transport model MATCH driven by NCEP reanalyzed observed winds at a resolution of T42 ( ˜2.8° x 2.8° ) in the horizontal and 28 levels (1000 - 3 mb) in the vertical. By combining existing datasets of individual processes, we construct a reference emissions field that represents our prior guess of the total CH4 surface flux. For the methane sink, we use a prescribed, annually-repeating OH field scaled to fit methyl chloroform observations. MATCH is used to produce both the reference run from the reference emissions, and the time-dependent sensitivities that relate individual emission processes to observations. The observational data include CH4 time-series from ˜15 high-frequency (in-situ) and ˜50 low-frequency (flask) observing sites. Most of the high-frequency data, at a time resolution of 40-60 minutes, have not previously been used in global scale inversions. In the inversion, the high-frequency data generally have greater weight than the weekly flask data because they better define the observational monthly means. The Kalman Filter is used as the optimal inversion technique to solve for emissions between 1996-2001. At each step in the inversion, new monthly observations are utilized and new emissions estimates are produced. The optimized emissions represent deviations from the reference emissions that lead to a better fit to the observations. The seasonal processes are optimized for each month, and contain the methane seasonality and interannual variability. The aseasonal processes, which are less variable, are

  5. A System Analysis of the Recruitment and Retention Problems Associated with the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization Organization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gottschalk, Laurence

    2001-01-01

    The primary purpose of this thesis is to investigate the problems of retaining qualified personnel in the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization organization through the end date of the program...

  6. 3D CFD for chemical transport profiles in a rotating disk CVD reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jong-Hyun; Yoon, Do-Young

    2010-06-01

    The RDCVD (Rotating Disk Chemical Vapor Deposition) technique is an appropriate method for uniform deposition of grains, such as compound semiconductior materials. The substrate temperature and rotation speed are the major factors, which determine the thickness uniformity of the deposited films. This paper investigates 3D CFD (3 Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results of flow and heat transfer in a reactor of RDCVD using Fluent. In order to establish the reducibility of buoyancy effect on deposition quality, the chemical transport profile upon the disk heated is examined successfully in 3D domain for different rotating speeds. The resulting vortex flows due the simultaneous buoyance and centrifuge are discussed qualitatively in the 3D virtual system of a RDCVD reactor. 3D CFD is even more effective to describe the internal vortex flows due to the competitive inlet, buoyancy and centrifuge flows, which cannot be realized in the general 2D (2 Dimensional) CFD.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. The study of thermodynamic properties and transport properties of multicomponent systems with chemical reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samujlov E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In case of system with chemical reaction the most important properties are heat conductivity and heat capacity. In this work we have considered the equation for estimate the component of these properties caused by chemical reaction and ionization processes. We have evaluated the contribution of this part in heat conductivity and heat capacity too. At the high temperatures contribution in heat conductivity from ionization begins to play an important role. We have created a model, which describe partial and full ionization of gases and gas mixtures. In addition, in this work we present the comparison of our result with experimental data and data from numerical simulation. We was used the data about transport properties of middle composition of Russian coals and the data of thermophysical properties of natural gas for comparison.

  8. Numerical modelling of the atmospheric transport, chemical tranformations and deposition of mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G; Schneider, B; Eppel, D [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht-Tesperhude (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik; Grassl, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Meteorologisches Inst. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.); Iverfeldt, A [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Misra, P K; Bloxam, R; Wong, S [Ontario Ministry of the

    1990-01-01

    Based on recent progress in the understanding of mercury chemistry and biogeochemistry and on the availability of mercury emission data bases this study makes an attempt to model the atmospheric transport of mercury, its chemical transformations in the atmosphere, and the fluxes of mercury to and from the earth's surface by means of an EMEP-type Lagrangian trajectory model for Europe and an Eulerian grid model (ADOM) for North America. Preliminary results with a simplified mercury chemistry scheme in the comprehensive Eulerian model and with a linear chemistry in the Lagrangian model show reasonable agreement with observed mercury concentrations in air and precipitation. (orig.) With 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. STRATAQ: A three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model of the stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grassi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3-D Chemical Transport Model (CTM of the stratosphere has been developed and used for a test study of the evolution of chemical species in the arctic lower stratosphere during winter 1996/97. This particular winter has been chosen for testing the model’s capabilities for its remarkable dynamical situation (very cold and strong polar vortex along with the availability of sparse chlorine, HNO3 and O3 data, showing also very low O3 values in late March/April. Due to those unusual features, the winter 1996/97 can be considered an excellent example of the impact of both dynamics and heterogeneous reactions on the chemistry of the stratosphere. Model integration has been performed from January to March 1997 and the resulting long-lived and short-lived tracer fields compared with available measurements. The model includes a detailed gas phase chemical scheme and a parameterization of the heterogeneous reactions occurring on liquid aerosol and polar stratospheric cloud (PSC surfaces. The transport is calculated using a semi-lagrangian flux scheme, forced by meteorological analyses. In such form, the STRATAQ CTM model is suitable for short-term integrations to study transport and chemical evolution related to "real" meteorological situations. Model simulation during the chosen winter shows intense PSC formation, with noticeable local HNO3 capture by PSCs, and the activation of vortex air leading to chlorine production and subsequent O3 destruction. The resulting model fields show generally good agreement with satellite data (MLS and TOMS, although the available observations, due to their limited number and time/space sparse nature, are not enough to effectively constraint the model. In particular, the model seems to perform well in reproducing the rapid processing of air inside the polar vortex on PSC converting reservoir species in active chlorine. In addition, it satisfactorily reproduces the morphology of the continuous O3

  10. STRATAQ: A three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model of the stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grassi

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3-D Chemical Transport Model (CTM of the stratosphere has been developed and used for a test study of the evolution of chemical species in the arctic lower stratosphere during winter 1996/97. This particular winter has been chosen for testing the model’s capabilities for its remarkable dynamical situation (very cold and strong polar vortex along with the availability of sparse chlorine, HNO3 and O3 data, showing also very low O3 values in late March/April. Due to those unusual features, the winter 1996/97 can be considered an excellent example of the impact of both dynamics and heterogeneous reactions on the chemistry of the stratosphere. Model integration has been performed from January to March 1997 and the resulting long-lived and short-lived tracer fields compared with available measurements. The model includes a detailed gas phase chemical scheme and a parameterization of the heterogeneous reactions occurring on liquid aerosol and polar stratospheric cloud (PSC surfaces. The transport is calculated using a semi-lagrangian flux scheme, forced by meteorological analyses. In such form, the STRATAQ CTM model is suitable for short-term integrations to study transport and chemical evolution related to "real" meteorological situations. Model simulation during the chosen winter shows intense PSC formation, with noticeable local HNO3 capture by PSCs, and the activation of vortex air leading to chlorine production and subsequent O3 destruction. The resulting model fields show generally good agreement with satellite data (MLS and TOMS, although the available observations, due to their limited number and time/space sparse nature, are not enough to effectively constraint the model. In particular, the model seems to perform well in reproducing the rapid processing of air inside the polar vortex on PSC converting reservoir species in active chlorine. In addition, it

  11. Fuzzy bicriteria multi-index transportation problems for coal allocation planning of Taipower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, G.-H.; Teodorvic, D.; Hwang, M.-J.

    1996-01-01

    Taipower, the official electricity authority of Taiwan, encounters several difficulties in planning annual coal purchase and allocation schedule, e.g. with multiple sources, multiple destinations, multiple coal types, different shipping vessels, and even an uncertain demand and supply. In this study, these concerns are formulated as a fuzzy bicriteria multi-index transportation problem. Furthermore, an effective and interactive algorithm is proposed which combines reducing index method and interactive fuzzy multi-objective linear programming technique to cope with a complicated problem which may be prevalent in other industries. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate that this model can not only satisfy more of the actual requirements of the integral system but also offer more information to the decision makers (DMs) for reference in favor of exalting decision making quality. 34 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Transportation Self-Efficacy and Social Problem-Solving of Persons Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudden, Adele; O'Mally, Jamie; Antonelli, Karla

    2016-01-01

    Social problem-solving skills and transportation self-efficacy were assessed for 48 vocational rehabilitation consumers with visual disabilities who required assistance securing work transportation. Social problem solving was at the upper end of the normed average; transportation self-efficacy averaged 101.5 out of 140. Level of vision loss was not associated with score differences; urban residence related to slightly higher self-efficacy than suburban or rural residency. Participants appeared to have the skills necessary to secure employment transportation, but were less confident about transportation-seeking activities that required more initiative of social interaction. Training and information might help consumers gain confidence in these tasks and increase viable transportation options.

  13. Development of a problem - based learning (PBL) and cooperative learning (CL) transportation engineering course For undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This study reports the findings of a project that was done during the implementation of a : problem-based learning (PBL) and cooperative learning (CL) elements into an : undergraduate transportation engineering course. The study procedure used the st...

  14. The nodal discrete-ordinate transport calculation of anisotropy scattering problem in three-dimensional cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongchun; Xie Zhongsheng; Zhu Xuehua

    1994-01-01

    The nodal discrete-ordinate transport calculating model of anisotropy scattering problem in three-dimensional cartesian geometry is given. The computing code NOTRAN/3D has been encoded and the satisfied conclusion is gained

  15. Discrete ordinates transport methods for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautz, S.D.

    1998-04-01

    The author examines the solutions of the discrete ordinates (S N ) method for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering kernels. He derives conditions necessary to obtain reasonable solutions in a certain forward-peaked limit, the Fokker-Planck (FP) limit. He also analyzes the acceleration of the iterative solution of such problems and offer improvements to it. He extends the analytic Fokker-Planck limit analysis to the S N equations. This analysis shows that in this asymptotic limit the S N solution satisfies a pseudospectral discretization of the FP equation, provided that the scattering term is handled in a certain way (which he describes) and that the analytic transport solution satisfies an analytic FP equation. Similar analyses of various spatially discretized S N equations reveal that they too produce solutions that satisfy discrete FP equations, given the same provisions. Numerical results agree with these theoretical predictions. He defines a multidimensional angular multigrid (ANMG) method to accelerate the iterative solution of highly forward-peaked problems. The analyses show that a straightforward application of this scheme is subject to high-frequency instabilities. However, by applying a diffusive filter to the ANMG corrections he is able to stabilize this method. Fourier analyses of model problems show that the resulting method is effective at accelerating the convergence rate when the scattering is forward-peaked. The numerical results demonstrate that these analyses are good predictors of the actual performance of the ANMG method

  16. ONETRAN, 1-D Transport in Planar, Cylindrical, Spherical Geometry for Homogeneous, Inhomogeneous Problem, Anisotropic Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ONETRAN solves the one- dimensional multigroup transport equation in plane, cylindrical, spherical, and two-angle plane geometries. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous (K-eff and eigenvalue searches) problems subject to vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, albedo or inhomogeneous boundary flux conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic inhomogeneous sources are permitted. 2 - Method of solution: The discrete ordinates approximation for the angular variable is used with the diamond (central) difference approximation for the angular extrapolation in curved geometries. A linear discontinuous finite element representation for the angular flux in each spatial mesh cell is used. Negative fluxes are eliminated by a local set-to-zero and correct algorithm. Standard inner (within-group) iteration cycles are accelerated by system re-balance, coarse mesh re-balance, or Chebyshev acceleration. Outer iteration cycles are accelerated by coarse-mesh re-balance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Variable dimensioning is used so that any combination of problem parameters leading to a container array less than MAXCOR can be accommodated. On CDC machines MAXCOR can be about 25 000 words and peripheral storage is used for most group-dependent data

  17. PREDICTION OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR POLLUTION BY EMISSIONS OF MOTOR TRANSPORT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of 3D numerical models, which allow us to calculate air pollution process from road transport emissions based on chemical transformation of pollutants. Creating numerical models, which would give the opportunity to predict the level of air pollution in urban areas. Methodology. To address the evaluation of the air pollution problem of emissions of vehicles the equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer were used. In order to solve differential equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer the finite difference methods are used. For the numerical integration of the equation for the velocity potential the method of conditional approximation was applied. The equation for the velocity potential written in difference form, is being split into two equations, and at each step of splitting the unknown value of the potential speed is determined by the explicit scheme of running account and the difference scheme itself is implicit. For the numerical integration of the equation of dispersion of emissions in the atmosphere is used implicit alternating-triangular difference splitting scheme. Emissions from the road are simulated by a series of point sources of a given intensity. The developed numerical models are the basis of established software package.Findings. There were developed 3D numerical models, which belong to the class «diagnostic models». These models take into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere when emissions from road transport taking into account the chemical transformation of pollutants. On the basis of the constructed numerical models a computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution in the street was carried out. Originality. Numerical models that allow you to calculate the 3D aerodynamic of wind flow in urban areas and the process of mass transfer of emissions from the road were developed. The models make it possible to account the

  18. A reaction-based paradigm to model reactive chemical transport in groundwater with general kinetic and equilibrium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C; Pace, Molly; Kim, Young Jin; Jardine, Philip M.; Watson, David B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M. partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M. species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing NE equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-NE kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions

  19. A reaction-based paradigm to model reactive chemical transport in groundwater with general kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Parker, Jack C; Brooks, Scott C; Pace, Molly N; Kim, Young-Jin; Jardine, Philip M; Watson, David B

    2007-06-16

    This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing N(E) equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-N(E) kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

  20. Study on Photon Transport Problem Based on the Platform of Molecular Optical Simulation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kuan; Gao, Xinbo; Liang, Jimin; Qu, Xiaochao; Ren, Nunu; Chen, Xueli; Ma, Bin; Tian, Jie

    2010-01-01

    As an important molecular imaging modality, optical imaging has attracted increasing attention in the recent years. Since the physical experiment is usually complicated and expensive, research methods based on simulation platforms have obtained extensive attention. We developed a simulation platform named Molecular Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to simulate photon transport in both biological tissues and free space for optical imaging based on noncontact measurement. In this platform, Monte Carlo (MC) method and the hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem are used to simulate photon transport in biological tissues and free space, respectively, so both contact and noncontact measurement modes of optical imaging can be simulated properly. In addition, a parallelization strategy for MC method is employed to improve the computational efficiency. In this paper, we study the photon transport problems in both biological tissues and free space using MOSE. The results are compared with Tracepro, simplified spherical harmonics method (S P n), and physical measurement to verify the performance of our study method on both accuracy and efficiency. PMID:20445737

  1. Study on Photon Transport Problem Based on the Platform of Molecular Optical Simulation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Peng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important molecular imaging modality, optical imaging has attracted increasing attention in the recent years. Since the physical experiment is usually complicated and expensive, research methods based on simulation platforms have obtained extensive attention. We developed a simulation platform named Molecular Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE to simulate photon transport in both biological tissues and free space for optical imaging based on noncontact measurement. In this platform, Monte Carlo (MC method and the hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem are used to simulate photon transport in biological tissues and free space, respectively, so both contact and noncontact measurement modes of optical imaging can be simulated properly. In addition, a parallelization strategy for MC method is employed to improve the computational efficiency. In this paper, we study the photon transport problems in both biological tissues and free space using MOSE. The results are compared with Tracepro, simplified spherical harmonics method (SPn, and physical measurement to verify the performance of our study method on both accuracy and efficiency.

  2. Study on photon transport problem based on the platform of molecular optical simulation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kuan; Gao, Xinbo; Liang, Jimin; Qu, Xiaochao; Ren, Nunu; Chen, Xueli; Ma, Bin; Tian, Jie

    2010-01-01

    As an important molecular imaging modality, optical imaging has attracted increasing attention in the recent years. Since the physical experiment is usually complicated and expensive, research methods based on simulation platforms have obtained extensive attention. We developed a simulation platform named Molecular Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE) to simulate photon transport in both biological tissues and free space for optical imaging based on noncontact measurement. In this platform, Monte Carlo (MC) method and the hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem are used to simulate photon transport in biological tissues and free space, respectively, so both contact and noncontact measurement modes of optical imaging can be simulated properly. In addition, a parallelization strategy for MC method is employed to improve the computational efficiency. In this paper, we study the photon transport problems in both biological tissues and free space using MOSE. The results are compared with Tracepro, simplified spherical harmonics method (SP(n)), and physical measurement to verify the performance of our study method on both accuracy and efficiency.

  3. Comparison of the Tangent Linear Properties of Tracer Transport Schemes Applied to Geophysical Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, James; Holdaway, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A number of geophysical applications require the use of the linearized version of the full model. One such example is in numerical weather prediction, where the tangent linear and adjoint versions of the atmospheric model are required for the 4DVAR inverse problem. The part of the model that represents the resolved scale processes of the atmosphere is known as the dynamical core. Advection, or transport, is performed by the dynamical core. It is a central process in many geophysical applications and is a process that often has a quasi-linear underlying behavior. However, over the decades since the advent of numerical modelling, significant effort has gone into developing many flavors of high-order, shape preserving, nonoscillatory, positive definite advection schemes. These schemes are excellent in terms of transporting the quantities of interest in the dynamical core, but they introduce nonlinearity through the use of nonlinear limiters. The linearity of the transport schemes used in Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5), as well as a number of other schemes, is analyzed using a simple 1D setup. The linearized version of GEOS-5 is then tested using a linear third order scheme in the tangent linear version.

  4. Transportation Problems in Special Education Programs in Rural Areas - A Specific Solution and Some Suggestions for Delivery System Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Z. H.

    The paper describes transportation problems encountered and solutions employed in delivering systems of comprehensive services to handicapped children in Anderson County, Tennessee, a predominantly rural area with considerable mountain area. Detailed are methods of transportation utilized in the four different program areas of the county special…

  5. A hopfield-like artificial neural network for solving inverse radiation transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon

    1997-02-01

    In this thesis, we solve inverse radiation transport problems by an Artificial Neural Network(ANN) approach. ANNs have many interesting properties such as nonlinear, parallel, and distributed processing. Some of the promising applications of ANNs are optimization, image and signal processing, system control, etc. In some optimization problems, Hopfield Neural Network(HNN) which has one-layered and fully interconnected neurons with feed-back topology showed that it worked well with acceptable fault tolerance and efficiency. The identification of radioactive source in a medium with a limited number of external detectors is treated as an inverse radiation transport problem in this work. This kind of inverse problem is usually ill-posed and severely under-determined; however, its applications are very useful in many fields including medical diagnosis and nondestructive assay of nuclear materials. Therefore, it is desired to develop efficient and robust solution algorithms. Firstly, we study a representative ANN model which has learning ability and fault tolerance, i.e., feed-forward neural network. It has an error backpropagation learning algorithm processed by reducing error in learning patterns that are usually results of test or calculation. Although it has enough fault tolerance and efficiency, a major obstacle is 'curse of dimensionality'--required number of learning patterns and learning time increase exponentially proportional to the problem size. Therefore, in this thesis, this type of ANN is used as benchmarking the reliability of the solution. Secondly, another approach for solving inverse problems, a modified version of HNN is proposed. When diagonal elements of the interconnection matrix are not zero, HNN may become unstable. However, most problems including this identification problem contain non-zero diagonal elements when programmed on neural networks. According to Soulie et al., discrete random iterations could produce the stable minimum state

  6. Synthetic acceleration methods for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    One of the iterative methods which is used to solve the discretized transport equation is called the Source Iteration Method (SI). The SI method converges very slowly for problems with optically thick regions and scattering ratios (σ s /σ t ) near unity. The Diffusion-Synthetic Acceleration method (DSA) is one of the methods which has been devised to improve the convergence rate of the SI method. The DSA method is a good tool to accelerate the SI method, if the particle which is being dealt with is a neutron. This is because the scattering process for neutrons is not severely anisotropic. However, if the particle is a charged particle (electron), DSA becomes ineffective as an acceleration device because here the scattering process is severely anisotropic. To improve the DSA algorithm for electron transport, the author approaches the problem in two different ways in this thesis. He develops the first approach by accelerating more angular moments (φ 0 , φ 1 , φ 2 , φ 3 ,...) than is done in DSA; he calls this approach the Modified P N Synthetic Acceleration (MPSA) method. In the second approach he modifies the definition of the transport sweep, using the physics of the scattering; he calls this approach the Modified Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (MDSA) method. In general, he has developed, analyzed, and implemented the MPSA and MDSA methods in this thesis and has shown that for a high order quadrature set and mesh widths about 1.0 cm, they are each about 34 times faster (clock time) than the DSA method. Also, he has found that the MDSA spectral radius decreases as the mesh size increases. This makes the MDSA method a better choice for large spatial meshes

  7. Transport-induced shifts in condensate dew-point and composition in multicomponent systems with chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, D. E.; Nagarajan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Partial heterogeneous condensation phenomena in multicomponent reacting systems are analyzed taking into consideration the chemical element transport phenomena. It is demonstrated that the dew-point surface temperature in chemically reactive systems is not a purely thermodynamic quantity, but is influenced by the multicomponent diffusion and Soret-mass diffusion phenomena. Several distinct dew-points are shown to exist in such systems and, as a result of transport constraints, the 'sharp' locus between two chemically distinct condensates is systematically moved to a difference mainstream composition.

  8. How to minimise the incidence of transport-related problem behaviours in horses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Amanda; Matusiewicz, Judith; Padalino, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This review aims to provide practical outcomes on how to minimise the incidence of transport-related problem behaviours (TRPBs) in horses. TRPBs are unwanted behaviours occurring during different phases of transport, most commonly, a reluctance to load and scrambling during travelling. TRPBs can result in injuries to horses and horse handlers, horse trailer accidents, disruption of time schedules, inability to attend competitions, and poor performance following travel. Therefore, TRPBs are recognised as both a horse-related risk to humans and a human-related risk to horses. From the literature, it is apparent that TRPBs are common throughout the entire equine industry, and a YouTube keyword search of 'horse trailer loading' produced over 67,000 results, demonstrating considerable interest in this topic and the variety of solutions suggested. Drawing upon articles published over the last 35 years, this review summarises current knowledge on TRPBs and provides recommendations on their identification, management, and prevention. It appears that a positive human-horse relationship, in-hand pre-training, systematic training for loading and travelling, appropriate horse handling, and the vehicle driving skills of the transporters are crucial to minimise the incidence of TRPBs. In-hand pre-training based on correct application of the principles of learning for horses and horse handlers, habituation to loading and travelling, and self-loading appear to minimise the risk of TRPBs and are therefore strongly recommended to safeguard horse and horse-handler health and welfare. This review indicates that further research and education with respect to transport management are essential to substantially decrease the incidence of TRPBs in horses.

  9. Recovery of rare earths from used polishes by chemical vapor transport process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Machida, K.; Adachi, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Rare earth oxide polishes are widely used in the glass industry because of its mechanical and chemical polishing action. The Japanese glass industry use 2000 tons per year of the polishes, and a large portion of them are thrown away after their polishing lifetime. A dry recovery processes for rare earths from the used polishes have been investigated by using a chemical vapor transport method via the formation of vapor complexes RAl n Cl 3+3n (R = rare earths). A flow type reactor with various temperature gradients was employed for the process. The used polishes were mixed with active carbon, and chlorinated with N 2 + Cl 2 mixture at 1273 K. Aluminium oxide were also chlorinated at lower temperature and the resulting AlCl 3 were introduced to the reactor. The rare earth chlorides and AlCl 3 were converted to the vapor complexes. These were driven along the temperature gradient, decomposed according to the reverse reaction, and regenerated RCl 3 . About 90 % of the used polish were chlorinated after 2 hours. Rare earth chlorides, AlCl 3 , and FeCl 3 were fully transported after 82 hours. The rare earth chlorides were mainly condensed over the temperature range 1263-903 K. On the other hand, AlCl 3 and FeCl 3 were deposited at the temperature range below 413 K. CaCl 2 and SrCl 2 were hardly transported and remained in the residue. When the temperature gradient with the smaller slope was used, mutual separation efficiencies among the rare earths was improved. The highest CeCl 3 purity of 80% was obtained in the process

  10. Modelling the gas transport and chemical processes related to clad oxidation and hydriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, R O; Rashid, Y R [ANATECH Research Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Models are developed for the gas transport and chemical processes associated with the ingress of steam into a LWR fuel rod through a small defect. These models are used to determine the cladding regions in a defective fuel rod which are susceptible to massive hydriding and the creation of sunburst hydrides. The brittle nature of zirconium hydrides (ZrH{sub 2}) in these susceptible regions produces weak spots in the cladding which can act as initiation sites for cladding cracks under certain cladding stress conditions caused by fuel cladding mechanical interaction. The modeling of the axial gas transport is based on gaseous bimolar diffusion coupled with convective mass transport using the mass continuity equation. Hydrogen production is considered from steam reaction with cladding inner surface, fission products and internal components. Eventually, the production of hydrogen and its diffusion along the length results in high hydrogen concentration in locations remote from the primary defect. Under these conditions, the hydrogen can attack the cladding inner surface and breakdown the protective ZrO{sub 2} layer locally, initiating massive localized hydriding leading to sunburst hydride. The developed hydrogen evolution model is combined with a general purpose fuel behavior program to integrate the effects of power and burnup into the hydriding kinetics. Only in this manner can the behavior of a defected fuel rod be modeled to determine the conditions the result in fuel rod degradation. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs.

  11. Morphological, Chemical Surface, and Diffusive Transport Characterizations of a Nanoporous Alumina Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Vázquez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of a nanoporous alumina membrane (NPAM by the two-step anodization method and its morphological and chemical surface characterization by analyzing Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM micrographs and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS spectra is reported. Influence of electrical and diffusive effects on the NaCl transport across the membrane nanopores is determined from salt diffusion measurements performed with a wide range of NaCl concentrations, which allows the estimation of characteristic electrochemical membrane parameters such as the NaCl diffusion coefficient and the concentration of fixed charges in the membrane, by using an appropriated model and the membrane geometrical parameters (porosity and pore length. These results indicate a reduction of ~70% in the value of the NaCl diffusion coefficient through the membrane pores with respect to solution. The transport number of ions in the membrane pores (Na+ and Cl−, respectively were determined from concentration potential measurements, and the effect of concentration-polarization at the membrane surfaces was also considered by comparing concentration potential values obtained with stirred solutions (550 rpm and without stirring. From both kinds of results, a value higher than 0.05 M NaCl for the feed solution seems to be necessary to neglect the contribution of electrical interactions in the diffusive transport.

  12. Review on modeling development for multiscale chemical reactions coupled transport phenomena in solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Martin; Yuan, Jinliang; Sunden, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    A literature study is performed to compile the state-of-the-art, as well as future potential, in SOFC modeling. Principles behind various transport processes such as mass, heat, momentum and charge as well as for electrochemical and internal reforming reactions are described. A deeper investigation is made to find out potentials and challenges using a multiscale approach to model solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and combine the accuracy at microscale with the calculation speed at macroscale to design SOFCs, based on a clear understanding of transport phenomena, chemical reactions and functional requirements. Suitable methods are studied to model SOFCs covering various length scales. Coupling methods between different approaches and length scales by multiscale models are outlined. Multiscale modeling increases the understanding for detailed transport phenomena, and can be used to make a correct decision on the specific design and control of operating conditions. It is expected that the development and production costs will be decreased and the energy efficiency be increased (reducing running cost) as the understanding of complex physical phenomena increases. It is concluded that the connection between numerical modeling and experiments is too rare and also that material parameters in most cases are valid only for standard materials and not for the actual SOFC component microstructures.

  13. Variable neighborhood search to solve the vehicle routing problem for hazardous materials transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula, Gustavo Alfredo; Prodhon, Caroline; Gonzalez, Fabio Augusto; Afsar, H Murat; Velasco, Nubia

    2017-02-15

    This work focuses on the Heterogeneous Fleet Vehicle Routing problem (HFVRP) in the context of hazardous materials (HazMat) transportation. The objective is to determine a set of routes that minimizes the total expected routing risk. This is a nonlinear function, and it depends on the vehicle load and the population exposed when an incident occurs. Thus, a piecewise linear approximation is used to estimate it. For solving the problem, a variant of the Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) algorithm is employed. To improve its performance, a post-optimization procedure is implemented via a Set Partitioning (SP) problem. The SP is solved on a pool of routes obtained from executions of the local search procedure embedded on the VNS. The algorithm is tested on two sets of HFVRP instances based on literature with up to 100 nodes, these instances are modified to include vehicle and arc risk parameters. The results are competitive in terms of computational efficiency and quality attested by a comparison with Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) previously proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceived discrimination, serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region status, and the development of conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Beach, Steven R H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Obasi, Ezemenari; Philibert, Robert A; Kogan, Steven M; Simons, Ronald L

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations of adolescents' perceptions of discrimination and their genetic status with increases in conduct problems. Participants were 461 African American youths residing in rural Georgia (Wave 1 mean age = 15.5 years) who provided three waves of data and a saliva sample from which a polymorphism in the SCL6A4 (serotonin transporter [5-HTT]) gene polymorphism known as the 5-HTT linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) was genotyped. Data analyses using growth curve modeling indicated that perceived discrimination was significantly related to the slope of conduct problems. As hypothesized, interactions between perceived discrimination and genetic status emerged for male but not female youths. Compared with those carrying two copies of the long allele variant of 5-HTTLPR, male youths carrying one or two copies of its short allele variant evinced higher rates of conduct problems over time when they perceived high levels of racial discrimination. These findings are consistent with resilience and differential susceptibility propositions stating that genes can both foster sensitivity to adverse events and confer protection from those events.

  15. On some one-speed neutron transport problems revisited and reformulated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2001-01-01

    The solution of a number of one-speed neutron transport problems involving infinite media have been re-considered in the light of a transformation first used by Wallace (Wallace, P.R., 1944a. Boundary Conditions at Thin Absorbing Shells and Plates I. Canadian National Research Council Report MT-34; Wallace, P.R., 1944b. On the Thermal Utilisation of Plates in the Presence of Linear Anisotropic Scattering. Canadian National Research Council Report MT-63). The outcome of this transformation is that the infinite medium problem can be reduced to one in terms of an integral equation involving finite regions only. For example, in the case of an infinitely reflected slab, the infinite reflector is removed and its presence transferred to the kernel of a new integral equation. These kernels turn out to be the point or plane kernels of the corresponding infinite medium problem in the pure reflector material. In this paper the method is extended to slabs with arbitrary anisotropic scattering in slab and reflector; it is also applied to reflected spheres. In this case however, there is a limitation that the total mean free path in sphere and reflector be the same. Finally, we comment on the physical meaning of the standard anisotropic formalism and show that a more realistic eigenvalue exists which is directly related to the isotropic fission source. Some numerical results are given to illustrate our conclusions

  16. Solution of the linearly anisotropic neutron transport problem in a infinite cylinder combining the decomposition and HTSN methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Glenio A.; Bodmann, Bardo; Bogado, Sergio; Vilhena, Marco T.

    2008-01-01

    Analytical solutions for neutron transport in cylindrical geometry is available for isotropic problems, but to the best of our knowledge for anisotropic problems are not available, yet. In this work, an analytical solution for the neutron transport equation in an infinite cylinder assuming anisotropic scattering is reported. Here we specialize the solution, without loss of generality, for the linearly anisotropic problem using the combined decomposition and HTS N methods. The key feature of this method consists in the application of the decomposition method to the anisotropic problem by virtue of the fact that the inverse of the operator associated to isotropic problem is well know and determined by the HTS N approach. So far, following the idea of the decomposition method, we apply this operator to the integral term, assuming that the angular flux appearing in the integrand is considered to be equal to the HTS N solution interpolated by polynomial considering only even powers. This leads to the first approximation for an anisotropic solution. Proceeding further, we replace this solution for the angular flux in the integral and apply again the inverse operator for the isotropic problem in the integral term and obtain a new approximation for the angular flux. This iterative procedure yields a closed form solution for the angular flux. This methodology can be generalized, in a straightforward manner, for transport problems with any degree of anisotropy. For the sake of illustration, we report numerical simulations for linearly anisotropic transport problems. (author)

  17. Sensitivity of transatlantic dust transport to chemical aging and related atmospheric processes

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2017-03-20

    We present a sensitivity study on transatlantic dust transport, a process which has many implications for the atmosphere, the ocean and the climate. We investigate the impact of key processes that control the dust outflow, i.e., the emission flux, convection schemes and the chemical aging of mineral dust, by using the EMAC model following Abdelkader et al. (2015). To characterize the dust outflow over the Atlantic Ocean, we distinguish two geographic zones: (i) dust interactions within the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), or the dust–ITCZ interaction zone (DIZ), and (ii) the adjacent dust transport over the Atlantic Ocean (DTA) zone. In the latter zone, the dust loading shows a steep and linear gradient westward over the Atlantic Ocean since particle sedimentation is the dominant removal process, whereas in the DIZ zone aerosol–cloud interactions, wet deposition and scavenging processes determine the extent of the dust outflow. Generally, the EMAC simulated dust compares well with CALIPSO observations; however, our reference model configuration tends to overestimate the dust extinction at a lower elevation and underestimates it at a higher elevation. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Caribbean responds to the dust emission flux only when the emitted dust mass is significantly increased over the source region in Africa by a factor of 10. These findings point to the dominant role of dust removal (especially wet deposition) in transatlantic dust transport. Experiments with different convection schemes have indeed revealed that the transatlantic dust transport is more sensitive to the convection scheme than to the dust emission flux parameterization. To study the impact of dust chemical aging, we focus on a major dust outflow in July 2009. We use the calcium cation as a proxy for the overall chemical reactive dust fraction and consider the uptake of major inorganic acids (i.e., H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl) and their anions, i.e., sulfate (SO42−), bisulfate

  18. A Study on Efficiency Improvement of the Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Method for Global Transport Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Woo, Myeong Hyeon; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2017-01-01

    In this study hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic method is explained for radiation transport analysis in global system. FW-CADIS methodology construct the weight window parameter and it useful at most global MC calculation. However, Due to the assumption that a particle is scored at a tally, less particles are transported to the periphery of mesh tallies. For compensation this space-dependency, we modified the module in the ADVANTG code to add the proposed method. We solved the simple test problem for comparing with result from FW-CADIS methodology, it was confirmed that a uniform statistical error was secured as intended. In the future, it will be added more practical problems. It might be useful to perform radiation transport analysis using the Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic method in global transport problems.

  19. FOCUS, Neutron Transport System for Complex Geometry Reactor Core and Shielding Problems by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: FOCUS enables the calculation of any quantity related to neutron transport in reactor or shielding problems, but was especially designed to calculate differential quantities, such as point values at one or more of the space, energy, direction and time variables of quantities like neutron flux, detector response, reaction rate, etc. or averages of such quantities over a small volume of the phase space. Different types of problems can be treated: systems with a fixed neutron source which may be a mono-directional source located out- side the system, and Eigen function problems in which the neutron source distribution is given by the (unknown) fundamental mode Eigen function distribution. Using Monte Carlo methods complex 3- dimensional geometries and detailed cross section information can be treated. Cross section data are derived from ENDF/B, with anisotropic scattering and discrete or continuous inelastic scattering taken into account. Energy is treated as a continuous variable and time dependence may also be included. 2 - Method of solution: A transformed form of the adjoint Boltzmann equation in integral representation is solved for the space, energy, direction and time variables by Monte Carlo methods. Adjoint particles are defined with properties in some respects contrary to those of neutrons. Adjoint particle histories are constructed from which estimates are obtained of the desired quantity. Adjoint cross sections are defined with which the nuclide and reaction type are selected in a collision. The energy after a collision is selected from adjoint energy distributions calculated together with the adjoint cross sections in advance of the actual Monte Carlo calculation. For multiplying systems successive generations of adjoint particles are obtained which will die out for subcritical systems with a fixed neutron source and will be kept approximately stationary for Eigen function problems. Completely arbitrary problems can

  20. Sorption and Transport of Pharmaceutical chemicals in Organic- and Mineral-rich Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulava, V. M.; Schwindaman, J.; Murphey, V.; Kuzma, S.; Cory, W.

    2011-12-01

    OC, again indicating that these PhACs preferentially partition into the soil OM. Such a correlation was absent for cetirizine. Breakthrough curves of PhACs measured in homogeneous packed soil columns indicated that PhAC transport was affected by chemical nonequilibrium processes depending on the soil and PhAC chemistry. The shape of the breakthrough curves indicated that there were two distinct sorption sites - OM and clay minerals - which influence nonequilibrium transport of these compounds. The retardation factor estimated using the distribution coefficient, Kd, measured from the sorption experiments was very similar to the measured value. While the sorption and transport data do not provide mechanistic information regarding the nature of PhAC interaction with chemical reactive components within geological materials, they do provide important information regarding potential fate of such compounds in the environment. The results also show the role that soil OM and mineral surfaces play in sequestering or transporting these chemicals. These insights have implications to the quality of the water resources in our communities.

  1. Parallel processing of Monte Carlo code MCNP for particle transport problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Kenji; Kawasaki, Takuji

    1996-06-01

    It is possible to vectorize or parallelize Monte Carlo codes (MC code) for photon and neutron transport problem, making use of independency of the calculation for each particle. Applicability of existing MC code to parallel processing is mentioned. As for parallel computer, we have used both vector-parallel processor and scalar-parallel processor in performance evaluation. We have made (i) vector-parallel processing of MCNP code on Monte Carlo machine Monte-4 with four vector processors, (ii) parallel processing on Paragon XP/S with 256 processors. In this report we describe the methodology and results for parallel processing on two types of parallel or distributed memory computers. In addition, we mention the evaluation of parallel programming environments for parallel computers used in the present work as a part of the work developing STA (Seamless Thinking Aid) Basic Software. (author)

  2. Multi-choice stochastic transportation problem involving general form of distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quddoos, Abdul; Ull Hasan, Md Gulzar; Khalid, Mohammad Masood

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have presented studies of multi-choice stochastic transportation problem (MCSTP) where availability and demand parameters follow a particular probability distribution (such as exponential, weibull, cauchy or extreme value). In this paper an MCSTP is considered where availability and demand parameters follow general form of distribution and a generalized equivalent deterministic model (GMCSTP) of MCSTP is obtained. It is also shown that all previous models obtained by different authors can be deduced with the help of GMCSTP. MCSTP with pareto, power function or burr-XII distributions are also considered and equivalent deterministic models are obtained. To illustrate the proposed model two numerical examples are presented and solved using LINGO 13.0 software package.

  3. The EGS4 Code System: Solution of gamma-ray and electron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.; Namito, Yoshihito.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the EGS4 Code System -- a general purpose package for the Monte Carlo simulation of the transport of electrons and photons. During the last 10-15 years EGS has been widely used to design accelerators and detectors for high-energy physics. More recently the code has been found to be of tremendous use in medical radiation physics and dosimetry. The problem-solving capabilities of EGS4 will be demonstrated by means of a variety of practical examples. To facilitate this review, we will take advantage of a new add-on package, called SHOWGRAF, to display particle trajectories in complicated geometries. These are shown as 2-D laser pictures in the written paper and as photographic slides of a 3-D high-resolution color monitor during the oral presentation. 11 refs., 15 figs

  4. WAP Based An Alternative Solution for Traffic Transportation Problem in Sidoarjo Surrounding Area Using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arna Fariza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In line with the increasing interest on Lapindo mud disaster which causes several roadway covered by mud, there is a need to give an alternative solution for traffic transportation problem in surrounding area. The possible criteria for the solution of this road way are length, surface, traffic, and width of the road. Types of vehicle across the road also give a contribution to the criteria. By using Geography Information System (GIS, it is easy to all drivers to take decision which way has to be chosen based on the real condition. GIS is used to visualize the alternative road, which is possible to take. Analytic Hierarchy Processing (AHP is a decision method which is based on many criteria and alternatives. The input of AHP can be a preference or real value. Applied AHP to decide value of each alternative is based on application of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP assessment.

  5. Transportation Service Procurement Bid Construction Problem from Less Than Truckload Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents mixed integer programming for a transportation service procurement bid construction problem from a less than full truckload perspective, in which the bidders (carriers generate their best bid (package using a bundled price to maximize their utility and increase the chance of winning the business. The models are developed from both the carriers and shippers perspectives to establish a relationship between the quoted price and the likelihood of winning to assist the carriers in balancing the potential benefits and the possibility of winning the bid. An intelligent algorithm based on Particle Swarm Optimization is then designed to solve the proposed model and hypothetical data sets are used to test the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed model and algorithm.

  6. The EGS4 Code System: Solution of Gamma-ray and Electron Transport Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W. R.; Namito, Yoshihito

    1990-03-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the EGS4 Code System -- a general purpose package for the Monte Carlo simulation of the transport of electrons and photons. During the last 10-15 years EGS has been widely used to design accelerators and detectors for high-energy physics. More recently the code has been found to be of tremendous use in medical radiation physics and dosimetry. The problem-solving capabilities of EGS4 will be demonstrated by means of a variety of practical examples. To facilitate this review, we will take advantage of a new add-on package, called SHOWGRAF, to display particle trajectories in complicated geometries. These are shown as 2-D laser pictures in the written paper and as photographic slides of a 3-D high-resolution color monitor during the oral presentation. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  7. Applications of Transport/Reaction Codes to Problems in Cell Modeling; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MEANS, SHAWN A.; RINTOUL, MARK DANIEL; SHADID, JOHN N.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate two specific examples that show how our exiting capabilities in solving large systems of partial differential equations associated with transport/reaction systems can be easily applied to outstanding problems in computational biology. First, we examine a three-dimensional model for calcium wave propagation in a Xenopus Laevis frog egg and verify that a proposed model for the distribution of calcium release sites agrees with experimental results as a function of both space and time. Next, we create a model of the neuron's terminus based on experimental observations and show that the sodium-calcium exchanger is not the route of sodium's modulation of neurotransmitter release. These state-of-the-art simulations were performed on massively parallel platforms and required almost no modification of existing Sandia codes

  8. Stochastic Fractional Programming Approach to a Mean and Variance Model of a Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a stochastic programming model, which considers a ratio of two nonlinear functions and probabilistic constraints. In the former, only expected model has been proposed without caring variability in the model. On the other hand, in the variance model, the variability played a vital role without concerning its counterpart, namely, the expected model. Further, the expected model optimizes the ratio of two linear cost functions where as variance model optimize the ratio of two non-linear functions, that is, the stochastic nature in the denominator and numerator and considering expectation and variability as well leads to a non-linear fractional program. In this paper, a transportation model with stochastic fractional programming (SFP problem approach is proposed, which strikes the balance between previous models available in the literature.

  9. Modeling PSA Problems - II: A Cell-to-Cell Transport Theory Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeau, P.E.; Izquierdo, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the first paper of this series, we presented an extension of the classical theory of dynamic reliability in which the actual occurrence of an event causing a change in the system dynamics is possibly delayed. The concept of stimulus activation, which triggers the realization of an event after a distributed time delay, was introduced. This gives a new understanding of competing events in the sequence delineation process.In the context of the level-2 probabilistic safety analysis (PSA), the information on stimulus activation mainly consists of regions of the process variables space where the activation can occur with a given probability. The evolution equations of the extended theory of probabilistic dynamics are therefore particularized to a transport process between discrete cells defined in phase-space on this basis. Doing so, an integrated and coherent approach to level-2 PSA problems is propounded. This amounts to including the stimulus concept and the associated stochastic delays discussed in the first paper in the frame of a cell-to-cell transport process.In addition, this discrete model provides a theoretical basis for the definition of appropriate numerical schemes for integrated level-2 PSA applications

  10. Athabaca--special report No. 7, turntables, drums no transport problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamenter, C B

    1966-09-01

    By rail, truck, auto, barge, and air, a steady stream of materials and men move speedily into what was once a remote northern area. This area is the Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.'s venture into petroleum production located 250 miles NE. of Edmonton. Transportation was a major problem during the initiation of this venture. For the first year and a half, all of the incoming heavy equipment was moved to the site by barge. This means has been considerably reduced by a new road and a multi-million dollar bridge. At present the bridge seems to be the only bottle neck to the transporting of over-size equipment; however, this can still be handled by barge. Many people take the 70-min. trip by air from Edmonton to Fort McMurray which is only 20 miles from the location. Few areas many times the size of the Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.'s plant location and Fort McMurray site have better connections to main centers of population than those enjoyed here.

  11. Combined evaluation. Plutonium transports in France. Problems of safety and reliability of transport container FS47; Evaluation Conjointe. Transports de plutonium en France. Problemes de surete et de securite du container de transport FS47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marignac, Y.; Coeytaux, X. [Wise-Paris, 75 (France); Large, J.H. [Nuclear Engineer, Large and Associates, Londres (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    This report concerns the safety and the protection of plutonium dioxide transported from Cogema La Hague to the mixed oxide fuel plant of Marcoule and Cadarache. The French approach of the transport safety is based on the combining of two essential principles: the first one affirms that the performances of the FS47 container in regard of containment (norms TS-R-1 from IAEA for the accidental conditions) is conceived to resist in any situation even terrorism or sabotage. In fact, the IAEA norm follows a probabilistic study without a voluntary attack such a terrorist one. The second principle rests on the ability to prevent the treat of terrorism acts, because of a secrecy policy on the plutonium transport. It appeared that the Green peace association has succeeded several times to know exactly the hours, the trips of the plutonium transport and this simple thing raises more questions than it solves. (N.C.)

  12. Chemical aspects of fission product transport in the primary circuit of a light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, B.R.; Dickinson, S.; Nichols, A.L.; Ogden, J.S.; Potter, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The transport and fission products in the primary circuit of a light water reactor are of fundamental importance in assessing the consequences of severe accidents. Recent experimental studies have concentrated upon the behaviour of simulant fission product species such as caesium iodide, caesium hydroxide and tellurium, in terms of their vapour deposition characteristics onto metals representative of primary circuit materials. An induction furnace has been used to generate high-density/structural materials aerosols for subsequent analysis, and similar equipment has been incorporated into a glove-box to study lightly-irradiated UO/sub 2/ clad in Zircaloy. Analytical techniques are being developed to assist in the identification of fission product chemical species released from the fuel at temperatures from 1000 to 2500 0 C. Matrix isolation-infrared spectroscopy has been used to identify species in the vapour phase, and specific data using this technique are reported

  13. Chemical aspects of fission product transport in the primary circuit of a light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, B.R.; Dickinson, S.; Nichols, A.L.; Ogden, J.S.; Potter, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    The transport and deposition of fission products in the primary circuit of a light water reactor are of fundamental importance in assessing the consequences of severe accidents. Recent experimental studies have concentrated upon the behavior of simulant fission product species such as cesium iodide, cesium hydroxide and tellurium, in terms of their vapor deposition characteristics onto metals representative of primary circuit materials. An induction furnace has been used to generate high density/structural materials aerosols for subsequent analysis, and similar equipment has been incorporated into a glove-box to study lightly-irradiated UO 2 clad in Zircaloy. Analytical techniques are being developed to assist in the identification of fission product chemical species released from the fuel at temperatures from 1000 to 2500 0 C. Matrix isolation-infrared spectroscopy has been used to identify species in the vapor phase, and specific data using this technique are reported

  14. Observation of Zn vacancies in ZnO grown by chemical vapor transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, F.; Saarinen, K. [Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 1100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Grasza, K.; Mycielski, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-03-15

    We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the vacancy defects in ZnO crystals grown by both the conventional and contactless chemical vapor transport (CVT and CCVT). Our results show that Zn vacancies or Zn vacancy related defects are present in as-grown ZnO, irrespective of the growth method. Zn vacancies are observed in CVT-grown undoped ZnO and (Zn,Mn)O. The Zn vacancies present in undoped CCVT-ZnO are the dominant negatively charged point defect in the material. Doping the material with As introduces also Zn vacancy-related defect complexes with larger open volume. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. National, holistic, watershed-scale approach to understand the sources, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, P.D.; McCarthy, K.A.; Barbash, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the following series of papers that report on in-depth investigations that have been conducted at five agricultural study areas across the United States in order to gain insights into how environmental processes and agricultural practices interact to determine the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in the environment. These are the first study areas in an ongoing national study. The study areas were selected, based on the combination of cropping patterns and hydrologic setting, as representative of nationally important agricultural settings to form a basis for extrapolation to unstudied areas. The holistic, watershed-scale study design that involves multiple environmental compartments and that employs both field observations and simulation modeling is presented. This paper introduces the overall study design and presents an overview of the hydrology of the five study areas. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  16. System sight at a problem of efficiency of enterprises’s operaton of the Russian chemical complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svyatoslav Arkadyevich Nikitin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry plays an important role in the development of the domestic economy as one of the basic facilities of Russia's economy, laying the foundation for its long-term and stable development. As a major supplier of raw materials, intermediates, and products of various materials (plastics, chemical fibers, tires, paints and varnishes, dyes, fertilizers, feed additives, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment etc. in almost all sectors of industry, agriculture, health care, human services, commerce, science, culture and education, defense industry, chemical complex has direct impact on the efficiency of their operation and development in these new directions. Therefore, the condition and development of domestic chemistry determines the level of national competitiveness, economic growth and Russia's wealth. However, like most industries in Russia today, chemical industry is going through a difficult period. The presence of a set of common economic problems (identified by technological backwardness and high depreciation, low innovation activity of domestic enterprises of the chemical complex, a lack of effectiveness of the investment process, infrastructure and resource constraints etc., as well as internal management problems causes the rapid growth of interest of uncompetitive Russian chemical products on the world market. Under these conditions, not only a radical adjustment of the internal control systems and chemical plants, but also a significant organizational and economic change is required. Thus, unless we take measures to improve the domestic chemical industry in the coming years, almost all of it grow back and may get into the situation of struggle for survival.

  17. Towards the use of dynamic growing seasons in a chemical transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalli, A.; Simpson, D.

    2012-12-01

    Chemical transport models (CTMs), used for the prediction of, for example, nitrogen deposition or air quality changes, require estimates of the growing season of plants for a number of reasons. Typically, the growing seasons are defined in a very simplified way in CTMs, using fixed dates or simple functions. In order to explore the importance of more realistic growing season estimates, we have developed a new and simple method (the T5 method) for calculating the start of the growing season (SGS) of birch (which we use as a surrogate for deciduous trees), suitable for use in CTMs and other modelling systems. We developed the T5 method from observations, and here we compare with these and other methodologies, and show that with just two parameters T5 captures well the spatial variation in SGS across Europe. We use the EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model to illustrate the importance of improved SGS estimates for ozone and two metrics associated with ozone damage to vegetation. This study shows that although inclusion of more realistic growing seasons has only small effects on annual average concentrations of pollutants such as ozone, the metrics associated with vegetation risk from ozone are significantly affected. This work demonstrates a strong need to include more realistic treatments of growing seasons in CTMs. The method used here could also be suitable for other types of models that require information on vegetation cover, such as meteorological and regional climate models. In future work, the T5 and other methods will be further evaluated for other forest species, as well as for agricultural and grassland land covers, which are important for emissions and deposition of reactive nitrogen compounds.

  18. Benchmarking the invariant embedding method against analytical solutions in model transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malin, Wahlberg; Imre, Pazsit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the invariant embedding method in a series of model transport problems, for which it is also possible to obtain an analytical solution. Due to the non-linear character of the embedding equations, their solution can only be obtained numerically. However, this can be done via a robust and effective iteration scheme. In return, the domain of applicability is far wider than the model problems investigated in this paper. The use of the invariant embedding method is demonstrated in three different areas. The first is the calculation of the energy spectrum of reflected (sputtered) particles from a multiplying medium, where the multiplication arises from recoil production. Both constant and energy dependent cross sections with a power law dependence were used in the calculations. The second application concerns the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. This is a relatively novel and unexpected application, since the embedding equations do not resolve the depth variable. The third application concerns the demonstration that solutions in an infinite medium and a half-space are interrelated through embedding-like integral equations, by the solution of which the reflected flux from a half-space can be reconstructed from solutions in an infinite medium or vice versa. In all cases the invariant embedding method proved to be robust, fast and monotonically converging to the exact solutions. (authors)

  19. Nested sparse grid collocation method with delay and transformation for subsurface flow and transport problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qinzhuo; Zhang, Dongxiao; Tchelepi, Hamdi

    2017-06-01

    In numerical modeling of subsurface flow and transport problems, formation properties may not be deterministically characterized, which leads to uncertainty in simulation results. In this study, we propose a sparse grid collocation method, which adopts nested quadrature rules with delay and transformation to quantify the uncertainty of model solutions. We show that the nested Kronrod-Patterson-Hermite quadrature is more efficient than the unnested Gauss-Hermite quadrature. We compare the convergence rates of various quadrature rules including the domain truncation and domain mapping approaches. To further improve accuracy and efficiency, we present a delayed process in selecting quadrature nodes and a transformed process for approximating unsmooth or discontinuous solutions. The proposed method is tested by an analytical function and in one-dimensional single-phase and two-phase flow problems with different spatial variances and correlation lengths. An additional example is given to demonstrate its applicability to three-dimensional black-oil models. It is found from these examples that the proposed method provides a promising approach for obtaining satisfactory estimation of the solution statistics and is much more efficient than the Monte-Carlo simulations.

  20. Electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yangyang; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xdwang@semi.ac.cn; Ji, An; Yang, Fuhua [Engineering Research Center for Semiconductor Integrated Technology, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2014-03-15

    The electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching with different doping concentrations were studied. By increasing the doping concentration of the starting Si wafer, the resulting SiNWs were prone to have a rough surface, which had important effects on the contact and the electron transport. A metal-semiconductor-metal model and a thermionic field emission theory were used to analyse the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Asymmetric, rectifying and symmetric I-V curves were obtained. The diversity of the I-V curves originated from the different barrier heights at the two sides of the SiNWs. For heavily doped SiNWs, the critical voltage was one order of magnitude larger than that of the lightly doped, and the resistance obtained by differentiating the I-V curves at large bias was also higher. These were attributed to the lower electron tunnelling possibility and higher contact barrier, due to the rough surface and the reduced doping concentration during the etching process.

  1. Electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Qi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires (SiNWs fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching with different doping concentrations were studied. By increasing the doping concentration of the starting Si wafer, the resulting SiNWs were prone to have a rough surface, which had important effects on the contact and the electron transport. A metal-semiconductor-metal model and a thermionic field emission theory were used to analyse the current-voltage (I-V characteristics. Asymmetric, rectifying and symmetric I-V curves were obtained. The diversity of the I-V curves originated from the different barrier heights at the two sides of the SiNWs. For heavily doped SiNWs, the critical voltage was one order of magnitude larger than that of the lightly doped, and the resistance obtained by differentiating the I-V curves at large bias was also higher. These were attributed to the lower electron tunnelling possibility and higher contact barrier, due to the rough surface and the reduced doping concentration during the etching process.

  2. Electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yangyang; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Xiaodong; Ji, An; Yang, Fuhua

    2014-03-01

    The electron transport characteristics of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching with different doping concentrations were studied. By increasing the doping concentration of the starting Si wafer, the resulting SiNWs were prone to have a rough surface, which had important effects on the contact and the electron transport. A metal-semiconductor-metal model and a thermionic field emission theory were used to analyse the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Asymmetric, rectifying and symmetric I-V curves were obtained. The diversity of the I-V curves originated from the different barrier heights at the two sides of the SiNWs. For heavily doped SiNWs, the critical voltage was one order of magnitude larger than that of the lightly doped, and the resistance obtained by differentiating the I-V curves at large bias was also higher. These were attributed to the lower electron tunnelling possibility and higher contact barrier, due to the rough surface and the reduced doping concentration during the etching process.

  3. Electrical transport properties of graphene nanowalls grown at low temperature using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rong; Ahktar, Meysam; Alruqi, Adel; Dharmasena, Ruchira; Jasinski, Jacek B.; Thantirige, Rukshan M.; Sumanasekera, Gamini U.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we report the electrical transport properties of uniform and vertically oriented graphene (graphene nanowalls) directly synthesized on multiple substrates including glass, Si/SiO2 wafers, and copper foils using radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with methane (CH4) as the precursor at relatively low temperatures. The temperature for optimum growth was established with the aid of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. This approach offers means for low-cost graphene nanowalls growth on an arbitrary substrate with the added advantage of transfer-free device fabrication. The temperature dependence of the electrical transport properties (resistivity and thermopower) were studied in the temperature range, 30-300 K and analyzed with a combination of 2D-variable range hopping (VRH) and thermally activated (TA) conduction mechanisms. An anomalous temperature dependence of the thermopower was observed for all the samples and explained with a combination of a diffusion term having a linear temperature dependence plus a term with an inverse temperature dependence.

  4. Chemical and toxicological characterization of exhaust emissions from alternative fuels for urban public transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrio Baldassarri, L.; Conti, R.; Crebelli, B.; Iamicelli, A.L.; De Berardis, M.; Gambino, A.L.; Iannaccone, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS, the National Institute of Health of Italy) and the Istituto dei Motori (IM) of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR, National Research Council) have carried out this study, jointly funded by the two institutes together with the Ministry of Environment. The chemical and toxicological characteristics of emissions from two urban bus engines were studied: a diesel engine fueled with both diesel oil and bio diesel blend and an equivalent spark-ignition one fuelled with compressed natural gas, operating in steady-state conditions. Regulated and unregulated pollutants, such as carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated derivatives, carbonyl compounds and light aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified. Mutagenicity of the emissions was evaluated by the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay. The effect of the fuels under study on the size distribution of particulate matter was also evaluated. The impact of diesel-powered transport on urban air quality, and the potential benefits for human health deriving from the use of natural gas for public transport, are discussed [it

  5. Analytical calculations of neutron slowing down and transport in the constant-cross-section problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    Some aspects of the problem of neutron slowing down and transport in an infinite medium consisting of a single nuclide that scatters elastically and isotropically and has energy-independent cross sections were investigated. The method of singular eigenfunctions was applied to the Boltzmann equation governing the Laplace transform (with respect to the lethargy variable) of the neutron flux. A new sufficient condition for the convergence of the coefficients of the expansion of the scattering kernel in Legendre polynomials was rigorously derived for this energy-dependent problem. Formulas were obtained for the lethargy-dependent spatial moments of the scalar flux that are valid for medium to large lethargies. In deriving these formulas, use was made of the well-known connection between the spatial moments of the Laplace-transformed scalar flux and the moments of the flux in the ''eigenvalue space.'' The calculations were greatly aided by the construction of a closed general expression for these ''eigenvalue space'' moments. Extensive use was also made of the methods of combinatorial analysis and of computer evaluation, via FORMAC, of complicated sequences of manipulations. For the case of no absorption it was possible to obtain for materials of any atomic weight explicit corrections to the age-theory formulas for the spatial moments M/sub 2n/(u) of the scalar flux that are valid through terms of the order of u -5 . The evaluation of the coefficients of the powers of n, as explicit functions of the nuclear mass, is one of the end products of this investigation. In addition, an exact expression for the second spatial moment, M 2 (u), valid for arbitrary (constant) absorption, was derived. It is now possible to calculate analytically and rigorously the ''age'' for the constant-cross-section problem for arbitrary (constant) absorption and nuclear mass. 5 figures, 1 table

  6. Analytical calculations of neutron slowing down and transport in the constant-cross-section problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D.G.

    1978-04-01

    Aspects of the problem of neutron slowing down and transport in an infinite medium consisting of a single nuclide that scatters elastically and isotropically and has energy-independent cross sections were investigated. The method of singular eigenfunctions was applied to the Boltzmann Equation governing the Laplace transform (with respect to the lethargy variable) of the neutron flux. A new sufficient condition for the convergence of the coefficients of the expansion of the scattering kernel in Legendre polynomials was rigorously derived for this energy-dependent problem. Formulas were obtained for the lethargy-dependent spatial moments of the scalar flux that are valid for medium to large lethargies. Use was made of the well-known connection between the spatial moments of the Laplace-transformed scalar flux and the moments of the flux in the ''eigenvalue space.'' The calculations were aided by the construction of a closed general expression for these ''eigenvalue space'' moments. Extensive use was also made of the methods of combinatorial analysis and of computer evaluation of complicated sequences of manipulations. For the case of no absorption it was possible to obtain for materials of any atomic weight explicit corrections to the age-theory formulas for the spatial moments M/sub 2n/(u) of the scalar flux that are valid through terms of the order of u -5 . The evaluation of the coefficients of the powers of n, as explicit functions of the nuclear mass, represent one of the end products of this investigation. In addition, an exact expression for the second spatial moment, M 2 (u), valid for arbitrary (constant) absorption, was derived. It is now possible to calculate analytically and rigorously the ''age'' for the constant-cross-section problem for arbitrary (constant) absorption and nuclear mass. 5 figures, 1 table

  7. Analytical calculations of neutron slowing down and transport in the constant-cross-section problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacuci, D.G.

    1978-04-01

    Aspects of the problem of neutron slowing down and transport in an infinite medium consisting of a single nuclide that scatters elastically and isotropically and has energy-independent cross sections were investigated. The method of singular eigenfunctions was applied to the Boltzmann Equation governing the Laplace transform (with respect to the lethargy variable) of the neutron flux. A new sufficient condition for the convergence of the coefficients of the expansion of the scattering kernel in Legendre polynomials was rigorously derived for this energy-dependent problem. Formulas were obtained for the lethargy-dependent spatial moments of the scalar flux that are valid for medium to large lethargies. Use was made of the well-known connection between the spatial moments of the Laplace-transformed scalar flux and the moments of the flux in the ''eigenvalue space.'' The calculations were aided by the construction of a closed general expression for these ''eigenvalue space'' moments. Extensive use was also made of the methods of combinatorial analysis and of computer evaluation of complicated sequences of manipulations. For the case of no absorption it was possible to obtain for materials of any atomic weight explicit corrections to the age-theory formulas for the spatial moments M/sub 2n/(u) of the scalar flux that are valid through terms of the order of u/sup -5/. The evaluation of the coefficients of the powers of n, as explicit functions of the nuclear mass, represent one of the end products of this investigation. In addition, an exact expression for the second spatial moment, M/sub 2/(u), valid for arbitrary (constant) absorption, was derived. It is now possible to calculate analytically and rigorously the ''age'' for the constant-cross-section problem for arbitrary (constant) absorption and nuclear mass. 5 figures, 1 table.

  8. Problems of increased transport load as a result of implementation of projects of high-rise constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provotorov, Ivan; Gasilov, Valentin; Anisimova, Nadezhda

    2018-03-01

    The structure of problems of high-rise construction us suggested, which includes the impact on environment, design solutions, transportation problems, financial costs for construction and operation, and others. Positive and negative aspects of high-rise construction are considered. One of the basic problems of high-rise construction is the problem of increased transport load. Construction of the subway on the basis of the concession mechanism, with the use of unmanned control of rolling stock is proposed as the most expedient solution. An evaluation of the effectiveness of this project is presented, it shows quite high performance indicators for a private investor. Main problems that the project implementation may face in conditions of lack of scientific and methodological support are outlined.

  9. Impacts of Storm Surge Mitigation Strategies on Aboveground Storage Tank Chemical Spill Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, C.; Bass, B. J.; Bernier, C.; Samii, A.; Dawson, C.; Bedient, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC), located in the hurricane-prone Houston-Galveston region of the upper Texas Coast, is one of the busiest waterways in the United States and is home to one of the largest petrochemical complexes in the world. Due to the proximity of the HSC to Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, chemical spills resulting from storm surge damage to aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) pose serious threats to the environment, residential communities, and national/international markets whose activities in the HSC generate billions of dollars annually. In an effort to develop a comprehensive storm surge mitigation strategy for Galveston Bay and its constituents, Rice University's Severe Storm Prediction, Education, and Evacuation from Disasters Center proposed two structural storm surge mitigation concepts, the Mid Bay Structure (MBS) and the Lower Bay Structure (LBS) as components of the Houston-Galveston Area Protection System (H-GAPS) project. The MBS consists of levees along the HSC and a navigational gate across the channel, and the LBS consists of a navigation gate and environmental gates across Bolivar Road. The impacts of these two barrier systems on the fate of AST chemical spills in the HSC have previously been unknown. This study applies the coupled 2D SWAN+ADCIRC model to simulate hurricane storm surge circulation within the Gulf of Mexico and Galveston Bay due to a synthetic storm which results in approximately 250-year surge levels in Galveston Bay. The SWAN+ADCIRC model is run using high-resolution computational meshes that incorporate the MBS and LBS scenarios, separately. The resulting wind and water velocities are then fed into a Lagrangian particle transport model to simulate the spill trajectories of the ASTs most likely to fail during the 250-year proxy storm. Results from this study illustrate how each storm surge mitigation strategy impacts the transport of chemical spills (modeled as Lagrangian particles) during storm surge as

  10. Effect of chemical degradation on fluxes of reactive compounds – a study with a stochastic Lagrangian transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rinne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the analyses of VOC fluxes measured above plant canopies, one usually assumes the flux above canopy to equal the exchange at the surface. Thus one assumes the chemical degradation to be much slower than the turbulent transport. We used a stochastic Lagrangian transport model in which the chemical degradation was described as first order decay in order to study the effect of the chemical degradation on above canopy fluxes of chemically reactive species. With the model we explored the sensitivity of the ratio of the above canopy flux to the surface emission on several parameters such as chemical lifetime of the compound, friction velocity, stability, and canopy density. Our results show that friction velocity and chemical lifetime affected the loss during transport the most. The canopy density had a significant effect if the chemically reactive compound was emitted from the forest floor. We used the results of the simulations together with oxidant data measured during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 campaign at a Scots pine site to estimate the effect of the chemistry on fluxes of three typical biogenic VOCs, isoprene, α-pinene, and β-caryophyllene. Of these, the chemical degradation had a major effect on the fluxes of the most reactive species β-caryophyllene, while the fluxes of α-pinene were affected during nighttime. For these two compounds representing the mono- and sesquiterpenes groups, the effect of chemical degradation had also a significant diurnal cycle with the highest chemical loss at night. The different day and night time loss terms need to be accounted for, when measured fluxes of reactive compounds are used to reveal relations between primary emission and environmental parameters.

  11. Status of the solar and infrared radiation submodels in the LLNL 1-D and 2-D chemical-transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, K.E.; Taylor, K.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    The authors have implemented a series of state of the art radiation transport submodels in previously developed one dimensional and two dimensional chemical transport models of the troposphere and stratosphere. These submodels provide the capability of calculating accurate solar and infrared heating rates. They are a firm basis for further radiation submodel development as well as for studying interactions between radiation and model dynamics under varying conditions of clear sky, clouds, and aerosols. 37 refs., 3 figs

  12. Properties of zinc selenide grown by chemical vapor transport and its application to room-temperature radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunett, B.A.; Toney, J.E.; Schlesinger, T.E.; Yoon, H.; Goorsky, M.S.; Rudolph, P.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have characterized ZnSe material grown by chemical vapor transport in iodine using triple-axis X-ray diffraction (TAD), photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS), photoluminescence (PL), current-voltage measurements and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The material was found to have inadequate carrier transport for nuclear spectrometer use, but there was a discernible difference in performance between crystals which could be correlated with crystallinity as determined by the TAD rocking curves

  13. Simulation of uranium transport with variable temperature and oxidation potential: The computer program THCC [Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    A simulator of reactive chemical transport has been constructed with the capabilities of treating variable temperatures and variable oxidation potentials within a single simulation. Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions are simulated at temperature-dependent equilibrium, and changes of oxidation states of multivalent elements can be simulated during transport. Chemical mass action relations for formation of complexes in the fluid phase are included explicitly within the partial differential equations of transport, and a special algorithm greatly simplifies treatment of reversible precipitation of solid phases. This approach allows direct solution of the complete set of governing equations for concentrations of all aqueous species and solids affected simultaneously by chemical and physical processes. Results of example simulations of transport, along a temperature gradient, of uranium solution species under conditions of varying pH and oxidation potential and with reversible precipitation of uraninite and coffinite are presented. The examples illustrate how inclusion of variable temperature and oxidation potential in numerical simulators can enhance understanding of the chemical mechanisms affecting migration of multivalent waste elements

  14. Treatment of paraffin problems in petroleum production with chemicals; Tratamento de problemas parafinicos com agentes quimicos na producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, David; Yin, Ralph; Weispfennig, Klaus; Newberry, Mike [Baker Petrolite, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Paraffin problems can greatly reduce production of certain crude oils, if correct methods to control the problems are not used. These problems are primarily related to flow line deposition and reduction in crude oil flow properties caused by wax network growth. Deep water production and production of high-wax content crude oils can be especially problematic. Much of the petroleum production in Brazil falls in these categories: in the Campos Basin and in Bahia. Paraffin problems can be controlled with diverse methods. These methods include use of: pigging, insulation, heating, and chemicals. Sometimes, the use of chemicals can be very practical, alone or in combination with other methods. This paper discusses the use of chemicals for the treatment of paraffin problems. Three types of treatments are discussed: prevention of deposition in flow lines with paraffin inhibitors; improvement in flow properties of crude oils with pour point depressants, and removal of paraffin deposits with dispersants. The discussion includes the physical effects of the treatment chemicals and field examples. (author)

  15. Scientific and technical conference. Problems and horizons of development of chemical and radiochemical control in nuclear energetics. Collection of summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    During scientific and technical conference on problems of development of chemical and radiochemical control in nuclear energetics following themes were considered: the problems of methodological and instrumental assurance of chemical and radiochemical control at working nuclear power plants and nuclear energetic units; modern conceptions of automation systems construction of chemical and radiochemical control on the basis of intellectual measuring channels; the ways of decision of generally system problems of organization and management of chemical and radiochemical control using computed technologies; the problems of certification of chemical and radiochemical methods of measuring in nuclear energetics [ru

  16. Biochemistry Applied to Everyday Life: Chemical Equilibrium and the Transporting Function of the Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Echeverría Palacio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The hemoglobin is a blood protein which cantransport oxygen, a gas insoluble in water, todifferent organs where it is required for the properfunction; this protein also transports themetabolic products, CO2 and H+ for theirexcretion. This process depends on pH, the BPGconcentration, pO2 and pCO2. The cooperativebinding between hemoglobin and those compoundsand the conformational changes necessaryfor oxygen and CO2 uptake and release inthe specific place where they are required. Abruptchanges of atmospheric pressure associatedwith height and the exposure to other gases suchas CO present in vehicles and closed roomscould compromise the normal functioning of theorganism because their presence affects thetransport function of the hemoglobin. In thispaper, we will explain everyday phenomenarelated to the transport of gases through hemoglobinas a demonstration that a knowledge ofbiochemistry begins to be useful from now on to understand everyday situations and give usan expectation of their value to comprehendmany health problems that would be faced inthe future

  17. Verification of a dust transport model against theoretical solutions in multidimensional advection diffusion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z., E-mail: zhanjie.xu@kit.ed [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Travis, J.R. [Ingenieurbuero DuBois-Pitzer-Travis, 63071 Offenbach (Germany); Breitung, W.; Jordan, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Potentially explosive dust aerosol mobilization in the vacuum vessel is an important safety issue of the ITER facility, especially in scenarios of loss of vacuum accidents. Therefore dust mobilization modeling is ongoing in Research Center Karlsuhe. At first the aerosol particle model in the GASFLOW computer code is introduced briefly. To verify the particle model, a series of particle diffusion problems are simulated in one-, two- and three-dimensions. In each problem a particle source is initially exposed to an advective gas flow. Then a dust cloud is formed in the down stream. To obtain the theoretical solution about the particle concentration in the dust cloud, the governing diffusion partial differential equations with an additional advection term are solved by using Green's function method. Different spatial and temporal characters about the particle sources are also considered, e.g., instantaneous or continuous sources, line, or volume sources and so forth. The GASFLOW simulation results about the particle concentrations and the corresponding Green's function solutions are compared case by case. Very good agreements are found between the theoretical solutions and the GASGLOW simulations, when the drag force between the micron-sized particles and the conveying gas flow meets the Stokes' law about resistance. This situation is corresponding to a very small Reynolds number based on the particle diameter, with a negligible inertia effect of the particles. This verification work shows that the particle model of the GASFLOW code can reproduce numerically particle transport and diffusion in a good way.

  18. Comparisons of physical and chemical sputtering in high density divertor plasmas with the Monte Carlo Impurity (MCI) transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Loh, Y.S.; West, W.P.; Finkenthal, D.F.

    1997-11-01

    The MCI transport model was used to compare chemical and physical sputtering for a DIII-D divertor plasma near detachment. With physical sputtering alone the integrated carbon influx was 8.4 x 10 19 neutral/s while physical plus chemical sputtering produced an integrated carbon influx of 1.7 x 10 21 neutrals/s. The average carbon concentration in the computational volume increased from 0.012% with only physical sputtering to 0.182% with both chemical and physical sputtering. This increase in the carbon inventory produced more radiated power which is in better agreement with experimental measurements

  19. Possible Solutions of Various Transport Problems; O nakhozhdenii reshenij nekotorykh zadach perenosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, V. I. [Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii Im. I.V. Kurchatova Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1968-01-15

    Let x = (x{sub 1}....,x{sub q}), R{sub q}(x) be the q-dimensional space (q{>=}2), s be the unit vector, and #Greek Capital Letter Omega With Tonos# the surface of the unit sphere. The problem of solving transport equations with a degenerate scattering indicatrix is a multidimensional problem in R{sub q}x#Greek Capital Letter Omega With Tonos#; the nature of these problems calls for rapidly converging iterative methods which do not require all the information on the preceding step. The paper proposes a KP method: the idea consists in solving in R{sub q} simplified problems of error determination using successive iterative steps of decreasing difficulty. Two operations are performed in the KP: the K-operation is a simple iteration in R{sub q}x{Omega} and operation P = {l_brace}P{sub 1}(n{sub 1}),...P{sub 0}(n{sub 0}){r_brace} is for the error with P{sub k} (n{sub k}) representing the solution in R{sub q} of the ultimate problem for a differential equation of order 2n{sub k}. P-operations are found and the convergence of the following methods is studied: KP{sub 1}(n), P{sub 2}(0), K{sup 2}P{sub 1}(n), cyclic KP{sub 1}(1) and KP{sub 1}(0) etc. For 2{pi}T periodic problems the convergence is estimated, P(KP) (KP price) and cheap algorithms are found, and the non-improvability is shown. Numerical calculations indicated that the KP method is very efficient. The Case results are generalized for the q-dimensional case: in Rqx{Omega} a system of solutions is found for a homogeneous single-velocity transport equation with constant coefficients and an isotropic scattering indicatrix {Phi}{sub {omega}}(S)exp({+-}(x, {omega})/v) These are generalized functions with {sub v}#Greek Lunate Epsilon Symbol#{l_brace}(-1, 1], {+-} v{sub 0}{r_brace} and {omega} #Greek Lunate Epsilon Symbol#. Theorems are proved for the completeness of {l_brace}{Phi}{sub v{omega}}{r_brace} in L{sub 2}({Omega}), for the partial orthogonality of and the possibility of representing {psi}#Greek Lunate Epsilon

  20. Identification and analysis of student conceptions used to solve chemical equilibrium problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voska, Kirk William

    This study identified and quantified chemistry conceptions students use when solving chemical equilibrium problems requiring the application of Le Chatelier's principle, and explored the feasibility of designing a paper and pencil test for this purpose. It also demonstrated the utility of conditional probabilities to assess test quality. A 10-item pencil-and-paper, two-tier diagnostic instrument, the Test to Identify Student Conceptualizations (TISC) was developed and administered to 95 second-semester university general chemistry students after they received regular course instruction concerning equilibrium in homogeneous aqueous, heterogeneous aqueous, and homogeneous gaseous systems. The content validity of TISC was established through a review of TISC by a panel of experts; construct validity was established through semi-structured interviews and conditional probabilities. Nine students were then selected from a stratified random sample for interviews to validate TISC. The probability that TISC correctly identified an answer given by a student in an interview was p = .64, while the probability that TISC correctly identified a reason given by a student in an interview was p=.49. Each TISC item contained two parts. In the first part the student selected the correct answer to a problem from a set of four choices. In the second part students wrote reasons for their answer to the first part. TISC questions were designed to identify students' conceptions concerning the application of Le Chatelier's principle, the constancy of the equilibrium constant, K, and the effect of a catalyst. Eleven prevalent incorrect conceptions were identified. This study found students consistently selected correct answers more frequently (53% of the time) than they provided correct reasons (33% of the time). The association between student answers and respective reasons on each TISC item was quantified using conditional probabilities calculated from logistic regression coefficients. The

  1. Exploring Effects of High School Students' Mathematical Processing Skills and Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Concepts on Algorithmic Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Nejla; Yalcin Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of students' conceptual understanding of chemical concepts and mathematical processing skills on algorithmic problem-solving skills. The sample (N = 554) included grades 9, 10, and 11 students in Turkey. Data were collected using the instrument "MPC Test" and with interviews. The MPC…

  2. On the tungsten single crystal coatings achieved by chemical vapor transportation deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, J.Q.; Shen, Y.B.; Yao, S.Y.; Zhang, P.J.; Zhou, Q.; Guo, Y.Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Tan, C.W., E-mail: tanchengwen@bit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); China Astronaut Research and Training Center, Beijing 100094 (China); Yu, X.D. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); China Astronaut Research and Training Center, Beijing 100094 (China); Nie, Z.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma, H.L. [China Astronaut Research and Training Center, Beijing 100094 (China); Cai, H.N. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-12-15

    The tungsten single crystal has many excellent properties, namely a high melting point, high anti-creeping strength. Chemical vapor transportation deposition (CVTD) is a possible approach to achieve large-sized W single crystals for high-temperature application such as the cathode of a thermionic energy converter. In this work, CVTD W coatings were deposited on the monocrystalline molybdenum substrate (a tube with < 111 > axial crystalline orientation) using WCl{sub 6} as a transport medium. The microstructures of the coatings were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The as-deposited coatings are hexagonal prisms—rough surfaces perpendicular to < 110 > with alternating hill-like bulges and pits at the side edges of the prisms, and flat surfaces perpendicular to < 112 > with arc-shaped terraces at the side faces. This can be explained by two-dimensional nucleation -mediated lateral growth model. Some parts of the coatings contain hillocks of an exotic morphology (noted as “abnormal growth”). The authors hypothesize that the abnormal growth is likely caused by the defects of the Mo substrate, which facilitate W nucleation sites, cause orientation difference, and may even form boundaries in the coatings. A dislocation density of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} (counts/cm{sup 2}) was revealed by an etch-pit method and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. As the depositing temperature rises, the dislocation density decreases, and no sub-boundaries are found on samples deposited over 1300 °C, as a result of atom diffusion and dislocation climbing. - Highlights: •The varied growth rate causes the different morphologies of different planes. •The W coating is a single crystal when only single hillocks appear. •The (110) plane tends to have the lowest dislocation density. •The dislocation density tends to decrease as the temperature increases.

  3. Mixing and transport during pharmaceutical twin-screw wet granulation: experimental analysis via chemical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Toiviainen, Maunu; Panouillot, Pierre-Emmanuel; Juuti, Mikko; Vanhoorne, Valérie; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas; Nopens, Ingmar

    2014-07-01

    Twin-screw granulation is a promising continuous alternative for traditional batch high shear wet granulation (HSWG). The extent of HSWG in a twin screw granulator (TSG) is greatly governed by the residence time of the granulation materials in the TSG and degree of mixing. In order to determine the residence time distribution (RTD) and mixing in TSG, mostly visual observation and particle tracking methods are used, which are either inaccurate and difficult for short RTD, or provide an RTD only for a finite number of preferential tracer paths. In this study, near infrared chemical imaging, which is more accurate and provides a complete RTD, was used. The impact of changes in material throughput (10-17 kg/h), screw speed (500-900 rpm), number of kneading discs (2-12) and stagger angle (30-90°) on the RTD and axial mixing of the material was characterised. The experimental RTD curves were used to calculate the mean residence time, mean centred variance and the Péclet number to determine the axial mixing and predominance of convective over dispersive transport. The results showed that screw speed is the most influential parameter in terms of RTD and axial mixing in the TSG and established a significant interaction between screw design parameters (number and stagger angle of kneading discs) and the process parameters (material throughput and number of kneading discs). The results of the study will allow the development and validation of a transport model capable of predicting the RTD and macro-mixing in the TSG. These can later be coupled with a population balance model in order to predict granulation yields in a TSG more accurately. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On the tungsten single crystal coatings achieved by chemical vapor transportation deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.Q.; Shen, Y.B.; Yao, S.Y.; Zhang, P.J.; Zhou, Q.; Guo, Y.Z.; Tan, C.W.; Yu, X.D.; Nie, Z.H.; Ma, H.L.; Cai, H.N.

    2016-01-01

    The tungsten single crystal has many excellent properties, namely a high melting point, high anti-creeping strength. Chemical vapor transportation deposition (CVTD) is a possible approach to achieve large-sized W single crystals for high-temperature application such as the cathode of a thermionic energy converter. In this work, CVTD W coatings were deposited on the monocrystalline molybdenum substrate (a tube with < 111 > axial crystalline orientation) using WCl 6 as a transport medium. The microstructures of the coatings were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The as-deposited coatings are hexagonal prisms—rough surfaces perpendicular to < 110 > with alternating hill-like bulges and pits at the side edges of the prisms, and flat surfaces perpendicular to < 112 > with arc-shaped terraces at the side faces. This can be explained by two-dimensional nucleation -mediated lateral growth model. Some parts of the coatings contain hillocks of an exotic morphology (noted as “abnormal growth”). The authors hypothesize that the abnormal growth is likely caused by the defects of the Mo substrate, which facilitate W nucleation sites, cause orientation difference, and may even form boundaries in the coatings. A dislocation density of 10 6 to 10 7 (counts/cm 2 ) was revealed by an etch-pit method and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. As the depositing temperature rises, the dislocation density decreases, and no sub-boundaries are found on samples deposited over 1300 °C, as a result of atom diffusion and dislocation climbing. - Highlights: •The varied growth rate causes the different morphologies of different planes. •The W coating is a single crystal when only single hillocks appear. •The (110) plane tends to have the lowest dislocation density. •The dislocation density tends to decrease as the temperature increases.

  5. Mathematical problems in the one-velocity theory of particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, V.S.

    1963-01-01

    This paper describes kinetic (transport) equations which describe the process of neutron transport in a substance. These equations are linear, integro-differential equations in partial derivatives of first order.

  6. The Cargo Fare Class Mix problem for an intermodal corridor : revenue management in synchromodal container transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riessen, B.; Negenborn, R.R.; Dekker, Rommert

    2017-01-01

    The intermodal hinterland transportation of maritime containers is under pressure from port authorities and shippers to achieve a more integrated, efficient network operation. Current optimisation methods in literature yield limited results in practice, though, as the transportation product

  7. The Cargo Fare Class Mix problem for an intermodal corridor: revenue management in synchromodal container transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Riessen (Bart); R.R. Negenborn (Rudy); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe intermodal hinterland transportation of maritime containers is under pressure from port authorities and shippers to achieve a more integrated, efficient network operation. Current optimisation methods in literature yield limited results in practice, though, as the transportation

  8. Building a sustainable GIS framework for supporting a tribal transportation problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Due to the recent oil boom, the Fort Berthold Reservation has experienced a dramatic increase in highway and local traffic. To support energy transportation and provide safe roads, the reservation needs cost-efficient and effective transportation pla...

  9. Mathematical problems in the one-velocity theory of particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimirov, V S

    1963-01-15

    This paper describes kinetic (transport) equations which describe the process of neutron transport in a substance. These equations are linear, integro-differential equations in partial derivatives of first order.

  10. Measured performances on vectorization and multitasking with a Monte Carlo code for neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarized two improvements of a real production code by using vectorization and multitasking techniques. After a short description of Monte Carlo algorithms employed in neutron transport problems, the authors briefly describe the work done in order to get a vector code. Vectorization principles are presented and measured performances on the CRAY 1S, CYBER 205 and CRAY X-MP compared in terms of vector lengths. The second part of this work is an adaptation to multitasking on the CRAY X-MP using exclusively standard multitasking tools available with FORTRAN under the COS 1.13 system. Two examples are presented. The goal of the first one is to measure the overhead inherent to multitasking when tasks become too small and to define a granularity threshold, that is to say a minimum size for a task. With the second example they propose a method that is very X-MP oriented in order to get the best speedup factor on such a computer. In conclusion they prove that Monte Carlo algorithms are very well suited to future vector and parallel computers

  11. Measured performances on vectorization and multitasking with a Monte Carlo code for neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarized two improvements of a real production code by using vectorization and multitasking techniques. After a short description of Monte Carlo algorithms employed in our neutron transport problems, we briefly describe the work we have done in order to get a vector code. Vectorization principles will be presented and measured performances on the CRAY 1S, CYBER 205 and CRAY X-MP compared in terms of vector lengths. The second part of this work is an adaptation to multitasking on the CRAY X-MP using exclusively standard multitasking tools available with FORTRAN under the COS 1.13 system. Two examples will be presented. The goal of the first one is to measure the overhead inherent to multitasking when tasks become too small and to define a granularity threshold, that is to say a minimum size for a task. With the second example we propose a method that is very X-MP oriented in order to get the best speedup factor on such a computer. In conclusion we prove that Monte Carlo algorithms are very well suited to future vector and parallel computers. (orig.)

  12. A Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in Chemical Engineering University Education in Europe and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Peter; Aim, Karel; Dohrn, Ralf; Elliott, J. Richard; Jackson, George; Jaubert, Jean-Noel; Macedo, Eugenia A.; Pokki, Juha-Pekka; Reczey, Kati; Victorov, Alexey; Zilnik, Ljudmila Fele; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2010-01-01

    A survey on the teaching of thermodynamics and transport phenomena in chemical engineering curricula in European and US Universities was performed and results are presented here. Overall, 136 universities and colleges responded to the survey, out of which 81 from Europe and 55 from the USA. In most of the institutions responding at least two…

  13. Modulation of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes by ToxCast Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

  14. Do goethite surfaces really control the transport and retention of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in chemically heterogeneous porous media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transport and retention behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was studied in mixtures of negatively charged quartz sand (QS) and positively charged goethite-coated sand (GQS) to assess the role of chemical heterogeneity. The linear equilibrium sorption model provided a good description o...

  15. Application of the invariant embedding method to analytically solvable transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, Malin

    2005-05-01

    The applicability and performance of the invariant embedding method for calculating various transport quantities is investigated in this thesis. The invariant embedding method is a technique to calculate the reflected or transmitted fluxes in homogeneous half-spaces and slabs, without the need for solving for the flux inside the medium. In return, the embedding equations become non-linear, and in practical cases they need to be solved by numerical methods. There are, however, fast and effective iterative methods available for this purpose. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the performance of these iterative methods in model problems, in which also an exact analytical solution can be obtained. Some of these analytical solutions are also new, hence their derivation constitutes a part of the thesis work. The cases investigated in the thesis all concern the calculation of reflected fluxes from half-spaces. The first problem treated was the calculation of the energy spectrum of reflected (sputtered) particles from a multiplying medium, where the multiplication arises from recoil production (i.e. like binary fission), when bombarded by o flux of monoenergetic particles of the same type. Both constant cross sections and energy dependent cross sections with a power law dependence were used in the calculations. The second class of problems concerned the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. It is an interesting new observation that the distribution of the path length travelled in the medium before reflection can be calculated with invariant embedding methods, which actually do not solve the flux distribution in the medium. We have tested the accuracy and the convergence properties of the embedding method also for this case. Finally, very recently a theory of connecting the infinite and half-space medium solutions by embedding-like integral equations was developed and reported in the literature

  16. Application of the invariant embedding method to analytically solvable transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlberg, Malin

    2005-05-01

    The applicability and performance of the invariant embedding method for calculating various transport quantities is investigated in this thesis. The invariant embedding method is a technique to calculate the reflected or transmitted fluxes in homogeneous half-spaces and slabs, without the need for solving for the flux inside the medium. In return, the embedding equations become non-linear, and in practical cases they need to be solved by numerical methods. There are, however, fast and effective iterative methods available for this purpose. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the performance of these iterative methods in model problems, in which also an exact analytical solution can be obtained. Some of these analytical solutions are also new, hence their derivation constitutes a part of the thesis work. The cases investigated in the thesis all concern the calculation of reflected fluxes from half-spaces. The first problem treated was the calculation of the energy spectrum of reflected (sputtered) particles from a multiplying medium, where the multiplication arises from recoil production (i.e. like binary fission), when bombarded by o flux of monoenergetic particles of the same type. Both constant cross sections and energy dependent cross sections with a power law dependence were used in the calculations. The second class of problems concerned the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. It is an interesting new observation that the distribution of the path length travelled in the medium before reflection can be calculated with invariant embedding methods, which actually do not solve the flux distribution in the medium. We have tested the accuracy and the convergence properties of the embedding method also for this case. Finally, very recently a theory of connecting the infinite and half-space medium solutions by embedding-like integral equations was developed and reported in the literature

  17. Problem shifting in transport systems. Analysing and balancing unintended consequences of CO2 emission reduction in Dutch transport.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebler, Malte

    2013-01-01

    Summary Transport systems face significant input- and output-related challenges in the upcoming decades. To tackle climate change – the major output challenge - an 80% CO2 reduction has to be achieved by 2050 (base year 1990). This requires a sustainabi

  18. Inputs and Fluvial Transport of Pharmaceutical Chemicals in An Urban Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, G. D.; Shala, L.

    2006-05-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are classes of emerging chemical contaminants thought to enter the aquatic environment primarily through wastewater treatment plant (WTP) discharges. As the use of drugs is expected to rise with the aging demographics of the human population and with more river water being diverted to meet potable water demands, the presence of PPCPs in surface water is becoming an issue of public concern. The intent of our study was to quantify potential WTP inputs of PPCPs to rivers in the Wasington, DC (USA) region, and to investigate the fluvial transport of PPCPs in the Anacostia River (AR), the mainstem of a highly contaminated urban watershed in Washington, DC. The approach was to sample WTP water at various stages of treatment, and to measure seasonal concentrations of PPCPs in fluvial transport in the AR. Surface water from the AR was collected through the use of automated samplers during normal flow and storm flow regimes near the head of tide of the AR, just upstream from the confluence of the Northeast (NE) and Northwest (NW) Branches, the two prominent drainages in the watershed. The water samples were filtered to separate river particles from water, and the filtered water was extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The filters were extracted by sonication in methanol. The SPE and filter extracts were analyzed for a group of widely distributed PPCPs as trimethylsilyl derivatives by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The most frequently detected PPCPs at WTPs included ibuprofen, caffeine, naproxen and triclosan, which ranged from 45 μg/L (caffeine) to 5 μg/L (triclosan) in WTP influent and from 0.08 μg/L (triclosan) to 0.02 μg/L (ibuprofen) in effluent water. Similar PPCPs were detected in both the NE and NW Branches of the AR, but higher concentrations on average were observed in the NE Branch, which receives WTP effluent upstream from the sampling point. The incidence of PPCPs correlated

  19. Transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal (HM), is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO3)2 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76-98.72%) was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44-1.56%) or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%). A large proportion of Pb (74.11-99.30%) was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08-80.40%) and taproot skin (46.22-77.94%), while the leaves and roots had 28.36-39.37% and 27.35-46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb-phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars in root vegetable

  20. Transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eWang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal, is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO32 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76–98.72% was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44–1.56% or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%. A large proportion of Pb (74.11–99.30% was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08–80.40% and taproot skin (46.22–77.94%, while the leaves and roots had 28.36–39.37% and 27.35–46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb–phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low

  1. Chemical Evidence for Vertical Transport from Magma Chambers to the Surface During Mid-Ocean Ridge Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, J. M.; Rubin, K. H.

    2009-12-01

    Many mid-ocean ridge eruptions show significant internal chemical heterogeneity; in general, the amount of chemical heterogeneity within eruptions scales with erupted volume. These variations reflect magmatic processes occurring in magma reservoirs prior to or possibly during eruption. For example, systematic variations in Mg# with along-axis distance in the early 90’s Aldo-Kihi (S. EPR near 17.5°S), 1996 N. Gorda, 1993 Co-Axial (Juan de Fuca Ridge), and 1991-2 and 2005-6 9°50’N EPR eruptions is unlikely to be related to fractionation during emplacement, and rather reflects variations in sub-axial magma reservoirs prior to eruption. Such variations are inconsistent with well-mixed sub-axial reservoirs and, in some cases, require relatively long-lived, systematic variations in reservoir temperatures along axis. Chemical heterogeneity within the Aldo-Kihi eruption preserves spatial variations in mantle-derived isotopic and trace element ratios with implications for the temporal and spatial scales of magma injections to the crust and along-axis mixing within shallow reservoirs. These spatial variations are difficult to reconcile with significant (> ~1 km) along-axis magma transport, as are striking correlations of chemical compositions with surface geological discontinuities or seismically imaged sub-axial magma chamber reflectors in the S. Hump (S. EPR), 9°50’N EPR, N. Gorda and 1975-1984 Krafla (N. Iceland) eruptive units. Rather, spatial correlations between surface lava compositions and sub-axial magma chamber properties or long-lived axial morphology suggest that most of the erupted magma was transported nearly vertically from the underlying reservoirs to the surface during these eruptions. In the case of the Krafla eruption, coincident deformation suggests a component of lateral melt migration at depth, despite chemical evidence for vertical transport of erupted lava from more than one chemical reservoir. In addition, along-ridge movement of earthquake

  2. Pore-scale modeling of vapor transport in partially saturated capillary tube with variable area using chemical potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addassi, Mouadh; Schreyer, Lynn; Johannesson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Here we illustrate the usefulness of using the chemical potential as the primary unknown by modeling isothermal vapor transport through a partially saturated cylindrically symmetric capillary tube of variable cross-sectional area using a single equation. There are no fitting parameters and the nu......Here we illustrate the usefulness of using the chemical potential as the primary unknown by modeling isothermal vapor transport through a partially saturated cylindrically symmetric capillary tube of variable cross-sectional area using a single equation. There are no fitting parameters...... and the numerical solutions to the equation are compared with experimental results with excellent agreement. We demonstrate that isothermal vapor transport can be accurately modeled without modeling the details of the contact angle, microscale temperature fluctuations, or pressure fluctuations using a modification...

  3. Wheelchair Users’ Accessibility Problems in Public Transportation-Case of Metro Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Nilay Evcil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Every day, in urban areas, the mobility of people and goods forms inner urban transportation. When urban transportation is carried in the form of public transportation, it becomes a public service. The urban public transport is one of the important services for all citizens since it is a public service provision. This service is provided by local government and it has been offered as a service without any distinctions between young, old, children, men, women, disabled, employee or retired or briefly to the society.  Additionally, traffic congestion and the expence of owing and maintaining vehicles increase public transport usage in cities.

  4. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO2 Storage Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Susan A; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D C

    2017-08-15

    broader context of this paper is to use our experimentally calibrated chemical, mechanical, and transport model to illustrate when, where, and in what conditions fracture pathways seal in CO 2 storage wells, to reduce their risk to groundwater resources. We do this by defining the amount of cement and the time required to effectively seal the leakage pathways associated with peak and postinjection overpressures, within the context of oil and gas industry standards for leak detection, mitigation, and repairs. Our simulations suggest that for many damage scenarios chemical and mechanical processes lower leakage risk by reducing or sealing fracture pathways. Leakage risk would remain high in wells with a large amount of damage, modeled here as wide fracture apertures, where fast flowing fluids are too dilute for carbonate precipitation and subsurface stress does not compress the altered cement. Fracture sealing is more likely as reservoir pressures decrease during the postinjection phase where lower fluxes aid chemical alteration and mechanical deformation of cement. Our results hold promise for the development of mitigation framework to avoid impacting groundwater resources above any geologic CO 2 storage reservoir by correlating operational pressures and barrier lengths.

  5. MS-2 and poliovirus transport in porous media: Hydrophobic effects and chemical perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Roger C.; Li, Shimin; Maguire, Kimberly M.; Yahya, Moyasar T.; Gerba, Charles P.

    1993-04-01

    In a series of pH 7 continuous-flow column experiments, removal of the bacteriophage MS-2 by attachment to silica beads had a strong, systematic dependence on the amount of hydrophobic surface present on the beads. With no hydrophobic surface, removal of phage at pH 5 was much greater than at pH 7. Release of attached phage at both pH values did occur, but was slow; breakthrough curves exhibited tailing. Poliovirus attached to silica beads at pH 5.5 much more than at pH 7.0, and attachment was also slowly reversible. Time scales for phage and poliovinis attachment were of the order of hours. The sticking efficiency factor (α), reflecting microscaie physicochemical influences on virus attachment, was in the range of 0.0007-0.02. Phage release was small but measurable under steady state conditions. Release was enhanced by lowering ionic strength and by introducing beef extract, a high-ionic-strength protein solution. Results show that viruses experience reversible attachment/detachment (sometimes termed sorption), that large chemical perturbations are needed to induce rapid virus detachment, and that viruses should be quite mobile in sandy porous media. Even small amounts of hydrophobic organic material in the porous media (≥0.001%) can retard virus transport.

  6. Dependence of columnar aerosol size distribution, optical properties, and chemical components on regional transport in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Weixiong; Xu, Xuezhe; Fang, Bo; Zhang, Qilei; Qian, Xiaodong; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Pu, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2017-11-01

    Seasonal dependence of the columnar aerosol optical and chemical properties on regional transport in Beijing over 10 years (from January 2005 to December 2014) were analyzed by using the ground-based remote sensing combined with backward trajectory analysis. Daily air mass backward trajectories terminated in Beijing were computed with HYSPLIT-4 model and were categorized into five clusters. The columnar mass concentrations of black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), dust (DU), aerosol water content (AW), and ammonium sulfate like aerosol (AS) of each cluster were retrieved from the optical data obtained from the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) with five-component model. It was found that the columnar aerosol properties in different seasons were changed, and they were related to the air mass origins. In spring, aerosol was dominated by coarse particles. Summer was characterized by higher single scattering albedo (SSA), lower real part of complex refractive index (n), and obvious hygroscopic growth due to humid air from the south. During autumn and winter, there was an observable increase in absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT) and the imaginary part of complex refraction (k), with high levels of retrieved BC and BrC. However, concentrations of BC showed less dependence on the clusters during the two seasons owing to the widely spread coal heating in north China.

  7. Performance and cost of energy transport and storage systems for dish applications using reversible chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredder, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The use of reversible chemical reactions for energy transport and storage for parabolic dish networks is considered. Performance and cost characteristics are estimated for systems using three reactions (sulfur-trioxide decomposition, steam reforming of methane, and carbon-dioxide reforming of methane). Systems are considered with and without storage, and in several energy-delivery configurations that give different profiles of energy delivered versus temperature. Cost estimates are derived assuming the use of metal components and of advanced ceramics. (The latter reduces the costs by three- to five-fold). The process that led to the selection of the three reactions is described, and the effects of varying temperatures, pressures, and heat exchanger sizes are addressed. A state-of-the-art survey was performed as part of this study. As a result of this survey, it appears that formidable technical risks exist for any attempt to implement the systems analyzed in this study, especially in the area of reactor design and performance. The behavior of all components and complete systems under thermal energy transients is very poorly understood. This study indicates that thermochemical storage systems that store reactants as liquids have efficiencies below 60%, which is in agreement with the findings of earlier investigators.

  8. Evaluation of unsaturated-zone solute-transport models for studies of agricultural chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Bayless, E. Randall; Green, Christopher T.; Garg, Sheena; Voss, Frank D.; Lampe, David C.; Barbash, Jack E.; Capel, Paul D.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Seven unsaturated-zone solute-transport models were tested with two data sets to select models for use by the Agricultural Chemical Team of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The data sets were from a bromide tracer test near Merced, California, and an atrazine study in the White River Basin, Indiana. In this study the models are designated either as complex or simple based on the water flux algorithm. The complex models, HYDRUS2D, LEACHP, RZWQM, and VS2DT, use Richards' equation to simulate water flux and are well suited to process understanding. The simple models, CALF, GLEAMS, and PRZM, use a tipping-bucket algorithm and are more amenable to extrapolation because they require fewer input parameters. The purpose of this report is not to endorse a particular model, but to describe useful features, potential capabilities, and possible limitations that emerged from working with the model input data sets. More rigorous assessment of model applicability involves proper calibration, which was beyond the scope of this study.

  9. Enhancement of Bacterial Transport in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments: Assessing the Effect of Metal Oxide Chemical Heterogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.C. Onstott

    2005-01-01

    The goal of our research was to understand the fundamental processes that control microbial transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous aquifers and from this enhanced understanding determine the requirements for successful, field-scale delivery of microorganisms to metal contaminated subsurface sites. Our specific research goals were to determine; (1) the circumstances under which the preferential adsorption of bacteria to Fe, Mn, and Al oxyhydroxides influences field-scale bacterial transport, (2) the extent to which the adhesion properties of bacterial cells affect field-scale bacterial transport, (3) whether microbial Fe(III) reduction can enhance field-scale transport of Fe reducing bacteria (IRB) and other microorganisms and (4) the effect of field-scale physical and chemical heterogeneity on all three processes. Some of the spin-offs from this basic research that can improve biostimulation and bioaugmentation remediation efforts at contaminated DOE sites have included; (1) new bacterial tracking tools for viable bacteria; (2) an integrated protocol which combines subsurface characterization, laboratory-scale experimentation, and scale-up techniques to accurately predict field-scale bacterial transport; and (3) innovative and inexpensive field equipment and methods that can be employed to enhance Fe(III) reduction and microbial transport and to target microbial deposition under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions

  10. Mystery Well: Chemical-Engineering Solution to the Internal Rain Problem.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 174, DEC 31 (2017), s. 396-402 ISSN 0009-2509 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : precipitation * humidity-driven convection * buoyant instability Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.895, year: 2016

  11. Collisional plasma transport: two-dimensional scalar formulation of the initial boundary value problem and quasi one-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugge, J.W.

    1979-10-01

    The collisional plasma transport problem is formulated as an initial boundary value problem for general characteristic boundary conditions. Starting from the full set of hydrodynamic and electrodynamic equations an expansion in the electron-ion mass ratio together with a multiple timescale method yields simplified equations on each timescale. On timescales where many collisions have taken place for the simplified equations the initial boundary value problem is formulated. Through the introduction of potentials a two-dimensional scalar formulation in terms of quasi-linear integro-differential equations of second order for a domain consisting of plasma and vacuum sub-domains is obtained. (Auth.)

  12. Absorption dynamics of organic chemical transport across trout gills as related to octanol-water partition coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKim, J.; Schmieder, P.; Veith, G.

    1985-01-01

    An in vivo fish preparation was used that allowed a direct measure of the transport rates of 14 different organic chemicals across the gills of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The chemicals, all C14 labeled, were selected from five classes, encompassing a range of octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) values, from 0.23 (ethyl formate) to 7.5 (mirex). The uptake efficiency (extraction efficiency) of each chemical was determined by monitoring the inspired and expired water of trout exposed to each chemical over an exposure period of 1 to 6 hr. The mean gill extraction efficiency for all chemicals tested varied from a low of 7% to a high of 60%, extracted in a single pall of the chemical across the gills. The extraction efficiency of chemicals with log P or 1 or less were low and showed no relationship to log P. These low extraction efficiencies seen at log P of 1 and below with molecular weights below 100 were indicative of aqueous pore transport. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P values of 1 to 3 seemed to vary directly with log P, to a maximum of slightly greater than 60%, suggesting that uptake was controlled by the lipid membrane. The mean extraction efficiency for chemicals with log P of 3 to 6 was independent of log P and remained at 60%, which suggested that gill uptake was controlled by aqueous diffusion rates rather than gill membrane permeability. The mean extraction efficiency with mirex (log P . 7.5) decreased to 20%

  13. Hellmann-Feynman theorem and the definition of forces in quantum time-dependent and transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2000-01-01

    The conventional Hellmann-Feynman theorem for the definition of forces on nuclei is not directly applicable to quantum time-dependent and transport problems. We present a rigorous derivation of a general Hellmann-Feynman-like theorem that applies to all quantum mechanical systems and reduces to well-known results for ground-state problems. It provides a rigorous definition of forces in time-dependent and transport problems. Explicit forms of Pulay-like forces are derived and the conditions for them to be zero are identified. A practical scheme for ab initio calculations of current-induced forces is described and the study of the transfer of a Si atom between two electrodes is presented as an example. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  14. Measurement standards and the general problem of reference points in chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, W.; Dube, G.

    2002-01-01

    Besides the measurement standards available in general metrology in the form of the realisations of the units of measurement, measurement standards of chemical composition are needed for the vast field of chemical measurement (measurements of the chemical composition), because it is the main aim of such measurements to quantify non-isolated substances, often in complicated matrices, to which the 'classical' measurement standards and their lower- level derivatives are not directly applicable. At present, material artefacts as well as standard measurement devices serve as chemical measurement standards. These are measurement standards in the full metrological sense only, however, if they are firmly linked to the SI unit in which the composition represented by the standard is expressed. This requirement has the consequence that only a very restricted number of really reliable chemical measurement standards exist at present. Since it is very difficult and time consuming to increase this number substantially and, on the other hand, reliable reference points are increasingly needed for all kinds of chemical measurements, primary methods of measurement and high-level reference measurements will play an increasingly important role for the establishment of worldwide comparability and hence mutual acceptance of chemical measurement results. (author)

  15. The basic laws and problems of organization of management of transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkov, A.A.; Ekshikeev, T.K.; Filenko, S.A.; Tursunov, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this clause are given essence and characteristics of existing laws of management of transport systems and specificities of use in market economy. Depending on the accepted decisions for management of transport systems in uncertain conditions and connection with insufficient the information, use the methods of programming is considered as the correct decision for the put tasks. The realization of stochastic programming is shown by an example and note by a level of a stock of spare part in transport systems

  16. Spent nuclear fuel transport: Problem state and analysis of modern approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovs'kij, A.V.; Yatsenko, M.V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the review of international and national experience related to transport of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and trends in the development of transport containers. The analysis covers the vectors for the future improvement of packaging and the regulatory framework on SNF transport in Ukraine and other countries. The tasks for future research were identified. The results of this research will be used during the operation of the CSNSF.

  17. Squadron Movements and Associated Transportation Problems: An Inner Look into the Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hollis, William J; Estep, Anthony S; Walker, Nicholas T

    2008-01-01

    .... Additionally, the project investigates how the transportation funding program could be executed differently to better track funds and to reduce current, questionable and unchallengeable charges...

  18. Secondary organic aerosol in the global aerosol – chemical transport model Oslo CTM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. A. Isaksen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The global chemical transport model Oslo CTM2 has been extended to include the formation, transport and deposition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Precursor hydrocarbons which are oxidised to form condensible species include both biogenic species such as terpenes and isoprene, as well as species emitted predominantly by anthropogenic activities (toluene, m-xylene, methylbenzene and other aromatics. A model simulation for 2004 gives an annual global SOA production of approximately 55 Tg. Of this total, 2.5 Tg is found to consist of the oxidation products of anthropogenically emitted hydrocarbons, and about 15 Tg is formed by the oxidation products of isoprene. The global production of SOA is increased to about 69 Tg yr−1 by allowing semi-volatile species to partition to ammonium sulphate aerosol. This brings modelled organic aerosol values closer to those observed, however observations in Europe remain significantly underestimated. Allowing SOA to partition into ammonium sulphate aerosol increases the contribution of anthropogenic SOA from about 4.5% to 9.4% of the total production. Total modelled organic aerosol (OA values are found to represent a lower fraction of the measured values in winter (when primary organic aerosol (POA is the dominant OA component than in summer, which may be an indication that estimates of POA emissions are too low. Additionally, for measurement stations where the summer OA values are higher than in winter, the model generally underestimates the increase in summertime OA. In order to correctly model the observed increase in OA in summer, additional SOA sources or formation mechanisms may be necessary. The importance of NO3 as an oxidant of SOA precursors is found to vary regionally, causing up to 50%–60% of the total amount of SOA near the surface in polluted regions and less than 25% in more remote areas, if the yield of condensible oxidation products for β-pinene is used for NO3 oxidation of all terpenes

  19. The impacts of pore-scale physical and chemical heterogeneities on the transport of radionuclide-carrying colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WU, Ning

    2018-04-24

    Independent of the methods of nuclear waste disposal, the degradation of packaging materials could lead to mobilization and transport of radionuclides into the geosphere. This process can be significantly accelerated due to the association of radionuclides with the backfill materials or mobile colloids in groundwater. The transport of these colloids is complicated by the inherent coupling of physical and chemical heterogeneities (e.g., pore space geometry, grain size, charge heterogeneity, and surface hydrophobicity) in natural porous media that can exist on the length scale of a few grains. In addition, natural colloids themselves are often heterogeneous in their surface properties (e.g., clay platelets possess opposite charges on the surface and along the rim). Both physical and chemical heterogeneities influence the transport and retention of radionuclides under various groundwater conditions. However, the precise mechanisms how these coupled heterogeneities influence colloidal transport are largely elusive. This knowledge gap is a major source of uncertainty in developing accurate models to represent the transport process and to predict distribution of radionuclides in the geosphere.

  20. Radiochemical problems of radiation chemical synthesis in n, γ-field of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.P.; Frejdus, N.V.; Bugaenko, L.T.; Kalyazin, E.P.; Petryaev, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    A wide applicability of products of radiation chemical synthesis (RCS), using n, γ-irradiation, is limited by possible contamination of the latter with long-lived radioactive isotopes of chemical elements included in the composition of the reagent and compounds syntesized (chemically non-separable radionuclides - CNR). A technique of the determination of the limit accumulation CNR on the basis of radiation chemical parameters of the synthesis (radiation-chemical yield, the dose rate absorbed, singleness of purpose of RCS etc.) and radiochemical parameters of formation and accumulation of CNR (radiochemical yields of CNR in the products of radiolysis, neutron fluence, the reagent purity etc.) is suggested. The radiochemical evaluation of CNR accumulation (tritium and carbon-14), formed at the expense of activation with neutrons of chemical elements of water and organic substances, consisting of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen has shown that at relatively low yields of final products (> or approximately 3 molecules/100 eV) no accumulation of radionuclides in concentrations reaching the average admissible concentration takes place [ru