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Sample records for chemical textural microbiological

  1. Chemical, microbiological, textural, color, and sensory characteristics of pressed ewe milk cheeses with saffron (Crocus sativus L.) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licón, C C; Carmona, M; Molina, A; Berruga, M I

    2012-08-01

    Adding saffron to dairy products represents an innovative practice to introduce them to niche markets. This paper represents a contribution to this field, as few studies have evaluated the influence of this spice on general aspects and ripening parameters of cheese. In this work, pasteurized ewe milk pressed cheeses with saffron were made to study compositional, microbiological, color, textural, and sensory characteristics in relation to saffron concentration and ripening time. The main changes were observed on sensory characteristics and color. In addition, compositional, textural, and microbiological changes could be observed; among them, saffron cheeses were firmer and more elastic but less prone to fracture. A remarkable result that could lead to further studies is that saffron addition slightly slowed down growth of total and lactic acid bacteria. This resulted in a slightly lower rate of pH decrease during pressing and, as a consequence, lower salt and water content. Compositional differences were not evident by the end of the ripening period. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in physico-chemical, microbiological, textural and sensory attributes during ripening of dry-cured foal salchichón.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Temperán, Sara; Bermúdez, Roberto; Cobas, Noemí; Purriños, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The changes in the physico-chemical, microbiological, textural and sensory attributes of foal salchichón were followed during ripening. Foal salchichón samples were taken at 0 days (mix before stuffing), and after 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days of ripening. The final a(w) was 0.82, whereas pH values stayed around their initial values. TBAR'S values increased significantly (Pfoal salchichón samples showed high values for intensity of flavour (7.22±0.44), hardness (7.33±0.71) and dryness (6.67±0.71) and low scores for acid taste (1.67±0.71) and saltiness (3.11±0.6). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of textured soy protein and tomato pulp on chemical, physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of textured soy protein, tomato pulp and their combination on inhibition of lipid oxidation which affects the shelf life of meat products. In addition, microbiological, chemical, textural and sensory properties of döner kebab were determined in this study. According ...

  4. Evaluation of microbiological and chemical parameters during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    1 -Corresponding Author: Dr. EdrissBazrafshan, Department of Environmental Health, school of Health, Zahedan. University of Medical ... Evaluation of microbiological and chemical parameters during wastewater Sludge and. Sawdust Co-composting. 1 ..... the environmental impact of municipal solid waste management.

  5. The effect of addition of selected vegetables on the microbiological, textural and flavour profile properties of yoghurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota; Tabaszewska, Małgorzata; Grega, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables, apart from having high nutritional value, also contain considerable amounts of dietary fibre and other components, which may affect physico-chemical properties of fermented milks, e.g. viscosity, texture, susceptibility to syneresis, flavour profile etc. The present work was established to study the effect of selected vegetables addition on the rheological, textural, microbiological and flavour profile parameters of yoghurts. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper) were added (10% w/w) to the processed cow's milk fermented with DVS yoghurt culture. Texture profile analysis, determination of viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis and descriptive flavour evaluation were conducted at the 1st, 7th and 14th day after production. Additionally, microbiological studies were performed for 28 days, at 7-day intervals. The highest apparent viscosity and adhesiveness were obtained for the carrot yoghurt, whereas yoghurt with pumpkin was the least susceptible to syneresis. The other texture parameters were not affected by the addition of vegetables. Broccoli and red sweet pepper flavours were dominating in the fermented milks fortified with these vegetables, whereas carrot and pumpkin flavours were less distinctive. Yoghurt supplemented with red sweet pepper got the highest sensoric acceptability. The number of starter bacteria was not influenced by the vegetable additives, except for pumpkin yoghurt, which contained lower population of lactobacilli. Among all tested vegetables, carrot additive had the greatest potential to improve yoghurt structure, whereas red sweet pepper imparted the most acceptable flavour.

  6. Assessment of Physico-chemical and Microbiological qualities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Physico-chemical and Microbiological qualities of Abattoir Wastewater in Sokoto, Nigeria. AB Rabah, UJJ Ijah, SB Manga, ML Ibrahim. Abstract. Wastewater samples were collected from three different points in Sokoto (Nigeria) abattoir and the physico-chemical and the microbiological qualities were ...

  7. Chemical composition and temperature influence on honey texture properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Paduret, Sergiu; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition and temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C) influence on the honey texture parameters (hardness, viscosity, adhesion, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness). The honeys analyzed respect the European regulation in terms of moisture content and inverted sugar concentration. The texture parameters are influenced negatively by the moisture content, and positively by the °Brix concentration. The texture parameters modelling have been made using the artificial neural network and the polynomial model. The polynomial model predicted better the texture parameters than the artificial neural network.

  8. Physico-chemical, microbiological, textural and sensory attributes of matured game salami produced from springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), gemsbok (Oryx gazella), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and zebra (Equus burchelli) harvested in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, D L; McMillin, K W; Booyse, Mardé; Witthuhn, R C; Hoffman, L C

    2011-05-01

    Differences and consumer acceptability of matured salami produced from game species were evaluated. The pH of the salami differed (p 0.05) were observed among the species for a(w), shear force, gumminess or cohesiveness. Microbiological counts of the game salami differed for coliform (p 0.05) counts. The most distinctive characteristics observed by the quantitative descriptive analyses were smoky, salty, pepper and salami flavour, combined with a smoky, salami aroma. Game flavour was not perceived as a strong attribute during the sensory analyses. Gemsbok salami was strongly associated with the attribute colour as described by the male and female consumer panels. The springbok salami scored the lowest for both colour and taste. Salami produced from gemsbok, kudu and zebra were superior to springbok salami. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. All rights reserved.

  9. physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological qualities of yoghurt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    (YB3, YB4, YB6 and YB7) microbiologically falls within the acceptable local and international standards. Keywords: Microbiological, Yoghurt, Physico-Chemical, Sensory evaluation, Kano – Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Yoghurt is a semi-solid fermented milk product which originated in Mesopotamia thousands of years ago.

  10. Microbiological and physico-chemical quality of Aba river polluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological and physico-chemical quality of Aba river polluted with effluents from a bottling company. ... Further studies revealed that the values of some physico-chemical parameters of the river were higher than the WHO tolerant levels for typical surface water. Others fell within the WHO acceptable limits. Upstream ...

  11. Chemical and Microbiological Studies on River Nile Crayfish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abc

    2012-06-26

    Jun 26, 2012 ... Key words: Red swamp crayfish, chemical composition, physical properties, microbiological aspects and quality attributes .... Table 3. Chemical composition of tested red crayfish of the River Nile waters (on wet weight basis). Ingredient. Fresh raw crayfish. Boiled crayfish ..... Health Education in Food Safety.

  12. Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological qualities of yoghurt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological qualities of some yoghurt brands sold in Kano Metropolis using standard procedures. The physico-chemical characteristics (viscosity, specific gravity, pH, titratable acidity, fat content) and Sensory properties (color, flavor, smell) were ...

  13. Combined chemical and microbiological removal of organic sulfur from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphaelian, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate techniques for chemically converting the sulfur containing organic compounds in coal to compounds that can be treated microbiologically to remove the organically bound sulfur. The goal is to achieve an economically feasible mild chemical oxidation of the organic sulfur in a representative Illinois Basin coal by converting the sulfur to sulfoxides and sulfones; the carbon sulfur bond in the sulfoxides and sulfones would then be broken microbiologically and the sulfur removed from the coal as sulfate.

  14. Physical, chemical and microbiological changes during natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gowé is a traditional Beninese fermented beverage prepared from sprouted and non- prouted cereals. Due to urbanization, a new technique without any malting step has appeared in Southern Benin and is now widely used. The two techniques were compared using sorghum as the raw material. The physical, chemical and ...

  15. Monthly variation of some physico-chemical and microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canakkale, Turkey) in the months of October 2007 – September 2008 for the analyzing of some physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of the stream. In the present investigation, the mean average value (mean ±SD) of the stream ...

  16. Effect of frozen period on the chemical, microbiological and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of duration of frozen storage on the chemical, microbiological and sensory profile of Tilapia fish (Sarotherodun galiaenus) collected from a research pond of the Agricultural Development Project, Akure, Nigeria and were subjected to sixty days of frozen storage and analyzed ...

  17. Chemical, physical, microbiological and quality attributes studies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical, physical, microbiological and quality attributes of red crayfish samples were determined. Results show that total weight of inedible parts was 84.64% of the live weight. Value of raw fresh crayfish yield was higher than that boiled. Cooking loss tail meat for boiled crayfish was 33.88% of meat. Moisture, protein and ...

  18. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of honey from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of honey from the sudano-guinean zone of West Cameroon were determined. The indices obtained were within their respective ranges recorded for honey in temperate countries, except for calcium content whose value was on the upper side of its reference range.

  19. Chemical basis for beef charqui meat texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Y. Youssef

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the relationship of charqui meat (CHM chemical composition with the tenderness throughout its production. CHM was prepared from beef Vastus lateralis of 4-5 years old. Shear force of fresh CHM showed an approx. 3-fold increase in toughness compared to the raw material while, in the case of cooked CHM it was 6-fold increased in relation to the raw charqui. The moisture content decreased by 39.0 and 58.0% (pEste trabalho avaliou a relação entre a composição química aproximada do charque (CHM com a maciez durante todas as etapas de sua produção. CHM foi produzida do m. Vastus lateralis bovino (patinho de aproximadamente 4-5 anos de idade. A força de cisalhamento do charque cru mostrou o valor aproximado de 3 vezes maior em dureza comparada à matéria prima enquanto que no caso do CHM cozido houve 6 vezes maior em aumento sob as mesmas condições.O índice de umidade diminui de 39 a 58% (p<0,05 para CHM cru e cozido, respectivamente, em relação à matéria prima. O modelo matemático da influência destes componentes mostrou que a força de cisalhamento aumentou exponencialmente com a perda de umidade. A textura do charque é o resultado da associação de multifatores envolvendo proteínas miofibrilares que provocam eventos bioquímicos dinâmicos como a sua ligação com as moléculas da água. É a quantidade destas que determina a textura final do charque.

  20. Chemical constituents of Sweetpotato genotypes in relation to textural characteristics of processed French fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato French fries (SPFF) are growing in popularity but limited information is available on SPFF textural properties in relation to chemical composition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chemical components of different sweetpotato varieties and textural characteristics...

  1. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  2. Microbiological and Chemical Analysis of Land Snails Commercialised in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Antonello; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Cammilleri, Gaetano; Macaluso, Andrea; Currò, Vittoria; Galuppo, Lucia; Vargetto, Daniela; Vicari, Domenico; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2015-05-28

    In this study 160 samples of snails belonging to the species Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller were examined for chemical and microbiological analysis. Samples came from Greece and Poland. Results showed mean concentration of cadmium (0.35±0.036 mg/kg) and lead (0.05±0.013 mg/kg) much higher than the limit of detection. Mercury levels in both species were not detected. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in both examined species. E. coli and K. oxytoca were observed in Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. Furthermore, one case of fungi positivity in samples of Helix aspersa muller was found. The reported investigations highlight the need to create and adopt a reference legislation to protect the health of consumers.

  3. Microbiological and chemical analysis of land snails commercialised in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cicero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study 160 samples of snails belonging to the species Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller were examined for chemical and microbiological analysis. Samples came from Greece and Poland. Results showed mean concentration of cadmium (0.35±0.036 mg/kg and lead (0.05±0.013 mg/kg much higher than the limit of detection. Mercury levels in both species were not detected. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in both examined species. E. coli and K. oxytoca were observed in Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. Furthermore, one case of fungi positivity in samples of Helix aspersa muller was found. The reported investigations highlight the need to create and adopt a reference legislation to protect the health of consumers.

  4. Microbiological and Chemical Quality of Feta Cheeses Consumed in Van

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enise Akel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to determine the microbiological and chemical quality of Feta cheeses which are consumed in Van city center. In this study, a total of 50 Feta cheese samples were used as material. At the result of microbiological analysis of Feta cheeses, the mean number of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, coliform, Escherichia coli, micrococcus/staphylococcus, coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast and mold were found as 5.49 log cfu/g, 5.20 log cfu/g, 0.78 log cfu/g, 0.10 log cfu/g, 0.58 log cfu/g, 0.53 log cfu/g, 0.08 log cfu/g, 0.96 log cfu/g, 5.18 log cfu/g, respectively. At the result of chemical analysis, the mean value of pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, fat, fat in dry matter, salt and salt in dry matter were found as 4.38, 1.41% LA, 41.21%, 18.12%, 44.18%, 8.36% and 20.42%, respectively. All of the samples were found conforming to the standards in terms of titratable acidity. On the other hand, 8%, 52% and 100% of samples were found unsuitable in terms of coagulase positive S. aureus, pH and salt in dry matter, respectively. As a result, it was concluded that Feta cheeses examined are inadequate in terms of microbiological and chemical quality and they could pose a risk to producers and consumers. The implementation of the HACCP system based on GMP at all stages of the food chain will play an active role for food safety, public health and the protection of consumer rights.

  5. Chemical and microbiological comparison of biodeterioration in Colombian heritage construccions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia López-Pérez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mortars from Bogotá, Villa de Leyva and Barichara were compared chemically and microbiologically. We analyzed the samples using atomic absorption and emission spectrometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Oxides of silicon, aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, gypsum, weddellite, despujolsite, quartz, berlinite, carbonate, mica, feldspars, silicates, nitrate salts, sulfites, and organic compounds were identified. In addition, irregular particles between 10, 50 an 100 μm were found, as well organic fibers of 20 μm. Was performed a CFU count using a dilution method to identify fungal microorganisms and found following genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Mucor and Syncephalastrum. The mortar sample taken in Bogotá presented the highest number of CFU/mL and the highest percentage of relative humidity. The concentration of fungi in this sample, unlike those from Villa de Leyva and Barichara, caused degradation in most of the metals identified. This chemical and microbiological comparison proposes an effective plan of action to eliminate and prevent biodeterioration in support of the conservation of heritage constructions.

  6. Chloramine demand estimation using surrogate chemical and microbiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Sina; Liu, Sanly; Chow, Christopher W K; van Leeuwen, John; Cook, David; Drikas, Mary; Amal, Rose

    2017-07-01

    A model is developed to enable estimation of chloramine demand in full scale drinking water supplies based on chemical and microbiological factors that affect chloramine decay rate via nonlinear regression analysis method. The model is based on organic character (specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA)) of the water samples and a laboratory measure of the microbiological (Fm) decay of chloramine. The applicability of the model for estimation of chloramine residual (and hence chloramine demand) was tested on several waters from different water treatment plants in Australia through statistical test analysis between the experimental and predicted data. Results showed that the model was able to simulate and estimate chloramine demand at various times in real drinking water systems. To elucidate the loss of chloramine over the wide variation of water quality used in this study, the model incorporates both the fast and slow chloramine decay pathways. The significance of estimated fast and slow decay rate constants as the kinetic parameters of the model for three water sources in Australia was discussed. It was found that with the same water source, the kinetic parameters remain the same. This modelling approach has the potential to be used by water treatment operators as a decision support tool in order to manage chloramine disinfection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of fermented milk beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H.P. Andrade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate some microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of fermented milk beverages collected at the main supermarkets in Belo Horizonte (MG. 40 samples of the products corresponding to five distinct brands were collected. They were submitted to the following analyses: Most Probable Number (MPN of total (30ºC and thermal tolerant coliforms (45ºC, Salmonella spp., coagulase positive Staphylococcus, molds and yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, pH, titratable acidity and contents of moisture, total solids, protein and fat. The analyses were carried out during the last week of shelf life. The microbiological quality of the samples was good and the counts of lactic bacteria were above the minimum established by the official legislation. Streptococcus and Lactobacillus were isolated and identified from the products and Lactobacillus delbrueckii was molecularly identified in three samples. The mean values for the contents of fat and protein, titratable acidity, pH, moisture and total solids ranged from 1.24 to 1.98%; 1.88 to 2.22%; 0.54 to 0.66%; 3.91 to 4.16; 81.18 to 83.25% and 16.75 to 18.82%, respectively. All samples had protein content in agreement with the official legislation.

  8. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL QUALITY OF SLOVAK AND EUROPEAN HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová,Miroslava Kačániová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate microbiological and chemical quality of honey from Slovakia, Czech Republic and Germany. Selected microbiological and chemical parameters were determined in 12 samples of honey. Total Viable Count (TVC, coliform bacteria (CB, microscopic filamentous fungi (MFF moisture content and free acids were determined. Plate dilution method with individual culture conditions was used for microorganisms cultivation. Moisture content was measured by refractometry and free acids content was determined by titration. The minimal value of TVC was 1.87 log CFU.g-1 (sample no. 11, maximal value of TVC in honey was 3.13 logCFU.g-1 (sample no. 7, average value of TVC was 2.52 log CFU.g-1 . Two samples were in accordance with Codex Alimentaius of SR (2009. Samples of honey were negative for coliform bacteria count. Four samples were negative for microscopic fungi count (sampes no. 2, 8, 9 and 11. Maximal value of microscopic fungi was 2.18 log CFU.g-1 in sample no. 5. Average value of microscopic fungi was 1.07 log CFU.g-1. The moisture content values ranged from 16.6 % (sample no. 1 to 20.6 % (no. 3. Sample no. 3 was not in accordance with requirements of Council Directive 2001/110. Average value of moisture content was 18.3 %. The minimal value of free acids was 12 meq.kg-1, maximal value was 42 meq.kg-1. The average value of free acids was 28.9 meq.kg-1.

  9. Determination of some chemical and microbiological characteristics of Kaymak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ökten, Sevtap

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaymak is a kind of concentrated cream, which is traditionally manufactured from buffalo or cow’s milk in Turkey. It is generally consumed with honey at breakfast and some traditional Turkish desserts. The aim of this study was to determine some chemical and microbiological properties of kaymak. The samples were obtained from different dairy plants producing kaymak from cow’s milk and local markets located in Zmir. They were examined for total solids and fat contents, acidity, pH and peroxide values, as well as counts of coliform bacteria, E. coli, yeast and moulds, and Staphylococci. Chemical characteristics of the samples were generally favorable for Turkish Food Codex. However, microbiological properties of some samples were very poor. Careful considerations should be given by the kaymak industry during manufacturing and storage of the product.Kaymak es una clase de crema concentrada, que se fabrica tradicionalmente de la leche del búfalo o de la vaca en Turquía. Se consume generalmente con la miel en el desayuno y en algunos postres turcos tradicionales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar algunas características químicas y microbiológicas del kaymak. Las muestras fueron obtenidas de diversas instalaciones lecheras productoras de kaymak de leche de vaca y de mercados locales situados en Zmir. Se analizó el contenido en sólidos totales y grasas, acidez, pH y valores de peróxido, además del conteo de tan bien como cuentas de las bacterias coliformes, E. coli, levadura y mohos, y estafilococos. Las características químicas de las muestras fueron generalmente aceptables para el Turkish Food Codex. Sin embargo, las características microbiológicas de algunas muestras fueron muy malas. La industria del kaymak debe ser extremadamente cuidadosa durante la fabricación y el almacenaje del producto.

  10. Microbiological, biological, and chemical weapons of warfare and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Ronald A; Brown, Brent R; Hutchins, James B; Iandolo, John J; Jackson, Rhett; Slater, Leonard N; Bronze, Michael S

    2002-06-01

    Microbiological, biological, and chemical toxins have been employed in warfare and in terrorist attacks. In this era, it is imperative that health care providers are familiar with illnesses caused by these agents. Botulinum toxin produces a descending flaccid paralysis. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B produces a syndrome of fever, nausea, and diarrhea and may produce a pulmonary syndrome if aerosolized. Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin could possibly be aerosolized to produce acute pulmonary edema. Ricin intoxication can manifest as gastrointestinal hemorrhage after ingestion, severe muscle necrosis after intramuscular injection, and acute pulmonary disease after inhalation. Nerve agents inhibit acetylcholinesterase and thus produce symptoms of increased cholinergic activity. Ammonia, chlorine, vinyl chloride, phosgene, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, tear gas, and zinc chloride primarily injure the upper respiratory tract and the lungs. Sulfur mustard (and nitrogen mustard) are vesicant and alkylating agents. Cyanide poisoning ranges from sudden-onset headache and drowsiness to severe hypoxemia, cardiovascular collapse, and death. Health care providers should be familiar with the medical consequences of toxin exposure, and understand the pathophysiology and management of resulting illness.

  11. Microbiological and physico-chemical assessment of the quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The domestic raw water sources in Nkonkobe and Gogogo were characterised by using both microbiological and standard physical methods to investigate the quality of the water at the sampling sites. For microbiological analysis, indicator bacteria namely, heterotrophic bacteria, total and faecal coliforms and for physical ...

  12. Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characterization of Soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    air during the harmattan from November to. February and a hot season from March to May, then followed by a short .... filters of potassium and calcium. Microbiological analysis. The microbiological analysis was ... indole production, urease activity, H2S and gas production, citrate utilization test, glucose, sucrose and lactose ...

  13. CARACTERIZACIÓN TEXTURAL Y FISICOQUÍMICA DEL QUESO EDAM PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL AND TEXTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF EDAM CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Osorio Tobón

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Para el queso Edam una caracterización físico-química y textural fue realizada. Los resultados indicaron que los parámetros texturales tales como la dureza, cohesividad, adhesividad y masticabilidad son dependientes del tiempo de maduración pero no la resortabilidad del producto. Las propiedades fisicoquímicas contenido de grasa, proteína y humedad también son dependientes del tiempo, siendo estos cambios los responsables de las modificaciones de las propiedades texturales.A physical-chemical and textural characterization of Edam cheese was conducted. The results indicated that the textural parameters such as the hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and chewiness were dependent upon of the maturation period but not the springiness of the product. The physical-chemistry properties such as fat content, protein and moisture content also depended upon the maturation processing, with these changes being responsible for the modifications of the textural properties.

  14. Effect of dried nut fortification on functional, physicochemical, textural, and microbiological properties of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturkoglu-Budak, S; Akal, C; Yetisemiyen, A

    2016-11-01

    In this study, walnut, hazelnut, almond, or pistachio were incorporated to produce functional yogurts. The effects on physicochemical and instrumental textural characteristics and syneresis, contents of folic acid, selenium, tocopherols, and n-3 and n-6 (omega) fatty acids, and viable counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus were evaluated during storage. Fortified yogurts demonstrated higher protein and total solid contents and lower syneresis compared with control yogurt on d 21. Addition of nuts, except walnut, also increased S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus counts. The concentrations of folic acid, α-tocopherol, selenium, and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were higher in fortified yogurts compared with the levels found in the respective nut types. However, a decreasing trend was observed in all components during storage. Consequently, each nut could be incorporated into yogurt because of a specific functional property. For instance, walnut could be preferred for omega acid enrichment. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Texture Profile Analysis of Sliced Cheese in relation to Chemical Composition and Storage Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanrong Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative relationships among chemical composition, storage temperature, and texture of cheese were not fully understood. In this study, the effects of composition and temperature on textural properties of eight common varieties of sliced cheese were examined. The textural properties of sliced cheeses, including firmness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, springiness, chewiness, and resilience, were measured by texture profile analysis after storage at 4 and 25°C for 4 h. Multivariate logistic regression models were established to describe the quantitative relationships of textural properties (dependent variables to chemical composition and storage temperature (independent variables of sliced cheeses. Results showed that protein, fat, moisture, and sodium chloride contents as well as storage temperature significantly affected the texture of sliced cheeses (P<0.05. In particular, fat in the dry matter and moisture in the nonfat substances were negatively correlated with firmness of sliced cheeses (P<0.05. As storage temperature rose from 4 to 25°C, the average values of firmness, chewiness, and resilience substantially declined by 42%, 45%, and 17%, respectively (P<0.05. This study provided reference data for adjusting chemical composition and storage temperature of common cheese products to obtain favorable texture for Chinese consumers, which thereby facilitated the localization of cheese industry in Chinese market.

  16. Influence of sanitation on the physico-chemical and microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fina

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... of deterioration in post-harvest vegetables (Brackmann et al., 2005), resulting in quantitative and qualitative appearance, and losses in textural qualities and nutritional properties (Reis et al., 2006). Both chlorine and ozone treatments also induced a higher water loss in organic broccoli, compared with.

  17. Level of chemical and microbiological contaminations in chili bo (paste).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Nurul Aqilah Mohd; Harith, Hanis Hazeera; Olusesan, Akanbi Taiwo; Zulkifli, Anwarul Hidayah; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Osman, Azizah; Hamid, Azizah Abd; Saari, Nazamid

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level of preservatives and microbiological loads in various brands of commercially available chili bo (paste). Fifteen different brands of chili bo obtained from the local market and hypermarkets were analyzed for pH, moisture and benzoic acid content, microbiological loads (aerobic, anaerobic, aerobic spores, and fungi), and thermophilic microorganisms. Results showed that both moisture content and pH vary among samples. The concentrations of benzoic acid detected in chili bo were found to be in the range of 537 to 5,435 mg/kg. Nine of fifteen brands were found to exceed the maximum level permitted by the Malaysian Food Law in accordance with the Codex Alimentarius (1,000 mg/kg for benzoic acid). An apparent correlation between benzoic acid concentration and microbiological loads present in the chili bo was observed. The microbiological loads were found to be relatively low in the end products containing high amounts of benzoic acid. The heat-resistant (70 to 80 degrees C) microorganisms present in chili bo were identified as Ochrobacterum tritici, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium maritypicum, Roseomonas spp., CDC group II-E subgroup A, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with M. maritypicum being the most frequently found (in 9 of 15 samples) microorganism. Most of these identified microorganisms were not known to cause foodborne illnesses.

  18. Effect of plant extracts Kitaibelia vitifolia on antioxidant activity, chemical characteristics, microbiological status and sensory properties of Pirotski kachkaval cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurćubić Vladimir S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of cheese (Pirotski kachkaval fortification by polyphenols attributed to Kitaibelia vitifolia ethanol herb extract, applied in two different manners (added to the cheese curd after texturizing or sprayed on surface of cheese. Investigation of the used antioxidant effects of polyphenols, physic-chemical composition, microbiological quality and sensory properties of Pirotski kachkaval was undertaken. Antioxidant activity of conventional and fortified cheese was evaluated by five contemporary and compatible methods, and revealed a slight emphasis on phenol-linked antioxidant activity of fortified samples of cheese in comparison to samples of the control group. Fortified Pirotski kachkaval had higher sensory evaluation scores than the controls. Statistically significant (P 0.05. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009 i br. OI 172016

  19. Development and the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses of red pepper seasoned with parmesan cheese - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.12794

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Teixeira de Souza Sora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pickles comprising red pepper seasoned with Parmesan cheese has been developed as a new type of product developed by family cottage industries. Two formulations were prepared, or rather, with and without the preservative potassium sorbate, which underwent several physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses. Physical and chemical analyses were undertaken for acidity, pH and °Brix; microbiological analyses for total heat-tolerant coliforms, Salmonella sp, molds, yeasts; sensory aspects such as physical features, aroma, flavor and texture, coupled to purchase intention among tasters were investigated. Both formulations comprised physical, chemical and microbiological parameters within standards. Sensory evaluation showed satisfactory results and research on purchase intention showed approximately 80% acceptability. Results from physical, chemical and microbiological tests showed that pickled pepper seasoned with Parmesan cheese may be prepared with citric acid as a preservative. Sensory evaluation and purchase intention indicate a real production and sale possibility of pickled peppers seasoned with Parmesan cheese by family cottage industries.  

  20. X-ray texture analysis of paper coating pigments and the correlation with chemical composition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roine, J.; Tenho, M.; Murtomaa, M.; Lehto, V.-P.; Kansanaho, R.

    2007-10-01

    The present research experiments the applicability of x-ray texture analysis in investigating the properties of paper coatings. The preferred orientations of kaolin, talc, ground calcium carbonate, and precipitated calcium carbonate particles used in four different paper coatings were determined qualitatively based on the measured crystal orientation data. The extent of the orientation, namely, the degree of the texture of each pigment, was characterized quantitatively using a single parameter. As a result, the effect of paper calendering is clearly seen as an increase on the degree of texture of the coating pigments. The effect of calendering on the preferred orientation of kaolin was also evident in an independent energy dispersive spectrometer analysis on micrometer scale and an electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis on nanometer scale. Thus, the present work proves x-ray texture analysis to be a potential research tool for characterizing the properties of paper coating layers.

  1. Effectiveness of an Applied Microbiology Course Specifically Designed for Chemical Engineering Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory B. Hecht

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the disciplines of microbiology and chemical engineering have developed an increasing convergence. To meet the needs of their future employers, today’s chemical engineering students must receive some background in microbiology. This report describes the development and content of “Biological Systems and Applications,” a novel course specifically designed to provide basic biology and applied microbiology knowledge, skills, and experience to sophomore chemical engineering majors. Data collected from entrance and exit surveys of the students demonstrated that the course is successful. The importance of the “project-base” learning technique and of interdisciplinary faculty-student and faculty-faculty collaborations are proposed as elements essential to the success of this particular course.

  2. Effects of sodium lactate and lactic acid on chemical, microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical analysis revealed a reduction in the pH value and also in the total volatile bases nitrogen contents in treated thigh. Overall, the findings demonstrate that the addition of 1% LA in marinated chicken can delay the proliferation of spoilage microorganisms and the appearance of undesirable chemical. This LA ...

  3. Physico-chemical and Microbiological Monitoring of Solotvino Salt Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonka Y.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Healing properties of salt lakes are due to physico-chemical and bacterial composition. So important is the study of physical and chemical properties of the water for the development of medical technologies and treatments of monitoring observations of the properties in terms of environmental issues.

  4. Chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study are to assess, ascertain and evaluate the level, degree and type of pollution that characterize the surface water resources of Enugu area of southeastern Nigeria in terms of physico-chemical and bacterialogical constituents. Field measurements of physical parameters were preceded by chemical ...

  5. Microbiological and chemical assessment of spring water from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-06-20

    Jun 20, 2013 ... Assessment of spring water from Ikare-Akoko, a rural setting in southwest, Nigeria for microbial and chemical contaminants ... Key words: Rural setting, spring water, heterotrophic bacteria, coliform bacteria, physico-chemical properties, ..... logical quality of spring water depends on the source rock and how ...

  6. Optical and Electrical Performance of ZnO Films Textured by Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuh-Chuan HER

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO films were prepared by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering on the glass substrate as transparent conductive oxide films. For silicon solar cells, a proper surface texture is essential to introduce light scattering and subsequent light trapping to enhance the current generation. In this study, the magnetron-sputtered ZnO films were textured by wet-chemical etching in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl for better light scattering. The diffuse transmittance of the surface textured ZnO films was measured to evaluate the light scattering. The influence of hydrochloric acid concentration on the morphology, optical and electrical properties of the surface-textured ZnO film was investigated. The ZnO film etched in 0.05M HCl solution for 30 s exhibited average diffuse transmittance in the visible wavelength range of 9.52 % and good resistivity of 1.10 x 10-3 W×cm while the as-deposited ZnO film had average diffuse transmittance of 0.51 % and relatively high resistivity of 5.84 x 10-2 W×cm. Experimental results illustrated that the optical and electrical performance of ZnO films can be significantly improved by introducing the surface texture through the wet-chemical etching process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9624

  7. Effect of high pressure processing on textural and microbiological quality of pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) sausage during chilled storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnath, Sarika; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Jaganath, Bindu; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2015-10-01

    The non-thermal high pressure (HP) processing was studied on fish sausage to enhance the quality during chilled storage. Pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) sausages, packed in poly amide casing under vacuum were subjected to 400, 500 and 600 MPa pressures (dwell time: 10 min and ramp rate: 300 MPa/min) and compared with heat-set samples for physico-chemical and microbial quality parameters. Pressurized samples formed softer and glossier gels with a slight reduction in water-holding capacity. HP made the texture of sausage softer, cohesive and less chewy and gummier than heat-treated ones. Folding test seen higher acceptance values in samples treated at 500 and 600 MPa, during storage. Maximum log reduction in microbial count was observed in 600 MPa immediately, and significant difference in cooked and pressurized sausages was seen only up to 7th day. This revealed the potential application of HP in replacing conventional heat treatment for sausages preparation with enhanced shelf-life.

  8. chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    are to assess, ascertain and evaluate the level, degree and type of pollution that characterize the surface water resources of Enugu area of southeastern Nigeria in terms of physico-chemical and bacterialogical constituents. Field measurements of ... suggest possible solutions to the problems of water supply. THE STUDY ...

  9. Physico-Chemical, Microbiological Profiles of Blends of Tea and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sample of tea obtained from Mambilla, Nigeria highland was blended with mistletoe - a known medicinal parasitic plant of cocoa. The ratios of the blends were Tea(T)/Mistletoe (M) 90:10 10:90, 75:25, 25:75, and 50:50 while ordinary tea and mistletoes served as control samples. Chemical analyses of blends were done ...

  10. Effects of sodium lactate and lactic acid on chemical, microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... value and also in the total volatile bases nitrogen contents in treated thigh. Overall, the findings ... Key words: Marinated chicken, sodium lactate, Lactic acid, Microbial quality, Sensory evaluation. INTRODUCTION ...... Chemical equilibrium of minced turkey meat in organic acid solutions. Meat Sci., 75(2): ...

  11. Microbiological and chemical assessment of spring water from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties of the spring waters were mostly within the WHO benchmark for potable water. Arae had the highest total dissolved solids (TDS) value of 969 mgL-1 (benchmark, 500 mg/L), total hardness values were normal except at Arae (260 mg/L). Heavy metals levels in the spring water were generally low ...

  12. Influence of sanitation on the physico-chemical and microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chlorinated and ozonized water on the physico-chemical characteristics of broccoli, produced under organic and conventional cultivation procedures. Organic and conventional broccolis were subjected to two sanitation treatments, using chlorine and ozone, ...

  13. Chemical and microbiological interactions between soils and roots in commercial banana plantations (Musa AAA, cv. Cavendish)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segura Mena, R.; Serrano, E.; Pocasangre, L.; Acuna, O.; Bertsch, F.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Sandoval, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the relationships between soil chemical and microbiological con-ditions and how they impact soil production. The study was carried out on six Costa Rican commercialbanana farms with high, medium and low productivity. In each of the farms sector with relatively

  14. [Sanitizing contaminated soil and groundwater pipes by microbiological and physico-chemical methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, P; Brauch, H J

    1989-01-01

    The contribution reports on two contamination cases, i.e., a waterwork "Durlacher Wald" and an industrial plant "Oberrheingraben" which were remedied using biological and physico-chemical methods. Furthermore, it deals with the laboratory investigations of the degradation of hydrocarbons, and also discusses briefly the advantages and problems of the microbiological remediation techniques.

  15. A survey on the microbiological and chemical composition of buffalo milk in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.Z.; Meng, Y.; Li, M.; Yang, Y.; Ren, F.; Zeng, Q.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and twelve samples of raw buffalo milk were collected at four locations in China, and their microbiological and chemical composition was analyzed. Average levels of major components were: fat 7.59% (v/v), crude protein 4.86% (w/w), lactose 4.74% (w/w), total solids 18.44% (w/w), ash

  16. Effects of Chemical Treatments on Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E. S.; Strom, M.; Dexter, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biofilms are known to have an effect on galvanic corrosion of alloys in seawater systems. In the Delaware Bay, biofilm formation on surface of cathodes has been shown to cause galvanic corrosion to occur up to 100 times more rapidly. Given the impacts that corrosion can have on structures, it is important to study how we can affect corrosion rates. One way of doing this is the application of chemical treatments to biofilms on metal samples. To investigate this, natural marine biofilms were grown on alloy 6XN stainless steel samples, and various chemical treatments were applied to discover their effects on open circuit potentials and corrosion currents. Another objective of this study was to determine if there was a threshold molecular weight above which molecules were unable to penetrate the biofilm. It was discovered that chemicals with molecular weights as high as 741.6 g/mol were able to penetrate at least some parts of the heterogeneous biofilm and reach the metal surface. No upper threshold value was found in this study. It was found that the reducing agents sodium L-ascorbate and NADH as well as the chelate ferizene caused a drop in open circuit potential of biofilmed 6XN samples. Also, glutaraldahyde, which is used as a fixative for bacteria, shifted the open circuit potential of biofilm samples in the noble direction but had no effect on the corrosion current. Sodium L- ascorbate was found to reach the metal surface, but in concentrations lower than those present in the bulk fluid. It was not determined in this study whether this was due to physical or chemical processes within the biofilm. A synergistic effect was observed when applying a mixture of ferizene and glutaraldahyde. It is thought that this was due to the death of the bacteria as well as the disruption of iron cycling in the biofilm. Finally, it was observed that NADH caused a reduction in current at potentials associated with iron reduction, leading us to believe that the iron was being reduced

  17. Consumer perceptions of risks of chemical and microbiological contaminants associated with food chains: A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kher, S.V.; Jonge, de J.; Wentholt, M.T.A.; Deliza, R.; Cunha de Andrade, J.; Cnossen, H.J.; Lucas Luijckx, N.B.; Frewer, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of effective systems to identify vulnerabilities in food chains to chemical and microbiological contaminants must take account of consumer priorities and preferences. The present investigation attempted to understand consumer perceptions associated with chemical

  18. Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Salem, F. M.; Abu Arab, E. A.

    2010-07-01

    Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning fatty liver, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras). Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 {mu}g/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras) changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 {mu}g/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras) manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA) or sorbic acid (SA) and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 degree centigrade were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 degree centigrade. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras) from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 degree centigrade could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile nitrogen (TVN), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 degree centigrade). This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras). A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of

  19. Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Quality of Deep well water in Selected Public Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma M. De Vera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Contaminated deep well water results in problems of gastro-enteritis and other waterborne diseases. Groundwater which is the main source of drinking water should be periodically monitored. This study focuses on the microbiological and physico-chemical quality of deep well water in four barangay public elementary schools of Bayambang, Pangasinan during the month of September, 2013. Physical Characteristics of the water samples were also determined. It employed the use of standard laboratory procedures to analyze the water quality parameters and the results compared with the Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW, 2007. In the microbiological parameters, the total bacterial count and total coliform of the four water samples did not pass the standard values while for the fecal coliform only Buenlag elementary school water sample passed the permissible limit. The test for E. coli.is negative to the four water samples. In the physicochemicalquality, all water samples passed the standard values on salinity, pH, nitrite and pesticide residues, while for total dissolved solids, one sample passed the PNSDW standard values. Water samples are odourless, two slightly fishy in taste, and two yellowish in color. Based on the microbiological and physico-chemical findings, deep well water in the four elementary schools must be boiled first and filtred before drinking. Deep well water should be tested every six months for microbiological and every three years for physico-chemical

  20. Technological, chemical, sensory, and microbiological examination of frozen chicken as affected by microwave thawing

    OpenAIRE

    Kenawi M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of microwave heating as a thawing method on physical, chemical sensory, and microbiological properties of frozen chicken was investigated in comparison with other thawing methods (at ambient temperature, in refrigerator, and in running tap water). Microwave thawed chicken had the highest taste panel scores and the lowest drip percentage loss compared with the other thawing methods. Thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) remarkably increased the samples thawed at ambient temperature or und...

  1. Chemical and microbiological attributes of an oxisol treated with successive applications of sewage sludge¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Pires Bueno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on sewage sludge (SS have confirmed the possibilities of using this waste as fertilizer and/or soil conditioner in crop production areas. Despite restrictions with regard to the levels of potentially toxic elements (PTE and pathogens, it is believed that properly treated SS with low PTE levels, applied to soil at adequate rates, may improve the soil chemical and microbiological properties. This study consisted of a long-term field experiment conducted on a Typic Haplorthox (eutroferric Red Latosol treated with SS for seven successive years for maize production, to evaluate changes in the soil chemical and microbiological properties. The treatments consisted of two SS rates (single and double dose of the crop N requirement and a mineral fertilizer treatment. Soil was sampled in the 0-0.20 m layer and analyzed for chemical properties (organic C, pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, CEC, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Pb and microbiological properties (basal respiration, microbial biomass activity, microbial biomass C, metabolic quotient, microbial quotient, and protease and dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Successive SS applications to soil increased the macro- and micronutrient availability, but the highest SS dose reduced the soil pH significantly, indicating a need for periodic corrections. The SS treatments also affected soil microbial activity and biomass negatively. There were no significant differences among treatments for maize grain yield. After seven annual applications of the recommended sludge rate, the heavy metal levels in the soil had not reached toxic levels.

  2. Shelf life of anchovy products (Engraulis encrasicolus: evaluation of sensory, microbiological and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fishery products have always been an important food in Italy. In the past, increased consumption was mainly due to the good quality of the products, easiness of use and their beneficial effects on health. Recently, owing to the national financial crisis, there has been a decline in the consumption of fish. In fact, in 2013, according to data from ISMEA, the consumption of fresh fish suffered a sharp contraction (-5%. This decline also concerns anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus. This species, partly because of its low price, is a mainstay of traditional Italian food. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensorial, chemical and microbiological properties of anchovy-based (Engraulis encrasicolus products during storage at 4 and -20°C. Fresh anchovies, obtained from the wholesale fish market of Pozzuoli (Southern Italy were cut into small pieces and hand-prepared using bread, eggs, cheese and lemon juice. Samples were analysed after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days of storage at 4°C. An aliquot was quickly frozen and analysed after 34 days at -20°C. Sensory assessment, microbiological (specific spoilage organisms, Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. and chemical (histamine, total volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine, thiobarbituric acid, pH and aw analyses were performed. Results showed that the shelf life of anchovy products was less than 5 days for the samples stored at 4°C. At -20°C, all anchovies preparations showed good sensory, microbiological and chemical properties for 34 days.

  3. Evolution of microbiological and physico-chemical quality of pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gonzaga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is defined, among other parameters, by a reduced number of spoilage microorganisms, low somatic cell count and the absence of pathogens and chemical waste. Several studies conducted in different regions of the country have emphasized the high percentage of samples not complying with the standard. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evolution of microbiological and physicochemical quality of pasteurized milk produced in the State of Paraná over 7 years. A total of 457 samples of pasteurized milk were analyzed, 104 samples in 2008, 269 samples in 2011 and 84 samples in 2014. The samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis of cryoscopy and enzyme search for alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase. Regarding microbiological tests, coliform counts were performed at 30°C and 45°C and count plate pattern. In the laboratory, physicochemical analysis were performed according to the Normative 68 and microbiological as normative instruction 62, both of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. The results showed that over the years the microbiological quality of milk decreased, with an increase of non-standard samples. For enzymes alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, the pasteurization temperature has been observed over time and the overheating of the milk was more frequent in 2011. Fraud by addition of water in milk has either decreased or become more sophisticated, making its detection difficult.

  4. Comparison of Chemical and Microbiological Parameters of Charcoal Versus Gas and Solar Energy Treated Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Osman Mohamed Abdalla; M.S. Daffalla

    2010-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment using different sources of heat on the chemical composition and microbial quality of milk was studied. Raw cow, goat and sheep milk were heated with charcoal, gas and solar energy at 99ºC for 12 min, cooled to 20ºC and chemical (fat, protein, total solids, ash (titratable acidity), vitamin C) composition as well as microbiological examination (total viable bacteria count) were carried out. Results showed that fat, total solids and ash contents w ere high in cow mi...

  5. Reduction in Acidity by Chemical and Microbiological Methods and Their Effect on Moslavac Wine Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Herjavec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in chemical composition and sensory properties caused by chemical and microbiological methods of deacidification in Moslavac (syn. Furmint wines were investigated. Alcoholic fermentation of Moslavac musts was carried out with two different strains of the yeasts Saccharomyces paradoxus. There were no marked differences in chemical composition among the wines. Compared to the control microbiological deacidification of wines by Oenococcus oeni resulted in a complete decomposition of malic acid, total acidity decrease of 1.55 g/L and pH value increase of 0.14 units. There were no significant differences in volatile acidity, tartaric and citric acid concentrations between the control and malolactically fermented wine. Chemically deacidified wines contained similar total acidity but higher pH values than malolactically fermented wines. Compared to control wines, the tartaric acid concentration decrease of 2.13 g/L and the pH value increase of 0.5 units were determined. The sensory quality of Moslavac wines of high acidity was improved by the applification of deacidification methods. Chemically deacidified wines were assessed as the best whereas the quality of the control wines was judged inferior.

  6. Kefir grains as a starter for whey fermentation at different temperatures: chemical and microbiological characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Alejandra; Hamet, María F; De Antoni, Graciela L; Garrote, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G

    2012-08-01

    We report here a comparative analysis of the growth, acidification capacity, and chemical and microbiologic composition between kefir grains after 20 subcultures in whey at 20, 30, and 37°C and the original kefir grains coming from milk along with a determination of the microbiological composition of the fermented whey as compared with that of traditional fermented milk. When fermentation was carried out repeatedly at 30 or 37°C, kefir grains changed their kefir-like appearance, exhibited reduced growth rates, had a lower diversity of yeasts and water content, and a higher protein-to-polysaccharide ratio compared with the original kefir grains. In contrast, at 20°C kefir grains could remain in whey for prolonged periods without altering their acidification capacity, growth rate, macroscopic appearance or chemical and microbiologic composition-with the only difference being a reduction in certain yeast populations after 20 subcultures in whey. At this incubation temperature, the presence of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lb. kefir, Lb. parakefir, Lactococcus lactis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces unisporus, and Sac. cerevisiae was detected in kefir grains and in fermented whey by denaturing-gradient-gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In whey fermented at 20°C the number of lactic-acid bacteria (LAB) was significantly lower (Pkefir grains as whey-fermentation starters.

  7. Effect of textural and chemical characteristics of activated carbons on phenol adsorption in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Diana P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of textural and chemical properties such as: surface area, pore volume and chemical groups content of the granular activated carbon and monoliths on phenol adsorption in aqueous solutions was studied. Granular activated carbon and monolith samples were produced by chemical activation. They were characterized by using N2 adsorption at 77 K, CO2 adsorption at 273 K, Boehm Titrations and immersion calorimetry in phenol solutions. Microporous materials with different pore size distribution, surface area between 516 and 1685 m2 g−1 and pore volumes between 0.24 and 0.58 cm3 g−1 were obtained. Phenol adsorption capacity of the activated carbon materials increased with increasing BET surface area and pore volume, and is favored by their surface functional groups that act as electron donors. Phenol adsorption capacities are in ranged between 73.5 and 389.4 mg · g−1.

  8. Chemical, physiochemical properties and microbiological characterization of a typical product, Pitina, made by Alpagota sheep meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Piasentier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and physicochemical properties of a typical fermented meat product called Pitina, prepared using ground sheep meat mixed with a variable proportion of pork lard, were studied in order to firstly assess them and to evaluate the effect of two levels of lard pork content (10% vs. 30%, weight basis and of two ripening conditions adopted by producers (traditional vs. modified atmosphere on the quality of final products. Both, the level of lard and the ripening condition influenced the physicochemical values and then the chemical characteristics of the ripened product. Instead, the microbiological profile seemed not to be strongly affected by the studied conditions and all batches examined showed high count of enterobacteria, coliforms and gram negative bacteria at the end of the sixtyday maturation period.

  9. Artisanal Sonoran cheese (Cocido cheese): an exploration of its production process, chemical composition and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-González, Paúl F; Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Reyes-Díaz, Ricardo; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and document the production process of artisanal Cocido cheese and to determine its chemical composition and microbiological quality, considering samples from six dairies and four retailers. Cocido cheese is a semi-hard (506-555 g kg-1 of moisture), medium fat (178.3-219.1 g kg-1 ), pasta filata-type cheese made from raw whole cow's milk. The production process is not standardized and therefore the chemical and microbiological components of the sampled cheeses varied. Indicator microorganisms significantly decreased (P cheese. Salmonella spp. were not found during the production process, and both Listeria monocytogenes and staphylococcal enterotoxin were absent in the final cheeses. This study provides more information on one of the most popular artisanal cheeses with high cultural value and economic impact in northwestern Mexico. In view of the foregoing, good manufacturing practices need to be implemented for the manufacture of Cocido cheese. Also, it is of utmost importance to make sure that the heat treatment applied for cooking the curd ensures a phosphatase-negative test, otherwise it would be necessary to pasteurize milk. Nevertheless, since Cocido cheese is a non-ripened, high-moisture product, it is a highly perishable product that could present a health risk if not properly handled. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Microstructural, chemical and textural characterization of ZnO nanorods synthesized by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáenz-Trevizo, A.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Fuentes-Cobas, L.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico); Pérez-García, S.A. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Unidad Monterrey, Apodaca, Nuevo León 66600 (Mexico); Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    ZnO nanorods were synthesized by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition onto TiO{sub 2} covered borosilicate glass substrates. Deposition parameters were optimized and kept constant. Solely the effect of different nozzle velocities on the growth of ZnO nanorods was evaluated in order to develop a dense and uniform structure. The crystalline structure was characterized by conventional X-ray diffraction in grazing incidence and Bragg–Brentano configurations. In addition, two-dimensional grazing incidence synchrotron radiation diffraction was employed to determine the preferred growth direction of the nanorods. Morphology and growth characteristics analyzed by electron microscopy were correlated with diffraction outcomes. Chemical composition was established by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the presence of wurtzite ZnO and anatase TiO{sub 2} phases. Morphological changes noticed when the deposition velocity was lowered to the minimum, indicated the formation of relatively vertically oriented nanorods evenly distributed onto the TiO{sub 2} buffer film. By coupling two-dimensional X-ray diffraction and computational modeling with ANAELU it was proved that a successful texture determination was achieved and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Texture analysis led to the conclusion of a preferred growth direction in [001] having a distribution width Ω = 20° ± 2°. - Highlights: • Uniform and pure single-crystal ZnO nanorods were obtained by AACVD technique. • Longitudinal and transversal axis parallel to the [001] and [110] directions, respectively. • Texture was determined by 2D synchrotron diffraction and electron microscopy analysis. • Nanorods have its [001] direction distributed close to the normal of the substrate. • Angular spread about the preferred orientation is 20° ± 2°.

  11. Chemical and texture characteristics and sensory properties of “mozzarella” cheese from different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rubino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was describing the chemical composition, the rheological characteristics and the sensory properties of “mozzarella” cheese produced with milk from buffalos fed with different diets. The study involved two farms and four feeding systems. In farm C, one group was mostly fed with Ryegrass Hay (RH and the other group with Ryegrass Silage (RS. In farm T, instead, one group was mostly fed with Corn Silage (CS and the other one with a Sorghum Silage (SS. In summer, three cheesemakings, for each farm and for each feeding system, were carried out at C.R.A. of Bella. In each farm, data were processed by the analysis of variance in order to compare the effects of two feeding systems. Some parameters of chemical and texture characteristics and sensory properties were influenced by the feeding system. Results were remarkable for the DOP products.

  12. Petrological cannibalism: the chemical and textural consequences of incremental magma body growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kathy; Blundy, Jon

    2013-09-01

    The textures of minerals in volcanic and plutonic rocks testify to a complexity of processes in their formation that is at odds with simple geochemical models of igneous differentiation. Zoning in plagioclase feldspar is a case in point. Very slow diffusion of the major components in plagioclase means that textural evidence for complex magmatic evolution is preserved, almost without modification. Consequently, plagioclase affords considerable insight into the processes by which magmas accumulate in the crust prior to their eventual eruption or solidification. Here, we use the example of the 1980-1986 eruptions of Mount St. Helens to explore the causes of textural complexity in plagioclase and associated trapped melt inclusions. Textures of individual crystals are consistent with multiple heating and cooling events; changes in total pressure ( P) or volatile pressure () are less easy to assess from textures alone. We show that by allying textural and chemical analyses of plagioclase and melt inclusions, including volatiles (H2O, CO2) and slow-diffusing trace elements (Sr, Ba), to published experimental studies of Mount St. Helens magmas, it is possible to disambiguate the roles of pressure and temperature to reconstruct magmatic evolutionary pathways through temperature-pressure-melt fraction ( T-- F) space. Our modeled crystals indicate that (1) crystallization starts at > 300 MPa, consistent with prior estimates from melt inclusion volatile contents, (2) crystal cores grow at = 200-280 MPa at F = 0.65-0.7, (3) crystals are transferred to = 100-130 MPa (often accompanied by 10-20 °C of heating), where they grow albitic rims of varying thicknesses, and (4) the last stage of crystallization occurs after minor heating at ~ 100 MPa to produce characteristic rim compositions of An50. We hypothesize that modeled decreases in excess of ~50 MPa most likely represent upward transport through the magmatic system. Small variations in modeled , in contrast, can be effected by

  13. Researches on Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Sheep and Cow Milk from Cristian Farm, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Ionuţ Radu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted over a period of three month in the Cristian farm, Sibiu. For the physical, chemical and microbiological analyzes were taken a number of 15 samples per month. From physico-chemical point of view the content evolution of fat, not fat solid substance, density, protein, freezing point, temperature, lactose, conductivity, pH, water addition was followed. Samples were analyzed using the milk analyzer Ekomilk Total of the Research Centre in Biotechnology and Microbiology of the "Lucian Blaga" University. The microbiological contamination of milk was done by determining the total number of bacteria and coliform bacteria. From microbiological point of view it was observed that these conditions are largely met, but a more rigorous control on the cleanliness of utensils and of the staff is required.

  14. Effects of salt and storage temperature on chemical microbiological and sensory changes in cold-smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Gill, T.; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Chemical, microbiological and sensory changes during storage of vacuum-packed cold-smoked salmon were studied using a factorial experimental design with two storage temperatures (5 and 10 degrees C) and two salt levels (2.2 and 4.6%). The spoilage characteristics were typical of microbiological...... activity in all treatments, but there was no relation between sensory changes and any of the microbiological numbers (total viable counts, total psychrotrophes, lactic acid bacteria or Enterobacteriaceae). Total viable counts typically reached 10(8) cfu/g weeks before sensory rejection. Acetic acid...

  15. Estimation of the environmental risk posed by landfills using chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological testing of leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejczyk, Marek; Płaza, Grażyna A; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Ulfig, Krzysztof; Markowska-Szczupak, Agata

    2011-02-01

    The leachates from 22 municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites in Southern Poland were characterized by evaluation of chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological parameters. Chemical analyses were mainly focused on the identification of the priority hazardous substances according to Directive on Priority Substances, 2008/105/EC (a daughter directive of the WFD) in leachates. As showed, only five substances (Cd, Hg, hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene and PAHs) were detected in the leachates. The compounds tested were absent or present at very low concentrations. Among them, only PAHs were found in all samples in the range from 0.057 to 77.2 μg L⁻¹. The leachates were contaminated with bacteria, including aerobic, psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, coliform and fecal coliforms, and spore-forming-bacteria, including Clostridium perfringens, and with filamentous fungi. From the analysis of specific microorganism groups (indicators of environmental pollution by pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic organisms) it can be concluded that the landfill leachates showed sanitary and epidemiological hazard. In the ecotoxicological study, a battery of tests comprised of 5 bioassays, i.e. Microtox(®), Spirotox, Rotoxkit F™, Thamnotoxkit F™ and Daphtoxkit F™ magna was applied. The leachate samples were classified as toxic in 13.6%, highly toxic in 54.6% and very highly toxic in 31.8%. The Spirotox test was the most sensitive bioassay used. The percentage of class weight score was very high - above 60%; these samples could definitely be considered seriously hazardous and acutely toxic to the fauna and microflora. No correlations were found between the toxicity values and chemical parameters. The toxicity of leachate samples cannot be explained by low levels of the priority pollutants. It seems that other kinds of xenobiotics present in the samples at subacute levels gave the high aggregate toxic effect. The chemical, ecotoxicological and microbiological

  16. Microbiological and Chemical Quality of Water in Food Industries with Low Content of Water at End Products

    OpenAIRE

    Sh Nazmara; A Ostadrahimi; H Taghipour; M Mosaferi

    2009-01-01

    "n "nBackground and Objectives: In the production of some high-consumed food products like cake, biscuit, chocolate and spaghetti water is used in the preparing of primary material and in the kneading processes. At the present study microbiological and chemical quality of consumed water in food industries of East Azerbaijan Province were studied."nMaterials and Methods: Eleven factories with different products were selected. Water samples were collected and analyzed regarding the microbiologi...

  17. Evaluation of Two Surface Sampling Methods for Microbiological and Chemical Analyses To Assess the Presence of Biofilms in Food Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Sharon; Huu, Son Nguyen; Heyndrickx, Marc; Weyenberg, Stephanie van; Steenackers, Hans; Verplaetse, Alex; Vackier, Thijs; Sampers, Imca; Raes, Katleen; Reu, Koen De

    2017-12-01

    Biofilms are an important source of contamination in food companies, yet the composition of biofilms in practice is still mostly unknown. The chemical and microbiological characterization of surface samples taken after cleaning and disinfection is very important to distinguish free-living bacteria from the attached bacteria in biofilms. In this study, sampling methods that are potentially useful for both chemical and microbiological analyses of surface samples were evaluated. In the manufacturing facilities of eight Belgian food companies, surfaces were sampled after cleaning and disinfection using two sampling methods: the scraper-flocked swab method and the sponge stick method. Microbiological and chemical analyses were performed on these samples to evaluate the suitability of the sampling methods for the quantification of extracellular polymeric substance components and microorganisms originating from biofilms in these facilities. The scraper-flocked swab method was most suitable for chemical analyses of the samples because the material in these swabs did not interfere with determination of the chemical components. For microbiological enumerations, the sponge stick method was slightly but not significantly more effective than the scraper-flocked swab method. In all but one of the facilities, at least 20% of the sampled surfaces had more than 102 CFU/100 cm2. Proteins were found in 20% of the chemically analyzed surface samples, and carbohydrates and uronic acids were found in 15 and 8% of the samples, respectively. When chemical and microbiological results were combined, 17% of the sampled surfaces were contaminated with both microorganisms and at least one of the analyzed chemical components; thus, these surfaces were characterized as carrying biofilm. Overall, microbiological contamination in the food industry is highly variable by food sector and even within a facility at various sampling points and sampling times.

  18. Chemical and textural attributes of Hellim (Halloumi cheese marketed in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Ergönül

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and textural properties of Hellim (Halloumi cheese marketed in Turkey were determined in this research. Cheese samples were collected from manufacturers in Turkey and according to data obtained, water amounts of samples were changing in a wide range of 34.07-55.92 %, whereas the average pH values of the samples was 5.91±0.36. Cholesterol contents of the samples were low and changing among 7.54-14.79 mg/100 g. Average fat and protein amounts of samples were 25.43±1.7 (%, and 22.81±5.62 (% respectively, and 30.31±1.15 (% of the fat fraction was composed of unsaturated fatty acids. Main organic acids determined in samples were citric, lactic and propionic acids. Also, hardness, chewiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and gumminess scores of thesamples were determined by TPA analysis and Hunter color scores were evaluated.

  19. Microbiological and chemical contamination in different types of food of non-European origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the markets of the European Union (EU the presence of food imported from non-European countries such as Asia, Africa and America is increasingly more widespread. Non-European countries, indeed, are much more competitive in terms of prices compared to European countries. For these reasons, EU has issued important laws. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of these regulations, estimating the levels of microbiological and chemical contamination of food samples of 91 different matrices imported from third countries. The microbiological methods used are those required by the UNI EN ISO, while for the determination of chemical parameters validated methods according to the Standard UNI EN ISO 16140:2003 were used. Our investigation revealed qualitative or quantitative microbial contamination in 23 out of 91 samples analysed (25.2%. We found high total microbial loads in alimentary conserves, multiple bacterial contamination (Salmonella thiphymurium, Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus and viral contamination (Norovirus in shellfish of the species Cassostrea gigas, and the presence of other pathogens in various products such as hamburgers (Yersinia enterocolitica, frozen fish (Listeria monocytogenes and honey (Bacillus cereus. With regard to chemical contamination, 24 samples of different food products were analysed. In 9 samples (37.5%, the levels of the following substances exceeded the permitted limits: histamine (fish conserves, mercury (crab meat, cadmium (crab meat and fish conserves, lead (cheese and honey and polyphosphates (chicken meat. Despite the limited number of samples analysed, these data prompt reflection on the need to implement a more detailed and rigorous activity of monitoring and control in order to guarantee adequate levels of safety with regard to the consumption of foodstuffs imported into the EU from non-European countries.

  20. Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Salem, Ferial M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning “fatty liver”, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras. Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA or sorbic acid (SA and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 °C were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 °C. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 °C could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA, total volatile nitrogen (TVN, peroxide value (PV, free fatty acid (FFA, ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 °C. This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras. A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of taste, odor, appearance, color and texture. In

  1. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Palese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities.

  2. Physical, chemical and microbiological analysis of the water quality of Rawal Lake, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehreen Hassan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available What better gift of nature would be than good quality water? In order to assess the quality of water of Rawal Lake, following research was carried out. Rawal lake is a source of drinking water supplied to many areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad’ the capital city of Pakistan. Water of this lake is being highly polluted by the local communities alongside the lake through solid waste dumping. Samples of surface water were collected, tested and analyzed in the laboratory on the basis of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The results showed uncertainties in many of the selected parameters. Microbiological analysis revealed high contamination of E. coli, fecal coliform and total coliform in the samples proving it unfit for drinking. It was found that the concentration of all physical parameters such as nitrates, chloride, pH and conductivity were within the normal limits. The level of heavy metals like lead, iron, chromium etc. was also found low. Turbidity at some points exceeded the maximum acceptable limit as per WHO statement.

  3. Chemical solution deposition of textured BaTiO{sub 3} buffer layers on cube textured Ni-tapes fabricated from commercially available nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staller, O; Gritzner, G [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University A 4040 Linz (Austria)], E-mail: Gerhard.gritzner@jku.at

    2008-02-01

    Barium titanate buffer layers were successfully applied to cube textured Ni-tapes fabricated from commercially available nickel by a chemical solution deposition route. Barium acetate solutions in anhydrous acetic acid were mixed with bis(pentane-2,4-dionato)-titanium(IV)-oxide dissolved in methanol. A slight excess of acetic acid anhydride assured the anhydrous medium. The precursor solution was spin-coated to the Ni-substrate. Heat treatment at 1 000 deg. C under a reducing atmosphere (Ar + 6.5 vol-% H{sub 2}) resulted in dense c-axis oriented, a-b in-plane aligned buffer layers.

  4. Combined chemical and microbiological removal of organic sulfur from coal. Technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphaelian, L.A.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this work is to investigate techniques for chemically converting the sulfur containing organic compounds in coal to compounds that can be treated microbiologically to remove the organically bound sulfur. The goal is to achieve an economically feasible mild chemical oxidation of the organic sulfur in a representative Illinois Basin coal by converting the sulfur to sulfoxides and sulfones; the carbon sulfur bond in the sulfoxides and sulfones would then be broken microbiologically and the sulfur removed from the coal as sulfate.

  5. Chemical and microbiological analysis of red wines during storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Overall, chemical and microbiological analyses are very important for the quality of wine during and after winemaking process. One of the most important factors during wine storage is the temperature of storage. During storage of red wines in tanks, barrique barrels or glass bottles underway many physical, chemical and biochemical changes, which have significant influence for the stabilize of taste, scent, colour and general character of wine. The aim of our study we used two different wines, specifically Cabernet Sauvignon and Blaufränkisch and chemically and microbiologically analysed these wines during storage at different temperatures. These wines were bottled in 2011 and 2013. We stored these samples at different temperatures. The first four samples were stored at 6-8°C in refrigerator, and the next four were stored at 20-25°C in room temperature. We had together eight wine samples. We had determined in all wine samples sequentially the free and total sulphur dioxide content, ethyl-alcohol content, extract, sugars, total and volatile acids. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2011 at 6-8°C had content 12,14% ethyl-alcohol, 2.3% sugars, 5.6% total acids, 0,444 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.6 g.L-1 extract, 8 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 18 mg.L-1total SO2. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2011 at 20-25°C had content 12,05% ethyl-alcohol, 2.4% sugars, 5.6% total acids, 0,456 g.L-1 volatile acids, 27.4 g.L-1extract, 6 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 18 mg.L-1total SO2.The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 at 6-8°C had content 11,98% ethyl-alcohol, 1.8% sugars, 5.9% total acids, 0,324 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.7 g.L-1extract, 24 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 42 mg.L-1total SO2. The wine sample Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 at 20-25°C had content 11,98% ethyl-alcohol, 1.8% sugars, 5.9% total acids, 0,324 g.L-1 volatile acids, 25.7 g.L-1 extract, 24 mg.L-1 free SO2 and 42 mg.L-1total SO2.These results were collected from one measuring, but we had results from three measuring

  6. Fermentation of maize (Zea mays L.) meal or mawe production in Benin : physical, chemical and microbiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Mawè is a sour dough made from partially dehulled maize meal, which has undergone natural fermentation for 1 to 3 days.

    In this thesis, the processing methods, the characteristics of the products and the physical, chemical and microbiological changes during natural fermentation of

  7. Evolution of microbiological and chemical parameters during red wine making with extended post-fermentation maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca, Nicola; Romano, Raffaele; Sannino, Ciro; Le Grottaglie, Laura; Settanni, Luca; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2014-02-03

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics of red wine subjected to post-fermentation maceration that was extended to 90 days. For this purpose, the 'Aglianico di Taurasi' grape was used as a case study. The total yeast concentration increased until day 40 of maceration and decreased thereafter, whereas the concentration of lactic acid bacteria slightly increased. Dekkera/Brettanomyces spp. and acetic acid bacteria were not detected. The yeast community was composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bisporus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia guilliermondii, Aureobasidium pullulans and Debaryomyces carsonii. Nine S. cerevisiae strains were detected at high levels at different times of maceration. The results of all the conventional chemical analyses of the wines were in agreement with the regulations of commercial production and, interestingly, the changes in terms of concentration demonstrated the presence of yeast and LAB populations that were not only alive but also in a metabolically active state until day 90 of maceration. The alcohol and glycerol contents slightly increased until day 90. The concentrations of malic acid decreased, whereas those of lactic acid slightly increased throughout the maceration process. Furthermore, different durations of maceration resulted in significant differences in the total polyphenol content, which was higher at 40-50 days. The main phenolic compounds were benzoic and cinnamic acids and catechins. Interestingly, the highest ratio between (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin was found on day 40. In addition, the highest antioxidant activity was observed between days 40 and 50. The concentration of volatile organic compounds, which were mainly represented by alcohols, increased until the end of the maceration process. Sensory analysis revealed that samples that were subjected to maceration for a long

  8. Research of organoleptic, physical-chemical and microbiological indicators of the enriched cottage cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Sviridova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of enriched curd by introducing a kelp of Laminaria family – Laminariaceae is discussed. The change of quality characteristics of the curd during storage have been studied. It was found that for the enriched product that meets the requirements of standards on the organoleptic, physico-chemical and microbiological parameters, optimal amount of kelp is 1%. Bigger amount of Laminaria led to the slight increase in the acidity of the product and the deterioration of organoleptic characteristics. The microbiological analysis of samples of enriched cheese showed absence of coliform bacteria, bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus aureus and molds. During the entire storage period of product a decrease of product contamination was observed. The most intense microflora reduction observed in the test sample after 120 hours of storage. Hence, a kelp exhibit antimicrobial activity. During the storage period the number of micro-organisms met the requirements of the standards. By the end of the storage period an amount of lactic acid bacteria in the product was at least 106 CFU / g. Adding of a 1% kelp to the curd promoted slight increase the energy value of the product, while the iodine content increased by 10 times. Thus, the use for food of 100 g of the enriched by laminaria cheese satisfy the adult daily requirement of iodine by 60–70%. Furthermore, the use of kelp as addition to the curd brings not only iodine but also vitamins, microelements and other beneficial agents for humans. Based on the above we can recommend this product as a prophylactic and preventive nutrition for different groups of the population suffering from iodine deficiency.

  9. Correlation between microbiological and chemical parameters of some hydrothermal springs in New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzonca, Bartłomiej; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2003-09-01

    Discharge areas of hydrothermal springs are known to be inhabited by diverse types of microorganisms including archaea, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. A total of 11 hydrothermal samples from the Rio Grande rift and the Valles caldera in New Mexico were analyzed to investigate the correlation between chemical and microbiological parameters of hydrothermal waters. The sampled fluids are categorized into three chemical groups: (I) steam-condensing acid sulfate waters, (II) deep geothermal and derivative waters and (III) thermal meteoric waters. Analyses of the microbial phospholipid fatty acids and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of DNA show that acid sulfate waters were populated by thermoacidophilic organisms and had high biomass content. Mineralized deep geothermal and derivative waters exhibited a high degree of microbial diversity, but had low biomass content. Thermal meteoric waters are low in total dissolved solids, and exhibit very low biomass content and microbial diversity. DNA sequences from several previously unknown microbial species were detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that microbes can be used as tracers for specific types of subsurface environments.

  10. Effects of digestate on soil chemical and microbiological properties: A comparative study with compost and vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Juárez, Marina Fernández-Delgado; Zangerle, Matthias; Insam, Heribert

    2016-01-25

    Anaerobic digestion has become increasingly popular as an alternative for recycling wastes from different origins. Consequently, biogas residues, most of them with unknown chemical and biological composition, accrue in large quantities and their application into soil has become a widespread agricultural practise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of digestate application on the chemical and microbiological properties of an arable soil in comparison with untreated manure, compost and vermicompost. Once in the soil matrix either the addition of compost or digestate led to an increased nitrification rate, relative to unamended and manure-treated soil, after 15 and 60 days of incubation. Faecal coliform and E. coli colony forming units (CFUs) were not detected in any of the amended soils after 60 days. The highest number of Clostridium perfringens CFUs was recorded in manure-amended soil at the beginning of the experiment and after 15 days; whilst after 60 days the lowest CFU number was registered in digestate-treated soil. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns also showed that besides the treatment the date of sampling could have contributed to modifications in the soil ammonia-oxidising bacteria community, thereby indicating that the soil itself may influence the community diversity more strongly than the treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbiological and chemical profiles of naturally fermented table olives and brines from different Italian cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Schirone, Maria; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Angelozzi, Giovanni; Suzzi, Giovanna; Corsetti, Aldo

    2012-06-01

    Six naturally fermented (Greek-style) table olives of cultivars Itrana, Peranzana, Cellina di Nardò, Nocellara del Belice and Bella di Cerignola, as well as their corresponding brines, were studied by a combined strategy consisting of chemical, microbiological and molecular analyses. In particular, organic acids, sugars, polyphenols, fatty acids, biogenic amines and cultivable microbiota were detected by standard methods. Moreover, tyramine and histamine producing bacteria were evaluated by an original approach consisting of Reverse-Transcription (RT)-qPCR. At the end of the fermentation process, mesophilic lactobacilli and yeasts in brine represented the dominating biota, ranging from 6.25 to 7.84 log CFU/ml and from 6.5 to 7.56 log CFU/ml, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae and pathogens were undetectable in all the samples. In general, table olive preparations differed in chemical composition. In particular, C16:0 and C18:2c9,12 concentrations ranged from 9.9 to 18.8 % and from 5.4 to 15.4 % of total fatty acids, respectively. The main fatty acid detected was C18:1c9 while CLAc9, t11 was present only in traces. Polyphenol concentrations greatly differentiated the final product, depending on the cultivar. A low quantity of biogenic amines was found in some samples and biogenic amines producing bacteria were rapidly detectable by RT-qPCR.

  12. Microbiological and chemical changes in freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosembergii stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitão Mauro Faber de Freitas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological and chemical changes were evaluated in freshwater prawn stored under refrigeration at 0°C and 5°C during 10 days, with special emphasis on indole production as a chemical spoilage indicator. The total psychrotrophic and indole positive microflora were mainly mesophilic, with indole positive microorganisms being less than 10% of the total microflora after 10 days storage under refrigeration. Bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families prevailed among the isolated indole positive strains. The use of the Most Probable Number-MPN method, using tryptone broth as culture medium, was the most reliable approach for the quantitative evaluation of the indole positive microflora. The stored samples showed increases in pH, L-tryptophan and total volatile bases (TVB, which were more intensive at 5°C. The psychrotrophic counts and TVB values of samples stored at 0°C were lower than the recommended limits (107 CFU/g and 30 mg N/100g, respectively, even after 10 days storage. However, in samples stored at 5°C, these values were reached after 10 and 5 days, respectively. The presence of indole in levels above the limit recommended by FDA/USA (25 mug/100g was confirmed in only one sample, suggesting that this substance, alone, wouldn?t be a good indicator of freshwater prawn quality stored under refrigeration.

  13. Microbiological and chemical properties of litter from different chicken types and production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeira, N. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Barbour, E.K. [Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)]. E-mail: eb01@aub.edu.lb; Nehme, P.A. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Hamadeh, S.K. [Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Zurayk, R. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Bashour, I. [Department of Land and Water Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2006-08-15

    Chicken litter is produced in large quantities from all types of poultry raising activities. It is primarily used for land application, thus it is essential to analyze its properties before it is released to the environment. The objective of this study is to compare the microbiological and chemical properties of litter generated from layer and broiler chickens reared under intensive and free-range production systems. The microbiological analysis consisted of the enumeration of total bacteria, total coliforms, Staphylococcus species, Salmonella species and Clostridium perfringens. Chicken litter from layers reared under intensive and free range systems showed lower mean total bacterial count than the litter collected from chicken broilers reared under either of the two systems (P = 0.0291). The litter from intensive layers had the lowest mean total coliform counts (P = 0.0222) while the lowest Staphylococcus species count was observed in the litter from free-range layers (P = 0.0077). The C. perfringens count was the lowest in chicken litter from intensively raised broilers and layers (P = 0.0001). The chemical properties of litter from the different chicken types and production systems were compared based on determination of pH, electrical conductivity, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, cadmium and zinc. Litter from free-range broilers showed the highest pH value (P = 0.0005); however, the electrical conductivity was higher in the litter from both intensive and free-range layers compared to the litter from both broiler production systems (P = 0.0117). Chicken litter from intensive systems had higher nitrogen content than litter from free-range systems (P = 0.0000). The total phosphorus was the lowest in free-range broiler litter (P = 0.0001), while the total potassium was the lowest in litter from intensively managed broilers (P = 0.0000). Zinc appeared higher in litter from layers compared to that from broilers (P = 0.0101). The cadmium content was higher

  14. Microbiological, sensorial and chemical quality of gamma irradiated pistachio nut (Pistacia vera l.

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    Mahfouz AL-BACHIR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation and storage period on quality retention of raw pistachio nut. Var. Halebi. Kernel of the pistachio nuts were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated nuts were kept at room temperature for 12 months. Used doses of irradiation significantly reduced the total bacterial plate counts (TBPCs and total fungal counts up to undetectable level (less than 10 CFU g-1. Irradiation doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy of gamma irradiation seem to be suitable for post-harvest sanitation and decontamination treatment, without significant changes in the sensorial properties (texture, odor, color and taste, chemical quality (free fatty acids and pH value or in contents of moisture, proteins, sugars, lipid, and ash, with respect to the control samples. The highest used dose (3kGy slightly decreased the fatty acid content and pH value, and treatment with higher doses (2 and 3 kGy significantly increased the total volatile nitrogen TVN.

  15. Microbiological and chemical attributes of a Hapludalf soil with swine manure fertilization

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    Rafael da Rosa Couto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical attributes of a soil with a seven‑year history of urea and swine manure application. In the period from October 2008 to October 2009, soil samples were collected in the 0-10 cm layer and were subjected to the treatments: control, without application of urea or manure; and with the application of urea, pig slurry, and deep pig litter in two doses, in order to supply one or two times the recommended N doses for the maize (Zea mays/black oat (Avena strigosa crop succession. The carbon of the microbial biomass (MB‑C and the basal respiration (C‑CO2 were analyzed, and the metabolic (qCO2 and microbial quotient (qmic were calculated with the obtained data. Organic matter, pH in water, available P and K, and exchangeable Ca and Mg were also determined. The application of twice the dose of deep pig litter increases the MB‑C and C‑CO2 values. The qmic and qCO2 are little affected by the application of swine manure. The application of twice the dose of deep pig litter increases the values of pH in water and the contents of available P and of exchangeable Ca and Mg in the soil.

  16. [Microbiological and chemical quality of water used in Colombian food industries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elizabeth; Ortiz, Jaime Eduardo; Murillo, Carmenza; Nava, Gerardo; Cárdenas, Omayda; Peralta, Alejandro; Paredez, Marta; Piñeros, Karina; Otálora, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Food safety is a public health concern that is recognized worldwide. Food-borne diseases affect millions of people throughout the world, although mainly in developing countries. The current study was performed within the framework of an inter-administrative agreement in Colombia that considers decisions for improving the sanitary status of products from the agrofood industry in Colombia. Water used in Colombian food industries was assessed for its hygienic and sanitary qualities. The descriptive cross sectional study included 66 industries located in eight geographic provinces across Colombia, including the Capital District of Bogotá. The analytical determinations included 13 physical-chemical parameters, three bacteriological parameters, organophosphate and carbamate levels and presence of 10 metals. Half of the industries were associated with production of dairy products and the other half with the meat-packing industry. Using the the current standards for human drinking water, the risk index of the food industry water samples was high for 4.5% of these industries, moderate risk for 34.8%, low risk for 16.7% and for 43.9%, no risk. The parameters with the highest number of samples not in compliance with water health standards were microbiological (21.2%) and residual chlorine (28.8%). The results showed that the water used in most food industries can produce food spoilage and transmission of pathogen microorganisms. Importance is stressed for organizing a constant program of monitoring and control of water usage in food industries.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties of fresh ashitaba and kale juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Haeng

    2012-08-01

    Due to the popularity of health effects upon intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, the demand for fresh vegetables and fruit juices has rapidly increased. However, currently, washing is the only procedure for reducing contaminated microorganisms, which obviously limits the shelf-life of fresh vegetable juice (less than 3 days). In this study, we examined the effects of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of ashitaba and kale juices for industrial application and possible shelf-life extension. Freshly made ashitaba and kale juices already had 2.3×105 and 9.5×104 CFU/mL, respectively. Irradiation of 5 kGy induced higher than 2 decimal reductions in the microbial level, which was consistently maintained during storage for 7 days under refrigerated conditions. Total content of ascorbic acid in vegetable juice decreased upon irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. However, the content of flavonoids did not change, whereas that of polyphenols increased upon irradiation. In sensory evaluation, the ashitaba and kale juices without irradiation (control) scored lower than the irradiated samples after 1 and 3 days, respectively. This study confirms that irradiation is an effective method for sterilizing fresh vegetable juice without compromising sensory property, which cannot be subjected to heat pasteurization due to changes in the bioactivities of the products.

  18. Study on Microbial Deposition and Contamination onto Six Surfaces Commonly Used in Chemical and Microbiological Laboratories

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    Elena Tamburini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The worktops in both chemical and microbiological laboratories are the surfaces most vulnerable to damage and exposure to contamination by indoor pollutants. The rate at which particles are deposited on indoor surfaces is an important parameter to determine human exposure to airborne biological particles. In contrast to what has been established for inorganic pollutants, no limit has been set by law for microbial contamination in indoor air. To our knowledge, a comparative study on the effect of surfaces on the deposition of microbes has not been carried out. An evaluation of the microbial contamination of worktop materials could be of crucial importance, both for safety reasons and for the reliability of tests and experiments that need to be carried out in non-contaminated environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall microbial contamination (fungi, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, staphylococci on six widely used worktop materials in laboratories (glass, stainless steel, fine porcelain stoneware, post-forming laminate, high-performing laminate and enamel steel and to correlate it with the characteristics of the surfaces. After cleaning, the kinetics of microbial re-contamination were also evaluated for all surfaces.

  19. Chemical and microbiological analysis of public school water in Uberaba Municipality

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    Sérgio Marcos Sanches

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the quality of water consumed by schoolchildren in the city of Uberaba, relying upon chemical analyzes to determine the levels of free-residual chlorine and levels of chromium, copper, manganese, lead and cadmium. Microbiological analysis was also performed in order to determine total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using the values established by Ordinance n0 . 2914 of 2011 of the Ministry of Health as parameters for safe drinking water. Water samples were analyzed from the drinking fountains and kitchen faucets of eight public schools that serve children aged 0-5 years. Sampling was conducted quarterly from December 2011 to September 2012, resulting in four collections. The results revealed the presence of Escherichia coli and total coliforms above the valued permitted by legislation in more than 50% of the samples. It was also observed that concentrations of free-residual chlorine were below the minimum value required by law in nearly half of the samples analyzed. In relation to the concentration of metals, some samples had water contents of copper, cadmium, chromium, manganese and lead above the permissible levels. Statistical tests revealed that when analyzing the period of sampling, only the values for the concentrations of free-residual chlorine, chromium and lead showed no significant difference (p> 0.05. The results show the need for corrective actions at the water supply point for the school population, in addition to monitoring and controlling the quality of water for human consumption.

  20. Evaluation of tropical water sources and mollusks in southern Brazil using microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Ramos, Ana Paula Dores; Nunes, Fabrício Flores; Moresco, Vanessa; Taniguchi, Satie; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Durigan, Maurício; Teixeira, Adriano Luiz; Pilotto, Mariana Rangel; Delfino, Nicésio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues de; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2012-02-01

    Florianópolis, a city located in the Santa Catarina State in southern Brazil, is the national leading producer of bivalve mollusks. The quality of bivalve mollusks is closely related to the sanitary conditions of surrounding waters where they are cultivated. Presently, cultivation areas receive large amounts of effluents derived mainly from treated and non-treated domestic, rural, and urban sewage. This contributes to the contamination of mollusks with trace metals, pesticides, other organic compounds, and human pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoan. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough diagnosis of the shellfish growing areas in Florianópolis, on the coast of Santa Catarina. The contamination levels of seawater, sediments, and oysters were evaluated for their microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters at five sea sites in Florianópolis, namely three regular oyster cultivation areas (Sites 1, 2, and oyster supplier), a polluted site (Site 3), and a heavily polluted site (Site 4). Samples were evaluated at day zero and after 14 days. Seawater and sediment samples were collected just once, at the end of the experiment. Antioxidant defenses, which may occur in contaminated environments in response to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by organisms, were analyzed in oysters, as well as organic compounds (in oysters and sediment samples) and microbiological contamination (in oysters and seawater samples). The results showed the presence of the following contaminants: fecal coliforms in seawater samples (four sites), human adenovirus (all sites), human noroviruses GI and GII (two sites), Hepatitis A viruses (one site), JC Polyomavirus in an oyster sample from the oyster supplier, Giardia duodenalis cysts, and Cryptosporidium sp oocysts (one site). Among organochlorine pesticides, only DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) were detected in some sediment and oysters samples in very

  1. Changes in chemical and microbiological composition of two varieties of olive during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borcakli, M.

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the changes in chemical and microbiological composition of two olive varieties, Edincik and Gemlik, have been examined during fermentation at industrial scale. Prior to processing, the olives have been thoroughly characterized chemically and microbiologically. Then, the nature of the fermentation process has been investigated during the 9 months of fermentation period by taking samples at certain intervals. The most important characteristics of the two varieties before processing were determined as follows: Edincik variety was found to have relatively higher reducing sugar (5.94% and moisture (59.53% contents than that of Gemlik variety (4.45% reducing sugar and 43.18% moisture. Polyphenol concentrations of two varieties were 2.50% and 2.40%, respectively. During fermentation, reducing sugar and polyphenols contents were decreased gradually in the fruit, while other constituents were slightly changed or remained almost unchanged. While reducing sugar decreased to the values of 0.98% and 0.65%, free acidity in brine increased to 0.41% and 0.35%, pH value of brine were 4.4 and 4.9 and salt content in fruit were reached to the final values of 7.4% and 6.9% for Edincik and Gemlik varieties, respectively. Microflora of the raw samples was consisted of various bacteria mainly, lactobacilli, Gram-negative, anaerobic sulfide producing, coliform bacteria and yeasts. During the fermentation of both varieties, yeasts were dominated starting from the 40th days of fermentation.

    En este estudio, se han examinado los cambios en la composición química y microbiológica de dos variedades de aceituna, Edincik y Gemlik, durante la fermentación a escala industrial. Las aceitunas se caracterizaron química y microbiológicamente antes del tratamiento. Posteriormente, la naturaleza del proceso se investigó durante ios nueve meses del periodo de fermentación tomando muestras cada ciertos intervalos. Se determinaron las características m

  2. Chemical and microbiological characterization of tinctures and microcapsules loaded with Brazilian red propolis extract

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    Erika Tayse da Cruz Almeida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize tinctures and microcapsules loaded with an ethanol extract of red propolis through chemical, physicochemical and microbiological assays in order to establish quality control tools for nutraceutical preparations of red propolis. The markers (isoflavonoids, chalcones, pterocarpans, flavones, phenolic acids, terpenes and guttiferones present in the tinctures A and B were identified and confirmed using LC/ESI/FTMS/Orbitrap. Four compositions (A, B, C and D were prepared to contain B tincture of the red propolis with some pharmaceutical excipients and submitted to two drying processes, i. e. spray-drying and freeze-drying to obtain microcapsules loaded with the red propolis extract. The tinctures and microcapsules of the red propolis were submitted to the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity tests. The antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC were tested using Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25293 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 strains. The tinctures and microcapsules presented high flavonoid quantities from 20.50 to 40.79 mg/100 mg of the microcapsules. The antioxidant activity and IC50 were determined for the tinctures A and B (IC50: 6.95 µg/mL and 7.48 µg/mL, the spray-dried microcapsules (IC50: 8.89–15.63 µg/mL and the freeze-dried microcapsules (IC50: 11.83–23.36 µg/mL. The tinctures and microcapsules were proved to be bioactive against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with inhibition halos superior to 10 mm at concentration of 200 µg/mL and MIC values of 135.87–271.74 µg/mL using gram-positive strain and 271.74–543.48 µg/mL using gram-negative strain. The tinctures and microcapsules of the red propolis have a potential application for nutraceutical products.

  3. Temporal Variations in Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Mvudi River, South Africa

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    Joshua N. Edokpayi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface water has been a source of domestic water due to shortage of potable water in most rural areas. This study was carried out to evaluate the level of contamination of Mvudi River in South Africa by measuring turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC, pH, concentrations of nitrate, fluoride, chloride, and sulphate. E. coli and Enterococci were analysed using membrane filtration technique. Average pH, EC and Turbidity values were in the range of 7.2–7.7, 10.5–16.1 mS/m and 1.3–437.5 NTU, respectively. The mean concentrations of fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate for both the wet and the dry seasons were 0.11 mg/L and 0.27 mg/L, 9.35 mg/L and 14.82 mg/L, 3.25 mg/L and 6.87 mg/L, 3.24 mg/L and 0.70 mg/L, respectively. E. coli and Enterococci counts for both the wet and the dry seasons were 4.81 × 103 (log = 3.68 and 5.22 × 103 (log = 3.72, 3.4 × 103 (log = 3.53 and 1.22 × 103 (log = 3.09, per 100 mL of water, respectively. The count of E. coli for both seasons did not vary significantly (p > 0.05 but Enterococci count varied significantly (p < 0.001. All the physico-chemical parameters obtained were within the recommended guidelines of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry of South Africa and the World Health Organization for domestic and recreational water use for both seasons except turbidity and nitrates. The microbiological parameters exceeded the established guidelines. Mvudi River is contaminated with faecal organisms and should not be used for domestic purposes without proper treatment so as to mitigate the threat it poses to public health.

  4. Development and the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses of red pepper seasoned with parmesan cheese - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.12794

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Teixeira de Souza Sora; Ana Elisa Silva Franciosi; Rosângela Bergamasco; Angelica Marquetotti Salcedo Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Pickles comprising red pepper seasoned with Parmesan cheese has been developed as a new type of product developed by family cottage industries. Two formulations were prepared, or rather, with and without the preservative potassium sorbate, which underwent several physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses. Physical and chemical analyses were undertaken for acidity, pH and °Brix; microbiological analyses for total heat-tolerant coliforms, Salmonella sp, molds, yeasts; sensory asp...

  5. Chemical characterization, texture and consumer acceptability of yogurts supplemented with quinoa flour

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    Carolina Antonela CURTI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quinoa can be used as a functional ingredient in food formulations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on proximate composition, stability during storage, texture and consumer acceptability of yogurts supplemented with quinoa flour at 1, 3 and 5 g 100 mL-1. A product without supplementation was used as control. Products were assessed for moisture, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, total dietary fibre (TDF, ashes and minerals. The pH, acidity and syneresis of yogurts were measured after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage and a Texture Profile Analysis (TPA was carried out. Applying hedonic scale, 102 consumers analyzed the overall acceptability, color, texture, flavor and aroma of yogurts. Supplemented products showed significant higher protein, carbohydrate and fat contents. Hardness and adhesiveness showed a negative association whereas a positive one was found between springiness and cohesiveness. Yogurt is not necessarily the adequate matrix for hauling quinoa compounds since the addition of greater amounts of 1 g 100 mL-1 quinoa flour had undesirable effects on gel stability (syneresis and increases in total acidity and consumer acceptability.

  6. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir

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    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.

  7. Changes on physico-chemical, textural, lipolysis and volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M

    2014-01-01

    The changes in the physico-chemical and textural properties, lipolysis and volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina" were studied. The pH increased during the last stages of processing but gradually declined over the curing period. TBARS values, hardness and chewiness increased with processing time from 0.14, 2.74 and 0.83 to 3.49 mg malonaldehyde/kg, 20.33 kg and 5.05 kg∗mm, respectively. Ripening time also affected the colour parameters: lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) (Pfoal "cecina", including esters, aldehydes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, branched hydrocarbons, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, furans, ketones. Aldehydes reached their maximum level at the end of the post-salting stage. In the final product, esters became the dominant chemical compounds. © 2013.

  8. Investigation of the biofouling properties of several algae on different textured chemical modified silicone surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jihai; Zhao, Wenjie; Peng, Shusen; Zeng, Zhixiang; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Xuedong; Xue, Qunji

    2014-08-01

    Engineered pillars, pits and grooves spaced 3, 6, 9 and 12 μm apart were fabricated on siloxane modified acrylic resin films. The effect of feature size, geometry, and wettability on the settlement of different algae was evaluated. These films showed various antifouling performances to Ulothrix, Closterium and Navicula. For Navicula (length: 10-12 μm), the feature size and geometry displayed a substantial correlation with the antifouling properties. The film with pillars spaced 3 μm reduced Navicula settlement by 73% compared to the control surface. For Closterium (length: 45-55 μm), their responses were governed by the same underlying thermodynamic principles as wettability, the largest reduction in Closterium, 81%, was obtained on the surface with grooves spaced 12 μm apart. For Ulothrix (length: 5-8 mm), the surface also showed the best antifouling performance, the reduction ratio of the settlement on the surface with grooves spaced 12 μm apart could even reach 92%. At last, physical fouling deterrent mechanisms for the films with various textures were analyzed in detail. The feature size and geometry display a substantial correlation with the antifouling properties when the size of fouling algae is close to the textures. With the increasing size for algae, antifouling performance was getting better on surface with pillars or grooves because the algae are bridged between two or more features other than stabilizing its entire mass on one single feature or able to settle between features.

  9. [Physico-chemical and microbiological evaluation of UHT milk commercialized in three Mercosul countries (Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domareski, Jackson Luiz; Bandiera, Nataly Simões; Sato, Rafael Tamostu; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; de Santana, Elsa Helena Walter

    2010-09-01

    With the aim to evaluate the physico-chemical and microbiological quality of UHT milk commercialized in three countries of Mercosul, samples of four different brands were acquired in each city (Foz do Iguaçu-Brazil, Puerto Iguazú-Argentina and Ciudad del Este-Paraguay) and submitted to the following analysis: fat content, titratable acidity, milk ethanol stability (with the following ethanol concentrations: 68, 72, 76 and 80%), total dry extract and no fat dry extract, pH, density and freezing point. Counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms were already done. In the physico-chemical evaluation of UHT milk, a significant number of samples were in disagree with the established patterns for fat content, no fat dry extract, density and freezing point. Except one brand from Brazil, milk samples showed stability to 68% ethanol. pH averages of Brazilian milk were in agree with the patterns and highest values were observed in samples acquired on Paraguay. Observing the microbiological analysis, 37.5%, 62.5% and 12.5% of samples acquired from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, respectively, showed counts above the established patterns for mesophilic microorganisms. Counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were in disagree with the established patterns in 50%, 50% and 100% of samples from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, respectively.

  10. Development and Application of a Probabilistic Risk-Benefit Assessment Model for Infant Feeding Integrating Microbiological, Nutritional, and Chemical Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Géraldine; Cummins, Enda; Guillou, Sandrine; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-12-01

    A probabilistic and interdisciplinary risk-benefit assessment (RBA) model integrating microbiological, nutritional, and chemical components was developed for infant milk, with the objective of predicting the health impact of different scenarios of consumption. Infant feeding is a particular concern of interest in RBA as breast milk and powder infant formula have both been associated with risks and benefits related to chemicals, bacteria, and nutrients, hence the model considers these three facets. Cronobacter sakazakii, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were three risk/benefit factors selected as key issues in microbiology, chemistry, and nutrition, respectively. The present model was probabilistic with variability and uncertainty separated using a second-order Monte Carlo simulation process. In this study, advantages and limitations of undertaking probabilistic and interdisciplinary RBA are discussed. In particular, the probabilistic technique was found to be powerful in dealing with missing data and to translate assumptions into quantitative inputs while taking uncertainty into account. In addition, separation of variability and uncertainty strengthened the interpretation of the model outputs by enabling better consideration and distinction of natural heterogeneity from lack of knowledge. Interdisciplinary RBA is necessary to give more structured conclusions and avoid contradictory messages to policymakers and also to consumers, leading to more decisive food recommendations. This assessment provides a conceptual development of the RBA methodology and is a robust basis on which to build upon. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Development of anti-icing materials by chemical tailoring of hydrophobic textured metallic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Thibaut V J; Neville, Anne; Millner, Paul; Hewson, Rob W; Morina, Ardian

    2013-03-15

    Ice on surfaces can have dramatic consequences for human activities. Over the last decades, the design of new materials with anti-icing properties has generated significant research efforts for the prevention of ice accretion. Here we investigate water freezing temperatures on untreated and negatively charged hydrophobic stainless steel surfaces and use these temperatures to evaluate icephobicity. Supercooled water microdroplets are deposited and undergo a slow controlled cooling until spontaneous freezing occurs. Textured hydrophobic stainless steel surfaces functionalized with anionic polyelectrolytes brushes display unexpectedly lower freezing temperatures, at least 7 °C lower than polished untreated steel. On the basis of the entropy reduction of the crystalline phase near a charged solid surface, we used a modification of the classical heterogeneous nucleation theory to explain the observed freezing temperatures lessening. Our results could help the design of new composite materials that more efficiently prevent ice formation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical Composition, Functional Properties, and Effect of Inulin from Tunisian Agave americana L. Leaves on Textural Qualities of Pectin Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Bouaziz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the chemical composition and functional properties of Agave americana L. (AA leaves were determined. The Agave leaves powder had a high amount of total dietary fiber (38.40%, total sugars (45.83%, and protein (35.33%, with a relatively low content in ash (5.94% and lipid (2.03%. The Agave leaves were exhibited with potential food application. The Agave inulin showed a significant difference compared with the commercial inulin as for aw (0.275 against 0.282, pH (5.53 against 5.98, ash (2.89% against 1.19%, protein (3.46% against 1.58%, water holding capacity (2.42% against 1.59%, solubility (73 g/L against 113 g/L, and emulsion capacity (14.48% against 21.42%, respectively. The textural properties of Agave inulin-pectin mixed gels were examined using instrumental Texture Profile Analysis (TPA. Firmness of the prepared Agave inulin-pectin mixed gels was lower than the pectin gel (0.3554 N against 5.7238 N, resp.. This reduction of firmness showed a synergetic effect between pectin and inulin. These results suggested a positive interaction between Agave inulin and pectin to decrease the firmness of mixed gels and open a good alternative to obtain value added products from this resource.

  13. Investigation of the biofouling properties of several algae on different textured chemical modified silicone surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jihai [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, Wenjie, E-mail: zhaowj@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Peng, Shusen; Zeng, Zhixiang; Zhang, Xin [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wu, Xuedong, E-mail: xdwu@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Xue, Qunji [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Engineered pillars, pits and grooves spaced 3–12 μm apart were fabricated on siloxane modified acrylic resin films. • The effect of feature size, geometry, and wettability on the settlement of different algae was evaluated. • The feature size and geometry displayed a substantial correlation with the antifouling properties. • A comparatively physical fouling deterrent mechanism was analyzed. - Abstract: Engineered pillars, pits and grooves spaced 3, 6, 9 and 12 μm apart were fabricated on siloxane modified acrylic resin films. The effect of feature size, geometry, and wettability on the settlement of different algae was evaluated. These films showed various antifouling performances to Ulothrix, Closterium and Navicula. For Navicula (length: 10–12 μm), the feature size and geometry displayed a substantial correlation with the antifouling properties. The film with pillars spaced 3 μm reduced Navicula settlement by 73% compared to the control surface. For Closterium (length: 45–55 μm), their responses were governed by the same underlying thermodynamic principles as wettability, the largest reduction in Closterium, 81%, was obtained on the surface with grooves spaced 12 μm apart. For Ulothrix (length: 5–8 mm), the surface also showed the best antifouling performance, the reduction ratio of the settlement on the surface with grooves spaced 12 μm apart could even reach 92%. At last, physical fouling deterrent mechanisms for the films with various textures were analyzed in detail. The feature size and geometry display a substantial correlation with the antifouling properties when the size of fouling algae is close to the textures. With the increasing size for algae, antifouling performance was getting better on surface with pillars or grooves because the algae are bridged between two or more features other than stabilizing its entire mass on one single feature or able to settle between features.

  14. A research on the chemical and microbiological qualities of honeys sold in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun URAN

    Full Text Available Abstract Honey, produced by honeybees from nectar in flowers and plants, is an aqueous supersaturated sugar solution, mainly composed of fructose and glucose. The quality and biochemical properties of honey are related to honey maturity, production methods, processing and storage conditions, climatic conditions as well as the nectar source of the honey. In this study, 35 honey samples of different sizes and packaging all of which were sold in Istanbul were examined in terms of some physicochemical and microbiological properties. All samples were floral liquid honey. The physicochemical characterizations were as follows: average moisture (16.31±1.40%, ash (0.30±0.29%, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF (8.09±7.63 mg/kg, pH (4.32±0.34, acidity (30±9 meq/kg. In addition, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast and mold analyses were performed in these samples. According to the microbiological analyses; the average total number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria was 2.68 log cfu/g. Enterobacteriaceae have not been observed in the samples. However, in three samples, mold-yeasts were detected at the levels between 1.30 and 1.60 log cfu/g.

  15. In-Situ Synchrotron X-ray Study of the Phase and Texture Evolution of Ceria and Superconductor Films Deposited by Chemical Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude; He, Dong

    2012-01-01

    In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction is used to study the phase and texture formation of ceria based films and superconductor films deposited by the chemical solution method on technical substrates. Combined analysis using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry/differential ther......In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction is used to study the phase and texture formation of ceria based films and superconductor films deposited by the chemical solution method on technical substrates. Combined analysis using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry...

  16. Chemical bath deposition of textured and compact zinc oxide thin films on vinyl-terminated polystyrene brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Nina J; Hofmeister, Caroline G; Lindemann, Peter; Huang, Cheng; Baier, Johannes; Leineweber, Andreas; Walheim, Stefan; Wöll, Christof; Schimmel, Thomas; Bill, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of an organic polystyrene brush on the deposition of ZnO thin films under moderate conditions. On a non-modified SiO x surface, island growth is observed, whereas the polymer brush induces homogeneous film growth. A chemical modification of the polystyrene brushes during the mineralization process occurs, which enables stronger interaction between the then polar template and polar ZnO crystallites in solution. This may lead to oriented attachment of the crystallites so that the observed (002) texture arises. Characterization of the templates and the resulting ZnO films were performed with ζ-potential and contact angle measurements as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Infrared spectroscopy (IR) measurements were used to investigate the polystyrene brushes before and after modification.

  17. Chemical bath deposition of textured and compact zinc oxide thin films on vinyl-terminated polystyrene brushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina J. Blumenstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the influence of an organic polystyrene brush on the deposition of ZnO thin films under moderate conditions. On a non-modified SiOx surface, island growth is observed, whereas the polymer brush induces homogeneous film growth. A chemical modification of the polystyrene brushes during the mineralization process occurs, which enables stronger interaction between the then polar template and polar ZnO crystallites in solution. This may lead to oriented attachment of the crystallites so that the observed (002 texture arises. Characterization of the templates and the resulting ZnO films were performed with ζ-potential and contact angle measurements as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Infrared spectroscopy (IR measurements were used to investigate the polystyrene brushes before and after modification.

  18. Effects of slope exposure on soil physico-chemical and microbiological properties along an altitudinal climosequence in the Italian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, Tommaso; Gómez-Brandón, María; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Fornasier, Flavio; Arfaioli, Paola; Francioli, Davide; Egli, Markus; Sartori, Giacomo; Insam, Heribert; Pietramellara, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Due to their sensitivity to changing environmental conditions sub- and alpine soils are often monitored in the context of climate change, usually, however, neglecting slope exposure. Therefore, we set up a climosequence-approach to study the effect of exposure and, in general, climate, on the microbial biomass and microbial diversity and activity, comprising five pairs of north (N)- and south (S)-facing sites along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 1200 to 2400m a.s.l. in the Italian Alps (Trentino Alto Adige, Italy). Soil physico-chemical properties were related to microbiological properties (microbial biomass: double strand DNA yield vs. substrate-induced respiration; diversity of bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities: genetic fingerprinting DGGE vs. real-time PCR; microbial activity: basal respiration vs. multiple hydrolytic enzyme assays) to monitor shifts in the diversity and activity of microbial communities as a function of slope exposure and to evaluate the most determinant chemical parameters shaping the soil microbiota. The exposure-effect on several hydrolytic key-enzymes was enzyme-specific: e.g. acid phosphomonoesterase potential activity was more pronounced at the N-facing slope while the activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase, pyrophosphate-phosphodiesterase and arylsulfatase were higher at the S-facing slope. Furthermore, this exposure-effect was domain-specific: bacteria (S>N, altitude-independent); fungi (N~S); and archaea (N>S; altitude-dependent). Additionally, the abiotic parameters shaping the community composition were in general depending on soil depth. Our multidisciplinary approach allowed us to survey the exposure and altitudinal effects on soil physico-chemical and microbiological properties and thus unravel the complex multiple edaphic factor-effects on soil microbiota in mountain ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of the chemical, microbiological and toxicological aspects of post-processing water from underground coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiewicz-Sperka, Magdalena; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Płaza, Grażyna A; Kwaśniewska, Jolanta; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive characterisation (including chemical, microbiological and toxicological parameters) of water after the underground coal gasification (UCG) process. This is the first report in which these parameters were analysed together to assess the environmental risk of the water generated during the simulation of the underground coal gasification (UCG) process performed by the Central Mining Institute (Poland). Chemical analysis of the water indicated many hazardous chemical compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, large quantities of inorganic compounds from the coal and ashes produced during the volatilisation process were noted. Due to the presence of refractory and inhibitory compounds in the post-processing water samples, the microbiological and toxicological analyses revealed the high toxicity of the UCG post-processing water. Among the tested microorganisms, mesophilic, thermophilic, psychrophilic, spore-forming, anaerobic and S-oxidizing bacteria were identified. However, the number of detected microorganisms was very low. The psychrophilic bacteria dominated among tested bacteria. There were no fungi or Actinomycetes in any of the water samples. Preliminary study revealed that hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria were metabolically active in the water samples. The samples were very toxic to the biotests, with the TU50 reaching 262. None of biotests was the most sensitive to all samples. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing of the water samples in Vicia uncovered strong cytotoxic and clastogenic effects. Furthermore, TUNEL indicated that all of the water samples caused sporadic DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of the roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigations of Physical-Chemical and Microbiological Deterioration of Chocolate Pralines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig

    measurements before and after moisture migration and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) pictures. In samples with chocolate models consisting of only cocoa butter, no migration was observed. The amount of liquid fat in the fat phase was important for the moisture to come in contact with the hydrophilic...... particles and migration occurred much faster at 25°C where the content of liquid fat was high compared to 15°C where much less liquid fat is present in the chocolate. No correlation could be found between the polymorphic transition of the cocoa butter crystals and the moisture migration, which might be due......Chocolate pralines, defined as soft fruit, sugar or fat based fillings covered with a chocolate shell, are multidomain, complex food products. The chocolate shell consists of a continuous fat phase in which sugar and cocoa particles are dispersed. The fillings can vary in composition and texture...

  1. Physico-Chemical And Microbiological Quality Of Some Consumer Preferred Plain Set Yoghurts Sold In Matara Municipal Area Of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.G.U Hemamali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As yoghurt is a health food assessment of quality of commercialized yoghurt during storage period in refrigerator is needed. Lack of data on quality parameters of yoghurt brands in Sri Lanka is impediment to consumer health. This study is an attempt to fill that gap by providing data on evaluation of the changes of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of some plain set yoghurt sold in Matara municipal area of Sri Lanka. Five different brands of plain set yoghurt samples were collected on the basis of consumer preference for the present study. From each brand fifteen samples were analyzed by means of their physico-chemical syneresis effect pH titratable acidity total protein content and microbiological composition total plate count total yeast and mould count by using three replicates of each sample at 4 7 14 21 and 28 days intervals from production date under refrigerated condition 4 amp61616C and compared against local and international standards. All microbiological parameters and total protein content of all plain set yoghurt brands were not within the permissible range for local and international standards. Titratable acidity was only in the permissible range of local standards. All the physico-chemical parameters and microbiological parameters of collected samples were significantly affected by storage period. Good quality yoghurt of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters with hygiene conditions during processing and storage should be encouraged for consumption.

  2. Impact of laser anneal on NiPt silicide texture and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feautrier, C.; Ozcan, A. S.; Lavoie, C.; Valery, A.; Beneyton, R.; Borowiak, C.; Clément, L.; Pofelski, A.; Salem, B.

    2017-06-14

    We have combined synchrotron X-ray pole figure measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nano-beam diffraction to study the impact of millisecond laser anneal on the texture and microstructure of NiPt silicide thin films. The powerful use of nano-beam diffraction in plan-view geometry allows here for both a mapping of grain orientation and intra-grain measurements even if these crystalline grains become very small. With this unique combination of local and large-scale probes, we find that silicide formation on n and p doped substrates using laser annealing results in smaller grains compared with the films processed using standard rapid thermal annealing. The laser annealed samples also result in grains that are more epitaxially oriented with respect to the Si substrate. For n-type substrate, the film is dominated by (020) and (013) oriented fibers with significant levels of intra-grain bending (transrotation) observed in both types of grains. For p-type substrates, mostly epitaxially aligned grains are detected. TEM coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis was also used to study the elemental distribution in the silicide samples. Here, we confirm that laser anneal leads to a larger accumulation of platinum at the silicide-substrate interface and modifies the distribution of dopants throughout the film.

  3. Effects of Time and Storage Conditions on the Chemical and Microbiologic Stability of Diluted Buprenorphine for Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DenHerder, Johnathan M; Reed, Ralph L; Sargent, Jennifer L; Bobe, Gerd; Stevens, Jan F; Diggs, Helen E

    2017-07-01

    Buprenorphine is a partial μ-opioid agonist used for analgesia. Due to the small size of laboratory rodents, buprenorphine HCl is typically diluted 10- or 20-fold with a sterile diluent, such as saline, for accurate dosing. Protocols for preparing and storing diluted buprenorphine vary by institution, and little published information is available regarding stability and beyond-use dating of specific buprenorphine preparations. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical and microbiologic stability of diluted buprenorphine stored for a maximum of 180 d. Buprenorphine HCl was diluted 1:10 into sterile bacteriostatic saline by using aseptic technique. Diluted samples were stored in glass vials or plastic syringes, protected from light, and maintained at refrigerated or room temperature for as long as 180 d. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures on all stored samples were negative for bacterial and fungal growth. According to HPLC analysis, diluted buprenorphine stored in glass vials experienced less than 10% loss when stored for 180 d at either refrigerated or room temperature. However, the concentration of buprenorphine stored in syringes declined rapidly to more than 80% loss at room temperature and 28% loss in the refrigerator after 180 d. According to the results of this study, diluted buprenorphine stored in glass vials retains more than 90% of the initial concentration and is microbiologically stable for 180 d. However, our data suggest that, regardless of the duration, storing diluted buprenorphine in plastic syringes is inadvisable.

  4. Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Diagnostic Layers in the Filling of the Foundation Pits of Medieval Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisov Aleksandr V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of diagnostically significant layers within the filling of medieval buildings foundation pits has been suggested in the article. The term “diagnostically significant layers” has been proposed to define the layers with specific morphological, chemical and microbiological properties that had been forming in the filling of pits as a result of certain processes. This paper presents a systematization of Different diagnostic layers have been systematized in the article, and their composition, properties and conditions of formation are described. The study was conducted on the Dmitrovskoye-2 and Kruzhok medieval sites (Moscow oblast. The proposed concept can serve as the basis for retrospective analysis aimed at the following trends: layer properties –mechanism of its formation; initial material – its participation in building functional operation.

  5. Predictive microbiology for cosmetics based on physicals, chemicals and concentration parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalleb, S; De Vaugelade, S; Sella, O; Lavarde, M; Mielcarek, C; Pense-Lheritier, A-M; Pirnay, S

    2015-02-01

    Challenge test (CT) is essential to assure the efficiency of the preservative system in products. A previous study realized by our staff in 2012, carried out to evaluate the influence of three parameters (ethanol, pH and water) on the microbiological cosmetics products conservation. Following this work, a correlation between aw (based on the glycerine concentration) and the selected parameter has been demonstrated. In the present study, smaller limits of ethanol, pH and glycerine were applied to determinate CT necessity. Sixteen stables O/W cosmetics creams with different concentration of ethanol (1-19%), glycerine (3-16%) and different pH (6-11) were formulated. To evaluate the efficiency of the different formulations, CTs were performed according to the International Standard ISO 11930:2012. To determine the influence of the parameters, a D-optimal plan generated by Design Expert(®) was applied. Design of Experiments software offers to plan, estimate and control the statistics and models for factorial and no-factorial designs. Challenge tests results show that 10 formula passed criteria A, two passed criteria B and four are not conform. Mostly, an ethanol concentration higher than 16% exempts products of CT. It has been shown that an ethanol concentration between 10.5% and 16%, and an glycerine concentration >10%; or if the ethanol concentration is between 5% and 10.5%, glycerine is >6% and pH is ≥10, the CT is not required. Ethanol has a significant impact on conservation and especially when it is correlated with glycerine and pH. Finally, a glycerine concentration higher than 16% exempts products of CT. Following the analysis of the different concentration, a correlation between glycerine and ethanol that directly influence microbiological protection of cosmetics products has been established. Indeed, by controlling ethanol, pH and glycerine, many products may be exempted from the CT. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de

  6. Relationships between respiration, chemical and microbial properties of afforested mine soils with different soil texture and tree species: Does the time of incubation matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Józefowska, A.; Pietrzykowski, M.; Woś, B.; Cajthaml, T.; Frouz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 80, May (2017), s. 102-109 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : afforested mine soil s * soil texture * tree species * chemical properties * microbial properties Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 2.445, year: 2016

  7. Effect of different binders on the physico-chemical, textural, histological, and sensory qualities of retort pouched buffalo meat nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Babji, Y

    2010-01-01

    The functional properties of 4 binders, namely corn starch, wheat semolina, wheat flour, and tapioca starches, were evaluated to improve the quality of buffalo meat nuggets processed in retort pouches at F(0) 12.13. Incorporation of corn starch in buffalo meat nuggets produced more stable emulsion than other binders used. Product yield, drip loss, and pH did not vary significantly between the products with different binders. Shear force value was significantly higher for product with corn starch (0.42 +/- 0.0 Kg/cm(3)) followed by refined wheat flour (0.36 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)), tapioca starch (0.32 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)), and wheat semolina (0.32 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)). Type of binder used had no significant effect on frying loss, moisture, and protein content of the product. However, fat content was higher in products with corn starch when compared to products with other binders. Texture profile indicated that products made with corn starch (22.17 +/- 2.55 N) and refined wheat flour (21.50 +/- 0.75 N) contributed firmer texture to the product. Corn starch contributed greater chewiness (83.8 +/- 12.51) to the products resulting in higher sensory scores for texture and overall acceptability. Products containing corn starch showed higher sensory scores for all attributes in comparison to products with other binders. Panelists preferred products containing different binders in the order of corn starch (7.23 +/- 0.09) > refined wheat flour (6.48 +/- 0.13) > tapioca starch (6.45 +/- 0.14) > wheat semolina (6.35 +/- 0.13) based on sensory scores. Histological studies indicated that products with corn starch showed dense protein matrix, uniform fat globules, and less number of vacuoles when compared to products made with other binders. The results indicated that corn flour is the better cereal binder for developing buffalo meat nuggets when compared to all other binders based on physico-chemical and sensory attributes.

  8. Testing Silica Fume-Based Concrete Composites under Chemical and Microbiological Sulfate Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Estokova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Current design practices based on descriptive approaches to concrete specification may not be appropriate for the management of aggressive environments. In this study, the durability of cement-based materials with and without the addition of silica fume, subjected to conditions that leach calcium and silicon, were investigated. Chemical corrosion was simulated by employing various H2SO4 and MgSO4 solutions, and biological corrosion was simulated using Acidithiobacillus sp. bacterial inoculation, leading to disrupted and damaged surfaces; the samples’ mass changes were studied following both chemical and biological attacks. Different leaching trends were observed via X-ray fluorescence when comparing chemical with biological leaching. Lower leaching rates were found for concrete samples fortified with silica fume than those without silica fume. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy confirmed a massive sulfate precipitate formation on the concrete surface due to bacterial exposure.

  9. Effect of Sorbic Acid and Potassium Sorbate Addition to the Brine on Microbiological and Chemical Properties of Turkish White Cheese during Ripening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    YILMAZ, Lutfiye; KURDAL, Ekrem

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the basic microbiological and chemical properties of Turkish white cheese, containing 300 ppm, 500 ppm and 700 ppm sorbic acid and potassium sorbate, ripened in brine for 90-days at 4 ± 1°C were investigated...

  10. Lactones with Methylcyclohexane Systems Obtained by Chemical and Microbiological Methods and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Grabarczyk, Małgorzata; Wińska, Katarzyna; Mączka, Wanda; Żołnierczyk, Anna; Żarowska, Barbara; Anioł, Mirosław

    2015-01-01

    Eight new lactones (δ-chloro-, δ-bromo- and δ-iodo-γ-lactones), each with a methylcyclohexane ring, were obtained by chemical means from (4-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl) acetic acid or (6-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl) acetic acid. Whole cells of ten fungal strains (Fusarium species, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Botrytis cinerea) were tested on their ability to convert these lactones into other products. Some of the tested fungal strains transformed chloro-, bromo- and iodolactone with a methyl group...

  11. Rapid Electrochemical Detection and Identification of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants for Manned Spaceflight Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane; Botkin, Douglas; Gazda, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microbial control in the spacecraft environment is a daunting task, especially in the presence of human crew members. Currently, assessing the potential crew health risk associated with a microbial contamination event requires return of representative environmental samples that are analyzed in a ground-based laboratory. It is therefore not currently possible to quickly identify microbes during spaceflight. This project addresses the unmet need for spaceflight-compatible microbial identification technology. The electrochemical detection and identification platform is expected to provide a sensitive, specific, and rapid sample-to-answer capability for in-flight microbial monitoring that can distinguish between related microorganisms (pathogens and non-pathogens) as well as chemical contaminants. This will dramatically enhance our ability to monitor the spacecraft environment and the health risk to the crew. Further, the project is expected to eliminate the need for sample return while significantly reducing crew time required for detection of multiple targets. Initial work will focus on the optimization of bacterial detection and identification. The platform is designed to release nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from microorganisms without the use of harmful chemicals. Bacterial DNA or RNA is captured by bacteria-specific probe molecules that are bound to a microelectrode, and that capture event can generate a small change in the electrical current (Lam, et al. 2012. Anal. Chem. 84(1): 21-5.). This current is measured, and a determination is made whether a given microbe is present in the sample analyzed. Chemical detection can be accomplished by directly applying a sample to the microelectrode and measuring the resulting current change. This rapid microbial and chemical detection device is designed to be a low-cost, low-power platform anticipated to be operated independently of an external power source, characteristics optimal for manned spaceflight and areas where power

  12. Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages are not influenced by color differences of turkey breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, J; Krischek, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages.

  13. Investigations of Physical-Chemical and Microbiological Deterioration of Chocolate Pralines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig

    ±1500 ppm, acetic acid ±1%, and temperature 8-25°C and one for (ii) aw 0.65-0.80, pH 2.5-4.0, ethanol 0-15%, sorbic acid ±250 ppm, and time 0-90 days. The second set of models included two different strains of Z. rouxii, while only one of the strains were included in the first set of models. The models...... growth/no growth models to be used in product development in the confectionery industry. In regard to the physical-chemical spoilage, the focus was on moisture migration in chocolate pralines containing liquid fillings with and without alcohol. Physical-chemical spoilage can be caused by fat migration...... in the fillings is important for the confectionery industry when developing new products. 677 micro-organisms, belonging to bacteria, yeast, and moulds and capable of growing at sugar rich media, were isolated from 40 chocolate pralines and 25 sugar syrups used for chocolate pralines production. The isolates were...

  14. Removal of caffeine from pharmaceutical wastewater by adsorption: influence of NOM, textural and chemical properties of the adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Torrellas, Silvia; Rodríguez, Araceli; Ovejero, Gabriel; Gómez, José María; García, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This work involves the study of the influence of textural and chemical adsorbent properties on natural organic matter (NOM) removal and the simultaneous adsorption of caffeine and NOM in pharmaceutical wastewater. The performance of a microporous activated carbon, Calgon F400, a synthesized mesoporous carbon from peach stones and a commercial sepiolite in the removal of NOM of a WWTP effluent, and the competitive adsorption of caffeine/NOM were evaluated. It was evidenced that the microporous structure of the adsorbents significantly conditioned the removal of NOM, finding that F400 activated carbon (microporous volume of 0.46 cm(3) g(-1)) led to a NOM removal of 45%. The presence of NOM in the aqueous medium led to worse adsorption parameters, including adsorption capacity at breakthrough time, mass transfer zone length and fractional bed utilization. Additionally, an overshooting in the Total Organic Carbon concentration (TOC/TOC0 = 1.05) was observed in the sepiolite adsorption fixed-bed experiment, due to the displacement of the background NOM. The tested adsorbents were efficient in the removal of caffeine from a pharmaceutical wastewater, finding a competitive effect between the target compound and the background NOM for the active sites.

  15. Textural and chemical characterization of activated carbon prepared from shell of african palm (Elaeis guineensis by chemical activation with CaCl2 and MgCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Acevedo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons through chemical activation of African palm shells (Elaeis guineensis with magnesium chloride and calcium chloride solutions at different concentrations were obtained. The prepared materials were characterized textural and chemically. The results show that activated carbons with higher values of surface area and pore volume are obtained when solutions with lower concentrations of the activating agent are used. The obtained activated carbons have surface areas and pore volumes with values between 10 and 501 m2 /g and 0.01 and 0.29 cm3 /g respectively. Immersion enthalpies values of solids in water were between -14.3 and -32.8 J/g and benzene between -13.9 and -38.6 J/g. Total acidity and basicity of the activated carbons had values between 23 and 262 μmol/g 123 and 1724 μmol/g respectively. pH at the point of zero charge was also determined with values between 4.08 and 9.92 for set of activated carbons . The results show that activation with CaCl2 and MgCl2 salts produce activated carbons with pores in the range of mesopores for facilitate entry of the adsorbate into the materials.

  16. THE EFFECT OF STORAGE ON PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH WASTE ACIDIFIED USING FERMENTED VEGETABLES WASTE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sulistiyanto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish waste (“ikan rucah” is part of discarded fishing product, which is composed by non-food categorized fish (NFC-fish. Quality of NFC-fish meal that was made by dipping in extract of fermented vegetable’s waste has been reported better than commercial fish meal, but the effect after storing remained in question. Experiment was conducted to study the effect of different time of storing on physic-organoleptical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the acidified NFC-fish meal that was made by dipped in extract of fermented vegetable’s waste (FVW-exctract. The NFC-Fish was soaked in the FVW-exctract by the ratio 1:1 (w/v for 4 hours, and then it was dripped out and dried. The dried fish was ground passed through 20 mesh, kept into plastic bags and stored at the room temperature (23-25 °C and 70-80% RH for 0, 1, 2 and 4 months. Physic-organoleptical, chemical and biologycal characteristics were parameters observed. Experiment was conducted by completely randomized design (CRD. Data were analysed by the GLM of SAS. Actual number of moisture, crude protein, extract ether, and proteolytic bacteria of fish meal were significantly influenced by time of storing (P<0.05. Dipping NFC-fish in the FVW-exctract effectively maintain the physical characteristics, pH, moisture, crude protein, extract ether and the number of proteolytic bacteria of fish meal up to 2 months of storage. Dipping NFC-fish in the FVW-exctract provide better characteristics on physical, chemical and microbiologycal than the commercial fish meal at the same condition of storage.

  17. THE EFFECT OF STORAGE ON PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH WASTE ACIDIFIED USING FERMENTED VEGETABLES WASTE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sulistiyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish waste (“ikan rucah” is part of discarded fishing product, which is composed by non-foodcategorized fish (NFC-fish. Quality of NFC-fish meal that was made by dipping in extract of fermentedvegetable’s waste has been reported better than commercial fish meal, but the effect after storingremained in question. Experiment was conducted to study the effect of different time of storing onphysic-organoleptical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the acidified NFC-fish meal thatwas made by dipped in extract of fermented vegetable’s waste (FVW-exctract. The NFC-Fish wassoaked in the FVW-exctract by the ratio 1:1 (w/v for 4 hours, and then it was dripped out and dried. Thedried fish was ground passed through 20 mesh, kept into plastic bags and stored at the room temperature(23-25 °C and 70-80% RH for 0, 1, 2 and 4 months. Physic-organoleptical, chemical and biologycalcharacteristics were parameters observed. Experiment was conducted by completely randomized design(CRD. Data were analysed by the GLM of SAS. Actual number of moisture, crude protein, extractether, and proteolytic bacteria of fish meal were significantly influenced by time of storing (P<0.05.Dipping NFC-fish in the FVW-exctract effectively maintain the physical characteristics, pH, moisture,crude protein, extract ether and the number of proteolytic bacteria of fish meal up to 2 months ofstorage. Dipping NFC-fish in the FVW-exctract provide better characteristics on physical, chemical andmicrobiologycal than the commercial fish meal at the same condition of storage.

  18. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham

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    Pil Nam Seong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP, crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire♀×Duroc♂ (LYD, Berkshire (Ber, and Duroc (Du pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (p<0.05. It was observed that the dry-cured ham made from KNP breed had the lowest water activity value and highest salt content, while the LYD dry-cure ham had higher total volatile basic nitrogen content than the Ber and Du hams (p<0.05. Zinc, iron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (p<0.05. Additionally, the KNP dry-cured ham possessed higher Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE a* value, while the Du dry-cured ham had higher L*, CIE b* and hue angle values (p<0.05. Furthermore, breed significantly affected the sensory attributes of dry-cured hams with higher scores for color, aroma and taste found in KNP dry-cured ham as compared to other breed hams (p<0.05. The overall outcome of the study is that the breed has a potential effect on the specific chemical composition, texture, color and sensorial properties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams.

  19. Survey on Physical, Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of PAH-Contaminated Soils in Iran

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    M Arbabi, S Nasseri, A Mesdaghinia, S Rezaie, K Naddafi, Gh Omrani, M Yunesian

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are one of the important groups of organic micro pollutants (Xenobiotics due to their widespread distribution and low degradability in the environment (atmosphere, water and soil. Some PAHs exhibit carcinogenic and/or mutagenic properties and are listed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA and European Commission (EC as priority pollutants. In this research three petroleum contaminated sites in Iran were selected in order to separate and classify PAH-degrading microorganisms. Samples were analysed for: soil physico-chemical properties, soil particle size distribution, Ultrasonic extraction of PAH (phenanthrene and microbial analysis. Ultrasonic extraction method was shown to be a reliable procedure to extract a wide range of PAH concentrations from different soils, e.g. clay, silt, and clay-silt mixtures. Results showed that the extraction rate of phenanthreen in mentioned different soils was in the range of 85 – 100 percent. Results showed that two of three selected sites were contaminated with phenanthrene in the range of 10 – 100 mg/kg of soil, and had a reasonable population of PAH-degrading bacteria, which were enable to adaptate and degradate a concentration range of phenanthrene between 10 and 1000 mg/kg of soil. According to results, it can conclude that, the bioremediation of contaminated soils in Iran may be considered as a feasible practice.

  20. Season influence on milk physico-chemical and microbiological aspects in Western Santa Catarina

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    Flávio José Simioni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of seasonal changes on milk quality in Western Santa Catarina, Brazil. Dairy farms (799 had raw milk samples (9144 collected and analyzed for fat, protein, SCC (somatic cell count and TBC (total bacterial count. Samples were collected from cooling tanks on the farm during the months of October 2009 to September 2010 and grouped into four seasons (summer, autumn, winter, and spring. The data were classified according to the normative instructions 51 and 62 the Ministerial of Agriculture, and also according to a quality pay system adopted by the dairy industry in the region of the study. The results revealed differences between groups (P<0.05, where fat content was higher in autumn, protein and TBC were higher in winter and SCC showed the highest rates in the summer. According to the criteria established by legislation, the main quality problem was the TBC, with higher counts in the winter, and in the summer we observed the highest percentage of non-compliant samples. For the quality payment system, chemical composition resulted on better prices to be paid to producers, while TBC was primarily responsible lower price.

  1. Microbiological and chemical characterization of hydrothermal fluids at Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area, southern New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Kennedy, John F.

    2000-06-01

    The Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area is part of the larger hydrothermal system of the Rio Grande Rift, southern New Mexico, USA. Chemical and microbial parameters indicate that the sampled hydrothermal water derives from a mixture zone of deep, anaerobic water with meteoric water from an adjacent alluvial, non-thermal groundwater flow system. A microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis indicates that biomass and diversity of hydrothermal groundwater are very low, whereas hydrothermal surface water is diverse and bacteria are in a rapid growth phase. A nucleic acid (DNA) analysis of the hydrothermal groundwater resulted in the identification of one eubacterium and two Archaea (archaebacteria); the eubacterium and one Archaea were previously unknown. The one Archaea that could be related to a known species is an extreme halophilic methanomicrobacterium. The presence of the halophilic Archaea and the other Archaea species supports the hypothesis of the Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area being the discharge area of deep circulating groundwater within a bedrock-hosted regional groundwater flow system.

  2. Lactones with methylcyclohexane systems obtained by chemical and microbiological methods and their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarczyk, Małgorzata; Wińska, Katarzyna; Mączka, Wanda; Żołnierczyk, Anna K; Żarowska, Barbara; Anioł, Mirosław

    2015-02-16

    Eight new lactones (δ-chloro-, δ-bromo- and δ-iodo-γ-lactones), each with a methylcyclohexane ring, were obtained by chemical means from (4-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl) acetic acid or (6-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl) acetic acid. Whole cells of ten fungal strains (Fusarium species, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Botrytis cinerea) were tested on their ability to convert these lactones into other products. Some of the tested fungal strains transformed chloro-, bromo- and iodolactone with a methyl group at C-5 into 2-hydroxy-5-methyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one during hydrolytic dehalogenation. When the same lactones had the methyl group at C-3, no structural modifications of halolactones were observed. In most cases, the optical purity of the product was low or medium, with the highest rate for chlorolactone (45.4%) and iodolactone (45.2% and 47.6%). All of the obtained compounds were tested with reference to their smell. Seven halolactones and the hydroxylactone obtained via biotransformation of halolactones with 5-methylcyclohexane ring were examined for their antimicrobial activity. These compounds were capable of inhibiting growth of some bacteria, yeasts and fungi.

  3. Lactones with Methylcyclohexane Systems Obtained by Chemical and Microbiological Methods and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Grabarczyk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight new lactones (δ-chloro-, δ-bromo- and δ-iodo-γ-lactones, each with a methylcyclohexane ring, were obtained by chemical means from (4-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl acetic acid or (6-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl acetic acid. Whole cells of ten fungal strains (Fusarium species, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Botrytis cinerea were tested on their ability to convert these lactones into other products. Some of the tested fungal strains transformed chloro-, bromo- and iodolactone with a methyl group at C-5 into 2-hydroxy-5-methyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one during hydrolytic dehalogenation. When the same lactones had the methyl group at C-3, no structural modifications of halolactones were observed. In most cases, the optical purity of the product was low or medium, with the highest rate for chlorolactone (45.4% and iodolactone (45.2% and 47.6%. All of the obtained compounds were tested with reference to their smell. Seven halolactones and the hydroxylactone obtained via biotransformation of halolactones with 5-methylcyclohexane ring were examined for their antimicrobial activity. These compounds were capable of inhibiting growth of some bacteria, yeasts and fungi.

  4. Características físico-químicas e microbiológicas de morango minimamente processado Physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics of fresh-cut strawberry

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    Adriana dos Reis Ponce

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as alterações físico-químicas e microbiológicas de morangos submetidos ao processamento mínimo. Foram avaliados os efeitos da lavagem com cloreto de cálcio ou polietilenoglicol na microbiota contaminante e na textura dos morangos e da sanificação com ozônio gasoso ou clorado orgânico. Análises de textura, cor, perda de massa e microbiota contaminante foram feitas durante o armazenamento a 5 °C por 12 dias em embalagens envoltas com uma a quatro camadas de filme de cloreto de polivinil (PVC. A adição de até 1,5% de cloreto de cálcio ou de 0,5% de polietilenoglicol na água de lavagem não garantiu a manutenção da textura do morango ao final do período de armazenamento. A ozonização dos morangos por 60 minutos foi mais efetiva para reduzir (p This study aimed to evaluate the physical-chemical and microbiological changes in strawberries subjected to the fresh-cut process. The effects on the contaminants and texture of strawberries washed with calcium chloride and polyethylene glycol and of ozone gas and organic chlorine as sanitizer to reduce microbial contamination were evaluated. Analyses of texture, color, weight loss and microbial contaminants were made during storage at 5 °C for 12 days in packs wrapped in up to four layers of PVC film. The addition of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of calcium chloride or 0.5% of polyethylene glycol in the washing water did not ensure the maintenance of the texture of the strawberry at the end of the period of storage. The ozonation of strawberries for 60 minutes was more effective in reducing (p < 0.05 the count of mesophilic aerobics microorganisms, yeasts and molds and coliforms, when compared to results obtained with strawberries ozonizated for 30 minutes and immersed in a solution of organic chlorine. The strawberries stored in packages covered with three layers of PVC film showed an increase in texture and intensity of browning and a reduction in

  5. Changes in chemical and microbiological parameters of some varieties of Sicily olives during natural fermentation

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    Romeo, Flora V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes and features of some olive cultivars during natural fermentation in brine were examined. The cultivars were typical of Sicily: “Nocellara messinese”, “Nocellara etnea”, “Moresca”, “Ogliarola” and “Tonda iblea”. The carpological data revealed their good quality. Chemical characteristics such as reducing sugars, titratable acidity, total phenols and dry matter were also investigated. The physical and chemical changes of olives and brines throughout the process time were monitored. Sodium chloride concentration was gradually increased from 5% (w/v to 6% after 60-75 days and 7% after 90. The olives were put in brine acidified up to pH = 4. The salt concentration and pH value were necessary to favor lactic fermentation. An uniform trend of pH was measured for all the olive cultivars: a stable pH under 4.5 value was measured. The course of titratable acidity measured in fermentation brines was in  agreement with the pH trend. The concentration of total phenols in flesh olives through the brine storage and fermentation is reported and the reduction of total phenols during the brine fermentation was fast in “Tonda iblea”, “Nocellara etnea” and “Moresca” olives.To measure the degree of oleuropein disappearance, the course of hydroxytyrosol in brine was monitored. Throughout the brining period, the growth of microbial populations was revealed on selective media: lactic acid bacteria, mesophilic microorganisms, yeasts and moulds.Los cambios y las características de algunas variedades de aceitunas han sido examinados durante la fermentación natural. Las variedades estudiadas fueron las típicas de Sicilia. Las determinaciones carpológicas revelan una buena calidad de los frutos. Las características químicas (azúcares, acidez, fenoles y materia seca han sido estudiadas. El cloruro de sodio en la salmuera se aumentó gradualmente del 5% al 6% después de 60-75 días y hasta 7% después de 90 días. Las

  6. Microbiological study of bacteriophage induction in the presence of chemical stress factors in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Bhattacharjee, Ananda S; Goel, Ramesh

    2015-09-15

    Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are responsible for carrying the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Although the EBPR process is well studied, the failure of EBPR performance at both laboratory and full-scale plants has revealed a lack of knowledge about the ecological and microbiological aspects of EBPR processes. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria as their sole host. Bacteriophage infection of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) has not been considered as a main contributor to biological phosphorus removal upsets. This study examined the effects of different stress factors on the dynamics of bacteriophages and the corresponding effects on the phosphorus removal performance in a lab-scale EBPR system. The results showed that copper (heavy metal), cyanide (toxic chemical), and ciprofloxacin (antibiotic), as three different anthropogenic stress factors, can induce phages integrated onto bacterial genomes (i.e. prophages) in an enriched EBPR sequencing batch reactor, resulting in a decrease in the polyphosphate kinase gene ppk1 clades copy number, phosphorus accumulation capacity, and phosphorus removal performance. This study opens opportunities for further research on the effects of bacteriophages in nutrient cycles both in controlled systems such as wastewater treatment plants and natural ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GOAT MILK KEFIR DURING STORAGE UNDER DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

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    T. Setyawardani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the chemical and microbiogical properties of goat milk kefir stored under different temperatures and storage time. A completely randomized design, factorial pattern 3 x 3 was used in this study. The first factor was storage temperature (-1 to -5; 1 to 5 and 6 to 10oC and the second factor was storage time (10; 20 and 30 days. Each treatment has three replicates. Variables observed included pH, water activity (aw, total lactic acid bacteria (LAB, and total yeast. Data were subject to analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that storage time and temperature had significant effects on pH. The lowest pH of Kefir was obtained by storing it for 10 days at 6 to 10oC. Titratable acidity was significantly affected by temperature, and kefir stored at 6 to 10oC has the highest titratable acidity. Storage time and temperature had no significant effects on water activity, and the average water activity of kefir was 0.875±0.028. Total LAB and total yeast were significantly affected by temperature, but not by storage time. In average, total LAB and total yeast in kefir were 7.17± 0.92 log cfu/ml and 6.76± 0.39 log cfu/ml, respectively. In conclusion, this study confirmed that temperature of storage has a major contribution to the characteristics of kefir made from goat milk; hence it has to be considered when handling kefir for a longer period of time.

  8. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

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    Rachid Caio TCC

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane, next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA and denitrifying (nirK genes, greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil

  9. Textural and physico-chemical characteristics of white brined goat cheeses made from frozen milk and curd. The use of square I - distance statistics

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    Nemanja Kljajevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short term frozen storage of milk and curd on textural properties and physico-chemical composition of white brined goat cheese. Raw milk and curds (at various stages of pressing were frozen and kept for seven days at -27 °C. Following the freezing, all the experimental cheeses were manufactured by the standard procedure, the same that was used for the control cheese sample which did not undergo freezing at any stage of production. The Square I - distance was used in order to rank the cheeses according to their similarity to the control cheese in terms of texture attributes and physico-chemical characteristics. The results show that, in terms of all examined variables, the cheese made from frozen milk is the most similar to the control cheese.

  10. Active packaged lamb with oxygen scavenger/carbon dioxide emitter sachet: physical-chemical and microbiological stability during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Trindade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lamb meat has been commercialized in Brazil almost exclusively as a frozen product due to the longer shelf life provided by freezing when compared to refrigeration. However, as a result of the current trend of increased demand for convenience products, a need has emerged for further studies to facilitate the marketing of refrigerated lamb cuts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of active packaging technology in extending the shelf life of lamb loins (Longissimus lumborum stored under refrigeration (1±1 ° C when compared to the traditional vacuum packaging. For this purpose, two kinds of sachets were employed: oxygen scavenger sachet and oxygen scavenger/carbon dioxide emitter sachet. Experiments were conducted in three treatments: 1 Vacuum (Control, 2 Vacuum + oxygen scavenger sachet and 3 Vacuum + oxygen scavenger/carbon dioxide emitter sachet. Microbiological (counts of anaerobic psychrotrophs, coliform at 45 ° C, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria and physical-chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, objective color, pH value, water loss from cooking and shear force analyses were carried out weekly for a total storage period of 28 days. The experiment was performed three times for all treatments. Results showed that the lamb meat remained stable with respect to the majority of the evaluated physical and chemical indexes and remained within the standards established by Brazilian legislation for pathogenic microorganisms throughout the storage period in all three packaging systems. However, all treatments presented elevated counts of anaerobic psychrotrophic microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria, reaching values above 10(7 CFU/g at 28 days of storage. Thus, under the conditions tested, neither the oxygen scavenger sachet nor the dual function sachet (oxygen scavenger/carbon dioxide emitter were able to extend the shelf life of refrigerated lamb loin when added to this

  11. Groundwater contamination by microbiological and chemical substances released from hospital wastewater: health risk assessment for drinking water consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Evens; Pierre, Marie Gisèle; Perrodin, Yves

    2009-05-01

    Contamination of natural aquatic ecosystems by hospital wastewater is a major environmental and human health issue. Disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, radionuclides and solvents are widely used in hospitals for medical purposes and research. After application, some of these substances combine with hospital effluents and, in industrialised countries, reach the municipal sewer network. In certain developing countries, hospitals usually discharge their wastewater into septic tanks equipped with diffusion wells. The discharge of chemical compounds from hospital activities into the natural environment can lead to the pollution of water resources and risks for human health. The aim of this article is to present: (i) the steps of a procedure intended to evaluate risks to human health linked to hospital effluents discharged into a septic tank equipped with a diffusion well; and (ii) the results of its application on the effluents of a hospital in Port-au-Prince. The procedure is based on a scenario that describes the discharge of hospital effluents, via septic tanks, into a karstic formation where water resources are used for human consumption. COD, Chloroform, dichlomethane, dibromochloromethane, dichlorobromomethane and bromoform contents were measured. Furthermore, the presence of heavy metals (chrome, nickel and lead) and faecal coliforms were studied. Maximum concentrations were 700 NPP/100 ml for faecal coliforms and 112 mg/L for COD. A risk of infection of 10(-5) infection per year was calculated. Major chemical risks, particularly for children, relating to Pb(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI) and Ni(II) contained in the ground water were also characterised. Certain aspects of the scenario studied require improvement, especially those relating to the characterisation of drugs in groundwater and the detection of other microbiological indicators such as protozoa, enterococcus and viruses.

  12. Microbiological and physical-chemical water quality of the rice fields in Sinos River's basin, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzon, Jeremias Pakulski; Macedo, Vera Regina Mussoi; Machado, Vilmar; Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we evaluate spatial and temporal variations of the water's quality used in rice fields. Every 15 days during the different phases of cultivation of the rice-vegetative, reproductive, and maturity-samples were collected from the main irrigation channel, from the surface water in the field, and from the excess-water drainage channel. The differences in the values of 13 variables were analyzed by the analysis of variance system and by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique. The results demonstrate that the values observed for the presence of total coliforms, heat-tolerant coliforms, and pH were higher in the irrigation water and that the calcium and magnesium components were greater in the drainage water. The PCA results indicate that three groups of variance exist and that these three account for 77 % of the observed variances. The first principal component, (39 % of the variances), includes the variables pH, phosphorus, potassium, carbon, and turbidity; the second (28.1 %), calcium, magnesium, and conductivity; while the third accounts for only 9.9 % of the variation and incorporates the variable biological thermotolerant coliforms. The spatial pattern resulting from the distribution of the sampling locations as regards the first two principal components indicates a difference between the irrigation and drainage waters. The variables of the first and third items (except for the turbidity in the second component) reach higher values in the irrigation water, while the variables associated with the second component have higher values in the drainage water. The information provided is important for the analysis of the influence exercised by plantation management decisions on the microbiological, physical, and chemical quality of the water. The results confirm the ability of paddy rice field to filter out some of the chemicals and coliforms from the irrigation water as it passes through the agro ecosystem.

  13. Microbiological and Chemical Quality of Packaged Sachet Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Fisher

    Full Text Available Packaged drinking water (PW sold in bottles and plastic bags/sachets is widely consumed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, and many urban users in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA rely on packaged sachet water (PSW as their primary source of water for consumption. However, few rigorous studies have investigated PSW quality in SSA, and none have compared PSW to stored household water for consumption (HWC. A clearer understanding of PSW quality in the context of alternative sources is needed to inform policy and regulation. As elsewhere in SSA, PSW is widely consumed in Sierra Leone, but government oversight is nearly nonexistent. This study examined the microbiological and chemical quality of a representative sample of PSW products in Freetown, Sierra Leone at packaged water manufacturing facilities (PWMFs and at points of sale (POSs. Samples of HWC were also analyzed for comparison. The study did not find evidence of serious chemical contamination among the parameters studied. However, 19% of 45 PSW products sampled at the PWMF contained detectable Escherichia coli (EC, although only two samples exceeded 10 CFU/100 mL. Concentrations of total coliforms (TC in PSW (but not EC increased along the supply chain. Samples of HWC from 60 households in Freetown were significantly more likely to contain EC and TC than PSW at the point of production (p<0.01, and had significantly higher concentrations of both bacterial indicators (p<0.01. These results highlight the need for additional PSW regulation and surveillance, while demonstrating the need to prioritize the safety of HWC. At present, PSW may be the least unsafe option for many households.

  14. Fouling of Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Membrane: Chemical and Microbiological Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Muhammad T.

    2013-12-01

    In spite of abundant water resources, world is suffering from the scarcity of usable water. Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology using polymeric membranes has been recognized as a key solution to water scarcity problem. However, economic sustainability of this advanced technology is adversely impacted by the membrane fouling problem. Fouling of RO membranes is a highly studied phenomenon. However, literature is found to be lacking a detailed study on kinetic and dynamic aspects of SWRO membrane fouling. The factors that impact the fouling dynamics, i.e., pretreatment and water quality were also not adequately studied at full–scale of operation. Our experimental protocol was designed to systematically explore these fouling aspects with the objective to improve the understanding of SWRO membrane fouling mechanisms. An approach with multiple analytical techniques was developed for fouling characterization. In addition to the fouling layer characterization, feed water quality was also analysed to assess its fouling potential. Study of SWRO membrane fouling dynamics and kinetics revealed variations in relative abundance of chemical and microbial constituents of the fouling layer, over operating time. Aromatic substances, most likely humic–like substances, were observed at relatively high abundance in the initial fouling layer, followed by progressive increase in relative abundances of proteins and polysaccharides. Microbial population grown on all membranes was dominated by specific groups/species belonging to different classes of Proteobacteria phylum; however, similar to abiotic foulant, their relative abundance also changed with the biofilm age and with the position of membrane element in RO vessel. Our results demonstrated that source water quality can significantly impact the RO membrane fouling scenarios. Moreover, the major role of chlorination in the SWRO membrane fouling was highlighted. It was found that intermittent mode of chlorination

  15. Comparison of proximate chemical composition and texture of cupim, Rhomboideus m. and lombo, Longissimus dorsi m. of Nelore (Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayka Reghiany Pedrão

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The proximate chemical composition of hump, known in Brazil as cupim, Rhomboideus m. (RB, of Nelore (Bos indicus aged 24 months revealed it to be a unique beef muscle. It presents a lipid fraction 14-fold as high as that of Longissimus dorsi m. (LD taken from the same animal (pA composição química percentual aproximada do cupim m. Rhomboideus (RB derivado de Nelore (Bos indicus de 24 meses de idade mostrou ser um músculo diferenciado. Há uma maior fração de material lipídico em RB chegando a ser 14 vezes proporcionalmente maior em comparação ao m. Longissimus dorsi (LD (p<0,05 a maior quantidade de gordura relatada em amostras de carne em literatura científica. Esse fato foi também observado pela avaliação histológica. Há proporcionalmente maior concentração da fração protéica e menor quantidade de umidade em RB. O teor de colágeno foi de 22,9% mais concentrado em RB enquanto que a quantidade da sua ligação cruzada, hidroxilisilpiridinolina (HP foi 14 vezes maior indicando que cupim seria mais rígido. Contrariando essa expectativa, a maciez da carne crua avaliada pelo texturômetro mostrou valores de 8.05 e 5.81 kg/F para LD e RB, respectivamente (p<0.05. Tais resultados mostram que em músculo contendo abundante gordura esta funciona como lubrificante para a lamina penetrar sem muita resistência através do cupim a despeito dar quantidade e qualidade das fibras de colágeno.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF STRAINED (TORBA YOGHURTS PRODUCED DURING THE SUMMER AND WINTER SEASONS IN DENİZLİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan GÖKÇE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study some chemical and microbiological analysis of 57 strained (Torba yoghurt which were taken from 10 different markets during summer and winter seasons in Denizli city centre have been carried out. According to the results, there were no significant statistical differences in chemical and microbiological properties of torba yoghurts. According to Regulations of Food Products of Turkish Republic, analysed samples were not appropriate while considering; dry material, 98.25 %; mould-yeast, 85 %; sodium benzoate, 28.07 % and acidity, 12.28 % point of views. For these reasons, it should be considered some new arrangements in the Regulations of Food Products of Turkish Republic for torba yoghurt.

  17. INFLUENCE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE TIME ON PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SET YOGURT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MODIFIED BIODEGRADABLE POLY(LACTIC ACID) AND POLYPROPYLENE

    OpenAIRE

    NAWADON PETCHWATTANA; PHISUT NAKNAEN

    2016-01-01

    The current paper investigates the influence of storage time and type of polymeric packaging material on the chemical, physical and microbiological properties of set yogurt. Firstly, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was modified by using a core-shell rubber (CSR) and an acrylic processing aid (PA) to produce PLA with high toughness and good processability. Secondly, an appropriate PLA/PA/CSR composition was selected and fabricated to yogurt cup. The yogurt was stored in both modified PLA and polypropy...

  18. Comparison of the microbiological and chemical characterization of harvested rainwater and reservoir water as alternative water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Yang, Jung-Seok; Han, Mooyoung; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2010-01-15

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) offers considerable potential as an alternative water supply. In this study, all of the harvested rainwater samples met the requirements for grey water but not for drinking water. In terms of microbiological parameters, total coliform (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) were measured in 91.6% and 72%, respectively, of harvested rainwater samples at levels exceeding the guidelines for drinking water, consistent with rainfall events. In the case of the reservoir water samples, TC and EC were detected in 94.4% and 85.2%, respectively, of the samples at levels exceeding the guidelines for drinking water. Both indicators gradually increased in summer and fall. The highest median values of both TC and EC were detected during the fall. Chemical parameters such as common anions and major cations as well as metal ions in harvested rainwater were within the acceptable ranges for drinking water. By contrast, Al shows a notable increase to over 200mugL(-1) in the spring due to the intense periodic dust storms that can pass over the Gobi Desert in northern China. In terms of statistical analysis, the harvested rainwater quality showed that TC and EC exhibit high positive correlations with NO(3)(-) (rho(TC)=0.786 and rho(EC)=0.42) and PO(4)(-) (rho(TC)=0.646 and rho(EC)=0.653), which originally derive from catchment contamination, but strong negative correlations with Cl(-) (rho(TC)=-0.688 and rho(EC)=-0.484) and Na(+) (rho(TC)=-0.469 and rho(EC)=-0.418), which originate from seawater. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. An analysis of the chemical and microbiological quality of ground water from boreholes and shallow wells in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, N. A. G.

    Groundwater from boreholes and shallow wells is a major source of drinking water in most rural areas of Zimbabwe. The quality of groundwater has been taken for granted and the status and the potential threats to groundwater quality have not been investigated on a large scale in Zimbabwe. A borehole and shallow well water quality survey was undertaken between January, 2009 and February, 2010 to determine the chemical and microbial aspects of drinking water in three catchment areas. Groundwater quality physico-chemical indicators used in this study were nitrates, chloride, water hardness, conductivity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, calcium, fluoride, sulphates, sodium and pH. The microbiological indicators were total coliforms, faecal coliforms and heterotrophs. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most of the variation in ground water quality in all catchment areas is accounted for by Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium, bicarbonate and magnesium. The principal dissolved constituents in ground water are in the form of electrically charged ions. Nitrate is a significant problem as the World Health Organization recommended levels were exceeded in 36%, 37% and 22% of the boreholes in the Manyame, Mazowe and Gwayi catchment areas respectively. The nitrate levels were particularly high in commercial farming areas. Iron and manganese also exceeded the recommended levels. The probable source of high iron levels is the underlying geology of the area which is dominated by dolerites. Dolerites weather to give soils rich in iron and other mafic minerals. The high level of manganese is probably due to the lithology of the rock as well as mining activity in some areas. Water hardness is a problem in all catchment areas, particularly in the Gwayi catchment area where a value of 2550 mg/l was recorded in one borehole. The problems with hard water use are discussed. Chloride levels exceeded the

  20. The effect of partial substitution of pork back fat with vegetable oils and walnuts on chemical composition, texture profile and sensorial properties of meatloaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Dănuţ MOCANU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of the partial substitution of the pork back fat with different vegetable oils (sea buckthorn, walnut and sunflower and walnuts on the chemical composition, texture profile and sensory characteristics of meatloaves. The dry matter and ash content of meatloaf with vegetable oils and walnuts were higher than the control sample (P < 0.05. The cooking loss, energy values and lipid oxidation for the samples with walnuts and vegetable oils were lower than the control sample. The meatloaf sample containing walnuts and sea buckthorn oil had the highest total antioxidant capacity. The partial substitution of pork back fat showed a positive effect on textural and sensorial characteristics. Results reveal that the incorporation of vegetable oils and walnuts has successfully reduced the animal fat content in the finite products while improving the quality characteristics.

  1. Chemical, multispectral, and textural constraints on the composition and origin of rocks at the Mars Pathfinder landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Murchie, S.L.; Crisp, J.A.; Bridges, N.T.; Anderson, R.C.; Bell, J.F.; Britt, D.T.; Brückner, J.; Dreibus, G.; Economou, T.; Ghosh, A.; Golombek, M.P.; Greenwood, J.P.; Johnson, J. R.; Moore, H.J.; Morris, R.V.; Parker, T.J.; Rieder, R.; Singer, R.; Wänke, H.

    1999-01-01

    Rocks at the Mars Pathfinder site are probably locally derived. Textures on rock surfaces may indicate volcanic, sedimentary, or impact-generated rocks, but aeolian abration and dust coatings prevent unambiguous interpretation. Multispectral imaging has resolved four spectral classes of rocks: gray and red, which occur on different surfaces of the same rocks; pink, which is probably soil crusts; and maroon, which occurs as large boulders, mostly in the far field. Rocks are assigned to two spectral trends based on the position of peak reflectance: the primary spectral trend contains gray, red, and pink rocks; maroon rocks constitute the secondary spectral trend. The spatial pattern of spectral variations observed is oriented along the prevailing wind direction. The primary spectral trend arises from thin ferric coatings of aeolian dust on darker rocks. The secondary spectral trend is apparently due to coating by a different mineral, probably maghemite or ferrihydrite. A chronology based on rock spectra suggests that rounded maroon boulders constitute the oldest petrologic unit (a flood deposit), succeeded by smaller cobbles possibly deposited by impact, and followed by aeolian erosion and deposition. Nearly linear chemical trends in alpha proton X-ray spectrometer rock compositions are interpreted as mixing lines between rock and adhering dust, a conclusion supported by a correlation between sulfur abundance and red/blue spectral ratio. Extrapolations of regression lines to zero sulfur give the composition of a presumed igneous rock. The chemistry and normative mineralogy of the sulfur-free rock resemble common terrestrial volcanic rocks, and its classification corresponds to andesite. Igneous rocks of this composition may occur with clastic sedimentary rocks or impact melts and breccias. However, the spectral mottling expected on conglomerates or breccias is not observed in any APXS-analyzed rocks. Interpretation of the rocks as andesites is complicated by absence

  2. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavior of Aluminum Based Coagulants in Treatment of Surface Water–Assessment of Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Treated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spînu (Gologan Daniela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-polymerized inorganic aluminum coagulants have high efficiency in reducing turbidity, total, dissolved, biodegradable organic carbon and microbiological content of surface waters used for drinking, while obtaining low concentrations of residual aluminum after the coagulation phase. Correlation between turbidity raw water and coagulant dose is logarithmic being influenced by temperature and organic content of surface waters. The coagulant’s effect on the organic content of the raw water is closely related to the microbiological concentration and can thus determine the mathematical correlations between the two types of parameters after the coagulation-flocculation stage that can be used to assess the water biostability coagulant action.

  4. TEXTURAL FRACTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Lauschmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The reconstitution of the history of a fatigue process is based on the knowledge of any correspondences between the morphology of the crack surface and the velocity of the crack growth (crack growth rate - CGR. The textural fractography is oriented to mezoscopic SEM magnifications (30 to 500x. Images contain complicated textures without distinct borders. The aim is to find any characteristics of this texture, which correlate with CGR. Pre-processing of images is necessary to obtain a homogeneous texture. Three methods of textural analysis have been developed and realized as computational programs: the method based on the spectral structure of the image, the method based on a Gibbs random field (GRF model, and the method based on the idealization of light objects into a fibre process. In order to extract and analyze the fibre process, special methods - tracing fibres and a database-oriented analysis of a fibre process - have been developed.

  5. Belgian and Spanish consumption data and consumer handling practices for fresh fruits and vegetables useful for further microbiological and chemical exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Ibañez, I Castro; Gómez-López, V M; Fernandes, J Araujo; Allende, A; Uyttendaele, M; Huybrechts, I

    2015-04-01

    A consumer survey was organized in Spain and Belgium to obtain consumption data and to gain insight into consumer handling practices for fresh vegetables consumed raw or minimally processed (i.e., heads of leafy greens, bell peppers, tomatoes, fresh herbs, and precut and packed leafy greens) and fruits to be consumed without peeling (i.e., apples, grapes, strawberries, raspberries, other berries, fresh juices, and precut mixed fruit). This information can be used for microbiological and/or chemical food safety research. After extensive cleanup of rough databases for missing and extreme values and age correction, information from 583 respondents from Spain and 1,605 respondents from Belgium (18 to 65 years of age) was retained. Daily intake (grams per day) was calculated taking into account frequency and seasonality of consumption, and distributions were obtained that can be used in quantitative risk assessment for chemical hazards with chronic effects on human health. Data also were recalculated to obtain discrete distributions of consumption per portion and the corresponding frequency of consumption, which can be used in acute microbiological risk assessment or outbreak investigations. The ranked median daily consumption of fruits and vegetables was similar in Spain and Belgium: apple > strawberry > grapes > strawberries and raspberries; and tomatoes > leafy greens > bell peppers > fresh herbs. However, vegetable consumption was higher (in terms of both portion and frequency of consumption) in Spain than in Belgium, whereas the opposite was found for fruit consumption. Regarding consumer handling practices related to storage time and method, Belgian consumers less frequently stored their fresh produce in a refrigerator and did so for shorter times compared with Spanish consumers. Washing practices for lettuce heads and packed leafy greens also were different. The survey revealed differences between these two countries in consumption and consumer handling practices

  6. The effect of dust on the chemical and microbiological qualities of the date palm fruits from Bushehr-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Delkhah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The date palm cultivation has a long history in Bushehr province. Throughout the recent decade the dusts, in addition to direct harmful effects on humans, have adverse effects on health of the population living in this area. The infestation of pests in the southern province of Bushehr has groves. Due to the importance of dates in this area, the total ash and acid insoluble ash as indexes for assessing of chemical pollution and also, mold and yeast as indicators for microbial contamination were evaluated. Recently in a number of dates packaging industries, washing the products after the harvest is done. In current study, the effects of rinsing to decrease the dust pollution on date palm along with, the time effect on the quality and durability of washed and un-washed dates were investigated. Materials and Methods: Overall, 48 washed and un-washed dates were sampled from traditional and technologically advanced packaging industries, equally, and were confirmed according to ISIRI methods. Results: The Averages of total and acid insoluble ashes in washed date samples were:1.05±0.14 and 3.32±0.32%, and for un-washed samples were 1.36±0.27 and 4.59±1.64 percent, respectively. In all date samples were presented the yeast, however, their means were lower than the maximum limit (1×104 CFU. Also, all date samples were moldy. The Mean percentage of total ash samples in un-rinsed and rinsed dates were approximately, 1.84 and 1.33 times more than the maximum permissible limit, respectively. The mean of acid insoluble ash in all samples (100%, and 98% of total ash were higher than acceptable levels (p<0.05. The results revealed that the average percentage difference between the two groups were transpicuous, while this difference was not significant (p=0.13. Under the similar conditions, the average amount of yeast in washed date samples, were significantly different (p<0.05 and more than un-wash samples. The Mold levels in un-rinsed and

  7. Physical-chemicals parameters and microbiological indicators in sewage treatment of Ciudad Real; Parametros fisicoquimicos e indicadores microbiologicos en la depuracion de aguas residuales de Ciudad Real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Solanilla, E.; Ubeda Iranzo, J.F.; Perez Bencecry, C. [E.U.I. Tecnica Agricola. Ciudad Real. Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this work is to find out the possible relationship between some physico-chemical (pH, conductivity dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, DBO, DQO) and sanitary microbiological parameters (total coliforms, faecal coliforms, faecal streptococcus , coliphages) in a sewage treatment. It was carried out in a waste water treatment plant with an activated sludges process of conventional design. The most significative effects that primary treatment and the biological treatment on the parameters analyzed were stablished. On the other hand, effective chlorine doses and contact time were determined for a possible reuse of the treated water. (Author) 16 refs.

  8. Growth of TiO2 thin films on chemically textured Si for solar cell applications as a hole-blocking and antireflection layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranveer; Kumar, Mohit; Saini, Mahesh; Singh, Avanendra; Satpati, Biswarup; Som, Tapobrata

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we investigate the broad-band photoabsorption of an n-TiO2 thin film and its hole-blocking properties when a heterostructure is grown on a chemically textured p-Si substrate. We demonstrate that average specular reflectance of conformally grown TiO2 thin films on chemically prepared pyramidally textured Si substrates can be brought down to ∼0.2% (in the wavelength range of 300-1200 nm), which increases up to ∼0.53% after annealing at 673 K in air for 1 h. X-ray diffraction data reveal the amorphous nature of as-grown TiO2 thin films which undergoes a transition to a crystalline one after annealing. In addition, bulk current-voltage characteristics show that the leakage current increases after annealing which corroborates well a with change in the band gap, as is measured from the optical absorption spectra, due to a transition from amorphous to crystalline (anatase phase) of TiO2. Moreover, TiO2/Si heterojunction allows the transport of electrons but blocks the transport of holes. The present results are not only important for the fundamental understanding of the charge transport across TiO2/Si heterostructures but also to design hole-blocking solar cells.

  9. Crystallographic textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klosek Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In material science, crystallographic texture is an important microstructural parameter which directly determines the anisotropy degree of most physical properties of a polycrystalline material at the macro scale. Its characterization is thus of fundamental and applied importance, and should ideally be performed prior to any physical property measurement or modeling. Neutron diffraction is a tool of choice for characterizing crystallographic textures: its main advantages over other existing techniques, and especially over the X-ray diffraction techniques, are due to the low neutron absorption by most elements. The obtained information is representative of a large number of grains, leading to a better accuracy of the statistical description of texture.

  10. Salty Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, Mark A.; Wedel, Adrianne N.; Pokorski, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    Using microbiology activities in the classroom is an effective way for teachers to address National Standards in the life sciences. However, common microbiology activities that involve swabbing doorknobs and hands are too risky due to the likelihood of culturing human pathogens. In addition, making sterile media and maintaining sterile conditions…

  11. Agricultural Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Winston J.

    1981-01-01

    Elucidates strategies for applying microbiological techniques to traditional agricultural practices. Discusses the manipulation of microorganisms that live with plants and also the problems involved in the introduction of new genes into crop plants by recombinant DNA methods. (CS)

  12. Food microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Moss, M. O; Adams, M. R

    2008-01-01

    ... is directed primarily at students of Microbiology, Food Science and related subjects up to Master's level and assumes some knowledge of basic microbiology. We have chosen not to burden the text with references to the primary literature in order to preserve what we hope is a reasonable narrative flow. Some suggestions for further reading for each chapter are included in Chapter 12. These are largely review articles and monographs which develop the overview provided and can also give access to...

  13. Influence of chemical composition in crystallographic texture Fe-Cr-Mo alloys; Influencia da composicao quimica na textura cristalografica de ligas Fe-Cr-Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, L.B.; Guimaraes, R.F. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. da Industria; Abreu, H.F.G. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The use of steels with higher contents of Mo in the oil industry has been an alternative to reduce the effect of naphthenic corrosion in refining units. The addition of Mo in Fe-Cr alloys in the same manner that increases resistance to corrosion naphthenic causes some difficulties such as difficulty of forming, welding and embrittlement. In this work, experimental ingots of Fe-Cr-Mo alloys (Cr - 9, 15 and 17%, Mo - 5, 7 and 9%) were melted in vacuum induction furnace and hot and cold rolled in a laboratory rolling mill. The influence of chemical composition on crystallographic texture of samples subjected to the same thermo-mechanical treatment was analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The results indicate that fiber (111) becomes more intense with increasing Mo and/or Cr contents. (author)

  14. High haze textured surface B-doped ZnO-TCO films on wet-chemically etched glass substrates for thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinliang, Chen; Jieming, Liu; Jia, Fang; Ze, Chen; Ying, Zhao; Xiaodan, Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Textured glass substrates with crater-like feature sizes of ˜5-30 μm were obtained using the chemical etching method through adjusting the treatment round (R). Pyramid-like boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) films with feature sizes of ˜300-800 nm were deposited on the etched glass substrates by the metal organic chemical deposition (MOCVD) technique using water, diethylzinc and 1%-hydrogen-diluted diborane. The ZnO:B films on the etched glass with micro/nano double textures presented a much stronger light-scattering capability than the conventional ZnO:B on the flat glass and their electrical properties changed little. Typical etched glass-3R/ZnO:B exhibited a high root mean square (RMS) roughness of ˜160 nm. The haze values at the wavelengths of 550 nm and 850 nm for etched glass-3R/ZnO:B sample were 61% and 42%, respectively. Finally, the optimized etched glass/ZnO:B was applied in the silicon (Si) based thin film solar cells. The high haze etched glass/ZnO:B substrates have potential merits for thin film solar cells. Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Nos. 2011CBA00706, 2011CBA00707), the Tianjin Applied Basic Research Project and Cutting-Edge Technology Research Plan (No. 13JCZDJC26900), the Tianjin Major Science and Technology Support Project (No. 11TXSYGX22100), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2013AA050302), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 65010341).

  15. Emulsion characteristics, chemical and textural properties of meat systems produced with double emulsions as beef fat replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem; Öztürk, Burcu; Urgu, Müge

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, double emulsions are stated to have a promising potential in low-fat food production, however, there are very few studies on their possible applications in meat matrices. We aimed to investigate the quality of beef emulsion systems in which beef fat was totally replaced by double emulsions (W1/O/W2) prepared with olive oil and sodium caseinate (SC) by two-step emulsification procedure. Incorporation of W1/O/W2 emulsion resulted in reduced lipid, increased protein content, and modified fatty acid composition. W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments had lower jelly and fat separation, higher water-holding capacity and higher emulsion stability than control samples with beef fat. Increased concentrations of W1/O/W2 emulsions resulted in significant changes in texture parameters. TBA values were lower in W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments than control treatment after 60days of storage. In conclusion, our study confirms that double emulsions had promising impacts on modifying fatty acid composition and developing both technologically and oxidatively stable beef emulsion systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Particular Breed on the Chemical Composition, Texture, Color, and Sensorial Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kuyng Mi; Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2014-08-01

    The present study demonstrates the impact of specific breed on the characteristics of dry-cured ham. Eighty thighs from Korean native pig (KNP), crossbreed (Landrace×Yorkshire)♀×Duroc♂ (LYD), Berkshire (Ber), and Duroc (Du) pig breeds (n = 10 for each breed) were used for processing of dry-cured ham. The thighs were salted with 6% NaCl (w/w) and 100 ppm NaNO2, and total processing time was 413 days. The effects of breed on the physicochemical composition, texture, color and sensory characteristics were assessed on the biceps femoris muscle of the hams. The results revealed that the highest weight loss was found in the dry-cured ham of LYD breed and the lowest weight loss was found in Ber dry-cured ham. The KNP dry-cured ham contain higher intramuscular fat level than other breed hams (piron and total monounsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in KNP ham while polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were higher in Du ham when compared to other breed hams (pproperties of dry-cured hams. These data could be useful for meat processors to select the suitable breeds for economical manufacturing of high quality dry-cured hams.

  17. The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point's (HACCP) concept as applied to some chemical, physical and microbiological contaminants of milk on dairy farms. A prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievaart, J J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; van Beek, E; van der Beek, C; van Risp, A; Schenkel, J; van Veersen, J

    2005-03-01

    Quality management on dairy farms becomes more and more important regarding the different areas of animal health, animal welfare and food safety. Monitoring animals, farm conditions and farm records can be extended with risk identification and risk management. The hazard analysis critical control point's system is useful as an on farm strategy to control the product as well as the production process on the areas of animal health, animal welfare and food safety. This article deals in detail with the question how to develop a qualitative method where risk can be defined as an interaction between probability and impact. Two parts of the production process (milk harvest and treatment of cows) where used as an example how to apply the hazard analysis critical control point's system on chemical, physical and microbiological contaminants of milk. Not just only by summarizing the different critical checkpoints for each area but also by giving them a precise judgement of probability and impact.

  18. Chemical composition, microbiological properties, and fatty acid profile of Italian-type salami with pork backfat substituted by emulsified canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Backes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vegetable oils have been used to substitute pork backfat to improve the fatty acid profile of fermented sausages. The aim of this study was to assess the chemical composition, microbiological properties, and fatty acid profile of Italian-type salami with pork backfat substituted (15% and 30% by emulsified canola oil. Fat contents decreased while moisture contents increased in Italian-type salami with emulsified canola oil. The growth of lactic acid bacteria in salami was not affected by canola oil and absence of fecal coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and Salmonella were reported during processing of fermented sausages. Lower levels of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs, higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were observed in salami with emulsified canola oil. Together, our results indicated that substituting pork backfat with emulsified canola oil improved the nutritional values of Italian-type salami.

  19. Geochemical and Microbiological Characteristics during in Situ Chemical Oxidation and in Situ Bioremediation at a Diesel Contaminated Site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Kalisz, M.; Krupanek, J.; Marek, J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Smidt, H.; Weert, de J.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Gaans, van P.; Keijzer, T.

    2014-01-01

    While in situ chemical oxidation with persulfate has seen wide commercial application, investigations into the impacts on groundwater characteristics, microbial communities and soil structure are limited. To better understand the interactions of persulfate with the subsurface and to determine the

  20. Studies on Some Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Potable Water Used in Some Rural Areas of Surat District (Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Patel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A physico chemical and microbiological study of the ground water of some villages of Surat district of Gujarat state (India has been made. Physico chemical parameters such as colour, odour, taste, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, TS, TDS, total hardness, total alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride and silica were determined. In microbiological study, total coliforms, E. coli, sulfate reducing anaerobic bacteria, pseudomonas aeruginosa, yeast and mould were investigated. Samples were taken from ten sampling points in ten different villages viz. Parvat(S-1, Kharvasa(S-2, Bonand(S-3, Vesu(S-4 Amroli(S-5, Kadodara(S-6, Chalthan(S-7, Variyav(S-8, Gaviyar(S-9 and Bhairav(S-10. Samples were taken four times in year in the month of May, August, November and February to check the seasonal effects. In village Gaviyar, Gujarat Water Supply and Sewerage Board has set up a treatment plant to supply good quality potable water in few surrounding coastal villages. In all other cases samples were taken from bore-well. Here study reported is for samples taken in May-2004 and August-2004.For colour, iron, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride and silica, instrumental methods like spectrophotometry were used. “Hach-Odyssey spectrophotometer” which has facility to store calibration curves and which can display the value for that parameter directly was used. In present study programmes of “Hach” with their reagents were used while some programmes were prepared by us using our reagents. This is an excellent instrument and results of this instrument are validated by USEPA. Sodium and potassium was determined using flame photometer. It was found that some water samples have higher TDS, chlorides, total hardness and total alkalinity than the permissible limits. In all cases samples were not found to contain significant quantities of bacteria and water was palatable from this point of view.

  1. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), laminated aluminum foil (LAF), high density polyethylene under vacuum (HDPEV) were stored at freezing (0°C) temperatures for 12 weeks. Samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analyzed for proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture), mineral content (calcium, potassium), vitamin C content, and microbiological qualities (total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, Coliform count, Staphylococcal count, Salmonella count) using the standard laboratory procedures. Carbohydrate, protein, fat content of dried mushrooms packaged in HDPE at freezing temperature ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.0% to 20.3%, and 3.2% to 4.3%, while mushrooms in polypropylene ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.5% to 20.3%, 2.6% to 4.3%. Carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in LAF ranged from 47.8% to 53.5%, 17.3% to 20.3%, and 3.3% to 4.3%, respectively, while carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in HDPEV ranged from 51.1% to 53.5%, 19.5% to 20.3%, and 3.5% to 4.3%. Microbiological analysis showed that total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, and Staphyloccocal count of dried mushroom ranged from 2.3 to 3.8 log cfu/g, 0.6 to 1.1 log cfu/g, and 0.4 to 0.5 log cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, dried mushroom in HDPE packaged under vacuum at freezing temperature retained the nutritional constituents than those packaged with other packaging materials. PMID:26288720

  2. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-07-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), laminated aluminum foil (LAF), high density polyethylene under vacuum (HDPEV) were stored at freezing (0°C) temperatures for 12 weeks. Samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analyzed for proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture), mineral content (calcium, potassium), vitamin C content, and microbiological qualities (total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, Coliform count, Staphylococcal count, Salmonella count) using the standard laboratory procedures. Carbohydrate, protein, fat content of dried mushrooms packaged in HDPE at freezing temperature ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.0% to 20.3%, and 3.2% to 4.3%, while mushrooms in polypropylene ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.5% to 20.3%, 2.6% to 4.3%. Carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in LAF ranged from 47.8% to 53.5%, 17.3% to 20.3%, and 3.3% to 4.3%, respectively, while carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in HDPEV ranged from 51.1% to 53.5%, 19.5% to 20.3%, and 3.5% to 4.3%. Microbiological analysis showed that total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, and Staphyloccocal count of dried mushroom ranged from 2.3 to 3.8 log cfu/g, 0.6 to 1.1 log cfu/g, and 0.4 to 0.5 log cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, dried mushroom in HDPE packaged under vacuum at freezing temperature retained the nutritional constituents than those packaged with other packaging materials.

  3. Environmental microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briški, Felicita; Vuković Domanovac, Marija

    2017-10-01

    For most people, microorganisms are out of sight and therefore out of mind but they are large, extremely diverse group of organisms, they are everywhere and are the dominant form of life on planet Earth. Almost every surface is colonized by microorganisms, including our skin; however most of them are harmless to humans. Some microorganisms can live in boiling hot springs, whereas others form microbial communities in frozen sea ice. Among their many roles, microorganisms are necessary for biogeochemical cycling, soil fertility, decomposition of dead plants and animals and biodegradation of many complex organic compounds present in the environment. Environmental microbiology is concerned with the study of microorganisms in the soil, water and air and their application in bioremediation to reduce environmental pollution through the biological degradation of pollutants into non-toxic or less toxic substances. Field of environmental microbiology also covers the topics such as microbially induced biocorrosion, biodeterioration of constructing materials and microbiological quality of outdoor and indoor air.

  4. Potential chemical and microbiological risks on human health from urban wastewater reuse in agriculture. Case study of wastewater effluents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ivan; Tomàs, Núria; Mas, Jordi; García-Reyes, Juan Fracisco; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-05-01

    Potential health risks derived from wastewater reuse in agriculture have been evaluated with Risk Assessment modelling techniques, in a case study involving the effluents of two Spanish wastewater treatment plants. One of the plants applies primary and secondary treatment, and the other one applies an additional tertiary treatment. Health risks were assessed on the basis of ingesting contaminated food, due to exposure to: (i) 22 chemical pollutants, namely pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and priority pollutants included in the European Framework Directive, and (ii) microorganisms, namely enterovirus. Chemical Risk Assessment has been carried out following the European Commission's technical guidelines, while risks from exposure to viruses have been evaluated by means of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, assuming a virus to coliform ratio of 1:10(5). The results of the chemical assessment show that there is a margin of safety above 100 for all substances, with the exception of gemfibrozil, for which the mean margin of safety (MOS) is above 100, but the lower bound of MOS with a 95 % confidence interval lies in the 3-4 range. A MOS under 100 was also found for 2,3,7,8-TCDD in one of the effluents. The assessment of risks from viruses shows a very low probability of infection. The overall results show that risks are lower for the plant applying tertiary treatment, especially concerning microbiological parameters.

  5. Effect of pomegranate based marinades on the microbiological, chemical and sensory quality of chicken meat: A metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytou, Anastasia E; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2018-02-21

    Pomegranate juice is a product with enhanced functional properties that could be used as an alternative to traditional marination ingredients and effectively retard microbial growth along with providing an improved sensory result. In this study, two pomegranate based marinades were prepared for the marination of chicken breast fillets and the marinated samples were aerobically stored at 4 and 10°C for 9days. Raw, non-marinated chicken samples were used as control. Levels of total viable counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were determined together with sensory assessment to evaluate the evolution of spoilage. The profile of organic acids and volatile compounds was also analyzed during storage. The shelf life of marinated samples was significantly extended compared to control samples at both storage temperatures (e.g., up to 5 and 6days for the pomegranate/lemon marinated samples stored at 4 and 10°C, respectively) as evaluated by both microbiological and sensory analyses. The profile of the organic acids and the volatilome of marinated and control samples were remarkably differentiated according to storage time, microbial load and sensory score. The findings of this study suggest that pomegranate juice could be used as a novel ingredient in marinades to improve the sensory attributes, while prolonging the shelf life of chicken meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbiological and Chemical Evaluation of Helix Spp. Snails from Local and Non-EU Markets, Utilised as Food in Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corda, Arianna; Mara, Laura; Virgilio, Sebastiano; Pisanu, Margherita; Chessa, Giannina; Parisi, Antonio; Cogoni, Maria Paola

    2014-04-17

    With this study, 28 pools of snails of the genus Helix, respectively Helix aspersa (n=24) and Helix vermiculata (n=4) were analysed. They were taken from snail farming and stores. The snails were from Sardinia, other regions of Italy, and from abroad. All the samples were examined as pool looking for these microbiological target: Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, Clostridium perfringens, Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). In the same pools, the concentration of cadmium and lead by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was also determined. The levels of these heavy metals were quite high, especially for cadmium. Two samples were positive for Salmonella spp., while no sample was positive for Escherichia coli O157, HAV and Norovirus. Two samples were positive for Clostridium perfringens and 8 for Listeria monocytogenes. The microrganisms related to Listeria monocytogenes were identified using biochemical techniques, then serotyped and gene sequenced by multiple loci sequence typing technique. Furthermore, antimicrobial restistence was tested on the same samples.

  7. Microbiological and chemical evaluation of Helix spp. snails from local and non-EU markets, utilised as food in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Corda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With this study, 28 pools of snails of the genus Helix, respectively Helix aspersa (n=24 and Helix vermiculata (n=4 were analysed. They were taken from snail farming and stores. The snails were from Sardinia, other regions of Italy, and from abroad. All the samples were examined as pool looking for these microbiological target: Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, Clostridium perfringens, Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus (HAV. In the same pools, the concentration of cadmium and lead by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was also determined. The levels of these heavy metals were quite high, especially for cadmium. Two samples were positive for Salmonella spp., while no sample was positive for Escherichia coli O157, HAV and Norovirus. Two samples were positive for Clostridium perfringens and 8 for Listeria monocytogenes. The microrganisms related to Listeria monocytogenes were identified using biochemical techniques, then serotyped and gene sequenced by multiple loci sequence typing technique. Furthermore, antimicrobial restistence was tested on the same samples.

  8. Effects of Textural Properties on the Response of a SnO2-Based Gas Sensor for the Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Chool; Kim, Seong Yeol; Lee, Woo Suk; Jung, Suk Yong; Hwang, Byung Wook; Ragupathy, Dhanusuraman; Lee, Duk Dong; Lee, Sang Yeon; Kim, Jae Chang

    2011-01-01

    The sensing behavior of SnO2-based thick film gas sensors in a flow system in the presence of a very low concentration (ppb level) of chemical agent simulants such as acetonitrile, dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and dichloromethane (DCM) was investigated. Commercial SnO2 [SnO2(C)] and nano-SnO2 prepared by the precipitation method [SnO2(P)] were used to prepare the SnO2 sensor in this study. In the case of DCM and acetonitrile, the SnO2(P) sensor showed higher sensor response as compared with the SnO2(C) sensors. In the case of DMMP and DPGME, however, the SnO2(C) sensor showed higher responses than those of the SnO2(P) sensors. In particular, the response of the SnO2(P) sensor increased as the calcination temperature increased from 400 °C to 800 °C. These results can be explained by the fact that the response of the SnO2-based gas sensor depends on the textural properties of tin oxide and the molecular size of the chemical agent simulant in the detection of the simulant gases (0.1–0.5 ppm). PMID:22163991

  9. European alerting and monitoring data as inputs for the risk assessment of microbiological and chemical hazards in spices and herbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Stratakou, I.; Fels, van der Ine; Besten, den H.M.W.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Food chains are susceptible to contaminations from food-borne hazards, including pathogens and chemical contaminants. An assessment of the potential product-hazard combinations can be supported by using multiple data sources. The objective of this study was to identify the main trends of food

  10. Physico-chemical and microbiological characterization of spontaneous fermentation of Cellina di Nardò and Leccino table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eBleve

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the most important traditional fermented vegetables in Europe and their world consumption is constantly increasing. In the Greek style, table olives are obtained by spontaneous fermentations, without any chemical debittering treatment. Evolution of sugars, organic acids, alcohols, mono and polyphenol compounds and volatile compounds associated with the fermentative metabolism of yeasts and bacteria throughout the natural fermentation process of the two Italian olive cultivars Cellina di Nardò and Leccino were determined. A protocol was developed and applied aimed at the technological characterization of LAB and yeast strains as possible candidate autochthonous starters for table olive fermentation from Cellina di Nardò and Leccino cultivars. The study of the main physic-chemical parameters and volatile compounds during fermentation helped to determine chemical descriptors that may be suitable for monitoring olive fermentation. In both the analyzed table olive cultivars, aldehydes proved to be closely related to the first stage of fermentation (30 days, while higher alcohols (2-methyl-1-propanol; 3-methyl-1-butanol, styrene, and o-cymene were associated with the middle stage of fermentation (90 days and acetate esters with the final step of olive fermentation (180 days.

  11. Physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics, sensory quality and acceptability of native chicken and rabbit sausage produced with corn oil, margarine and beef fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendronoto Arnoldus Walewangko Lengkey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluated the effect of certain oils or fats (corn oil, margarine and beef fat on the physico-chemical, microbiological characteristics and sensory quality of native chicken and rabbit sausages as low fat sausages. The sausages were evaluated by physicochemical analysis of pH, aw, moisture content, protein and fat, TPC and Salmonella as microbiological characteristics, as well as flavor, juiciness and overall acceptability as sensory quality, and with regards to diversification of meat products in Indonesia. Three formulations for native chicken (FA and rabbit (FB sausages were prepared: FA1 and FB1 (with 10% corn oil; FA2 and FB2 (with 10% margarine: FA3 and FB3 (with 10% beef fat. Results indicated no significant difference (p<0.05 between the pH and aw values of native chicken and rabbit sausages using different fat sources. The moisture content was significantly different (p<0.05 both between the native chicken and rabbit sausages and the types of fat source (corn oil, margarine and beef fat added. No effect on protein content was found both in native chicken and rabbit sausages. The lowest fat content was found in rabbit sausages (18.79 + 0.70% where corn oil was added as a fat source. Lowest TPC was also observed. Salmonella were not detected in any of the sausage groups. There was no significant difference (p<0.05 in various sensory attributes. In conclusion, native chicken and rabbit meat seems to be a suitable alternative for low fat sausages production, particularly with corn oil as fat source.

  12. Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Brian G. [U.S. Geological Survey, 2010 Levy Avenue, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)], E-mail: bkatz@usgs.gov; Griffin, Dale W.; Davis, J. Hal [U.S. Geological Survey, 2010 Levy Avenue, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1 mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3 m{sup 3}/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64 million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774 ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15 km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2 ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water

  13. Chitosan/whey Protein (CWP) Edible Films Efficiency for Controlling Mould Growth and on Microbiological, Chemical and Sensory Properties During Storage of Göbek Kashar Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of present study was to evaluate the effects of the application of chitosan and chitosan/whey protein on the chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of Göbek Kashar cheese during ripening time (on 3rd, 30th, 60th and 90th d). Difference in microbiological and chemical changes between samples was found to be significant (pCheese samples with edible coating had statistically lower mould counts compared to the uncoated samples. Furthermore the highest and lowest mould counts were determined in control (4.20 Log CFU/g) and other samples (cheeses studied. The edible coatings had a beneficial effect on the sensory quality of cheese samples. In the result of sensory analysis, while cheese C and the chitosan coated cheese samples were more preferred by the panellists, the chitosan/whey protein film-coated cheese samples received the lowest scores. This study shows coating suggests could be used to improve the quality of cheese during ripening time. PMID:26761831

  14. Temperature and water potential of grey clays in relation to their physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics and phytocoenology within the scope of the Radovesice Dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Zoubková

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Radovesice Dump is a part of brown-coal Most basin, which is situated in the northern part of the Czech Republic. Grey clays are the anthropogenic substrates, which have been used here as a reclamation material in most cases. Water potential of these substrates corresponds to their physical properties, annual precipitation, soil temperature and terrain exposition. All of these characteristics are the limiting factors of soil water, which is available to plants. Area left to spontaneous succession and reclaimed area served as the serviced ones. Water potential was studied in three depths (10, 20 and 30 cm of soil profile and the evaluated values showed significant difference between individual depths as well as exposition. As far as chemical analyses are concerned, the highest values were recorded in case of reclaimed area, whereas the levels of soil moisture here were medium. On the other hand, area left to spontaneous succession showed the lowest values in this sense, however specific representation of vegetation was much large-scale. As far as microbiological characteristics are concerned, the concentrations of phospholipid fatty acids were relatively low in both cases. To the dominant herb species belonged Calamagrostis epigejos, Urtica dioica, Alopecurus pratensis and Astragalus glycyphyllos. It was found that spontaneous succession was more variable as far as the specific representation of vegetation is concerned, though favourable soil physical and chemical properties were provided by technical reclamation too.

  15. TEXTURAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF ACTIVATED CARBONS PREPARED FROM RICE HUSK (ORYZA SATIVA USING A TWO- STAGE ACTIVATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEPH G. COLLIN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons from agro-industrial wastes; rice husk; were prepared by physical and chemical activation using phosphoric acid as the dehydrating agent. A two-stage activation process method was used; with semi-carbonisation stage at 200oC for 15 minutes as the first stage followed by an activation stage at 500oC for 45 minutes as the second stage. The precursor material with the impregnation agent was exposed straightaway to semi-carbonization and activation temperature unlike the specific temperature progression as reported in the literature. All experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale muffle furnace under static conditions in a self generated atmosphere covering process parameters such as impregnation ratios. We found that by using this method, the AC5 had the highest iodine number and methylene blue adsorption capacity which was 506.6 mg/g and 319.0 mg/g respectively.

  16. Urban stormwater harvesting and reuse: a probe into the chemical, toxicology and microbiological contaminants in water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Meng Nan; Sidhu, Jatinder; Aryal, Rupak; Tang, Janet; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Escher, Beate; Toze, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Stormwater is one of the last major untapped urban water resources that can be exploited as an alternative water source in Australia. The information in the current Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling relating to stormwater harvesting and reuse only emphasises on a limited number of stormwater quality parameters. In order to supply stormwater as a source for higher value end-uses, a more comprehensive assessment on the potential public health risks has to be undertaken. Owing to the stochastic variations in rainfall, catchment hydrology and also the types of non-point pollution sources that can provide contaminants relating to different anthropogenic activities and catchment land uses, the characterisation of public health risks in stormwater is complex, tedious and not always possible through the conventional detection and analytical methods. In this study, a holistic approach was undertaken to assess the potential public health risks in urban stormwater samples from a medium-density residential catchment. A combined chemical-toxicological assessment was used to characterise the potential health risks arising from chemical contaminants, while a combination of standard culture methods and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods was used for detection and quantification of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens in urban stormwater. Results showed that the concentration of chemical contaminants and associated toxicity were relatively low when benchmarked against other alternative water sources such as recycled wastewater. However, the concentrations of heavy metals particularly cadmium and lead have exceeded the Australian guideline values, indicating potential public health risks. Also, high numbers of FIB were detected in urban stormwater samples obtained from wet weather events. In addition, qPCR detection of human-related pathogens suggested there are frequent sewage ingressions into the urban stormwater runoff during wet weather events

  17. Endodontic microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan L; Vaishnavi C

    2010-01-01

    Root canal therapy has been practiced ever since 1928 and the success rate has tremendously increased over the years owing to various advancements in the field. One main reason is the complete understanding of the microbiology involved in the endodontic pathology. This has helped us to modify the conventional treatment plans and effectively combat the microorganisms. Now, studies are aiming to explore the characteristics of the ?most? resistant organism and the methods to eliminate them. This...

  18. Preprinting Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Schloss, Patrick D.; Cavanaugh, Colleen M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The field of microbiology has experienced significant growth due to transformative advances in technology and the influx of scientists driven by a curiosity to understand how microbes sustain myriad biochemical processes that maintain Earth. With this explosion in scientific output, a significant bottleneck has been the ability to rapidly disseminate new knowledge to peers and the public. Preprints have emerged as a tool that a growing number of microbiologists are using to overcome ...

  19. Effect of the natural winemaking process applied at industrial level on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Ciro; Francesca, Nicola; Corona, Onofrio; Settanni, Luca; Cruciata, Margherita; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2013-09-01

    The composition of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) communities and the chemical evolution of the large-scale commercial vinification of Catarratto IGT Sicilia, carried out under the biological regime, was followed from grape harvest until bottling. Simultaneously to the maximum growth of yeasts, LAB counts reached high level of concentration (6-7 log CFU mL(-1)) during the first steps of the alcoholic fermentation. Yeast identification was determined applying different molecular methods. The highest species biodiversity was observed on grape and must samples taken soon after pressing. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was detected at dominant concentrations during the entire winemaking process. LAB cultures were grouped and identified by a combined phenotypic and genotypic approach. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus hilgardii and Lactobacillus plantarum species were identified; the last was the main LAB recognized during vinification. The winemaking process was also chemically monitored. The alcoholic content was approximately 12.67% (v v(-1)) at bottling; pH, volatile acidity and total acidity showed a moderate increase during vinification. Tartaric, citric and malic acids decreased until bottling, while lactic acid showed a rapid increase at the end of maceration and bottling. Trans-caffeil tartaric acid was the most abundant phenolic compound and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were mainly represented by isoamylic alcohol, isobutanol, ethyl acetate and octanoic acid. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Textural and chemical properties of swine-manure-derived biochar pertinent to its potential use as a soil amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Liu, Sii-Chew; Chen, Huei-Ru; Chang, Yuan-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Lin

    2012-09-01

    Biochars have received increasing attention in recent years because of their properties pertaining to soil fertility and contaminant immobilization as well as serving as carbon sinks. In this work, a series of biochars were produced from dried swine manure waste by slow pyrolysis at different temperatures (i.e., 673-1073 K). The characterization of the resulting biochars was examined for its relevance to its potential use as soil amendment. It was found that the pore properties, ash contents and pH values of all swine-manure-derived biochars basically increased as temperature increased, while the yield and nitrogen/oxygen contents decreased with increasing temperature as a result of pyrolytic volatilization during pyrolysis. From the organic and inorganic elements analyses, the manure-derived biochar was rich in soil nutrients such as N, P, Ca, Mg, and K. Furthermore, the pore, surface and chemical properties were also consistent with the observations of the SEM-EDS, XRD and FTIR. This result suggested that the mesoporous manure-derived biochar could be used as an excellent medium to soil environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aqueous chemical growth of free standing vertical ZnO nanoprisms, nanorods and nanodiskettes with improved texture co-efficient and tunable size uniformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, S.D.G. [Bharath Niketan Engineering College, Department of Physics, Aundipatti (India); Ravi, G.; Mahalingam, T. [Alagappa University, Department of Physics, Karaikudi (India); Athimoolam, A. [Fatima Michael College of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics, Madurai (India); Kulandainathan, M.A. [Central Electro Chemical Research Institute, Karaikudi (India)

    2011-12-15

    Tuning the morphology, size and aspect ratio of free standing ZnO nanostructured arrays by a simple hydrothermal method is reported. Pre-coated ZnO seed layers of two different thicknesses ({approx}350 nm or 550 nm) were used as substrates to grow ZnO nanostructures for the study. Various parameters such as chemical ambience, pH of the solution, strength of the Zn{sup 2+} atoms and thickness of seed bed are varied to analyze their effects on the resultant ZnO nanostructures. Vertically oriented hexagonal nanorods, multi-angular nanorods, hexagonal diskette and popcorn-like nanostructures are obtained by altering the experimental parameters. All the produced nanostructures were analysed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis and found to be grown in the (002) orientation of wurtzite ZnO. The texture co-efficient of ZnO layer was improved by combining a thick seed layer with higher cationic strength. Surface morphological studies reveal various nanostructures such as nanorods, diskettes and popcorn-like structures based on various preparation conditions. The optical property of the closest packed nanorods array was recorded by UV-VIS spectrometry, and the band gap value simulated from the results reflect the near characteristic band gap of ZnO. The surface roughness profile taken from the Atomic Force Microscopy reveals a roughness of less than 320 nm. (orig.)

  2. Preparation and textural characterisation of activated carbon from vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) by H 3PO 4—Chemical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho-Corral, B.; Olivares-Marín, M.; Fernández-González, C.; Gómez-Serrano, V.; Macías-García, A.

    2006-06-01

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste as vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) by the method of chemical activation with phosphoric acid. After size reduction, VS were impregnated for 2 h with 60 wt.% H 3PO 4 solution at room temperature, 50 and 85 °C. The three impregnated products were carbonised at 400 °C. The product impregnated at 50 °C was heated either first at 150-250 °C and then at 400 °C or simply at 350-550 °C in N 2 atmosphere. The time of isothermal treatment after each dynamic heating was 2 h. The carbons were texturally characterised by gas adsorption (N 2, -196 °C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied. Better developments of surface area and microporosity are obtained when the impregnation of VS with the H 3PO 4 solution is effected at 50 °C and for the products heated isothermally at 200 and 450 °C. The mesopore volume is also usually higher for the products impregnated and heated at intermediate temperatures.

  3. Microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Swiss cheese manufactured with adjunct Lactobacillus strains using a low cooking temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Harper, W J; Drake, M A; Courtney, P D

    2008-08-01

    The effect of nonstarter Lactobacillus adjunct cultures on the microbial, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Swiss cheese manufactured using the "kosher make procedure" was investigated. The kosher make procedure, which uses a lower cooking temperature than traditional Swiss cheese making, is used by many American cheese manufacturers to allow for kosher-certified whey. Cheeses were manufactured using a commercial starter culture combination and 1 of 3 non-starter Lactobacillus strains previously isolated from Swiss cheeses, Lactobacillus casei A26, L. casei B21, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus H2, as an adjunct. Control cheeses lacked the adjunct culture. Cheeses were analyzed during ripening for microbial and chemical composition. Adjunct strain L. casei A26, which utilized citrate most readily in laboratory medium, dominated the Lactobacillus population within 30 d, faster than the other adjunct cultures. There were no significant differences in Propionibacterium counts, Streptococcus thermophilus counts, protein, fat, moisture, salt, and pH among the cheeses. Free amino acid concentration ranged from 5 to 7 mmol/100 g of cheese at 90 d of ripening and was adjunct strain dependent. Lactic, acetic, and propionic acid concentrations were not significantly different among the cheeses after a 90-d ripening period; however differences in propionic acid concentrations were apparent at 60 d, with the cheeses made with L. casei adjuncts containing less propionic acid. Citric acid was depleted by the end of warm room ripening in cheeses manufactured with adjunct L. casei strains, but not with adjunct L. rhamnosus. Cheeses made with L. casei A26 were most similar to the control cheeses in diacetyl and butyric/isobutyric acid abundance as evaluated by electronic nose during the first 3 mo of ripening. The 4 cheese types differed in their descriptive sensory profiles at 8 mo of age, indicating an adjunct strain-dependent effect on particular flavor attributes. Adjunct

  4. Physio-chemical, microbiological properties of tempoyak and molecular characterisation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from tempoyak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Shamila-Syuhada, Ahamed Kamal; Liong, Min Tze; Rosma, Ahmad; Thong, Kwai Lin; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine physio-chemical properties of tempoyak, characterise the various indigenous species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present at different stages of fermentation and also to determine the survival of selected foodborne pathogens in tempoyak. The predominant microorganisms present in tempoyak were LAB (8.88-10.42 log CFU/g). Fructobacillus durionis and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant members of LAB. Other LAB species detected for the first time in tempoyak were a fructophilic strain of Lactobacillus fructivorans, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Lactobacillus collinoides and Lactobacillus paracasei. Heterofermentative Leuconostoc mesenteroides and F. durionis were predominant in the initial stage of fermentation, and as fermentation proceeded, F. durionis remained predominant, but towards the end of fermentation, homofermentative Lb. plantarum became the predominant species. Lactic, acetic and propionic acids were present in concentrations ranging from 0.30 to 9.65, 0.51 to 7.14 and 3.90 to 7.31 mg/g, respectively. Genotyping showed a high degree of diversity among F. durionis and Lb. plantarum isolates, suggesting different sources of LAB. All tested Lb. plantarum and F. durionis (except for one isolate) isolates were multidrug resistant. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. However, survival study showed that these pathogens could survive up to 8-12 days. The results aiming at improving the quality and safety of tempoyak. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevremont, A.-C., E-mail: anne-celine.chevremont@imbe.fr [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Laboratoire Chimie de l' Environnement (FRE3416), Equipe ' Developpements Metrologiques et Chimie des Milieux' , 3 place Victor Hugo, case 29, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Institut Mediterraneen de Biodiversite et d' Ecologie marine et continentale (UMR7263), Equipe ' Vulnerabilite des Systemes Microbiens' , Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Boite 452, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Farnet, A.-M. [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Institut Mediterraneen de Biodiversite et d' Ecologie marine et continentale (UMR7263), Equipe ' Vulnerabilite des Systemes Microbiens' , Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Boite 452, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Coulomb, B.; Boudenne, J.-L. [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Laboratoire Chimie de l' Environnement (FRE3416), Equipe ' Developpements Metrologiques et Chimie des Milieux' , 3 place Victor Hugo, case 29, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2012-06-01

    Wastewater reuse for irrigation is an interesting alternative for many Mediterranean countries suffering from water shortages. The development of new technologies for water recycling is a priority for these countries. In this study we test the efficiency of UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet-Light-Emitting Diodes) emitting UV-A or UV-C radiations, used alone or coupled, on bacterial and chemical indicators. We monitored the survival of fecal bioindicators found in urban wastewaters and the oxidation of creatinine and phenol which represent either conventional organic matter or the aromatic part of pollution respectively. It appears that coupling UV-A/UV-C i) achieves microbial reduction in wastewater more efficiently than when a UV-LED is used alone, and ii) oxidizes up to 37% of creatinine and phenol, a result comparable to that commonly obtained with photoreactants such as TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We test UV-LEDs as an urban wastewater tertiary treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-A and UV-C are coupled, combining germicidal and oxidative properties of UV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupled wavelengths have the most efficient bactericidal effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupling UV-A and UV-C leads to photooxidation of creatinine and phenol.

  6. Physico-chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological evaluation of a septic tank/Fenton reaction combination for the treatment of hospital wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Josiani; Rochenbach, Gisele Canan; Barreiros, Marco Antonio B; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Peluso-Silva, Sandra; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos

    2009-05-01

    Hospital wastewater is considered a complex mixture populated with pathogenic microorganisms. The genetic constitution of these microorganisms can be changed through the direct and indirect effects of hospital wastewater constituents, leading to the appearance of antibiotic multi-resistant bacteria. To avoid environmental contamination hospital wastewaters must be treated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of hospital wastewater treated by a combined process of biological degradation (septic tank) and the Fenton reaction. Thus, after septic tank biodegradation, batch Fenton reaction experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale reactor and the effectiveness of this sequential treatment was evaluated by a physico-chemical/microbiological time-course analysis of COD, BOD(5), and thermotolerant and total coliforms. The results showed that after 120min of Fenton treatment BOD(5) and COD values decreased by 90.6% and 91.0%, respectively. The BOD(5)/COD ratio changed from 0.46 to 0.48 after 120min of treatment. Bacterial removal efficiency reached 100%, while biotests carried out with Scenedesmus subspicatus and Daphnia magna showed a significant decrease in the ecotoxicity of hospital wastewater after the sequential treatment. The use of this combined system would ensure that neither multi-resistant bacteria nor ecotoxic substances are released to the environment through hospital wastewater discharge.

  7. Survey of microbiological and chemical quality of the swimming beaches along the Persian Gulf in Bushehr port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swimming is highly recommended because of its potentially beneficial effects on the joints and people’s general sense of well-being. But unfortunately the discharing of urban and industrial wastewaters into sea with their high level of pathogens, heavy metals and other pollutants, increase concerns about its consequences on swimmers’ health and ecology. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial and chemical quality of Persian Gulf Sea beaches in Bushehr port and compare it to the existing standards. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 samples were taken from the beaches at TV-Park, Daneshjo-Park and Eskele-Jofreh, in August 2012. The mean values of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, pseudomonas, HPC, heavy metals and BOD were determined by standard methods. Results: The mean values of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and pseudomonas along Bushehr port beaches were 540, 165.56 and 6 MPN/100ml respectively.The mean value of HPC was 1580.66 CFU/ml. Also the mean concentrations of Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and BOD were 0.1676, 0.013, 0.025, 0.0016, 0.039, 0 and 21.3 mg/l respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the mean values of indicator microorganisms in all stations were higher than the existing standards and the mean concentration of heavy metals were lower than the existing standard, which indicates higher pollution more due to urban wastewater compare to industrial wastewater. Therefore Bushehr port beaches are contaminated considering indicator bacteria measurments that can be dangerous for swimmers health.

  8. INFLUENCE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE TIME ON PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SET YOGURT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MODIFIED BIODEGRADABLE POLY(LACTIC ACID AND POLYPROPYLENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAWADON PETCHWATTANA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current paper investigates the influence of storage time and type of polymeric packaging material on the chemical, physical and microbiological properties of set yogurt. Firstly, poly(lactic acid (PLA was modified by using a core-shell rubber (CSR and an acrylic processing aid (PA to produce PLA with high toughness and good processability. Secondly, an appropriate PLA/PA/CSR composition was selected and fabricated to yogurt cup. The yogurt was stored in both modified PLA and polypropylene (PP packages to observe some physical, chemical and biological changes. Finally, the biodegradation test was made on both packages and compared with that cellulose. Experimental results revealed that adding 5wt% CSR gave PLA/PA as tough as PP. Types of packaging material and storage time did not change the color of yogurt. The number of lactic acid bacteria grew significantly after they had been incubated for 6 days. The bacterial viability decreased dramatically due to the increased acidity and the decreased pH. A positive impact on the viability of bacterial growth was found when yogurt was stored in modified PLA package. This made yogurt had more health benefits than stored in PP package. The biodegradation test results indicated that the modified PLA degraded at a rapid rate. It achieved approximately 50% biodegradation within 40 days which was comparable to the time required to degrade the cellulose, whereas PP was non-biodegradable over the period studied. In summary, substitution conventional PP by a novel modified PLA seems to be a better way for both the health and the environment benefits.

  9. Preprinting Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The field of microbiology has experienced significant growth due to transformative advances in technology and the influx of scientists driven by a curiosity to understand how microbes sustain myriad biochemical processes that maintain Earth. With this explosion in scientific output, a significant bottleneck has been the ability to rapidly disseminate new knowledge to peers and the public. Preprints have emerged as a tool that a growing number of microbiologists are using to overcome this bottleneck. Posting preprints can help to transparently recruit a more diverse pool of reviewers prior to submitting to a journal for formal peer review. Although the use of preprints is still limited in the biological sciences, early indications are that preprints are a robust tool that can complement and enhance peer-reviewed publications. As publishing moves to embrace advances in Internet technology, there are many opportunities for preprints and peer-reviewed journals to coexist in the same ecosystem. PMID:28536284

  10. Preprinting Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. Schloss

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of microbiology has experienced significant growth due to transformative advances in technology and the influx of scientists driven by a curiosity to understand how microbes sustain myriad biochemical processes that maintain Earth. With this explosion in scientific output, a significant bottleneck has been the ability to rapidly disseminate new knowledge to peers and the public. Preprints have emerged as a tool that a growing number of microbiologists are using to overcome this bottleneck. Posting preprints can help to transparently recruit a more diverse pool of reviewers prior to submitting to a journal for formal peer review. Although the use of preprints is still limited in the biological sciences, early indications are that preprints are a robust tool that can complement and enhance peer-reviewed publications. As publishing moves to embrace advances in Internet technology, there are many opportunities for preprints and peer-reviewed journals to coexist in the same ecosystem.

  11. Preprinting Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Patrick D

    2017-05-23

    The field of microbiology has experienced significant growth due to transformative advances in technology and the influx of scientists driven by a curiosity to understand how microbes sustain myriad biochemical processes that maintain Earth. With this explosion in scientific output, a significant bottleneck has been the ability to rapidly disseminate new knowledge to peers and the public. Preprints have emerged as a tool that a growing number of microbiologists are using to overcome this bottleneck. Posting preprints can help to transparently recruit a more diverse pool of reviewers prior to submitting to a journal for formal peer review. Although the use of preprints is still limited in the biological sciences, early indications are that preprints are a robust tool that can complement and enhance peer-reviewed publications. As publishing moves to embrace advances in Internet technology, there are many opportunities for preprints and peer-reviewed journals to coexist in the same ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Schloss.

  12. Physical, chemical and microbiological properties of mixed hydrogenated palm kernel oil and cold-pressed rice bran oil as ingredients in non-dairy creamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunakorn Katsri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical and microbiological properties of hydrogenated palm kernel oil (PKO and cold-pressed rice bran oil (RBOas ingredients in the production of liquid and powdered non-dairy creamer (coffee whitener were studied. The mixing ratios between hydrogenated PKO and cold-pressed RBO were statistically designed as of 100:0, 90:10,80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 30:70, 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100.The color, absorbanceand viscosity of the mixtures were investigated. As the ratio of cold-pressed RBO increased, the color became darker (L*of 93.06 to 86.25 and the absorbance significantly increased, while the viscosity of the mixtures of 20:80, 10:90 and 0:100 (54 cp. were the highest amongst the ratios tested.The hydrogenated PKO and cold-pressed RBO mixtures were further chemically tested for fatty acids, -oryzanol, -tocopherol, trans-fat contents andantioxidant activity. There were 10 fatty acids present in hydrogenated PKO with saturated fatty acid being the most predominant. Comparatively, there were only 5 fatty acids found in cold-pressed RBO with monounsaturated fatty acid being the major fatty acid. -Oryzanol and -tocopherol contents were higher with increasingcold-pressed RBO from 0-100% (0 to 1,155.00 mg/100g oil and 0.09 to 30.82 mg/100g oil, respectively. Antioxidant activity was increased with increasing cold-pressed RBO from 0-100% (9.26 to 94.24%.The pure hydrogenated PKO contained higher trans-fat content than that of the 90:10 and 80:20 mixtures (2.73, 1.93 and 1.85mg/100g oil,respectively while other samples had no trans-fat. No microorganisms were present in any of the samples.Therefore, substitution of hydrogenated PKO by cold-pressed RBO from 30-100% would offer more nutritional values and better chemical and physical properties of non-dairy creamer.

  13. Chemical Composition, an Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Microbiological Activity of the Essential Oil from the Leaves of Aeollanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rosany Lopes; Simões, Ranggel Carvalho; Rabelo, Érica de Menezes; Farias, Ana Luzia Ferreira; Rodrigues, Alex Bruno Lobato; Ramos, Ryan da Silva; Fernandes, João Batista; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva; de Almeida, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Aeollanthus suaveolens species popularly known as catinga de mulata belongs to the Lamiaceae family. In the Amazon region, it is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastritis, convulsions of epileptic origin, stomach pain and diarrhea in the form of tea and juice. Essential oils have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the A. suaveolens essential oil, and its cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity on Artemia salina Leach. The plant species was collected in Fazendinha district in the city of Macapa-AP. The essential oil obtained from the process was performed by hydrodistillation and identification of components by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the kidnapping method of 2,2- diphenyl -1-picrilhidrazil radical, while the cytotoxic activity was assessed using saline A. and the microbiological activity was carried out by microdilution method with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. In a chromatographic analysis, the major constituents found in the essential oil of A. suaveolens were (E) -β-farnesene (37.615%), Linalool (33.375%), α-Santalene (3.255%) and linalyl acetate (3.222%). The results showed that the Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. bacteria were more susceptible to MIC 50 mg.mL-1 when compared with the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium MIC 100 mg.mL-1. With respect to MBC concentration of 100 mg.mL-1 it was sufficient to inhibit the growth of E. coli. The essential oil did not show antioxidant activity, however, has a high cytotoxic activity against the A. salina, LC50 8.90 μg.mL-1.

  14. Chemical Composition, an Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Microbiological Activity of the Essential Oil from the Leaves of Aeollanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosany Lopes Martins

    Full Text Available Aeollanthus suaveolens species popularly known as catinga de mulata belongs to the Lamiaceae family. In the Amazon region, it is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastritis, convulsions of epileptic origin, stomach pain and diarrhea in the form of tea and juice. Essential oils have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the A. suaveolens essential oil, and its cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity on Artemia salina Leach. The plant species was collected in Fazendinha district in the city of Macapa-AP. The essential oil obtained from the process was performed by hydrodistillation and identification of components by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the kidnapping method of 2,2- diphenyl -1-picrilhidrazil radical, while the cytotoxic activity was assessed using saline A. and the microbiological activity was carried out by microdilution method with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. In a chromatographic analysis, the major constituents found in the essential oil of A. suaveolens were (E -β-farnesene (37.615%, Linalool (33.375%, α-Santalene (3.255% and linalyl acetate (3.222%. The results showed that the Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. bacteria were more susceptible to MIC 50 mg.mL-1 when compared with the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium MIC 100 mg.mL-1. With respect to MBC concentration of 100 mg.mL-1 it was sufficient to inhibit the growth of E. coli. The essential oil did not show antioxidant activity, however, has a high cytotoxic activity against the A. salina, LC50 8.90 μg.mL-1.

  15. Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2008-08-01

    Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (δ18O and δ2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have δ18O and δ2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (δ15N NO3) values above 10 ‰ in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (δ15N NO3 = 4.6 4.9 ‰), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N, N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil’s Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer

  16. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ukuku, Dike O; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 °C in relation to microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed with SPME-GC-MS technique. Through multivariate chemometric method, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Pearson's correlations, the CSIs: trimethylamine (TMA), ethanol (EtOH), 3-methyl-1-butanol (3Met-1But), acetoin and acetic acid (C2) were selected from the group of 28 detected VOCs. At the moment of microbiological shelf life established at total viable count (TVC) of 7.0 log CFU/g, the CSIs achieved levels of 11.5, 38.3, 0.3, 24.0 and 90.7 μg/g of salmon for TMA, EtOH, 3M-1But, acetoin and C2, respectively. Pseudomonas spp. was found as major specific spoilage organism (SSOs), suitable for shelf life prediction using modified Gompertz model at the cut-off level of 6.5 log CFU/g. H2S producing bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta were considered as important spoilage microorganisms; however, they were not suitable for shelf life estimation. Partial least square (PLS) regression revealed possible associations between microorganisms and synthetized VOCs, showing correlations between Pseudomonas spp. and 3Met-1But and aldehydes synthesis, lactic acid bacteria were linked with EtOH, C2 and esters, and B. thermosphacta with acetoin formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbiological analysis of cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetics are products of chemical or natural origin dedicated specifically for use in skin and mucosa. The constant development of the cosmetic industry has generated the necessity to carry out microbiological analysis on the raw materials used in the industrial production of cosmetics as well as the final products, with the purpose of obtaining products of good microbiological quality. Cosmetic products are recognized to be substrates for the survival and development of a large variety of microorganisms, since they possess some of the nutrients that facilitate growth such as: lipids, polysaccharides, alcohol, proteins, amino acids, glucosides, esteroids, peptides, and vitamins. Also, the conditions of readiness (oxygenation, pH, temperature, osmotic degree, superficial activity, perfume, and essential oils) present in the cosmetic products favor microbial multiplication. Routine analyses to determine the microbiological quality of a cosmetic product include the following: Count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms. Most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms. Count of molds and yeasts. Absence/presence of Staphylococcus aureus probe. Absence/presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa probe.

  18. Soil microbiological, and chemical indicators in pasturesUso de indicadores microbiológicos e de fertilidade do solo em áreas de pastagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Cristina Maschio Pelagio Vicente

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical, physical and biological indicators have been frequently used to indicate changes in soil quality. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the current state of soils under pastures in the western region of São Paulo using the evaluation and correlation of different microbiological and soil fertility variables. Thirteen quantitative variables were evaluated in 108 soil samples collected in pastures established more than two years. The microbial biomass carbon had the lowest coefficient of variation, while t the pH had the lowest coefficient of variation and soluble phosphorus showed the highest variability, within the chemical variables in the soils. In soils under pastures, evaluated in this study, acid soils and low phosphorus and potassium were predominant. The principal component analysis showed a great dependence between different variables. The clay had low variability, showing significant correlation (p Os indicadores químicos, físicos e biológicos têm sido utilizados com freqüência para indicar mudanças na qualidade do solo. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar e correlacionar esses indicadores do solo para que possam serem utilizados na aferição da qualidade atual dos solos sob pastagens na região Oeste Paulista. Foram avaliados treze indicadores em 108 amostras de solos, coletadas em áreas de pastagens estabelecidas há mais de dois anos. O carbono microbiano e o pH apresentaram os menores coeficientes de variação, dentro dos indicadores biológicos e de fertilidade do solo, respectivamente, enquanto que o teor de fósforo solúvel apresentou a maior variabilidade dentro dos treze indicadores avaliados. Nos solos sob pastagens, avaliados neste estudo, predominaram solos ácidos e com baixos teores de fósforo e potássio. A análise de componentes principais mostrou grande dependência entre as diferentes variáveis analisadas. Os teores de argila apresentaram baixa variabilidade e correlacionaramse

  19. Wet-Chemical Surface Texturing of Sputter-Deposited ZnO:Al Films as Front Electrode for Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs play a major role as the front electrodes of thin-film silicon (Si solar cells, as they can provide optical scattering and hence improved photon absorption inside the devices. In this paper we report on the surface texturing of aluminium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al or AZO films for improved light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells. The AZO films are deposited onto soda-lime glass sheets via pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. Several promising AZO texturing methods are investigated using diluted hydrochloric (HCl and hydrofluoric acid (HF, through a two-step etching process. The developed texturing procedure combines the advantages of the HCl-induced craters and the smaller and jagged—but laterally more uniform—features created by HF etching. In the two-step process, the second etching step further enhances the optical haze, while simultaneously improving the uniformity of the texture features created by the HCl etch. The resulting AZO films show large haze values of above 40%, good scattering into large angles, and a surface angle distribution that is centred at around 30°, which is known from the literature to provide efficient light trapping for thin-film Si solar cells.

  20. Microbiological interactions with cold plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, P; Ziuzina, D; Han, L; Cullen, P J; Gilmore, B F

    2017-08-01

    There is a diverse range of microbiological challenges facing the food, healthcare and clinical sectors. The increasing and pervasive resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics and health-related concerns with many biocidal agents drives research for novel and complementary antimicrobial approaches. Biofilms display increased mechanical and antimicrobial stability and are the subject of extensive research. Cold plasmas (CP) have rapidly evolved as a technology for microbial decontamination, wound healing and cancer treatment, owing to the chemical and bio-active radicals generated known collectively as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This review outlines the basics of CP technology and discusses the interactions with a range of microbiological targets. Advances in mechanistic insights are presented and applications to food and clinical issues are discussed. The possibility of tailoring CP to control specific microbiological challenges is apparent. This review focuses on microbiological issues in relation to food- and healthcare-associated human infections, the role of CP in their elimination and the current status of plasma mechanisms of action. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Effect of mixed spices in lemon glass marinade cuisine on changes in chemical physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat during chilled storage

    OpenAIRE

    Wongwiwat, P.; Yanpakdee, S.; S. Wattanachant

    2007-01-01

    The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt) were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1) and marinated only ingredients (control 2) were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were ...

  2. Evaluation of the ionizing radiation effects in microbiology, physical and chemical and sensory aspects of ice cream; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante nos aspectos microbiologicos, fisico-quimicos e sensoriais de sorvetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir Dias

    2015-06-01

    The ice cream is defined as an emulsion of fats and proteins or a mixture of water and sugar, other ingredients may be added provided since they do not affect the product. It is considered a food of high nutritional value, providing lipids, carbohydrates, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals and vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, C, D, E and K), and it is considered one of the most important products and higher interest to the dairy industry due to great demand by the consumers. The diseases related to food consumption are considered one of the most significant problems. Several outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of ice cream have been reported in recent decades in Asia, Europe and America. It is believed that the ice cream, as a frozen food, presents no risk to the population health. However, it is considered an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms due to its composition, pH close to neutrality and long storage period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, sensory and physicochemical aspects of ice cream. The ice cream samples were irradiated with gamma rays (60Co) with the doses of LOkGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy. The samples intended for the inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) and Salmonella abaetetuba (ATCC 35640) have been irradiated with doses of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0kGy. It can be concluded that the dose of 3.0kGy was adequate to reduce most of the studied microorganisms to undetected levels. The use of gamma radiation affected the texture and the parameters of the colorimetric analyses of the ice cream. The results of the sensorial analyses showed that the better accepted dose was 3.0kGy. (author)

  3. Chemical and microbiological assessments of the multi mixture treated by gamma radiation; Avaliacao quimica e microbiologica da multimistura tratada por irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Cinthia Graciele

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, the multi mixture have being used since the eighties as an alternative against severe infantile malnutrition of the poorest population. However, its use is still reason of controversies mainly due to: the presence of anti nutritional factors, the microbiological quality and the nutritional value. Considering the routine use of multi mixture in the region, this work aimed to evaluate samples of multi mixture were collected in the metropolitan area of the City of Belo Horizonte/MG for determining the anti nutritional factors (phytic and oxalic acids), the microbiological quality, the centesimal and mineral composition, and still the induced effect in these factors of the gamma radiation. For the analyses, the samples passed by the process of gamma irradiation at doses of: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy and then were evaluated anti nutritional factors (phytic acid and oxalic), the microbiological quality (yeasts and molds, Salmonella, Coagulase positive Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, coliform to 45 deg C) to full percentage (moisture, ash, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and the efficiency of the method of Paramagnetic Electronic Resonance (EPR) in the detection of irradiated samples. The mineral composition of the samples was carried out by the irradiation by Neutronic Activation. The methods used were searched in literature. The obtained results suggest that the concentration of the phytic and oxalic acids can not be appropriated for the children with severe nutritional deficit and that it would be necessary additional control in their daily ingestion due to the absorption of essential minerals. In general the samples had presented acceptable microbiological quality for consumption, except by one of it. The data of the centesimal and mineral composition, in the usually recommended portions, showed lower concentration than recommended for children. Any significant alteration in phytic and oxalic acids as well as in the centesimal composition were detected

  4. Seasonal variations in physico-chemical characteristics of water, sediment and soil texture in arid zone mangroves of Kachchh-Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, A; Rajkumar, M; Serebiah, J Sesh; Thivakaran, G A

    2008-09-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of water and sediment and the textural aspects of sediments in western mangroves of Kachchh-Gujarat, west coast of India, for a period of two years during 1999-2000. Surface water and sediment temperatures varied from 17 degrees C to 37 degrees C and from 18.4 degrees C to 37 degrees C respectively. Tidal amplitude varied from 0.03 m to 3.78 m. Salinity varied from 34.0 to 44 per thousand and the pH in water and sediment ranged between 7.0 and 8.9 and 6.29 and 8.45 respectively. Variation in dissolved oxygen content was from 3.42 to 5.85 ml l(-1). Concentrations of nutrients viz. nitrate (0.23 to 7.26 microM), nitrite (0.04 to 0.87 microM), phosphate (0.13 to 3.12 microM) and reactive silicate (4.23 to 19.02 microM) also varied independently Total organic carbon varied from 0.29% to 2.56% and the total inorganic phosphorus ranged between 0.12 mg g(-1) and 1.97 mg g(-1). Total nitrogen varied from 0.02 mg g(-1) to 1.95 mg g(-1). Sediment textures ranges in terms of % of sand, clay and silt were: 0.26-19.2; 7.6-47 and 47-87.4 respectively in all the 3 stations. The nature of soil texture is characterized by the abundance of silty loam, silty clay and silty clay loam.

  5. Microbiology: principles and explorations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Black, Jacquelyn G

    2012-01-01

    ... introduction to the study of Microbiology in the same engaging writing style throughout the narrative. The text's is even more reader-friendly and focuses on microbiology, allied health, agriculture and food sciences topics"--

  6. The effects of over sea height of locality on some chemical, health, microbiological, physical and technological parameters of cow milk and sensorical properties of cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2005-01-01

    .The individual milk samples, feedstuff samples (total mixed ration (TMR on feeding trough and mean excrement samples were collected at seven dairy cow herds and two main milked breeds of cattle (in the CR for three years. Bulk milk samples were collected as well. It was done two times per year in winter (February, Marz and summer (August, September seasons. The herds were localised in lowland (N; ≤ 350 m of o.s.h. and highland (P; > 350 m of o.s.h. areas. The breed effect (H = Holstein and C = local Bohemian spotted cattle based on Simmental breed was good balanced between N and P areas. The milk yields of herds varied from 5500 to 10000 kg of milk per lactation. The different but typical varieties of nourishment and feeding systems of dairy cows were applied in the herds: N = alfalfa silage with maize silage; P = clover-grass silage, grass silage with maize silage and grass pasture as well. The concentrates were feeded according to milk yield and nutrition demand standards.Investigated chemical-compositional, physical, health and technological parameters in individual milk samples were as follows: daily milk yield (ML; kg of milk per day; fat content (Tuk; g/100ml; lactose content (Lak; g/100g of monohydrate; solids non fat (STP; g/100g; somatic cell count (PSB; tis./ml; urea content (Mo; mg/100ml; acetone concentration (Ac; mg/l; acidity, concentration of H ions (pH; electrical conductivity (Vod; mS/cm; alcohol stability (Alk; consumption of 96% ethanol to milk protein coagulation point; titratable acidity (SH; ml NaOH solution 2,5 mmol/l; time for enzymatic coa- gulation (Čas; sec.; rennet curds firmnes (PEV; mm in contrary sense; subjective estimation of rennet curds quality (KV; from 1st = good to 4th = bad; volume of the whey at rennet precipitation (SYR; in ml; crude protein content (HB; Kjeldahl total N×6,38; g/100g; casein content (KAS; Kjeldahl casein N×6,38; g/100g; true protein (ČB; Kjeldahl protein N×6,38; g/100g; whey protein (SB; difference ČB-KAS; g/100g

  7. High-pressure microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michiels, Chris; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Aertsen, Abram

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Effects in the Biosphere: from Molecules to Microbiology * Filip Meersman and Karel Heremans . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Effects...

  8. The Comparative Effect of Carrot and Lemon Fiber as a Fat Replacer on Physico-chemical, Textural, and Organoleptic Quality of Low-fat Beef Hamburger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncu, Eda Demirok; Kolsarıcı, Nuray; Çiçek, Neslihan; Öztürk, Görsen Salman; Akoğlu, Ilker T; Arıcı, Yeliz Kaşko

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the usability of lemon fiber (LF-2%, 4%, 6%) and carrot fiber (CF-2%, 4%, 6%) to produce low-fat beef hamburgers. To that end, a certain amount of fat was replaced with each fiber. The proximate composition, pH value, cholesterol content, cooking characteristics, color, texture profile, and sensory properties of low-fat beef hamburgers were investigated. LF increased moisture content and cooking yield due to its better water binding properties, while CF caused higher fat and cholesterol contents owing to its higher fat absorption capacity (p<0.05). LF resulted in a lighter, redder, and more yellow color (p<0.05). Hardness, gumminess, springiness, and chewiness parameters decreased when the usage level of both fibers increased (p<0.05). However, more tender, gummy, springy, and smoother hamburgers were produced by the addition of CF in comparison with LF (p<0.05). Moreover, hamburgers including CF were rated with higher sensory scores (p<0.05). In conclusion, LF demonstrated better technological results in terms of cooking yield, shrinkage, moisture retention, and fat retention. However it is suggested that CF produces better low-fat hamburgers since up to 2% CF presented sensory and textural properties similar to those of regular hamburgers.

  9. Análise multivariada de atributos microbiológicos e químicos do solo em florestas com Araucaria angustifolia Multivariate analysis of soil microbiological and chemical attributes in forests with Araucaria angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    2008-12-01

    Brazil and little is known about the soil attributes of these pine forests. This study was carried out to identify differences between natural and reforested Araucaria areas, in terms of soil microbiological and chemical attributes, with multivariate canonical discriminant analysis (CDA and canonical correlation analysis (CCA. The studied areas included: 1. native forest with Araucaria (NF; 2. Araucaria reforestation (R; 3. Araucaria reforestation burnt by an accidental fire (RF; and 4. native grass pasture with native Araucaria and burnt by an intense accidental fire (NPF. In each area, 15 pine trees were selected and three soil samples collected from under each tree crown, in three different seasons. The CDA was applied to the soil microbiological attributes: carbon of microbial biomass (CMB, basal respiration (C-CO2 and metabolic quotient (qCO2, while CCA was performed with the soil microbiological and soil chemical attributes [pH (CaCl2, total organic carbon (TOC, and the contents of P, K, Ca, Mg, and H+Al]. The canonical correlation between soil microbiological and chemical attributes was highly significant, with a higher contribution of CMB and C-CO2 to the microbiological attributes, and of TOC and P to the chemical attributes. The CCA indicated that the variation of the chemical attributes can explain 52 % of the total data variability of the microbiological attributes, and the soil microbiological attributes of the areas 36 % of the total data variability of the chemical attributes. The CDA suggested that the contribution of each microbiological attribute to the discrimination of the areas was season-dependent, and discriminated CMB as the most important microbiological indicator, followed by C-CO2. The tools CCA and CDA proved to be essential in the study of soil quality indicators.

  10. Moderate exercise of rainbow trout induces only minor differences in fatty acid profile, texture, white muscle fibres and proximate chemical composition of fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Heinrich, Maike Timm; Hyldig, Grethe

    2011-01-01

    g after nine weeks of experiment at 15.0 °C. The fatty acid composition in fillets differed only marginally between exercised fish (excF) and control fish (ctrlF) kept in standing water. ExcF fillets had a significantly lower content of fatty acids 16:0 (Pb0.05) and 18:1 (n−7) (Pb0.01) and a higher...... significantly among the two groups (Pb0.01). Moreover, moderate exercise induced small but significant changes in fibre circularity (excF: circ.=0.724; ctrlF:=0.720, Pb0.05) but neither muscle fibre diameter nor circularity was significantly related to fillet texture. Altogether, the results suggest...

  11. Microbiological Spoilage of Acidified Specialty Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, William H.

    Acidified specialty products or condiments are among the most microbiologically stable and safe food products. Often formulated, packaged, and distributed without heat treatments, they are microbiologically stable indefinitely at ambient temperatures in unopened containers. The packaged, acidified products are often intended for multiple uses, exposing them at the points of consumption to numerous opportunities for contamination with microorganisms. Nonetheless, they remain resistant to microbiological spoilage for many months, often under refrigerated conditions that are used to retard chemical reactions, flavor changes, and yeast growth.

  12. Influence of beet sugar, calcium lactate, and Staphylococcus xylosus (with nitrate reductase activity) on the chemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties of Persian uncured frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmouzi, Saeed; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Safari, Mohammad; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of beet sugar (BS), calcium lactate (CL), and Staphylococcus xylosus (SX) on the general characteristics of uncured frankfurters. Minimum residual nitrite was observed in samples with a high level of BS and S. xylosus (8log(10) l0 viable cfu/g) after 2 mo. There was an increase in total aerobic counts in frankfurters after 4 wk. Samples containing higher BS and CL had no Clostridium perfringens at storage time. Histamine content was similar for all treatments except SX. No differences were observed in textural properties among the treatments. Water activity was decreased significantly in treatment CL1+BS2. The results indicated that samples treated with BS or CL had (P marketing these products. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  14. The efficacy of different postharvest treatments on physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive components and microbiological quality of fresh blueberries during storage period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiabrando, V.,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is increasing consumption and interest in berry fruits in general and blueberries in particular due to their nutritional and health characteristics. However, blueberries are highly susceptible to microbial contamination and loss of product quality. In this study, the effects of postharvest washing treatment and cold storage (15 days on the quality of blueberries were examined. The blueberries were treated with mineral water, aqueous chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water and Berry Very®, a new commercial product. During the storage, physicochemical and microbiological analysis were carried out in order to compare the efficacy of treatments. The results indicated that chlorine dioxide treatment and electrolyzed water had a positive effect on the reduction of yeast and mold proliferation, postharvest decay and weight loss.

  15. A multi-perspective review of microbial fuel-cells for wastewater treatment: Bio-electro-chemical, microbiologic and modeling aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capodaglio, Andrea G., E-mail: capo@unipv.it; Molognoni, Daniele [DICAr, University of Pavia (Italy); Pons, Anna Vilajeliu [LEQUIA, University of Girona (Spain)

    2016-07-25

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) represent a still novel technology for the recovery of energy and resources through wastewater treatment. Although the technology is quite appealing, due its potential benefits, its practical application is still hampered by several drawbacks, such as systems instability (especially when attempting to scale-up reactors from laboratory prototype), internally competing microbial reactions, and limited power generation. This paper is an attempt to address several of the operational issues related to MFCs application to wastewater treatment, in particular when dealing with simultaneous organic matter and nitrogen pollution control. Reactor configuration, operational schemes, electrochemical and microbiological characterization, optimization methods and modelling strategies are reviewed and discussed with a multidisciplinary, multi-perspective approach. The conclusions drawn herein can be of practical interest for all MFC researchers dealing with domestic or industrial wastewater treatment..

  16. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Deprettere, E.F.; Belloum, A.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; van der Stappen, F.

    2002-01-01

    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. However, existing methods for measuring color and texture in combination are not well-defined neither from a measurement theoretical basis nor from a physical point of view. We propose a solid framework for

  17. From food structure to texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Minekus, M.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between food texture perception and food structure is of increasing importance for companies wishing to produce texturally attractive food products. The perception of texture is a complex process involving the senses of vision, hearing, somesthesis and kinesthesis.

  18. Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Under Ground Water in V.V Nagar and Near by Places of Anand District,Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunabh Mishra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A report of physico-chemical and microbial study of the water samples taken from the region nearby Anand district of central Gujarat is presented here. Six water samples are subjected to physico- chemical analysis like pH, TDS, hardness, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and chemical oxygen demand. The MPN count resulted from the bacteriological study of these samples has given the information regarding the suitability of the water for drinking and other domestic applications. The results are analyzed comparatively and conclusions regarding the suitability of the use of such waters are made.

  19. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  20. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  1. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  2. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  3. Limno-chemical and microbiology aspects in Uranium Pit Mine Lake (Osamu Utsumi), in Antas and Bortolan reservoirs under the influence of effluent Ore Treatment Unit, Caldas - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronqui, Leilane B.; Nasciment, Marcos R.L. do; Roque, Claudio V.; Bruschi, Armando; Borba Junior, Palvo J.; Nascimento, Heliana A. F. do, E-mail: leilanebio@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: abruschi@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jouber_borba@hotmail.com, E-mail: hazevedo@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Almeida, Tito C.M. de, E-mail: titoalmeida2008@gmail.com [Universidade do Vale do Itajai (CTT-Mar/UNIVALI), SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar

    2013-07-01

    Due to high natural radioactivity there in Pocos de Caldas Plateau (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and the existence of the first uranium mine in Brazil (Pit Mine Osamu Utsumi - Mineral Treatment Unit/Brazilian Nuclear Industries, MTU/BNI), which is characterized by an open-pit mine presents as increased environmental liability the formation of acid mine drainage, this study was conducted to evaluate the limno-chemicals and microbiology aspects (protozooplankton and bacterioplankton) belonging to uranium pit mine lake (PM) and evaluate the possible effects of acid effluents treated and discharged by MTU/BNI in Antas reservoir-AR and downstream of this, the Bortolan reservoir-BR. Besides the realization of abiotic and microbiology analysis of protozooplankton and bacterioplankton; was held standardization and deployment of the Fluorescence 'In Situ' Hybridization (FISH) technical using oligonucleotide probes for extremophile Archaea and Bacteria. According to the results, the PM showed the highest values for the chemical variables, lower pH values, lower protozooplankton density, however, protozooplanktonic high biomass showing the presence of tolerant species in this extreme environment. Antas and Bortolan reservoirs showed differences in the abiotic and biotic variables, AR showed suffer greater interference of acid effluents released at P41point and downstream of this at P14 point, lower protozooplankton biomass, lower bacterial density and pollution characteristics of inorganic sources. Using the FISH technique standard in this study to water bodies evaluated, it was possible to detect the presence of the extremophile bacteria of the Archaea domain in the three water bodies. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the pit mine lakes limnology which have become a major concern due to increased mining in the open. (author)

  4. Estabilidade físico-química, microbiológica e sensorial de carne ovina embalada a vácuo estocada sob refrigeração Physical and chemical stability microbiological and sensory analysis of vacuum packed sheep meat stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella de Paula Paseto Fernandes

    2012-04-01

    (lipid oxidation, objective color, pH value, chemical composition, cooking losses and instrumental texture, microbiological analysis (total count of psychrotrophic anaerobic, coliform count at 45°C, coagulase-positive staphylococci and the presence of Salmonella and sensory analysis (color, flavor and overall appearance. The vacuum packed lamb meat remained stable as to most physical and chemical indexes and microbiological indexes showed good stability throughout the 28 days of storage according to Brazilian legislation standards to pathogenic microorganisms. In relation to the stability evaluation of chilled sheep loin, it was detected a high increase of counts for psychrotrophic anaerobic microorganisms, reaching around 10(7CFU g-1 sample at 14 days storage, but the pannelists did not detect significant sensory changes during all the period. It is concluded that the shelf life of sheep loin stored at 4°C, is at least, 28 days.

  5. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  6. Utilization management in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branda, John A; Lewandrowski, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The available literature concerning utilization management in the clinical microbiology laboratory is relatively limited compared with that for high-volume, automated testing in the central Core Laboratory. However, the same strategies employed elsewhere in the clinical laboratory operation can be applied to utilization management challenges in microbiology, including decision support systems, application of evidence-based medicine, screening algorithms and gatekeeper functions. The results of testing in the microbiology laboratory have significant effects on the cost of clinical care, especially costs related to antimicrobial agents and infection control practices. Consequently many of the successful utilization management interventions described in clinical microbiology have targeted not just the volume of tests performed in the laboratory, but also the downstream costs of care. This article will review utilization management strategies in clinical microbiology, including specific examples from our institution and other healthcare organizations. © 2013.

  7. Gaussian Texture Inpainting

    OpenAIRE

    Galerne, Bruno; Leclaire, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Inpainting consists in computing a plausible completion of missing parts of an image given the available content. In the restricted framework of texture images, the image can be seen as a realization of a random field model, which gives a stochastic formulation of image inpainting: on the masked exemplar one estimates a random texture model which can then be conditionally sampled in order to fill the hole. In this paper is proposed an instance of such stochastic inpainting methods, dealing wi...

  8. Sensory and Microbiological Evaluation of Traditional Ovine Ricotta Cheese in Modified Atmosphere Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Isabella; Cardamone, Cinzia; Fiorenza, Gerlando; Macaluso, Giusi; Arcuri, Luigi; Miraglia, Viviana; Scatassa, Maria Luisa

    2014-04-17

    Ovine ricotta cheese is a traditional Sicilian dairy product characterised by high humidity and a short shelf life (2-4 days when refrigerated). The increasing demand for fresh food has prompted manufacturers to develop special packaging techniques, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), that can extend the shelf life and maintain the organoleptic characteristics of ovine ricotta cheese. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the shelf life of fresh MAP-packed ovine ricotta cheese by monitoring the microbiological, chemical, physical and organoleptic characteristics of the product. Samples of a single batch were packed in MAP or vacuum packed and stored at 4°C for 24 and 7 days, respectively. Water activity, pH, physicochemical parameters and microbiological characteristics were examined. A sensory panel rated the product's main organoleptic characteristics (colour, odour, flavour and texture). Results showed that MAP controlled the development of any unwanted microflora, but did not affect the development of intrinsic lactic floras or chemical parameters. Sensory analysis revealed that overall the MAP-packed ricotta remained acceptable for up to 15 days of storage. The vacuum-packed ricotta cheese, however, showed a progressive deterioration in organoleptic characteristics from day 5 onward and therefore had a shorter shelf life. In conclusion, the ability of MAP to extend the shelf life of a traditional regional product (such as fresh ovine ricotta cheese) guarantees consumers a quality product and provides opportunities for manufacturers to expand their markets beyond national boundaries.

  9. Sensory and microbiological evaluation of traditional ovine ricotta cheese in modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Mancuso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovine ricotta cheese is a traditional Sicilian dairy product characterised by high humidity and a short shelf life (2-4 days when refrigerated. The increasing demand for fresh food has prompted manufacturers to develop special packaging techniques, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, that can extend the shelf life and maintain the organoleptic characteristics of ovine ricotta cheese. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the shelf life of fresh MAP-packed ovine ricotta cheese by monitoring the microbiological, chemical, physical and organoleptic characteristics of the product. Samples of a single batch were packed in MAP or vacuum packed and stored at 4°C for 24 and 7 days, respectively. Water activity, pH, physicochemical parameters and microbiological characteristics were examined. A sensory panel rated the product’s main organoleptic characteristics (colour, odour, flavour and texture. Results showed that MAP controlled the development of any unwanted microflora, but did not affect the development of intrinsic lactic floras or chemical parameters. Sensory analysis revealed that overall the MAP-packed ricotta remained acceptable for up to 15 days of storage. The vacuum-packed ricotta cheese, however, showed a progressive deterioration in organoleptic characteristics from day 5 onward and therefore had a shorter shelf life. In conclusion, the ability of MAP to extend the shelf life of a traditional regional product (such as fresh ovine ricotta cheese guarantees consumers a quality product and provides opportunities for manufacturers to expand their markets beyond national boundaries.

  10. Clinical microbiology informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-10-01

    The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. KARAKTERISTIK FISIK, KIMIA, MIKROBIOLOGI WHEY KEFIR DAN AKTIVITASNYA TERHADAP PENGHAMBATAN ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE [Physical, Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Whey Kefir and Its Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Febrisiantosa*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of whey-based kefir products and their activity to inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE. Kefir was produced by using many types of whey, namely SK: skim milk based kefir (control; WK: gouda cheese whey based kefir; and WKB: commercial whey powder based kefir. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Each treatment was conducted in triplicates. Kefirs were evaluated for physical and chemical properties (pH, total titratable acidity, viscosity, protein, fat, lactose, and alcohol, microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and yeast population, peptide concentration, ACE inhibition, IC50 and Inhibition Efficiency Ratio (IER. The results showed that the types of whey used for kefir productions significantly affected the physical and chemical characteristics of the products (p0.05. The peptide concentration and ACE inhibitory activity of WK, 1.54±0.02 mg/mL and 73.07±0.91%, was significantly higher (p0.05 from the control (47.19±0.09% per mg/mL but was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of WKB (45.75±0.18% per mg/mL. This research indicated that whey kefir is a potential source of bioactive peptide for antihypertention agent.

  12. Determining in-situ thermal conductivity of coarse textured materials through numerical analysis of thermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, H.; Hamamoto, S.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems use ground or groundwater as a heat/cooling source, typically by circulating anti-freezing solution inside a vertically installed closed-loop tube known as a U-tube to transfer heat to/from the ground. Since GSHP systems are based on renewable energy and can achieve much higher coefficient of performance (COP) than conventional air source heat pump systems, use of GSHP systems has been rapidly increasing worldwide. However, environmental impacts by GSHP systems including thermal effects on subsurface physical-chemical and microbiological properties have not been fully investigated. To rigorously assess GSHP impact on the subsurface environment, ground thermal properties including thermal conductivity and heat capacity need to be accurately characterized. Ground thermal properties were investigated at two experimental sites at Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TAT) and Saitama University (SA), both located in the Kanto area of Japan. Thermal properties were evaluated both by thermal probe measurements on boring core samples and by performing in-situ Thermal Response Tests (TRT) in 50-80 m deep U-tubes. At both TAT and SU sites, heat-pulse probe measurements gave unrealistic low thermal conductivities for coarse textured materials (dominated by particles > 75 micrometers). Such underestimation can be partly due to poor contact between probe and porous material and partly to markedly decreasing sample water content during drilling, carrying, and storing sandy/gravelly samples. A more reliable approach for estimating in-situ thermal conductivity of coarse textured materials is therefore needed, and may be based on the commonly used TRT test. However, analyses of TRT data is typically based on Kelvin's line source model and provides an average (effective) thermal property for the whole soil profile around the U-tube but not for each geological layer. The main objective of this study was therefore to develop a method

  13. Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, Jim K.; Fletcher, Madilyn

    2001-05-01

    Jim contributed a chapter to this book, in addition to co-editing it with Madilyn Fletcher. Fredrickson, J. K., and M. Fletcher. (eds.) 2001 Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York.

  14. Transdisciplinarity and microbiology education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    A graphical representation of the transdisciplinary pyramid, as a tool, helps us in the design of practical classroom activities that deal with transdisciplinarity, microbiology, and, more generally, with biology...

  15. Microbiological and toxicological studies on cellulose generated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    fluorescent lamp (Thousand and One Lamps, England). Drug and chemicals: Cellulose powder was obtained from de- grained maize cobs as described in a previous work. All media used in microbiological experiments were obtained from Oxoid. (Basingstoke, UK) and were prepared according to standard procedures.

  16. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Efeito da radiação gama nas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas do queijo prato durante a maturação Effects of gamma radiation on the physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics in the prato cheese ripening period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Maria Roel Gutierrez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O Prato, queijo de pasta lavada, é um dos mais populares do Brasil e deve ser maturado para atingir as características de sabor, aroma e textura. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o efeito da radiação gama no período de maturação do queijo Prato. Dois períodos para a irradiação foram testados, no 1º dia e no 15º dia de maturação. Os queijos Prato foram irradiados com as doses 0 (controle, 1, 2, 3 e 4kGy nos períodos citados, em irradiador de cobalto-60 Gammabeam 650 da Atomic Energy do Canadá, com taxa de dose 0,9696kGy/h e armazenados a 10-12ºC e ± 85% UR, por 60 dias. As análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas foram realizadas de 15 em 15 dias até completar 60 dias de maturação. Através dos resultados observou-se que, com o aumento da dose de radiação, diminuiu a flora microbiana do queijo e, que a irradiação retardou a maturação, conforme se aumentou a dose. Isto se deve provavelmente, pela destruição das bactérias láticas.The Prato, cheese washed dough, is one of Brazil's most popular cheeses. This cheese must be ripened the desirable characteristics of flavors and texture. The present work studied the influence of gamma radiation in the ripening period of Prato cheese. The cheese was ripened at 10-12ºC and at ± 80% RH for 60 days. At the 1st and at 15th day of ripening, sample were irradiated to 0 (control, 1, 2, 3 and 4kGy at a rate of 0.9696kGy/h. The cobalto-60 source used was a Gammabeam 650 from Atomic Energy of Canada. Physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics were analyzed every each 15 days of ripening. The results showed that the total microbial count decreased as increased the dose of irradiation of the cheese. The ripening of the cheese was delayed by irradiation, probability due to the inactivation of the lactic bacteria by radiation.

  18. Dietary effects of oregano (Origanum vulgaris L. plant or sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. wood extracts on microbiological, chemical-physical characteristics and lipid oxidation of cooked ham during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ranucci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of feeding pigs with diets enriched with sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa Mill. or oregano (Origanum vulgaris L. extract on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of cooked pork ham. Three groups of 10 pigs were fed with a control diet (CTRL, with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of oregano extract (OR and with the CTRL diet enriched with 0.2% of sweet chestnut wood extract (SCW, respectively. Six cooked hams per group were produced, sliced and packaged under a modified atmosphere (N2:CO2=80:20 and stored at refrigeration temperature (4±1°C. Three packages per cooked ham were sampled for analyses at three different storage times (0, 10 and 20 days. At day 0 time, antioxidant capacity of the products (ORACFL assay and chemical composition were performed. At each sampling time, from all the samples the following analyses were performed: Total Microbial Count (TMC, Lactic Acid Bacteria count (LAB, Enterobacteriaceae count, Listeria monocytogenes, pH value, colour coordinates (L*, a*, b*, total basic volatile nitrogen (TBVN and thio-barbituric reactive substances (TBARs determinations. No differences in TMC, LAB and Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, TBVN, chemical composition and L* values were registered between the three groups at all the sampling times considered. No Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the samples tested. Significant differences were registered for ORACFL at 0 days, a* and b* values and TBARs value at 10 and 20 days of storage, with higher values for ORACFL, a* and b* values and lower values for TBARs in SCW and OR than CTRL. No antimicrobial effect could be recorded for OR and SCW but a higher oxidative stability, also highlighted by the colour maintenance, was observed in both OR and SCW.

  19. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Papadakis, Stergios J. [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (United States); Gracias, David H., E-mail: dgracias@jhu.ed [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  20. The microbiology of terrestrial ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, B.N.

    1987-01-01

    Emphasizing the role of soil organisms, especially fungi and bacteria, in maintaining productive and stable ecosystems, this book addresses the imbalance found in most ecological texts, which often neglect microorganisms. It stresses the inter-relationship between soil microbes and plants in functional activities such as the capture and transfer of energy and the circulation of chemical elements in ecological systems. It begins with a review of basic concepts followed by a description of the soil as a living entity, including its physical and chemical characteristics, and the life forms found within it. Organic matter mineralization is treated in the context if energy flow and carbon turnover in the biosphere. Also covered are mineral cycling, the microbiology of the rhizosphere, mycorrhiza, root nodule symbiosis, and the cycling of nutrients in the soil-plant-atmosphere system.

  1. Texture Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Darkner, Sune

    2007-01-01

    to excessive storage and computational requirements. We propose to reduce the dimensionality of the textural components by selecting a subset of basis functions from a larger dictionary, estimate regression splines and model only the coeffcients of the retained basis functions. We demonstrate the use of two...... descriptions of the intensity information and serve to 1) reduce noise and 2) produce a compact textural description. Dimensionality reduction by subsampling in the CDF 9-7 wavelet and wedgelet representations yield better results than 'standard' subsampling in the pixel domain. We show that the bi...

  2. Consolidated clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Robert L; Thomson, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laboratories may be located hours from patient care settings, and transport conditions need to be such that organism viability can be maintained under a variety of transport conditions. Further, since the provision of rapid results has been shown to enhance patient care, effective and timely means for generating and then reporting the results of clinical microbiology analyses must be in place. In addition, today, increasing numbers of patients are found to have infection caused by pathogens that were either very uncommon in the past or even completely unrecognized. As a result, infectious disease specialists, in particular, are more dependent than ever on access to high-quality diagnostic information from clinical microbiology laboratories. In this point-counterpoint discussion, Robert Sautter, who directs a Charlotte, NC, clinical microbiology laboratory that provides services for a 40-hospital system spread over 3 states in the southeastern United States explains how an integrated clinical microbiology laboratory service has been established in a multihospital system. Richard (Tom) Thomson of the NorthShore University HealthSystem in Evanston, IL, discusses some of the problems and pitfalls associated with large-scale laboratory consolidation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Effect of mixed spices in lemon glass marinade cuisine on changes in chemical physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat during chilled storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongwiwat, P.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1 and marinated only ingredients (control 2 were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were evaluated were shear force, % drip loss, surface color (L*, a*, b*, lipid oxidation (TBARS, myoglobin oxidation (% metmyoglobin and microbial growth. Effects of spices on shear force and % drip loss were not significantly different (P>0.05 but they efficiently reduced lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken meat. Mixed spices significantly reduced oxidation of lipid (P0.05. However, marinade at 12.5% (w/w showed high efficiency in inhibiting deterioration of ready-to-cook chicken meat.

  4. Experiments in Texture Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    the search for continua suitable for an objective definition of "texture" (Jones and Higgins, 1945; Rosenfeld. 1967; Pickett. 1968; Mlnsky and Papert ...1950. Minsky, M. and Papert , S. (1969). Perceptrons. M.l.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass. Pickett, R. M. (1962

  5. Texture analysis of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubsch, A.; Timmermans, K.

    2017-01-01

    Texture analysis is a method to test the physical properties of a material by tension and compression. The growing interest in commercialisation of seaweeds for human food has stimulated research into the physical properties of seaweed tissue. These are important parameters for the survival of

  6. Chameleons: Reptilian Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an art project inspired by a drawing of a chameleon the author saw in an art-supply catalog. Chameleons prove to be a good subject to highlight shape, color and texture with eigth-graders. In this project, middle- and high-school students draw a chameleon, learn how to use shapes to add to their chameleon drawing, learn how…

  7. Texture & Textiles, Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhin, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Creating a painting with texture is easy, although using heavy gel medium or modeling paste may be pricey ways to go about it. High school artists generally like making collages and mixed-media. In this article, the author suggests ways to capitalize on that interest with inexpensive fabric in a painting project.

  8. Texture affects color emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm-cool,

  9. Contrast negation and texture synthesis differentially disrupt natural texture appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Natural textures have characteristic image statistics that make them discriminable from unnatural textures. For example, both contrast negation and texture synthesis alter the appearance of natural textures even though each manipulation preserves some features while disrupting others. Here, we examined the extent to which contrast negation and texture synthesis each introduce or remove critical perceptual features for discriminating unnatural textures from natural textures. We find that both manipulations remove information that observers use for distinguishing natural textures from transformed versions of the same patterns, but do so in different ways. Texture synthesis removes information that is relevant for discrimination in both abstract patterns and ecologically valid textures, and we also observe a category-dependent asymmetry for identifying an "oddball" real texture among synthetic distractors. Contrast negation exhibits no such asymmetry, and also does not impact discrimination performance in abstract patterns. We discuss our results in the context of the visual system's tuning to ecologically relevant patterns and other results describing sensitivity to higher-order statistics in texture patterns.

  10. Physico chemical and microbiological changes in nopal (Opuntia spp.) irradiated with gamma rays of cobalt 60; Cambios fisicoquimicos y microbiologicos en nopal (Opuntia spp.) irradiado con rayos gamma de cobalto 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez N, M

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the physico-chemical and microbiological changes which take place in the nopal (Opuntia spp.) after they have been irradiated and stored at environment and refrigeration temperatures in order to determine the level of irradiation dose more adequate for getting them an increase in the storage life, as well as to determine the physico-chemical changes attributed to the irradiation doses used, comparing the obtained results with those ones of non-irradiated nopal samples, which are considered as control samples. The radiation source used was a GAMMABEAM-651 PT, property of the Nuclear Sciences Institute of UNAM. The nopals studied are of the variety (Milpa Alta, Opuntia ficus) which were cut and packed in polyethylene bags with and without nitrogen. In order to find the adequate dose level it was used a lot of 200 samples which were treated in sets of 10. They were irradiated in doses of 0.5 to 10 kGy at a dose reason of 3.7 kGy/h. The adequate doses for getting an increase in the storage life, where there was not darkness were of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, allowed doses in the NOM-033-SSA1-1993, it was not found any change in acceptability by flavour, but so in the titled activity values and sugars. The lowest loss of weight was found in the 1.5 kGy dose without nitrogen and the highest in the 2.0 kGy with nitrogen dose. Likewise was determined that with the irradiation treatment in the recommended doses it is diminished the microorganisms growth, obtaining an improvement in the general appearance of the nopals during their storage period. (Author)

  11. Changes in physiological and some nutritional, nutraceuticals, chemical-physical, microbiological and sensory quality of minimally processed cactus pears cvs 'Bianca', 'Gialla' and 'Rossa' stored under passive modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Amedeo; Continella, Alberto; La Malfa, Stefano; D'Aquino, Salvatore

    2017-09-08

    The objective of this study was to compare the overall quality changes of minimally processed cactus pears cvs 'Bianca', Gialla' and 'Rossa' stored at 4 °C for 10 days. Periodically in-package CO2 , O2 and C2 H4 were determined and fruit were assessed for overall quality changes (pH, acidity, sugars, phenolics, betacyanins and betaxanthines, antioxidant capacity, colour, firmness, microbiological population and sensory attributes). In a preliminary study three different polymeric films were tested to select the most suitable to design a package with a short lag time to achieve steady-state conditions. Results showed marked differences between measured in-package CO2 and O2 values and those calculated based on respiration of peeled fruit and film permeance to CO2 and O2 provided by manufactures. The sensory evaluation of packed fruit indicated in film BBT-Bolphane, which created a steady-state in-package partial pressure for CO2 of 4.3-4.8 kPa and for O2 of 4.8-5.5 kPa, as the best film. Results of in-package gas composition with the three cultivars were similar to those achieved in cv. 'Gialla' with the preliminary test. All measured qualitative parameters changed slightly over the storage period for all cultivars and followed the same trend, despite significant differences existing among cultivars. This study clearly showed a similar physiological behavior of minimally processed 'Bianca', 'Gialla' and 'Rossa' cactus pears. Storage conditions optimal for one cultivar fit well for the others; thus mixing fruit of different cultivars in a package designed for one specific cultivar does not lead to relevant deviation from expected results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Sensory evaluation and microbiological characterization of autochthonous Sombor cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Mijačević Zora; Bulajić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the results of organoleptic evaluation, chemical and microbiological analysis of Sombor cheese were presented. Sombor cheese is a type of autochthonous cheese whose traditional processing method is still in use in areas of northern part of Serbia. The sensory profile, chemical and microbiological analysis were performed on 19 samples of traditionally made cheese collected from two households. The sensory evaluation of cheese samples showed its variation in taste and consistency,...

  13. Predictive Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre

    or pasteurised milk. This, in combination with the fact that cottage cheese support growth of Listeria monocytogenes, induces a documentation requirement on the food producer. In the EU regulatory framework, mathematical models are recognised as a suitable supplement to traditional microbiological methods....... The models can be used for documentation of compliance with microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes under reasonably foreseeable conditions. Cottage cheese is a fresh, fermented dairy product. It consists of a fermented cheese curd mixed with a fresh or cultured cream dressing. The product...

  14. Parallel-Sequential Texture Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Singh, Sameer; Singh, Maneesha; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Apte, Chid; Perner, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Color induced texture analysis is explored, using two texture analysis techniques: the co-occurrence matrix and the color correlogram as well as color histograms. Several quantization schemes for six color spaces and the human-based 11 color quantization scheme have been applied. The VisTex texture

  15. Nonlinear operator for oriented texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, Peter; Petkov, Nikolay

    1999-01-01

    Texture is an important part of the visual world of animals and humans and their visual systems successfully detect, discriminate, and segment texture. Relatively recently progress was made concerning structures in the brain that are presumably responsible for texture processing. Neurophysiologists

  16. The effect of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of Akkawi cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamleh, Rabih; Olabi, Ammar; Toufeili, Imad; Daroub, Hamza; Younis, Tarek; Ajib, Rola

    2015-07-01

    Studies have shown a direct relationship between increased dietary sodium intake and chronic diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Potassium chloride is the most widely used salt substitute for sodium chloride in different processed foods. Akkawi cheese, commonly consumed as fresh cheese, has a semi-hard curd, chalky color, firm texture and salty flavor. The effect of partial replacement of NaCl with KCl on the chemical, textural, microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and mature Akkawi cheese was investigated. Salt treatment (NaCl reduction) had a significant effect on pH, lactic acid, sodium and potassium contents of cheeses. Texture profile analysis revealed a significant effect of salt treatment on adhesiveness, chewiness and hardness of cheese. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between salt treatments, specifically between control (100% NaCl) and (70% NaCl, 30% KCl) samples. Descriptive analysis showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on bitterness, crumbliness and hardness, whereas the age of cheese was significant for color and fermented flavor. Salt treatment had no effect on acceptability variables for all experimental 2-week Akkawi samples. The above results suggest that a 30% substitution of NaCl by KCl (70% NaCl, 30% KCl brine) is acceptable. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Technological Microbiology: Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Luciana C.; Bessa, Layara A.

    2017-01-01

    Over thousands of years, modernization could be predicted for the use of microorganisms in the production of foods and beverages. However, the current accelerated pace of new food production is due to the rapid incorporation of biotechnological techniques that allow the rapid identification of new molecules and microorganisms or even the genetic improvement of known species. At no other time in history have microorganisms been so present in areas such as agriculture and medicine, except as recognized villains. Currently, however, beneficial microorganisms such as plant growth promoters and phytopathogen controllers are required by various agricultural crops, and many species are being used as biofactories of important pharmacological molecules. The use of biofactories does not end there: microorganisms have been explored for the synthesis of diverse chemicals, fuel molecules, and industrial polymers, and strains environmentally important due to their biodecomposing or biosorption capacity have gained interest in research laboratories and in industrial activities. We call this new microbiology Technological Microbiology, and we believe that complex techniques, such as heterologous expression and metabolic engineering, can be increasingly incorporated into this applied science, allowing the generation of new and improved products and services. PMID:28539920

  18. Microbiology of ensiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and then separate those portions by the strains of microorganisms that have produced them has been at the core of the changes that have occurred recen...

  19. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  20. Caracterização física, química, microbiológica e sensorial de geléias light de abacaxi Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory characterization of light jellies of pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele Guimaraes Granada

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou elaborar geléias com reduzido teor calórico, utilizando como agentes de corpo diferentes combinações dos hidrocolóides xantana, carragena e locusta. Como comparativo utilizou-se uma formulação padrão de geléia de abacaxi (controle, elaborada com sacarose e xarope de glicose na proporção de 4:1 (p/p, e com teor final de sólidos solúveis de 65ºBrix. As quatro formulações light foram preparadas pela substituição de 50% da quantidade de açúcar da formulação controle, sendo que para equiparar a doçura, adicionou-se o edulcorante sucralose. Foram avaliadas as características químicas, físicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais, além do valor calórico total das geléias. Os resultados mostraram que as geléias apresentaram características químicas e físicas semelhantes às descritas na literatura e enquadraram-se na categoria de produtos light, segundo a legislação vigente. Quanto às características microbiológicas, todas as formulações enquadraram-se nos padrões microbiológicos estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Em termos sensoriais a formulação com a combinação das gomas carragena:xantana:locusta (1:1:1, p/p/p foi a que apresentou melhores características de geléia.The objective of the work was to elaborate jellies with reduced caloric content, by using as body replacers a combination of the hydrocolloids xanthan, carrageenan and locust. The pineapple jelly was used as control formulation, and it was made with sucrose and glucose in the proportion of 4:1 p/p, and soluble solid content of 65ºBrix. The four light formulations were prepared by substitution of 50% of the amount of sugar of the control formulation and, to compensate the sweetness, the low-calorie sweetener sucralose was used. The chemical, physical, microbiological, sensory and the total caloric content of the jellies were evaluated. The results showed that the jellies presented chemical and physical characteristics

  1. The study of textural and structural transformations of carbonized anthracites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusz, Slawomira; Duber, Stanislaw [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 44-121 , Sowinskiego 5 str. Gliwice (Poland); Kwiecinska, Barbara K. [Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, 30-059 , Al. Mickiewicza 30 Cracow (Poland)

    2002-06-20

    Specific physical and chemical properties of anthracites may be explained by the differences in chemical structure of basic structural units (BSUs) and in various spatial arrangements of BSUs, that is, the texture. The structure and the texture of anthracites correspond with their optical properties. Thermal treatment causes the changes in the structure of BSUs and rearrangement of the texture of anthracites. The character of structural and textural transformation could be determined based on the reflectance values of anthracites. Various anthracites were thermally treated to the temperature of 1800 C. Maximum (R{sub max}) and minimum (R{sub min}) reflectance values were measured and reflectance indicatrix parameters (R{sub ev}, R{sub st} and R{sub am}) were calculated for initial and heated samples. It was found that R{sub max}, R{sub min} and R{sub ev} values increase together with the temperature up to 1200-1400 C. In higher temperatures, they start to decrease, while R{sub am} parameter depending on anisotropy of the texture still increases to the final temperature of 1800 C. That indicates gradual and soft transformation of the structure and the texture of anthracites up to the temperature 1200-1400 C (arrangement of turbostratic structure) and some disturbances in textural order before the stage of graphitization.

  2. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, P. J

    2011-01-01

    "Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...

  3. Chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of Sremska ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of the production process, all sausages were characterized by a high level of fat and a low level of moisture. The content of non-protein nitrogen was higher in sausages made from the meat of Landrace pigs, and so was its total increase during ripening and storage. The dynamics of total plate counts, lactic acid ...

  4. Microbiological Quality Assessment and Physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1-2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Evaluation of microbiological and chemical parameters during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The object of this study is determining the optimum conditions of co- composting of dewatered sewage sludge and sawdust. Pilot scale study was performed in Isfahan municipal wastewater treatment plant. To perform this study, the dewatered sewage sludge with humidity between 78-82 percent was mixed with sawdust.

  6. Physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of lafun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Lafun is an African traditional fermented food product prepared from cassava. Whereas Nigerian lafun has been studied, characteristics of Beninese lafun are still unknown. This research was carried out to identify the characteristics of two types of lafun, Chigan lafun and ordinary lafun produced in Benin.

  7. Evaluation of microbiological and chemical parameters during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    ANOUSHIRVAN MOHSENI BANDPEI. 1-Department of Environmental Health, school of Health, Zahedan University of Medical sciences and Health Services, Zahedan. Iran. 2-Department of Environmental Health, school of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical sciences and Health Services, Sari, Iran. 3- Department of ...

  8. Microbiological, physico-chemical and management parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the wake of the growing dependence on small water treatment plants (SWTPs) in providing quality water to rural areas and the global burden of water borne diseases, this study sought to examine the efficiency of 55 SWTPs located in rural or peri-urban areas of Limpopo and Mpumalanga Provinces in order to gauge the ...

  9. Physical, chemical and microbiological changes in alcoholic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... Changes in alcoholic fermentation of sugar syrup produced from cassava ... increase in yeast growth (biomass) and alcohol contents of the ... The presence of ... cassava roots were purchased from the Centre for Scientific and.

  10. Physical, chemical and microbiological changes in alcoholic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in alcoholic fermentation of sugar syrup produced from cassava flour with Saccharomyces cereviseae (baker's yeast) were investigated. Cassava flour paste was hydrolysed using rice ... There were decreases in soluble solid contents, refractive indices of the fermenting medium. Volatile acids (as acetic acids), ...

  11. Physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of lafun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... The swelling power of the lafun flour (expressed by the quantity of water absorbed by 1 g of flour) was 28.9 g water/g for the both types. Lafun has a variable microbial load which levels ranged from 104 to 108 cfu/g and made up of Bacillus spp. (104-108 cfu/g), lactic acid bacteria (103-107 cfu/g), ...

  12. Recent applications of hyperspectral imaging in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Aoife A; Feng, Yaoze; Gaston, Edurne; Valdramidis, Vasilis

    2015-05-01

    Hyperspectral chemical imaging (HSI) is a broad term encompassing spatially resolved spectral data obtained through a variety of modalities (e.g. Raman scattering, Fourier transform infrared microscopy, fluorescence and near-infrared chemical imaging). It goes beyond the capabilities of conventional imaging and spectroscopy by obtaining spatially resolved spectra from objects at spatial resolutions varying from the level of single cells up to macroscopic objects (e.g. foods). In tandem with recent developments in instrumentation and sampling protocols, applications of HSI in microbiology have increased rapidly. This article gives a brief overview of the fundamentals of HSI and a comprehensive review of applications of HSI in microbiology over the past 10 years. Technical challenges and future perspectives for these techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Highly textured Gd2Zr2O7 films grown on textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates by solution deposition route: Growth, texture evolution, and microstructure dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Napari, M.

    2012-01-01

    or crystallization in the thicker films. This work not only demonstrates a route for producing textured Gd2Zr2O7 buffer layers with dense structure directly on technical substrates, but also provides some fundamental understandings related to chemical solution derived films grown on metallic substrates.......Growth, texture evolution and microstructure dependency of solution derived Gd2Zr2O7 films deposited on textured Ni-5 at.%W substrates have been extensively studied. Influence of processing parameters, in particular annealing temperature and dwell time, as well as thickness effect on film texture...... the difference of interfacial energy along two directions in the anisotropic metallic substrate. Growth of Gd2Zr2O7 films displays an ultrafast kinetics under optimized conditions. Independency of sharp epitaxial (004) and polycrystalline (222) orientation is revealed from further synchrotron diffraction studies...

  14. [Visual Texture Agnosia in Humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2015-06-01

    Visual object recognition requires the processing of both geometric and surface properties. Patients with occipital lesions may have visual agnosia, which is impairment in the recognition and identification of visually presented objects primarily through their geometric features. An analogous condition involving the failure to recognize an object by its texture may exist, which can be called visual texture agnosia. Here we present two cases with visual texture agnosia. Case 1 had left homonymous hemianopia and right upper quadrantanopia, along with achromatopsia, prosopagnosia, and texture agnosia, because of damage to his left ventromedial occipitotemporal cortex and right lateral occipito-temporo-parietal cortex due to multiple cerebral embolisms. Although he showed difficulty matching and naming textures of real materials, he could readily name visually presented objects by their contours. Case 2 had right lower quadrantanopia, along with impairment in stereopsis and recognition of texture in 2D images, because of subcortical hemorrhage in the left occipitotemporal region. He failed to recognize shapes based on texture information, whereas shape recognition based on contours was well preserved. Our findings, along with those of three reported cases with texture agnosia, indicate that there are separate channels for processing texture, color, and geometric features, and that the regions around the left collateral sulcus are crucial for texture processing.

  15. Human Safety in Veterinary Microbiology Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar B.P.; H. S. Madhusudhan and Harish. D. B 

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory work should be carried out with a minimum of risk to the health of the staff working in laboratory. This requires careful consideration of the risks involved in a particular procedure,followed by appropriate measures to minimise the risk of human disease. This concerned exclusively with risks from infectious agents, but physical and chemical injuries in microbiology laboratories must also be prevented. Risks from infection are reduced by good laboratory techniques and secured facil...

  16. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    inCluding oil and gas, from to 2011 [2]. Over that period of time approximately of all releases were attributed to corrosion . National ;sociati<Jn...c>fComJsicmEngineers (NACE) International [3] the cost of corrosion for onshore gas and liquid nsn1ission pipelines was $7 billion. However, there...are no statistics related to microbiologically influenced (MIC) of low alloy steel pipelines. Russian inves- [4] estimated that 30% of the corrosion

  17. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions for Authors (Last Updated December 2012). STATEMENT OF SCOPE. The Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology (formerly Journal of Tropical Microbiology) publishes papers and critical reviews in Medical Microbiology, Plant pathology, Public Health, Industrial Microbiology, ...

  18. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  19. Microbiological Advances in Biohydrometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Watling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most exciting advances in biohydrometallurgy are occurring in the field of microbiology. The two main technologies employed in biohydrometallurgy, agitated tanks for the processing of refractory concentrates and heaps and dumps for the processing of low-grade ores, are technologically sound and widely practised at commercial scale, but their development began at a time when very little was known of the microorganisms that assisted metals extraction from sulfide ores. During and subsequent to those developments it has been shown that microbial communities in metals extraction are more diverse than originally thought, and extremely robust and adaptable to different and variable environments. Recent advances in genomics and proteomics, exploiting hugely increased computing power and speed, have made it possible to describe not only which microorganisms are present in bioleaching systems, but also what physiological functions are being exercised. The body of knowledge being acquired through the application of molecular biology methods will be used increasingly to monitor microbial behaviour, optimise conditions for more appropriate microbiological activity and/or infer the “microbiological health” of bioreactors (tanks and heaps.

  20. Chemical and microbiological water quality of subsurface agricultural drains during a field trial of liquid dairy manure effluent application rate and varying tillage practices, Upper Tiffin Watershed, southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan Kidd; Duris, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    -water-quality single-sample criterion of 235 colony forming units per 100 milliliters in only 3 of 56 samples. Of these three samples, two were collected within 1 day post-LDME application from the treatment receiving 8,000 gal/acre LDME with no tillage (NT8000). The third sample was from the rolling-tine aerator treatment with 4,000 gal/acre LDME application rate after the first significant rainfall. Two wastewater chemicals and two bacterial genes (eaeA and stx1) detected in the LDME, but absent in field blank or pre-application samples, were detected in the 4-hour or 1-day postapplication NT8000 samples. No LDME-associated chemicals were detected in later samples from the NT8000 treatment, and none were detected in samples from other treatments after the first significant rainfall. Results of this field trial were somewhat equivocal with respect to the influence of LDME concentration and tillage practices on subsurface-drain water quality, both immediately after LDME application and in the longer term, after significant rainfall. Interpretation of study findings is limited by the fact that treatments were not replicated, and flow rate or discharge from the subsurface drains was not measured. Nevertheless, study results provide useful information about nutrient and bacteria concentrations in subsurface drains during the non-growing season. In addition, study results demonstrate some potential for the use of chemical and microbiological indicators of LDME transport to subsurface drains.

  1. Microbiology of Water and Fluids for Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Nystrand

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In hemodialysis, huge amounts of water are used for diluting the concentrates to produce dialysis fluid. The water is pro-duced on site by reverse osmosis units. The chemical and microbiological quality of the water is essential for dialysis patients. Reverse osmosis units produce water of acceptable chemical quality that can be kept throughout the water system. The microbiological water quality, on the other hand, does not depend on the reverse osmosis unit but on the maintenance of the whole water system. All over the world, dialysis units take water samples and send them to laborato-ries for cultivation and endotoxin tests. Depending on the method of microbiological analysis, the water may be judged to be very good even if in reality it is much worse and outside of standard recommendations. When standardizing the meth-ods with adequate cultivation of water samples, the accuracy of the tests will be better, and as a result, dialysis units can use their resources for keeping the water systems in good shape, i.e. disinfect preventively and frequently and use less effort in collecting samples. This will benefit patients, who will receive a high-quality dialysis fluid, thus eliminating the effects of microbiological impacts such as increased levels of inflammation markers (e.g. C-reactive protein. In the situation of performing hemodiafiltration by producing the substitution fluid “on-line”, it is even more important to have a sensitive method of microbiological verification to follow-up the hygienic quality. [J Chin Med Assoc 2008;71(5:223–229

  2. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new intrinsic representation of geometric texture over triangle meshes. Our approach extends the conventional height field texture representation by incorporating displacements in the tangential plane in the form of a normal tilt. This texture representation offers a good practical...... compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...... texture editing and animation (such as bending or waving) intuitively controllable over arbitrary base mesh. We also provide simple methods for texture extraction and transfer using our height-and-field representation....

  3. Textural modification of processing tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D M; Garcia, E; Wayne, J E

    1998-04-01

    Knowledge of the textural properties of processing tomatoes is crucial to ensuing product acceptability; measurement, control, and optimization of these properties through judicious selection of varieties and control of unit operations results in products that the consumer prefers. It is important to first define the terms texture, rheology, consistency, and viscosity prior to discussing principles of their measurement. The textural properties of processing tomatoes may be measured using both sensory and objective tests, and the latter may be either destructive or nondestructive in nature. The unique anatomy of tomato fruit (peel, pericarp, columella, and locules) in part dictates the method of texture measurement. Numerous factors, including variety, maturity, genetic modification, cultural particles, and environmental conditions, processing conditions, and calcium addition affect the textural integrity of tomatoes. Textural properties of raw tomatoes and most processed tomato products are reviewed in this article.

  4. A generic framework for colour texture segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nammalwar, Padmapriya

    2004-01-01

    This thesis proposes a novel method to combine the colour and the texture for colour texture segmentation. The objective of this research work is to derive a framework for colour texture segmentation and to determine the contribution of colour in colour texture analysis. The colour texture processing is based on the feature extraction from colour-textured images. The texture features were obtained from the luminance plane along with the colour features from the chrominance planes. Based on th...

  5. Independent Component Analysis of Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduchi, Roberto; Portilla, Javier

    2000-01-01

    A common method for texture representation is to use the marginal probability densities over the outputs of a set of multi-orientation, multi-scale filters as a description of the texture. We propose a technique, based on Independent Components Analysis, for choosing the set of filters that yield the most informative marginals, meaning that the product over the marginals most closely approximates the joint probability density function of the filter outputs. The algorithm is implemented using a steerable filter space. Experiments involving both texture classification and synthesis show that compared to Principal Components Analysis, ICA provides superior performance for modeling of natural and synthetic textures.

  6. Dropwise condensation on inclined textured surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Dropwise Condensation on Textured Surfaces presents a holistic framework for understanding dropwise condensation through mathematical modeling and meaningful experiments. The book presents a review of the subject required to build up models as well as to design experiments. Emphasis is placed on the effect of physical and chemical texturing and their effect on the bulk transport phenomena. Application of the model to metal vapor condensation is of special interest. The unique behavior of liquid metals, with their low Prandtl number and high surface tension, is also discussed. The model predicts instantaneous drop size distribution for a given level of substrate subcooling and derives local as well as spatio-temporally averaged heat transfer rates and wall shear stress.

  7. Chemical torrefaction as an alternative to established thermal technology for stabilisation of sugar cane bagasse as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valix, M; Katyal, S; Cheung, W H

    2017-07-01

    Dry and chemical torrefaction of sugar cane bagasse was examined in this study with the aim of stabilising and upgrading the fuel properties of bagasse. Dry torrefaction was conducted at temperatures from 160°C to 300°C under inert conditions, whilst chemical torrefaction incorporated a H2SO4 pre-treatment of bagasse. Chemical torrefaction imparted superior chemical and physical properties inducing morphological transformation and textural development with the potential to address issues in handling, feeding and processing bagasse. It increased the energy density of the chars with maximum HHVmass 21.5 MJ/kg and maximum HHVvolume of 7.4 GJ/m3. Chemically torrefied bagasse demonstrated resistance against microbiological attack for 18 months. These features demonstrate the practical value of chemical torrefaction in advancing the utilisation of bagasse as fuel.

  8. LOCAL TEXTURE DESCRIPTION FRAMEWORK FOR TEXTURE BASED FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reena Rose

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture descriptors have an important role in recognizing face images. However, almost all the existing local texture descriptors use nearest neighbors to encode a texture pattern around a pixel. But in face images, most of the pixels have similar characteristics with that of its nearest neighbors because the skin covers large area in a face and the skin tone at neighboring regions are same. Therefore this paper presents a general framework called Local Texture Description Framework that uses only eight pixels which are at certain distance apart either circular or elliptical from the referenced pixel. Local texture description can be done using the foundation of any existing local texture descriptors. In this paper, the performance of the proposed framework is verified with three existing local texture descriptors Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Texture Pattern (LTP and Local Tetra Patterns (LTrPs for the five issues viz. facial expression, partial occlusion, illumination variation, pose variation and general recognition. Five benchmark databases JAFFE, Essex, Indian faces, AT&T and Georgia Tech are used for the experiments. Experimental results demonstrate that even with less number of patterns, the proposed framework could achieve higher recognition accuracy than that of their base models.

  9. Effect of the gamma radiation on the chemical, rheological, baker and microbiological properties in wheat flour; Efecto de la radiacion gama sobre las propiedades quimicas, reologicas, panaderas y microbiologicas en harina de trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agundez A, Z.; Fernandez R, M.V. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Arce C, M.E.; Cruz Z, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Chernov, V.; Barboza F, M. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The gamma radiation has been used in several places of the World as a sterilization method, preservation and pasteurization of foodstuffs, effect which is achieved due to diminishing or elimination of the microorganisms, reaching every time more acceptance, moreover eliminates the uses of toxic and carcinogenic substances, of general use, but at the present, being in the process of being totally prohibited, due to the higher risk in the human health. In this work the related results with the effects of the gamma radiation are presented, coming from a {sup 60} Co source, in commercial wheat flour exposed to a dose of 1.0 KGy. The used dose is that allowed according to the NOM-033-SSA1-1993 standard. It was determined that the chemical characteristics of humidity, protein and ashes were not affected by radiation. The rheological properties neither suffer severe effects as consequence of radiation; the pharynographic and alveographic parameters were lightly affected by the treatment. Significant changes were detected in the percentage of water absorption and in the tolerance index to mixing. However a diminish of 10% in the development time and an increase of 13% in the stability was observed, for the irradiated samples respect to the those samples not irradiated. In relation to the alveograph parameters it was only detected a diminish of 7% in the force parameter (w) without changes in the tenacity/blowing up index ratio (P/L). The fall number diminish 11% indicating a small diminution in viscosity. The bakering properties do not turn out modified by the irradiation treatment finding a specific weight of 4.6 and 4.5 (cm{sup 3}/g) for the control and irradiated samples, respectively. In the mesophyll analysis it was found a diminish of 96% from the original charge in control samples, observing a diminution of 74 and 25% in yeasts and mushrooms respectively. Microbiologically it was determined absence of total coliforms bacteria and faecal coliforms in the control

  10. Cube Texture Formation of Cu-33at.%Ni Alloy Substrates and CeO2 Buffer Layer for YBCO Coated Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hui; Li, Suo Hong; Ru, Liang Ya

    2014-01-01

    Cube texture formation of Cu-33 at.%Ni alloy substartes and CeO2 buffer layer prepared by chemical solution deposition on the textured substrate were investigated by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and XRD technics systematically. The results shown that a strong cube textured Cu-33at.......%Ni alloy substrate with the cube texture fraction of 99.8 % (cube texture fraction...

  11. Multispectral Imaging of Meat Quality - Color and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup

    , it is possible to assess color of very complicated structures, such as salamis, with a vision system. More importantly though, the vision system embraces the complicated scattering properties of meat. The images can also lead to other analyses, e.g. image texture analysis relating to the structure of the meat...... of meat quality parameters, especially with regards to meat color and texture. Several image modalities have been applied, all considering multi- or hyper spectral imaging. The work demonstrates the use of computer vision systems for meat color measurements. The color is assessed by suitable....... In the thesis it is presented how simple texture measures can be used for characterizing the texture changes in fermented salamis. Moreover, it was investigated if it was possible to relate structure in images to chemical compounds in lard from boars....

  12. Texture of mayonnaise and dressing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, M.E.J.; Janssen, A.M.; Gemert, van L.J.; Doorn, van R.J.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Weenen, H.; Linden, van der E.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between sensory texture attributes and physical properties of mayonnaise and dressings have been explored. The focus of the work was in creaminess and related texture attributes. Samples ranging from 0-70% oil were tested sensorially by QDA-panels. Physical caharacterisation of these

  13. Quantitative Characterisation of Surface Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Lonardo, P.M.; Trumpold, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the different methods used to give a quantitative characterisation of surface texture. The paper contains a review of conventional 2D as well as 3D roughness parameters, with particular emphasis on recent international standards and developments. It presents new texture...

  14. EMOTION RECOGNITION USING TEXTURE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhabinski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the role of texture (pixel values in a task of emotion recognition in the image of a face is explored. Texture-based method is compared to classic methods based on coordinates of key point. In addition, a new combined method is presented that unites both sets of features.

  15. Emotional Effects of Dynamic Textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely unknown, despite their natural ubiquity and increasing use in digital media. Participants watched a set of dynamic textures, representing either water or various different media, and self-reported their emotional experience. Motion complexity was found to have mildly relaxing and nondominant effects. In contrast, motion change complexity was found to be arousing and dominant. The speed of dynamics had arousing, dominant, and unpleasant effects. The amplitude of dynamics was also regarded as unpleasant. The regularity of the dynamics over the textures' area was found to be uninteresting, nondominant, mildly relaxing, and mildly pleasant. The spatial scale of the dynamics had an unpleasant, arousing, and dominant effect, which was larger for textures with diverse content than for water textures. For water textures, the effects of spatial contrast were arousing, dominant, interesting, and mildly unpleasant. None of these effects were observed for textures of diverse content. The current findings are relevant for the design and synthesis of affective multimedia content and for affective scene indexing and retrieval.

  16. Fermentation, Effect on Textural Properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (UTM, model 1 122, Instron Corporation,. Canton, MA, USA) was used to study the texture profile of 30% flour gels following the method of Bourne (1978). Because cassava flour paste is an amorphous mixture that does not provide the necessary consistency for collecting useful information by Texture Profile. Analysis (TPA) ...

  17. Emotional effects of dynamic textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Henselmans, M.; Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of various spatiotemporal dynamic texture characteristics on human emotions. The emotional experience of auditory (eg, music) and haptic repetitive patterns has been studied extensively. In contrast, the emotional experience of visual dynamic textures is still largely

  18. The microbiological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological risk in the first part of life is endowed with peculiar features when compared to the same risk in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to highlight these age-related traits. While pathogens harmful for neonates and infants have been reviewed, less attention has been paid to the role played by the infant gut as battle field between pathogens and protecting bacteria or between pathogens and the immune system. Immediately after birth a race for colonizing the gut begins; the main tool for neonates to select good bacteria is represented by mother's milk. Quite surprisingly, this milk carries potentially harmful bacteria, but antibodies, oligosaccharides and the whole breast milk composition provide a powerful selective tool. Nevertheless this selective action is deeply influenced by the type and/or time (i.e. premature) of delivery or in premature subjects; recent data also show that breast milk could have a different potential in selecting bacterial species. The hygienic conditions of parents and, more generally, of the surrounding environment play a role in the selection of the intestinal biota of infants. It is then possible to group neonates according to the composition of the microbiota. Results of ecological studies suggest that neonates with a different microbiota could have a different microbiological risk.

  19. Microbiology Education in Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Robert J; Doig, Alexa K; Buxton, Rebecca L; Fenn, JoAnn P

    2017-01-01

    Nurses must have sufficient education and training in microbiology to perform many roles within clinical nursing practice (e.g., administering antibiotics, collecting specimens, preparing specimens for transport and delivery, educating patients and families, communicating results to the healthcare team, and developing care plans based on results of microbiology studies and patient immunological status). It is unclear whether the current microbiology courses required of nursing students in the United States focus on the topics that are most relevant to nursing practice. To gauge the relevance of current microbiology education to nursing practice, we created a confidential, web-based survey that asked nurses about their past microbiology education, the types of microbiology specimens they collect, their duties that require knowledge of microbiology, and how frequently they encounter infectious diseases in practice. We used the survey responses to develop data-driven recommendations for educators who teach microbiology to pre-nursing and nursing students. Two hundred ninety-six Registered Nurses (RNs) completed the survey. The topics they deemed most relevant to current practice were infection control, hospital-acquired infections, disease transmission, and collection and handling of patient specimens. Topics deemed least relevant were the Gram stain procedure and microscope use. In addition, RNs expressed little interest in molecular testing methods. This may reflect a gap in their understanding of the uses of these tests, which could be bridged in a microbiology course. We now have data in support of anecdotal evidence that nurses are most engaged when learning about microbiology topics that have the greatest impact on patient care. Information from this survey will be used to shift the focus of microbiology courses at our university to topics more relevant to nursing practice. Further, these findings may also support an effort to evolve national recommendations for

  20. Avaliação microbiológica, química e físico-química da contaminação do Rio Paranaíba / Microbiological, chemical and physical-chemical assessment of the contamination in the Paranaíba river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Taranto Goulart

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Some samples of Paranaíba river were collected, between July of 2004 and May of 2005, under abridge of BR-365 route (upstream Patos de Minas and under another one, Bigode’s bridge(downstream Patos de Minas, to evaluate a possible contamination, quantifying and qualifyingit. It was done physical-chemical analyses (OD, DBO, DQO, OG, ATA, pH and temperature,microbiological analyses (detection of the biological indicator Escherichia coli and chemicals toheavy metals (cupper, zinc, cadmium and lead. The physical-chemical analyses were done incooperation with Copasa-MG. Among them, only OG analyses have showed some variation. It wasa medium positive variation of 1 mg/L to the samples colleted downstream. Moreover, thecontamination of OG was set four times higher than Brazilian legislation (DN 10/86 allows. Themicrobiological analyses and the detection of heavy metals were done in the Centro Universitáriode Patos de Minas (UNIPAM laboratories. In order to detect E. coli it was used Lactose EC broth,the means agar EMB to the morphological identification and the Gram method. The medium resultdownstream pointed to the level of 3,62 NMP/mL, although it hasn’t overcome the boundaries ofBrazilian legislation (DN 10/86; it was 9,74 times over the result pointed upstream. One atomicabsorption spectrophotometer with flame of air/acetylene was used in order to detect heavy metals.Among them, lead analyses have showed higher levels, overcoming the boundaries of Brazilianlegislation (DN 10/86 to both sampling points. It has showed a medium positive concentration of0,0134 ppm (or 0,0527 times, or 5,27 % to the point downstream compared to another samplingpoint and exceeding 8,93 times the Brazilian legislation (DN 10/86.

  1. Texture dependent lattice strains and texture gradient in AI7020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Zhong, Z.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Maawad, E.; Schell, N.

    2015-04-01

    Firstly, an Al7020 block was characterized by the texture gradient, which was remarkably strong. Texture sharpness in the center with about 30 mrd (multiple random distribution) shows typical plain strain texture components. On the surface and close to the surface the texture sharpness is much weaker showing also shear components. Strongest shear was not directly at the surface but 4 mm deeper. The texture analysis at HEMS Beamline (Petra III/DESY-Hamburg) was done with continuous scanning mode to include all grains to improve the grain statistics. Secondly, with an in situ synchrotron experiment the texture dependent lattice strain behavior was investigated using flat tensile samples oriented 0°, 45° and 90° to the rolling direction (RD). Texture induced anisotropy influenced on the lattice dependent yield strength and the lattice dependent stress-strain behavior, which will be discussed in detail. Due to the high energy synchrotron beam complete Debye-Scherrer rings were obtained so that the patterns, parallel and perpendicular to loading direction (LD), were obtained simultaneously.

  2. Digital Mapping of Soil Texture Using Regression Tree and Artificial Neural Network in Bijar, Kurdistan

    OpenAIRE

    kamal nabiollahi; ahmad haidari; rohollah taghizade mehrjardi

    2015-01-01

    Soil texture is an important soil physical property that governs most physical, chemical, biological, and hydrological processes in soils. Detailed information on soil texture variability is crucial for proper crop and land management and environmental studies. Therefore, at present research, 103 soil profiles were dogged and then sampled in order to prepare digital map of soil texture in Bijar, Kurdistan. Auxiliary data used in this study to represent predictive soil forming factors were ter...

  3. Effect of grilling and baking on physicochemical and textural properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burger

    OpenAIRE

    Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski

    2014-01-01

    The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proxima...

  4. Assessment of the physicochemical and microbiological status of western Niger Delta soil for crude oil pollution bioremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejechi, Bernard O; Ozochi, Chizoba A

    2015-06-01

    The physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the soil across the western Niger Delta area of Nigeria were determined to assess its potential for natural remediation of crude oil pollution. The pH (oil-producing area, 6.1 ± 1.1; non-oil producing, 5.9 ± 0.9) and temperature (28-35 °C in both areas) were favourable to natural remediation, while the fluctuating moisture (7.7-45.6 %) and the dominant sandy soil textural classes (70 %) were limitations. The carbon nitrogen phosphorus (CNP) ratio markedly exceeded recommended 100:10:1, while the cation exchange capacity was below acceptable range. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and hydrocarbon-utilising and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (mean range log10 3.8 ± 1.5-6.52 ± 0.9 cfu/g) were favourable having markedly exceeded the minimum counts required. Crude oil loss was highest in loam soil, but significantly (P = 0.00) increased in all soil textural classes including sandy soils after amendment with cow dung/poultry dropping and manual aeration in laboratory and 8-month field tests as indicated by two-way ANOVA. Thus, the overall assessment is that while CNP can be viewed as the major limiting factor to natural oil pollution remediation in the western Niger Delta soil, its influence can be minimised by the amendment indicated in the study.

  5. High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

    2013-01-10

    High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a

  6. Transdisciplinarity and Microbiology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A graphical representation of the transdisciplinary pyramid, as a tool, helps us in the design of practical classroom activities that deal with transdisciplinarity, microbiology, and, more generally, with biology. As regard to classroom implementation, we propose two main practical approaches. On the one hand, we can concretize/realize transdisciplinarity through a new design of the lesson, which shall rely on a team of four teachers/professors representing disciplines from all the four levels of the pyramid. On the other hand, a class debate with a teacher–moderator shall be used as a Trojan horse to launch the insights into the newly proposed point of view. The presence of four teachers/professors provides a rigorous study of the topics together with a concretized high-quality transdisciplinarity. Conversely, the class discussion promotes student involvement and the development of critical thought.

  7. Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive

  8. Development and physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory characterization of fermented dairy beverage prepared with different stabilizers/thickenerDesenvolvimento e caracterização físico-química, microbiológica e sensorial de bebida láctea fermentada elaborada com diferentes estabilizantes/espessantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakel Cândido Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the physical-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of fermented dairy beverages prepared with 10% sucrose, 50% milk and 50% whey and added five different stabilizers/thickeners in two concentrations (0,50% and 1,00% in relation to the final formulation. Ten treatments have been developed: PCPS 1,00% = protein (0,50% and whey protein concentrate (0,50%; GP 1,00% = powdered gelatin (1,00%; GG 1,00% = guar gum (1,00%; AM 1.00% = corn starch (1,00%; GGCMC 1,00% = guar gum (0,50% and carboxymethylcellulose (0,50%; PCPS 0,50 % = protein (0,25% and whey protein concentrate (0,25%; GP 0.50% = powdered gelatin (0,50%; GG 0.50% = guar (0,50%; AM 0,50% = corn starch (0,50%; GGCMC 0,50% = guar gum (0,25% and carboxymethylcellulose (0,25%. The fermented dairy beverages were evaluated for pH, acidity in lactic acid, moisture, ash, fat, protein, viscosity, syneresis, sensory acceptance (in a nine-point hedonic scale and count of coliforms at 35ºC and 45°C. The results were submitted to ANOVA and mean test with significance level of 5%. It was observed that the types and percentages of stabilizers/thickeners mainly influenced the values of syneresis, viscosity and acceptance of samples. Those of the treatments containing protein and whey protein concentrate (1,00%, guar gum (1,00% and gelatin (0,50% showed viscosity/consistency similiar/compatible with yogurt and commercial fermented dairy beverages and showed no syneresis, after processing. All formulations were safe to be consumed considering the microbiological results and according to the legislation. The treatment with 0,50% gelatin stood out for the best acceptance for appearance, aroma, color and texture.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características físico-químicas, sensoriais e a qualidade microbiológica de bebidas lácteas fermentadas elaboradas com 10% de sacarose, 50% de leite e 50% de soro de queijo e adicionadas

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON MOZZARELLA CHEESE SAMPLES NEAR THEIR EXPIRY DATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Soncini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A microbiological investigation was carried out on 30 mozzarella cheese samples to evaluate their quality near the expiry date. Total coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. were detected at high levels in 70% and in 30% of the samples, respectively. Pseudomonadaceae were considered as the microorganisms responsible of the texture changing spoilage symptoms that were observed in 13,3% of the samples. Isolated strains were identified by PCR-TGGE analysis as P. rhodesiae (37,5%, P. putida (33,3% and P. poae (29,2%.

  10. Texture-based correspondence display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Texture-based correspondence display is a methodology to display corresponding data elements in visual representations of complex multidimensional, multivariate data. Texture is utilized as a persistent medium to contain a visual representation model and as a means to create multiple renditions of data where color is used to identify correspondence. Corresponding data elements are displayed over a variety of visual metaphors in a normal rendering process without adding extraneous linking metadata creation and maintenance. Texture-based correspondence display extends the effectiveness of visual representation for understanding data to the understanding and creation of visual representation models.

  11. Texture-Based Correspondence Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Texture-based correspondence display is a methodology to display corresponding data elements in visual representations of complex multidimensional, multivariate data. Texture is utilized as a persistent medium to contain a visual representation model and as a means to create multiple renditions of data where color is used to identify correspondence. Corresponding data elements are displayed over a variety of visual metaphors in a normal rendering process without adding extraneous linking metadata creation and maintenance. The effectiveness of visual representation for understanding data is extended to the expression of the visual representation model in texture.

  12. Efecto del secado térmico y el tratamiento alcalino en las características microbiológicas y químicas de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas Effect of thermal drying and alkaline treatment on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Silva-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of thermal drying (60 to 75 ºC and times from 0 to 12.58 h and alkaline treatment (Ca(OH2 and CaO at doses from 8 to 10%. on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from the Cañaveralejo WWTP. The results showed that in thermal drying all temperatures studied were sufficient to achieve the sanitation of biosolids. In the alkaline treatment the two types of lime showed the total elimination of fecal coliforms, E. coli and helminth eggs, however, the process of alkalization of biosolids had significant influences on organic carbon and calcium.

  13. Recent advances in silage microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and use the amplified regions to identify strains of microorganisms is at the core of the changes occurring recently in silage microbiology. These dev...

  14. Qualidade microbiológica e produtividade de alface sob adubação química e orgânica Microbiological quality and productivity of lettuce under chemical and organic fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingergleice Machado de Oliveira Abreu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A contaminação de hortaliças por micro-oganismos patogênicos é uma realidade. Os adubos orgânicos têm sido responsabilizados por algumas contaminações de hortaliças observadas no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e a contaminação de alface por Salmonella sp. e coliformes a 45 °C, cultivada sob adubação orgânica. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, em cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram: T1 - Testemunha (sem adubação; T2 - Adubação química; T3 - Esterco de galinha; T4 - Esterco bovino; T5 - Húmus de minhoca; e T6 - Composto orgânico. As variáveis analisadas foram matéria fresca, matéria seca, macro e micronutrientes e contaminação microbiológica. Foi observada maior obtenção de matéria fresca nas parcelas adubadas com esterco de galinha (543 g, que diferiu estatisticamente da produção observada nos demais tratamentos. Não foi observada diferença estatística significativa entre tratamentos para matéria seca, com exceção da parcela com composto orgânico que apresentou o menor valor (3,7%. Não foi observada contaminação do solo e nem dos adubos orgânicos por esses micro-organismos. Porém, foi observada contaminação da água de irrigação e da alface por coliformes fecais. Existem fortes indícios de que a água de irrigação tenha sido o principal veículo de contaminação.Vegetable contamination with lethal microorganisms is a reality. Organic manure has been considered responsible for vegetable contamination in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the yield and lettuce contamination by Salmonella sp. and fecal coliforms, at 45 °C, grown under organic fertilization. The experimental design was in randomized blocks composed with 6 treatments in five replicates. The treatments were: T1 - Control (no fertilization; T2 - Chemical fertilization; T3 - Chicken manure; T4 - Cattle manure; T5 - Worm manure, and T6 - Organic

  15. Avaliação da rotulagem e da qualidade físico-química e microbiológica de queijo ralado Evaluation of the labelling and physico-chemical and microbiological quality of grated cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Flávia Pimentel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a rotulagem e a qualidade físico-química e microbiológica de queijo ralado. Amostras foram coletadas em Belo Horizonte, MG, no período de dezembro de 1999 a maio de 2001 - 18 marcas diferentes, cada uma constituída de cinco amostras de um mesmo lote. Os teores de umidade variaram de 10,16 a 28,40g/100g, sendo que 33% das amostras não atenderam à legislação. A atividade de água variou de 0,579 a 0,889. Os valores de pH variaram de 4,78 a 5,62. Os aditivos pesquisados, nitrato de sódio, nitrito de sódio e ácido sórbico variaram de 5,11 a 159,1mg/kg, de não detectado a 129,2mg/kg e de não detectado a 2401,8mg/kg, respectivamente. Valores superiores aos estipulados pela legislação para nitrato de sódio foram encontrados em 17% e para ácido sórbico em 56% das amostras. De um modo geral, apenas 22% das amostras estariam de acordo com a legislação vigente com relação aos parâmetros fisico-químicos. Não foi detectada a presença de Salmonella sp/25g, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e coliformes a 45°C, o que corresponde a 100% de atendimento à legislação vigente. Entretanto, em uma amostra foi detectada a presença de 105 UFC/g de bolores e leveduras.The objective of this study was to evaluate the label and the physico-chemical and microbiological quality of grated cheese. Samples (18 different brands, 5 samples of each lot were purchased in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil from December 1999 until may 2001. The moisture content varied from 10.16 to 28.40g/100g. 33% of the samples did not comply with Brazilian legislation. Water activity ranged from 0.579 to 0.889. pH values ranged from 4.85 to 5.61. The food additives investigated, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite and sorbic acid varied from 5.11 to 159.1mg/kg, from not detected to 129.2mg/kg and from not detected to 2401.8mg/kg, respectively. Levels higher than those established by Brazilian legislation were observed

  16. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  17. A primary study on texture modification and proteolysis of mao-tofu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    microstructure of mao-tofu was monitored by texture analyzer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Proteolysis occurred during fermentation was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and chemical analysis. Results from Texture Profile Analysis showed that adhesiveness of mao-tofu had an increase trend while hardness, ...

  18. Investigation of sulphide in core drilled boreholes KLX06, KAS03 and KAS09 at Laxemar and Aespoe Chemical-, microbiological- and dissolved gas data from groundwater in four borehole sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosdahl, Anette (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Pedersen, Karsten; Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden)); Wallin, Bill (Geokema AB (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This report describes a study performed during 2009 which focused on the production of sulphide (microbial sulphate reduction) in deep groundwater that was implemented in the core drilled boreholes KLX06, -475 to 482 meter above sea level, m a s l, KAS03,-97 to 241 and -613 to 984 m a s l, and KAS09, -96 to -125 m a s l, at Laxemar and Aspo. The study aimed to increase knowledge of background groundwater levels of sulphide and its variations in time and space through the analysis of sulphide and parameters related to sulphide production. Sampling of groundwater was conducted in three core drilled boreholes of varying age as time series with continuous pumping and as single samples. The analysis program covered chemical parameters (pH, chloride, sulphate, iron, and organic carbon), dissolved gas composition, stable isotopes in groundwater (delta2H, delta18O, delta34S, delta13C), stable isotopes of gaseous compounds (delta2H, delta13C, delta18O), microbiological parameters (sulphate- and iron reducing bacteria, SRB and IRB), phthalates and low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOA). The sampling in KLX06 was carried out as time series with a 9 week pause in pumping. When the water volume discharged was about 150 times that of the packer-isolated borehole section, sulphides decreased from 7 mg L-1 to 0.05 mg L-1 and the salinity increased from 740 to 1,480 mg L-1. After a 9 weeks pause in pumping, the sulphide concentration and salinity again approached the original values, i.e. 7 mg L-1 of sulphide and 450 mg L-1 of chloride. The SRB and IRB showed high concentrations that were reduced during pumping in the borehole. The water in the standpipe which has a different water composition than the groundwater, also showed similar high concentrations of sulphide and SRB. The standpipe is a plastic pipe in the wider upper part of the borehole; connected with the tube from the packer of the borehole section and used to accommodate a filter and a groundwater pump when collecting

  19. Tests of quark mass textures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-21

    The classic hints on the structure of the quark mass matrices are shortly reviewed and the possibility of obtaining further information through precise texture analysis is discussed with the aid of a specific example.

  20. CRUMB TEXTURE OF SPELT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk-Szabó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Crumb texture is an important quality indicator, as consumer prefer different bread taste. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators for bread texture quality of five Triticum spelta L. varieties – Altgold, Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Ostro, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard method and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn and Altgold were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.81++, -0.78++. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  1. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  2. A method for texturing a glass surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, G.; Van Swaaij, R.A.C.M.M.; Isabella, O.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a new method of texturing a glass surface. In further aspects, the present invention relates to the resulting textured glass surface; to a photovoltaic device comprising the textured glass surface; and, to use of the textured glass surface for scattering light.

  3. Vadose zone microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2001-01-17

    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results in the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.

  4. Microbiological Qualities of Hawked Retted Cassava Fufu in Aba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microorganisms associated with spoilage were found to be Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus spp. The chemical qualities as determined on the freshly prepared fufu samples from all the local government areas were comparable. The colour, odour and texture of ...

  5. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alita R. Burmeister

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives.

  6. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  7. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal welcomes papers focusing on microbiological and/or immunological studies from medical or pharmaceutical perspectives. Research pieces on bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, algae, spores, immunity, immune systems, health and pharmaceutical applications are highly relevant ...

  8. A Microbiological and Nutritional Evaluation of the West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality attributes of Kilishi, a West African dried meat product were studied over an eight week storage period comparing traditional production and packaging systems with a potassium sorbate treatment system and simple modern packaging. Changes in chemical composition and microbiological counts are reported.

  9. Studies on the microbiological quality assessment and proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Roland

    Two commercial poultry diets namely chick mash and grower mash were obtained from five (5) major poultry feed millers in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. A total of seventy – five (75) samples were collected and these diets were examined for their microbiological and physico-chemical qualities. Total bacterial counts in the chick ...

  10. Design of Dynamic Vibrotactile Textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmaniemi, Teemu; Marila, Juha; Lantz, Vuokko

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method for creating virtual textures without force feedback by using a simple motion sensor and a single vibrotactile actuator. It is based on wavetable synthesis driven by the user's hand movements. The output of the synthesis is rendered with the tactile actuator attached in a hand-held box together with the motion sensor. The method provides a solution for creating tangible properties for virtual objects which can be explored by pointing at them with the sensor-actuator device. The study introduces 12 virtual textures which were based on three different envelope ridge lengths, two spatial densities, and were either regularly or irregularly organized. To evaluate the role of each design parameter in the perception of the texture, a series of experiments was conducted. The perceived similarity was assessed in a pairwise comparison test and the outcome was analyzed by using multidimensional scaling. The analysis revealed that envelope ridge length and spatial density were distinguishable design parameters while regularity was not. The textures were also rated according to five attribute scales previously determined in the pilot experiment. The results show that ridge length and spatial density influence perceived roughness and flatness similarly as with real textures.

  11. Towards a hydrologically motivated soil texture classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Helge

    2010-05-01

    Soil texture classification is not designed for hydrological purposes, e.g. for hydrological modelling. Hydrological model applications based on classified soil textures have revealed that different soil texture classes within the same classification system induce different uncertainties with respect to simulated water balances. As a consequence, there is a need to think about required similarity in texture classifications. In different regions of the world, different soil texture classification systems have been developed. These different classification systems divide the soil texture triangle in different numbers of differently shaped soil texture classes. These texture classifications are based on pedological background and practical reasons with respect to soil mapping and analyses. In comparison, a possible soil texture classification motivated by soil hydrology should be based on similarity in hydrological fluxes or in the soil water regime. Therefore, this presentation proposes a procedure how to evaluate the appropriateness of currently used texture classifications and how to derive a new soil texture classification based on a similar behaviour of soils with respect to hydrological processes. Long-term hydrological modelling of water balance terms using the 1-D SVAT scheme SIMULAT serve as the basis of a similarity analysis of 5050 possible realisations of the soil texture triangle (1% grid). Cluster analysis is used for analysing similar hydrological behaviour of theoretical soil columns. Spatial patterns of similar realisations (=clusters) in the soil texture triangle based on annual water balance terms are compared to those based on soil hydraulic parameters and current soil texture classes. The results show that clusters based on soil hydraulic parameterisation are relatively similar to current soil texture classification schemes while hydrological model simulations suggest differing spatial patterns of similar behaviour over the soil texture triangle

  12. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    which correlates with the phase state of the membrane. This is quantified by the generalized polarization (GP) function, and we demonstrate that a GP analysis can be performed on supported membranes. The results show that although the gel domains have heterogeneous texture, the membrane phase state does......We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...

  13. Di-uniform texture spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Ozcag

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Textures were introduced by the second author as a point-based setting for the study of fuzzy sets, and have since proved to be an appropriate framework for the development of complement-free mathematical concepts. In this paper the authors lay the foundation for a theory of uniformities in a textural context. Analogues are given for both the diagonal and covering approaches to the classical theory of uniform structures, the notion of uniform topology is generalized and an analogue given for the well known result that a topological space is uniformizable if and only if it is completely regular. Finally a textural analogue of the classical interplay between uniformities and families of pseudo-metrics is presented.

  14. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  15. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microbiological incubator. 866.2540 Section 866.2540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological...

  16. Wettability transition of laser textured brass surfaces inside different mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huangping; Abdul Rashid, Mohamed Raiz B.; Khew, Si Ying; Li, Fengping; Hong, Minghui

    2018-01-01

    Hydrophobic surface on brass has attracted intensive attention owing to its importance in scientific research and practical applications. Laser texturing provides a simple and promising method to achieve it. Reducing wettability transition time from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity or superhydrophobicity remains a challenge. Herein, wettability transition of brass surfaces with hybrid micro/nano-structures fabricated by laser texturing was investigated by immersing the samples inside different mediums. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface contact angle measurement were employed to characterize surface morphology, chemical composition and wettability of the fabricated surfaces of brass samples. Wettability transition time from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity was shortened by immersion into isopropyl alcohol for a period of 3 h as a result of the absorption and accumulation of organic substances on the textured brass surface. When the textured brass sample was immersed into sodium bicarbonate solution, flower-like structures on the sample surface played a key role in slowing down wettability transition. Moreover, it had the smallest steady state contact angle as compared to the others. This study provides a facile method to construct textured surfaces with tunable wetting behaviors and effectively extend the industrial applications of brass.

  17. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate...... sources. This experiment investigated the ability of the auditory system to identify statistically blurred sound textures and the perceptual relationship between sound textures. Identification performance of statistically blurred sound textures presented at a fixed blur increased over those presented...... as a gradual blur. The results suggests that the correct identification of sound textures is influenced by the preceding blurred stimulus. These findings draw parallels to the recognition of blurred images....

  18. Dynamic air layer on textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-09-03

    We provide an experimental demonstration that a novel macroscopic, dynamic continuous air layer or plastron can be sustained indefinitely on textured superhydrophobic surfaces in air-supersaturated water by a natural gas influx mechanism. This type of plastron is an intermediate state between Leidenfrost vapor layers on superheated surfaces and the equilibrium Cassie-Baxter wetting state on textured superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that such a plastron can be sustained on the surface of a centimeter-sized superhydrophobic sphere immersed in heated water and variations of its dynamic behavior with air saturation of the water can be regulated by rapid changes of the water temperature. The simple experimental setup allows for quantification of the air flux into the plastron and identification of the air transport model of the plastron growth. Both the observed growth dynamics of such plastrons and millimeter-sized air bubbles seeded on the hydrophilic surface under identical air-supersaturated solution conditions are consistent with the predictions of a well-mixed gas transport model. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Aerospace Toxicology and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Parmet, A. J.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicology dates to the very earliest history of humanity with various poisons and venom being recognized as a method of hunting or waging war with the earliest documentation in the Evers papyrus (circa 1500 BCE). The Greeks identified specific poisons such as hemlock, a method of state execution, and the Greek word toxos (arrow) became the root of our modern science. The first scientific approach to the understanding of poisons and toxicology was the work during the late middle ages of Paracelsus. He formulated what were then revolutionary views that a specific toxic agent or "toxicon" caused specific dose-related effects. His principles have established the basis of modern pharmacology and toxicology. In 1700, Bernardo Ramazzini published the book De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workers) describing specific illnesses associated with certain labor, particularly metal workers exposed to mercury, lead, arsenic, and rock dust. Modern toxicology dates from development of the modern industrial chemical processes, the earliest involving an analytical method for arsenic by Marsh in 1836. Industrial organic chemicals were synthesized in the late 1800 s along with anesthetics and disinfectants. In 1908, Hamilton began the long study of occupational toxicology issues, and by WW I the scientific use of toxicants saw Haber creating war gases and defining time-dosage relationships that are used even today.

  20. Hierarchical approaches to analysis of natural textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsiv, Vadim R.; Malyshev, Igor A.; Novikova, Tatiana A.

    2004-09-01

    The surface textures of natural objects often have the visible fractal-like properties. A similar pattern of texture could be found looking at the forests in the aerial photographs or at the trees in the outdoor scenes when the image spatial resolution was changed. Or the texture patterns are different at different spatial resolution levels in the aerial photographs of villages. It creates the difficulties in image segmentation and object recognition because the levels of spatial resolution necessary to get the homogeneously and correctly labeled texture regions differ for different types of landscape. E.g. if the spatial resolution was sufficient for distinguishing between the textures of agricultural fields, water, and asphalt, the texture labeled areas of forest or suburbs are hardly fragmented, because the texture peculiarities corresponding to two stable levels of texture spatial resolution will be visible in this case. A hierarchical texture analysis could solve this problem, and we did it in two different ways: we performed the texture segmentation simultaneously for several levels of image spatial resolution, or we subjected the texture labeled image of highest spatial resolution to a recurring texture segmentation using the texture cells of larger sizes. The both approaches turned out to be rather fruitful for the aerial photographs as well as for the outdoor images. They generalize and support the hierarchical image analysis technique presented in another our paper. Some of the methods applied were borrowed from the living vision systems.

  1. Estabilidade microbiológica, físico-química e sensorial de pedúnculos de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. processados por métodos combinados Microbiological, physico-chemical and sensorial stability of cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L. processed by combined methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Campos Mesquita

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os pedúnculos de caju processados por métodos combinados e armazenados à temperatura ambiente (28ºC foram avaliados quanto à tendência a mudanças físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais. Os resultados confirmam que os tipos de obstáculos usados (redução da Aw, tratamento térmico brando, redução do pH, adição de ácido ascórbico, benzoato de sódio a 1000ppm e SO2 a 600 e 900ppm e sua intensidade foram capazes de assegurar a estabilidade microbiológica do produto durante a armazenagem à temperatura ambiente por 120 dias, bem como uma boa aceitação sensorial.Cashew apples processed by combined methods were stored at room temperature (28ºC in order to evaluate the tendency for chemical, microbiological and sensorial changes during 120 days of storage. Results confirmed that the obstacles used (reduction of water activity, mild heat treatment, pH reduction, ascorbic acid addition, 1000ppm sodium benzoate, 600 and 900ppm of SO2 and their intensities were capable to assure the microbiological stability and sensorial acceptance of the product during storage stability at room temperature for 120 days.

  2. The brass-type texture and its deviation from the copper-type texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Ray, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Our basic aim with the present review is to address the classical problem of the “fcc rolling texture transition” – the fact that fcc materials may, depending on material parameters and rolling conditions, develop two different types of rolling textures, the copper-type texture and the brass......-type texture. However, since there is by now reasonable agreement about the description of and the explanation for the development of the copper-type texture (though not about all the details), we have chosen to focus on the brass-type texture for which there is no such general agreement. First we introduce...... of the brass-type texture after the nineteen sixties covering texture measurements and microstructural investigations. The main observations are: (1) The brass-type texture deviates from the copper-type texture from an early stage of texture development. (2) Deformation twinning has a decisive effect...

  3. Colloidal aspects of texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.

    2010-01-01

    The perception of complex textures in food is strongly related to the way food is processed during eating, and is modulated by other basic characteristics, such as taste and aroma. An understanding at the colloidal level of the basic processes in the mouth is essential in order to link the

  4. Sensory memory and food texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19-60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment

  5. Colloidal aspects of texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Aken, van G.A.; Jongh, de H.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been given to the understanding of texture attributes that cannot directly be related to physical properties of food, such as creamy, crumbly and watery. The perception of these attributes is strongly related to the way the food is processed during food intake,

  6. The Science of Soil Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Off-road motorcycle racing and ATV riding. Gardening and fishing. What do these high-adrenaline and slower-paced pastimes have in common? Each requires soil, and the texture of that soil has an effect on all of them. In the inquiry-based lessons described here, students work both in the field or laboratory and in the classroom to collect soil…

  7. Color Textons for Texture Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Texton models have proven to be very discriminative for the recognition of grayvalue images taken from rough textures. To further improve the discriminative power of the distinctive texton models of Varma and Zisserman (VZ model) (IJCV, vol. 62(1), pp. 61-81, 2005), we propose two schemes to exploit

  8. Effect of microalgae incorporation on physicochemical and textural properties in wheat bread formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Segovia, Purificación; Pagán-Moreno, María J; Lara, Irene F; Martínez-Monzó, Javier

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of different microalgae on physicochemical and textural properties of bread. Four species of microalgae Isochrysis galbana, Tetraselmis suecica, Scenedesmus almeriensis, and Nannochloropsis gaditana were used in this study. Properties such as water activity, pH, microbiological counts, viscosity, and color were analyzed to determine the effect of microalgae addition on sourdough. The technological quality of breads was analyzed in terms of physicochemical properties, color, texture profile, and porosity. The main effect of microalgae addition was changes in bread color, crust, and crumb that implies an increase of browning and an evolution to more green-yellow tonalities. The textural parameters of breads such as hardness, chewiness, and resilience are not modified by microalgae addition.

  9. [Safety in the Microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Alados, Juan Carlos; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez G; Leiva, José; Pérez, José L

    2015-01-01

    The normal activity in the laboratory of microbiology poses different risks - mainly biological - that can affect the health of their workers, visitors and the community. Routine health examinations (surveillance and prevention), individual awareness of self-protection, hazard identification and risk assessment of laboratory procedures, the adoption of appropriate containment measures, and the use of conscientious microbiological techniques allow laboratory to be a safe place, as records of laboratory-acquired infections and accidents show. Training and information are the cornerstones for designing a comprehensive safety plan for the laboratory. In this article, the basic concepts and the theoretical background on laboratory safety are reviewed, including the main legal regulations. Moreover, practical guidelines are presented for each laboratory to design its own safety plan according its own particular characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent advances in silage microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Muck

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in silage microbiology are reviewed. Most new techniques in silage microbiology use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR to make copies of a portion of the DNA in microorganisms. These techniques allow us to identify and quantify species as well as do community analysis. The PCR-based techniques are uncovering new species, both bacteria and fungi, during storage and feeding. Silage inoculants are widely available, but of greater interest has been research investigating why inoculants are so successful. Various inoculant strains have been found to produce bacteriocins and other compounds that inhibit other bacteria and fungi, improving their chances for success. In vitro ruminal fermentation research is showing that some inoculated silages affect rumen microorganisms, reducing methane in some cases and increasing microbial biomass production in others. Better understanding of silage microbiology will allow us to better manage silos and develop better inoculants to improve silage quality.

  11. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Feature-aware natural texture synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Fuzhang

    2014-12-04

    This article presents a framework for natural texture synthesis and processing. This framework is motivated by the observation that given examples captured in natural scene, texture synthesis addresses a critical problem, namely, that synthesis quality can be affected adversely if the texture elements in an example display spatially varied patterns, such as perspective distortion, the composition of different sub-textures, and variations in global color pattern as a result of complex illumination. This issue is common in natural textures and is a fundamental challenge for previously developed methods. Thus, we address it from a feature point of view and propose a feature-aware approach to synthesize natural textures. The synthesis process is guided by a feature map that represents the visual characteristics of the input texture. Moreover, we present a novel adaptive initialization algorithm that can effectively avoid the repeat and verbatim copying artifacts. Our approach improves texture synthesis in many images that cannot be handled effectively with traditional technologies.

  13. Evaluation of Texture of Packhams Pears

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Marques, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The textural parameters, together with appearance and flavor, are sensory attributes of great importance for the product to be accepted by the consumer. The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the textural attributes of Packhams pears in the fresh state, after drying in a chamber with forced convection at 50ºC, lyophilized and re-hydrated. In texture analysis it was used the method of Texture Profile Analysis (TPA). The par...

  14. Invariant texture segmentation via circular gabor filter

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Jianguo; Tan, Tieniu

    2002-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we focus on invariant texture segmentation, and propose a new method using circular Gabor filters (CGF) for rotation invariant texture segmentation. The traditional Gabor function is modified into a circular symmetric version. The rotation invariant texture features are achieved via the channel output of the CGF. A new scheme of the selection of Gabor parameters is also proposed for texture segmentation. Experiments show the efficacy of this method

  15. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  16. Microbiology Learning and Education Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Niño, Silvia M

    2016-05-01

    The ubiquity of devices that connect to the Internet has exploded, allowing for easy dissemination of information. Many teachers from kindergarten to universities use the information obtained online or post material they want their students to access. Online media readily places articles, books, videos, and games at our fingertips. The public in general also gathers health information from the Internet. The following review will explore what has been published regarding microbiology education and learning online and the use of electronic media by microbiologists for scientific purposes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Kinetic Modeling of Microbiological Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chongxuan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fang, Yilin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-08-26

    Kinetic description of microbiological processes is vital for the design and control of microbe-based biotechnologies such as waste water treatment, petroleum oil recovery, and contaminant attenuation and remediation. Various models have been proposed to describe microbiological processes. This editorial article discusses the advantages and limiation of these modeling approaches in cluding tranditional, Monod-type models and derivatives, and recently developed constraint-based approaches. The article also offers the future direction of modeling researches that best suit for petroleum and environmental biotechnologies.

  18. Convergence in graded ditopological texture spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Ekmekçi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Graded ditopological texture spaces have been presented and discussed in categorical aspects by Lawrence M. Brown and Alexander Sostak (see bibliography. In this paper, the authors generalize the structure of difilters in ditopological texture spaces defined in (see bibliography to the graded ditopological texture spaces and compare the properties of difilters and graded difilters.

  19. Texture Control: Theoretical and Practical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Gangli, P.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of controlling the rolling texture by simple modifications to the rolling process is investigated. It is demonstrated that the computer programs developed for simulation of the normal rolling textures can also satisfactorily predict textures formed under new rolling conditions...

  20. Roughness vs. contrast in natural textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Egmond, R.; De Ridder, H.; Pappas, T.N.; Silva, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of contrast enhancement on the subjective roughness of visual textures. Our analysis is based on subjective experiments with seventeen images from the CUReT database in three variants: original, synthesized textures, and contrast-enhanced synthesized textures. In Experiment

  1. Modeling Human Aesthetic Perception of Visual Textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumfart, Stefan; Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Lughofer, Edwin; Eitzinger, Christian; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Groissboeck, Werner; Richter, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Texture is extensively used in areas such as product design and architecture to convey specific aesthetic information. Using the results of a psychological experiment, we model the relationship between computational texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures. Contrary to previous

  2. Texture analysis using Renyi's generalized entropies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, SE; Petkov, N

    2003-01-01

    We propose a texture analysis method based on Renyi's generalized entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The

  3. Evaluation of color representation for texture analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; van den Broek, Egon; van Rikxoort, E.M.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.

    2004-01-01

    Since more than 50 years texture in image material is a topic of research. Hereby, color was ignored mostly. This study compares 70 different configurations for texture analysis, using four features. For the configurations we used: (i) a gray value texture descriptor: the co-occurrence matrix and a

  4. Gallium antimonide texturing for enhanced light extraction from infrared optoelectronics devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Wassweiler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of gallium antimonide (GaSb is increasing, especially for optoelectronic devices in the infrared wavelengths. It has been demonstrated in gallium nitride (GaN devices operating at ultraviolet (UV wavelengths, that surface textures increase the overall device efficiency. In this work, we fabricated eight different surface textures in GaSb to be used in enhancing efficiency in infrared wavelength devices. Through chemical etching with hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and tartaric acid we characterize the types of surface textures formed and the removal rate of entire layers of GaSb. Through optimization of the etching recipes we lower the reflectivity from 35.7% to 1% at 4 μm wavelength for bare and textured GaSb, respectively. In addition, we simulate surface textures using ray optics in finite element method solver software to provide explanation of our experimental findings.

  5. [The modern microbiology in the clinical managing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal Román, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The tuberculosis is one of the most important and mortal diseases of the world. The microbiological confirmatory diagnosis and the microbiological therapeutic orientation are fundamental nowadays in the tuberculosis in AIDS and in the Resistant tuberculosis. They are described throughout the time by the classic Microbiology: From 1882 to final 20th century (130 years). With the modern current Microbiology: In the beginning of the 21st century (20-30 years). And as will be done with the future Microbiology: From the years 2020-30. The important advances are outlined in the modern and future clinical microbiology, for the control of the Tuberculosis.

  6. Modern industrial microbiology and biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okafor, Nduka

    2007-01-01

    ... and cells, site-directed mutation and metabolic engineering. Simultaneously, microbiology has addressed itself to some current problems such as the fight against cancer by the production of anti-tumor antibiotics; it has changed the traditional practice in a number of areas: for example the deep sea has now joined the soil as the medium for the search for ...

  7. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  8. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given......, and also assist industry in their ambition to design innovative yet safe foods for consumers....

  9. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  10. Microbiology as if Bird Watching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Microbiology as if Bird Watching. Milind G Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 78-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0078-0081. Author Affiliations.

  11. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria,mesophilic aerobes bacteria and microscopic filamentous fungi were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremeš and Venčekcake. For microbiological tests 20 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 3.29 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobes bacteria ranged from 1.86 to 2.85 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0to 2.06CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 1.13 to 1.96CFU.g-1. The samples of cake prom private production showed better microbiological quality as samples from market production. All investigated samples of confectionary products were inaccordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

  12. Evaluation of the effect of initial texture on the development of deformation texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe a computer procedure which allows them to introduce experimental initial textures as starting conditions for texture simulation (instead of a theoretical random texture). They apply the procedure on two batches of copper with weak initial textures and on fine-grained and coar......, there are differences between the simulated and the experimental aluminium textures that can only be explained as a grain-size effect. Possible future applications of the procedure are discussed...

  13. Watermarking textures in video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.

  14. Electromagnetic induction for mapping textural contrasts of mine tailing deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Grey S.; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B.; Heinse, Robert; Meding, Mercer S.

    2013-02-01

    Mine tailings present an important legacy of past and present ore-extraction activities in the Desert Southwest. Inactive mine tailings have no immediate economic role in current mining operations, yet from an environmental point of view it is important that such deposits are stabilized to prevent mass movement, wind or water erosion, leaching of chemicals such as acid mine drainage, and to reduce visual blight. In the presented study, we assess the potential for inferring textural properties of mine tailing deposits with electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping as a means of informing efforts to establish vegetation at mine waste sites. EMI measurements of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) and tailing samples were collected at a mine waste site in Southern Arizona, USA and used to test empirical and theoretical relationships between ECa and physical and mineralogical properties using linear and Gaussian process regression. Sensitivity analyses of a semi-theoretical and a regression model of ECa as a function of tailing properties indicated that volumetric clay fraction in the top 60 cm was a primary influence on bulk electrical conductivity along with water content, conductivity of the soil water and the presence of conductive minerals hematite and pyrite. At this site, latitude and longitude were better predictors of clay content than ECa, and while it was possible to obtain information about the spatial distribution of tailing texture using EMI, simple Kriging of texture data was a more powerful textural mapping technique. We conclude that EMI is a useful tool for mapping tailing texture at waste deposit sites, but due to physical and chemical heterogeneity of tailing deposits, it is necessary to collect more in situ samples than are needed for agricultural applications.

  15. Biotechnology and microbiology of coal degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakoussa, R.M. [Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie and Biotechnologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Hofrichter, M. [Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie, Friedrich Schiller-Univ. Jena, Jena (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    For several years it has been known that fungi and bacteria can attack and even liquefy low rank coals. This review covers the progress in coal biotechnology and microbiology, mainly during the last decade, from describing the first effects to elucidating the mechanisms used by the microorganisms. More than one mechanism is responsible for microbial coal degradation/liquefaction: oxidative enzymes (peroxidases, laccases), hydrolytic enzymes (esterases), alkaline metabolites and natural chelators. Due to the heterogeneous structure of coal, which is described in one section, and for economic reasons the review focuses on the enzymatic depolymerization of brown coal. Approaches which seem not so promising are discussed (anaerobic, reductive pathways, chemical pretreatment). Finally the possible applications and products in this field are summarized, as lignite with a worldwide production of about 940 million tons a year will continue to play an important economic role in the future. (orig.)

  16. Microbiological Corrosion in Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Medina–Custodio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism . The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical techniques for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days we restudied. Polarization resistance (Rp and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques we re applied to determine the corrosivity of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic system, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surfaces coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans – Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect.

  17. Random phase textures: theory and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerne, Bruno; Gousseau, Yann; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the mathematical and algorithmic properties of two sample-based texture models: random phase noise (RPN) and asymptotic discrete spot noise (ADSN). These models permit to synthesize random phase textures. They arguably derive from linearized versions of two early Julesz texture discrimination theories. The ensuing mathematical analysis shows that, contrarily to some statements in the literature, RPN and ADSN are different stochastic processes. Nevertheless, numerous experiments also suggest that the textures obtained by these algorithms from identical samples are perceptually similar. The relevance of this study is enhanced by three technical contributions providing solutions to obstacles that prevented the use of RPN or ADSN to emulate textures. First, RPN and ADSN algorithms are extended to color images. Second, a preprocessing is proposed to avoid artifacts due to the nonperiodicity of real-world texture samples. Finally, the method is extended to synthesize textures with arbitrary size from a given sample.

  18. Texture Classification for 3D Urban Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inatsuka Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to control texture resolution for rendering large-scale 3D urban maps. Since on the 3D maps texture data generally tend to be far larger than geometry information such as vertices and triangles, it is more effective to reduce the texture by exploiting the LOD (Level of Detail in order to decrease whole data size. For this purpose, we propose a new method to control the resolution of the texture. In our method we classify the textures to four classes based on their salient features. The appropriate texture resolutions are decided based on the classification resulsts, their rendered sizes on a display, and their level of importance. We verify the validity of our texture classification algorithm by applying it to the large-scale 3D urban map rendering.

  19. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology is an open access journal, published 3 times per annum. It includes original research papers covering all aspects of Medical Microbiology – Bacteriology, Virology, Rickettsiology, Chlamydiology, Mycology, Mycobacteriology, and Actinomycetales, Parasitology, ...

  1. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEJMI) publishes research in all fields of Microbiology. The journal welcomes papers focusing on microbiological and/or immunological studies from medical or pharmaceutical perspectives. Research on bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, algae ...

  2. Full analysis of feldspar texture and crystal structure by combining X-ray and electron techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Piazolo, Sandra; Katerinopoulou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Feldspar crystals typically show a range of exsolution and polysynthetic twinning textures that can present problems for their full characterization, but at the same time give important information about their genesis. We present an integrated procedure for the micro-texture analysis, twin law...... and concluding quantitative phase analysis. Electron microprobe analysis was used to bracket the chemical compositions of the constituents. Electron backscatter diffraction was used to reveal the texture of the samples, twin laws and spatial distribution and crystallographic orientation of the crystal domains...

  3. Interactions between soil texture, water, and nutrients control patterns of biocrusts abundance and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristina; Bowker, Matthew; Reed, Sasha; Howell, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Heterogeneity in the abiotic environment structures biotic communities by controlling niche space and parameters. This has been widely observed and demonstrated in vascular plant and other aboveground communities. While soil organisms are presumably also strongly influenced by the physical and chemical dimensions of the edaphic environment, there are fewer studies linking the development, structure, productivity or function of surface soil communities to specific edaphic gradients. Here, we use biological soil crusts (biocrusts) as a model system to determine mechanisms regulating community structure of soil organisms. We chose soil texture to serve as an edaphic gradient because of soil texture's influence over biocrust distribution on a landscape level. We experimentally manipulated texture in constructed soil, and simultaneously manipulated two main outcomes of texture, water and nutrient availability, to determine the mechanism underlying texture's influence on biocrust abundance and structure. We grew biocrust communities from a field-sourced inoculum on four different soil textures, sieved from the same parent soil material, manipulating watering levels and nutrient additions across soil textures in a full-factorial design over a 5-month period of time. We measured abundance and structure of biocrusts over time, and measured two metrics of function, N2 fixation rates and soil stabilization, at the conclusion of the experiment. Our results showed finer soil textures resulted in faster biocrust community development and dominance by mosses, whereas coarser textures grew more slowly and had biocrust communities dominated by cyanobacteria and lichen. Additionally, coarser textured soils contained cyanobacterial filaments significantly deeper into the soil profile than fine textured soils. N2-fixation values increased with increasing moss cover and decreased with increasing cyanobacterial cover, however, the rate of change depended on soil texture and water amount

  4. Textural characteristics of fresh and frozen meat chicken and turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Momchilovа

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the structural characteristics of the texture of chilled and frozen meat of chickens and turkeys. The object of the study were chicken and turkey breast and legs frozen and refrigerated. Research was carried out using two methods - the analysis of the profile of texture (TPA and shear Warner-Bratzler (WB. The total chemical composition determined by methods: total protein - Kjeldahl, carbohydrates, fats and total ash down in the relevant known methods. Samples have similar protein containing identical anatomical sites, have some differences in the content of fat and minerals. The results show that the water content of the turkey breasts and legs lower than with the chicken at about equal protein content. According to analysis of variance (ANOVA, a statistical difference was observed between the shear forces of refrigerated and frozen chicken legs, but no significant differences in the results of the shear characteristics of the refrigerated and frozen chicken breast samples were detected. Parameters produced by Warner-Bratzler correlates well with the characteristics of strength, hardness and wiry, obtained by texture profile analysis. The results indicate that the test samples have different textural characteristics depending on the type of meat and the thermal state. Methods of Warner-Bratzler and ATP method in combination with others, may be used to determine in which the thermal state (chilled or frozen were meat turkey and chicken.

  5. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Aims and scope. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology is the official Journal of African Society for Clinical Microbiology. It publishes original research papers in all aspects of Medical Microbiology, including Bacteriology, Virology Rickettsiology and Chlamydiology, Mycology, ...

  6. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology...

  7. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes of...

  8. Aesthetic Perception of Visual Textures: A Holistic Exploration using Texture Analysis, Psychological Experiment and Perception Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and nonlinear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  9. Aesthetic perception of visual textures: a holistic exploration using texture analysis, psychological experiment, and perception modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianli; Lughofer, Edwin; Zeng, Xianyi

    2015-01-01

    Modeling human aesthetic perception of visual textures is important and valuable in numerous industrial domains, such as product design, architectural design, and decoration. Based on results from a semantic differential rating experiment, we modeled the relationship between low-level basic texture features and aesthetic properties involved in human aesthetic texture perception. First, we compute basic texture features from textural images using four classical methods. These features are neutral, objective, and independent of the socio-cultural context of the visual textures. Then, we conduct a semantic differential rating experiment to collect from evaluators their aesthetic perceptions of selected textural stimuli. In semantic differential rating experiment, eights pairs of aesthetic properties are chosen, which are strongly related to the socio-cultural context of the selected textures and to human emotions. They are easily understood and connected to everyday life. We propose a hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception and assign 8 pairs of aesthetic properties to different layers. Finally, we describe the generation of multiple linear and non-linear regression models for aesthetic prediction by taking dimensionality-reduced texture features and aesthetic properties of visual textures as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the relationships between each layer and its neighbors in the hierarchical feed-forward layer model of aesthetic texture perception can be fitted well by linear functions, and the models thus generated can successfully bridge the gap between computational texture features and aesthetic texture properties.

  10. Microbiological testing of Skylab foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Mcqueen, J. L.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers , E. M.; Bourland, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the unique food microbiology problems and problem-generating circumstances the Skylab manned space flight program involves. The situations these problems arise from include: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or change foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of food as an accurately controlled part in a set of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations produced the need for definite microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described along with the rationale for their selection. Reported test results show good compliance with the test limits.

  11. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  12. International Journal of Food Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Isabella M. M.; Almeida, Rogeria Comastri de Castro; Alves, M. A. O.; Almeida, Paulo Fernando de

    2002-01-01

    Texto completo. Acesso restrito. p. 241– 248 Critical control points (CCPs) associated with Minas Frescal cheese (a Brazilian soft white cheese, eaten fresh) processing in two dairy factories were determined using flow diagrams and microbiological tests for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other species of Listeria. A total of 218 samples were collected along the production line and environment. The CCPs identified were reception of raw milk, pasteurization, coagulation and...

  13. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da

  14. FCC Rolling Textures Reviewed in the Light of Quantitative Comparisons between Simulated and Experimental Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbanowski, Krzysztof; Wroński, Marcin; Leffers, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The crystallographic texture of metallic materials has a very strong effect on the properties of the materials. In the present article, we look at the rolling textures of fcc metals and alloys, where the classical problem is the existence of two different types of texture, the "copper-type texture...... of the copper-type texture is best simulated with {111} slip combined with type CL/PR lattice rotation and relatively strong interaction between the grains-but not with the full-constraint Taylor model and neither with the classical relaxed-constraint models. The development of the brass-type texture is best...

  15. Improved Oxygen-Beam Texturing of Glucose-Monitoring Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.

    2006-01-01

    An improved method has been devised for using directed, hyperthermal beams of oxygen atoms and ions to impart desired textures to the tips of polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA] optical fibers to be used in monitoring the glucose content of blood. The improved method incorporates, but goes beyond, the method described in Texturing Blood-Glucose- Monitoring Optics Using Oxygen Beams (LEW-17642-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 11a. The basic principle of operation of such a glucose-monitoring sensor is as follows: The textured surface of the optical fiber is coated with chemicals that interact with glucose in such a manner as to change the reflectance of the surface. Light is sent down the optical fiber and is reflected from, the textured surface. The resulting change in reflectance of the light is measured as an indication of the concentration of glucose. The required texture on the ends of the optical fibers is a landscape of microscopic cones or pillars having high aspect ratios (microscopic structures being taller than they are wide). The average distance between hills must be no more than about 5 mso that blood cells (which are wider) cannot enter the valleys between the hills, where they would interfere with optical sensing of glucose in the blood plasma. On the other hand, the plasma is required to enter the valleys, and high aspect ratio structures are needed to maximize the surface area in contact with the plasma, thereby making it possible to obtain a given level of optical glucose-measurement sensitivity with a relatively small volume of blood. There is an additional requirement that the hills be wide enough that a sufficient amount of light can propagate into them and, after reflection, can propagate out of them. The method described in the cited prior article produces a texture comprising cones and pillars that conform to the average-distance and aspect-ratio requirements. However, a significant fraction of the cones and pillars are so

  16. On Texture and Geometry in Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, David Karl John

    2009-01-01

    Images are composed of geometric structure and texture. Large scale structures are considered to be the geometric structure, while small scale details are considered to be the texture. In this dissertation, we will argue that the most important difference between geometric structure and texture...... is not the scale - instead, it is the requirement on representation or reconstruction. Geometric structure must be reconstructed exactly and can be represented sparsely. Texture does not need to be reconstructed exactly, a random sample from the distribution being sufficient. Furthermore, texture can...... not be represented sparsely. In image inpainting, the image content is missing in a region and should be reconstructed using information from the rest of the image. The main challenges in inpainting are: prolonging and connecting geometric structure and reproducing the variation found in texture. The Filter, Random...

  17. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations....... In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as "beating" in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture...... model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures-stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures...

  18. Integrated active contours for texture segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, Chen; Sochen, Nir A; Zeevi, Yehoshua Y

    2006-06-01

    We address the issue of textured image segmentation in the context of the Gabor feature space of images. Gabor filters tuned to a set of orientations, scales and frequencies are applied to the images to create the Gabor feature space. A two-dimensional Riemannian manifold of local features is extracted via the Beltrami framework. The metric of this surface provides a good indicator of texture changes and is used, therefore, in a Beltrami-based diffusion mechanism and in a geodesic active contours algorithm for texture segmentation. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of the edgeless active contours algorithm applied for texture segmentation. Moreover, an integrated approach, extending the geodesic and edgeless active contours approaches to texture segmentation, is presented. We show that combining boundary and region information yields more robust and accurate texture segmentation results.

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WARANKASHI ENRICHED BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Dudu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the microbiological and nutritional quality, organoleptic, rheological and textural effect as well as the effect on the shelf life of wheat bread enriched with West African cottage cheese (warankashi at different substitution levels (1 %, 3 % and 5 %. The protein and fat content of wheat bread significantly increased but carbohydrate levels decreased significantly as enrichment with Warankashi increased. The amino acid profile of the wheat bread increased with increasing enrichment. The incorporation of Warankashi into wheat flour affected the rheological and textural properties of wheat flour; the rate of water absorption of the wheat flour decreased as Warankashi incorporation levels increased. Also, the dough stability time of the enriched flours was lesser than that of the wheat flour. The 3 % enrichment level had the highest dough consistency (520 BU. The extensibility of 1 % and 3 % wara bread dough were the same while that of wheat flour bread and 5 % Warankashi were the same. The 3 % wara bread dough had the highest resistance to extension. Shelf life of the bread remained unaffected by Warankashi incorporation but the rate of bacteria and fungi (yeast and mould growth decreased significantly (P < 0.05 as enrichment levels increased. There was no significant difference between the organoleptic properties of wheat bread to that of the enriched breads but the 3 % Warankshi enriched bread had the highest consumer acceptability.

  20. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  1. Phenomenological Analysis of Hybrid Textures of Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Dev, S.; Verma, Surender; Gupta, Shivani

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive phenomenological analysis of the allowed hybrid textures of neutrinos. Out of a total of sixty hybrid textures with one equality between the elements of neutrino mass matrix and one texture zero only twenty three are found to be viable at 99% C.L. whereas the earlier analysis found fifty four to be viable. We examine the phenomenological implications of the allowed hybrid textures including Majorana type CP-violating phases, 1-3 mixing angle and Dirac type CP-violat...

  2. Geometric Total Variation for Texture Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bespalov, Dmitriy; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Shokoufandeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel variational method that we intend to use for estimating non-rigid texture deformation. The method is able to capture variation in grayscale images with respect to the geometry of its features. Our experimental evaluations demonstrate that accounting for geometry...... of features in texture images leads to significant improvements in localization of these features, when textures undergo geometrical transformations. Accurate localization of features in the presense of unkown deformations is a crucial property for texture characterization methods, and we intend to expoit...

  3. Shifted laser surface texturing for bearings applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdková, Š.; Šperka, P.; Repka, M.; Martan, J.; Moskal, D.

    2017-05-01

    The laser surface texturing (LST) technologies, based on creation of micro-pattern with pre-defined geometry can positively influence both the friction and wear of tribo-elements. In practice, the integration of LST technology is often limited due to its slowness. The new method, so called shifted laser surface texturing (sLST) with increased process speed was developed to make the technology more attractive for the industrial application. In the paper, the texture created by sLST technology was applied onto the steel samples and Al-Sn-Si surface of sliding bearings. Both block-on-ring (ASTM G-77) laboratory tests of steel samples and high-loaded working application tests on Al-Sn-Si bearings surface were carried out to evaluate the influence of texture on tribological behaviour. The ASTM G-77 laboratory tests showed a positive effect of the texture on friction behaviour. Under the high-loaded testing conditions, the positive effect was observed in initial stages of the tests, decreasing the torque of textured bearings compared to the untreated one. Lately, the texture was worn out and have no influence on the overall wear of the bearings. Based on the above mentioned observations, the use of alternative bearing material with higher hardness or application of protective layer over the created texture was suggested to exploit the texture benefits.

  4. Microbial Biotechnology 2020; microbiology of fossil fuel resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

    2016-09-01

    This roadmap examines the future of microbiology research and technology in fossil fuel energy recovery. Globally, the human population will be reliant on fossil fuels for energy and chemical feedstocks for at least the medium term. Microbiology is already important in many areas relevant to both upstream and downstream activities in the oil industry. However, the discipline has struggled for recognition in a world dominated by geophysicists and engineers despite widely known but still poorly understood microbially mediated processes e.g. reservoir biodegradation, reservoir souring and control, microbial enhanced oil recovery. The role of microbiology is even less understood in developing industries such as shale gas recovery by fracking or carbon capture by geological storage. In the future, innovative biotechnologies may offer new routes to reduced emissions pathways especially when applied to the vast unconventional heavy oil resources formed, paradoxically, from microbial activities in the geological past. However, despite this potential, recent low oil prices may make industry funding hard to come by and recruitment of microbiologists by the oil and gas industry may not be a high priority. With regards to public funded research and the imperative for cheap secure energy for economic growth in a growing world population, there are signs of inherent conflicts between policies aimed at a low carbon future using renewable technologies and policies which encourage technologies which maximize recovery from our conventional and unconventional fossil fuel assets. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Qualidade microbiológica e físico-química de sucos de laranja comercializados nas vias públicas de Porto Alegre/RS Microbiological and physical-chemical quality of orange juices commercialised in public streets of Porto Alegre city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla K. RUSCHEL

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O comércio de sucos de laranja não pasteurizados vem aumentando nos últimos anos na cidade de Porto Alegre/RS. Com o intuito de avaliar a qualidade desses produtos, análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas foram realizadas em 52 amostras de sucos de laranja comercializados nas vias públicas de Porto Alegre. As análises microbiológicas demonstraram 44,23% (n=23 das amostras, em desacordo com os padrões estabelecidos pela Legislação Federal vigente, sendo os bolores e leveduras encontrados em níveis inapropriados em todas as amostras reprovadas. Coliformes fecais foram encontrados acima das quantidades permitidas em 5,7% (n=3 das amostras e Salmonella cholerasuis foi identificada em uma das amostras analisadas. As análises físico-químicas apresentaram 89,47% das amostras em desacordo com pelo menos um dos parâmetros analisados. Com base nestes resultados, sugerem-se maiores cuidados nas boas práticas de fabricação (BPF, principalmente na higiene pessoal de manipuladores e sanificação de máquinas extratoras.The commercialisation of nonpasteurized orange juice has been increased in recent years in Porto Alegre city, in South Brazil. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the quality of this product. Physical-chemical and microbiological analyses were performed in 52 samples of orange juice purchased in the streets of Porto Alegre city. The microbiological analysis demonstrated that 44,23% (n=23 of the samples did not agree with Federal Regulations. All the reproved samples presented inappropriate levels of molds and yeasts. Fecal coliforms were found in 5,7% (n=3 of the samples, while Salmonella Cholerasuis was isolated from one sample. The physical-chemical analysis demonstrated that 89,47% of the samples were in discordance with parameters established by Federal Regulations. Based on the results, good manufacturing practices (GMP, specially on personnel hygienic habits, and equipment sanitization are necessary.

  6. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration;Efeitos do processamento termico e da radiacao gama na estabilidade fisico-quimica, microbiologica e sensorial de caldo de cana puro e adicionado de suco de frutas, armazenado sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-07-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the

  7. TEXTURAL AND ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF IRISH POTATOES: I. Textural Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas R; Ahmed, Esam M

    1971-12-01

    Steam-peeled unprocessed potatoes showed the least hardness, gumminess, and resistance to shear or to compression forces in comparison to those peeled by lye or by abrasion. Fracturability values were greater than hardness values for the unprocessed potatoes, while the reverse was true for processed potatoes. Processed lye-peeled potatoes showed the greatest amount of cohesiveness and gumminess, and required the largest forces to shear or compress. The peeling method had no observed effect on adhesiveness values of processed potatoes. Texture profile parameters as well as resistance to shear or compression forces, and sensory hardness ratings increased during storage of processed potatoes. Steam and lye-peeled potatoes were more preferred organoleptically than abrasion-peeled potatoes.

  8. Domain structure and electrical properties of highly textured PbZr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O{sub 3} thin films grown on LaNiO{sub 3}-electrode-buffered Si by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Yen, B. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Kuo, H. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Chen, Haydn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wu, T. B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China (China); Stillman, G. E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of highly (100) textured fine-grain (lateral grain size congruent with 0.1 to 0.15 {mu}m) PbZr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O{sub 3} (PZT) (x=0 to 0.7) were grown on conductive perovskite LaNiO{sub 3}-buffered platinized Si substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Domain configuration and crystalline orientation were studied using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The predominant domain boundaries of Ti-rich tetragonal-phase PZT and Zr-rich rhombohedral-phase PZT were found to be on the (110) planes and (100) planes, respectively. The equilibrium domain widths were observed and estimated numerically on the basis of transformation strain, grain size, and domain boundary energy. The peak value of the dielectric constant was 790 near the morphotropic boundary. Hysteresis behavior of these PZT thin films was demonstrated. A decrease in coercive field with the increment of Zr content was found; this variation was attributed to domain density and the multiplicity of polarization axes. Furthermore, the low leakage current (J{<=}5x10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} at V=4 V) was observed for all samples, and the involvement of several possible conduction mechanisms was suggested. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society.

  9. Beyond fourth-order texture discrimination: generation of extreme-order and statistically-balanced textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christopher W

    2004-01-01

    Julesz introduced the concept of statistically defined textures and their perceptual discrimination. Julesz showed that discrimination was possible with statistics equated to third-order, specifying fourth-order textures. Klein and Tyler offered a variety of paradigms suggesting that fourth order might be the limit on human texture processing. To go beyond this limit, new texture paradigms are now introduced to avoid contamination by luminance extrema, to control local and long-range texture properties, and to provide textures without global statistical structure. Local luminance contamination is avoided by novel orientation plaids, in which higher-order rules govern the orientation of local elements rather than their coloring. These textures allow evaluation of texture discrimination up to thirty-second order by cortical pattern elements. Long-range processing is studied by random strip rotation and by interlacing of independent textures. Each substantially degrades the visibility of the fourth-order textures, revealing that the fourth-order information is conveyed largely by local rather than long-range perturbations from random statistics. Finally, textures equated at all orders can be defined in terms of their global statistics, but may nevertheless readily be discriminated in human vision. The discrimination on the basis of local perturbations implies that human vision assesses textures through a local sampling window, and is largely insensitive to longer-range statistical properties.

  10. Contrast-negation and texture synthesis differentially disrupt natural texture appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Balas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural textures have characteristic image statistics that make them discriminable from unnatural textures. For example, both contrast-negation and texture synthesis alter the appearance of natural textures even though each manipulation preserves some features while disrupting others. Here, we examined the extent to which contrast-negation and texture synthesis each introduce or remove critical perceptual features for discriminating unnatural textures from natural textures. We find that both manipulations remove information that observers use for distinguishing natural textures from transformed versions of the same patterns, but do so in different ways. Texture synthesis removes information that is relevant for discrimination in both abstract patterns and ecologically valid textures, and we also observe a category-dependent asymmetry for identifying an oddball real texture among synthetic distractors. Contrast negation exhibits no such asymmetry, and also does not impact discrimination performance in abstract patterns. We discuss our results in the context of the visual system’s tuning to ecologically relevant patterns and other results describing sensitivity to higher-order statistics in texture patterns.

  11. Microbiological quality of Argentinian paprika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo González, María G; Romero, Stella M; Arjona, Mila; Larumbe, Ada G; Vaamonde, Graciela

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of paprika produced in Catamarca, Argentina. Microbiological analyses were carried out for the enumeration of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and molds, and the detection of Salmonella in samples obtained from different local producers during three consecutive years. The mycobiota was identified paying special attention to the mycotoxigenic molds. Standard plate counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 2.7×10 5 to 3.7×10 7 CFU/g. Coliform counts ranged from <10 to 8.1×10 4 CFU/g. Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples tested. Fungal counts (including yeasts and molds) ranged between 2×10 2 and 1.9×10 5 CFU/g. These results showed a high level of microbial contamination, exceeding in several samples the maximum limits set in international food regulations. The study of the mycobiota demonstrated that Aspergillus was the predominant genus and Aspergillus niger (potential producer of ochratoxin A) the most frequently isolated species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (potential producer of aflatoxins). Other species of potential toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus westerdijkiae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium expansum and Alternaria tenuissima species group were encountered as part of the mycobiota of the paprika samples indicating a risk of mycotoxin contamination. A. westerdijkiae was isolated for the first time in Argentina. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  13. Effect of air-jet texturing on adhesion behaviour of polyester yarns to rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Serpil Koral [Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Textile Engineering Department, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)], E-mail: skoral@uludag.edu.tr; Hockenberger, Asli Sengonul [Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Textile Engineering Department, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Wei Qufu [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry Of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2008-08-30

    Air-jet texturing of conventional poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) yarns, having the same chemical structure with high modulus and tenacity PET yarns, are studied in order to improve their adhesion to rubber. Air-jet texturing of these yarns is performed without any visible loop formation in order to minimize the mechanical loss, and an improvement in the adhesion to rubber of conventional PET yarns is achieved. This improvement is investigated by means of surface changes of single filaments and yarn geometry changes due to air-jet texturing. Changes of the cross-sectional structure of the yarns after air-jet texturing and therefore a higher surface area is found to be the main reason for this improvement.

  14. Mechanical seal with textured sidewall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Xiao, Nian

    2017-02-14

    The present invention discloses a mating ring, a primary ring, and associated mechanical seal having superior heat transfer and wear characteristics. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, one or more dimples are formed onto the cylindrical outer surface of a mating ring sidewall and/or a primary ring sidewall. A stationary mating ring for a mechanical seal assembly is disclosed. Such a mating ring comprises an annular body having a central axis and a sealing face, wherein a plurality of dimples are formed into the outer circumferential surface of the annular body such that the exposed circumferential surface area of the annular body is increased. The texture added to the sidewall of the mating ring yields superior heat transfer and wear characteristics.

  15. Texturing formulations for uranium skin decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhomme-Henry, Corinne; Phan, Guillaume; Huang, Nicolas; Bouvier, Céline; Rebière, François; Agarande, Michelle; Fattal, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Since no specific treatment exists in case of cutaneous contamination by radionuclides such as uranium, a nanoemulsion comprising calixarene molecules, known for their good chelation properties, was previously designed. However, this fluid topical form may be not suitable for optimal application on the skin or wounds. To develop a texturing pharmaceutical form for the treatment of wounded skins contaminated by uranium. The formulations consisted in oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions, loaded with calixarene molecules. The external phase of the initial liquid nanoemulsion was modified with a combination of thermosensitive gelifying polymers: Poloxamer and HydroxyPropylMethylcellulose (HPMC) or methylcellulose (MC). These new formulations were characterized then tested by ex vivo experiments on Franz cells to prevent uranyl ions diffusion through excoriated pig ear skin explants. Despite strong changes in rheological properties, the physico-chemical characteristics of the new nanoemulsions, such as the size and the zeta potential as well as macroscopic aspect were preserved. In addition, on wounded skin, diffusion of uranyl ions, measured by ICP-MS, was limited to less than 5% for both HPMC and MC nanoemulsions. These results demonstrated that a hybrid formulation of nanoemulsion in hydrogel is efficient to treat uranium skin contamination.

  16. Texturing of polypropylene (PP) with nanosecond lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveiro, A., E-mail: ariveiro@uvigo.es [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E36310 (Spain); Soto, R.; Val, J. del [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E36310 (Spain); Comesaña, R. [Materials Eng., Applied Mech., and Construction Dpt., University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E36310 (Spain); Boutinguiza, M.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E36310 (Spain)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Surface properties of PP were modified with 1064, 532 and 355 nm laser wavelengths. • Samples coated with carbon particles due to large transmittance of PP (40–62%). • Studied laser wavelengths modify the roughness after coated with carbon particles. • Irradiated surfaces remain chemically unaltered. • Wettability more efficiently modified using the 1064 and 355 nm laser wavelengths. - Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) is a biocompatible and biostable polymer, showing good mechanical properties that has been recently introduced in the biomedical field for bone repairing applications; however, its poor surface properties due to its low surface energy limit their use in biomedical applications. In this work, we have studied the topographical modification of polypropylene (PP) laser textured with Nd:YVO{sub 4} nanosecond lasers emitting at λ = 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. First, optical response of this material under these laser wavelengths was determined. The application of an absorbing coating was also studied. The influence of the laser processing parameters on the surface modification of PP was investigated by means of statistically designed experiments. Processing maps to tailor the roughness, and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants, were also determined. Microhardness measurements were performed to discern the impact of laser treatment on the final mechanical properties of PP.

  17. Adaptive 4-8 Texture Hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwa, L M; Duchaineau, M A; Joy, K I

    2004-08-02

    We address the texture level-of-detail problem for extremely large surfaces such as terrain during real-time, view-dependent rendering. A novel texture hierarchy is introduced based on 4-8 refinement of raster tiles, in which the texture grids in effect rotate 45 degrees for each level of refinement. This hierarchy provides twice as many levels of detail as conventional quad-tree-style refinement schemes such as mipmaps, and thus provides per-pixel view-dependent filtering that is twice as close to the ideal cutoff frequency for an average pixel. Because of this more gradual change in low-pass filtering, and due to the more precise emulation of the ideal cutoff frequency, we find in practice that the transitions between texture levels of detail are not perceptible. This allows rendering systems to avoid the complexity and performance costs of per-pixel blending between texture levels of detail. The 4-8 texturing scheme is integrated into a variant of the Real-time Optimally Adapting Meshes (ROAM) algorithm for view-dependent multiresolution mesh generation. Improvements to ROAM included here are: the diamond data structure as a streamlined replacement for the triangle bintree elements, the use of low-pass-filtered geometry patches in place of individual triangles, integration of 4-8 textures, and a simple out-of-core data access mechanism for texture and geometry tiles.

  18. Cool Polar Bears: Dabbing on the Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jean

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her second-graders created their cool polar bears. The students used the elements of shape and texture to create the bears. They used Monet's technique of dabbing paint so as to give the bear some texture on his fur.

  19. A Noise Robust Statistical Texture Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the problem of obtaining a low dimensional representation of texture (pixel intensity) variation present in a training set after alignment using a Generalised Procrustes analysis.We extend the conventional analysis of training textures in the Active...

  20. On the origin of recrystallization textures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The development of recrystallization textures has been debated for the past 50 years. Essentially the rival theories of evolution of recrystallization textures i.e. oriented nucleation (ON) and oriented growth (OG) has been under dispute. In the ON model, it has been argued that a higher frequency of the special ...

  1. On texture formation of chromium electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Leisner, Peter; Horsewell, Andy

    1998-01-01

    The microstructure, texture and hardness of electrodeposited hard, direct current (DC) chromium and pulsed reversed chromium has been investigated. These investigations suggest that the growth and texture of hard chromium is controlled by inhibition processes and reactions. Further, it has been e...

  2. Friction tensor concept for textured surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Directionality of grinding marks influences the coefficient of friction during sliding. Depending on the sliding direction the coefficient of friction varies between maximum and minimum for textured surfaces. For random surfaces without any texture the friction coefficient becomes independent of the sliding direction. This paper ...

  3. Biogas Production: Microbiology and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnürer, Anna

    Biogas, containing energy-rich methane, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions. Under controlled conditions, this process can be used for the production of energy and a nutrient-rich residue suitable for use as a fertilising agent. The biogas can be used for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuel. Different substrates can be used in the process and, depending on substrate character, various reactor technologies are available. The microbiological process leading to methane production is complex and involves many different types of microorganisms, often operating in close relationships because of the limited amount of energy available for growth. The microbial community structure is shaped by the incoming material, but also by operating parameters such as process temperature. Factors leading to an imbalance in the microbial community can result in process instability or even complete process failure. To ensure stable operation, different key parameters, such as levels of degradation intermediates and gas quality, are often monitored. Despite the fact that the anaerobic digestion process has long been used for industrial production of biogas, many questions need still to be resolved to achieve optimal management and gas yields and to exploit the great energy and nutrient potential available in waste material. This chapter discusses the different aspects that need to be taken into consideration to achieve optimal degradation and gas production, with particular focus on operation management and microbiology.

  4. Hygienic and microbiological influences exerted on natural water biotopes by algae and the growth of water plants. 2. Communication: improvement of the chemical and bacteriological water quality by the natural growth of aquatic plants (author's transl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graef, W.; Kersch, D.; Pawlofsky, C.M.

    1981-12-01

    For a natural pond, whose waters are used for recreational purposes (swimming) and are subject to waste water inflow, the biological purifying function of a zone overgrown with reeds and aquatic plants was ascertained by means of chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters. In the years from 1975 to 1980 the contents of ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates and chlorides as well as the colony counts (CFU/ml), the coli titres and the content of fruiting myxobacteria were determined from water samples, both during the lush-growth summer period and the low-growth winter season. The location of the 6 sampling points systematically extended from the sewage outlet via the tributary ditch, in front of and behind the natural growth zone as far as the swimming waters. The test series showed - that in the tributary ditch and especially during the passage through the upper water zone densely overgrown with aquatic plants, the proportion of degradable nitrogen compounds and phosphates is distinctly reduced beyond the extent of reduction by dilution processes, - that the colony counts in the effluent water as well as the content of E. coli and of the fruiting myxobacteria, which act as indirect faecal indicator, are also reduced considerably, - that the biological purifying of the vegetation zone is definitely higher in summer than during the low-growth winter months. From this the conclusion can be drawn that for maintaining and furthering an adequate water quality of recreational waters compromised by waste water, the preservation of the naturally growing aquatic plants both in the water itself and on the banks is absolutely necessary.

  5. Bayesian exploration for intelligent identification of textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A. Fishel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to endow robots with humanlike abilities to characterize and identify objects, they must be provided with tactile sensors and intelligent algorithms to select, control and interpret data from useful exploratory movements. Humans make informed decisions on the sequence of exploratory movements that would yield the most information for the task, depending on what the object may be and prior knowledge of what to expect from possible exploratory movements. This study is focused on texture discrimination, a subset of a much larger group of exploratory movements and percepts that humans use to discriminate, characterize, and identify objects. Using a testbed equipped with a biologically inspired tactile sensor (the BioTac® we produced sliding movements similar to those that humans make when exploring textures. Measurement of tactile vibrations and reaction forces when exploring textures were used to extract measures of textural properties inspired from psychophysical literature (traction, roughness, and fineness. Different combinations of normal force and velocity were identified to be useful for each of these three properties. A total of 117 textures were explored with these three movements to create a database of prior experience to use for identifying these same textures in future encounters. When exploring a texture, the discrimination algorithm adaptively selects the optimal movement to make and property to measure based on previous experience to differentiate the texture from a set of plausible candidates, a process we call Bayesian exploration. Performance of 99.6% in correctly discriminating pairs of similar textures was found to exceed human capabilities. Absolute classification from the entire set of 117 textures generally required a small number of well-chosen exploratory movements (median=5 and yielded a 95.4% success rate. The method of Bayesian exploration developed and tested in this paper may generalize well to other

  6. Assessment of Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Apostu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological attributesover a period of 5 months for two products from the category of Seafood:calamari rings and seafood cocktail. Appreciation of the freshness of seafood was tested bydetermining pH, easily hydrolysable nitrogen, the reaction Eber / Nessler andreaction with hydrogen sulphide according to SR ISO 2917:2007, SR 9065-7:2007and SR 9065-7:2008. Theresults of microbiological determinations for batch 1 revealed an increase inthe number of sulphite-reducing clostridia than the maximum limit. Resultsobtained from physico-chemical determinations were within the maximumpermissible by data legislation. The food quality is influenced by non-hygienicconditions of storage, handling and marketing.

  7. Aspectos físicos químicos e microbiológicos da urina de matrizes suínas descartadas Physical - chemical and microbiologic aspects from the urine of culled sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiani Nascimento Gagno Pôrto

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou descrever as alterações físico-químicas da urina, identificando os agentes etiológicos presentes na urina de matrizes descartadas sem causa definida. De 35 amostras examinadas, 16 (45,7% foram positivas para presença de sangue e/ou nitrito (positivo para infecção urinária, IU; 8 (50% tiveram coloração amarela escura e 6 (37,5% coloração amarela clara; 2 (12,5% amostras não apresentavam alteração. Dez amostras tinham odor amoniacal, das quais 7 foram positivas para IU. Também houve prevalência de urinas turvas e turvas com grumos, bem como de pH normal (5,5 - 6,5 e densidades maiores que 1,012. Presença de microrganismos foi verificada em 91,5% das 35 amostras examinadas, sendo a Escherichia coli (45,7%, a bactéria com maior prevalência. Em 11 amostras (31,4%, verificou-se a presença de Actinobaculum suis; destas, 4 foram simultaneamente positivas para IU e Actinobaculum suis; 7 foram negativas para IU, observando-se porém, a presença de Actinobaculum suis pelo exame de imunofluorescência indireta.The present study describes the physical-chemical alterations of the urine and identifies etiological agents of the urine of 35 sows. Out of 35 samples, 16 (45.7% were positive for nitrite and/or blood, positive for urinary infection (UI; eight (50% were dark yellow and six (37.5% had clear yellow coloration; in two (12.5% samples did not show any alteration. Ten samples had ammonia smell, seven among them were positive for UI. Other findings were turbid urine and turbid with grumes, normal pH values (5.5 - 6.5 and densities higher than 1012. Microorganisms were isolated in 91.5% out of 35 urine samples, with prevalence of Escherichia coli (45.7%. In 11 samples (31.4% Actinobaculum suis was isolated, four were simultaneously positive for UI and Actinobaculum suis; seven were negative for UI, but it was observed the presence of Actinobaculum suis in the indirect immunofluorescence.

  8. Chemical and microbiological properties of an eutrophic Oxisol under riparian forest buffer reforestation and pasture. Propriedades químicas e microbiológicas de um Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico sob reflorestamento de mata ciliar e pastagem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Marise PULITANO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of their ecological importance, riparian forest strips are frequently suppressed to allow greater expansion of arable and urban areas. Agroforestry might be an effective alternative to recompose riparian forests. Soil chemical and microbial properties are important environmental indicators to evaluate the reclamation process. This study tested the hypothesis that, in the course of time, reforestation by means of agroforestry improved soil microbial and chemical properties in a riparian forest buffer. Soil samples were collected from three layers (0.0-2.5; 2.5-7.5; 7.5-20 cm in two sectors of a reforested riparian buffer strip in Cananéia Farm, São Paulo state, Brazil, one 18 years old and other 28 years old, and in an adjacent pasture area. The samples were assessed for pHH2O, available P and K, exchangeable, Ca, Mg and Al, H+Al, sum of bases (SB, pH 7.0 CEC, percent base saturation (V, soil organic matter (SOM and light organic matter (LOM. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC and nitrogen (MBN were analyzed only in the first layer. The pattern for Ca, Mg, SB and V (all layers was 28-year-old sector = 18-year-old-sector > pasture. The SOM at 0.0-2.5 cm was higher in the 28-year-old sector. The LOM pattern was 28-year-old sector > 18-year-old sector > pasture. MBC did not differ among areas. MBN was significantly higher comparing the 28-year-old sector and the pasture area. The results probably reflected the higher litterfall and the N-richer organic matter in the reforested sectors. Reforestation by means of agroforestry improved soil quality, contributing to the ecosystem sustainability. Independentemente de sua importância ecológica, matas ciliares são frequentemente suprimidas e ocupadas por lavouras e cidades. Agroflorestas podem ser eficazes para a recomposição dessas áreas. Propriedades químicas e microbiológicas do solo são importantes indicadores ambientais para avaliar o processo de recomposição. Este estudo testou a

  9. Alterações físico-químicas e microbiológicas durante o armazenamento de doces de umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Câmara verde e maduro Physico-chemical and microbiological changes during storage of green and ripe umbu marmalade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Almeida Martins

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Câmara é uma planta de grande valor econômico para a região semiárida nordestina, notadamente pela produção de doces em massa. Este trabalho teve como objetivo monitorar a vida de prateleira de quatro formulações de doces em massa de umbu verde e maduro à temperatura de 30 °C durante 120 dias. As alterações físico-químicas e microbiológicas foram avaliadas no referido tempo. Os resultados mostraram um decréscimo na atividade de água, um aumento nos sólidos solúveis e no açúcar redutor; pH e acidez mantiveram estáveis; e uma tendência à redução no conteúdo de açúcar não redutor em ambos os doces. Os produtos foram microbiologicamente estáveis. Recomenda-se o uso de pectina ao processo de formulações de umbu maduro e goma xantana ou xarope de glicose para produção de doces de umbu verde.The umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Câmara tree is of high economic value to the semi-arid Northeast area of Brazil due to umbu jam production. This work aimed to monitor the shelf life of four marmalade formulations made from green and ripe umbu, which were kept at 30 °C for 120 days. The physical, chemical, and microbiological alterations were evaluated during the time specified. The results showed a decrease in water activity; an increase in the soluble solids, and a reduction in sugar; pH and acidity remained stable; and there was a tendency to lower sucrose content in both jams. The products were microbiologically stable. The use of pectin is recommended to process the formulations made from ripe umbu, and either xanthan gum or glucose syrup to produce jam from the green umbu.

  10. Efeito do tipo de corte nas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas do melão 'cantaloupe' (Cucumis melo L. Híbrido hy-Mark minimamente processado Effect of type of cutting on the physical chemical and microbiological characteristics of 'Cantaloupe' melon (Cucumis melo L. Hybrid hy-Mark minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Cordeiro de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dois tipos de cortes (manual e mecânico nas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas do melão 'Cantaloupe' minimamente processado e refrigerado. Frutos com grau de maturação adequado foram selecionados, lavados, sanificados (200 ppm de cloro ativo/2 minutos e processados de acordo com o tipo de corte. Os frutos utilizados para o corte mecânico foram descascados em máquina descascadora e após a retirada das sementes, submetidos ao corte com auxílio de máquina de corte. Os destinados ao corte manual foram descascados e cortados com auxílio facas, colocados em imersão em solução de hipoclorito de sódio (20 ppm de cloro ativo por 30 segundos e acondicionados em embalagens flexíveis PET, armazenados a 4°C ± 1°C e avaliados a cada três dias por um período de 15 dias. Ao final dos experimentos, concluiu-se que para o processamento mínimo de melão 'Cantaloupe', o corte manual foi o mais indicado, por apresentar melhor estabilidade das características de cor, textura, pH, umidade e contagens microbiológicas durante o armazenamento.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of two types of cutting (manual and mechanic on the physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics of processed and refrigerated 'Cantaloupe' melon. The fruits in the appropriate stage of ripening were selected, washed, sanitized (200ppm of active chlorine/2 minutes and processed in agreement with types of cutting. The fruits used for the mechanical cutting were cutting in peeling machine and after at retreat of the seeds, submitted to the cutting with aid of cutting machine. The fruits destined at manual cutting were peeled and cut with aid of knives, immerged in chlorinated water (20 mg.L-1 of active chlorine for 30 seconds and conditioned in PET flexible packing, stored at 4°C ± 1°C and were carried out each three days during 15 days. At the end of the experiments it was

  11. Rapakivi texture: An indication of the crystallization of hydrosilicates, II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliston, John N.

    1985-05-01

    a montmorillonite-rich rim which it is suggested crystallizes together with the illitic cores to form mantled or polymantled feldspar ovoids. Crystallization of the rapakivi massif is associated with strong temperature rise stemming from exothermic crystallization of the close-packed metastable colloids. This follows the development of the characteristic texture. The rounded and rimmed precursor accretions are formed during earlier lower-temperature episodes of thixotropic liquefaction which are isothermal. The fluidity is an earlier event. There is high temperature dependent on the rate of water loss but no molten stage. Forty-six typical features of rapakivi texture are described and illustrated, each of which is directly attributable to specific interactions in an alternately dynamic and static colloidal system. Individual correlation between each observed distinctive feature of the rapakivi texture and the well-documented physico-chemical process is complete. For sediment-derived granites, therefore, the rapakivi texture can confidently be assumed to be an indication of the crystallization of their sedimentary hydrosilicate precursors.

  12. Alterações químicas e microbiológicas nas silagens de capim-Tifton 85 após a abertura dos silos Chemical and microbiological changes of Tifton 85 grass silage after silos opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúben Pablo Schocken-Iturrino

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido para avaliação da presença de Listeria sp. e de fungos nas silagens de capim-Tifton 85 sem emurchecimento, com emurchecimento por uma e duas horas e sem emurchecimento com adição ou não de polpa cítrica (5,0% do peso verde. As amostragens foram efetuadas no momento da abertura do silo (80 dias da ensilagem, aos 15 e 30 dias após exposição ao ar, para avaliar os teores de matéria seca (MS, as alterações químicas (pH, N amoniacal, ácidos orgânicos e a ocorrência de Listeria sp. e de fungos. Os dados foram analisados segundo o delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas (nas parcelas foram avaliadas as silagens submetidas aos tratamentos e nas subparcelas, os períodos de exposição ao ar, com quatro repetições. Observaram-se baixos teores de ácidos orgânicos e de N amoniacal decorrentes dos altos valores de MS, o que acarretou baixa formação de produtos fermentados e elevação do pH. A presença de Listeria sp. foi observada em 65,6% das amostras no momento da abertura dos silos e, destas, 10% foram positivas para Listeria monocytogenes. As silagens apresentaram baixa estabilidade aeróbia, tendo sido registrado aumento na ocorrência dos fungos Penicillium, Fusarium e Pithomyces com o prolongamento do período de exposição ao ar.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the fermentation characteristics, Listeria sp. and molds occurrence on Tifton 85 silage no wilted, wilted for one and two hours and no wilted with or without citrus pulp (5.0 % of fresh forage. The samplings were taken at the opening of the silos (80 days after ensiling, 15, and 30 days after air exposition to evaluated dry matter (DM content, chemical changes (pH, ammonia N, organic acids and Listeria sp., and molds occurrence. Data were analyzed according to a randomized block design in split plot scheme, considering the silage on the plots, and periods of air exposure on the split plot, with four

  13. Microbiological Spoilage of Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledenbach, Loralyn H.; Marshall, Robert T.

    The wide array of available dairy foods challenges the microbiologist, engineer, and technologist to find the best ways to prevent the entry of microorganisms, destroy those that do get in along with their enzymes, and prevent the growth and activities of those that escape processing treatments. Troublesome spoilage microorganisms include aerobic psychrotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, molds, heterofermentative lactobacilli, and spore-forming bacteria. Psychrotrophic bacteria can produce large amounts of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, and the extent of recontamination of pasteurized fluid milk products with these bacteria is a major determinant of their shelf life. Fungal spoilage of dairy foods is manifested by the presence of a wide variety of metabolic by-products, causing off-odors and flavors, in addition to visible changes in color or texture.

  14. Novel pathogens in periodontal microbiology

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    K Vidya Hiranmayi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease caused by complex interactions between distinct pathogens in a biofilm resulting in the destruction of periodontal tissues. It seems evident that unknown microorganisms might be involved in onset or progression of periodontitis. For many decades, research in the field of oral microbiology failed to identify certain subgingival microbiota due to technical limitations but, over a period of 12 years using molecular approaches and sequencing techniques, it became feasible to reveal the existence of new periodontal pathogens. Therefore, it is evident that in addition to conventional periodontal pathogens, other microbes might be involved in onset and progression of periodontitis. The novel pathogens enlisted under periodontal phylogeny include Cryptobacterium curtum, Dialister pneumosintes, Filifactor alocis, Mitsuokella dentalis, Slackia exigua, Selenomonas sputigena, Solobacterium moorei, Treponema lecithinolyticum, and Synergistes. The polymicrobial etiology of periodontitis has been elucidated by comprehensive techniques, and studies throwing light on the possible virulence mechanisms possessed by these novel periodontal pathogens are enlisted.

  15. [Microbiological diagnosis of mycoplasma infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer-Peinado, María Antonia; Acosta-Boga, Beatriz; Matas-Andreu, Lurdes; Codina-Grau, Gemma

    2012-10-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of mycoplasma and ureaplasma infections has always been limited due to the fastidious growth of these microorganisms, as well as the lack of commercially prepared growth media, absence of rapid diagnostic procedures, and the clinical perception that these organisms are less significant in the infectious diseases setting. During the last few years, this situation has substantially improved due to the commercial availability of culture media, the development of rapid serological techniques, and, in particular, to the introduction of nucleic acid amplification assays, commercially available or "in-house" preparations. Despite the lack of proper standardisation and validation of the molecular and serological techniques, methodological advances have led to an increased detection of these microorganisms and, consequently, a greater appreciation of their clinical relevance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

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    Shweta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed.

  17. Translating Omics to Food Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; Claesson, Marcus J; Cotter, Paul D

    2017-02-28

    This review examines the applications of omics technologies in food microbiology, with a primary focus on high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. We discuss the different sequencing approaches applicable to the study of food-related microbial isolates and mixed microbial communities in foods, and we provide an overview of the sequencing platforms suitable for each approach. We highlight the potential for genomics, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics to guide efforts to optimize food fermentations. Additionally, we explore the use of comparative and functional genomics to further our understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic action and we describe the applicability of HTS as a food safety measure. Finally, we consider the use of HTS to investigate the effects that ingested microbes have on the human gut microbiota.

  18. Ionizing radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological of bread with addition of linseed (Linum usitatissimum); Efeitos da radiacao ionizante de cobalto-60 nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas sensoriais e microbiolgicas de paes com adicao de linhaca (Linum usitatissimum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de

    2011-07-01

    The incorporation of functional ingredients on breading products has grown very much lately, because of the preoccupation with the consumers' health. The linseed has awakened the interest by its high level of fiber, lignin, omega-3 and antioxidants compounds. The objective of the present work is evaluate the ionizing radiation effect of {sup 60}Co on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological characteristics of bread with addition of different concentration of brown linseed. There were elaborated 3 types of bread: French roll, form bread prepared with the mixture and form bread produced with conventional ingredients. It was added smashed brown linseed on the bread dough, with concentrations of 8% and 12%. After the preparation, the three kinds of bread packed with polypropylene packages and taken to the IPEN/USP (Institute of Nuclear Energetic Research/University of São Paulo) and irradiated with doses of 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Treatments were elaborated without the addition of linseed and without irradiation, for control, totalizing 12 distinct treatments, to each bread formula tested. Chemical analyses were made (centesimal composition, anti-nutritional compounds, anti-oxidant activity, glycemic index, fat acids, complex B vitamins and minerals); physical analyses (cooking index, volume, color and water activity); sensorial analyses (preference tests and Descriptive Quantitative Analysis - ADQ); microbiological analysis and a survey about irradiated products. It could be seen that the addition of linseed was efficient to increase the level of alimentary fiber and the level of lipids on the 3 bread formula. The three kinds of bread that received the linseed addition and that were not irradiated presented increase on the level of total phenolic; however, when the samples which received the linseed addition were submitted to the irradiation process, it could be noticed the decrease of the antioxidant capacity. There was an increase on the level of omega-3

  19. Caracterização microbiológica e físico-química de leite pasteurizado destinado ao programa do leite no Estado de Alagoas Microbiological and physico-chemical characterization of pasteurized milk for the milk program in the State of Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Delgado da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente 17 mini usinas fazem parte do Programa do Leite no estado de Alagoas, e através de um convênio firmado entre o Laboratório de Microbiologia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Alagoas e a Cooperativa de Laticínio de Alagoas - CPLA para monitorar a qualidade microbiológica e físico-química de leite pasteurizado tipo C, foram analisadas 348 amostras deste produto e avaliadas quanto à contagem de coliformes a 35 e 45 °C, quanto a bactérias aeróbias mesófilas, bactérias psicrotróficas e pesquisa de Salmonella sp., segundo metodologia convencional proposta pela Instrução Normativa nº 62/2003 do MAPA. Os parâmetros físico-químicos (acidez titulável em graus Dornic, estabilidade ao álcool, densidade a 15 °C, índice crioscópico, teor de gordura, extrato seco desengordurado e teor de proteína foram avaliados segundo metodologia convencional recomendada pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz. As análises de gordura, proteína e extrato seco desengordurado foram realizadas utilizando o aparelho Ekomilk, conforme recomendação do fabricante. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, 134 (38,5% e 159 (45,7% amostras apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões microbiológicos e físico-químicos, respectivamente, segundo a legislação em vigor. Salmonella sp. não foi detectada nas amostras analisadas. Recomenda-se a implantação de programas de boas práticas de fabricação e análise de perigos e pontos críticos de controle para assegurar a inocuidade deste produto.Nowadays, there are 17 mini-milk processing plants in the state of Alagoas attending the "Fome Zero Program". Microbial and physico-chemical qualities of their products are being monitored at the Food Microbiology Laboratory of the Federal University of Alagoas. Three hundred and forty eight samples of type C pasteurized milk were analyzed for coliforms at 35 and 45 °C; mesophilic and psycrotrophic bacteria, as well as for the presence of Salmonella, according to the

  20. Control and characterization of textured, hydrophobic ionomer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyuan

    Polymer thin films are of increasing interest in many industrial and technological applications. Superhydrophobic, self-cleaning surfaces have attracted a lot of attention for their application in self-cleaning, anti-sticking coatings, stain resistance, or anti-contamination surfaces in diverse technologies, including medical, transportation, textiles, electronics and paints. This thesis focuses on the preparation of nanometer to micrometer-size particle textured surfaces which are desirable for super water repellency. Textured surfaces consisting of nanometer to micrometer-sized lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (SPS) particles were prepared by rapid evaporation of the solvent from a dilute polymer solution cast onto silica. The effect of the solvent used to spin coat the film, the molecular weight of the ionomer, and the rate of solvent evaporation were investigated. The nano-particle or micron-particle textured ionomer surfaces were prepared by either spin coating or solution casting ionomer solutions at controlled evaporation rates. The surface morphologies were consistent with a spinodal decomposition mechanism where the surface first existed as a percolated-like structure and then ripened into droplets if molecular mobility was retained for sufficient time. The SPS particles or particle aggregates were robust and resisted deformation even after annealing at 120°C for one week. The water contact angles on as-prepared surfaces were relatively low, ~ 90° since the polar groups in ionomer reduce the surface hydrophobicity. After chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane, the surface contact angles increased to ~ 109° on smooth surfaces and ~140° on the textured surfaces. Water droplets stuck to these surfaces even when tilted 90 degrees. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by spraying coating ionomer solutions and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane onto textured surfaces. The

  1. Probing Majorana neutrino textures at DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kalpana; Borah, Debasish; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2017-10-01

    We study the possibility of probing different texture zero neutrino mass matrices at the long baseline neutrino experiment DUNE, particularly focusing on its sensitivity to the octant of atmospheric mixing angle θ23 and leptonic Dirac C P phase δcp. Assuming a diagonal charged lepton basis and Majorana nature of light neutrinos, we first classify the possible light neutrino mass matrices with one and two texture zeros and then numerically evaluate the parameter space which satisfies the texture zero conditions. Apart from using the latest global fit 3 σ values of neutrino oscillation parameters, we also use the latest bound on the sum of absolute neutrino masses (∑i |mi|) from the Planck mission data and the updated bound on effective neutrino mass Me e from neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ν β β ) experiments to find the allowed Majorana texture zero mass matrices. For the allowed texture zero mass matrices from all these constraints, we then feed the corresponding light neutrino parameter values satisfying the texture zero conditions into the numerical analysis in order to study the capability of DUNE to allow or exclude them once it starts taking data. We find that DUNE will be able to exclude some of these texture zero mass matrices which restrict (θ23-δcp) to a very specific range of values, depending on the values of the parameters that nature has chosen.

  2. Human Safety in Veterinary Microbiology Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar B. P.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory work should be carried out with a minimum of risk to the health of the staff working in laboratory. This requires careful consideration of the risks involved in a particular procedure,followed by appropriate measures to minimise the risk of human disease. This concerned exclusively with risks from infectious agents, but physical and chemical injuries in microbiology laboratories must also be prevented. Risks from infection are reduced by good laboratory techniques and secured facilities which aid in the containment of pathogens. It is important to understand that containment of pathogens can be used for preventing disease in humans and animals. Often the same methods of containment are used for both preventing laboratory-acquired infection in humans and for preventing escape of pathogens that could cause an outbreak of animal disease. Although the methods, techniques and facilities required may be the same, the list of pathogens and categorization into levels of risk will differ depending on whether it is human or animal disease control that is the primary objective. Existing national and international reference laboratories have considerable experience in the operation of safe working practices and provision of appropriate facilities. When new laboratories are being established, it would be prudent to seek advice from the competent authorities at established institutes and it is important to comply with legislative requirements. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 113-117

  3. Microbiology of pediatric orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Steven H; Yen, Michael T; Miller, Aaron M; Yen, Kimberly G

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the microbiology of pediatric orbital cellulitis associated with sinusitis. Retrospective review of medical records of pediatric patients treated for orbital cellulitis. All pediatric patients treated for orbital cellulitis associated with sinusitis at Texas Children's Hospital between December 1, 2001 and September 30, 2005 were reviewed. Data collected included patient age, history, microbiology results, and surgical intervention. Thirty-eight cases were identified. Fifteen cases required medical management, whereas 23 patients received a combination of medical and surgical intervention. Three patients had multiple surgical procedures performed. Of the procedures performed, four were sinus irrigation, 12 were sinusotomy and drainage, nine were orbitotomy with drainage of abscess, and one was craniotomy with drainage of abscess. Surgical aspirate specimens yielded a higher positive culture result rate with 9/9 of orbital abscesses and 13/16 of sinus aspirates demonstrating a positive yield. Two of the 27 blood cultures had a positive yield. Staphylococcus species was the most common organism isolated. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) represented 73% of S. aureus isolates. Streptococcus species was the next most common pathogen. Three cultures yielded Haemophilus species with one being positive for H. influenzae. Organisms responsible for causing pediatric orbital cellulitis are evolving, with Staphylococcus followed by Streptococcus species being the most common pathogens. The occurrence of MRSA in pediatric orbital cellulitis is increasing, and empiric antimicrobial therapy should be directed against these organisms if they are prevalent in the community. Sinus and orbital abscess aspirates yielded the greatest number of positive cultures, though these invasive surgical procedures should be performed only when clinically indicated.

  4. Nutritional, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of alfajor prepared with dehydrated mixture of salmon and tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Setsuko Kimura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Current assay deals with the preparation of alfajores with different levels (0 to 15% of dehydrated fish mixture of salmon (10% and tilapia (90% to assess the sensorial characteristics and their centesimal composition and microbiological. Fish inclusion in alfajores did not affect the aroma, taste, texture, color and physical aspect, with scores ranging between 6.70 and 7.96 of a hedonic scale of 9 score. An average score of 4 in a 5-score purchasing intention scale was obtained, or rather, tasters would probably buy the product. In the case of centesimal composition, inclusion affected (p 0.05 in lipids and calorie rates in the alfajores. Results show that the inclusion of up to 15% of a dehydrated mixture of salmon (10% and tilapia (90% in alfajores was greatly accepted and improved their nutrition values. Further, the product was also within the microbiological standards required by Brazilian sanitary laws.

  5. Nutritional, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of alfajor prepared with dehydrated mixture of salmon and tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Kátia Setsuko Kimura; Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza; Rafaela Verdi; Melina Franco Coradini; Jane Martha Graton Mikcha; Elenice Souza dos Reis Goes

    2017-01-01

    Current assay deals with the preparation of alfajores with different levels (0 to 15%) of dehydrated fish mixture of salmon (10%) and tilapia (90%) to assess the sensorial characteristics and their centesimal composition and microbiological. Fish inclusion in alfajores did not affect the aroma, taste, texture, color and physical aspect, with scores ranging between 6.70 and 7.96 of a hedonic scale of 9 score. An average score of 4 in a 5-score purchasing intention scale was obtained, or rather...

  6. THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICAN DRIED SAUSAGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 6, 199-206 (1976). THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICAN DRIED SAUSAGE ... Furthermore, microbiological control should be introduced, especially for pathogenic bacterial. Dried sausage is a traditional and ... positive staphylococci in foods, was used for detecting coagulasepositive staphylococci ...

  7. The Microbiological and Physicochemical Characteristics of Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological and physicochemical analyses were carried out on fifteen borehole water samples in the World Bank Housing Estate, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. The microbiological analysis was based on the Most Probable Number Technique to detect fecal coliforms and other organisms present in the samples.

  8. Sensory, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Greek style yogurt flavored with pequi ( Caryocar Brasiliense , Cambess) ... Abstract. The aim of this study was to develop Greek yogurt flavored with pequi and to assess its physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, as well as its shelf-life, sensory ...

  9. Adopting new methods in water microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Until recently there has been little formal guidance on procedures for adopting new methods in water microbiology. However, the European Union Drinking Water Directive of 1998 specified methods that were to be used for the microbiological parameters, most being ISO methods, but allowed the use of alternative methods ...

  10. Microbiological And Physicochemical Analyses Of Oil Contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Microbiological And Physicochemical Analyses Of Oil Contaminated Soil From Major. Motor Mechanic Workshops In Benin City Metropolis,Edo State, Nigeria. EKHAISE, F O; NKWELLE, J. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: The ability of microorganisms ...

  11. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology (JTMB) formerly Journal of Tropical Microbiology gives preeminence to the central role of modern biotechnology and microorganisms as tools and targets in current research, which is largely multidisciplinary. JTMB covers a broad range of topics, such as disease ...

  12. Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of Yoghurt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Properties of Yoghurt supplemented with Carrot Juice. PI Akubor. Abstract. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of incorporation of Carrot Juice on the physiochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of yoghurt. Materials and method: Carrot ...

  13. DEFORMATION TEXTURES IN A COPPER NICKEL ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit DÜNDAR

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-random distribution of orientations between the neigbouring grains of polycrystalline aggregates leads to preferred orientations or textures. Texture analysis of a Cu-10 % Ni alloy carried out on three types of cast materials after varying amounts of deformation led to clearly defined copper type texture due to the dominance of high stacking fault energy SFE regions in the structure. (123 [41 2 ] is the strongest orientation observed with (123 as the plane lying paralel to the rolling plane and [41 2 ] as the direction paralel to the rolling direction.

  14. Revisiting the texture zero neutrino mass matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madan; Ahuja, Gulsheen; Gupta, Manmohan

    2016-12-01

    In the light of refined and large measurements of the reactor mixing angle θ, we have revisited the texture three- and two-zero neutrino mass matrices in the flavor basis. For Majorana neutrinos, it has been explicitly shown that all the texture three-zero mass matrices remain ruled out. Further, for both normal and inverted mass ordering, for the texture two-zero neutrino mass matrices one finds interesting constraints on the Dirac-like CP-violating phase δ and Majorana phases ρ and σ.

  15. Orientation selectivity based structure for texture classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinjian; Lin, Weisi; Shi, Guangming; Zhang, Yazhong; Lu, Liu

    2014-10-01

    Local structure, e.g., local binary pattern (LBP), is widely used in texture classification. However, LBP is too sensitive to disturbance. In this paper, we introduce a novel structure for texture classification. Researches on cognitive neuroscience indicate that the primary visual cortex presents remarkable orientation selectivity for visual information extraction. Inspired by this, we investigate the orientation similarities among neighbor pixels, and propose an orientation selectivity based pattern for local structure description. Experimental results on texture classification demonstrate that the proposed structure descriptor is quite robust to disturbance.

  16. Microbiological quality of drinking water in public and municipal drinking water supply systems in Osijek-Baranja County, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Habuda-Stanić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological and chemical quality of drinking water primarily results from water origin and type of applied water treatment. Since the drinking water is one of the mean way through which many infectious agents can be transmitted to humans causing waterborne diseases, constant monitoring of drinking water quality in water supply systems is needed. This study investigates the microbiological quality of drinking water in twenty five public and municipal water supply systems in the area of Osijek-Baranja County in eastern Croatia. The microbiological analyses were conducted for following parameters: total coliforms, Escherichia coli, colony count at 22 °C and 37 °C, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens. In most of investigated water supply systems processed groundwater are used, and since increased concentrations of some chemical compounds in water can influence on appearance and growth of microbiological populations, in this study relevant physicochemical parameters were also measured and correlated with obtained values of analyzed microbiological parameters. Five physicochemical indicators were determined: temperature, turbidity, pH value, free residual chlorine and ammonium concentration. Results indicated that 149 of 1503 analyzed drinking water samples were non-compliance with microbiological criteria set by Croatian regulations (88.7 % and 89.2 % of 149 had values of colony count at 22 °C and 37 °C higher than the required. Total coliforms, enterococci and Escherichia coli were founded in 3.9 %, 1.1 % and 1 % of non-compliance drinking water samples, respectively. Clostridium perfringens was not detected in any of the drinking water samples. Calculating Pearson’s coefficients of correlation among analyzed microbiological and physicochemical indicators, very weak correlations were obtained. The highest but negative correlation was observed between appearance of microbiological population and concentrations of free residual chlorine

  17. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-08-28

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  18. Growth and characterization of textured well-faceted ZnO on planar Si(100), planar Si(111), and textured Si(100) substrates for solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Yi; Lai, Jyong-Di; Feng, Shih-Wei; Huang, Chien-Jung; Chen, Chien-Hsun; Yang, Fann-Wei; Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Tu, Li-Wei

    2017-01-01

    In this work, textured, well-faceted ZnO materials grown on planar Si(100), planar Si(111), and textured Si(100) substrates by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cathode luminescence (CL) measurements. The results show that ZnO grown on planar Si(100), planar Si(111), and textured Si(100) substrates favor the growth of ZnO(110) ridge-like, ZnO(002) pyramid-like, and ZnO(101) pyramidal-tip structures, respectively. This could be attributed to the constraints of the lattice mismatch between the ZnO and Si unit cells. The average grain size of ZnO on the planar Si(100) substrate is slightly larger than that on the planar Si(111) substrate, while both of them are much larger than that on the textured Si(100) substrate. The average grain sizes (about 10-50 nm) of the ZnO grown on the different silicon substrates decreases with the increase of their strains. These results are shown to strongly correlate with the results from the SEM, AFM, and CL as well. The reflectance spectra of these three samples show that the antireflection function provided by theses samples mostly results from the nanometer-scaled texture of the ZnO films, while the micrometer-scaled texture of the Si substrate has a limited contribution. The results of this work provide important information for optimized growth of textured and well-faceted ZnO grown on wafer-based silicon solar cells and can be utilized for efficiency enhancement and optimization of device materials and structures, such as heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cells.

  19. Microbiological Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah; Castro, Victoria A.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of being the centerpiece of NASA s human spacecraft, the Space Shuttle will retire. This highly successful program provided many valuable lessons for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Major microbiological risks to crewmembers include food, water, air, surfaces, payloads, animals, other crewmembers, and ground support personnel. Adverse effects of microorganisms are varied and can jeopardize crew health and safety, spacecraft systems, and mission objectives. Engineering practices and operational procedures can minimize the negative effects of microorganisms. To minimize problems associated with microorganisms, appropriate steps must begin in the design phase of new spacecraft or space habitats. Spacecraft design must include requirements to control accumulation of water including humidity, leaks, and condensate on surfaces. Materials used in habitable volumes must not contribute to microbial growth. Use of appropriate materials and the implementation of robust housekeeping that utilizes periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Air filtration can ensure low levels of bioaerosols and particulates in the breathing air. The use of physical and chemical steps to disinfect drinking water coupled with filtration can provide safe drinking water. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. The advances in knowledge of living and working onboard the Space Shuttle formed the foundation for environmental microbiology requirements and operations for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Research conducted during the Space Shuttle Program resulted in an improved understanding of the effects of spaceflight on human physiology, microbial properties, and specifically the host-microbe interactions. Host-microbe interactions are substantially affected by spaceflight. Astronaut immune

  20. CLASIC07 Soil Texture Data V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains soil texture data obtained for the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign 2007 (CLASIC07). The original data were extracted from a...

  1. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Martin, C. R.; Steele, James L.; Dempster, Richard E.

    1992-03-01

    The development of new approaches for wheat hardness assessment may impact the grain industry in marketing, milling, and breeding. This study used image texture features for wheat hardness evaluation. Application of digital imaging to grain for grading purposes is principally based on morphometrical (shape and size) characteristics of the kernels. A composite sample of 320 kernels for 17 wheat varieties were collected after testing and crushing with a single kernel hardness characterization meter. Six wheat classes where represented: HRW, HRS, SRW, SWW, Durum, and Club. In this study, parameters which characterize texture or spatial distribution of gray levels of an image were determined and used to classify images of crushed wheat kernels. The texture parameters of crushed wheat kernel images were different depending on class, hardness and variety of the wheat. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels showed promise for use in class, hardness, milling quality, and variety discrimination.

  2. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, H L; Mazumder, J; DebRoy, T

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data...

  3. TEXTURAL, FLOW AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF FIVE “FRUZELINA” WITH SOUR CHERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bojdo Tomasiak

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel with sour cherries called “Fruzelina” is a new product in the Polish market widely used in food industry as a decorative element or filling for pastries, as an ingredient in fruit desserts, as an additive to ice creams, whipped cream and waffles. The cherry gels are the product prepared using different types of chemically modified starches. Starch is an additive used to ensure rich and short texture and high viscosity of “Fruzelina”. Food texture and viscosity may be measured by senses and instrumentally. Because of fact that sensory analysis is time consuming and very costly, it is easier and cheaper to determine food properties, especially their texture and flow behaviour by appropriate mechanical tests. The aim of this work was to study the rheological behavior of five cherry gels and evaluate the correlation between textural, flow and sensory properties of these gels measured instrumentally and by human senses. The back extrusion test has been found to be applicable to study the textural properties of cherry gels. There was high positive correlation between gel texture measured by senses and texture parameters measured in back extrusion test. Similar high correlation was identified for consistency coefficient K obtained in Ostwald de Waele model and gel texture assessed by sensory panel. It was found that values of sensory parameters such as taste and odour decreased as the rheological parameters increased. High negative correlations were observed in these cases. Therefore, instrumental measurements can be alternative for more expensive sensory methods. doi:10.5219/53

  4. Estudo da estabilidade quÍmica e microbiológica do suco de caju in natura armazenado em diferentes condições de estocagem Study of the chemical and microbiological stability of cashew apple juice in different storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Conde Lavinas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O caju, rico em nutrientes, apresenta alta perecibilidade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a estabilidade química, físico-química e microbiológica do suco de caju in natura mantido em temperatura ambiente por 24 h, estocado sob refrigeração por sete dias e sob congelamento por 120 dias. O teor de ácido ascórbico no suco recém-extraído foi de 147,29 ± 0,41 mg/100 mL e reduziu em 6,57% em temperatura ambiente. Durante a estocagem sob refrigeração e congelamento, as taxas de redução dessa vitamina foram 1,16% ao dia e 0,05% ao dia, respectivamente. Foi observado aumento na contagem de bactérias mesófilas totais e fungos filamentosos e leveduras no suco mantido em temperatura ambiente. Nos sucos estocados sob refrigeração durante sete dias houve redução da contagem de bactérias mesófilas totais e aumento na contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras. Nos sucos congelados, a contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras permaneceu inferior à inicial, enquanto a de bactérias mesófilas totais apresentou variação até o trigésimo dia. A partir deste período, esta permaneceu estável em menos de um ciclo logarítmico acima da contagem inicial. Nos períodos estudados, refrigeração e congelamento mostraram-se eficazes na preservação do ácido ascórbico e da qualidade microbiológica do suco de caju in natura.Cashew apple, which is rich in nutrients, is highly perishable. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical, physicochemical and microbiological stability of cashew apple juice kept at room temperature for 24 h, refrigerated for seven days or frozen for 120 days. The ascorbic acid content in fresh cashew apple juice was 147.29 ± 0.41 mg/ 100 mL and decreased 6.57% when kept under room temperature. In the juices stored when refrigerated and when frozen, a reduction rate of ascorbic acid was 1.16%/day and 0.05%/day, respectively. The chemical and physicochemical parameters remained stable

  5. 76 FR 67461 - Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting... entitled ``Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues.'' The purpose of the public meeting is to provide stakeholders an opportunity to present information regarding cosmetic microbiological safety and to suggest...

  6. Lava flow texture LiDAR signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, P.; Garry, W. B.; Scheidt, S. P.; Irwin, R. P., III; Fox, J.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hamilton, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution point clouds and digital elevation models (DEMs) are used to investigate lava textures on the Big Island of Hawaii. An experienced geologist can distinguish fresh or degraded lava textures (e.g., blocky, a'a and pahoehoe) visually in the field. Lava texture depends significantly on eruption conditions, and it is therefore instructive, if accurately determined. In places where field investigations are prohibitive (e.g., Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Io and remote regions on Earth) lava texture must be assessed from remote sensing data. A reliable method for differentiating lava textures in remote sensing data remains elusive. We present preliminary results comparing properties of lava textures observed in airborne and terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne data, in this study, were collected in 2011 by Airborne 1 Corporation and have a ~1m point spacing. The authors collected the terrestrial data during a May 2014 field season. The terrestrial scans have a heterogeneous point density. Points close to the scanner are 1 mm apart while 200 m in the distance points are 10 cm apart. Both platforms offer advantages and disadvantages beyond the differences in scale. Terrestrial scans are a quantitative representation of what a geologist sees "on the ground". Airborne scans are a point of view routinely imaged by other remote sensing tools, and can therefore be quickly compared to complimentary data sets (e.g., spectral scans or image data). Preliminary results indicate that LiDAR-derived surface roughness, from both platforms, is useful for differentiating lava textures, but at different spatial scales. As all lava types are quite rough, it is not simply roughness that is the most advantageous parameter; rather patterns in surface roughness can be used to differentiate lava surfaces of varied textures. This work will lead to faster and more reliable volcanic mapping efforts for planetary exploration as well as terrestrial

  7. Facial Features Detection Using Texture Hough Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbatsevich, V. S.

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents an original method for object detection. The "texture" Hough transform is used as the main tool in the search. Unlike classical generalized Hough transform, this variation uses texture LBP descriptor as a primitive for voting. The voting weight of each primitive is assumed by learning at a training set. This paper gives an overview of an original method for weights learning, and a number of ways to get the maximum searching algorithm speed on practice.

  8. Image Segmentation with Color and Texture,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    easily by other means. For example, it may be relatively easy to camouflage a target so that it resembles the average color of its background (a land...textural properties. Note that the matching of visual color or texture for camouflaging purposes does not guarantee that appropriate processing algorithms...UNCLASSIFIED 29 6.0 REFERENCES 1. S6vigny, L., "Simulation d’un syst~me d’acquisition automatique d’objectif infrarouge dans un

  9. Model for understanding consumer textural food choice

    OpenAIRE

    Jeltema, Melissa; Beckley, Jacqueline; Vahalik, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The current paradigm for developing products that will match the marketing messaging is flawed because the drivers of product choice and satisfaction based on texture are misunderstood. Qualitative research across 10?years has led to the thesis explored in this research that individuals have a preferred way to manipulate food in their mouths (i.e., mouth behavior) and that this behavior is a major driver of food choice, satisfaction, and the desire to repurchase. Texture, which is currently t...

  10. Extrusion Cooking Systems and Textured Vegetable Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Many fabricated foods are cooked industrially and are given desired textures, shapes, density and rehydration characteristics by an extrusion cooking process. This relatively new process is used in the preparation of “engineered” convenience foods: textured vegetable proteins, breakfast cereals, snacks, infant foods, dry soup mixes, breading, poultry stuffing, croutons, pasta products, beverage powders, hot breakfast gruels, and in the gelatinization of starch or the starchy component of ...

  11. Experimental and ab initio investigations on textured Li–Mn–O spinel thin film cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J., E-mail: Julian.Fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Music, D. [RWTH Aachen University, Materials Chemistry, Kopernikusstrasse 10, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Bergfeldt, T.; Ziebert, C.; Ulrich, S.; Seifert, H.J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the tailored preparation of nearly identical lithium–manganese–oxide thin film cathodes with different global grain orientations. The thin films were synthesized by rf magnetron sputtering from a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-target in a pure argon plasma. Under appropriate processing conditions, thin films with a cubic spinel structure and a nearly similar density and surface topography but different grain orientation, i.e. (111)- and (440)-textured films, were achieved. The chemical composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and carrier gas hot extraction. The constitution- and microstructure were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology and roughness were investigated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The differently textured films represent an ideal model system for studying potential effects of grain orientation on the lithium ion diffusion and electrochemical behavior in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based thin films. They are nearly identical in their chemical composition, atomic bonding behavior, surface-roughness, morphology and thickness. Our initial ab initio molecular dynamics data indicate that Li ion transport is faster in (111)-textured structure than in (440)-textured one. - Highlights: • Thin film model system of differently textured cubic Li–Mn–O spinels. • Investigation of the Li–Mn–O thin film mass density by X-ray reflectivity. • Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on Li ion diffusion in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  12. Fast Image Texture Classification Using Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Texture analysis would permit improved autonomous, onboard science data interpretation for adaptive navigation, sampling, and downlink decisions. These analyses would assist with terrain analysis and instrument placement in both macroscopic and microscopic image data products. Unfortunately, most state-of-the-art texture analysis demands computationally expensive convolutions of filters involving many floating-point operations. This makes them infeasible for radiation- hardened computers and spaceflight hardware. A new method approximates traditional texture classification of each image pixel with a fast decision-tree classifier. The classifier uses image features derived from simple filtering operations involving integer arithmetic. The texture analysis method is therefore amenable to implementation on FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware. Image features based on the "integral image" transform produce descriptive and efficient texture descriptors. Training the decision tree on a set of training data yields a classification scheme that produces reasonable approximations of optimal "texton" analysis at a fraction of the computational cost. A decision-tree learning algorithm employing the traditional k-means criterion of inter-cluster variance is used to learn tree structure from training data. The result is an efficient and accurate summary of surface morphology in images. This work is an evolutionary advance that unites several previous algorithms (k-means clustering, integral images, decision trees) and applies them to a new problem domain (morphology analysis for autonomous science during remote exploration). Advantages include order-of-magnitude improvements in runtime, feasibility for FPGA hardware, and significant improvements in texture classification accuracy.

  13. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF SPELT WHEAT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what are inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%.Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was measured in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn were the most firm and stiff. Relative elasticity confirmed that the lowest firmness and stiffness was found in Rubiota bread. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety.

  14. Simultaneous structure and texture image inpainting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertalmio, Marcelo; Vese, Luminita; Sapiro, Guillermo; Osher, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    An algorithm for the simultaneous filling-in of texture and structure in regions of missing image information is presented in this paper. The basic idea is to first decompose the image into the sum of two functions with different basic characteristics, and then reconstruct each one of these functions separately with structure and texture filling-in algorithms. The first function used in the decomposition is of bounded variation, representing the underlying image structure, while the second function captures the texture and possible noise. The region of missing information in the bounded variation image is reconstructed using image inpainting algorithms, while the same region in the texture image is filled-in with texture synthesis techniques. The original image is then reconstructed adding back these two sub-images. The novel contribution of this paper is then in the combination of these three previously developed components, image decomposition with inpainting and texture synthesis, which permits the simultaneous use of filling-in algorithms that are suited for different image characteristics. Examples on real images show the advantages of this proposed approach.

  15. 7888 evaluation of physico-chemical, nutritional and microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... Cow's milk is by far the principal type of milk used throughout the world. Three systems of husbandry in Côte d'Ivoire produce raw milk. This production is always consumed directly by people, mainly children (orphans) although it presents real sanitary risks. In order to evaluate quality of these cow's milks, ...

  16. Microbiological and physico-chemical analysis of soymilk and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microorganisms isolated from the milk and flour and their percentage occurrence were Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.4%, 11.8%), Salmonella sp. ... The sensory analysis, determined by a 10 point scoring method for judging quality factors in soy products, indicated high beany flavour in both the soymilk and soyflour.

  17. Characterisation of microbiological and physico-chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most prevalent bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Clostridium perfringens with Penicillium digitatum as the only prevalent mould. The mean temperature ranges from 28.40 to 29.10 0C, pH from 7.80 to 9.03 and salinity level from 1.06 ...

  18. Microbiological and Physico-chemical Analysis of Compost and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recycling of organic wastes in agriculture after appropriate biological treatment can produce valuable organic matter and be of great interest in countries where nutrient-deficient and poor quality soils prevail (Hassen et al., 2001). Reports showed that application of municipal solid waste compost in agricultural production ...

  19. Evaluation of physico-chemical, nutritional and microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cow's milk is by far the principal type of milk used throughout the world. Three systems of husbandry in Côte d'Ivoire produce raw milk. This production is always consumed directly by people, mainly children (orphans) although it presents real sanitary risks. In order to evaluate quality of these cow's milks, several samples ...

  20. Microbiological and Physico-chemical Analysis of Compost and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the compost can be used as bio-fertilizer. Monitoring of the microbial succession is important in the effective management of the composting process as microorganisms play important roles in the process and the appearance of some microorganisms reflects the quality of maturity of compost (Ryckeboer et al.,. 2003).