Sample records for chemical substances

  1. Classification of Chemical Substances and Adverse Effects of Chemical Substances on Human Health


    Söyleriz, Yüksel


    In this study, classification of chemical substances and adverse effects of chemical substances on human health in European Union and Turkey are assessed. Method In this study, national and international legislation and practices in the countries of the European Union are reviewed.

  2. 76 FR 75794 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances; Withdrawal of Two Chemical Substances (United States)


    ... July 27, 1989 (54 FR 31314). The docket for the direct final SNURs for these two chemical substances... entities is provided in the Federal Register issue of October 5, 2011 (76 FR 61566) (FRL-8880-2). If you..., 1345 (d) and (e), 1361; E.O. 11735, 38 FR 21243, 3 CFR, 1971-1975 Comp. p. 973; 42 U.S.C. 241,...

  3. [Responsibilities of enterprises introducing new dangerous chemical substances and preparations]. (United States)

    Cieśla, Jacek; Majka, Jerzy


    The paper reviews the responsibilities of producers, importers and distributors set in a new Act of January 2001 on chemical substances and preparations (Off. J. 2001, No. 11, item 84, with subsequent amendments). This Act together with executive provisions is aimed at harmonizing Polish legislation with EU requirements. The Act sets conditions, restriction and bans of production placing on the market and use of chemical substances and preparations in order to protect human health and environment against their harmful effects. The Act together with a number of executive provisions render those who introduce dangerous chemicals and chemical preparations, including distributors responsible for: classification and labelling of dangerous chemical substances and preparations; possessing, making available and up-dating safety data sheets; supplying packages containing certain dangerous substances with child-proof fastenings; notifying the Inspector for Chemical Substances and Preparations about placing a dangerous preparation on the market; notifying the Inspector about a new substance and conducting required studies; being properly qualified to handle dangerous substances. The Act strictly defines the term "placing a substance or a preparation on the market"--it means making a substance or a preparation available to third parties on the territory of The Republic of Poland, territories of the Member States of the European Union or the territory of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, unless the Act provides otherwise; it also means introduction of a substance or a preparation from outside of the territory referred to above on the customs territory of The Republic of Poland, or that of the member states of the European Union and other states listed above. In addition, some of the responsibilities defined by the provisions of the law on chemical substances and preparations are also applicable to handling of biocidals, which are classified as dangerous substances. The Act

  4. Features of the Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances. (United States)

    Binetti, R; Marcello, I


    The Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances (Inventario nazionale delle sostanze chimiche, INSC), a factual data bank on chemical toxicology produced by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), consists of a computerized system on existing chemicals developed for routinary and emergency needs. Historical background, current status and future direction of INSC are discussed. The structure and the feature of INSC are briefly examined. Aspects of retrieval of information and the criteria for the inclusion of data and priority selection are also considered.

  5. Chemical substances as risk factors of nephropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka


    Full Text Available Although diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease, does not fall into the group of diseases induced by toxic substances or environmental pollution, there is much evidence that some chemicals have considerable importance in its development. Exposure to substances with potential renal toxicity is especially dangerous for diabetics because it accelerates and intensifies diabetic nephropathy. This paper discusses the relationship between the xenobiotics and the development of diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy with particular emphasis on those substances that causes the greatest damage to the kidneys. These are cadmium, iron, lead, arsenic, polychlorinated organic compounds, nitrogen compounds, and contrast agents. In addition, the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus induction or kidney damage by these xenobiotics are described.

  6. Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators

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    Anna Jeżewska


    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. Material and Methods: The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector test method. Results: The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency, the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. Conclusions: The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health. Med Pr 2014;65(1:33–41

  7. Method for warning of radiological and chemical substances using detection paints on a vehicle surface (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA


    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  8. The chemical substances and the neurotoxic effect on workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Morales


    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/10/02 - Accepted: 2013/12/13Tens of thousands of workers are exposed to pollution by the neurotoxicity found in their different workplaces, small businesses, handcrafting industries and even at home. The problem gets worst due to the lack of information on the risks posed by these substances and the safety controls to be taken during its use, on the other hand, the overconfidence that exists about the abstraction of this danger when it comes to the exposure to small doses of toxicity by ignoring the cumulative effects of these substances every time they enter the body. In Ecuador, nowadays there are few studies that distinguish this exposure to these substances, and none on the incidence of the neurotoxic syndrome, considering it an important field to research. Workers who are exposed to chemical toxic substances are now associated to adverse human health effects, due to its aggression and because of the worker´s safety before breaking health directly. They enter the body by the respiratory, dermal or digestive system, and show a great affinity with the body grease so that it accumulates and affects the different organs, tissues, the central nervous system, the bone marrow and liver. Immediate acute and chronic long-term effects were detected due to the intensity and duration of the exposure. Some symptoms include drowsiness, loss of appetite, headache, dizziness, depression, anxiety, nervousness, fatigue, irritability, memory problems, mental sluggishness, apathy, seizures, motor skills incoordination, genetic alterations, among others.

  9. 77 FR 75390 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances (United States)


    ..., automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste. CAS number: 1392095-50-9. Chemical substance... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 721 RIN 2070-AB27 Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances... significant new use rules (SNURs) under ] the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for 9 chemical...

  10. How accurate are the European Union's classifications of chemical substances. (United States)

    Rudén, Christina; Hansson, Sven Ove


    The European Commission has decided on harmonized classifications for a large number of individual chemicals according to its own directive for classification and labeling of dangerous substances. We have compared the harmonized classifications for acute oral toxicity to the acute oral toxicity data available in the RTECS database. Of the 992 substances eligible for this comparison, 15% were assigned a too low danger class and 8% a too high danger class according to the RTECS data. Due to insufficient transparency-scientific documentations of the classification decisions are not available-the causes of this discrepancy can only be hypothesized. We propose that the scientific motivations of future classifications be published and that the apparent over- and underclassifications in the present system be either explained or rectified, according to what are the facts in the matter.

  11. 31 CFR 598.309 - Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical. (United States)


    ...; listed chemical. 598.309 Section 598.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.309 Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical. The terms narcotic drug, controlled substance, and listed chemical have the meanings given those...

  12. Chemical leasing business models: a contribution to the effective risk management of chemical substances. (United States)

    Ohl, Cornelia; Moser, Frank


    Chemicals indisputably contribute greatly to the well-being of modern societies. Apart from such benefits, however, chemicals often pose serious threats to human health and the environment when improperly handled. Therefore, the European Commission has proposed a regulatory framework for the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) that requires companies using chemicals to gather pertinent information on the properties of these substances. In this article, we argue that the crucial aspect of this information management may be the honesty and accuracy of the transfer of relevant knowledge from the producer of a chemical to its user. This may be particularly true if the application of potentially hazardous chemicals is not part of the user's core competency. Against this background, we maintain that the traditional sales concept provides no incentives for transferring this knowledge. The reason is that increased user knowledge of a chemical's properties may raise the efficiency of its application. That is, excessive and unnecessary usage will be eliminated. This, in turn, would lower the amount of chemicals sold and in competitive markets directly decrease profits of the producer. Through the introduction of chemical leasing business models, we attempt to present a strategy to overcome the incentive structure of classical sales models, which is counterproductive for the transfer of knowledge. By introducing two models (a Model A that differs least and a Model B that differs most from traditional sales concepts), we demonstrate that chemical leasing business models are capable of accomplishing the goal of Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals: to effectively manage the risk of chemicals by reducing the total quantity of chemicals used, either by a transfer of applicable knowledge from the lessor to the lessee (Model A) or by efficient application of the chemical by the lessor him/herself (Model B).

  13. 77 FR 18752 - Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances; Di-n (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 721 RIN 2070-AJ73 Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances; Di-n-pentyl phthalate (DnPP...-based chemical substances; a SNUR for di-n-pentyl phthalate (DnPP) (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid,...

  14. A chemical-biological similarity-based grouping of complex substances as a prototype approach for evaluating chemical alternatives. (United States)

    Grimm, Fabian A; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Sirenko, Oksana; Chappell, Grace A; Wright, Fred A; Reif, David M; Braisted, John; Gerhold, David L; Yeakley, Joanne M; Shepard, Peter; Seligmann, Bruce; Roy, Tim; Boogaard, Peter J; Ketelslegers, Hans B; Rohde, Arlean M; Rusyn, Ivan


    Comparative assessment of potential human health impacts is a critical step in evaluating both chemical alternatives and existing products on the market. Most alternatives assessments are conducted on a chemical-by-chemical basis and it is seldom acknowledged that humans are exposed to complex products, not individual substances. Indeed, substances of Unknown or Variable composition, Complex reaction products, and Biological materials (UVCBs) are ubiquitous in commerce yet they present a major challenge for registration and health assessments. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and computational approach to categorize UVCBs according to global similarities in their bioactivity using a suite of in vitro models. We used petroleum substances, an important group of UVCBs which are grouped for regulatory approval and read-across primarily on physico-chemical properties and the manufacturing process, and only partially based on toxicity data, as a case study. We exposed induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes to DMSO-soluble extracts of 21 petroleum substances from five product groups. Concentration-response data from high-content imaging in cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, as well as targeted high-throughput transcriptomic analysis of the hepatocytes, revealed distinct groups of petroleum substances. Data integration showed that bioactivity profiling affords clustering of petroleum substances in a manner similar to the manufacturing process-based categories. Moreover, we observed a high degree of correlation between bioactivity profiles and physico-chemical properties, as well as improved groupings when chemical and biological data were combined. Altogether, we demonstrate how novel in vitro screening approaches can be effectively utilized in combination with physico-chemical characteristics to group complex substances and enable read-across. This approach allows for rapid and scientifically-informed evaluation of health impacts of

  15. Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances. Applicability of EXAMS II as an advanced Water Quality Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs ACM; Burns LA


    In the cluster project "Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances methods are developed to systematically predict and assess the hazards for man and environment. After the basic screening of a substance has been carried out, a more extensive study can be performed using models adhered to the

  16. 75 FR 57169 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances (United States)


    ... results. CFR citation: 40 CFR 721.10209. PMN Number P-09-130 Chemical name: Soybean oil, epoxidized...) in rodents. The 28-day oral study should include, for all test doses, a neurotoxicity functional.../chemical properties of the PMN substance, as described in the New Chemical Program's PBT category (64...

  17. 78 FR 62443 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Final... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 721 RIN 2070-AJ95 Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl... new use rule (SNUR) for perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) chemical substances to add PFAS chemical.... EPA is also finalizing a SNUR for long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylate (LCPFAC) chemical...

  18. Data banks of chemical substances and their toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.K.


    Rapid proliferation in the development of new chemical compounds, coupled with the discovery and/or identification of those already in existence, has led to a significant need to investigate their physicochemical and biological properties, to document the knowledge gained, and to communicate that knowledge in as convenient a manner as possible. This paper presents and briefly discusses several prominent chemical databases.

  19. Data banks of chemical substances and their toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.K.


    Rapid proliferation in the development of new chemical compounds, coupled with the discovery and/or identification of those already in existence, has led to a significant need to investigate their physicochemical and biological properties, to document the knowledge gained, and to communicate that knowledge in as convenient a manner as possible. This paper presents and briefly discusses several prominent chemical databases.

  20. Food contact substances and chemicals of concern: a comparison of inventories. (United States)

    Geueke, Birgit; Wagner, Charlotte C; Muncke, Jane


    Food contact materials (FCMs) are intended to be in contact with food during production, handling or storage. They are one possible source of food contamination, because chemicals may migrate from the material into the food. More than 6000 FCM substances appear on regulatory or non-regulatory lists. Some of these substances have been linked to chronic diseases, whilst many others lack (sufficient) toxicological evaluation. The aim of this study was the identification of known FCM substances that are also considered to be chemicals of concern (COCs). The investigation was based on the following three FCM lists: (1) the 2013 Pew Charitable Trusts database of direct and indirect food additives legally used in the United States (or Pew for short), (2) the current European Union-wide positive list for plastic FCMs (or Union for short), and (3) the 2011 non-plastics FCM substances database published by EFSA (or ESCO for short). These three lists of food contact substances (Pew, Union, ESCO lists) were compared with the Substitute It Now! (SIN) list 2.1, which includes chemicals fulfilling the criteria listed in article 57 of Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH), and the TEDX database on endocrine-disrupting chemicals. A total of 175 chemicals used in FCMs were identified as COCs. Fifty-four substances present on the SIN list 2.1 were also found on the Union and/or ESCO lists. Twenty-one of those 54 substances are candidates for Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC), and six of these 21 are listed on Annex XIV and intended for phase-out under REACH. In conclusion, COCs used in FCMs were identified and information about their applications, regulatory status and potential hazards was included.

  1. Assessment of chemical emissions in life cycle impact assessment - focus on low substance data availability and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred


    chemical groups, high data availability combined with low data demand, data useable in characterisation, user friendliness and transparency. A mainly qualitative evaluation of the existing selection methods against these performance criteria shows that none of these score high on all criteria...... be significantly dependent on the inclusion of toxicity- or chemical-related impact categories. The two main reasons for poor coverage of potential toxic impacts from chemical emissions in LCA studies are lack of available data on upstream emissions (e.g. emissions during production of raw materials) and lack...... of substance data on known emissions. To be able to characterize the potential toxic impacts on humans and the environment of chemical emissions, substance data on fate and effect are needed. The second goal of this thesis is to investigate how to deal with low substance data availability on especially effect...

  2. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q6A specifications: test procedures and acceptance criteria for new drug substances and new drug products: chemical substances. Notice. (United States)


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a guidance entitled "Q6A Specifications: Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for New Drug Substances and New Drug Products: Chemical Substances." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance describes or provides recommendations concerning the selection of test procedures and the setting and justification of acceptance criteria for new chemical drug substances and new drug products produced from them. The guidance is intended to assist in the establishment of a single set of global specifications for new drug substances and new drug products.

  3. Dangerous chemical substances – Tools supporting occupational risk assessment


    Elżbieta Dobrzyńska; Małgorzata Pośniak


    The assessment of risk associated with exposure to chemicals in the work environment is a task that still poses a lot of difficulties for the employers. At the same time the probability of adverse health effects faced by an employee as a result of such risks, and the related employer’s material losses should motivate employers to seek effective solutions aimed at assessing the risks and controling them to an acceptable level by the application of appropriate preventive measures. The paper pre...

  4. The ISS National Inventory of Chemical Substances (INSC). (United States)

    Binetti, Roberto; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; Ceccarelli, Federica; D'angiolini, Antonella; Fabri, Alessandra; Riva, Giovanni; Satalia, Susanna; Marcello, Ida


    The INSC (Inventario Nazionale delle Sostanze Chimiche), a factual data bank, produced by Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), consists of an electronic tool on chemical information developed for routine and emergency purposes. Historical background, current status and future perspectives of INSC are discussed. The structure and the feature of INSC are briefly examined. Aspects of information retrieval and the criteria for inclusion of data and priority selection are also considered.

  5. Dangerous chemical substances – Tools supporting occupational risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Dobrzyńska


    Full Text Available The assessment of risk associated with exposure to chemicals in the work environment is a task that still poses a lot of difficulties for the employers. At the same time the probability of adverse health effects faced by an employee as a result of such risks, and the related employer’s material losses should motivate employers to seek effective solutions aimed at assessing the risks and controling them to an acceptable level by the application of appropriate preventive measures. The paper presents examples of tools to assist the employer in the risk assessment associated with the presence of chemical agents in the workplace. Examples of guides, manuals, checklists and various interactive tools, developed in Poland and other European Union (EU countries, as well as in countries outside the EU and international organizations are described. These tools have been developed to meet the current requirements of the law and allow a rough estimation of chemical risk and based on these estimates take further steps to improve working conditions and safety. Med Pr 2014;65(5:683–692

  6. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

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    Grandjean Philippe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. Results The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. Conclusions The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a 'Matthew' principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.

  7. New Concepts in the Evaluation of Biodegradation/Persistence of Chemical Substances using a Microbial Inoculum

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    Gérald eThouand


    Full Text Available The European REACH Regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization of CHemical substances implies, among other things, the evaluation of the biodegradability of chemical substances produced by industry. A large set of test methods is available including detailed information on the appropriate conditions for testing. However, the inoculum used for these tests constitutes a ‘black box’. If biodegradation is achievable from the growth of a small group of specific microbial species with the substance as the only carbon source, the result of the test depends largely on the cell density of this group at ‘time zero’. If these species are relatively rare in an inoculum that is normally used, the likelihood of inoculating a test with sufficient specific cells becomes a matter of probability. Normally this probability increases with total cell density and with the diversity of species in the inoculum. Furthermore the history of the inoculum e.g. a possible pre-exposure to the test substance or similar substances will have a significant influence on the probability. A high probability can be expected for substances that are widely used and regularly released into the environment, whereas a low probability can be expected for new xenobio

  8. [Chemical constituents in higher polar substances from Desmodium caudatum]. (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Wang, Di; Wang, Guang-Hui; Guo, Zhi-Jian; Zou, Xiu-Hong; Lin, Ting; Chen, Hai-Feng


    In this study the chemical constituents of the higher polar sustances from Desmodium caudatum were investigated.The compounds were isolated by using column chromatographies over silicagel, polyamide, ODS, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC. The structures of these compounds were identified on the basis of NMR and MS spectra. Thirteen compounds were obtained and their structures were identified as vanillin(1), loliolide(2), indole-3-carboxaldehyde(3), salicylic acid(4), swertisin(5), saccharumoside C(6), isosinensin (7), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (8), isovitexin (9), vitexin (10), nothofagin(11), resveratroloside (12), and 2"-α-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-methylvitexin (13). Except for compound 5, the remaining compounds were isolated from D. caudatum for the first time. Compounds 2, 3, 6-8, 11-13 were separated from the genus Desmodium for the first time.

  9. 75 FR 63827 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Request for Chemical Substance Nominations for 2011... (United States)


    ... AGENCY Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Request for Chemical Substance Nominations for 2011.... The status and planned milestone dates can be found on the IRIS track system, accessible on the IRIS... Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not...

  10. Classification of Chemical Substances Using Particulate Representations of Matter: An Analysis of Student Thinking (United States)

    Stains, Marilyne; Talanquer, Vicente


    We applied a mixed-method research design to investigate the patterns of reasoning used by novice undergraduate chemistry students to classify chemical substances as elements, compounds, or mixtures based on their particulate representations. We were interested in the identification of the representational features that students use to build a…

  11. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition (United States)

    This NERL-Cincinnati publication, “Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition” was prepared as the continuation of an initiative to gather together under a single cover a compendium of standardized laborato...

  12. 78 FR 27048 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances (United States)


    ... casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. CAS number: 1391739-82-4. Chemical substance definition: The waste solids produced from the treatment of wastewaters during aluminum and iron casting, machining and... analogous cationic surfactants, EPA predicts toxicity to aquatic organisms may occur at concentrations...

  13. 78 FR 66700 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data (United States)


    ... (Reflexblau 3 G TTR Micronucleus Test in Male and Female NJRI Mice after Oral Administration). A Combined 28.... ingredient in aluminum Micronucleus Test in the etchant sequestrant; Mouse. latex stabilizer; Reverse... AGENCY Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data AGENCY:...

  14. Guidelines of Italian CCTN for classification of some effects of chemical substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucci, N. [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Rome (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Camoni, I. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata


    Definitions of the categories and the criteria for the classification of chemical substances on the basis of their potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic-reproductive effects, elaborated by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) in 1994. Besides all the allocations effected by the CCTN in the period 1977-1995 are reported, updated according to these criteria.

  15. 78 FR 12684 - Proposed Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances (United States)


    ... things, that potentially exposed employees wear specified respirators unless actual measurements of the..., reinforcement additive. Based on test data on the PMN substance, and SAR analysis of test data on structurally... additives, mechanical reinforcement additives, energy storage additives, and chemical intermediates....

  16. 78 FR 64016 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals By Notice dated June 18, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2013, 78 FR...

  17. 78 FR 64018 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated June 18, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2013, 78...

  18. 77 FR 67397 - Importer Of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer Of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated July 17, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2012, 77...

  19. 78 FR 23596 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc. (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on March 11,...

  20. 77 FR 30026 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Application, Ampac Fine Chemicals LLC. (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Application, Ampac Fine Chemicals LLC. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on April 11, 2012, AMPAC...

  1. 77 FR 30027 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc. (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on March 15,...

  2. 77 FR 70188 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated July 17, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2012, 77...

  3. International comparison of criteria for evaluating sensitization of PRTR-designated chemical substances. (United States)

    Murakami, Tomoe; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Isse, Toyohi; Ogawa, Masanori; Sugie, Takuya; Kawamoto, Toshihiro


    In this study, we aim to compare the criteria for sensitizers among national organizations in various countries and international organizations, and to specify whether each Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR)-designated chemical substance is a sensitizer by each organization. The definition of sensitizing chemicals and the designation of respective sensitizers according to the PRTR law, Japan Society for Occupational Health (JSOH), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), European Union (EU), and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinshaft (DFG) were studied. Of the 435 PRTR-designated chemical substances, 15 are listed as sensitizers according to the PRTR law, 16 as sensitizers of the airway and 21 as sensitizers of the skin by JSOH, 12 as sensitizers (no discrimination) by ACGIH, 19 (airway) and 85 (skin) by EU, and 15 (airway) and 43 (skin) by DFG. Only 9 substances were designated as sensitizers by all these organizations. The variation in the designation of sensitizers is accounted for by the differences in the classification criteria and grouping of chemical substances. JSOH limits the definition of sensitizers to substances that induce allergic reactions in humans and uses only human data. Other organizations utilize not only human evidence but also appropriate animal tests. In addition, EU designates an isocyanate as a sensitizer except those for which there is evidence showing that they do not cause respiratory sensitivity. The worldwide enforcement of the globally harmonized system (GHS) of classification and labeling of chemicals could promote not only the consistent designation of sensitizers among national and international organizations, but also the development of testing guidelines and classification criteria for mixtures.

  4. What is this Substance? What Makes it Different? Mapping Progression in Students' Assumptions about Chemical Identity (United States)

    Ngai, Courtney; Sevian, Hannah; Talanquer, Vicente


    Given the diversity of materials in our surroundings, one should expect scientifically literate citizens to have a basic understanding of the core ideas and practices used to analyze chemical substances. In this article, we use the term 'chemical identity' to encapsulate the assumptions, knowledge, and practices upon which chemical analysis relies. We conceive chemical identity as a core crosscutting disciplinary concept which can bring coherence and relevance to chemistry curricula at all educational levels, primary through tertiary. Although chemical identity is not a concept explicitly addressed by traditional chemistry curricula, its understanding can be expected to evolve as students are asked to recognize different types of substances and explore their properties. The goal of this contribution is to characterize students' assumptions about factors that determine chemical identity and to map how core assumptions change with training in the discipline. Our work is based on the review and critical analysis of existing research findings on students' alternative conceptions in chemistry education, and historical and philosophical analyses of chemistry. From this perspective, our analysis contributes to the growing body of research in the area of learning progressions. In particular, it reveals areas in which our understanding of students' ideas about chemical identity is quite robust, but also highlights the existence of major knowledge gaps that should be filled in to better foster student understanding. We provide suggestions in this area and discuss implications for the teaching of chemistry.


    McCarty, M; Avery, O T


    It has been shown that extremely minute amounts of purified preparations of desoxyribonuclease are capable of bringing about the complete and irreversible inactivation of the transforming substance of Pneumococcus Type III. The significance of the effect of the enzyme, and its bearing on the chemical nature of the transforming substance, together with certain considerations concerning the biological specificity of desoxyribonucleic acids in general, are discussed.



    René O. Güemes; Adriana E. Ortolani; María del C. Tiburzi; Falicoff, Claudia B.; José M. Raffaelli; Odetti, Héctor S.


    This research is focused to detect and compare difficulties presented in the comprehension of the topics "Substances" and "Chemical Reactions" in incoming pupils to the National University of the Litoral (Santa Fe, Argentina) implementing two different didactic strategies during the dictation of the "Course of Introduction to Chemistry". We worked with two groups of students; one group used a textbook, while the other worked with multimedia material in a computer classroom. Both groups were e...

  7. Effects of humic substances on the bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Correlations with spectroscopic and chemical properties of humic substances (United States)

    Haitzer, M.; Abbt-Braun, G.; Traunspurger, W.; Steinberg, C.E.W.


    The presence of dissolved humic substances (HS, fulvic and humic acids) generally reduces the uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds into aquatic organisms. The extent of this effect depends both on the concentration and on the origin of the HS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of qualitative differences between HS from different origins. The effects of seven different HS on the bioconcentration of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were related to the spectroscopic and chemical properties of the HS. The effect of each humic material on the bioconcentration of pyrene or BaP was quantified as a 'biologically determined' partition coefficient K(DOC). We observed significant linear relationships between K(DOC) and the atomic H/C ratio, the specific absorptivity at 254 nm, the content of aromatic carbons (as determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the copper-complexing capacity, the content of phenolic OH groups, and the molecular weight of the HS. There was no discernible relationship of K(DOC) with the atomic (N + O)/C ratio, an indicator of the polarity of HS. Taken together, our results show that the variability in the effects of HS from different origins could be related to variations in bulk properties of the HS. Parameters describing the aromaticity of the humic materials seemed to be most useful for estimating effects of HS on the bioconcentration of pyrene and BaP.

  8. Tenth anniversary of the Chemical Substances Act. 10 Jahre Chemikaliengesetz; Bilanz und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, J. (Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)); Arndt, R. (Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitsschutz, Dortmund (Germany)); Bulling, W.B. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Drescher, R.D. (Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)); Elstner, P. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Heinemeyer, G. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Kayser, D. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Lange, A.W. (


    The chemical substances act is ten years old. These ten years have witnessed a stormy development in legislation on chemicals: what was new ground still at the beginning of the eighties, is now a vast area of law complemented by detailed individual regulations at the administrative level, firmly interlocked with the other areas of environmental law, and part of an overall concept for the safety of chemicals enjoying an international reputation. Currently, the chemical substances act is in a phase of inner consolidation and completion. This phase was ushered in by the proposed amendment of 1990, an amendment aimed to eliminate weak points on the basis of first experiences with the implementation of legal requirements existing under EC law. In the second part of this phase, revisions or completions which have meanwhile been effected or are being effected in community law must be integrated. Further legal regulations are to be expected in the area of prohibitions and restrictions. These are, so far, mainly attuned to individual cases and reactive in nature. Most important of all is the development of a uniform and appropriate catalogue of criteria. The aim must be to create the necessary boundary conditions for the use of chemicals in our industrial society ensuring sustainable, environmentally compatible development for a long time to come. (orig./HSCH)

  9. Cruel disease, cruel medicine: self-treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with harmful chemical substances in Suriname. (United States)

    Ramdas, Sahienshadebie


    Why are potentially harmful, non-biomedical chemical substances, such as battery acid, chlorine, herbicides, and insecticides, used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)? What drives people to use these products as medicine? This article is about perceptions of CL, and the quest for a cure, in Suriname, South America. It highlights the associative style of reasoning behind health seeking and discusses the use of harmful chemical substances as medicines. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, affects 1 to 1.5 million people globally. It has a spectrum of clinical manifestations, but the most prominent and disfiguring elements are extensive dermatological ulceration and scar formation from lesions. The data upon which this article is based are derived from anthropological research carried out in different parts of Suriname between September 2009 and December 2010. Data was collected through mainly qualitative methods, including interviewing 205 CL patients using structured questionnaires at the Dermatological Service in the capital Paramaribo. Almost all people with CL said they tried self-treatment, varying from the use of ethno-botanical products to non-biomedical chemical solutions. This article presents and interprets the views and practices of CL patients who sought treatment using harsh chemicals. It argues that a confluence of contextual factors - environmental, occupational, infrastructural, geographical, socio-cultural, economic, socio-psychological - leads to the use of harmful chemical substances to treat CL sores. This study is the first in Suriname - and one of the few done globally - focusing on social and cultural aspects related to CL health seeking. It aims to encourage health policy makers and health professionals to carefully initiate, provide, and evaluate CL treatment and prevention programs.

  10. STUDENT AWARD FINALIST: Plasma Acid: A Chemically and Physically Metastable Substance (United States)

    Shainsky, Natalie; Dobrynin, Danil; Ercan, Utku; Joshi, Suresh; Brooks, Ari; Ji, Haifeng; Fridman, Gregory; Cho, Young; Fridman, Alexander; Friedman, Gennady


    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge applied to the surface of a liquid creates a chemically and physically metastable substance. The properties and lifetime of the substance depend on the treatment conditions such as gas atmosphere and liquid medium used, treatment dose, and other parameters. When deionized water is used, the metastable substance becomes a strong oxidizer. We show that direct exposure of deionized water to neutral and charged species produced in plasma creates a strong oxidizer and acidic substance in this water which, for the lack of a better term, we termed plasma acid. Plasma acid can remain stable for relatively long time and its oxidizing power may be linked to the significant lowering of its pH. We report experiments that demonstrate plasma acid's metastability. We also show that observed pH of as low as 2.0 cannot be completely accounted for by the production of nitric acid; and that the conjugate base derived from superoxide is at least partly responsible for both, lowering of the pH and increase in the oxidizing power of the solution.

  11. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  12. 40 CFR 799.5000 - Testing consent orders for substances and mixtures with Chemical Abstract Service Registry Numbers. (United States)


    ... and mixtures with Chemical Abstract Service Registry Numbers. 799.5000 Section 799.5000 Protection of... Testing consent orders for substances and mixtures with Chemical Abstract Service Registry Numbers. This... adopted under 40 CFR part 790. Listed below in Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Registry Number order...

  13. [International Chemical Safety Cards: information source on hazards caused by chemical substances]. (United States)

    Pakulska, Daria; Czerczak, Sławomir


    International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) are produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) in collaboration with the European Commission and various IPCS-participating institutions in different countries. ICSCs disseminate essential information on chemicals to promote their safe production, transport and use. Application of standard terminology along with relevant criteria facilitates the comparison of risk related to different chemicals, which makes the cards a successful hazard-communication tool. Translation of the cards into various languages all over the world reflects the range of their growing use. A multi-stage compilation of information contained in ICSCs, based on the most up-to-date world literature and professional databases, assures its reliability. Their concise form makes them easy in everyday use as a source of information on chemical safety. The range of information contained in ICSCs corresponds to that provided by Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), however, the former are more concise and simpler. Although ICSCs have no legal status they may complement a 16-point MSDSs and help in the implementation of labeling and classification of chemicals according to the Globally Harmonized System.

  14. Characterization and differentiation of chemical heterogeneity in humic substances by continuous intrinsic proton affinity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.X.; Dong, W.M.; Huang, M.E.; Tao, Z.Y.


    The chemical heterogeneity of proton binding on humic substances was studied via continuous intrinsic proton affinity distributions calculated using the condensation approximation from the master curves for two soil fulvic acids (FAs), one soil humic acid (HA) and one fulvic acid obtained from weathered coal. The master curves, i.e. plots of theta(T.H) (the overall protonation degree) versus Hs (the proton concentration in the diffuse double layer), were obtained from potentiometric titration curves at three ionic strengths. The value of Hs was calculated using an electrical double-layer model in which the humic substances were considered as rigid impermeable spheres. For all four samples, the proton affinity distributions were characterized by a few peaks with peak positions in the range 4-5.5. The similarities and differences between the samples studied were discussed.

  15. Notification of the commission on the eco-toxicity of chemical substances; Avis de la commission d'evaluation de l'ecotoxicite des substances chimiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The french commission on the evaluation of the chemical substances eco-toxicity, published recommendations concerning the use of additives for the automotive fuels, for the cooling circuit of electric power plants and for gases against fire. The risks for the public health are analysed and safety precautions are asked. (A.L.B.)

  16. Goadsporin, a chemical substance which promotes secondary metabolism and morphogenesis in streptomycetes. I. Purification and characterization. (United States)

    Onaka, H; Tabata, H; Igarashi, Y; Sato, Y; Furumai, T


    Streptomycetes, which belong to the Gram-positive bacteria, produce secondary metabolites and sporulate. The timing of starting the secondary metabolite production and the sporulation depends on environmental conditions such as nitrogen and carbon sources. In order to obtain a tool for understanding the regulation mechanism, we carried out screening for chemical substances that induce secondary metabolism and sporulation in streptomycetes and found an active substance from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. TP-A0584. This substance designated goadsporin promoted the formation of red pigment and sporulation at a concentration of 1 microM in Streptomyces lividans TK23 which does not produce the pigment under normal growth conditions. Goadsporin is an oligopeptide consisting of 19 amino acids with the molecular formula C72H97N19020S2. Sporulation and/or secondary metabolite production was induced in 36 streptomycetes strains among 42 strains tested. These results suggest that goadsporin acts on a common regulation pathway for sporulation and secondary metabolism in streptomycetes and can be a powerful tool to analyze the regulation mechanism.

  17. [Relation between oxygen uptake rate and biosorption of activated sludge against chemical substance]. (United States)

    Mihara, Yuichi; Inoue, Tatsuaki; Yokota, Katsushi


    In this study, the elucidation of the toxicity mechanism was undertaken regarding the IC(50) of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) with relevance to the biosorption as a toxicity evaluation of chemical substances for activated sludge (AS). At the IC(50) oflinear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS), alkyl ethoxy sulfonate (AES), alpha-olefine sulfonate (AOS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), formaldehyde (FA), benzalkonium chloride (BZaC), benzethonium chloride (BZeC), rhodamine 6G (R-6G) and fuchsine (Fuc) in which the IC(50) belonged to the 100-1000 mg/l group, when it was compared with CV and MG. In ethanol (EtOH), isopropanol (PrOH), nile blue (NB), evans blue (EB), methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), paraquat (PQ), chlorophyllin (Chl) and auramine (Aur), the IC(50) was large, and the biosorption of AS was weak at 0-15%. The biosorption of MG for AS followed the adsorption isotherm equation Y=0.002X(0.511) of Freundrich. The correlation coefficient was gamma=0.998 (n=8), and a very high correlation was obtained. In the qualitative OUR curve by AS pretreated with MG or CV which belonged to the IC(50) small group, the inhibition of remarkable OUR was observed. Therefore, the findings of the present investigation suggest that the inhibition of the OUR for AS by the tested chemical substances was markedly affected by the biosorption.

  18. What Is This Substance? What Makes It Different? Mapping Progression in Students' Assumptions about Chemical Identity (United States)

    Ngai, Courtney; Sevian, Hannah; Talanquer, Vicente


    Given the diversity of materials in our surroundings, one should expect scientifically literate citizens to have a basic understanding of the core ideas and practices used to analyze chemical substances. In this article, we use the term 'chemical identity' to encapsulate the assumptions, knowledge, and practices upon which chemical…

  19. Concentration of 'forgotten' substances using the XAD concentration method. Suitability of the method for hydrophilic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collombon MT; LER


    Concentration of forgotten substances using the XAD concentration method In the nineties, RIVM developed a method to concentrate toxic substances on XAD (a synthetic resin). Using bioassays, the toxicity can be determined in the concentrate. 'Modern' toxic substances tend to be more polar then 'clas

  20. Colour quantitation for chemical spot tests for a controlled substances presumptive test database. (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M; Weghorst, Alex C; Quinn, Alicia A; Acharya, Subrata


    Crime scene investigators (CSIs) often encounter unknown powders, capsules, tablets, and liquids at crime scenes, many of which are controlled substances. Because most drugs are white powders, however, visual determination of the chemical identity is difficult. Colourimetric tests are a well-established method of presumptive drug identification. Positive tests are often reported differently, however, because two analysts may perceive colour or record colourimetric results in different ways. In addition to perceiving colour differently, it is very common for there to be poor visibility conditions (e.g. rain, darkness) while performing these tests, further obscuring the results. In order to address these concerns and to create uniformity in the reporting of on-site colourimetric test results, this study has evaluated two of the state-of-the-art apps (ColorAssist® and Colorimeter®) for reporting the colour test results quantitatively in red-green-blue (RGB) format. The compiled library database of presumptive test results contains over 3300 data points including over 800 unique drug/test combinations. Variations observed between test replicates, from performing a test on different days, recording with a different device type (e.g. iPod Touch, iPhone models 4, 5c, 5s, or 6), and using different quantities of drug are discussed. Overall, the least variation in Euclidian norm was observed using ColorAssist® with the camera light (25.1±22.1) while the variation between replicates and data recorded using different devices was similar. The resulting library is uploaded to a smartphone application aimed to aid in identifying and interpreting suspected controlled substance evidence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Assessing the potential hazard of chemical substances for the terrestrial environment. Development of hazard classification criteria and quantitative environmental indicators. (United States)

    Tarazona, J V; Fresno, A; Aycard, S; Ramos, C; Vega, M M; Carbonell, G


    Hazard assessment constitutes an essential tool in order to evaluate the potential effects of chemical substances on organisms and ecosystems. It includes as a first step, hazard identification, which must detect the potential dangers of the substance (i.e. the kind of effects that the substance may produce), and a second step to quantify each danger and to set the expected dose/response relationships. Hazard assessment plays a key role in the regulation of chemical substances, including pollution control and sustainable development. However, the aquatic environment has largely received more attention than terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents the extrapolation of several basic concepts from the aquatic to the terrestrial compartment, and suggests possibilities for their regulatory use. Two specific proposals are discussed. The first focuses on the scientific basis of the hazard identification-classification criteria included in the EU regulations and their extrapolation to the terrestrial environment. The second focuses on the OECD programme for environmental indicators and the development of a soil pollution pressure indicator to quantify the potential hazards for the soil compartment and its associated terrestrial ecosystem related to the toxic chemicals applied deliberately (i.e. pesticides) or not (i.e. heavy metals in sludge-based fertilisers; industrial spills) to the soil.

  2. Comparison of some chemical and physico-chemical properties of natural and model sodium humates and of the biological activity of both substances in tomato water cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gumiński


    Full Text Available Natural humate from compost and the model sunstance obtained from p-benzoquinone were dissolved in an acetone-water mixture and subjected to chromatography on a column of aluminium oxide. Similar fractions were obtained which were chemically and spectrophotometrically investigated for the content of functional groups. The particle size of these substances was determined by filtration on Sephadex molecular sieves. Experiments were performed with tomato in water cultures on stagnant nutrient solution. The biological activity of the corresponding fractions of natural and model humates was found to be analogous. The results are discussed and confronted with functional groups content and particle size of the respective substances.

  3. Development of a new QSPR based tool to predict explosibility properties of chemical substances within the framework of REACH and GHS


    Fayet, Guillaume; ROTUREAU, Patricia; Joubert, Laurent; Adamo, Carlo


    International audience; The new European régulation of Chemicals named REACH (for "Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals") turned out in the practical registration phase in December 2008. It requires the new assessment of hazard properties for up to 140000 substances. In this context, the development of alternative prédictive methods for assessing hazardous properties of chemical substances is promoted in REACH and in the related new European classification System of substan...

  4. Extraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from anaerobic granular sludges: comparison of chemical and physical extraction protocols



    The characteristics of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted with nine different extraction protocols from four different types of anaerobic granular sludge were studied. The efficiency of four physical (sonication, heating, cationic exchange resin (CER), and CER associated with sonication) and four chemical (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ethanol, formaldehyde combined with heating, or NaOH) EPS extraction methods was compared to a control extraction protocols (i.e., centr...

  5. 77 FR 48858 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances (United States)


    ... (non-confidential) use of the substance will be as a surfactant additive for dispersive use in fire fighting foams and vapor suppressing foams. In addition, EPA has concerns for the formation of...

  6. 77 FR 42990 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances (United States)


    ... review of EPA's risk assessment in the 5(e) consent order and the extensive experience of the Color..., paragraph (b)(2) of the NCEL of the consent order for the PMN substances contains an automatic sunset...

  7. 75 FR 29429 - Revocation of Significant New Use Rule on a Certain Chemical Substance (United States)


    ... identification, pass through a metal detector, and sign the EPA visitor log. All visitor bags are processed... testing, EPA has determined that the substance is readily biodegradable, mitigating concerns for...

  8. Physico-chemical characterization of secondary organic aerosol derived from catechol and guaiacol as a model substance for atmospheric humic-like substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ofner


    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol was produced from the aromatic precursors catechol and guaiacol by reaction with ozone in the presence and absence of simulated sunlight and humidity and investigated for its properties as a proxy for humic-like substances (HULIS. Beside a small particle size, a relatively low molecular weight and typical optical features in the UV/VIS spectral range, HULIS contain a typical aromatic and/or olefinic chemical structure and highly oxidized functional groups within a high chemical diversity. Various methods were used to characterize the secondary organic aerosols obtained: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR demonstrated the formation of different carbonyl containing functional groups as well as structural and functional differences between aerosols formed at different environmental conditions. UV/VIS spectroscopy of filter samples showed that the particulate matter absorbs far into the visible range up to more than 500 nm. Ultrahigh resolved mass spectroscopy (ICR-FT/MS determined O/C-ratios between 0.3 and 1 and main molecular weights between 200 and 500 Da. Temperature-programmed-pyrolysis mass spectroscopy identified carboxylic acids and lactones as major functional groups. Particle sizing using CNC-DMPS demonstrated the formation of small particles during a secondary organic aerosol formation process. Particle imaging using field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM showed spherical particles, forming clusters and chains. Hence, secondary organic aerosols from catechol and guaiacol are appropriate model substances for studies of the processing of aromatic secondary organic aerosols and atmospheric HULIS on the laboratory scale.

  9. Analysis of determination modalities concerning the exposure and emission limits values of chemical and radioactive substances; Analyse des modalites de fixation des valeurs limites d'exposition et d'emission pour les substances chimiques et radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T


    This document presents the generic approach adopted by various organizations for the determination of the public exposure limits values to chemical and radioactive substances and for the determination of limits values of chemical products emissions by some installations. (A.L.B.)

  10. "New drug" designations for new therapeutic entities: new active substance, new chemical entity, new biological entity, new molecular entity. (United States)

    Branch, Sarah K; Agranat, Israel


    This Perspective addresses ambiguities in designations of "new drugs" intended as new therapeutic entities (NTEs). Designation of an NTE as a new drug is significant, as it may confer regulatory exclusivity, an important incentive for development of novel compounds. Such designations differ between jurisdictions according to their drug laws and drug regulations. Chemical, biological, and innovative drugs are addressed in turn. The terms new chemical entity (NCE), new molecular entity (NME), new active substance (NAS), and new biological entity (NBE) as applied in worldwide jurisdictions are clarified. Differences between them are explored through case studies showing why new drugs have different periods of exclusivity in different jurisdictions or none at all. Finally, this Perspective recommends that in future, for the purpose of new drug compilations, NME is used for a new chemical drug, NBE for a new biological drug, and the combined designation NTE should refer to either an NME or an NBE.

  11. 77 FR 15234 - Controlled Substances and List I Chemical Registration and Reregistration Fees (United States)


    ... overall strengths and weaknesses in recovering the full costs of the DCP. Based on the analysis provided... control of the manufacture, distribution, dispensing, importation, and exportation of controlled... Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (CSIEA) (21 U.S.C. 801-971), as amended (hereinafter,...

  12. 78 FR 38210 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances (United States)


    ... then apply in vitro and in silico methods within an integrated test strategy. In the event that... activity. Previously, in the Federal Register issue of December 28, 2011 (76 FR 81447) (FRL-9326-2), EPA... substance. The reasonably anticipated manner and methods of manufacturing, processing, distribution...

  13. 77 FR 20296 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances (United States)


    ... polyurethane foam catalyst. Based on test data on the PMN substance, EPA identified concerns for dermal...) analysis of test data on analogous aliphatic amines and phenol-amines, EPA predicts toxicity to aquatic... of test data on analogous aliphatic amines and phenol-amines, EPA predicts toxicity to...

  14. Relative absorption and dermal loading of chemical substances: Consequences for risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Schaafsma, G.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de


    Quantification of skin absorption is an essential step in reducing the uncertainty of dermal risk assessment. Data from literature indicate that the relative dermal absorption of substances is dependent on dermal loading. Therefore, an internal exposure calculated with absorption data determined at

  15. 78 FR 39340 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. (United States)


    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 126 (Monday, July 1, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 39340] [FR Doc No: 2013-15604] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances..., Office of Diversion Control, Drug Enforcement Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-15604 Filed 6-28-13; 8:45...

  16. 78 FR 4446 - Exempt Chemical Preparations Under the Controlled Substances Act (United States)


    ...). American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc... 1,1-Dimethyltryptamine (1 mg/ Vial: 1 mL 12/22/2011 mL). American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc... 1,1-Dimethyltryptamine Vial: 1 mL 12/22/2011 -3H] as TFA salt....

  17. History of EPI Suite™ and future perspectives on chemical property estimation in US Toxic Substances Control Act new chemical risk assessments. (United States)

    Card, Marcella L; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Lee, Wen-Hsiung; Lynch, David G; Orentas, Nerija S; Lee, Mari Titcombe; Wong, Edmund M; Boethling, Robert S


    Chemical property estimation is a key component in many industrial, academic, and regulatory activities, including in the risk assessment associated with the approximately 1000 new chemical pre-manufacture notices the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) receives annually. The US EPA evaluates fate, exposure and toxicity under the 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act (amended by the 2016 Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21(st) Century Act), which does not require test data with new chemical applications. Though the submission of data is not required, the US EPA has, over the past 40 years, occasionally received chemical-specific data with pre-manufacture notices. The US EPA has been actively using this and publicly available data to develop and refine predictive computerized models, most of which are housed in EPI Suite™, to estimate chemical properties used in the risk assessment of new chemicals. The US EPA develops and uses models based on (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ([Q]SARs) to estimate critical parameters. As in any evolving field, (Q)SARs have experienced successes, suffered failures, and responded to emerging trends. Correlations of a chemical structure with its properties or biological activity were first demonstrated in the late 19(th) century and today have been encapsulated in a myriad of quantitative and qualitative SARs. The development and proliferation of the personal computer in the late 20(th) century gave rise to a quickly increasing number of property estimation models, and continually improved computing power and connectivity among researchers via the internet are enabling the development of increasingly complex models.

  18. A chemical risk ranking and scoring method for the selection of harmful substances to be specially controlled in occupational environments. (United States)

    Shin, Saemi; Moon, Hyung-Il; Lee, Kwon Seob; Hong, Mun Ki; Byeon, Sang-Hoon


    This study aimed to devise a method for prioritizing hazardous chemicals for further regulatory action. To accomplish this objective, we chose appropriate indicators and algorithms. Nine indicators from the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals were used to identify categories to which the authors assigned numerical scores. Exposure indicators included handling volume, distribution, and exposure level. To test the method devised by this study, sixty-two harmful substances controlled by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in Korea, including acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and styrene were ranked using this proposed method. The correlation coefficients between total score and each indicator ranged from 0.160 to 0.641, and those between total score and hazard indicators ranged from 0.603 to 0.641. The latter were higher than the correlation coefficients between total score and exposure indicators, which ranged from 0.160 to 0.421. Correlations between individual indicators were low (-0.240 to 0.376), except for those between handling volume and distribution (0.613), suggesting that each indicator was not strongly correlated. The low correlations between each indicator mean that the indicators and independent and were well chosen for prioritizing harmful chemicals. This method proposed by this study can improve the cost efficiency of chemical management as utilized in occupational regulatory systems.

  19. A Chemical Risk Ranking and Scoring Method for the Selection of Harmful Substances to be Specially Controlled in Occupational Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saemi Shin


    Full Text Available This study aimed to devise a method for prioritizing hazardous chemicals for further regulatory action. To accomplish this objective, we chose appropriate indicators and algorithms. Nine indicators from the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals were used to identify categories to which the authors assigned numerical scores. Exposure indicators included handling volume, distribution, and exposure level. To test the method devised by this study, sixty-two harmful substances controlled by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in Korea, including acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and styrene were ranked using this proposed method. The correlation coefficients between total score and each indicator ranged from 0.160 to 0.641, and those between total score and hazard indicators ranged from 0.603 to 0.641. The latter were higher than the correlation coefficients between total score and exposure indicators, which ranged from 0.160 to 0.421. Correlations between individual indicators were low (−0.240 to 0.376, except for those between handling volume and distribution (0.613, suggesting that each indicator was not strongly correlated. The low correlations between each indicator mean that the indicators and independent and were well chosen for prioritizing harmful chemicals. This method proposed by this study can improve the cost efficiency of chemical management as utilized in occupational regulatory systems.

  20. CRIM-TRACK: sensor system for detection of criminal chemical substances (United States)

    Munk, Jens K.; Buus, Ole T.; Larsen, Jan; Dossi, Eleftheria; Tatlow, Sol; Lässig, Lina; Sandström, Lars; Jakobsen, Mogens H.


    Detection of illegal compounds requires a reliable, selective and sensitive detection device. The successful device features automated target acquisition, identification and signal processing. It is portable, fast, user friendly, sensitive, specific, and cost efficient. LEAs are in need of such technology. CRIM-TRACK is developing a sensing device based on these requirements. We engage highly skilled specialists from research institutions, industry, SMEs and LEAs and rely on a team of end users to benefit maximally from our prototypes. Currently we can detect minute quantities of drugs, explosives and precursors thereof in laboratory settings. Using colorimetric technology we have developed prototypes that employ disposable sensing chips. Ease of operation and intuitive sensor response are highly prioritized features that we implement as we gather data to feed into machine learning. With machine learning our ability to detect threat compounds amidst harmless substances improves. Different end users prefer their equipment optimized for their specific field. In an explosives-detecting scenario, the end user may prefer false positives over false negatives, while the opposite may be true in a drug-detecting scenario. Such decisions will be programmed to match user preference. Sensor output can be as detailed as the sensor allows. The user can be informed of the statistics behind the detection, identities of all detected substances, and quantities thereof. The response can also be simplified to "yes" vs. "no". The technology under development in CRIM-TRACK will provide custom officers, police and other authorities with an effective tool to control trafficking of illegal drugs and drug precursors.

  1. [The disturbances of the thyroid hormone homeostasis caused by chemical substances occurring in natural environment]. (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Doroszewska, Katarzyna; Mrozińska, Sandra; Milewicz, Tomasz; Stochmal, Ewa; Krzysiek, Józef


    The thyroid is an endocrine gland synthesizing, storaging and secreting thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Currently, there are more and more reports and evidences that various chemical contaminants present in the environment, mainly polychlorinated biphenyls, interfere with stages of regulation, synthesis, secretion, transport of thyroid hormones. That can have a significant negative impact on the human body's endocrine homeostasis.

  2. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Ellegaard, Ole


    Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract...

  3. The Developing Brain: A Largely Overlooked Health Endpoint in Risk Assessments for Synthetic Chemical Substances (United States)

    McElgunn, Barbara


    A large body of experimental animal research on the neurotoxic effects of certain environmental chemicals provides evidence of a cascade of neurobehavioural effects including learning deficits, hyperactivity, anxiety, depression, lack of motivation, increased aggressiveness, altered maternal care and bonding, and an over-reaction to small…

  4. 76 FR 81447 - Proposed Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances (United States)


    ... mechanical properties of rubbers, plastics, and lubricants; and a compound for use as an additive to increase... soluble particulates, including some carbon-based nano-sized chemicals, and test data correlating lung... device, and a compound that improves the mechanical properties of lubricants and plastics (P-09-142,...

  5. 13C-NMR chemical shift databases as a quick tool to evaluate structural models of humic substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop Albers, Christian; Hansen, Poul Erik


    Models for humic and fulvic acids are discussed based on 13C liquid state NMR spectra combined with results from elemental analysis and titration studies. The analysis of NMR spectra is based on a full reconstruction of the NMR spectrum done with help of 13C-NMR data bases by adding up chemical...... side missing structural elements in the models can be suggested. A number of proposed structures for humic and fulvic acids are discussed based on the above analysis....... shifts of all substructures from the proposed models. A full reconstruction makes sure that all carbons are accounted for and enables on the negative side to discuss structural elements identified from recorded spectra of humic substances that cannot be observed in the simulated spectrum. On the positive...

  6. Migration of humus substances from soil to water and the main chemical reaction (in different natural zone of Russian Federation) (United States)

    Dinu, Marina; Moiseenko, Tatiana; Gashkina, Natalia; Kremleva, Tatiana


    Migration of humus substances (HS) from soil to natural water has zonal specificity. Soil HS of different natural areas characterized by specific functional features, different molecular weight (MW) distribution and other physicochemical parameters. Due to the specifics of formation, waters in Russia widely distributed colored water with high concentrations of humus substances. HS involved in many chemical reactions in natural waters/soil. The most important: 1.Dissociation, association and same destruction - reactions are particularly important for assessing the acidification of natural waters 2.Complexation with metals - reactions reduce the toxicity of most metals We researched the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition of soil HS catchment and HS in natural waters of some climatic zones. Samples were taking: the mixing zone forests (sod-podzolic soils) and the steppe zone (black earth) European Territory of Russia (ETR). In order to examine process of migration humus substances from soil to water have been performed HPLC, IR spectrometry and mass spectrometry analyses. We funded change of HS structure and MW in soil/water. The water HS of the mixed forest characterized as same ratio of functional groups as soil catchments. The molecular weight distribution in water - predominate medium (500-1000 kDa), and low molecular weight fractions (soils. In HS catchment soils predominate nitrogen- and sulfur- functional group and in HS water - nitrogen-, oxygen- functional group. The molecular weight of HS in natural waters is macromolecular fractions ( > 1000 kDa). For evaluating of the acidification effect on structures of humic substances in natural waters/soil we used date of survey more than 300 lakes on the European Russia (ETP) and Western Siberia (WS) for assessing chemical parameters. Chemical analyzes of water samples were performed by a single method in accordance with the recommendations ICP-Water report 105/2010, 2010. We researched HS

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis in root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carneiro Valera


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. Material and Methods: Seventy-two human tooth roots were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days. The groups were divided according to the auxiliary chemical substance into: G1 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, G2 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX, G3 castor oil, G4 glycolic Aloe vera extract, G5 glycolic ginger extract, and G6 sterile saline (control. The samples of the root canal were collected at different intervals: confirmation collection, at 21 days after contamination; 1st collection, after instrumentation; and 2nd collection, seven days after instrumentation. Microbiological samples were grown in culture medium and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Results: The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn (5% statistical tests. NaOCl and CHX completely eliminated the microorganisms of the root canals. Castor oil and ginger significantly reduced the number of CFU of the tested bacteria. Reduction of CFU/mL at the 1st and 2nd collections for groups G1, G2, G3 and G4 was greater in comparison to groups G5 and G6. Conclusion: It was concluded that 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gel were more effective in eliminating C. albicans and E. faecalis, followed by the castor oil and glycolic ginger extract. The Aloe vera extract showed no antimicrobial activity.

  8. Raising awareness of new psychoactive substances: chemical analysis and in vitro toxicity screening of 'legal high' packages containing synthetic cathinones. (United States)

    Araújo, Ana Margarida; Valente, Maria João; Carvalho, Márcia; Dias da Silva, Diana; Gaspar, Helena; Carvalho, Félix; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Guedes de Pinho, Paula


    The world's status quo on recreational drugs has dramatically changed in recent years due to the rapid emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), represented by new narcotic or psychotropic drugs, in pure form or in preparation, which are not controlled by international conventions, but that may pose a public health threat comparable with that posed by substances listed in these conventions. These NPS, also known as 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs', are typically sold via Internet or 'smartshops' as legal alternatives to controlled substances, being announced as 'bath salts' and 'plant feeders' and is often sought after for consumption especially among young people. Although NPS have the biased reputation of being safe, the vast majority has hitherto not been tested and several fatal cases have been reported, namely for synthetic cathinones, with pathological patterns comparable with amphetamines. Additionally, the unprecedented speed of appearance and distribution of the NPS worldwide brings technical difficulties in the development of analytical procedures and risk assessment in real time. In this study, 27 products commercialized as 'plant feeders' were chemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was also evaluated, for the first time, the in vitro hepatotoxic effects of individual synthetic cathinones, namely methylone, pentedrone, 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Two commercial mixtures ('Bloom' and 'Blow') containing mainly cathinone derivatives were also tested, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was used as the reference drug. The study allowed the identification of 19 compounds, showing that synthetic cathinones are the main active compounds present in these products. Qualitative and quantitative variability was found in products sold with the same trade name in matching or different 'smartshops'. In the toxicity studies performed in

  9. Some new psychoactive substances: precursor chemicals and synthesis-driven end-products. (United States)

    Collins, Michael


    This paper describes some of the new classes of 'designer drugs' being encountered today by forensic scientists and law enforcement agencies in Europe, the United States, and Australia. In particular, it concentrates on new cathinone derivatives, the tryptamines, new-generation phenethylamines, and some of the synthetic cannabinoids. The synthetic approaches towards many of these designer drugs including a discussion of the chemical precursors used in the syntheses are presented. Many of today's so-called designer drugs exist as a result of legitimate research into medical conditions and the natural product chemistry. A link between synthetic approaches published in the open scientific and medical literature and the exploitation of this research by clandestine manufacture of drugs for illicit purposes is drawn.

  10. [A system for predicting the toxicity and hazard of chemical substances, based on the joint use of logistic and numerical methods]. (United States)

    Kharchevnikova, N V


    A version of a logical combinatorial intellectual system (DMS system) has been developed to predict the toxicity and hazards of chemical substances. The system is based on the combined description of the substances, which includes both structural and numerical descriptors, particularly those characterizing the reactivity of compounds or their metabolites. The selection of numerical descriptors is based on the classification of processes of the interaction of the substance with the body in accordance with the key stage of the mechanism responsible for its toxic action. The new version of the DSM system takes into account the fact that the toxicity and hazard of chemicals are frequently determined by their bioactivation. Examples of how to apply the system to the prediction of carcinogenicity are given.

  11. Tracking chemicals in products around the world: introduction of a dynamic substance flow analysis model and application to PCBs. (United States)

    Li, Li; Wania, Frank


    Dynamically tracking flows and stocks of problematic chemicals in products (CiPs) in the global anthroposphere is essential to understanding their environmental fates and risks. The complex behavior of CiPs during production, use and waste disposal makes this a challenging task. Here we introduce and describe a dynamic substance flow model, named Chemicals in Products - Comprehensive Anthropospheric Fate Estimation (CiP-CAFE), which facilitates the quantification of time-variant flows and stocks of CiPs within and between seven interconnected world regions and the generation of global scale emission estimates. We applied CiP-CAFE to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), first to evaluate its ability to reproduce previously reported global-scale atmospheric emission inventories and second to illustrate its potential applications and merits. CiP-CAFE quantifies the pathways of PCBs during production, use and waste disposal stages, thereby deducing the temporal evolution of in-use and waste stocks and identifying their long-term final sinks. Time-variant estimates of PCB emissions into air, water and soil can be attributed to different processes and be fed directly into a global fate and transport model. By capturing the international movement of PCBs as technical chemicals, and in products and waste, CiP-CAFE reveals that the extent of global dispersal caused by humans is larger than that occurring in the natural environment. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the model output is most sensitive to the PCB production volume and the lifetime of PCB-containing products, suggesting that a shortening of that lifetime is key to reducing future PCB emissions.

  12. Different scale experimental techniques to approach the problem of substances generated in the loss of control of chemical systems: a study on ethyl diazoacetate decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsanich, K.; Barontini, F.; Cozzani, V.; Creemers, A.F.L.; Kersten, R.J.A.


    Article 2 of European Community Directive 96/82/EC (known as 'Seveso-II' Directive) also requires consideration in the plant inventory of the dangerous substances 'which it is believed may be generated in the loss of control of an industrial chemical process'. The present study was directed to the f

  13. Groundwater contamination by microbiological and chemical substances released from hospital wastewater: health risk assessment for drinking water consumers. (United States)

    Emmanuel, Evens; Pierre, Marie Gisèle; Perrodin, Yves


    Contamination of natural aquatic ecosystems by hospital wastewater is a major environmental and human health issue. Disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, radionuclides and solvents are widely used in hospitals for medical purposes and research. After application, some of these substances combine with hospital effluents and, in industrialised countries, reach the municipal sewer network. In certain developing countries, hospitals usually discharge their wastewater into septic tanks equipped with diffusion wells. The discharge of chemical compounds from hospital activities into the natural environment can lead to the pollution of water resources and risks for human health. The aim of this article is to present: (i) the steps of a procedure intended to evaluate risks to human health linked to hospital effluents discharged into a septic tank equipped with a diffusion well; and (ii) the results of its application on the effluents of a hospital in Port-au-Prince. The procedure is based on a scenario that describes the discharge of hospital effluents, via septic tanks, into a karstic formation where water resources are used for human consumption. COD, Chloroform, dichlomethane, dibromochloromethane, dichlorobromomethane and bromoform contents were measured. Furthermore, the presence of heavy metals (chrome, nickel and lead) and faecal coliforms were studied. Maximum concentrations were 700 NPP/100 ml for faecal coliforms and 112 mg/L for COD. A risk of infection of 10(-5) infection per year was calculated. Major chemical risks, particularly for children, relating to Pb(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI) and Ni(II) contained in the ground water were also characterised. Certain aspects of the scenario studied require improvement, especially those relating to the characterisation of drugs in groundwater and the detection of other microbiological indicators such as protozoa, enterococcus and viruses.

  14. The role of extracellular polymeric substances in the toxicity response of activated sludge bacteria to chemical toxins. (United States)

    Henriques, Inês D S; Love, Nancy G


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the respiration inhibition induced by octanol, cadmium, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and cyanide on activated sludge biomasses with different floc structures but similar physiological characteristics. Mechanical shearing was applied to fresh mixed liquor to produce biomasses with different floc structure properties. Specific oxygen uptake rate assays were conducted on the sheared and unsheared mixed liquors. The results showed that mechanical shearing resulted in release of biopolymers from the floc extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix into the bulk liquid and a simultaneous reduction in floc size. Shearing did not impact biomass viability. The respiration inhibition by octanol and cadmium was more severe in sheared mixed liquor than in the unsheared biomass. Conversely, the respiration inhibition induced by NEM and cyanide was similar for the different mixed liquors tested. We conclude that the EPS matrix functions as a protective barrier for the bacteria inside activated sludge flocs to chemicals that it has the potential to interact with, such as hydrophobic (octanol) and positively charged (cadmium) compounds, but that the toxicity response for soluble, hydrophilic toxins (NEM and cyanide) is not influenced by the presence of the polymer matrix.

  15. Detection of chemical substances in water using an oxide nanowire transistor covered with a hydrophobic nanoparticle thin film as a liquid-vapour separation filter (United States)

    Lim, Taekyung; Lee, Jonghun; Ju, Sanghyun


    We have developed a method to detect the presence of small amounts of chemical substances in water, using a Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film covered with phosphonic acid (HDF-PA) self-assembled monolayer. The HDF-PA self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film acts as a liquid-vapour separation filter, allowing the passage of chemical vapour while blocking liquids. Prevention of the liquid from contacting the SnO2 nanowire and source-drain electrodes is required in order to avoid abnormal operation. Using this characteristic, the concentration of chemical substances in water could be evaluated by measuring the current changes in the SnO2 nanowire transistor covered with the HDF-PA self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film.

  16. Review of the state of the art of human biomonitoring for chemical substances and its application to human exposure assessment for food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Judy; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Polcher, Alexandra


    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the levels of substances in body fluids and tissues. Many countries have conducted HBM studies, yet little is known about its application towards chemical risk assessment, particularly in relation to food safety. Therefore a literature search was performed...... safety areas (namely exposure assessment), and for the implementation of a systematic PMM approach. But further work needs to be done to improve usability. Major deficits are the lack of HBM guidance values on a considerable number of substance groups, for which health based guidance values (HBGVs) have...

  17. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and other substances of concern in food contact materials: an updated review of exposure, effect and risk assessment. (United States)

    Muncke, Jane


    Food contact materials (FCM) are an underestimated source of chemical food contaminants and a potentially relevant route of human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Quantifying the exposure of the general population to substances from FCM relies on estimates of food consumption and leaching into food. Recent studies using polycarbonate plastics show that food simulants do not always predict worst-case leaching of bisphenol A, a common FCM substance. Also, exposure of children to FCM substances is not always realistically predicted using the common conventions and thus possibly misjudged. Further, the exposure of the whole population to substances leaching into dry foods is underestimated. Consumers are exposed to low levels of substances from FCM across their entire lives. Effects of these compounds currently are assessed with a focus on mutagenicity and genotoxicity. This approach however neglects integrating recent new toxicological findings, like endocrine disruption, mixture toxicity, and developmental toxicity. According to these new toxicology paradigms women of childbearing age and during pregnancy are a new sensitive population group requiring more attention. Furthermore, in overweight and obese persons a change in the metabolism of xenobiotics is observed, possibly implying that this group of consumers is insufficiently protected by current risk assessment practice. Innovations in FCM risk assessment should therefore include routine testing for EDCs and an assessment of the whole migrate toxicity of a food packaging, taking into account all sensitive population groups. In this article I focus on recent issues of interest concerning either exposure to or effects of FCM-related substances. Further, I review the use of benzophenones and organotins, two groups of known or suspected EDCs, in FCM authorized in the US and EU.

  18. Dose-response modeling : Evaluation, application, and development of procedures for benchmark dose analysis in health risk assessment of chemical substances


    Sand, Salomon


    In this thesis, dose-response modeling and procedures for benchmark dose (BMD) analysis in health risk assessment of chemical substances have been investigated. The BMD method has been proposed as an alternative to the NOAEL (no-observedadverse- effect-level) approach in health risk assessment of non-genotoxic agents. According to the BMD concept, a dose-response model is fitted to data and the BMD is defined as the dose causing a predetermined change in response. A lowe...

  19. Extraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from anaerobic granular sludges: comparison of chemical and physical extraction protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abzac, D' P.; Bordas, F.; Hullebusch, E.; Lens, P.N.L.; Guibaud, G.


    The characteristics of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted with nine different extraction protocols from four different types of anaerobic granular sludge were studied. The efficiency of four physical (sonication, heating, cationic exchange resin (CER), and CER associated with son

  20. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on the project for research and development of an intellectual base creating and utilizing technology. Research and development of standard substances related to internal secretion disturbing chemical substances (researches on preservation stability and the valuing methods related to pure substance standard substances, mixed standard substances and composition type standard substances); 1999 nendo chiteki kiban sosei riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Naibunpi kakuran kagaku busshitsu kanren hyojun busshitsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (junbusshitsu hyojun, kongo hyojun oyobi soseigata hyojun busshitsu ni kakawaru hozon anteisei, nezuke hoho nado ni tsuite no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1999 on researching and developing standard substances related to internal secretion disturbing chemical substances. Environmental contamination due to environmental hormones has a large number of scientifically unclear points. These points are related to the basic conditions for the existence of living organisms, whereas serious impacts transcending the generations are feared. In addition, the environmental hormones have been observed in water quality, water bottom quality, and living environments for aquatic animals. Standardization in technologies to measure them, and arrangement of standard substances are demanded strongly. Based on these circumstances, evaluations were given on the following matters: determination of purity of the reference substances with regard to the standard solutions of di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diethyl phthalate among the standard substances required for the measurement, establishment of methods for measuring impurities and preparing the standard solutions, establishment of the methods to measure concentrations of the standard solutions, and the preservation stability of the standard solutions. As a result, standard solutions with accurate concentrations and excellent stability were developed. In addition, development was performed on the composition type standard substance for which a certified value was given to PCB in soil. (NEDO)

  1. Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 02 June 1978 - 02 June 1979 (NODC Accession 8000002) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from June 2, 1978...

  2. Current direction, chemical, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 09 September 1978 - 19 November 1979 (NODC Accession 8000043) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and chemical data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  3. Current direction, benthic organisms, zooplankton, chemical, toxis substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 24 March 1981 - 19 February 1982 (NODC Accession 8200129) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, zooplankton, chemical, toxic substances, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments...

  4. Chemical, benthic organisms, zooplankton, marine toxic substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 30 August 1979 - 21 September 1981 (NODC Accession 8200012) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, marine toxic substances, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf...

  5. Recommendations on chemicals management policy and legislation in the framework of the Egyptian-German twinning project on hazardous substances and waste management. (United States)

    Wagner, Burkhard O; Aziz, Elham Refaat Abdel; Schwetje, Anja; Shouk, Fatma Abou; Koch-Jugl, Juliane; Braedt, Michael; Choudhury, Keya; Weber, Roland


    The sustainable management of chemicals and their associated wastes-especially legacy stockpiles-is always challenging. Developing countries face particular difficulties as they often have insufficient treatment and disposal capacity, have limited resources and many lack an appropriate and effective regulatory framework. This paper describes the objectives and the approach of the Egyptian-German Twinning Project under the European Neighbourhood Policy to improve the strategy of managing hazardous substances in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) between November 2008 and May 2011. It also provides an introduction to the Republic of Egypt's legal and administrative system regarding chemical controls. Subsequently, options for a new chemical management strategy consistent with the recommendations of the United Nations Chemicals Conventions are proposed. The Egyptian legal and administrative system is discussed in relation to the United Nations' recommendations and current European Union legislation for the sound management of chemicals. We also discuss a strategy for the EEAA to use the existing Egyptian legal system to implement the United Nations' Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the Stockholm Convention and other proposed regulatory frameworks. The analysis, the results, and the recommendations presented may be useful for other developing countries in a comparable position to Egypt aspiring to update their legislation and administration to the international standards of sound management of chemicals.


    In this chapter we review the literature on scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (VR), and computational chemistry and our earlier work dealing with modeling lignin, lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC), humic substances (HSs) and non-bonded organo-mineral interactions...

  7. Approach to Classifying "Design" Drugs and New Potentially Dangerous Chemical Substances, with a Brief Review of the Problem (United States)

    Asadullin, Azat R.; Galeeva, Elena Kh.; Achmetova, Elvina A.; Nikolaev, Ivan V.


    The urgency of this study has become vivid in the light of the growing problem of prevalence and use of new synthetic drug types. Lately there has been a tendency of expanding the range of psychologically active substances (PAS) used by addicts with the purpose of their illegal taking. The aim of this research is an attempt of systematizing and…

  8. Chemical and light absorption properties of humic-like substances from biomass burning emissions under controlled combustion experiments (United States)

    Park, Seung Shik; Yu, Jaemyeong


    PM2.5 samples from biomass burning (BB) emissions of three types - rice straw (RS), pine needles (PN), and sesame stems (SS) - were collected through laboratory-controlled combustion experiments and analyzed for the mass, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), humic-like substances (HULIS), and water soluble inorganic species (Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and oxalate). The combustion experiments were carried out at smoldering conditions. Water-soluble HULIS in BB samples was isolated using a one-step solid phase extraction method, followed by quantification with a total organic carbon analyzer. This study aims to explore chemical and light absorption characteristics of HULIS from BB emissions. The contributions of HULIS (=1.94 × HULIS-C) to PM2.5 emissions were observed to be 29.5 ± 2.0, 15.3 ± 3.1, and 25.8 ± 4.0%, respectively, for RS, PN, and SS smoke samples. Contributions of HULIS-C to OC and WSOC for the RS, PN, and SS burning emissions were 0.26 ± 0.03 and 0.63 ± 0.05, 0.15 ± 0.04 and 0.36 ± 0.08, and 0.29 ± 0.08 and 0.51 ± 0.08, respectively. Light absorption by the water extracts from BB aerosols exhibited strong wavelength dependence, which is characteristic of brown carbon spectra with a sharply increasing absorption as wavelength decreases. The average absorption Ångström exponents (AAE) of the water extracts (WSOC) fitted between wavelengths of 300-400 nm were 8.3 (7.4-9.0), 7.4 (6.2-8.5), and 8.0 (7.1-9.3) for the RS, PN, and SS burning samples, which are comparable to the AAE values of BB samples reported in previous publications (e.g., field and laboratory chamber studies). The average mass absorption efficiencies of WSOC measured at 365 nm (MAE365) were 1.37 ± 0.23, 0.86 ± 0.09, and 1.38 ± 0.21 m2/gṡC for RS, PN, and SS burning aerosols, respectively. Correlations of total WSOC, hydrophilic WSOC (= total WSOC-HULIS-C), and HULIS-C concentrations in solution with the light

  9. TVOntario's Substance Abuse Series: Dealing with Drugs and Chemical Solutions. A Summative Evaluation. Report No. 19-1991-1992. (United States)

    Filson, Gerald W.

    A summative evaluation of the two TVOntario series, Dealing with Drugs and Chemical Solutions was carried out in the April-to-June 1991 period. Classes (N=23) were recruited for the intermediate and senior grade level study, which included more than 550 students. The intermediate series, Dealing with Drugs, designed for grade 7 and 8 students,…

  10. The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety Khao Dawk Mali 105 storability II: the case study of chemical and biochemical properties. (United States)

    Thobunluepop, P; Pan-in, W; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seed coating substances; chemical fungicide (CA) and biological fungicide polymers [chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL)] on chemical and biochemical changes of rice seeds cv. KDML 105, which have been studied during storage for 12 months. CA significantly affected the rice seed chemical properties and the associated seed deterioration. After 12 months storage, protein content decreased accompanied by declined of lipid content, increased free fatty acids and activated lipoxygenase enzyme. In the case of biological fungicide coated seeds, the antioxidative scavenging enzymes were ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and a high antioxidant activity protected them. Moreover, the sugar content was positive correlated with seed germination and vigor. The biological coated seeds were found to maintain high sugar contents inside the seeds, which resulted high seed storability significantly. In contrast, under fungicide stress (CA), those compounds were lost that directly affected seed vigor during storage.

  11. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.


    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  12. Vitellogenin synthesis in primary cultures of fish liver cells as endpoint for in vitro screening of the (anti)estrogenic activity of chemical substances. (United States)

    Navas, José M; Segner, Helmut


    xenoestrogens appears to be more variable. The detection of weak estrogens can be critical due to the overshadow with cytotoxic concentrations. Moreover, the VTG hepatocyte assay is able to detect antiestrogens as well as indirect estrogens, i.e substances which require metabolic activation to induce an estrogenic response. Nevertheless, more chemicals need to be analysed to corroborate this statement. It will be necessary to establish standardized protocols to minimize assay variability, and to develop a set of pass-fail criteria as well as cut-offs for designating positive and negative responses.

  13. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Measurement of ultra-micro chemical substances and measuring methods of hormone effects; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Chobiryo kagaku busshitsu no keisoku horumon eikyo sayo sokuteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Concerning the measurement system of ultra-micro hazardous chemical substances in the global environment, the paper examined the present situation of chemical substances such as dioxins, made an experimental study on the method to analyze dioxins in exhaust gas from an aspect of international consistency, and worked out a JIS draft. As to the standard measuring method of hormone effects of chemical substances, the paper developed the competitive bonding experiment system to measure bonding ability of chemical substances to homo sapiens estrogen receptor (ER). By measuring ER bonding ability of 78 kinds of chemical substances, the measuring method was developed. In the development of the assay system for detection of hormone-like compounds, the assay system with transfer activity via estrogen receptor as an index was established using cultured cells and yeast. Further, the development was made of a measuring method of receptor bonding activity of hormone-like substances. 33 refs., 151 figs., 66 tabs.

  14. Maternal Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Fetal Markers of Metabolic Function and Birth Weight: The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study. (United States)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E; Bouchard, Maryse F; Fisher, Mandy; Morriset, Anne-Sophie; Monnier, Patricia; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Dallaire, Renee; Taback, Shayne; Fraser, William; Platt, Robert W


    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous, persistent chemicals that have been widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods for their nonflammable, lipophobic, and hydrophobic properties. Inverse associations between maternal or umbilical cord blood concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonate and birth weight have been identified. This literature has primarily examined each PFAS individually without consideration of the potential influence of correlated exposures. Further, the association between PFAS exposures and indicators of metabolic function (i.e., leptin and adiponectin) has received limited attention. We examined associations between first-trimester maternal plasma PFAS concentrations and birth weight and cord blood concentrations of leptin and adiponectin using data on 1,705 mother-infant pairs from the Maternal Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada birth cohort study that recruited women between 2008 and 2011. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to quantify associations and calculate credible intervals. Maternal perfluorooctanoic acid concentrations were inversely associated with birth weight z score, though the null value was included in all credible intervals (log10 β = -0.10, 95% credible interval: -0.34, 0.13). All associations between maternal PFAS concentrations and cord blood adipocytokine concentrations were of small magnitude and centered around the null value. Follow-up in a cohort of children is required to determine how the observed associations manifest in childhood.

  15. Substance use (United States)

    Substance abuse; Illicit drug abuse; Narcotic abuse; Hallucinogen abuse ... Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  16. Physico-chemical characterization of SOA derived from catechol and guaiacol – a model substance for the aromatic fraction of atmospheric HULIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Whitmore


    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA was produced from the aromatic precursors catechol and guaiacol by reaction with ozone in the presence and absence of simulated sunlight and humidity and investigated for its properties as a proxy for HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS. Beside a small particle size, a relatively low molecular weight and typical optical features in the UV/VIS spectral range, HULIS contain a typical aromatic and/or olefinic chemical structure and highly oxidized functional groups within a high chemical diversity. Various methods were used to characterize the secondary organic aerosols obtained: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR demonstrated the formation of several carbonyl containing functional groups as well as structural and functional differences between aerosols formed at different environmental conditions. UV/VIS spectroscopy of filter samples showed that the particulate matter absorbs far into the visible range up to more than 500 nm. Ultrahigh resolved mass spectroscopy (ICR-FT/MS determined O/C-ratios between 0.3 and 1 and observed m/z ratios between 200 and 450 to be most abundant. Temperature-programmed-pyrolysis mass spectroscopy (TPP-MS identified carboxylic acids and lactones/esters as major functional groups. Particle sizing using a condensation-nucleus-counter and differential-mobility-particle-sizer (CNC/DMPS monitored the formation of small particles during the SOA formation process. Particle imaging, using field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM, showed spherical particles, forming clusters and chains. We conclude that catechol and guaiacol are appropriate precursors for studies of the processing of aromatic SOA with atmospheric HULIS properties on the laboratory scale.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Avdiyuk


    Full Text Available The ability of Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae 80428 and Bacillus subtilis 147 α-amylases to split different carbohydrate-containing substrates, such as maltose, sucrose, trehalose, dextrin, α- and β-cyclodextrin, amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, pullulan, soluble starch, insoluble starch, corn starch, wheat starch, dextran 500 has been studied. It was shown that investigated enzymes differ by substrate specificity. α-Amylase of A. flavus var. oryzae 80428 rapidly hydrolysed soluble potato and wheat starch, while the α-amylase of B. subtilis 147 — only wheat starch. Both enzymes don’t cleave maltose, α-cyclodextrin and dextran 500. A. flavus var. oryzae 80428 α-amylase display very small ability to hydrolyze pullulan, while α-amylase of B. subtilis 147 it does not act in general. The lowest values of Michaelis constant for both enzymes at splitting of glycogen have been obtained, indicating that enzymes have the greatest affinity to this substrate. The studies of influence of chemically active substances on activity of A. flavus var. oryzae 80428 and B. subtilis 147 ?-amylases show there are resistant to urea, deoxycholic acid, Tween-80, Triton X-100 and hydrogen peroxide. It’s indicate the enzymes tested may be competitive in compare with earlier described in literature enzymes. The obtained results give a possibility to propose in future usage these enzymes in different fields of industry, foremost in detergent industry.

  18. Development and validation of an ultra high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of a diastereomeric impurity in (+)-pinoresinol diglucoside chemical reference substance. (United States)

    Song, Jing-Zheng; Cheung, Lok Man; Liu, Xin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Zhou, Yan; Li, Song-Lin; Chen, Shi-Lin; Xu, Hong-Xi


    (+)-Pinoresinol 4,4'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside ((+)-PDG) is one of the major lignans with various pharmacological activities which could be isolated from Duzhong and other plant species. In this study, a diastereomeric impurity, (-)-pinoresinol 4,4'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside ((-)-PDG), the main impurity was identified in (+)-PDG chemical reference substance (CRS) and a reliable chromatographic method for rapid purity determination of (+)-PDG CRS was firstly developed. The optimal chromatographic condition was found to be using ACN/1,4-dioxane-water (2.5:6:91.5, v/v/v) as mobile phase on a Waters Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.8 microm) with column temperature of 37 degrees C. The method was validated and applied to determine the chromatographic purity of five (+)-PDG CRS samples. The content of (-)-PDG in four commercial (+)-PDG CRS was 8.47-20.30%, whereas no (-)-PDG was detected in our in-house prepared (+)-PDG CRS in which purity was confirmed to be 99.80%. The above results confirmed that this method is fast and highly efficient for purity determination of the (+)-PDG CRS.

  19. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of dissolved humic substances in a mangrove-fringed estuary in the eastern coast of Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yaoling; DU Jinzhou; PENG Bo; ZHANG Fenfen; ZHAO Xin; ZHANG Jing


    Mangrove-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) has an important effect on estuarine and coastal area on a large scale.In order to improve the understanding of origin,composition,and fate of DOM in mangrove-fringed estuarine and coastal areas,dissolved humic substances (DHS) were isolated from one mangrove pore-water sample and one near-shore seawater sample downstream the mangrove pore-water site in the eastern coast of Hainan Island,South China.Fulvic acids,humic acids and XAD-4 fractions were obtained from the two water samples by using a two-column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins.Chemical and spectroscopic methods were used to analyze the features of these DHS.Compared to the mangrovepore-water DHS,the near-shore seawater DHS were found rich in 13C with lower C/N ratios and more aliphatic compounds and carbohydrates,but less aromatic structures and carboxyl groups.As for the three fractions of the two DHS,XAD-4 fractions contain more aliphatics,carbohydrates,carboxyl groups,and enrich in 13C with respect to both fulvic and humic acids.Photo-oxidation transformation and contribution from marine-derived DOM were considered as the main reasons resulted in the difference in compositional features for these DHS in this study.


    McCarty, M; Avery, O T


    1. An improved method is outlined for the isolation and purification of the pneumococcal transforming substance. This method makes use of the fact that citrate inhibits the destructive action of the enzyme, desoxyribonuclease, which is released together with the active material during lysis of the living bacterial cells. A fivefold greater yield of purified transforming agent is obtained by the present method than by the procedure previousiy described. 2. The specific transforming substance has been isolated from pneumococci of types II and VI, in addition to Type III. In each instance the biologically active material has been found to consist of desoxyribonucleic acid.

  1. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  2. Fate models for chemical substances in exposure and risk assessment. Focused on estimation of atmospheric concentration; Bakuro{center_dot}risuku hyoka ni okeru kagaku busshitsu unmei yosoku moderu. Taikichu nodo suitei wo chushin toshite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, H. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)


    A fate model is one of the most effective tools in exposure and risk assessment of chemical substances. Two different type models are available for estimating the atmospheric concentration. One is unit box and multi compartment type model, the other is atmospheric dispersion model. These models should be used in different suitable situations because each model has both advantage and disadvantage. Estimation of the long-term average concentration in a comparatively wide region into which substances are continuously discharged should be required in the environmental assessment of chemical substances. We developed the model with which to estimate long-term average atmospheric concentrations of chemicals. The model validation was conducted for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene concentrations in the atmosphere by comparing calculated values and observed values. Good agreement with the measured values was obtained for the monthly average concentration. The model is capable of estimating the long-term (such as monthly) average distribution of concentration of chemicals in a wide flat area such as the Kanto plain. (author)

  3. Chemical substances injection in wells through the gas-lift line: state of the art; Injecao de produtos quimicos em pocos atraves de linha de gas-lift: estado-da-arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Joao Batista Vianey da Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Tecnologia de Producao, Processamento e Transporte]. E-mail:


    Injecting chemical substances on the subsurface in order to control incrustation, corrosion, emulsion and waxes, among other problems caused by the production at the oil wells, has not been used much because of the way they are usually injected. Recently, these products have been injected in wells through the gas-lift line, thus allowing control over the individual treatment in each well. The main conclusions arrived at with the reports made are the following: it is possible to inject chemical substances through the gas-lift line. The formulations of such products must be specific and they must contain the proper amounts of solvent to prevent the segregation of active matter. These products must be injected individually in the gas-lift line at each well. (author)

  4. Revision of Import and Export Requirements for Controlled Substances, Listed Chemicals, and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines, Including Changes To Implement the International Trade Data System (ITDS); Revision of Reporting Requirements for Domestic Transactions in Listed Chemicals and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines; and Technical Amendments. Final rule. (United States)


    The Drug Enforcement Administration is updating its regulations for the import and export of tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, and its regulations relating to reports required for domestic transactions in listed chemicals, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and tableting and encapsulating machines. In accordance with Executive Order 13563, the Drug Enforcement Administration has reviewed its import and export regulations and reporting requirements for domestic transactions in listed chemicals (and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) and tableting and encapsulating machines, and evaluated them for clarity, consistency, continued accuracy, and effectiveness. The amendments clarify certain policies and reflect current procedures and technological advancements. The amendments also allow for the implementation, as applicable to tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, of the President's Executive Order 13659 on streamlining the export/import process and requiring the government-wide utilization of the International Trade Data System (ITDS). This rule additionally contains amendments that implement recent changes to the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (CSIEA) for reexportation of controlled substances among members of the European Economic Area made by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act. The rule also includes additional substantive and technical and stylistic amendments.

  5. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James


    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  6. Stability Evaluation and Chemical Type of Bioactive Substances Produced by Actinomyces Strain A01%放线菌A01发酵液中活性成分稳定性及其化学类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢彩鸽; 刘伟成; 刘霆; 王慧敏; 刘德文; 裘季燕


    The physical-chemical characteristics and chemical type of the bioactive substance obtained from the fermentation broth of actinomyces strain A01 were studied. The bioactive substance showed high inhibitory activity to many plant pathogenic fungi such as Botrytis cirwrea and Fusarium spp. . The ion characteristics and chemical type identification of the antibiotics were analysized by paper chromatogra-phy, paper electrophoresis and UV absorption spectrum. The results showed that the bioactive substance in neutral and alkaline environment was relatively stable. Its relative activity remained at 81.19% when treated 30 min under 100 ℃. It was not sensitive to protease, but more sensitive to UV. UV spectrum showed that the active compound presented three typical absorbance peaks at 291 nm, 305 nm and 319 nm, which is the typical characteristic of conjugated polyene chemicals. Combining the results of paper chromatography and paper electrophoresis, we may infer that the active substance produced by strain A01 could be a tetar-alkene neutral antibiotic. This study provides valuable information for the purification of the active substance and its further agricultural application.%本文研究了对多种植物病原真菌均表现出良好抑菌活性的菌株A01发酵液中活性成分对热、酸碱、蛋白酶及紫外线的稳定性,并采用pH纸层析、捷克氏八溶剂系统纸层析、纸电泳和紫外波长扫描等方法对其进行了化学类型的早期鉴别.结果表明,菌株A01发酵液中活性物质在中性及偏碱性环境中比较稳定;100℃处理30min相对活性还保持在81.19%;对蛋白酶不敏感,但对紫外线较敏感;紫外扫描在291、305和319nm处有典型共轭四烯生色基团的吸收峰,结合纸层析和纸电泳结果,表明该活性物质归为四烯类中性抗生素.

  7. 从化学物质管理到产品管理的最新技术体系%From Chemical Substance Management to Product Management Technical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于丽娜; 霍立彬; 叶旌; 聂晶磊


    介绍化学品从传统的物质管理到产品管理的体系现状,从物质使用环节入手,减少有害化学物质的倒逼化学品环境管理模式,以至实现有毒有害化学物质的全过程管控。发达国家通过实施政策法规和环境标签非强制手段,提供化学物质管控的技术、建立替代评估模型,在引导公众自愿前提下倡导企业在更广泛的产品和化学物质领域开展信息收集和公开制度。借鉴国外产品中化学品管理的丰富经验,在法律规定下由少到多分别列明管控的物质清单和产品清单,以替代评估为技术支持,引导公众自愿推进管理,为我国化学品管理决策提供有力支持。%The article describes chemicals management situation,from substance management to product management, which is forced to start from the use sector,the reversed model of chemicals environmental management to realize the whole process of toxic and hazardous chemicals management. Developed countries implement non-coercive means such as appro-priate policies and regulations and environmental labeling;provide technology to control chemical substances and build al-ternative assessment models;in premise of guiding public voluntary,advocate companies in the wider products and chemi-cal substances in the field information collection and disclosure system. Learning from foreign experience of chemicals man-agement,listing controlled material inventory and products inventory separately from least to greatest under the regulation of law,taking alternative assessment as technical support,and guiding the public to promote management voluntarily,can provide strong support to the chemical product management of our country.


    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service


    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  9. Psychotoxic Substances (United States)


    began an in- tensive research for the clarification of the mechanism of the effect of psychotomimetic substances. In addition to the semi-synthetically...Dibenamine i.v. 200,000 ... 6oo,000 Ethyl ether p.o. 200,000 ... 400,000 Cocaine s.c. 80,000 ... 300,000 Mescaline p.o. 10,000 ... 20,000 Morphia s.c. 5,000...Autonomic functions Excitement, mood Pyramidal and extra- Meso-diencephalic changes: pyramidal effects: effects: Euphoria , depres- Ataxia, spastic

  10. Chemical warfare in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, Gabi


    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field expe

  11. Influence Evaluation of Chemical Dangerous Substance on Area of Military Strength Configurations%化学危险物对兵力配置区的影响评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏广和; 李震; 邓基忠


    放射性或烈性毒剂化学危险物的污烫情况比较复杂,对有生命物质危害非常巨大,分析和评价其性质,并对其进行了定性和定量分析.这些情况对兵力配曼区人员活动以及安全情况特别重要,对兵力指挥活动影响很大.%The pollution situation of chemical dangerous substance on radioactive substance or strong toxicity liquid is very complicated. They did tremendous harm to zoetic substance. We analyzed and evaluated their character, in the article we also go on with qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis for them. These are very important for situations of personnel activity and their salty in the disposition of forces area,and very tremendous on the influence for military command.

  12. Risk factors for acute chemical releases with public health consequences: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance in the U.S., 1996–2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Wendy E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Releases of hazardous materials can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. To reduce and prevent the public health consequences (victims or evacuations from uncontrolled or illegally released hazardous substances, a more comprehensive analysis is needed to determine risk factors for hazardous materials incidents. Methods Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES data from 1996 through 2001 were analyzed using bivariate and multiple logistic regression. Fixed-facility and transportation-related events were analyzed separately. Results For fixed-facility events, 2,327 (8% resulted in at least one victim and 2,844 (10% involved ordered evacuations. For transportation-related events, 759 (8% resulted in at least one victim, and 405 (4% caused evacuation orders. Fire and/or explosion were the strongest risk factors for events involving either victims or evacuations. Stratified analysis of fixed-facility events involving victims showed a strong association for acid releases in the agriculture, forestry, and fisheries industry. Chlorine releases in fixed-facility events resulted in victims and evacuations in more industry categories than any other substance. Conclusions Outreach efforts should focus on preventing and preparing for fires and explosions, acid releases in the agricultural industry, and chlorine releases in fixed facilities.

  13. Regulations and Testing Technology of the Restricted Chemical Substances in Consumer Products%消费品中限用化学物质的法规要求及相关检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建国; 蚁乐洲; 黄理纳; 刘莹峰


    In recent years, many consuming products containing the restricted chemical substances such as heavy metal, phthalate, azodyes, formaldehyde and volatile organic solvent, etc. have caused the quality and safety accidents in the world, resulting in countries and consumer product manufacturers massive recalls of the products which have been sold. Consumers have payed more and more attention to the restricted chemical substances in consuming products with the improvement of consumer awareness of quality and safety of consuming goods. Many countries have issued new laws and regulations on consuming goods to increase demands on the chemical substances in consuming products. This paper attempts to systematically investigate the new situation and the latest detection technology of the limited chemicals with the related technical regulations for the quality and safety of the important consuming goods, such as toy, textile clothing, electrical and electronic equipment, furniture, food contact materials, in European Union, America and China. At the same time, the paper also discusses the latest sample pre-treatment technology and instrument analysis technology in order to meet the demand of production and foreign trade customs clearance inspection.%近期国内外市场相继发生多起消费品因含有重金属、邻苯二甲酸酯增塑剂、致癌芳香胺等有害化学物质而大规模召回的质量安全事件,引致各国陆续发布涉及消费品化学物质的技术性法规和标准,对其中含有的化学物质提出越来越高的要求.该文研究了欧盟、美国和中国等国家涉及玩具、纺织品服装、电子电气产品、家具和食品接触材料等重要消费品的质量安全技术法规的状况及相关的禁(限)用化学物质的要求,并针对检测这些化学物质所涉及的多种最新样品前处理技术和先进仪器分析检测技术进行了综述,以满足其在生产和外贸通关的检验需求.

  14. REACH. Analytical characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R.; Forbes, S.; Gennart, J.P.; Gimeno Cortes, M.J.; Hovius, H.; King, D.; Kleise, H.; Martinez Martin, C.; Montanari, L.; Pinzuti, M.; Pollack, H.; Ruggieri, P.; Thomas, M.; Walton, A.; Dmytrasz, B.


    The purpose of this report is to summarise the findings of the scientific and technical work undertaken by CONCAWE to assess the feasibility and potential benefit of characterising petroleum UVCB substances (Substances of Unknown or Variable Composition, Complex reaction products or Biological Materials) beyond the recommendations issued by CONCAWE for the substance identification of petroleum substances under REACH. REACH is the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (EC 1907/2006). It deals with the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances. The report is based on Member Company experience of the chemical analysis of petroleum UVCB substances, including analysis in support of REACH registrations undertaken in 2010. This report is structured into four main sections, namely: Section 1 which provides an introduction to the subject of petroleum UVCB substance identification including the purpose of the report, regulatory requirements, the nature of petroleum UVCB substances, and CONCAWE's guidance to Member Companies and other potential registrants. Section 2 provides a description of the capabilities of each of the analytical techniques described in the REACH Regulation. This section also includes details on the type of analytical information obtained by each technique and an evaluation of what each technique can provide for the characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances. Section 3 provides a series of case studies for six petroleum substance categories (low boiling point naphthas, kerosene, heavy fuel oils, other lubricant base oils, residual aromatic extracts and bitumens) to illustrate the value of the information derived from each analytical procedure, and provide an explanation for why some techniques are not scientifically necessary. Section 4 provides a summary of the conclusions reached from the technical investigations undertaken by CONCAWE Member Companies, and summarising the

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated (chemical group 30, miscellaneous substances when used as a flavouring for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP


    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizic acid is extracted from the dried and ground rhizome and root portions of the perennial leguminous plant Glycyrrhiza glabra L., native to southern Europe and Central Asia, or other species of the genus Glycyrrhiza. It is currently listed in the register of flavouring substances, allowing its use in food without restriction. Glycyrrhyzic acid ammoniated is safe at the concentration of 1 mg/kg complete feed for all species, except chickens for fattening and laying hens. For these two categories, a safe concentration of 0.3 mg/kg complete feed applies. The Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP cannot conclude on the safety of the additive used in water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated in animal nutrition would not measurably increase consumer exposure. In the absence of data on user safety, the FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated as an irritant to skin, eyes and respiratory tract and as a skin sensitiser. The use of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated in animal feeds would not pose a risk to the environment. As glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated is used in food as a flavouring, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  16. 78 FR 45167 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances,...

  17. 76 FR 30081 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances,...

  18. 78 FR 49993 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations,...

  19. Current Chemical Risk Reduction Activities (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  20. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal...

  1. Substance Use in Women (United States)

    ... trigger women's substance use or other mental health disorders. Women who use certain substances may be more likely to have panic attacks, anxiety, or depression. Substance Use While Pregnant and Breastfeeding ...

  2. 基于低沸点化学物质的无源轿车轮胎温度监测系统%A Passive Car Tire Temperature Monitoring System Using Low-boiling Point Chemical Substance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健伟; 董群; 王鉴; 胡林杰


    利用低沸点化学物质具有较高的饱和蒸汽压的特性,设计了一种无源轿车轮胎温度监测系统。系统中的胎温传感器将温度变化通过低沸点化学物质的饱和蒸汽压的相应变化转变为磁铁的位移信号,再利用线性霍尔传感器转变为电压信号,最后通过信号检测系统对信号进行处理和转换,实现对轮胎温度的实时监测和高温报警。通过静态实验,选定了满足胎温传感器要求的感温物质;通过动态实验,考察了报警系统的检测精确度。结果表明,系统检测相对误差绝对值≤6%,测温精度为1℃。%By utilizing the property of higher saturated vapor pressure of low-boiling point chemical sub-stances, a passive car tire temperature monitoring system is designed, in which the change of temperature in tire temperature sensor is transformed into the displacement signal of magnet through the corresponding change in satu-rated vapor pressure of chemical substance. Then the displacement signal of magnet is transformed into voltage sig-nal by linear Hall sensor, and through certain signal processing and transform, the real time monitoring and high temperature alarm of tire temperature are realized. The temperature sensing chemical substance meeting the require-ments of tire temperature sensor are selected by static test, while the detection accuracy of warning system is investi-gated by dynamic test. The results show that the system achieves a relative error no more than 6% and a temperature measuring accuracy of 1℃.

  3. 烤烟品种间烟叶化学成分含量对海拔高度的响应%Different Response of Chemical Substances to Altitude in Leaves of Different Flue-cured Tobacco Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军营; 方敦煌; 宋春满; 李向阳; 逄涛; 邓建华; 刘腾飞


    为了探讨品种间烤烟化学成分与海拔高度的相关性,在云南不同海拔( 706 ~ 2356m)植烟区采集182个烤烟中部烟叶样品,品种涉及云烟87、云烟85、K326和红大,检测了样品中的34种化学成分,通过相关分析和聚类分析,比较了化学成分及其与海拔高度相关性在品种间的差异.结果表明,4个品种中红大可溶性糖类和有机酸类含量最低,总氮、烟碱、质体色素和多酚类物质含量最高,明显区别于其他3个品种.相关分析表明,K326中总耱、总氮、烟碱、石油醚提取物等指标与海拔高度的相关性明显不同于其他3个品种,类似的结果也体现在丙二酸、丁二酸和亚油酸、β-胡萝卜素、单双糖含量等指标.因此,烟叶的化学成分及其随海拔高度的变化情况存在着较大的品种差异.%In order to study the correlation between contents of chemical substances and altitude, 182 of flue-cured tobacco cutter leaf samples were collected from different altitudes in Yunnan. The sampling altitude ranged from 706 m to 2356 m and the tobacco cultivars included Yunyan87, Yunyan85, K326 and Honghuadajinyuan (HD). The main chemical substances and aroma precursors such as organic acids, polyphenols, were detected in these samples. The difference in chemical substance contents and their correlation with altitude were studied through correlation and cluster analysis. The results showed that the contents of soluble sugars, organic acid in HD were the lowest in four tobacco cultivars, while total nitrogen, nicotine, plastid pigments and polyphenols were the highest. The correlations between contents of total sugar, total nitrogen, nicotine and petroleum ether extracts and altitude in K326 were different from the other three tobacco cultivars. The same results were found in the correlation between organic acids (malonic acid, succinic acid, linoleic acid), plastid pigments (beta renieratene), monosaccharide and disaccharide and

  4. Influences of released and predictable substances of very high concern on textile chemicals%已发布及可预见的高度关注物质对纺织化学品的影响(待续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    REACH迄今已发布了8批共138个高度关注物质(SVHC),发布SVHC的种数和数量逐渐加快。我们关注的是其中的纺织化学品,而且仅是已经发布的。还应关注可预见的,做到未雨绸缪。因为从已发布的SVHC可见一斑,例如:24个致癌芳胺已发布了9个,剩下的15个终要继续发布。而涉嫌的禁用偶氮染料一个也未列入,列入SVHC的是4个几近淘汰的三芳甲烷染料,同样情况是重金属无机颜料、邻苯二甲酸酯增塑剂、阻燃剂、有机锡等化学品。农药只发布了一只,真乃冰山一角,离世界各国包括欧盟禁用农药还差很多。本文作了大胆预测,非但列举,还讲清楚危害性和应用领域,希望对染料、助剂和印染企业有参考价值。%REACH has released 8 groups of total 138 substances of very high concern (SVHC) so far. The species and quantity of released SVHC are gradually accelerated. Among the SVHC, only the published textile chemicals are concerned. But it is also necessary to pay attention to the predictable substances in order to take precautions, because it is evident in the released SVHC. For example, 9 of 24 cancer-causing aromatic amines have been published and the rest will be sequentially released. None of suspected banned azo dyes are listed in SVHC while 4 nearly abandoned triarylmethane dyes are included. Other chemicals such as heavy metal inorganic pigments, phthalate plasticizers, flame retardants and organic tin are in the same case. Only one pesticide has been published, which is the tip of an iceberg and is far different from the banned pesticides in countries around the world including EU. It is boldly forecasted, listed and detailedly described the hazard and application fields of the substances, hoping to give some reference values on dyes, auxiliaries and dyeing and printing enterprises.

  5. Use and impact of usual intake models on dietary exposure estimate and risk assessment of chemical substances: a practical example for cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites. (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Sirot, Véronique; Busani, Luca; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Hulin, Marion


    To estimate of food and nutrient intakes, 24-h recalls are frequently used in dietary assessment. However intake data collected for a short period are a limited estimator of long-term usual intake. An important limitation of such data is that the within-person variability tends to inflate the intake distribution leading to a biased estimation of extreme percentiles. Statistical models, named usual-intake models, that separate the within-person variability from the between-persons variability, have lately been implemented. The main objectives of this study were to highlight the potential impact that usual-intake models can have on exposure estimate and risk assessment and to point out which are the key aspects to be considered in order to run these models properly and be sure to interpret the output correctly. To achieve the goal we used the consumption data obtained by the French dietary survey INCA2 and the concentration data collected during the French TDS2, using Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software, release 8.0. For the three substances included in this study (cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites), the exposure of the upper percentiles was significantly reduced when using usual-intake models in comparison with the results obtained in the observed individual mean models, even if in terms of risk assessment the impact of using usual-intake models was limited. From the results it appears that the key aspects to consider when using usual-intake models are: (1) the normality of the log-transformed intake distribution, (2) the contribution per single food group to the total exposure, and (3) the independency of food consumption data on multiple days. In conclusion, usual-intake models may have an impact on exposure estimates although, referring to the results, it did not bring any changes in terms of risk assessment, but further investigations are needed.

  6. Organic Matter Fractions and Quality of the Surface Layer of a Constructed and Vegetated Soil After Coal Mining. I - Humic Substances and Chemical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio dos Anjos Leal


    Full Text Available After open coal mining, soils are “constructed”, which usually contain low levels and quality of organic matter (OM. Therefore, the use of plant species for revegetation and reclamation of degraded areas is essential. This study evaluated the distribution of carbon (C in the chemical fractions as well as the chemical characteristics and humification degree of OM in a soil constructed after coal mining under cultivation of perennial grasses. The experiment was established in 2003 with the following treatments: Hemarthria altissima (T1, Paspalum notatum (T2, Cynodon dactilon (T3, Urochloa brizantha (T4, bare constructed soil (T5, and natural soil (T6. In 2009, soil samples were collected from the 0.00-0.03 m layer and the total organic carbon stock (TOC and C stock in the chemical fractions: acid extract (CHCl, fulvic acid (CFA, humic acid (CHA, and humin (CHU were determined. The humic acid (HA fraction was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and the laser-induced fluorescence index (ILIF of OM was also calculated. After six years, differences were only observed in the CHA stocks, which were highest in T1 (0.89 Mg ha-1 and T4 (1.06 Mg ha-1. The infrared spectra of HA in T1, T2 and T4 were similar to T6, with greater contribution of aliphatic organic compounds than in the other treatments. In this way, ILIF decreased in the sequence T5>T3>T4>T1>T2>T6, indicating higher OM humification in T3 and T5 and more labile OM in the other treatments. Consequently, the potential of OM quality recovery in the constructed soil was greatest in treatments T1 and T4.


    Avery, O T; Macleod, C M; McCarty, M


    1. From Type III pneumococci a biologically active fraction has been isolated in highly purified form which in exceedingly minute amounts is capable under appropriate cultural conditions of inducing the transformation of unencapsulated R variants of Pneumococcus Type II into fully encapsulated cells of the same specific type as that of the heat-killed microorganisms from which the inducing material was recovered. 2. Methods for the isolation and purification of the active transforming material are described. 3. The data obtained by chemical, enzymatic, and serological analyses together with the results of preliminary studies by electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, and ultraviolet spectroscopy indicate that, within the limits of the methods, the active fraction contains no demonstrable protein, unbound lipid, or serologically reactive polysaccharide and consists principally, if not solely, of a highly polymerized, viscous form of desoxyribonucleic acid. 4. Evidence is presented that the chemically induced alterations in cellular structure and function are predictable, type-specific, and transmissible in series. The various hypotheses that have been advanced concerning the nature of these changes are reviewed.

  8. Substance use and multiculturalism. (United States)

    Adrian, M


    This paper reviews intercultural variability of substance use behaviors, including availability of international statistics on consumption of alcohol and other drugs, as well as the use of drugs available locally only. Within a conceptual framework of intercultural relations, it considers the history of transcultural spread of substance use behaviors and possible reactions to the introduction of new drugs within a culture or jurisdiction, including illustrations of the "law of alien poisons." Although intercultural views of substance use have generally concentrated on majority groups' views of substance use in minority groups, minority and non-Western views of substance use need to be considered in the context of increasing international and intercultural communications that increase the rate at which substance use behaviors spread. Both Western and non-Western experiences with substance use and misuse must be taken into account so that better interventions can be developed to deal with addictions and other substance-related problems.

  9. Substance, Reality, and Distinctness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Hennig


    Full Text Available Descartes claims that God is a substance, and that mind and body are two different and separable substances. This paper provides some background that renders these claims intelligible. For Descartes, that something is real means it can exist in separation, and something is a substance if it does not depend on other substances for its existence. Further, separable objects are correlates of distinct ideas, for an idea is distinct (in an objective sense if its object may be easily and clearly separated from everything that is not its object. It follows that if our idea of God is our most distinct idea, as Descartes claims, then God must be a substance in the Cartesian sense of the term. Also, if we can have an idea of a thinking subject which does not in any sense refer to bodily things, and if bodily things are substances, then mind and body must be two different substances.

  10. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1 (FGE.22Rev1): Ring substituted phenolic substances from chemical groups 21 and 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance 3...... concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Adequate specifications for the materials of commerce are available for all 27 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....

  11. 77 FR 22707 - Electronic Reporting Under the Toxic Substances Control Act (United States)


    ... for TSCA section 5 submissions, which would use existing e-PMN software. This action is intended to... the evaluation of the potential adverse human health and environmental effects from exposure to... substance'' as any chemical substance that is not on the TSCA Inventory of Chemical Substances compiled...

  12. Emission of chemical substances from office equipment


    Joanna Kowalska; Małgorzata Szewczyńska; Małgorzata Pośniak


    A number of potentially harmful pollutants are emitted from office equipment. Printers and copiers are sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which at least partly, are generated from the heated toner and paper dust during printing process. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, and formaldehyde were detected in the blended emissions emitted from printing devices. Office printing devices are recognized to be the major sources of indoor fine and ultrafi...

  13. Emission of chemical substances from office equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kowalska


    Full Text Available A number of potentially harmful pollutants are emitted from office equipment. Printers and copiers are sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC, which at least partly, are generated from the heated toner and paper dust during printing process. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, and formaldehyde were detected in the blended emissions emitted from printing devices. Office printing devices are recognized to be the major sources of indoor fine and ultrafine aerosol particles. The emissions of certain pollutants from office equipment may be at relatively low level compared to other known sources (e.g. building materials. However, office equipment is potentially the important source of human exposure due to the short distance for the people operating them both at home and in the office.

  14. Best practice in workplace hazardous substances management. (United States)

    Winder, C


    Chemical-induced injury and disease remains a significant problem in workers in industry. As a result of this problem, a number of national and international initiatives have recommended the development of conventions, regulations, and codes of practice to attempt to deal with the problems of hazardous substances at work. Within Australia, workplace hazardous substances regulations are in development which will impose legal obligations and responsibilities on the suppliers of hazardous substances and on the employers who use them. At the same time, internationally consistent ISO standards are in use, or are being developed, for quality systems, environmental management, and occupational health and safety. These standards outline a model for the management of quality, environment, or safety, and the processes involved are applicable to the management of hazardous substances. This process includes: obtaining commitment from senior management; instituting consultative mechanisms; developing a hazardous substances policy; identifying components of the hazardous substances management program; resourcing, implementing, and reviewing the program; and integrating the program into the organisation's strategic plan. Only by blending in a specific management program for hazardous substances into the overall planning of an organization will they be managed effectively and efficiently.

  15. Nitrogen Forms in Humic Substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this paper,the nitrogen forms in newly-formed humic substances,including humic acid (HA),fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid in humin (HAI),were studied by using the 15N CP-MAS NMR technique in combination with chemical approaches.Results show that the majority of nitrogen in HA,FA and HAI was in the amide form with some presented as aliphatic and/ or aromatic amines and some as pyrrole type nitrogen,although the contents of nonhydrolyzable nitrogen in them differed greatly from each other (15-55%).

  16. 78 FR 48844 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  17. 75 FR 26166 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... 40 CFR part 300 which is the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  18. 78 FR 65210 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of California... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  19. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald


    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  20. Creativity and Psychoactive Substance Use: A Systematic Review



    The role of psychoactive substance use in the research of artistic creation and creativity is a long-standing topic. Ever since the discovery of LSD, researchers have examined the relationship between the effects of chemical substances and the artistic creative process. The goal of the present study was to systematically review all published empirical publications and case reports in refereed journals that focused on the relationship between psychoactive substances and creativity/creative art...

  1. 40 CFR 720.85 - Chemical identity. (United States)


    ... particular chemical substance, and agree to furnish to EPA upon request: (A) An elemental analysis. (B...? How could a competitor use such information given the fact that the identity of the substance...) Has the identity of the chemical substance been kept confidential to the extent that your...

  2. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon


    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Results of Section 4 Chemical Testing (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires that data be developed on the effect of chemical substances and mixtures on health and the environment. This data...

  4. Supervision: Substance and Style (United States)

    Gellerman, Saul W.


    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  5. Per and polyfluorinated substances in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posner, Stefan; Roos, Sandra; Brunn Poulsen, Pia;

    prioritized in 2) There is a lack of physical chemical data, analystical reference substances, human and environmental occurrence and toxicology data, as well as market information regarding PFCs other than PFOA and PFOS and the current legislation cannot enforce disclosure of specific PFC substance......This Tema Nord report presents a study based on open information and custom market research to review the most common perfluorinated substances (PFC) with less focus on PFOS and PFOA. The study includes three major parts: 1) Identification of relevant per-and polyfluorinated substances...... and their use in various industrial sectors in the Nordic market by interviews with major players and database information 2) Emissions to and occurence in the Nordic environment of the substances described in 1) 3) A summary of knowledge of the toxic effects on humans and the environment of substances...

  6. Correlative Analysis between Several Chemical Substances and Chinese Chives Cultivar Resistance to Bradysia odoriphage Yang et Zhang%几种生化物质与韭菜抗迟眼蕈蚊的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘敏; 杨建平; 曹安堂


    选用20个具有不同迟眼蕈蚊抗性的韭菜栽培品种,在迟眼蕈蚊发生高峰期对韭菜叶组织中的粗纤维、芳香油、可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖、色素、叶绿素a及游离氨基酸含量进行了测定,通过与韭菜抗虫性评价指标(虫口密度、受害植株比例和叶片被害指数)的相关分析,进行了韭菜生化物质含量与韭菜抗虫性的相互关系研究.结果表明,与感虫品种相比,抗虫品种中均有较低的芳香油、可溶性糖和游离氨基酸含量;抗虫品种较感虫品种有较高的粗纤维、可溶性蛋白、色素和叶绿素a含量.基于相关分析和逐步回归分析的韭菜抗虫性和生化指标间关系分析表明:芳香油、可溶性蛋白和游离氨基酸等3个生化指标与韭菜品种抗虫性有较为紧密的关系,其中又以芳香油含量与韭菜抗虫性的关系最为密切.%Twenty Chinese chives cultivars that showed different resistance to Bradysia odoriphage were selected to study the correlations between the pest resistance ( based on 3 pest resistant index: pest density, percentage of infected plants and leaf suffering index ) and the content of several physiological chemical substances, including coarse-fiber, naphtha, soluble sugar, soluble protein, pigment, chlorophl-a and dissociative amino acids. The results showed that the contents of naphths, soluble sugar and dissociative amino acids in the resistant cultivars appeared with lower content than those of the infective ones. But the contents of coarse-fiber, soluble protein, pigment and chlorophl-a in the resistant cultivars showed higher values than the infective ones. The results of correlative analysis showed that the contents of naphtha, soluble protein and dissociative amino acids displayed distinct correlations with the level of pest resistance. And the results of regression analysis also revealed that the content of naphtha might be the most important factor for the pest resistance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena


    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  8. Adolescent Substance Abuse. (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.


    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  9. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical) (United States)

    Saksonov, P. P.


    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  10. [New psychoactive substances and their prevalence in the Czech Republic]. (United States)

    Mravčík, Viktor; Běláčková, Vendula; Grohmannová, Kateřina; Zábranský, Tomáš


    Recently, there is a global growing concern over the new (mainly synthetic) psychoactive substances, known as legal highs, research chemicals or bath salts. They are represented by various chemical groups imitating "old" illicit drugs with stimulant, euphoric, hallucinogenic or sedative effects. In the Czech Republic, the peak of their use and supply was observed at the beginning of 2011, when new psychoactive substances were available in smart shops known locally as Amsterdam shops - in that time mainly synthetic cathinones and also synthetic cannabinoids were present. After legislative change that placed tens of new substances under the control of criminal law in April 2011, new psychoactive substances are available at Internet and their use is (after short and media driven boom in early 2011) rather limited and decreasing. Though, the use of new synthetic stimulants was recently reported locally among problem (injecting) drug users; new very potent synthetic opioids represent potential threat of further expansion in this users subgroup.

  11. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  12. Substance abuse and criminal behavior. (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G


    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  13. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2 (FGE.21Rev2): Thiazoles, thiophene, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical group 29. Miscellaneous substances from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 56 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Seven of the su...... of commerce have also been considered. For two substances are an identity test lacking and for one has the stereoisomeric composition to be specified....

  14. Developing human health exposure scenarios for petroleum substances under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.; De Wilde, P.; Maksimainen, K.; Margary, A.; Money, C.; Pizzella, G.; Svanehav, T.; Tsang, W.; Urbanus, J.; Rohde, A.


    This report describes the approaches that were adopted by CONCAWE to prepare the human exposure estimates in the chemical safety assessments of the REACH registration dossiers for petroleum substances based on all applicable regulatory guidance. Separate exposure estimates were developed for workers and for consumers and included inhalation and dermal routes. The complex nature of petroleum substances required various scientifically justified refinements of the regulatory guidance.

  15. Chemical warfare in freshwater. Allelpathic effects of macrophytes on phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.


    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field expe

  16. Control of Oxygen Concentration by Using a Carbonaceous Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanad Jadan


    Full Text Available The control of oxygen concentration in gas flow may be used in chemical industry, heat power engineering, ecology, automobile construction and other industrial branches. This control is realized over a broad range of oxygen concentrations. The control of the oxygen concentration is based on passing of gas flow through a measuring cavity of radio spectrometer and measurement of a magnetic resonance signal. A change in the magnetic resonance signal of a dispersed carbonaceous substance, placed into the cavity, indicates to the changes in oxygen concentrations. The dispersed anthracite and thermal treatment cellulose substance in the oxygen-free medium are proposed to use as a carbonaceous substance.

  17. Teaching of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Based on Aspen-Plus ( Ⅱ )Saturated Property Calculation of Pure Substance%基于Aspen-Plus的化工热力学教学(Ⅱ)纯物质饱和性质计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新志; 赵倩; 钱超


    化工热力学作为化学工程的基础学科,是化学工程与工艺专业的一门核心课程,在化学工程的教学过程中占有极其重要的地位。我们借助专业化工模拟软件Aspen-Plus完成化工热力学教学中的纯物质饱和性质计算,得到了较为理想的结果,为用Aspen-Plus辅助化工热力学教学提高教学效率,加强应用能力培养夯实了基础。%As the basic subject, chemical engineering thermodynamics is a main course for process of chemical engineering. Aspen-Plus software which is widely used in chemical engineering and industry has been adopted to calculate the saturated thermodynamic properties of pure substance, and satisfactory re- suits are given. It has provided better basis for teaching of chemical engineering thermodynamics and training of its application ability with the help of Aspen-Plus.

  18. Presence of potentially critical substances in waste paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard


    The paper industry accounts for a significant share of the chemicals consumed by the industrial sector. Most of the chemicals used are additives, i.e. chemical substances added during pulp and paper preparation and final product manufacturing (conversion and printing) in order to facilitate the p...... of the critical additives potentially present in paper products and quantification of a selected group of additives (Mineral Oil Hydrocarbons) in waste paper and board source segregated from Danish municipal solid waste....

  19. Food contact materials, flavouring substances and smoke flavourings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engel K-H


    Full Text Available

    The EFSA Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC Panel and the subsequent Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel have undertaken evaluations of the safety of flavourings (both chemically defined substances and mixtures such as smoke flavourings and food contact materials (FCM, as well as assessments on other substances used in food. The major progress in methodologies for the evaluation of the safety of these substances is highlighted in this article. By December 2011, scientific opinions had been adopted for 247 substances for food contact materials, mainly plastics. Adoption of a series of opinions on active and/or intelligent packaging substances and on recycling processes of plastics is planned between July 2012 and December 2013. Panel opinions, EFSA statements/reports and guidance documents were published on specific issues and on substances for which there was an urgent request for safety evaluation (for example isopropylthioxanthone (ITX, bisphenol A (BPA, phthalates, epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO, benzophenone and 4-methylbenzophenone. By 2009, the AFC and CEF Panels had completed the safety review of 2 067 flavourings substances used in the EU. Additional data, which were requested for 404 substances, are currently under evaluation or have been generated. Eleven smoke flavourings have been evaluated, and the CEF Panel has prepared a guidance document on the future data required for the evaluation of flavourings.

  20. Maintenance and hazardous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhl, K.; Terwoert, J.; Cabecas, J.J.M.


    Maintenance workers come into close contact with a broad variety of often hazardous chemicals. Depending on the specific type, these chemicals may not only cause diseases like skin sores or cancer, but many of them are highly flammable and explosive. This e-facts focuses on the specific risks relate

  1. [The comprehensive investigation of the new psychoactive substances]. (United States)

    Andreev, A I; Malkova, T L; Apushkin, D Yu; Bulatov, I P; Mashchenko, P S


    This article was designed to discuss the issues related to ensuring the methodological uniformity of investigations of the novel psychoactive substances based on the system of the newly established specialized laboratories. The authors propose the methodological approaches to the implementation of comprehensive chemical and pharmacological research including chemical, biological, and sociological studies. The main specific features of these approaches are the use of laboratory animals and the automation of in vivo experiments. Also, we discuss the use of the concrete results of the computational experiments designed to elucidate the parameters responsible for the chemical similarity of psychoactive substances. The mechanisms of their action are considered. The special emphasis is placed on the necessity of close cooperation between scientific and expert communities with a view to accumulation of the data on the newly developed and potentially harmful psychoactive substances as a basis for the efficacious prevention of their illegal trafficking.

  2. Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.


    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  3. Paint for detection of corrosion and warning of chemical and radiological attack (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.


    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  4. Existing chemicals: international activities. (United States)

    Purchase, J F


    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  5. Parental substance use impairment, parenting and substance use disorder risk. (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Mericle, Amy A; Meyers, Kathleen; Winters, Ken C


    Using data from a nationally representative sample, this study investigated substance use disorder (SUD) among respondents with ages 15-54 years as a function of their parents' substance-related impairment and parents' treatment history. In addition, associations among maternal and paternal substance-related impairment, specific parenting behaviors, and risk for SUD in the proband were examined. As expected, parental substance-related impairment was associated with SUD. Paternal treatment history was associated with a decreased risk for SUD in the proband but did not appear to be associated with positive parenting practices. Results of post hoc analyses suggested that parenting behaviors might operate differently to influence SUD risk in children where parents are affected by substance use problems compared with nonaffected families. Future research is warranted to better understand the complex relationships among parental substance use, treatment, parenting behaviors, and SUD risk in offspring. Opportunities might exist within treatment settings to improve parenting skills.

  6. A GHS-consistent approach to health hazard classification of petroleum substances, a class of UVCB substances. (United States)

    Clark, Charles R; McKee, Richard H; Freeman, James J; Swick, Derek; Mahagaokar, Suneeta; Pigram, Glenda; Roberts, Linda G; Smulders, Chantal J; Beatty, Patrick W


    The process streams refined from petroleum crude oil for use in petroleum products are among those designated by USEPA as UVCB substances (unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products and biological materials). They are identified on global chemical inventories with unique Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers and names. The chemical complexity of most petroleum substances presents challenges when evaluating their hazards and can result in differing evaluations due to the varying level of hazardous constituents and differences in national chemical control regulations. Global efforts to harmonize the identification of chemical hazards are aimed at promoting the use of consistent hazard evaluation criteria. This paper discusses a systematic approach for the health hazard evaluation of petroleum substances using chemical categories and the United Nations (UN) Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling. Also described are historical efforts to characterize the hazard of these substances and how they led to the development of categories, the identification of potentially hazardous constituents which should be considered, and a summary of the toxicology of the major petroleum product groups. The use of these categories can increase the utility of existing data, provide better informed hazard evaluations, and reduce the amount of animal testing required.

  7. Substance abuse and child maltreatment. (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn


    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  8. 虫害诱导的杨树化学物质对分月扇舟蛾生长发育的影响%Influence of pest induced poplar chemical substances on the growth and development of Clostera anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚淑艳; 孟怡君


    As a new plant resistance type, induced resistance has a great potential in the feeding and egg laying prospects ofphytopha- gous insects. In this research, feeding selection behaviors of Clostera anastomos/s larvae to poplar leaves processed in different ways were observed indoor with a selective method. After 2-3 year larvae were fed with leaves damaged by insect pests for 48 hours, nutri- lional effect of the leaves damaged by insect pests was tested and the influences on the development period, pupa weight, emergence rate and other growth and development conditions of Clostera anastomosis larvae fed with the leaves damaged by insect pests was ana- lyzed. A biochemical method was used to detect the change of nutrient substances and secondary substances of the damage leaves. The results shown that the leaves damaged with insect pests had repellency against Clostera anastomosis; mechanical injury did not af- fect selectivity to hosts; and after Clostera anastomosis larvae eaten damaged leaves, the development period was prolonged, pupa weight, emergence rate, soluble sugar content were reduced, and the contents of tannin and tlavone were increased.%诱导抗性作为一种新的植物抗性类型,在防御植食性昆虫的取食和产卵方面具有很大的潜力。该项研究在室内采用选择性方法,观察了分月扇舟蛾幼虫对不同处理的杨树叶的取食选择行为。用虫害叶喂食2-3龄幼虫48h,测定其营养效应,分析了喂食虫害叶对分月扇舟蛾的幼虫发育历期、蛹重、羽化率等生长发育的影响。利用生化方法测定了杨树叶片虫害后营养物质和次生物质的变化。结果表明:虫害叶对分月扇舟蛾表现为忌避作用;机械损伤叶不影响对寄主的选择性。分月扇舟蛾取食虫害叶后幼虫的发育历期延长、蛹重增加、羽化率降低,可溶性糖含量下降,单宁和黄酮含量增加。

  9. Risk assessment of flavouring substances used in foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norby, Karin; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Greve, Krestine


    The aim of the present project, the FLAVIS project, is to perform risk assessment of chemically defined flavouring substances. The evaluations are then presented to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for final adoption in its Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids...... and materials in contact with food. The regulatory background for the work is found in the European Parliament and Council Regulation No. 2232/96 laying down a procedure for the establishment of a list of flavouring substances the use of which will be authorised to the exclusion of all others in the EU...... the approach developed by the “Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives” (JECFA) and referred to in Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000. First, the 2800 flavouring substances are divided into groups of structurally related substances. The Procedure is then a stepwise approach that integrates...


    Thorn, Kevin A.; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Mikita, Michael A.


    Humic substances are the most abundant naturally occurring refactory organic compounds in soils and water. They have a broad range of physical, chemical and physiological properties. In soils, humic substances contribute to the cation exchange capacity, help maintain the physical structure, and play a role in plant growth and nutrition. In aquatic systems, humic substances serve to regulate the levels of inorganic constituents, yield trihalomethanes upon chlorination, and transport or concentrate organic and inorganic pollutants. The oxygen containing functional groups of humic and fulvic acids are believed to play a key role in the chemical properties of humic substances. This study was undertaken to gain additional information on the specific types of oxygen functionalities in humic substances. Since the analysis of hydroxyl moieties had been earlier established, we focused our attention on the analysis of ketone and aldehyde functional groups in humic substances.

  11. Chemicals of Common bitercress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marenich


    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of Common bitter cress (Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.. Shows indicators of good quality, optimal parameters extraction, trace element composition, amino acid composition, content of biologically active substances and volatile of raw material.

  12. Detonation of CHO working substances in a laser jet engine (United States)

    Ageichik, A. A.; Repina, E. V.; Rezunkov, Yu. A.; Safronov, A. L.


    Laser-induced ablation of materials (including polymers and a variety of polycrystalline substances with a CHO chemical composition) is studied theoretically and experimentally. Based on experimental data, a parametric physicochemical model of detonation of these materials is put forward with the aim to estimate the efficiency of laser thrust formation in jet engines.

  13. 76 FR 22422 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration (United States)


    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated November 19, 2010, and published in the Federal Register on December 3, 2010, 75 FR 75495, Chattem Chemicals... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as an importer of...

  14. Potential health hazards of organic pigments and dyes used in the manufacture of paints and surface coatings. Appendix I: scientific basis for the proposed regulation of dyes derived from the chemical substances benzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.L.


    The scientific bases for regulating dyes derived from benzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine are presented. Studies of these compounds have demonstrated that benzidine-type dyes undergo nearly complete cleavage to known potent human carcinogenic agents through several metabolic and biological pathways, that these metabolites are carcinogenic in human and animal studies, that the toxicity and carcinogenicity of benzidine-type dyes has been demonstrated in animals, and that there is a high incidence of bladder cancer among users of benzidine-type dyes. Industrial workers were at risk through the inhalation of dye dusts, absorption through skin exposure, and accidental ingestion. Industries involved included dye manufacture, textile finishing, leather working, and paper dyeing. Direct dyes sold for home and craft use that may contain benzidine type dyes were listed by brand name and company or distributor. Commercial trade names of dyes and pigments based on these chemical substances were listed. Chemical identification of benzidine type dyes was described. Alternatives to benzidine type dyes were suggested, and a history of legislative attempts to regulate benzidine type dye production was provided.

  15. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  16. Persistent toxic substances: sources, fates and effects. (United States)

    Wong, Ming H; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Naidu, Ravi; Man, Ming


    Persistent toxic substances (PTS) include the Stockholm persistent organic pollutants, like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin/furan, etc., and organometallic compounds, like organomercury, organotin, and organolead, which all share the same characteristics of being persistent, toxic, bioaccumulative, and able to travel long distances through different media. The adverse health effects of some of the emerging chemicals like pentabromodiphenyl ether, bisphenol A, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which are widely used in daily appliances (e.g., TVs, computers, mobile phones, plastic baby bottles), have become a public health concern due to more evidence now available showing their adverse effects like disturbance of the endocrine system and cancer. This article is an attempt to review the current status of PTS in our environment, citing case studies in China and North America, and whether our existing drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment processes are adequate in removing them from water. Some management issues of these emerging chemicals of concern are also discussed.

  17. Uncertainty Analysis of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager DT; Slob W; ECO


    USES, the Uniform System for Evaluation of Substances, is a decision-supporting tool, that can be used for rapid, quantitative risk assessments of chemical substances during their life-cycle. Risk assessment is an inherently uncertain process due to the limited data availability and lack of knowledg

  18. Application of the TTC concept to unknown substances found in analysis of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, S.; Boobis, A.R.; Cubberley, R.; Hollnagel, H.M.; Richling, E.; Wildemann, T.; Würtzen, G.; Galli, C.L.


    Unknown substances, not previously observed, are frequently detected in foods by quality control laboratories. In many cases, the assessment of these 'new' substances requires additional chemical analysis for their identification prior to assessing risk. This identification procedure can be time-con

  19. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Vancutsem, J.; Jorgensen, J.S.


    Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds) and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual s

  20. 77 FR 46009 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Maine... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...

  1. 76 FR 77457 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals,...

  2. 40 CFR 82.5 - Apportionment of baseline production allowances for class I controlled substances. (United States)


    ...,358 Vulcan Chemicals 21,931,987 (e) For Group V controlled substances: Methyl Chloroform Dow Chemical Company, USA 168,030,117 E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co 2 PPG Industries, Inc 57,450,719 Vulcan Chemicals...

  3. Isolation of haloorganic groundwater humic substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, M.; Grøn, C.


    Humic substances were isolated from groundwater according to a revised method designed to avoid organohalogen artefacts. The prepared humic substances exhibited lower halogen contents than humic substances isolated according to the conventionally used method. Excessive oxidation or hydrolysis was...

  4. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) 8(e) Notices and FYI Submissions (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Section 8(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires U.S. chemical manufacturers, importers, processors and distributors to notify EPA within 30 calendar...

  5. 76 FR 57701 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... rule published on July 29, 2011, (76 FR 45484) is withdrawn as of September 16, 2011. ADDRESSES... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  6. 76 FR 57662 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... withdrawal of the direct final action (76 FR 45432) is effective as of September 16, 2011. ADDRESSES... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  7. Effect of sunlight exposure on the release of intentionally and/or non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and in vitro toxicity. (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine


    The effect of sunlight exposure on chemical migration into PET-bottled waters was investigated. Bottled waters were exposed to natural sunlight for 2, 6 and 10 days. Migration was dependent on the type of water. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and Sb migration increased with sunlight exposure in ultrapure water. In carbonated waters, carbon dioxide promoted migration and only formaldehyde increased slightly due to sunlight. Since no aldehydes were detected in non-carbonated waters, we conclude that sunlight exposure has no effect. Concerning Sb, its migration levels were higher in carbonated waters. No unpredictable NIAS were identified in PET-bottled water extracts. Cyto-genotoxicity (Ames and micronucleus assays) and potential endocrine disruption effects (transcriptional-reporter gene assays) were checked in bottled water extracts using bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) and human cell lines (HepG2 and MDA-MB453-kb2). PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any toxic effects (cyto-genotoxicity, estrogenic or anti-androgenic activity) in vitro at relevant consumer-exposure levels.

  8. Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). (United States)

    Sapienza, Frank L


    The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has reduced the diversion of controlled substances at the manufacturing and distribution levels. Recent increased diversion has occurred at the retail level. Levels of diversion and abuse of controlled substances with similar abuse potential and therapeutic indications often parallel availability for medical use, while rates of diversion and abuse may be influenced by factors related to specific products, including their formulations and risk management plans. Abuse deterrent formulations may reduce abuse and attendant adverse health consequences even if the products are diverted. Their development should consider how, to what extent and by whom products containing the targeted substance are abused. It should take into consideration all potential types of abuse including "as is", multiple doses, alternate routes of administration, physical or chemical separation of the active ingredient, compromised extended release mechanisms and abuse in combination with other substances. Industry incentives for developing abuse-resistant formulations include enhanced corporate image and potentially less restrictive scheduling or risk management plans. Scheduling is substance specific, but the CSA includes products/formulations that are differentially scheduled. Issues to be considered for differential scheduling under the CSA include: (1) whether there is legal authority to do so; (2) application of standard scheduling criteria to individual products; (3) product specific data for "eight factor analyses"; (4) development of predictive data and standards accepted by the scientific and regulatory communities; (5) use of predictive data or post marketing surveillance data; (6) international treaty obligations. These issues must be addressed before differential scheduling can be considered.

  9. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  10. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  11. Waste paper for recycling: Overview and identification of potentially critical substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard


    Paper product manufacturing involves a variety of chemicals used either directly in paper and pulp production or in the conversion processes (i.e. printing, gluing) that follow. Due to economic and environmental initiatives, paper recycling rates continue to rise. In Europe, recycling has increas...... substances were identified as potentially critical (selected mineral oils, phthalates, phenols, parabens, as well as other groups of chemicals) in relation to paper recycling. It is recommended that these substances receive more attention in waste paper....

  12. Substâncias químicas, trabalho e alterações neurológicas: possíveis relações entre estas variáveis Substancias químicas, trabajo y alteraciones neurológicas: posibles relaciones entre estas variables Chemical substances, work and neurological alterations: possible relationship among these variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz Robazzi


    Full Text Available Foram investigados 239 prontuários de pacientes atendidos em um hospital, portadores de patologias neurológicas de etiologias desconhecidas, buscando-se alguma relação entre a doença apresentada e o uso ocupacional de substâncias químicas. Em 32 prontuários havia registros sobre ocupação. 37.50% dos pacientes trabalhavam na agricultura; 34.37% eram empregadas domésticas/donas de casa; 12.50% eram pedreiros; um era sapateiro, um seleiro; um montador de móveis e os demais trabalhavam com máquinas. Em decorrência de sua atividade, possivelmente utilizaram substâncias químicas. As poucas informações relacionando o uso destes produtos e a doença apresentada pelos pacientes demonstram a reduzida importância conferida a estas variáveis.Fueron investigadas 239 historias clinicas de pacientes atendidos en un hospital, portadores de patologías neurológicas de etiología desconocida fueron investigados buscandose una posible relación entre el uso ocupacional de substancias químicas y la enfermedad presentada. En 32 historias había registro sobre ocupación. 37.50% de los pacientes trabajaban en la agricultura; 34.37% eran empleadas domesticas/amas; 12.50% eran pedreros y uno presentaba una historia laboral previa en labra. Uno era zapatero, uno talabartero; uno carpintero y los otros trabajaban con máquinas. Debido a su actividad, posiblemente utilizaron substancias químicas. Las pocas informaciones relacionando el uso y la enfermedad demuestran la reducida importancia que han conferido a estas variables.Authors searched 239 reports of patients admitted in a hospital who carried neurological pathologies with unknown etiologies in order to find the possible relationship between the disease and the occupational use of chemical substances. They found the occupation in 32 reports. 37.50% of the patients worked with agriculture; 34.37% were maids/worked at home; 12.50% were masons; one was a shoemaker, one a saddler; one made

  13. New Active Organic Substance in Oyster Shell Capable of Scavenging Oxygen Free Radicals with High Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-hua


    A light purple organic active substance capable of scavenging hydroxyl radical·OH with a high efficiency was extracted from Oyster shell at an extraction rate of 2.49%.It was found for the first time that this active substance may scavenge ·OH with the efficiency far higher than that of vitamin C.This active substance may scavenge also superoxide radical(O2-·)although the scavenging efficiency is far lower than that of vitamin C.Infrared spectrometry and routine chemical analysis primarily reveal that this active substance belongs to glycoprotein.

  14. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.


    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  15. Hazardous substances in Europe's fresh and marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Robert; Brack, Werner; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    Chemicals are an essential part of our daily lives. They are used to produce consumer goods, to protect or restore our health and to boost food production, to name but a few examples — and they are also involved in a growing range of environmental technologies. Europe's chemical and associated...... industries have developed rapidly in recent decades, making a significant contribution to Europe's economy and to the global trade in chemicals. Whilst synthetic chemicals clearly bring important benefits to society, some of them are hazardous, raising concerns for human health and the environment depending...... by chemicals, has a key role to play in this respect. REACH attributes greater responsibility to industry with regard to managing these risks and providing safety information on substances used. The Regulation also calls for the progressive substitution of the most dangerous chemicals once suitable...

  16. The JFFMA assessment of flavoring substances structurally related to menthol and uniquely used in Japan. (United States)

    Mirokuji, Yoshiharu; Abe, Hajime; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Saito, Kenji; Sekiya, Fumiko; Hayashi, Shim-mo; Maruyama, Shinpei; Ono, Atsushi; Nakajima, Madoka; Degawa, Masakuni; Ozawa, Shogo; Shibutani, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio


    Using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), we performed safety evaluations on four flavoring substances structurally related to menthol (L-menthyl 2-methylbutyrate, DL-menthyl octanoate, DL-menthyl palmitate, and DL-menthyl stearate) uniquely used in Japan. While no genotoxicity study data were available in the literature, all four substances had no chemical structural alerts predictive of genotoxicity. Moreover, they all four are esters consisting of menthol and simple carboxylic acids that were assumed to be immediately hydrolyzed after ingestion and metabolized into innocuous substances for excretion. As menthol and carboxylic acids have no known genotoxicity, it was judged that the JECFA procedure could be applied to these four substances. According to Cramer's classification, these substances were categorized as class I based on their chemical structures. The estimated daily intakes for all four substances were within the range of 1.54-4.71 μg/person/day and 60-1250 μg/person/day, using the methods of Maximized Survey-Derived Intake and Single Portion Exposure Technique, respectively, based on the annual usage data of 2001, 2005, and 2010 in Japan. As the daily intakes of these substances were below the threshold of concern applied to class I substances viz., 1800 μg/person/day, it was concluded that all four substances raise no safety concerns when used for flavoring foods under the currently estimated intake levels.

  17. Chemical experiment - the basis in learning chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dalabayeva


    Full Text Available Particular classification and method carrying out chemical experiment and their place in learning chemistry was considered. And also was showed that an application of kinds of chemical experiments competence develops in learning at the decision of experimental problems in chemistry. Features of solubility of firm substances in water are discussed at the chemical experiment and the process of dissolution.

  18. Chemical experiment - the basis in learning chemistry


    N. Dalabayeva


    Particular classification and method carrying out chemical experiment and their place in learning chemistry was considered. And also was showed that an application of kinds of chemical experiments competence develops in learning at the decision of experimental problems in chemistry. Features of solubility of firm substances in water are discussed at the chemical experiment and the process of dissolution.

  19. Naturally occurring toxic substances in foods. (United States)

    Gross, R L; Newberne, P M


    Numerous chemical toxins, including normal components of natural foods, e.g., mycotoxins, and toxic chemicals as contaminants such as pesticides, fertilizers, food additives, and preservatives, which are potentially toxic to humans, are discussed. Potential toxicity, the hazard to man represented by most of these chemicals, may be low because the concentration in food may be low. The gap in our knowledge of long-term effects makes rational decisions as to allowable levels of these substances a major problem. On the other hand, nitrosamines and aflatoxins are toxins for which there exists a voluminous literature documentaing extreme biologic activity in experimental animals and indirect evidence for activity in man. Epidemiologic evidence has linked them to human cancers, and because of increasing evidence of long-term human exposure to these toxins either as inadvertent contaminants during food preparation or as the metabolites of mycotic infestation this possible hazard demands intensive investigation. An exhaustive review of data from epidemiologic surveys in various parts of the world, as well as from long-term laboratory studies, represents an impressive start in this direction.

  20. Women and substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hesse


    Full Text Available Substance use disorders belong to the class of externalizing behaviours that are generally more common among men than women. Those women who do have substance disorders therefore deviate more from the norms of society compared with men, tend to live in an environment characterized by high risk of violence and other forms of abuse, and tend to be survivors of childhood trauma. In terms of seeking treatment, women often have difficulty acknowledging their problems with substance use disorders, and professionals are reluctant to ask women about drug or alcohol use. Even when they do seek treatment, women in many countries face practical and financial barriers to access treatment. For women who do enter treatment, outcomes are generally comparable to outcomes for men, suggesting that facilitating entry into treatment can yield substantial benefits for women with addictions.

  1. Adolescent pregnancy and substance use. (United States)

    Flanagan, P; Kokotailo, P


    The question of just what is the relationship of early pregnancy and childbearing and substance use among adolescents remains unanswered. From a public health perspective, both behaviors are unwanted, and populations that are at risk are often at high risk for both. Perhaps prevention of one behavior may be expected to prevent the other. This, however, may be too simplistic a notion, grounded in misconception of the role of early pregnancy and specific cultural context. Furthermore, several studies have documented a decline of drug use during pregnancy and just after delivery among adolescent mothers. Does this trend continue through the parenting years? If so, for whom? What are the individual maternal, child, and family environmental characteristics that predict a decline in use or continued abstinence after early childbearing? Within the context of poverty, lower educational attainment, minority status, and high prevalence of alcohol and drug use, pregnancy may play a positive role. With a change in role, young women may be less likely than nonparenting peers and less likely than prior to their own pregnancy to become deeply involved in the negative behaviors, such as smoking, drinking, and substance use. Perhaps this is a potential opportunity to intervene. To summarize, the health risk behaviors of substance use and adolescent pregnancy and childbearing appear to be linked. Youths who become pregnant before they complete high school represent a particular group of young women who may be at higher risk than the general population for substance use, at least cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Yet, most pregnant teenagers are not substance users. Among those who are, frequency and amounts of use in most samples were low compared with adult samples of pregnant women. Furthermore, there is evidence that teenagers perceive substance use as a risk to their pregnancies and their unborn children. Among users, there is a decrease in use and increase in quit rates

  2. How do nursing students perceive substance abusing nurses? (United States)

    Boulton, Martha A; Nosek, Laura J


    Substance abuse among nurses was recognized by nurse leaders and professional nursing organizations as a growing threat to patient safety and to the health of the abusing nurse more than 30years ago. Although numerous studies on nurse impairment were published in the 1980s and 1990s, there was minimal focus on student nurses' perceptions about impaired nurses and less research has been published more recently, despite a growing rate of substance abuse. A quasi-experimental study to explore the perceptions of student nurses toward nurses who are chemically dependent was conducted using a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The Perception of Nurse Impairment Inventory (PNII) was completed by student nurses at the beginning of their junior course work, prior to formal education about substance abuse. The PNII was repeated after the students received substance abuse education. The PNII was also completed by a control group of sophomore student nurses who did not receive the formal substance abuse education. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to measure the differences between the two groups of students. Students who received the education chose more compassionate responses on the PNII and were more likely to respond that an impaired nurse's supervisor is responsible for supporting and guiding the impaired nurse to access professional care. Discrepancies in study findings about the efficacy of education for effecting positive attitudes of student nurses toward impaired nurses may be related to the length and type of the education.

  3. 中国GBZ2.1与美国ACGIH工作场所化学有害因素职业接触限值比较研究%Comparative study on occupational exposure limits of chemical substances in workplace betweent GBZ 2.1 in China and ACGIH in USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文捷; 张敏; 王丹


    Objective To systematically compare occupational exposure limits(OELs) in GBZ 2.1 with the ones in TLV-CS of ACGIH on quantity,level,procedures of management etc.; to propose priority chemicals for establishing OELs and suggestions on the revisions of occupational health standards; to provide basic scientific evidence for the planning and development of occupational health standards.Method Compilation of a database on OELs in GBZ 2.1 and in TLV-CS of ACGIH according to types of exposure limits,and comparison of the data in the two systems on the values of exposure limits,quantitative descriptions of specific occupational hazards,legal status,TLV-CS setting up principles、basis、condition and procedures,key adverse effect,application of carcinogenicity/sensitization/skin notations,adjustment of OELs for unusual work schedules,the concept and application of combined effects,the concept and application of Excursion Limits,the identity of particles,and analysis of the comparison result.Results (1)There are 339 chemical substances included in GBZ 2.1 and 656 in TLV-CS in ACGIH.(2)The number of the chemical substances in GBZ 2.1 with specified OELs but not included in TLV-CS of ACGIH is 52; the chemical substances with OELs in TLVCS of ACGIH but not in GBZ 2.1 are 371.(3)There are 260 chemical substances which have OELs in both GBZ 2.1 and ACGIH and with a total of 302 OELs,among them,47 OELs are higher and 96 are lower in the GBZ 2.1 than the ones in TLV-CS of ACGIH,81 of them are similar,and 77 are the same in the two.(4) Guidelines on notations of carcinogenicity,sensitization and skin in China need to be developed.(5)Guidelines for adjustment of OELs for unusual work schedules need to be adopted in China.(6)There is still a wide gap between OELs in GBZ 2.1 and in TLV-CS of ACGIH in many aspects.The management and approval procedures of China in setting up OELs are more bureaucratic,and the biological plausibility and feasibility aspects should be strengthed

  4. 75 FR 70248 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening (United States)


    .... List of Subjects Environmental protection, Chemicals, Drinking water, Endocrine disruptors, Pesticides... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening AGENCY... chemicals and substances for which EPA intends to issue test orders under the Endocrine Disruptor...

  5. Characteristics of selected bioaccumulative substances and their impact on fish health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczak Marek


    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to evaluate the influence and effects of chosen bioaccumulative substances i.e. heavy metals, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on fish, as well as provide information on time trends and potential threat to human health. Chemical substances which pollute water may affect living organisms in two ways. First of all, large amounts of chemical substances may cause sudden death of a significant part of the population of farmed fish, without symptoms (i.e. during breakdown of factories or industrial sewage leaks. However, more frequently, chemical substances accumulate in tissues of living organisms affecting them chronically. Heavy metals, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent substances with a long-lasting biodegradation process. In a water environment they usually accumulate in sediments, which makes them resistant to biodegradation processes induced by, e.g., the UV light. These substances enter the fish through direct consumption of contaminated water or by contact with skin and gills. Symptoms of intoxication with heavy metals, pesticides, and PCBs may vary and depend on the concentration and bioavailability of these substances, physicochemical parameters of water, and the fish itself.

  6. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents. (United States)

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others


    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  7. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie


    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  8. Substance Use as Impression Management. (United States)

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg


    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  9. Control of Chemical Risks by Substitution of Harmful Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas


    Substitution of volatile, organic solvents with non-volatile, low-toxic esters of fatty acids for cleaning purposes in offset printing has successfully been implemented in several European countries. Similar substitutions in other industrial cleaning processes seem possible, especially regarding ...

  10. 40 CFR 766.38 - Reporting on precursor chemical substances. (United States)


    ...,2,4-Trichlorobenzene. 348-51-6 o-Chorofluorobenzene. 350-30-1 3-Chloro-4-fluoronitrobenzene. 615-67...-61-6 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene. 87-84-3 1,2,3,4,5-Pentabromo-6-chloro-cyclohexane. 89-61-2 1,4-Dichloro...-Chlororesorcinol. 95-94-3 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene. 97-50-7......

  11. Biologically Active Substances of Plants from Sali x L. Genus


    O. O. Frolova; E. V. Kompantseva; T. M. Dementieva


    The review systematizes data about chemical composition of bark, leaves, inflorescences, and sprouts of different species of Salix L. The closest attention is payed to investigations of Salix, which has been recently carried out in our country and abroad. For every group of biologically active substances described in Salix there are data about suppressed types of pharmacological activity.

  12. Biologically Active Substances of Plants from Sali x L. Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Frolova


    Full Text Available The review systematizes data about chemical composition of bark, leaves, inflorescences, and sprouts of different species of Salix L. The closest attention is payed to investigations of Salix, which has been recently carried out in our country and abroad. For every group of biologically active substances described in Salix there are data about suppressed types of pharmacological activity.

  13. Automated indexing of the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). (United States)

    Nuss, Carlo; Chang, Hua Florence; Moore, Dorothy; Fonger, George C


    The Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), produced and maintained by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), contains over 4600 records on potentially hazardous chemicals. To enhance information retrieval from HSDB, NLM has undertaken the development of an automated HSDB indexing protocol as part of its Indexing Initiative. The NLM Indexing Initiative investigates methods whereby automated indexing may partially or completely substitute for human indexing. The poster's purpose is to describe the HSDB Automated Indexing Project.

  14. Automated Indexing of the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)



    The Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), produced and maintained by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), contains over 4600 records on potentially hazardous chemicals. To enhance information retrieval from HSDB, NLM has undertaken the development of an automated HSDB indexing protocol as part of its Indexing Initiative. The NLM Indexing Initiative investigates methods whereby automated indexing may partially or completely substitute for human indexing. The poster’s purpose is to describe...

  15. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Comprehensive, peer-reviewed toxicology data for about 5,000 chemicals. The data bank focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced...

  16. Substance use during pregnancy and postnatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Tine, Nielsen;


    Substance exposure in utero has been associated with physical birth defects and increased risk of regulatory and neuropsychological difficulties. The aims of this study were to describe women who use substances and are in treatment with respect to the type and number of substances used during...... of substances. More than 50% of the mothers ceased using any substances (with the exception of tobacco) by birth, indicating that the treatment program did have an interventional effect on the mothers. The mothers' ability to either cease or decrease the use of substances during pregnancy appears to have direct...

  17. A New Road to Reactions Part 4. The Substance and Its Molecules. (United States)

    de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.


    Differentiates between chemical nomenclature and the common ways that substances are named and described. Students should learn the chemical nomenclature so that they will be more observant and objective. Cites examples of student misconceptions based upon their own imagination and logic. (TW)

  18. Simultaneous determination by HPLC of 6 components in zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections with replacement method of chemical reference substance%HPLC替代对照品法同时测定莪术油及其注射液中6种成分的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何欢; 马双成; 张启明; 田颂九


    Objective:To establish and validate an HPLC method with single marker to simultaneously determine six components in zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections.Methods:The relative correction factors(RCF)of the five components(curdione,curcumol,curzerene,furanodiene,β-elemene)were measured by HPLC under different conditions with germacrone as standard reference.Assay of zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections was determined by replacement method of chemical reference substance and the conventional HPLC method with the above SIX components as the index components.The analysis was performed on a Waters Symmetry C_(18)(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 m)column;The mobile phase was composed of methanol-water with a linear gradient elution:The flow rate Was 1.0 mL·min~(-1) and the temperature of colulun was 30 ℃;The UV detection wavelength was set at 215 nm.Results:The quantitative results of the new method were almost consistent with the results of conventional HPLC method.Conclusion:For the first time,the replacement method of chemical reference substance is adopted in HPLC simultaneous determination of zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections.The new method is economical and practical which is highly effective and accurate for quality control of zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections.%目的:建立HPLC替代对照品法同时测定莪术油及其注射液中6种成分含量.方法:本文采用HPLC方法,在不同条件下测定(牛龙)牛儿酮与其他5种成分(莪术二酮、莪术醇、莪术烯、呋喃二烯及β-榄香烯)间的相对校正因子(RCF).以上述6种成分为指标,分别利用替代对照品法和常规含量测定方法对莪术油及其注射液进行含量测定.色谱条件:采用Waters Symmetry C_(18)(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm)色谱柱,流动相为甲醇-水,梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL·min~(-1),柱温30℃,检测波长215 nm.结果:以替代对照品法测得的结果与常规含量测定方法结果一致.结论:本试验在

  19. [Safe usage of chemicals in European Union countries]. (United States)

    Graczyk, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Barański, Bogusław


    New legal provisions have changed the rules of production, import and use of chemicals in the European Union Member States. Chemical substances present on the common market are covered by registration duty. Manufacturers and importers of substances are obliged to ensure that the risk posed by a given substance is adequately controlled on each stage. Information on substances is to be transferred both downstream and upstream in a supply chain. Substances of very high concern are the subject of authorisation procedure and will be gradually replaced by their safer equivalents. Information on substances of very high concern is transferred to downstream users and consumers. The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and Member States Competent Authorities have been established. National Helpdesks on REACH are operating in Member States, giving help to enterprises and other stakeholders.

  20. 76 FR 1067 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals (United States)


    ...; Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle); American Chemistry Council (ACC); Chlorinated Paraffins Industry... Responsible Medicine (PCRM), the Alternatives Research Development Foundation (ARDF), and the American Anti... Medicine. B. Are these chemical substances produced and/or imported in substantial quantities? EPA...

  1. Investigating Nitrate-Dependent Humic Substance Oxidation and In-Service K-12 Teachers' Understanding of Microbiology (United States)

    Jones, Nastassia N.


    Humic substances (HS) are the humified portions of totally decomposed soil organic matter that are ubiquitous in nature. Although these substances have been studied for more than 200 years, neither their metabolic capabilities nor a specific chemical structure has yet to be determined. HS have been studied as a carbon source in many environments…

  2. Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use (United States)

    ... Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use Email Facebook Twitter Two hour- ... School, in Minneapolis, conducted the trial with 315 adolescent and parent/caregiver pairs. Their findings strengthen evidence, ...

  3. Youth employment and substance use. (United States)

    Kaestner, Robert; Sasso, Anthony Lo; Callison, Kevin; Yarnoff, Benjamin


    A significant portion of teens work while in school and the consequences of that work are of potential concern to society. While there is widespread support for combining work and school, and some evidence that employment has positive effects on youth development, previous research has revealed some potentially harmful consequences of employment among teens. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between teen employment and substance use. We extended this literature by studying two different cohorts of youth, and by exploiting arguably exogenous variation in youth employment and earnings caused by changes in minimum wages and the business cycle (unemployment). Estimates suggest that hours of work are positively associated with alcohol and cigarette use. However, if selection on unobserved variables were equal to selection on observed variables, these associations would be close to zero. With respect to the association between earnings and substance use, the evidence is less clear.

  4. Why adolescents use substances of abuse. (United States)

    Duhigg, Daniel


    In summary, adolescent substance use is associated with a variety of risks. Using a nonjudgmental and collaborative approach to treating adolescent substance users can yield positive results. Motivational interviewing and the adolescent community reinforcement approach are evidence-based, nonpharmacologic treatments for teens with substance use disorders.

  5. Family Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Use. (United States)

    Stephenson, Andy L.; And Others


    Study used self-report questionnaire data from high school students to determine the relation between adolescents' perception of family characteristics and adolescent substance use patterns. Results indicate adolescents' perception of maternal substance use, family hardiness, and age of the adolescent were significant predictors of substance use.…

  6. Microbiological tests and measurements in the assessment of harmful substances and pollution


    Ahtiainen, Jukka


    New chemicals are produced in increasing numbers. In Finland every year about 28 000 different products are manufactured or imported which can be classified as harmful. These products contain about 5000 different harmful substances. We also receive harmful compounds in airborne emissions. Substances are further transformed in industrial processes, in waste management and in the environment by human activities and natural processes. However, only rather limited monitoring data is available abo...

  7. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L. Kraanen; P.M.G. Emmelkamp


    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex

  8. UVCB substances: methodology for structural description and application to fate and hazard assessment. (United States)

    Dimitrov, Sabcho D; Georgieva, Denitsa G; Pavlov, Todor S; Karakolev, Yordan H; Karamertzanis, Panagiotis G; Rasenberg, Mike; Mekenyan, Ovanes G


    Substances of unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products, or biological materials (UVCBs) have been conventionally described in generic terms. Commonly used substance identifiers are generic names of chemical classes, generic structural formulas, reaction steps, physical-chemical properties, or spectral data. Lack of well-defined structural information has significantly restricted in silico fate and hazard assessment of UVCB substances. A methodology for the structural description of UVCB substances has been developed that allows use of known identifiers for coding, generation, and selection of representative constituents. The developed formats, Generic Simplified Molecular-Input Line-Entry System (G SMILES) and Generic Graph (G Graph), address the need to code, generate, and select representative UVCB constituents; G SMILES is a SMILES-based single line notation coding fixed and variable structural features of UVCBs, whereas G Graph is based on a workflow paradigm that allows generation of constituents coded in G SMILES and end point-specific or nonspecific selection of representative constituents. Structural description of UVCB substances as afforded by the developed methodology is essential for in silico fate and hazard assessment. Data gap filling approaches such as read-across, trend analysis, or quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling can be applied to the generated constituents, and the results can be used to assess the substance as a whole. The methodology also advances the application of category-based data gap filling approaches to UVCB substances.

  9. Connecting Refugees to Substance Use Treatment: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    McCleary, Jennifer S; Shannon, Patricia J; Cook, Tonya L


    An emerging body of literature identifies substance use as a growing concern among refugees resettling in the United States. Like immigrants, refugees may face cultural, linguistic, or systems barriers to connecting with mainstream substance use treatment programs, which may be compounded by refugees' unique experiences with exposure to trauma, displacement in refugee camps, and resettlement. This qualitative study explores factors that support and prevent refugees from connecting with chemical health treatment. Fifteen participants who identified as social service or public health professionals who work with refugees responded to an online, semistructured survey about their experiences referring refugees to substance use treatment. Resulting data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes emerged identifying a lack of culturally informed treatment models, policy issues, and client characteristics such as motivation and past trauma as barriers to engaging with treatment. Ongoing case management and coordination were identified as important to successful linkage. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of how to support refugees seeking substance use treatment and suggest that developing trauma informed, culturally relevant models of treatment that are integrated with primary health care and geographically accessible may enhance treatment linkage.

  10. Volatile substance misuse: an updated review of toxicity and treatment. (United States)

    Ford, Jonathan B; Sutter, Mark E; Owen, Kelly P; Albertson, Timothy E


    Educational campaigns and legislative actions may have led to an overall decrease in the prevalence of volatile substance misuse (VSM) in many countries; however, it is still a common practice throughout the world. Studies currently suggest that girls are misusing volatile substances more than before and at a prevalence rate equal to or exceeding that of boys in several countries. Products that may be misused are ubiquitous and relatively easy to acquire. The most commonly misused substances in recent studies are fuels such as butane or petrol and compressed gas dusters and deodorants that may contain fluorocarbons and/or butane. Detection of VSM is challenging, therefore physicians must maintain a high level of suspicion based on history and clinical presentation. Clues to misuse are often subtle and may include the patient's proximity to a volatile substance or paraphernalia when found intoxicated, dermal burns, blisters, pigments, or rashes, and chemical odors. The primary targets of toxicity are the brain and the heart. The leading cause of death from VSM is from ventricular dysrhythmias. Treatment of toxicity begins with support of airway, breathing, and circulation. Exogenous catecholamines should be avoided if possible due to the theoretical "sensitized" and irritable myocardium. In the case of ventricular dysrhythmias, direct current defibrillation and/or beta-adrenergic receptor antagonism should be used. New evidence demonstrates the addictive potential of VSM yet effective therapy remains uncertain. Further research is needed in developing methods for preventing, detecting, and treating the harmful effects of VSM.

  11. Risk assessment for chemical substances: the link between toxicology and public health Avaliação de risco de substâncias químicas: o elo entre a toxicologia e a saúde pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. R. Paumgartten


    Full Text Available Virtually all chemical substances may cause adverse health effects, depending on the dose and conditions under which individuals are exposed to them. Toxicology - the study of harmful effects of chemicals on living organisms - provides the scientific data base on which risk assessment of adverse health effects stands. Risk assessment (RA is the process of estimating the probability that a chemical compound will produce adverse effects on a given population, under particular conditions of exposure. Risk assessment process consists of four stages: Hazard Identification (HI, Exposure Assessment (EA, Dose-Response Assessment (DRA, and Risk Characterization (RC. The risk assessment process as a whole makes it possible to carry out cost(risk/benefit analysis, and thus risk management, on a rational basis. A capacity to undertake risk assessment is thus sine qua non for making decisions that are concerned with achieving a balance between economic development and adequate protection of public health and the environment.Virtualmente todas as substâncias químicas podem causar efeitos adversos, dependendo da dose e das condições em que os indivíduos são a elas expostos. A toxicologia, isto é, o estudo dos efeitos danosos de substâncias químicas em organismos vivos, fornece a base de dados científicos na qual se apoia a avaliação de risco de efeitos adversos para a saúde. Avaliação de Risco (AR é o processo de se estimar a probabilidade que um composto químico tem de vir a produzir efeitos adversos numa dada população, em determinadas condições de exposição. A avaliação de risco consiste de quatro estágios: identificação da periculosidade (IP; avaliação da exposição (AE; avaliação da relação dose-efeito (ADE; e caracterização do risco (CR. O processo de avaliação de risco como um todo possibilita a realização da análise custo (risco/benefício e, portanto, do gerenciamento do risco, em bases racionais. A capacidade

  12. Chemical Emergencies (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  13. Waste paper for recycling: Overview and identification of potentially critical substances. (United States)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas F


    Paper product manufacturing involves a variety of chemicals used either directly in paper and pulp production or in the conversion processes (i.e. printing, gluing) that follow. Due to economic and environmental initiatives, paper recycling rates continue to rise. In Europe, recycling has increased by nearly 20% within the last decade or so, reaching a level of almost 72% in 2012. With increasing recycling rates, lower quality paper fractions may be included. This may potentially lead to accumulation or un-intended spreading of chemical substances contained in paper, e.g. by introducing chemicals contained in waste paper into the recycling loop. This study provides an overview of chemicals potentially present in paper and applies a sequential hazard screening procedure based on the intrinsic hazard, physical-chemical and biodegradability characteristics of the substances. Based on the results, 51 substances were identified as potentially critical (selected mineral oils, phthalates, phenols, parabens, as well as other groups of chemicals) in relation to paper recycling. It is recommended that these substances receive more attention in waste paper.

  14. Systematic analytical characterization of new psychoactive substances: A case study. (United States)

    Lobo Vicente, Joana; Chassaigne, Hubert; Holland, Margaret V; Reniero, Fabiano; Kolář, Kamil; Tirendi, Salvatore; Vandecasteele, Ine; Vinckier, Inge; Guillou, Claude


    New psychoactive substances (NPS) are synthesized compounds that are not usually covered by European and/or international laws. With a slight alteration in the chemical structure of existing illegal substances registered in the European Union (EU), these NPS circumvent existing controls and are thus referred to as "legal highs". They are becoming increasingly available and can easily be purchased through both the internet and other means (smart shops). Thus, it is essential that the identification of NPS keeps up with this rapidly evolving market. In this case study, the Belgian Customs authorities apprehended a parcel, originating from China, containing two samples, declared as being "white pigments". For routine identification, the Belgian Customs Laboratory first analysed both samples by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The information obtained by these techniques is essential and can give an indication of the chemical structure of an unknown substance but not the complete identification of its structure. To bridge this gap, scientific and technical support is ensured by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) to the European Commission Directorate General for Taxation and Customs Unions (DG TAXUD) and the Customs Laboratory European Network (CLEN) through an Administrative Arrangement for fast recognition of NPS and identification of unknown chemicals. The samples were sent to the JRC for a complete characterization using advanced techniques and chemoinformatic tools. The aim of this study was also to encourage the development of a science-based policy driven approach on NPS. These samples were fully characterized and identified as 5F-AMB and PX-3 using (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution tandem mass-spectrometry (HR-MS/MS) and Raman spectroscopy. A chemoinformatic platform was used to manage, unify analytical data from multiple techniques and instruments, and combine it with chemical and

  15. Background of REACH in EU regulations on evaluation of chemicals. (United States)

    Foth, H; Hayes, Aw


    Industrial chemicals are needed for chemical synthesis or technical purposes. These beneficial effects are counterbalanced by the potential health risks for all who come into contact with them. The new chemical legislation of the EU, Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) will force the responsibility of manufacturers and importers of chemical substances to gather the right information needed to decide on the right circumstances of use and control of chemical substances and products. In order to understand the roots of REACH, experiences gained with regard to existing chemicals legislation, particularly in Germany, will be reviewed. Since Council Directive 67/548/EEC all chemicals placed on the market need a set of standard information and provisions for safe transportation. This directive and its amendments (Council Directive(s) 79/831/EEC and 92/32/EEC) have established for new substances a sound information data basis for classification of dangerous properties. Under Council Regulation 793/93/EEC, regulations and administrative provisions have established the requirement to assess the risk to man and the environment of existing substances. So far, only 119 substances have been evaluated under the forces of this regulation. This separation has led to a substantial imbalance between existing substances and new substances with respect to available data needed to recognize hazards for health. The register of produced and imported chemical substances under REACH should eliminate some of this separation and will also be the key for selection of substances of very high concern by the authorization process to restrict the use and distribution accordingly.

  16. Purification of a natural insecticidal substance from Cestrum parqui (Solanaceae). (United States)

    Ikbal, Chaieb; Habib, Boukamcha; Hichem, Ben Jannet; Monia, Ben Halima; Habib, Ben Hamouda Mohamed; Zine, Mighri


    Cestrum parqui is a shrub originating from Chile used in Tunisia as an ornamental plant. The toxicity of this plant was observed for the first time on the Desert Locust Schistocerca gregaria. It was shown that the toxicity of the plant is concentrated in the Crude Saponic Extract (CSE). In the present research we try to study chemically this fraction to isolate the active substances. The CSE was separated by column chromatography and the obtained fractions were biologically tested on Schistocerca larvae. We observed that only the fraction F9 was active, the separation of this fraction on preparative plates permits to isolate the active compound called S1. The tentative of structure elucidation of the natural substance S1 using 1H and 13C NMR shows that S1 is an heterosidic saponin. Structural modification of S1 structure provoke its activity lose.

  17. Tightrope or Slackline? The Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substances. (United States)

    Coulon, Philippe; Gorji, Ali


    Novel psychoactive substances flood worldwide markets faster than they can be banned. Legislators struggle to find a balance between free availability, prescription systems, and criminalisation, while physicians try to balance risks and benefits of drug treatment and identify drug abuse - a tightrope walk. Classification of psychoactive substances is central to these decision-making processes but existing classifications rely on unrelated, inconsistent, and shifting guidelines that categorise drugs by chemical structure, toxicity, or addictive potency. We propose that a new categorisation of drugs based on neurobiological mechanisms of action may help to simplify the regulation of drug use, delivers a neurobiological context, and streamlines classification and future regulatory directions. We provide guidelines to distinguish between drug abuse and treatment and to navigate the controversies over legalising or banning drugs. Finally, we comment on the role neuroscientific research can play in the future to solve imminent problems in this highly important field.

  18. The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB): background, recent enhancements and future plans. (United States)

    Fonger, George Charles; Hakkinen, Pertti; Jordan, Shannon; Publicker, Stephanie


    The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Division of Specialized Information Services (SIS) Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program is responsible for the management of the online Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). HSDB, a part of NLM's Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET(®)), is a file of chemical/substance information with one record for each specific chemical or substance, or for a category of chemicals or substances. Like the rest of TOXNET's databases and other resources, HSDB is available online at no cost to global users. HSDB has approximately 5600 chemicals and substances, with a focus on toxicology information and also on human exposure, industrial hygiene, emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, regulatory requirements, and related areas of likely interest to HSDB users. All data are from a core set of books, government documents, technical reports, selected primary journal literature, and other online sources of information, with a goal of linking the HSDB content to as much publicly available information as possible. HSDB's content is peer-reviewed by the Scientific Review Panel, a group of experts in the areas covering the scope of HSDB content. Recent enhancements include the addition of chemical structures to HSDB records, the addition of new subfields such as age groups for human data, more occupational exposure standards, and the addition of information on numerous nanomaterials. Examples of future plans include providing more exposure-related information, e.g., uses of a chemical or substance in consumer products; the addition of information summaries aimed towards consumers and other members of the public wanting to learn about a chemical or substance; more visual content such as diagrams (images) of the pathways of metabolism of a substance; and enhanced search features and navigation.

  19. Neuropathology of substance use disorders. (United States)

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica; Milroy, Christopher Mark


    Addictions to licit and illicit drugs are chronic relapsing brain disorders that affect circuits that regulate reward, motivation, memory, and decision-making. Drug-induced pathological changes in these brain regions are associated with characteristic enduring behaviors that continue despite adverse biopsychosocial consequences. Repeated exposure to these substances leads to egocentric behaviors that focus on obtaining the drug by any means and on taking the drug under adverse psychosocial and medical conditions. Addiction also includes craving for the substances and, in some cases, involvement in risky behaviors that can cause death. These patterns of behaviors are associated with specific cognitive disturbances and neuroimaging evidence for brain dysfunctions in a diverse population of drug addicts. Postmortem studies have also revealed significant biochemical and/or structural abnormalities in some addicted individuals. The present review provides a summary of the evidence that has accumulated over the past few years to implicate brain dysfunctions in the varied manifestations of drug addiction. We thus review data on cerebrovascular alterations, brain structural abnormalities, and postmortem studies of patients who abuse cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, heroin, and "bath salts". We also discuss potential molecular, biochemical, and cellular bases for the varied clinical presentations of these patients. Elucidation of the biological bases of addiction will help to develop better therapeutic approaches to these patient populations.

  20. [Substance abuse in older adults]. (United States)

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen


    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  1. Study on scattering properties of tissues with hyperosmotic chemical agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Optical properties of biological tissue are variable due to the changes of micro-structures and scattering constituents after hyperosmotic chemical agents permeates into tissue. The changes of optical properties of biological tissue are due to the refractive indices matching between the scatterers with high refractive index and the ground substances, which reduce scattering of tissue. The main reasons are that permeated semipermeable chemical agents with higher refractive index than the ground substances of tissuemakes the refractive index of ground substances of tissue higher by the enhancement of the permeated concentration. We studied on the collimated transmittance changes of light penetrating biological tissue after the hyperosmotic chemical agents administrates with different concentration.

  2. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.


    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  3. Report on Rocket Power Plants Based on T-Substance (United States)

    Walter, Hellmuth


    In the search for an energy source independent of air for the propulsion of underwater craft, attention was early concentrated on T-substance. It was possible to convince the OKM [NACA comment: Navy High Command] very quickly of the importance of this material. In 1934, the first experiments were undertaken. A difficulty was at once presented by the limited concentration that had been attained. At first only 60 percent T-substance could be supplied; this amount was later increased to as much as 85 percent. Decomposition and combustion experiments conducted on the grounds of the CPVA in Kiel-Dietrichsdorf led to the first practical information as to the technical feasibility of the use of T-substance. New perspectives soon developed because a method of concentrated energy production had been found here, which was capable of many applications. The idea of using this energy for the propulsion of missiles either in guns or as rockets suggested itself and appropriate proposals, which quickly led to the construction of the first experimental devices, were made to the official quarters concerned. In January 1937, the first flight of a DVL aircraft with T-substance auxiliary propulsion took place at Alimbsmuhle in the presence of Colonel Udet, who piloted the third flight. In June 1937, the first T-substance rockets were fired (Altenwalde). Then in rapid succession take-off auxiliary, main propulsion, and other rocket drives were brought out in experimental versions. Hydrogen peroxide is a well known chemical, which is widely used in the textile industry. Its chemical and physical properties as well as the processes of manufacture and use are familiar and have been described in voluminous books and papers, Nevertheless, much developmental work was required to open the way for T-substance as a usable oxygen carrier. In fact the utilization of hydrogen peroxide as the oxygen carrier for energy production had hitherto been the subject only of isolated suggestions, which have

  4. Cigarette smoking in pregnant substance users: Association with substance use and desire to quit. (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel


    Cigarette smoking is prevalent in pregnant substance users but receives low priority in substance use disorder treatment. This article reports the results of a secondary analysis of a randomized, multisite trial with 200 pregnant substance users, 145 (72.5%) of whom smoked at baseline. As predicted: (1) smokers had significantly greater substance use; (2) approximately half of smokers wanted to quit; and (3) smokers with a quit goal had significantly greater self-efficacy and lower perceived difficulty of quitting. Smoking may be associated with more severe substance use in pregnant substance-using patients, half of whom may be interested in smoking-cessation interventions.

  5. 海洋分离芽胞杆菌抗白念珠菌活性物质的理化性质及类别%Physico-Chemical Characters & Classification of Anti-Candida Bioactive Substances Produced by 7 Marine-Derived Bacillus Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全永; 杨铭; 王书锦


    为寻找新型抗真菌活性物质,采用管碟法对7株分离自海洋的芽胞杆菌在不同NaCl浓度下产生抗白念珠菌活性物质特性、活性物质的耐热性及不同pH值条件下的活性进行了比较,八大溶剂系统纸层析法对活性物质的类别进行了初步鉴定。结果表明,随着NaCl浓度的变化产生活性物质的量也在变化,NaCl浓度达7%时均不能产生,但在正常海洋环境盐浓度( NaCl含量2%~3%)下都产生;活性物质有很强的耐热性和耐酸碱性,说明其较稳定;7株菌产生的抗白念珠菌活性物质均为碱性水溶性抗生素。由于目前临床上抑制人体病原真菌活性物质绝大多数为脂溶性,因而这些芽胞杆菌产生的抗白念珠活性物质有可能为新型物质,此外本研究结果为这些菌株所产生活性物质的分离纯化提供了依据。%In order to search for new type of anti-fungal bioactive substances,method of tube plate was adopted to compare the features of 7 marine-isolated Bacillus strains producing anti-candida bioactive substances at different NaCl concentrations and their thermal resistance and under the condition of different pH value activity. Eight major solvent system of paper chromatography to initially identify the category of active substances was carried out. The result showed that with the variation of NaCl concentration the amount of the bioactive substances produced by the Bacillus strains also varied,all the Bacillus strains cannot produce anti-candida substances when NaCl was as high as 7%, however,they all could produce bioactive substances under normal sea circumstances saline concentration( NaCl con-tent at 2% ~3%);the active substances had strong heat and acid-alkaline resistances,suggesting they are fairly sta-ble. The anti-candida active substances produced by 7 strains were all alkaline and water soluble antibiotics. Due to the current clinically inhibiting human pathogenic fungi active

  6. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Disease Susceptibility


    Schug, Thaddeus T; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.


    Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are tho...

  7. Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis. (United States)

    Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D


    The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.

  8. Unification of Force and Substance

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank


    Maxwell's mature presentation of his equations emphasized the unity of electromagnetism and mechanics, subsuming both as "dynamical systems". That intuition of unity has proved both fruitful, as a source of pregnant concepts, and broadly inspiring. A deep aspect of Maxwell's work is its use of redundant potentials, and the associated requirement of gauge symmetry. Those concepts have become central to our present understanding of fundamental physics, but they can appear to be rather formal and esoteric. Here I discuss two things: The physical significance of gauge invariance, in broad terms; and some tantalizing prospects for further unification, building on that concept, that are visible on the horizon today. If those prospects are realized, Maxwell's vision of the unity of field and substance will be brought to a new level.

  9. Molecular aggregation of humic substances (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.


    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  10. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction. (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F


    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, pinternet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

  11. Olefins and chemical regulation in Europe: REACH. (United States)

    Penman, Mike; Banton, Marcy; Erler, Steffen; Moore, Nigel; Semmler, Klaus


    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the European Union's chemical regulation for the management of risk to human health and the environment (European Chemicals Agency, 2006). This regulation entered into force in June 2007 and required manufacturers and importers to register substances produced in annual quantities of 1000 tonnes or more by December 2010, with further deadlines for lower tonnages in 2013 and 2018. Depending on the type of registration, required information included the substance's identification, the hazards of the substance, the potential exposure arising from the manufacture or import, the identified uses of the substance, and the operational conditions and risk management measures applied or recommended to downstream users. Among the content developed to support this information were Derived No-Effect Levels or Derived Minimal Effect Levels (DNELs/DMELs) for human health hazard assessment, Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for environmental hazard assessment, and exposure scenarios for exposure and risk assessment. Once registered, substances may undergo evaluation by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) or Member State authorities and be subject to requests for additional information or testing as well as additional risk reduction measures. To manage the REACH registration and related activities for the European olefins and aromatics industry, the Lower Olefins and Aromatics REACH Consortium was formed in 2008 with administrative and technical support provided by Penman Consulting. A total of 135 substances are managed by this group including 26 individual chemical registrations (e.g. benzene, 1,3-butadiene) and 13 categories consisting of 5-26 substances. This presentation will describe the content of selected registrations prepared for 2010 in addition to the significant post-2010 activities. Beyond REACH, content of the registrations may also be relevant to other European activities, for

  12. Mechanisms of humic substances degradation by fungi (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hadar, Y.; Grinhut, T.


    Humic substances (HS) are formed by secondary synthesis reactions (humification) during the decay process and transformation of biomolecules originating from plants and other dead organisms. In nature, HS are extremely resistant to biological degradation. Thus, these substances are major components in the C cycle and in the biosphere and therefore, the understanding of the process leading to their formation and transformation and degradation is vital. Fungi active in the decomposition process of HS include mainly ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that are common in the upper layer of forest and grassland soils. Many basidiomycetes belong to the white-rot fungi (WRF) and litter-decomposing fungi (LDF). These fungi are considered to be the most efficient lignin degraders due to their nonspecific oxidizing enzymes: manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase. Although bacteria dominate compost and participate in the turnover of HS, their ability to degrade stable macromolecules such as lignin and HS is limited. The overall objectives of this research were to corroborate biodegradation processes of HS by WRF. The specific objectives were: (i) To isolate, identify and characterize HS degrading WRF from biosolids (BS) compost; (ii) To study the biodegradation process of three types of HS, which differ in their structure, by WRF isolated from BS compost; and (iii) To investigate the mechanisms of HA degradation by WRF using two main approaches: (a) Study the physical and chemical analyses of the organic compounds obtained from direct fungal degradation of HA as well as elucidation of the relevant enzymatic reactions; and (b) Study the enzymatic and biochemical mechanisms involved during HA degradation. In order to study the capability of fungi to degrade HS, seventy fungal strains were isolated from biosolids (BS) compost. Two of the most active fungal species were identified based on rDNA sequences and designated Trametes sp. M23 and Phanerochaetesp., Y6

  13. Priority setting for existing chemicals : automated data selection routine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haelst, A.G. van; Hansen, B.G.


    One of the four steps within Council Regulation 793/93/EEC on the evaluation and control of existing chemicals is the priority setting step. The priority setting step is concerned with selecting high-priority substances from a large number of substances, initially starting with 2,474 high-production

  14. Evaluation of the potential health risks of substances migrating from polycarbonate replacement baby bottles. (United States)

    Mertens, Birgit; Van Hoeck, Els; Blaude, Marie-Noëlle; Simon, Coraline; Onghena, Matthias; Vandermarken, Tara; Van Langenhove, Kersten; Demaegdt, Heidi; Vandermeiren, Karin; Covaci, Adrian; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Elskens, Marc; Van Loco, Joris


    Since the European Commission prohibited the use of bisphenol A in the production of polycarbonate (PC) baby bottles, many other materials have replaced PC for the manufacture of this type of food contact materials. In the present study, the potential migration risks associated with these alternative materials were investigated. First, all substances were evaluated for endocrine disruptive (ED) activity by using different existing lists of (suspected) ED chemicals. Next, the potential non-ED risks were assessed. A distinction was made between migrants listed in Annex I of European Regulation 10/2011 and the unlisted substances (e.g. non-intentionally added substances). For the listed substances, concentrations in the migration solutions were compared to their respective specific migration limits (SML) (when applicable). Migration of all substances was shown to be below their SML. The unlisted substances were evaluated using toxicological information from previous evaluations, or if not available, by applying the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) approach. In case the estimated exposure to the unlisted substance exceeded the human exposure TTC value, a more indepth risk assessment was performed. Based on the results of both parts of the study, four baby bottles were considered of high concern because of the potential toxicity of migrating compounds.

  15. Classical and novel psychoactive substances: rethinking drug misuse from an evolutionary psychiatric perspective. (United States)

    St John-Smith, Paul; McQueen, Daniel; Edwards, Lindsey; Schifano, Fabrizio


    In this article, ontogenetic and phylogenetic causes of drug abuse and links to human emotional development are considered. Some evolutionary perspectives (e.g. that under certain conditions, consumption of otherwise toxic alkaloids may confer both physical and cultural advantages) are reviewed. As described in the 'mismatch theory', the capacity of the human genome to evolve defences against toxins has been outstripped by the pace of cultural change and technological development, such as purposeful fermentation of alcohol and more recently distillation of alcohol; purification and chemical manipulation of plant alkaloids; and the engineering of entirely novel psychoactive substances (NPS). The functions of the neurobiological substrates that mediate substance misuse and dependence are reviewed. Reasons are given why NPSs present greater cause for concern than plant-derived substances of abuse. We argue that evolutionary biology provides an important orientation for the research agenda in substance misuse.

  16. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q11 Development and Manufacture of Drug Substances; availability. Notice. (United States)


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q11 Development and Manufacture of Drug Substances.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance describes approaches to developing and understanding the manufacturing process of a drug substance and provides guidance on what information should be provided in certain sections of the Common Technical Document (CTD). The guidance is intended to harmonize the scientific and technical principles relating to the description and justification of the development and manufacturing process of drug substances (both chemical entities and biotechnological/biological entities) to enable a consistent approach for providing and evaluating this information across the three regions. The discussion of principles in the guidance is intended to apply only to the manufacture of drug substance, not the manufacture of finished drug products.

  17. 40 CFR 799.5085 - Chemical testing requirements for certain high production volume chemicals. (United States)


    ... (preferred species), rat, or Chinese hamster): 40 CFR 799.9538 OR Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test (in... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Multichemical Test Rules § 799.5085 Chemical testing... paragraph (j) of this section at any time from April 17, 2006 to the end of the test data...

  18. 40 CFR 160.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLP standards shall apply to physical... physical and chemical characteristics of a test, control, or reference substance: § 160.31 (c), (d), and...

  19. 40 CFR 716.50 - Reporting physical and chemical properties. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting physical and chemical... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.50 Reporting physical and chemical properties. Studies of physical and chemical properties must be reported under this subpart...

  20. Validação de um método analítico para a determinação de substâncias ativas em formulações farmacêuticas empregadas em "peelings" químicos Validation of analytical methods for the determination of active substances in pharmaceutical preparations used in chemical peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Rodrigues Ramos


    Full Text Available Nos "peelings" químicos utilizam-se formulações esfoliantes, empregadas na terapêutica de queratoses actínicas, rugas, discromias pigmentares, acne vulgar e rosácea. Na presente pesquisa, foram empregadas como amostras, a solução de Jessner (SJ composta por resorcinol (RS 14%, ácido salicílico (AS 14% e ácido láctico (AL 14% em solução alcoólica e géis de AS a 20% e RS a 30%. As técnicas utilizadas foram a espectrofotometria derivada no UV de primeira e segunda ordens em etanol absoluto para o AS e RS, respectivamente na SJ, e a espectrofotometria derivada no UV de primeira ordem em ácido sulfúrico 0,1 N para o AS e RS nos géis. Para o AS na SJ, o coeficiente de correlação (r foi de 0,9999, a precisão expressa pela média dos desvios padrão relativos (DPR de 0,68% e a exatidão expressa pela recuperação média de 100,5%. Para o RS na SJ o r foi de 0,9999, a média dos DPR de 0,83% e a recuperação média de 100,3%. No gel de AS, o r foi de 0,9999, a média dos DPR de 0,28 e a recuperação média de 99,3%. No gel de RS, o r foi de 0,9998, a média dos DPR de 0,34 e a recuperação média de 99,9%.Chemical peeling is obtained with exfoliating formulations and is used in the treatment of actinic keratosis, wrinkles, dyschromies, acne vulgaris and rosacea acne. In this research we selected the Jessner Solution (JS, a pharmaceutical preparation composed of resorcinol (RS (14%, salicylic acid (SA (14% and lactic acid (LA (14% in alcoholic solution and two gel samples composed of RS (30% and SA (20%, respectively. First and second derivative UV spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for determination of SA and RS, respectively in JS alcoholic solution, ethanol was used as background. A first derivative UV spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of these active substances in gel samples using 0.1N sulfuric acid as background. For SA in the JS, the correlation coefficient (r was 0.9999, the

  1. Estimation of Properties of Pure Organic Substances with Group and Pair Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ourique J.E.S.


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTbstract - This work presents a new predictive method for the estimation of properties of pure organic substances. Each compound is assigned a molecular graph or an adjacency matrix representing its chemical structure, from which properties are then obtained as a summation of all contributions associated with functional groups and chemically bonded pairs of groups. The proposed technique is applied to the estimation of critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume and normal boiling point of 325 organic compounds from different chemical species. Accurate predictions based solely on chemical structure are obtained

  2. "Legal Highs"--An Emerging Epidemic of Novel Psychoactive Substances. (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B


    During the last decade, there has been an increase in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), also known as "legal highs," across the world. They include a wide range of products, from natural plant-originated substances to synthetic compounds, that can be purchased both online and from high street retailers. "Legal highs" mimic psychoactive effects of illicit drugs of abuse. However, they are claimed to consist of compounds that are legal to sell, possess, and use, often labeled as "not for human consumption" to circumvent drug abuse legislation. Based on the spectrum of their actions on cognitive processes, mood, and behavior, "legal highs" can be classified into four basis categories: amphetamine- and ecstasy-like stimulants, synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), hallucinogenic/dissociative, and opioid-like compounds. NPS may, however, exhibit a combination of these actions due to their designed chemical structure. Although the prevalence and pattern of NPS use differ between various countries, the most popular groups are SCs and psychostimulants, described in this chapter. Currently, there is limited information available on the potential acute toxicity (harms) associated with the use of these substances. However, the number of intoxicated people presenting with emergencies is constantly increasing, providing evidence that negative health and social consequences may indeed seriously affect recreational and chronic users.

  3. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.


    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements.

  4. The Chemical Adventures of Sherlock Holmes: Autopsy in Blue (United States)

    Waddell, Thomas G.; Rybolt, Thomas R.


    A chemical mystery with an emphasis on qualitative inorganic analysis, forensic chemistry and medicinal substances is discussed. The mystery is solved by Sherlock Holmes with the help of clues provided.

  5. 77 FR 75783 - Disposal of Controlled Substances (United States)


    ... Administration (DEA). These restrictions resulted in the accumulation of controlled substances in household... used. Although ultimate users are exempt from CSA registration requirements for the possession of... substance to another person for the purpose of disposal if the ultimate user dies while in lawful...

  6. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools (United States)

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.


    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  7. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris


    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain young…

  8. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses (United States)

    Eversman, Michael H.


    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  9. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents (United States)

    Sussman, Steve


    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  10. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use. (United States)

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  11. Substance Use during Pregnancy in Adolescence. (United States)

    Lohr, Mary Jane; And Others

    Despite concern over the co-occurrence of substance use and unplanned pregnancy among adolescents, little information is available about drug use before and during pregnancy in adolescence. The present study examined substance use among a sample of premaritally pregnant adolescents (n=241) who were interviewed as part of an ongoing longitudinal…

  12. Nursing and Substance Use Disorders in Mexico. (United States)

    Villegas-Pantoja, Miguel A; Mendez-Ruiz, Martha D


    The authors of this article see substance use disorders as a major public health problem in Mexico in which nursing is taking on an increasingly important role in addressing. The authors discuss some the challenges and opportunities nurse researchers, educators, and clinicians face in the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders in Mexico.

  13. National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast gives an overview of the three components of the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program: state surveillance, national database, and response teams.  Created: 2/3/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.   Date Released: 2/3/2011.

  14. Current trends of the development of chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Matakova


    Full Text Available This paper presents dynamics of the development of all stages of chemical analysis during last 15 years. The ways of the quality improvement of chemical analysis and its considerable advancement into the field of trace concentrations of substances are shown. Features of development of analytical methods, modern techniques for concentration and separation of substances, as well as chemomerrical processing of results are analyzed. Huge importance of computerization and automation of the analysis is shown.

  15. Persistence of perfluoroalkylated substances in closed bottle tests with municipal sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Sáez; P. de Voogt; J.R. Parsons


    Background, aim, and scope Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) are chemicals with completely fluorinated alkyl chains. The specific properties of the F-C bond give PFAS a high stability and make them very useful in a wide range of applications. PFAS also pose a potential risk to the environment and

  16. Pectic substances from sugar beet pulp: structural features, enzymatic modification, and gel formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.


    Pectic substances are present in high proportions in sugar beet pulp. This by-product is therefore a potential raw material for the pectin industry. However, sugar beet pectin has poor physico-chemical properties compared with pectins from other sources. In order to improve these properties, pectins

  17. Electrochemical removal and recovery of humic-like substances from wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kliaugaitė, Daina; Yasadi, Kamuran; Euverink, Gert-Jan; Bijmans, Martijn F.M.; Racys, Viktoras


    The secondary effluent from paper and food industry wastewater still contains a high chemical oxygen demand and color intensity caused by the presence of difficult degradable organic compounds. These compounds are mostly humic-like substances. This study focused on two promising electrochemical meth

  18. 76 FR 56294 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National... of the direct final action (76 FR 41719) is effective as of September 13, 2011. ADDRESSES... in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...

  19. Arterial blood-pressure change and endogenous circulating substance P in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Kastrup, J; Schaffalitzky De Muckadell, O B


    Substance P (SP) is a powerful vasodilator and this peptide is today considered to be a chemical messenger. The potential effects on circulating SP of acute changes in arterial blood-pressure was investigated in nine subjects. An increase in arterial mean blood-pressure (+33%, P less than 0.001, ...

  20. Perfluoroalkyl substances and food allergies in adolescents. (United States)

    Buser, Melanie C; Scinicariello, Franco


    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of organic compounds that are persistent in the environment due to their stable carbon-fluorine backbone, which is not susceptible to degradation. Research suggests these chemicals may exert an immunotoxic effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between four PFASs - perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) - with food sensitization and food allergies in adolescent participants (ages 12-19years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and 2007-2010, respectively. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association between individual PFASs with food sensitization (defined as having at least 1 food-specific IgE level≥0.35kU/L) in NHANES 2005-2006 and food allergies (self-reported) in NHANES 2007-2010. Serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS were statistically significantly associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies in NHANES 2007-2010. When using IgE levels as a marker of food sensitization, we found that serum PFNA was inversely associated with food sensitization (NHANES 2005-2006). In conclusion, we found that serum levels of PFASs were associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies. Conversely, adolescents with higher serum PFNA were less likely to be sensitized to food allergens. These results, along with previous studies, warrant further investigation, such as well-designed longitudinal studies.

  1. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  2. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Drug... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance......

  3. Temperament Style and Substance Abuse Characteristics. (United States)

    Henderson, Melinda J.; Galen, Luke W.; DeLuca, John W.


    The relationship of temperament to different patterns and types of alcohol abuse has received much attention over the last decade in order to provide clues to matching patients optimally to treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of temperament with a number of relevant substance abuse characteristics in a substance abusing population. One hundred forty-five male veterans were interviewed on their lifetime use of substances and on their psychiatric symptoms, problems associated with use, context, and family history of substance abuse. Subjects filled out the TPQ and the MPQ, which were subjected to factor analysis and revealed four factors: (1) Negative Affectivity/Impulsivity, (2) Positive Affectivity/Sociability, (3) Persistence/Achievement, and (4) Constraint. There was partial support for the hypotheses. Impulsivity was negatively correlated with age of onset and positively correlated with substance-related problems and a family history of substance abuse. Subjects with a history of depression scored significantly lower on the Positive Affectivity/Sociability factor than those who had not experienced a significant depression. Individuals who used alone scored lower on this factor than those who used in social contexts. The temperament factors of Persistence/Achievement and Constraint were, for the most part, unrelated to substance abuse.

  4. Influence of humic substances on plant-microbes interactions in the rhizosphere (United States)

    Puglisi, Edoardo; Pascazio, Silvia; Spaccini, Riccardo; Crecchio, Carmine; Trevisan, Marco; Piccolo, Alessandro


    Humic substances are known to play a wide range of effects on the physiology of plant and microbes. This is of particular relevance in the rhizosphere of terrestrial environments, where the reciprocal interactions between plants roots, soil constituents and microorganisms strongly influence the plants acquisition of nutrients. Chemical advances are constantly improving our knowledge on humic substances: their supra-molecular architecture, as well as the moltitude of their chemical constituents, many of which are biologically active. An approach for linking the structure of humic substances with their biological activity in the rhizosphere is the use of rhizoboxes, which allow applying a treatment (e.g., an amendment with humic substances) in an upper soil-plant compartment and take measurements in a lower isolated rhizosphere compartment that can be sampled at desired distances from the rhizoplane. This approach can be adopted to assess the effects of several humic substances, as well as composted materials, on maize plants rhizodeposition of carbon, and in turn on the structure and activity of rhizosphere microbial communities. In order to gain a complete understanding of processes occurring in the complex soil-plant-microorganisms tripartite system, rhizobox experiments can be coupled with bacterial biosensors for the detection and quantification of bioavailable nutrients, chemical analyses of main rhizodeposits constituents, advanced chemical characterizations of humic substances, DNA-fingerprinting of microbial communities, and multivariate statistical approaches to manage the dataset produced and to infer general conclusions. By such an approach it was found that humic substances are significantly affecting the amount of carbon deposited by plant roots. This induction effect is more evident for substances with more hydrophobic and complex structure, thus supporting the scientific hypothesis of the "microbial loop model", which assumes that plants feed

  5. Childhood Predictors of Adult Substance Abuse. (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Chen, Chin-Chih; Reynolds, Arthur J


    Identification of the early determinants of substance abuse is a major focus of life course research. In this study, we investigated the child, family, and school-related antecedents of the onset and prevalence of substance abuse by age 26 for a cohort of 1,208 low-income minority children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Data onon well-being have been collected prospectively since birth from administrative records, parents, teachers, and children. Results indicated that the prevalence of substance abuse by age 26 was 32 percent (self reports or criminal justice system records) with a median age of first use of 17. Probit regression analysis indicated that substance abuse prevalence was primarily determined by gender (males had a higher rate), trouble making behavior by age 12, school mobility, and previous substance use. Family and peer predictors included involvement in the child welfare system by age 9, parent expectations for school success at age 9, parent substance abuse by children's age 15, and deviant peer affiliation by age 16. Age of first substance use was predicted by gender and race/ethnicity (males and Blacks had earlier incidence), involvement in the child welfare system, and family risk status at age 8. As with prevalence, the pattern of predictors for males was similar to the overall sample but the magnitude of effects was stronger.. The predictors of the timing of substance use dependency were gender, family conflict by age 5, involvement in the child welfare system, social maturity at age 9, adolescent school mobility, and school dropout by age 16. Findings indicate that the promotion of family involvement and positive school and social behavior can reduce the risk of substance abuse.

  6. [A case of carbamate poisoning in which GCMS was useful to identify causal substance and to decide the appropriate treatment]. (United States)

    Kinoshita, H; Hirose, Y; Tanaka, T; Hori, Y; Nakajima, M; Fujisawa, M; Oseki, M


    We often have cases of insecticide poisoning where the patient is unconscious and the causal substances are unknown. We report an 83-year-old unconscious man who had apparently ingested several agricultural chemicals, possibly organophosphate or carbamate. According to his family, there were three kinds of containers of agricultural chemicals with their caps opened around him. When he was transferred to our hospital, he presented hypertension, hypersalivation, and muscle fasciculation. His pupils were markedly miotic. In order to identify the substances ingested we used a gas chromatographymass spectrometer (GCMS) using his gastric content. Within 30 minutes we were able to identify the causal substance as methomyl, one of the popular carbamates, thereby eliminating the need to use pralidoxime (PAM). GCMS makes it possible to identify unknown substances quickly and accurately and is therefore extremely useful in deciding the appropriate treatment.

  7. Former substance users working as counselors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Dorte


    is derived from an interview study initiated in 2000 in Denmark on former substance users with 4 -8 years of abstinence. Through an analysis of interview data from a larger group of former substance users, it became evident that those working as counselors experienced specific dilemmas and problems......All helping professionals risk participation in "dual relationships". But in the case of former substance users working as counselors, specific dilemmas and problems are accentuated. A qualitative analysis highlights some of the ethical and personal dilemmas faced by these counselors. The data...

  8. Continuum mechanics of single-substance bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal


    Continuum Physics, Volume II: Continuum Mechanics of Single-Substance Bodies discusses the continuum mechanics of bodies constituted by a single substance, providing a thorough and precise presentation of exact theories that have evolved during the past years. This book consists of three parts-basic principles, constitutive equations for simple materials, and methods of solution. Part I of this publication is devoted to a discussion of basic principles irrespective of material geometry and constitution that are valid for all kinds of substances, including composites. The geometrical notions, k

  9. Investigating widely available substances as vaginal microbicides. (United States)

    Holmes, Wendy


    Microbicides to protect women from HIV are urgently needed. Several potential pharmaceutical microbicides are now undergoing obligatory clinical trials to check safety, acceptability and efficacy before approval for use. Microbicides may have side-effects and, paradoxically, their use may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Several widely available substances have been suggested as microbicides, including substances with a low pH such as lemon juice, vinegar, soft drinks and lactobacillus dairy products. Because of the potential for harm it is important that these substances are tested before their use is widely promoted. After small scale safety and acceptability studies, their promotion needs to be evaluated as a communication intervention.

  10. HPLC analysis of potentially harmful substances released from dental filing aterials available on the EU market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Małkiewicz


    Full Text Available Introduction. Incomplete cross-linking of composite dental materials leads to their susceptibility to degradation in the environment of non-organic and organic solvents, contributing to the release of chemical compounds which are potentially harmful to living organisms. Objective. The aim of the study was an evaluation in in vitro conditions of releasing of potentially toxic substances from six dental composite materials available in EU countries. Materials and methods. The following compounds released from the samples stored in water were analyzed: bisphenol A (BPA, triethylene glycol-dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDGMA. Analysis of the substances was performed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography, after the following incubation periods: 1 hour, 24 hours, 7 days and 30 days. Results. Among the analyzed substances, after 1 hour of incubation, the highest average concentration was found for TEGDMA – 2045 μg cm-3 (in Herculite XRV material, after 24 hours – for UDMA 4.402 μg cm-3 (in Gradia Direct Anterior material and after 7 and 30 days for TEGDMA: 8.112 and 6.458 μg•cm-3 respectively (in Charisma material. Conclusions. The examined composites used for reconstruction of hard tissues of teeth remain chemically unstable after polymerization, and release potentially harmful substances in conditions of the present study. The dynamics of the releasing of potentially harmful substances is correlated with the period of sample storage in water.

  11. Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances. (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jeong, Woo-Seok; Lee, Ha-Yan


    The increase rate of utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by muscle is reduced to its plasma concentration during prolonged exercise leading to glycogen. BCAA supplementation would reduce the serum activities of intramuscular enzymes associated with muscle damage. To examine the effects of BCAA administration on fatigue substances (serotonin, ammonia and lactate), muscle damage substances (CK and LDH) and energy metabolism substances (FFA and glucose) after endurance exercise. Subjects (n = 26, college-aged males) were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 13, EXP) and a placebo (n = 13, CON) group. Subjects both EXP and CON performed a bout of cycle training (70% VO2max intensity) to exhaustion. Subject in the EXP were administrated BCAA (78ml/kg·w) prior to the bout of cycle exercise. Fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances were measured before ingesting BCAAs and placebos, 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, immediately after exercise, and 30 min after exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANCOVA, correlation and statistical significance was set at p BCAA decreased serum concentrations of the intramuscular enzymes as CK and LDH following exhaustive exercise. This observation suggests that BCAA supplementation may reduce the muscle damage associated with endurance exercise.

  12. Characterization of Combinatorial Effects of Toxic Substances by Cell Cultivation in Micro Segmented Flow (United States)

    Cao, J.; Kürsten, D.; Funfak, A.; Schneider, S.; Köhler, J. M.

    This chapter reviews the application of micro segmented flow for the screening of toxic effects on bacteria, eukaryotic microorganisms, human cells and multicellular systems. Besides, the determination of complete dose/response functions of toxic substances with a minimum of cells and chemicals, it is reviewed how two- and multi-dimensional concentration spaces can be screened in order to evaluate combinatorial effects of chemicals on cells. The challenge for the development of new and miniaturized methods is derived from the increase of the number of different used substances in technique, agriculture and medicine, from the increasing release of new substances and nanomaterials into our environment and from the improvement of the insight of toxicity of natural substances and the interferences between different substances resulting in toxic effects on different organisms, cells and tissues. The application of two-dimensional toxicological screenings on selected examples of effector combinations is described. Examples for the detection of an independent, an additive and a synergistic interference between two substances are given. In addition, it is shown that the screening for toxicological effects in complete two-dimensional concentration spaces allows the detection of complex response behaviour—for example, the formation of tolerances and stimulation peaks—which thereby can be characterized. The characterization of interference of toxic organic substances with silver nanoparticles is reported as an example for the potential of micro segmented-flow technique for evaluating the toxicological impact of new materials. Finally, it is demonstrated that the technique can be applied for different organisms like simple bacteria, single cell alga such as Chlorella vulgaris and multicellular systems up to the development of complete organisms beginning from eggs.

  13. [Oil and Hazardous Substance Spill Response Emergencies (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A major oil or hazardous substance spill may constitute an emergency situation requiring prompt actions by the Service to protect threatened natural resources. This...

  14. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohreiter, D.W.


    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  15. Microcomputer for controlled substance record keeping. (United States)

    Stein, R L; Motta, L J; Yee, A D


    The use of a microcomputer to maintain controlled substance inventory and record keeping is described. The system maintains perpetual inventories of the central narcotic vault and proof-of-use controlled drug records outstanding at nursing stations. The computerized system has eliminated (1) the delay previously encountered in the posting of transactions from the numeric log to perpetual inventory logs and (2) the potential addition and subtraction errors inherent in a manual system. Computerizing the controlled drug record-keeping system has saved approximately 166 minutes of labor per day, a cost savings of approximately $26. The new system also helps prevent diversion of controlled substances. The computer may also be used for other tasks while not running the controlled substance program. A microcomputer is well suited to the task of controlled-substance record-keeping functions, and the cost of the system (less than $4000) can be quickly recouped in labor savings.

  16. Identifying new persistent and bioaccumulative organics among chemicals in commerce. (United States)

    Howard, Philip H; Muir, Derek C G


    The goal of this study was to identify commercial chemicals that might be persistent and bioaccumulative (P&B) and that were not being considered in current Great Lakes, North American, and Arctic contaminant measurement programs. We combined the Canadian Domestic Substance List (DSL), a list of 3059 substances of "unknown or variable composition complex reaction products and biological materials" (UVCBs), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Update Rule (IUR) database for years 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006 yielding a database of 22263 commercial chemicals. From that list, 610 chemicals were identified by estimates from U.S EPA EPISuite software and using expert judgment. This study has yielded some interesting and probable P&B chemicals that should be considered for further study. Recent studies, following up our initial reports and presentations on this work, have confirmed the presence of many of these chemicals in the environment.

  17. Chemical use (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  18. Chemical Reactors. (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.


    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  19. Substance abuse on the college campus. (United States)

    Rimsza, Mary Ellen; Moses, Karen S


    Substance abuse is a major health and behavioral concern in college students. Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly abused drugs on college campuses. Others include tobacco, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), lysergic acid, ketamine, methamphetamine, phencyclidine, cocaine, and psilocybin mushrooms. This article reviews the use of these drugs by college students. Substance use is a major contributing factor in poor academic performance and failure to successfully complete a college education.

  20. The dilemma in prioritizing chemicals for environmental analysis: known versus unknown hazards. (United States)

    Anna, Sobek; Sofia, Bejgarn; Christina, Rudén; Magnus, Breitholtz


    A major challenge for society is to manage the risks posed by the many chemicals continuously emitted to the environment. All chemicals in production and use cannot be monitored and science-based strategies for prioritization are essential. In this study we review available data to investigate which substances are included in environmental monitoring programs and published research studies reporting analyses of chemicals in Baltic Sea fish between 2000 and 2012. Our aim is to contribute to the discussion of priority settings in environmental chemical monitoring and research, which is closely linked to chemical management. In total, 105 different substances or substance groups were analyzed in Baltic Sea fish. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the most studied substances or substance groups. The majority, 87%, of all analyses comprised 20% of the substances or substance groups, whereas 46 substance groups (44%) were analyzed only once. Almost three quarters of all analyses regarded a POP-substance (persistent organic pollutant). These results demonstrate that the majority of analyses on environmental contaminants in Baltic Sea fish concern a small number of already regulated chemicals. Legacy pollutants such as POPs pose a high risk to the Baltic Sea due to their hazardous properties. Yet, there may be a risk that prioritizations for chemical analyses are biased based on the knowns of the past. Such biases may lead to society failing in identifying risks posed by yet unknown hazardous chemicals. Alternative and complementary ways to identify priority chemicals are needed. More transparent communication between risk assessments performed as part of the risk assessment process within REACH and monitoring programs, and information on chemicals contained in consumer articles, would offer ways to identify chemicals for environmental analysis.

  1. Origin and structures of groundwater humic substances from three Danish aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, C.; Wassenaar, L.; Krog, M.


    Structural, chemical, and isotopic parameters were used to identify the origins of groundwater humic substances from three Danish aquifers. A variety of analytical techniques (visible light absorption, molecular weight distribution, C-13-NMR spectroscopy, elemental composition with major elements...... and halogens, hydrolyzable amino acids and carbohydrates, carbon isotopes) applied to aquatic humic and fulvic acids led to consistent structural interpretations for each of the three aquifers studied. For humic substances in two-aquifers, the analyses suggested source rocks in agreement with geological...... and hydrogeochemical information. In a third aquifer, source rock identification was inconclusive, and multiple fossil and recent organic carbon sources are suggested....

  2. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219) Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances. (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Ab Majid, Nik Muhamad; Jalloh, Mohamadu Boyie; Susilawati, Kasim


    High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)). Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  3. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219 Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Palanivell


    Full Text Available High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot−1. Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot−1 significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot−1 and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  4. 40 CFR 761.253 - Chemical analysis. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical analysis. 761.253 Section 761.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... analysis. (a) Extract PCBs from the standard wipe sample collection medium and clean-up the extracted...

  5. Predictive toxicology of chemicals and database mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The toxic chemicals from the database Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) were analyzed by structural similarity comparison, which shows that the structure patterns or characteristics of toxic chemicals exist in a sufficiently large database. Then, a two-step strategy was proposed to explore noncongeneric toxic chemicals in the database: the screening of structure patterns by similarity comparison and the derivation of detailed relationship between structure and activity by using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) technologies. From the performance of the procedure, such a stepwise scheme is demonstrated to be feasible and effective to mine a database of toxic chemicals. It can be anticipated that database mining of toxic chemicals will be a new area for predictive toxicology of chemicals.

  6. Global analysis of publicly available safety data for 9,801 substances registered under REACH from 2008-2014. (United States)

    Luechtefeld, Thomas; Maertens, Alexandra; Russo, Daniel P; Rovida, Costanza; Zhu, Hao; Hartung, Thomas


    The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) warehouses the largest public dataset of in vivo and in vitro toxicity tests. In December 2014 this data was converted into a structured, machine readable and searchable database using linguistic search engines. It contains data for 9,801 unique substances, 3,609 unique study descriptions and 816,048 study documents.This allows exploring toxicological data on a scale far larger than previously available. Substance similarity analysis was used to determine clustering of substances for hazards by mapping to PubChem. Similarity was measured using PubChem 2D conformational substructure fingerprints, which were compared via the Tanimoto metric. Following K-Core filtration, the Blondel et al.(2008) module recognition algorithm was used to identify chemical modules showing clusters of substances in use within the chemical universe. Global Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling provides a valuable information source for hazard analysis. The most prevalent hazards are H317 "May cause an allergic skin reaction" with 20% and H318 "Causes serious eye damage" with 17% positive substances. Such prevalences obtained for all hazards here are key for the design of integrated testing strategies. The data allowed estimation of animal use. ECHA cover about 20% of substances in the high-throughput biological assay database Tox21 (1,737 substances) and have a 917 substance overlap with the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (~7% of CTD). The biological data available in these datasets combined with ECHA in vivo endpoints have enormous modeling potential. A case is made that REACH should systematically open regulatory data for research purposes.

  7. Adolescent substance use disorders in the school setting. (United States)

    Yule, Amy M; Prince, Jefferson B


    Adolescent substance use is a major public health problem that concerns parents, schools, clinicians, and policy makers. The authors review school-based prevention programs, school drug policies, clinical signs and symptoms of substance impairment, recommendations for referral and engaging adolescents who are using substances, and treatment interventions for adolescent substance use disorders.

  8. Review of the Proposed "DSM-5" Substance Use Disorder (United States)

    Jones, K. Dayle; Gill, Carman; Ray, Shannon


    The "DSM-5" Task Force has recommended a new substance use disorder to replace substance abuse and dependence. This article provides an overview of substance abuse and dependence, a description of the "DSM-5" substance use disorder, and implications and potential consequences of this change.

  9. Prevalence of new psychoactive substances: A retrospective study in hair. (United States)

    Rust, Kristina Yasmin; Baumgartner, Markus R; Dally, Annika M; Kraemer, Thomas


    New psychoactive substances are conquering the drug scene. Police seize different colourful packages with exceptional names. They are declared as 'bath salts', 'plant food', or 'research chemical powders'. Little is known about the actual prevalence of these drugs. Reanalysis of hair samples from routine cases concerning the presence of new psychoactive substances or 'smart drugs' should provide insight into changing patterns of designer drugs. All hair samples from 2009 and 2010 that originally tested positive for amphetamines or MDMA (N = 325) were reanalyzed for new or smart drugs such as 4-fluoroamphetamine, piperazines (BZP, mCPP and TFMPP), cathinones (4-MMC (mephedrone), methylone, butylone, ethylone, MDPV, methcathinone and cathinone), methylphenidate and ketamine. Hair snippets were extracted using a two-step extraction procedure. The analytes were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (electrospray ionization; multiple-reaction-monitoring mode - information dependent acquisition - enhanced product ion scan). New psychoactive substances were found in 120 cases (37%). Concerning the piperazine drugs, mCPP was positive in 34 (10.5%) cases and TFMPP in one case. Five mCPP cases were also positive for trazodone, an antidepressant which is metabolized to mCPP. In 11 (3%) cases, 4-MMC was detected. Concerning the smart drugs, methylphenidate was found in 16 (5%). Ketamine was found in 45 (14%) cases. 4-Fluoroamphetamine was identified in 12 (4%) cases and methylone in one case.In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of these drugs. Consequently, at least the most common ones (e.g. mCPP, KET, 4-MMC and 4-FA) should be included in screening procedures in clinical and forensic toxicology.

  10. Analysis of psychoactive and intoxicating substances in legal highs. (United States)

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Krasowska, Ewelina; Piątek, Jacek; Sobczak, Paweł; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Fornal, Emilia; Kuczumow, Andrzej; Biliński, Przemysław


    "Legal highs" known also as "smarts", "legal drugs" or "boosters" contain in their composition psychoactive substances the production, sale and possession of which are not prohibited in legislation. They are offered for sale under the cover of collectors' items, a salt bath, aroma sticks, or plant fertilizer. Marketing was the reason for such high sales of these "highs" in Poland. The phenomenon became of concern when information became available about the first cases of tragic health consequences. Raising the awareness of youth about the level of imminent danger and serious consequences associated with the use of legal highs may be a very effective way to develop appropriate attitudes of young people, and in the light of their own health can help them take proper life decisions."Legal highs" are substances of natural or synthetic origin having psychostimulating properties. These compounds may differ in chemical structure, potency, half-life, metabolism and severity of side effects. Their pharmacological activity is associated with changes in the neurotransmitter system. After higher doses of "legal highs" psychotic symptoms may occur: visual and auditory hallucinations resembling schizophrenic endogenous psychoses. An alarming fact is the underestimation of the adverse effect of these substances on human health. Any actions aimed at improving this situation are extremely important; therefore, in one of the key projects undertaken at the Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, in cooperation with other scientific institutes, concerned the analysis of a selected series of "legal highs". This research was meant top serve as a source of information for science and medicine, and for popularizing knowledge about legal highs.

  11. Client perceptions of incest and substance abuse. (United States)

    Janikowski, T P; Bordieri, J E; Glover, N M


    Clients receiving substance abuse treatment from 35 treatment facilities throughout the United States were surveyed using the Substance Abuse and Incest Survey-Revised (SAIS-R). A total of 732 participants responded to the survey; 518 (71%) were males, 204 (28%) were females, and 10 (1%) did not indicate gender. Participants had a mean age of 33.8 years, were predominately Caucasian (61.6%), never married (45.2%), were currently unemployed (69.4%), and had completed an average of 11.7 years of education. Of the entire sample, 266 (36.3%) reported having been victims of incest; 151 were males and 113 were females (2 did not indicate gender). The group reporting incest histories had a significantly greater percentage of females that did the group not reporting incest histories (chi 2 = 48.1, p incest histories were asked about their perceptions regarding incest, substance abuse, and counseling. Item responses were examined using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The factor analysis on SAIS-R perception items identified five factors that accounted for 68.9% of the variance; these factors were Stigma and Resistance to Counseling; Substance Abuse and Incest; Ambivalence; Fear and Anticipation; and Receptivity to Counseling. Results are presented and the implications for substance abuse treatment and counseling are discussed.

  12. Sensory processing disorders among substance dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Engel-Yeger


    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 To compare sensory processing patterns as expressed in daily life between substance dependents and typical controls; (2 profile the prevalence of sensory processing disorders (SPD among substance dependents; and (3 examine gender effect on SPD within and between groups. Methods: Two hundred ninety people aged 19-64 participated in this study. The study group included 145 individuals who lived in the community or took part in an outpatient program because of addiction to drugs/alcohol and had been clean for over three months. The control group included 145 individuals who were not exposed to drugs or alcohol on a regular basis and did not suffer from addictive behavior. All participants filled a demographic questionnaire. Those who met the inclusion criteria completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP so that their sensory processing patterns could be assessed. Results: When comparing both groups, the study group showed greater sensory sensitivity and significantly higher prevalence of SPD. Significant group/gender interaction was found in regard to sensation seeking. Discussion: SPD among substance dependents may be expressed in daily life by either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. The behavioral outcomes reflected by the AASP support neurophysiological manifestations about SPD of substance dependents. The evaluation process of substance dependents should refer to their sensory processing abilities. In case SPD is diagnosed, Occupational Therapy and specific sensory–based interventions should be considered in order to fit the specific needs of individuals and enhance their performance, meaningful participation, and quality of life.

  13. Removal of humic substances by biosorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VUKOVI(C) Marija; DOMANOVAC Tomislav; BRI(S)KI Felicita


    Fungal pellets of Aspergillus niger 405, Aspergillus ustus 326, and Stachybotrys sp. 1103 were used for the removal of humic substances from aqueous solutions. Batchwise biosorption, carried out at pH 6 and 25℃, was monitored spectrophotometrically and the process described with Freundlich's model. Calculated sorption coefficients K/and n showed that A. niger exhibited the highest efficiency. A good match between the model and experimental data and a high correlation coefficient (R2) pointed out to judicious choice of the mechanism for removal of humic substances from the reaction medium. The sorption rate constants (k) for A. ustus and Stachybotrys sp. were almost equal, however higher than that for A. niger. Comparison of test results with the simulated ones demonstrated the applicability of the designed kinetic model for removal of humic substances from natural water by biosorption with fungal pellets. Different morphological structure of the examined fungal pellets showed that faster sorption does not imply the most efficient removal of humic substances. Desorption of humic substances from fungal pellets was complete, rapid, and yielded uniform results.

  14. Substance Abuse Training and Perceived Knowledge: Predictors of Perceived Preparedness to Work in Substance Abuse (United States)

    Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa


    As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…

  15. Playing video games while using or feeling the effects of substances: associations with substance use problems. (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Elliott, Luther C; Dunlap, Eloise


    This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance--referred to herein as "concurrent use"-is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán's 2002 problem video game play (PVP) measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for "drug interaction" between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use.

  16. Order of age at onset for substance use, substance use disorder, conduct disorder and psychiatric illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Steen; Linneberg, Inger Holm; Hesse, Morten


    and social phobia. Of patients reporting an age at onset for SUD and conduct disorder, 84% reported that age at onset was earliest for conduct disorder. Of patients reporting an age at onset for both any non-substance related axis I disorder and any substance related disorder, age at onset was earliest...

  17. Attitude and Peer Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: The Moderating Effect of Age, Sex, and Substance. (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi


    Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev


    %. Proteins of Biobardins are inhomogeneous by their molecular mass and solubility in water and salt solutions. Both Biobardins are characterized by the mineral composition identical to the composition of relative distillers grains phase. During the experiments on animals practical nontoxicity and hepatotoxicity absence of Biobardins were established. Using prednisole stomach ulcers of rats as a model a signified gastroprotective influence of Biobardin BM was established. It was shown in a reduction of the number of ulcerative and hemorrhagic blennoses, secretory and proteolytic functions of stomach. Models of electroreduction, peroxide oxidation of lipids (POL of oleic acid, POL of egg yolk, and rats' hepatitis proved signified antioxidant activity of Biobardin UL which exceeds comparable substances by 8,3-30,1%; absence of fatty degeneration of rats' lever was shown under the influence of Biobardin UL. Composition of Biobardin BM and Biobardin UL pills as rational medicine form was justified and designed. Distillers grains processing allows reduction of industrial waste toxicity index – chemical consumption of oxygen (CCO by 74%, making distillers grains ecologically-friendly waste water.

  19. Definition and applications of a versatile chemical pollution footprint methodology. (United States)

    Zijp, Michiel C; Posthuma, Leo; van de Meent, Dik


    Because of the great variety in behavior and modes of action of chemicals, impact assessment of multiple substances is complex, as is the communication of its results. Given calls for cumulative impact assessments, we developed a methodology that is aimed at expressing the expected cumulative impacts of mixtures of chemicals on aquatic ecosystems for a region and subsequently allows to present these results as a chemical pollution footprint, in short: a chemical footprint. Setting and using a boundary for chemical pollution is part of the methodology. Two case studies were executed to test and illustrate the methodology. The first case illustrates that the production and use of organic substances in Europe, judged with the European water volume, stays within the currently set policy boundaries for chemical pollution. The second case shows that the use of pesticides in Northwestern Europe, judged with the regional water volume, has exceeded the set boundaries, while showing a declining trend over time. The impact of mixtures of substances in the environment could be expressed as a chemical footprint, and the relative contribution of substances to that footprint could be evaluated. These features are a novel type of information to support risk management, by helping prioritization of management among chemicals and environmental compartments.

  20. 40 CFR 799.19 - Chemical imports and exports. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Chemical imports and exports. 799.19 Section 799.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... General Provisions § 799.19 Chemical imports and exports. Persons who export or who intend to...

  1. Health risk assessment for chemical exposures of military interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Polhuijs, M.; Sijbranda, T.


    Participation in military operations is accompanied by health hazards resulting from exposure to chemical substances from natural and anthropogenic sources. Historically, focus on toxicological risks has been on the health effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents (CW A). In recent years the aw

  2. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Danish consumption and emissions, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T. [PlanMiljoe (Denmark)


    The objective of this project was to map the 2004 consumption of newly produced industrial ozone-depleting substances and the consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF6. The evaluation was made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines, and following the method employed in previous evaluations and it covers the net consumption of ozone-depleting substances. The term 'net consumption' is understood as the amount of imported goods in bulk or drums, less any re-export of substances as raw materials. Ozone-depleting substances contained in finished products that are imported and exported are not included in the evaluation. This delimitation is in full compliance with international guidelines. The evaluation does not account for the consumption of ozone-depleting substances used as raw material in the production of other substances, such as tetra chloromethane, and which are not subsequently emitted to the atmosphere. The information on consumption has been gathered from importers, suppliers and enterprise end-users (usually purchasing departments), and Statistics Denmark. This method of data gathering means that the information gathered is about the quantities of substances traded. Purchase and sales figures are used as an expression of consumption. This approach is considered to be suitable and adequate for the present purpose, since experience from previous projects shows that a levelling out occurs with time and that the substances sold/purchased are consumed within a relatively small time horizon. None of the substances covered here are produced in Denmark. Furthermore, ozone-depleting substances are treated at chemical waste processing plants in Denmark. Treatment and destruction data was gathered for the evaluation, but in line with all previous evaluations it has not been accounted for in the consumption figures. (BA)

  3. An integral approach to substance abuse. (United States)

    Amodia, Diana S; Cano, Carol; Eliason, Michele J


    There is a pressing need in the substance abuse field for more comprehensive models of etiology and treatment that address the complex issues of addiction, including the biological, social, cultural, spiritual and developmental needs of individuals and groups. This article presents a theoretical framework for an integral approach to substance abuse that expands on the existing biopsychosocial model. One contribution of the model is an integrated approach to spirituality from a cross-cultural perspective. This integral approach examines substance abuse etiology and treatment from a four-quadrant perspective adapted from the work of Ken Wilber, and incorporates concepts from integrative medicine and transpersonal psychology/psychiatry. Implications of the model are explored.

  4. Sociocultural perspective of substance use in India. (United States)

    Sharma, H K


    The present communication focuses on a sociocultural perspective of substance use in a pluralistic and diverse culture. India has a history of use of plant products, viz., cannabis, opium, and home-brewed alcoholic beverages, within a defined sociocultural framework over five millennium. Cross sectional epidemiological studies in the field of substance use in different parts of India show that certain social groups are more "vulnerable" to substance use. Caste, religion, and local customs and traditions play a significant role in the choice of drugs, their consumption, and their control in rural/semiurban populations. The intercultural barriers are diminishing in urban populations, and even alien drugs like heroin have been introduced. The social and cultural implications of the traditional vis-a-vis the altering drug use scene are discussed at length.

  5. Occupational turnover intentions among substance abuse counselors. (United States)

    Rothrauff, Tanja C; Abraham, Amanda J; Bride, Brian E; Roman, Paul M


    This study examined predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of occupational turnover intention (OcTI) among substance abuse counselors. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 929 counselors working in 225 private substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs across the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression models were conducted to assess predictor, moderator, and mediator variables of OcTI. OcTI scores were relatively low on a 7-point scale, indicating that very few counselors definitely intended to leave the SAT field. Age, certification, positive perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and hospital-based status negatively predicted OcTI. Counselors' substance use disorder-impacted history moderated the association between organizational commitment and OcTI. Organizational turnover intention partially mediated the link between organizational commitment and OcTI. Workforce stability might be achieved by promoting perceptions of advantages to working in a particular treatment program, having organizational commitment, showing appreciation for counselors' work, and valuing employees from diverse backgrounds.

  6. Biologically active substances of stone crop fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Makarkina


    Full Text Available Stone fruit crops are successfully cultivated in many regions of Russia. Their fruits contain a great diversity of biologically active and mineral substances. The stone fruit varietal collection of the All Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding has been estimated on the content of biologically active substances (ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in fruits: 80 sour cherry varieties, 28 sweet cherry varieties, 29 plum varieties and 24 apricot varieties. High cultivar variability of the content of ascorbic acid and P-active sub-stances in fruits has been determined in each crop. The best genotypes have been singled out according to each biochemical component and a complex of characters.

  7. Recent developments in trace analysis of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Urs [Stockholm University, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden); Kaiser, Mary A. [DuPont Company, Corporate Center for Analytical Sciences, PO Box 80402, Wilmington, DE (United States); Kaerrman, Anna [Oerebro University, MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Oerebro (Sweden); Barber, Jonathan L. [Centre for the Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Lowestoft, Suffolk (United Kingdom); Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van [VU University, Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Recent developments, improvements, and trends in the ultra-trace determination of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in environmental and human samples are highlighted and the remaining challenges and uncertainties are outlined and discussed. Understanding the analytical implications of such things as adsorption of PFASs to surfaces, effects of differing matrices, varying PFAS isomer response factors, potential bias effects of sampling, sample preparation, and analysis is critical to measuring highly fluorinated compounds at trace levels. These intricate analytical issues and the potential consequences of ignoring to deal with them correctly are discussed and documented with examples. Isomer-specific analysis and the development of robust multi-chemical methods are identified as topical trends in method development for an ever-increasing number of PFASs of environmental and human interest. Ultimately, the state-of-the-art of current analytical method accuracy is discussed on the basis of results from interlaboratory comparison studies. (orig.)

  8. Substances that disrupt thyroid hormone biosynthesis (in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pap, Andreea


    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupters are natural or synthetic chemical substances that have the possibility to alter the endocrine functions leading to serious metabolic changes especially in newborns. The accumulation and persistence over long periods of time became a priority in terms of health and environment. The mechanism of action is represented by blocking, mimicking or modifying the effects of thyroid hormones. In this review, the main purpose was to determine what effects have the endocrine disruptors on the thyroid gland, especially on the thyroid hormone biosynthesis and setting the stage involved by it. We focused on the action of perchlorates, phthalates, BPC, PDPEs, soy, isoflavones, nitrates, thiocyanates, bisphenol A and triclorsan and came to the conclusion that their intervention can result in either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

  9. Problems of substance abuse: exploitation and control. (United States)

    Ray, L


    The notion of substance abuse is highly problematic. There is considerable disagreement amongst 'experts' as to the relative hazards and addictive properties of both legally and illegally available substances. There are also widely divergent sub-cultural attitudes to the harmfulness or benefit of drug use. One can assume no social consensus as to the nature of the contemporary 'drug problem', nor about the most appropriate means of dealing with it. There is, however, considerable evidence that criminalization of drug use, and harsh penalties against users and suppliers, are ineffective and counter-productive. Other models of control need to be considered, and in particular the merits and de-merits of the medicalization of drug abuse require examination. However, this is only one aspect of the problem. On the other side are the national and international corporations and syndicates, both legitimate and criminal, that earn vast profits from trade in toxic substances. Tobacco is legally available in every country in the world, and the industry is rarely subject to strict control. Thus the issue of substance abuse and control should be seen in a global context, in which account is taken of both legitimate and underworld operations. In attempts to control international trade in toxic substances, the limited success and the problems of already existing legal controls should be acknowledged. Local awareness and regulation of trade in substances is essential, but not sufficient. Amongst other avenues to be explored is the possibility of diverting presently illicitly grown narcotics into indigenous pharmaceutical industries in the Third World. Some problems with this strategy are noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Activation and modulation of recombinantly expressed serotonin receptor type 3A by terpenes and pungent substances. (United States)

    Ziemba, Paul M; Schreiner, Benjamin S P; Flegel, Caroline; Herbrechter, Robin; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter


    Serotonin receptor type 3 (5-HT3 receptor) is a ligand-gated ion channel that is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The receptor plays an important role in regulating peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract and in functions such as emesis, cognition and anxiety. Therefore, a variety of pharmacologically active substances target the 5-HT3 receptor to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The 5-HT3 receptors are activated, antagonized, or modulated by a wide range of chemically different substances, such as 2-methyl-serotonin, phenylbiguanide, setrones, or cannabinoids. Whereas the action of all of these substances is well described, less is known about the effect of terpenoids or fragrances on 5-HT3A receptors. In this study, we screened a large number of natural odorous and pungent substances for their pharmacological action on recombinantly expressed human 5-HT3A receptors. The receptors were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and characterized by electrophysiological recordings using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. A screening of two odorous mixes containing a total of 200 substances revealed that the monoterpenes, thymol and carvacrol, act as both weak partial agonists and positive modulators on the 5-HT3A receptor. In contrast, the most effective blockers were the terpenes, citronellol and geraniol, as well as the pungent substances gingerol, capsaicin and polygodial. In our study, we identified new modulators of 5-HT3A receptors out of the classes of monoterpenes and vanilloid substances that frequently occur in various plants.

  11. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug Testing... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse......

  12. Leaf-closing substance in Leucaena leucocephala. (United States)

    Sohtome, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Takashi; Ueda, Katsuhiro; Yamamura, Shosuke; Ueda, Minoru


    Potassium (2R,3R)-2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate (1) was identified as a leaf-closing substance in the nyctinastic plant, Leucaena leucocephala. Compound 1 showed strong leaf-closing activity toward L. leucocephala and was not effective against other nyctinastic plants. The potassium ion was indispensable for the bioactivity of 1. Compound 1 gradually lost its bioactivity because of the exchange of the counter cation during isolation. A leaf-opening substance was also observed in the same plant.

  13. Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of hazardous substances (United States)

    Bojan, M.; Damian, V.; Fleaca, C.; Vasile, T.


    In this paper we report spectral measurements of some relatively common substances but from the hazardous category (possibly to be used like explosives or their manipulation is dangerous) in view to create a database with spectra of such substances. THz transmission spectra of some pure materials and mixed ones are also introduced. The measurements were performed using a Time-Domain system that work in the range of 0.2-4.5 THz. We develop our algorithm to obtain maximum information from the measurement and to minimize the errors.

  14. Substance misuse prevention as corporate social responsibility. (United States)

    Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter


    All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.

  15. Effects of addictive substances during pregnancy and infancy and their analysis in biological materials. (United States)

    Płotka, Justyna; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Polkowska, Zaneta; Biziuk, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek


    The use of addictive substances during pregnancy is a serious social problem, not only because of effects on the health of the woman and child, but also because drug or alcohol dependency detracts from child care and enhances the prospect of child neglect and family breakdown. Developing additive substance abuse treatment programs for pregnant women is socially important and can help ensure the health of babies, prevent subsequent developmental and behavioral problems (i.e., from intake of alcohol or other additive substances such as methamphetamine, cocaine,or heroine) and can reduce addiction costs to society. Because women of childbearing age often abuse controlled substances during their pregnancy, it is important to undertake biomonitoring of these substances in biological samples taken from the pregnant or nursing mother (e.g., blood, urine,hair, breast milk, sweat, oral fluids, etc.), from the fetus and newborn (e.g., meconium,cord blood, neonatal hair and urine) and from both the mother and fetus (i.e.,amniotic fluids and placenta). The choice of specimens to be analyzed is determined by many factors; however, the most important is knowledge of the chemical and physical characteristics of a substance and the route of it administration. Maternal and neonatal biological materials reflect exposures that occur over a specific time period, and each of these biological specimens has different advantages and disadvantages,in terms of accuracy, time window of exposure and cost/benefit ratio.Sampling the placenta may be the most important biomonitoring choice for assessing in utero exposure to addictive substances. The use of the placenta in scientific research causes a minimum of ethical problems, partly because its sampling is noninvasive, causes no harm to mother or child, and partly because, in any case,placentas are discarded and incinerated after birth. Such samples, when properly analyzed, may provide key essential information about fetal exposure to toxic

  16. Chemical sensors (United States)

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.


    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  17. Playing Video Games While Using or Feeling the Effects of Substances: Associations with Substance Use Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey L. Ream


    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that playing video games while using or feeling the effects of a substance—referred to herein as “concurrent use”—is related to substance use problems after controlling for substance use frequency, video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby, and demographic factors. Data were drawn from a nationally representative online survey of adult video gamers conducted by Knowledge Networks, valid n = 2,885. Problem video game playing behavior was operationalized using Tejeiro Salguero and Bersabé Morán’s 2002 problem video game play (PVP measure, and measures for substance use problems were taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Separate structural equation modeling analyses were conducted for users of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. In all four models, concurrent use was directly associated with substance use problems, but not with PVP. Video gaming as an enthusiastic hobby was associated with substance use problems via two indirect paths: through PVP for all substances, and through concurrent use for caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol only. Results illustrate the potential for “drug interaction” between self-reinforcing behaviors and addictive substances, with implications for the development of problem use.

  18. [Composition and content of biologically active substances in rose hips]. (United States)

    Dubtsova, G N; Negmatulloeva, R N; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Sheviakova, L V; Makhova, N N; Perederiaev, O I; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K


    The paper studies the chemical composition of the powders obtained from the pulp with the skins and seeds of fruits of wild rose hips. Research results have shown that the main fraction of the powder is dietary fiber, powder of seeds of insoluble fiber in 1,6 and 2,3 higher than in the powder of the fruit with a thin skin and pulp, respectively. The greatest amount of carbohydrates and protein found in powders and pulp of the fruit with a thin skin, and lipids predominate in the powder from the seeds. Found that the lipid powder rosehip richest in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, the share of oleic acid has 6,4-19,2%, linoleic and linolenic 19,7-45,8 and 23,3-33,9% of the amount of fatty acids. Lipids powders of hips and seeds of rose have higher levels of essential linoleic acid and powder from the pulp with the skins - linolenic acid. In the study established the presence of sterols 7 fractions, the predominant of which is the beta-sitosterol. In the powder from the pulp with the skins found the greatest amount of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and the powder of seeds - vitamin E. Carotenoids in powders are beta-carotene and lycopene. The high content of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and carotenoids in powder from wild rose hips makes them a good source of antioxidants. Therefore, we studied the possibility of using vegetable powders obtained from hips of wild rose, to enrich biologically active substances such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, food supply, particularly of health care use. Rosehip powder from the pulp with the skins had the highest antioxidant activity, antioxidant activity of hips powders was 74% of the activity of powder from the pulp with the skins, the lowest antioxidant activity was observed in the powder from the wild rose seeds. That's way, based on the analysis of the chemical composition of rose hip powder found high levels they ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids,found their high antioxidant activity. It allows to recommend powders

  19. Fungitoxicity of chemical analogs with heartwood toxins. (United States)

    Grohs, B M; Kunz, B


    Trans-stilbene and tropolone as chemical analogs with naturally occurring fungitoxic heartwood compounds were studied with respect to their fungitoxic potency. While stilbene showed no fungitoxic activity towards the fungi Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum, Penicillium glabrum, and Trichoderma harzianum in the concentrations tested, the minimal inhibiting concentration of tropolone was 10(-3) M for Penicillium glabrum and Trichoderma harzianum, and 10(-5) M for Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum. In all cases, the effect of tropolone was a fungistatic one. Using chemical analogs for assessing the chemical basis of the fungitoxicity of tropolone, this substance proved to be the only compound tested which possesses fungitoxic properties.

  20. Atividade alelopática de substâncias químicas isoladas da Acacia mangium e suas variações em função do PH Allelopathic activity of chemical substances isolated from Acacia mangium and its variations in function of PH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Luz


    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram isolar, identificar e caracterizar a atividade alelopática de substâncias químicas produzidas por Acacia mangium, além de determinar as variações na atividade das substâncias em função da variação do pH da solução. A atividade alelopática foi avaliada em bioensaios de germinação (25 ºC de temperatura e fotoperíodo de 12 horas e crescimento de radícula e hipocótilo (25 ºC de temperatura e fotoperíodo de 24 horas das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Avaliou-se a interferência do pH (3,0 e 9,0 da solução na atividade alelopática das substâncias sobre a germinação das sementes da espécie malícia. Os triterpenoides lupenona (3-oxolup-20(29-eno e lupeol (3β-hidroxilup-20(29-eno, obtidos das folhas caídas da planta doadora, isolados e em par, evidenciaram baixo efeito alelopático inibitório da germinação de sementes e do crescimento do hipocótilo, especialmente do primeiro, cujos efeitos não ultrapassaram o valor de 2,0%. Os efeitos promovidos sobre o crescimento da radícula foram de maior magnitude, atingindo valores superiores a 40%, com destaque para as inibições promovidas pela substância lupenona. Isoladamente, as substâncias promoveram efeitos superiores aos efetivados pelas substâncias analisadas em pares, indicando a existência de antagonismo. O pH da solução influenciou a atividade alelopática das substâncias; para lupenona os efeitos foram mais intensos em pH ácido, enquanto para lupeol os melhores resultados foram verificados em condições alcalinas, mostrando que este fator é ponto importante a ser considerado em trabalhos de campo.The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and characterize the allelopathic activity of the substances produced by Acacia mangium and to determine the variations of this activity according to the pH variation of the solution. The allelopathic activity was evaluated in germination

  1. Extraction and purification of a luminiferous substance from the luminous mushroom Mycena chlorophos (United States)

    Hayashi, Shuhei; Fukushima, Ryuichi; Wada, Naohisa


    Bioluminescence has attracted considerable attention in the area of biophysics, primarily because the phenomenon can fundamentally be interpreted as the conversion of chemical to light energy. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying luminescence have been studied extensively in fireflies and bacteria, few studies have been undertaken in luminous fungi. This relative lack of information is likely due to the absence of a common and species-specific reaction-type in the luminous fungi examined to date. We recently succeeded in extracting, for the first time, a luminiferous substance from the fungus Mycena chlorophos. The substance was purified and characterized according to its chemical and optical properties. It is hoped that this information will facilitate the clarification of a novel molecular mechanism in fungal bioluminescence systems. PMID:27493527

  2. Ecotoxicological Hazard Assessment of Genotoxic Substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roex EWM; Traas TP; Slooff W; CSR


    The current knowledge about the ecological relevance of mutagenic substances is described. Mutations can be divided in somatic and germ-line mutations. Current screening methods in genotoxicology are focussed on the protection of man, and therefore somatic mutations are the most crucial. In the fiel

  3. Substance abuse in victims of fire. (United States)

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R


    Ethanol or drug use may increase the risk of fire-related injury or death. This study was performed to quantify the role of substance abuse in fatal fires occurring in New Jersey over a 7-year period. Records of all the fatalities of fire reported to the State Medical Examiners Office between 1985 and 1991 were retrospectively examined. Blood assay results for ethanol were positive in 215 of the 727 (29.5%) fatalities of fire tested. For this group, the mean blood-ethanol level was 193.9 mg/dl. Blood or urine assay results for substances of abuse were positive in 78 of the 534 (14.6%) fatalities tested. The most commonly detected illicit substances were cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and cannabinoids. The test results were positive for both ethanol and drug use in 36 victims. Forty percent of all the fatalities of fire were aged younger than 11 or older than 70. In contradistinction, 75% of drug-positive fatalities of fire and 58% of ethanol-positive fatalities of fire were between the ages of 21 and 50, suggesting that inebriation may impair the ability to escape from fire. Substance abusers in middle life are a previously unrecognized group at higher risk of injury or death in a fire.

  4. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment (United States)

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie


    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  5. Substance use disorders in forensic psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, J.; Verkes, R.J.; Goethals, K.; Vissers, A.; Brazil, I.A.; Bulten, B.H.


    There is a lack of detailed information on the role of substance use disorders (SUD) as a substantial factor in offences and treatment in forensic psychiatric patients. The aim of this study was to get a better understanding of these specifics. Clinical records of 193 male patients admitted to a Dut

  6. Binding of cationic surfactants to humic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Tan, W.; Koopal, L.K.


    Commercial surfactants are introduced into the environment either through waste products or site-specific contamination. The amphiphilic nature of both surfactants and humic substances (HS) leads to their mutual attraction especially when surfactant and HS are oppositely charged. Binding of the cati

  7. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency. (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph


    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  8. Attaching substances to micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Leenhouts, Cornelis Johannes; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan


    The invention relates to surface display of proteins on micro-organisms via the targeting and anchoring of heterologous proteins to the outer surface of cells such as yeast, fungi, mammalian and plant cells, and bacteria. The invention provides a proteinaceous substance comprising a reactive group a

  9. Reaction between drug substances and pharmaceutical excipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Cornett, Claus; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold;


    The reactivity of citric acid towards drug substances in the solid state was examined using the beta-blocker carvedilol as a model compound. The reaction mixtures were analysed by LC-MS, the reaction products were isolated by preparative HPLC, and the structures were elucidated by microprobe NMR ...

  10. Neuronal signal substances as biomarkers of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars


    Of the sensory nervous system associated signal substances it is only calcitonin generelated peptide (CGRP) that is reliably associated with the degree of pain in the acute attacks of primary headaches. The treatment with triptans alleviates both the pain and the associated CGRP release, putative...

  11. Study of humic substances by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Konecna


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine main fluorophores of soil humic substances using 2D and 3D synchronous fluorescencespectroscopy (SFS. The measured synchronous spectra werecompared with standards IHSS. Differences between humic andfulvic acids as well as our and IHSS samples are discussed.

  12. Substance Abuse Taxes the American Workplace (United States)

    ... are three times higher than for other workers. Workers in recovery from substance abuse have lower turnover rates and are less likely to miss work days, less likely to be hospitalized and have ... hire qualified workers (93 percent) and the costs of worker's compensation ( ...

  13. A cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado. (United States)

    Itokawa, H; Ichihara, Y; Mochizuki, M; Enomori, T; Morita, H; Shirota, O; Inamatsu, M; Takeya, K


    Taspine has been isolated as a cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado, sap of Croton palanostigma (Euphorbiaceae), by bioassay guided fractionation. The cytotoxicity (IC50) of taspine was found to be 0.39 microgram/ml against KB cells and 0.17 microgram/ml against V-79 cells.

  14. Hazard and risk assessment of teratogenic chemicals under REACH. (United States)

    Prutner, Wiebke


    In 2007, a new European chemicals legislation was implemented: Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, also known as "REACH." It obliges companies to take the main responsibility for the valid information on the safe use of the chemicals they manufacture and/or place on the European market. So they must, for example, register their chemicals at the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and submit extensive substance-related registration dossiers containing information on the substances' intrinsic hazardous properties and documentation of their risk assessment. REACH regulates the registration and evaluation process as well as the authorization and restriction procedure. In addition, classification, labeling, and packaging of chemicals apply in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 ("CLP Regulation"). It implements almost completely the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS) into European legislation and will fully replace the Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC) and the Dangerous Preparations Directive (1999/45/EC) by 2015. According to both the old and the new classification system, teratogenic chemicals are classified as developmental toxicants, with developmental toxicity falling within the hazard class of reproductive toxicity. REACH as well as the CLP Regulation provide several procedures in which reproductive toxicants take a special position because their harmful effects are considered particularly serious. Teratogenic substances are not explicitly named by these legal texts but, as they constitute as developmental toxicants a hazard differentiation of reproductive toxicity, they are implicitly always included by the provisions.

  15. Chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven;


    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple...... chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI...

  16. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  17. Analysis of the erosive effect of different dietary substances and medications


    Lussi, Adrian; Megert, Brigitte; Peter Shellis, Robert; Wang, Xiaojie


    Excessive consumption of acidic drinks and foods contributes to tooth erosion. The aims of the present in vitro study were twofold: (1) to assess the erosive potential of different dietary substances and medications; (2) to determine the chemical properties with an impact on the erosive potential. We selected sixty agents: soft drinks, an energy drink, sports drinks, alcoholic drinks, juice, fruit, mineral water, yogurt, tea, coffee, salad dressing and medications. The erosive potential of th...

  18. Maximum work configurations of finite potential capacity reservoir chemical engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An isothermal endoreversible chemical engine operating between the finite potential capacity high-chemical-potential reservoir and the infinite potential capacity low-chemical-potential reservoir has been studied in this work.Optimal control theory was applied to determine the optimal cycle configurations corresponding to the maximum work output per cycle for the fixed total cycle time and a universal mass transfer law.Analyses of special examples showed that the optimal cycle configuration with the mass transfer law g∝△μ,where△μis the chemical potential difference,is an isothermal endoreversible chemical engine cycle,in which the chemical potential(or the concentration) of the key component in the working substance of low-chemical-potential side is a constant,while the chemical potentials(or the concentrations) of the key component in the finite potential capacity high-chemical-potential reservoir and the corresponding side working substance change nonlinearly with time,and the difference of the chemical potentials(or the ratio of the concentrations) of the key component between the high-chemical-potential reservoir and the working substance is a constant.While the optimal cycle configuration with the mass transfer law g∝△μc,where △μc is the concentration difference,is different from that with the mass transfer law g∝△μ significantly.When the high-chemical-potential reservoir is also an infinite potential capacity chemical potential reservoir,the optimal cycle configuration of the isothermal endoreversible chemical engine consists of two constant chemical potential branches and two instantaneous constant mass-flux branches,which is independent of the mass transfer law.The object studied in this paper is general,and the results can provide some guidelines for optimal design and operation of real chemical engines.

  19. On the nature of humic substances (United States)

    Fedotov, G. N.; Shoba, S. A.


    It is argued that the isolation of low-molecular-weight compounds from humic substances does not prove their supramolecular nature, because small molecules can be sorbed on macromolecules by interacting with them due to noncovalent bonds. The relative mobility of molecular segments in humic substances has been proposed to be used as a criterion for the discrimination between the humic substances of supraand macromolecular nature. The macromolecules are characterized by mobility of their segments, whereas supramolecular systems have stiff structure. This difference between macroand supramolecules results in different behaviors of the matrices (gels) formed from them in the processes of segregation. In the macromolecules, the formations of a new phase appearing at the segregation (microphase separation) are of nano size, at least in one dimension. They are incapable of moving within the matrix and form a well-known, limited set of systems. In the supramolecular matrices, the new-phase formations should have higher mobility and ability to move within the matrix with the formation of particles and zones of not only nano, but also micro sizes, as well as a significantly larger set of systems, including fractal configurations. The experimental electron microscopic study of the humic matrices of soil gels shows that the new-phase formations in the matrix of humic substances have not only nano, but also micro sizes and are capable of moving within the matrix, which confirms the supramolecular nature of humic substances. The proposed method has allowed generalizing the supraand macromolecular approaches, because macromolecules can enter into the composition of supramolecular systems. It is no less important that the behavior of HSs can be perceived as the behavior of stiff impenetrable particles that may compose the structures of different types and sizes.

  20. Incest and substance abuse: implications for treatment professionals. (United States)

    Janikowski, T P; Glover, N M


    Seventy-seven volunteer participants enrolled in eight substance abuse treatment facilities were surveyed using the Substance Abuse and Incest Survey. Of the sample, 36 (48%) reported histories of incest. For participants reporting incest, data on substance abuse history, perceptions of the relationship between incest and substance abuse, and opinions regarding incest-related counseling in the context of substance abuse treatment are presented. Recommendations for substance abuse professionals and facilities are made, including intake screening, barriers to treatment, counselor education, and future research.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method for the synthesis of dendrimer conjugates having a well-defined chemical structure, comprising one or more carbohydrate moieties and one or more immunomodulating substances coupled to a dendrimer, is presented. First, the carbohydrate is bound to the dendrimer in a chemoselective manner....... Subsequently, the immunomodulating substance is also bound in a chemoselective manner, to give a dendrimer conjugate with a well-defined structure and connectivity and containing a precise, pre-determined ratio of carbohydrate to immunomodulating substance. The invention also relates to novel dendrimer...

  2. Does food addiction exist? A phenomenological discussion based on the psychiatric classification of substance-related disorders and addiction. (United States)

    Albayrak, Ozgür; Wölfle, Sebastian Mathias; Hebebrand, Johannes


    The relationship between overeating, substance abuse and (behavioral) addiction is controversial. Medically established forms of addiction so far pertain to substance use disorders only. But the preliminary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders V (DSM V) suggests replacing the previous category 'Substance-Related Disorders' with 'Addiction and Related Disorders', thus for the first time allowing the diagnosis of behavioral addictions. In the past psychiatrists and psychologists have been reluctant to systematically delineate and classify the term behavioral addiction. However, there is a broad overlap between chemical and behavioral addiction including phenomenological, therapeutic, genetic, and neurobiological aspects. It is of interest to point out that the hormone leptin in itself has a pronounced effect on the reward system, thus suggesting an indirect link between overeating and 'chemical' addiction. Thus, leptin-deficient individuals could be classified as fulfilling criteria for food addiction. In our overview we first review psychological findings in chemical (substance-based) and subsequently in behavioral addiction to analyze the overlap. We discuss the diagnostic validity of food addiction, which in theory can be chemically and/or behaviorally based.

  3. Effects of extraction procedures on metal binding properties of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from anaerobic granular sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abzac, D' P.; Bordas, F.; Hullebusch, E.; Lens, P.N.L.; Guibaud, G.


    The effects of the extraction procedure of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on their proton/metal binding properties were studied. Nine extraction procedures (one control, four physical and four chemical procedures) were applied to four types of anaerobic granular sludges. The binding capaci

  4. Evaluating the ready biodegradability of two poorly water-soluble substances: comparative approach of bioavailability improvement methods (BIMs). (United States)

    Sweetlove, Cyril; Chenèble, Jean-Charles; Barthel, Yves; Boualam, Marc; L'Haridon, Jacques; Thouand, Gérald


    Difficulties encountered in estimating the biodegradation of poorly water-soluble substances are often linked to their limited bioavailability to microorganisms. Many original bioavailability improvement methods (BIMs) have been described, but no global approach was proposed for a standardized comparison of these. The latter would be a valuable tool as part of a wider strategy for evaluating poorly water-soluble substances. The purpose of this study was to define an evaluation strategy following the assessment of different BIMs adapted to poorly water-soluble substances with ready biodegradability tests. The study was performed with two poorly water-soluble chemicals-a solid, anthraquinone, and a liquid, isodecyl neopentanoate-and five BIMs were compared to the direct addition method (reference method), i.e., (i) ultrasonic dispersion, (ii) adsorption onto silica gel, (iii) dispersion using an emulsifier, (iv) dispersion with silicone oil, and (v) dispersion with emulsifier and silicone oil. A two-phase evaluation strategy of solid and liquid chemicals was developed involving the selection of the most relevant BIMs for enhancing the biodegradability of tested substances. A description is given of a BIM classification ratio (R BIM), which enables a comparison to be made between the different test chemical sample preparation methods used in the various tests. Thereby, using this comparison, the BIMs giving rise to the greatest biodegradability were ultrasonic dispersion and dispersion with silicone oil or with silicone oil and emulsifier for the tested solid chemical, adsorption onto silica gel, and ultrasonic dispersion for the liquid one.

  5. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zhornitsky


    Full Text Available Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD n=19 and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD n=360. More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the “schizophrenia nuclear symptoms” dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances.

  6. Using Laboratory Chemicals to Imitate Illicit Drugs in a Forensic Chemistry Activity (United States)

    Hasan, Shawn; Bromfield-Lee, Deborah; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Cintron-Maldonado, Jose A.


    This forensic chemistry activity utilizes presumptive forensic testing procedures and laboratory chemicals that produce screening results similar to controlled substances. For obvious reasons, obtaining heavily regulated controlled substances to create an undergraduate student activity is not practical for most educational institutions. We were…

  7. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Andre; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, Edel; McMickan, Sinead; Istace, Fréderique; Blaude, Marie-Noëlle; Howden, Peter; Fleig, Helmut; Schulte, Agnes


    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.' Whi

  8. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, A.; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, E.


    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure...

  9. Separation methods in the chemistry of humic substances. (United States)

    Janos, Pavel


    Separation methods are widely used to isolate humic substances (HSs), to fractionate them before further investigation, and to obtain information about their structure and properties. Among the chromatographic methods, techniques based on a size-exclusion effect appear to be most useful, as they allow us to relate elution data to the molecular mass distribution of HSs. The limitations of this approach are discussed in this review. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection is typically used to identify the products of pyrolysis or thermochemolysis of HSs; this technique is considered most important in the structural investigation of HSs. Electrophoretic methods (especially capillary zone electrophoresis) provide detailed characterization of HSs, but it is very difficult to relate the electrophoretic data to any specific subfraction, structure or properties of HSs. The electrophoretic patterns are often called "fingerprints" and can potentially be used for the identification and classification of HSs. This is limited, however, by the great diversity of the procedures employed and by the low degree of harmonization--no data on reproducibility and between-laboratory comparability are available. The same holds true, to a certain degree, for most methods utilized for the characterization of HSs. Separation methods play an important role in the examination of the interactions of HSs with heavy metals and other chemical pollutants. They allow us to determine binding constants and other data necessary to predict the mobility of chemical pollutants in the environment.

  10. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews (United States)

    Phillips, Lindsay A.


    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  11. 76 FR 21915 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application (United States)


    ... substance to manufacture bulk controlled substance for distribution to its customer. As explained in the.... 823(a), and 21 CFR 1301.34(b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) are satisfied. Dated: April 11, 2011. Joseph...

  12. Two-phase reactive transport of an oil-soluble chemical: an NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelijns, H.J.


    An oil-soluble chemical (OSC) is a chemical substance which is soluble and chemically inert in oil, but reacts with water to form a gel. Application of an OSC can be found in oil- and gas production. An increased water production, which usually occurs in mature oil fields, can be remedied by injecti


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大志; 黄世玉; 程兆第


    利用光镜和扫描电镜对厦门近海三种常见附着硅藻--爪哇曲壳藻亚缢变种(Achnanthes javanica var. subconstricta)、咖啡形双眉藻(Amphora coffeaeformis)和多枝舟形藻(Navicula ramosissima)胞外多聚物(Extracellular polymeric substances, EPSs)的形态和微细结构进行了研究,并初步分析了其化学组成.结果表明,A. javanica var. subconstricta的胞外多聚物为透明的长柄,分为领、柄及垫状物三部分,电镜显示其微细结构为由许多纤维组成的双层实心管;Amphora coffeaeformis分泌的EPS为由串连的小节组成的实心管状结构,许多管交织成厚的胶质块;Navicula ramosissima的EPSs则为透明的薄膜并形成胶质膜.三种硅藻胞外多聚物的水溶性和水不溶性的主要成分均为多糖类,达总量的70%以上,蛋白质含量次之,不含脂类物质,但不同藻类EPS的组成差异较大.此外,还探讨了EPSs的功能及其分泌机理.

  14. 我國化學物質法制規範體系之檢討―以德國法制之觀察及比較為中心 A Review of the Legal System of Chemical Substances in Taiwan: From the Perspective of the Observation on the German Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    傅玲靜 Ling-Ching Fu


    Full Text Available 化學物質法制,涉及污染管制、產品安全管制、消費者保護及勞工保護,亦涉及化學物質之管理,性質上並非單純地屬於特定法領域,而是交錯地屬於各種法領域。本文由行政法院之案例出發,得出案例爭議問題之核心,在於毒性化學物質管理法及空氣污染防制法間之關係,有待釐清。在透過對於德國法制之觀察及比較後,認識到二者在規範性質上具有本質之差異。藉由綜理我國毒性化學物質管理法歷次修正及現行行政院版修正草案之脈絡,可知該法由繼受美國法制,逐漸轉向引進歐盟REACH 規則之制度。相關觀察,皆指向基於科學不確定性、未知性及危害變異性的因素,對於化 學物質之管理應著重於資訊之掌控及分析。基於相關觀察結果,重行檢視我國化學物質法制,即可得知因未確立毒性化學物質管理法之規範性質,導致與其他化學物質法規之規範功能重疊。而2012 年毒性化學物質管理法之修正草案,不僅未能調整原法制錯亂不足之處,更未清楚認識資訊公開對於化學物質管理法制之重要性,勢必將使法制之修正受到各界挑戰。本文藉由相關研究,點出我國化學物質法制上混亂之處,建議掌握毒性化學物質管理法修法之契機,對於化學物質法制進行通盤檢討,以健全法制。 The legal system of chemicals involves the control of pollution, the regulation of product safety, and the protection of consumers as well as labours. In addition it also means a legal system of risk management of chemicals. As a result, the legal system of chemicals is not in essence a specific law field, but belongs staggered to different law fields. With an administrative court judgment as example, we will realize that the relationship between the Act of toxic chemicals and the Act of the protection against air pollution in

  15. Sampling Odor Substances by Mist-Cyclone System (United States)

    Matsubara, Osamu; Jiang, Zhiheng; Toyama, Shigeki


    Many techniques have been developed to measure odor substances. However most of those methods are based on using aquatic solutions(1),(2). Many odor substances specifically at low density situation, are difficult to dissolve into water. To absorb odor substances and obtain highest concentration solutions are key problems for olfactory systems. By blowing odor substances contained air mixture through mist of water and then separating the liquid from two-phases fluid with a cyclone unit a high concentration solution was obtained.

  16. Addiction: Alcohol and Substance Abuse in Judaism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Miriam Loewenthal


    Full Text Available This article outlines a history of rulings and beliefs about addiction in Judaism, covering alcohol and substance use and addiction, in the context of a brief account of the development of the status of addiction. It examines the prevalence of alcohol and substance use and abuse among Jews, including a discussion of some of the difficulties in estimating prevalence and of factors involved in changing patterns of use and abuse. Community beliefs and attitudes are examined, using published material and interviews with community leaders and members. Some conclusions are suggested about the impact of religious rulings and of other factors on addiction among Jews. Attention is given to the phenomenon of denial. Therapeutic practices and organisations are described. The scope for further research is identified.

  17. [Antihypoxic properties of opiates and substance P]. (United States)

    Vlasova, I G; Torshin, V I


    Using survival slices of the rat cerebellum, we studied the influence of opiates (alpha- and beta-endorphines, met-enkephalines) as well as substance P (SP) on the impulse activity (IA) of neurons. Low doses of the studied substances (10(-8)-10(-10) M) for the most part increased the IA of the neurons, while high doses (10(6)-10(-5) M) produced biphasic reaction (inhibition-excitation). It is supposed that opiates and SP act as transmitters in the cerebellum. Under increasing hypoxia, opiates and SP manifested antixypoxic properties both in low O22 concentration and under reoxygenation. Opiates and SP proved to be natural antihypoxants involved not only in nociception mechanisms but also in brain adaptation to oxygen deficiency.

  18. Borderline personality and substance use in women. (United States)

    Feske, Ulrike; Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent; Pilkonis, Paul A


    The association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorder (SUD) was examined in a predominantly psychiatric (77.6%) sample of 232 women. BPD proved to be a significant predictor of a lifetime diagnosis of SUD across four different categories: any SUD (including alcohol); alcohol use; drug use; and heroin, cocaine, or poly-substance use. BPD continued to be a predictor of SUD even when the effects of other cluster B and all cluster C PDs were controlled statistically. Antisocial personality disorder generally yielded larger odds ratios than BPD and emerged as a partial mediator of the relation between BPD and SUD. Histrionic PD was the only other PD that showed meaningful relations with SUD.

  19. [The substance experience, a history of LSD]. (United States)

    Beck, François; Bonnet, Nicolas


    This article reviews the recent knowledge on LSD stemming from various disciplines among which pharmacology, sociology and epidemiology. The d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a particularly powerful hallucinogenic substance. It produces distortions and hearing, visual and tactile hallucinations. Rarely used (only 1.7% of people aged 15-64 years old have tried it in their lifetime), this very powerful drug generates a strong apprehension within the general population, but the ethnographical studies show that its image seems rather good among illicit drug users. This representation relies both on the proper effects of this substance and also on the history of LSD very closely linked to the counterculture characteristic of the years 1960-1970.

  20. Substance dependency among homeless American Indians. (United States)

    Lobo, Susan; Vaughan, Margaret Mortensen


    Extensive qualitative research in the San Francisco Bay Area in California and in Tucson, Arizona, indicates strong associations between substance abuse and homelessness among American Indians. This article takes a comparative approach to describe and analyze precipitating factors and survival patterns of those who are both homeless and who suffer from substance dependency. Possible precipitating factors presented through case studies consider the complex interaction of childhood fostering or adoption into non-Native families, different types of involuntary institutionalization during youth, and the personal impact of accident, trauma and loss. Coping strategies and keys to survival are examined, including the role of the extended family and close friendships, American Indian and mainstream organizations that offer formal and informal services, the existence of anchor or key households, the helping relationships and sobriety groups among homeless individuals, spirituality, and cultural resiliency.

  1. The Link: Trauma and Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Dawn Culpepper


    Full Text Available Trauma “is categorized as an overwhelming life-changing experience (and is typically a physical and/or emotional shock to the very fiber of one’s being.”It is a priority that those who experience trauma in their lives seek help from a licensed professional to deal with the emotional damage caused by the trauma(s and to be taught necessary coping skills to prevent them from seeking solace in unhealthy ways like abusing drugs and/or alcohol. Research proposes that all types of trauma and the aftermath that follows will likely impact the “exposed population’s behavioral health, resulting in an increase in mental and substance use disorders, along with a decline in perceived quality of life” [1]. Survey results teach us that more than 70% adolescents receiving treatment for substance abuse across the country have a history of trauma in their lives.

  2. Chemical risk: strategies for social intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Calera Rubio


    Full Text Available Production, use, marketing and emission of chemical substances display the strong links between chemical risks at the workplace, healthcare and environmental pollution. In spite of this fact, the policies for the management of chemical risk are far from being coherent and unified in the different sectors. (Nutritional safety, agriculture, healthcare, environment and occupational health.The Commission of European Communities (EC has elaborated a White Document on the future policy on chemicals that recognizes the existing lack of control in this domain. We are facing a deep crisis of traditional strategies that are supposed to control chemical risks.It becomes essential to diversify the strategies. Some of them must aim at the improvement of information, others at the assessment of risk situations and some strategies must be directed to evaluate the possible alternatives for the solution of problems.

  3. [Consumption of psychoactive substances by caregivers]. (United States)

    Gauthier, Françoise


    Prescribed medication, self-medication or doping the use of psychoactive substances by caregivers is varied. Doping behaviour in the care environment is under-estimated and trivialised. It is often difficult to spot at an early stage and yet this consumption is not without consequences on the quality and safety of work. Gérard-Marchant general hospital in Toulouse integrates this issue into its professional risk management policy.

  4. Pulmonary complications of smoked substance abuse.


    Tashkin, D. P.


    After tobacco, marijuana is the most widely smoked substance in our society. Studies conducted within the past 15 years in animals, isolated tissues, and humans indicate that marijuana smoke can injure the lungs. Habitual smoking of marijuana has been shown to be associated with chronic respiratory tract symptoms, an increased frequency of acute bronchitic episodes, extensive tracheobronchial epithelial disease, and abnormalities in the structure and function of alveolar macrophages, key cell...

  5. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.


    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  6. Developmental Trajectories of Adolescent Substance Use (United States)

    Yamada, Samantha; Pepler, Debra; Jiang, Depeng; Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Craig, Wendy; Connolly, Jennifer


    Longitudinal data from 746 adolescents in Toronto, Canada (54% females), was gathered in eight waves over seven years (1995 through 2001), beginning when the youths were 10 to 12 years old (mean age = 11.8, SD = 1.2 years). Five trajectories of substance use were identified: chronic-high, childhood onset-rapid high, childhood onset-moderate,…

  7. Soil humic substances hinder the propagation of prions (United States)

    Leita, Liviana; Giachin, Gabriele; Margon, Alja; Narkiewicz, Joanna; Legname, Giuseppe


    capacity of clay minerals; however the contribution of soil organic components in adsorption has so far been neglected, as they represent a minor soil fraction on a weight basis. Among organic molecules, humic substances (HSs) are natural polyanions that result among the most reactive compounds in the soil and possess the largest specific surface area. Humic substances make up a large portion of the dark matter in humus and consist of heterogeneous mixtures of transformed biomolecules exhibiting a supramolecular structure. HSs are classified as humic acids (HAs), which are soluble only in alkaline solutions, and fulvic acids (FAs), which are soluble in both alkaline and acid solutions. The amphiphilic characteristics confer to HAs and FAs great versatility to interact with xenobiotics and reasonably also with prion proteins and/or prions too, leading to the formation of adducts with peculiar chemical and biophysical characteristics, thus affecting the transport, fixation and toxicity of prion. Results from our chemical, biophysical and biochemical investigation will be presented and results on anti-prion activity exerted by HAs and FAs will be provided, thus suggesting that amendment of contaminated soil with humic substances could be a strategy to contrast prion diffusion.

  8. Estimation of Radiative Efficiency of Chemicals with Potentially Significant Global Warming Potential (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The set of commercially available chemical substances in commerce that may have significant global warming potential (GWP) is not well defined. Although there are...

  9. Heart rate variability biofeedback in adolescent substance abuse treatment. (United States)

    Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis


    Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use.(1),(2) Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months.(3.)

  10. 49 CFR 392.4 - Drugs and other substances. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section 392.4... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR...

  11. Attitudes towards Substance Addiction: A Study of Turkish University Students (United States)

    Sungu, Hilmi


    Substance addiction has become one of the important issues in the world. The studies concerning substance use reveal the extent of the problem. According to the results of such studies, the number of the people using illicit drugs has increased profoundly in recent years. In this study, it was tried to find out how common substance use among…

  12. School-Based Interventions for Students with Substance Abuse (United States)

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.; Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine


    Experimentation with substances is typical for many young people, but unfortunately some will go on to develop substance abuse problems that substantially affect their lives. Successfully intervening with students who use or abuse substances is a challenge for school mental health professionals across the nation. There is a need for evidence-based…

  13. [Related substances in orlistat detected with UPLC-MS/MS]. (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Ting; Ma, Chen


    The study aims to identify related substances in orlistat pharmaceutical substance from different production technologies. Advanced technologies including UPLC-QTOF-MS and UPLC-QTrap-MS were used and the structures or molecules of 10 kinds of related substances in orlistat were identified. The experimental data were valuable to the quality control and development of orlistat.

  14. 21 CFR 176.130 - Anti-offset substances. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Anti-offset substances. 176.130 Section 176.130... for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.130 Anti-offset substances. Substances named... in printing and decorating paper and paperboard used for food packaging in accordance with...

  15. 76 FR 53961 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration (United States)


    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated April... Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of 4-Anilino-N-phenethyl-4-Piperidine... controlled substance in the manufacturer of another controlled substance. No comments or objections have...

  16. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency (United States)

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William


    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  17. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America (United States)

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David


    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  18. Resilience as a Theoretical Basis for Substance Abuse Prevention. (United States)

    Meschke, Laurie L.; Patterson, Joan M.


    Uses the resilience perspective to examine the risk and protective mechanisms associated with adolescent substance use. Resilience is defined and resilience processes related to substance use are explored. Effective adolescent substance use prevention programs that promote youth resilience are reviewed. (Contains 120 references.) (GCP)

  19. From substance use to homelessness or vice versa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McVicar, Duncan; Moschion, Julie; van Ours, Jan


    Homelessness is associated with substance use, but whether substance use precedes or follows homelessness is unclear. We investigate the nature of the relationship between homelessness and substance use using data from the unique Australian panel dataset Journeys Home collected in 4 surveys over the

  20. Patient registries for substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai B


    Full Text Available Betty Tai,1 Lian Hu,2 Udi E Ghitza,1 Steven Sparenborg,1 Paul VanVeldhuisen,2 Robert Lindblad2 1Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2The EMMES Corporation, Rockville, MD, USA Abstract: This commentary discusses the need for developing patient registries of substance use disorders (SUD in general medical settings. A patient registry is a tool that documents the natural history of target diseases. Clinicians and researchers use registries to monitor patient comorbidities, care procedures and processes, and treatment effectiveness for the purpose of improving care quality. Enactments of the Affordable Care Act 2010 and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act 2008 open opportunities for many substance users to receive treatment services in general medical settings. An increased number of patients with a wide spectrum of SUD will initially receive services with a chronic disease management approach in primary care. The establishment of computer-based SUD patient registries can be assisted by wide adoption of electronic health record systems. The linkage of SUD patient registries with electronic health record systems can facilitate the advancement of SUD treatment research efforts and improve patient care. Keywords: substance use disorders, primary care, registry, electronic health records, chronic care model

  1. Experimental estimation of migration and transfer of organic substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes: Evaluation of underlying mechanisms. (United States)

    Clausen, Per Axel; Spaan, Suzanne; Brouwer, Derk H; Marquart, Hans; le Feber, Maaike; Engel, Roel; Geerts, Lieve; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi; Hansen, Brian; De Brouwere, Katleen


    The aim of this work was to identify the key mechanisms governing transport of organic chemical substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes. The results were used to establish a mechanistic model to improve assessment of dermal contact exposure. Four types of PVC flooring, 10 types of textiles and one type of inkjet printed paper were used to establish the mechanisms and model. Kinetic extraction studies in methanol demonstrated existence of matrix diffusion and indicated the presence of a substance surface layer on some articles. Consequently, the proposed substance transfer model considers mechanical transport from a surface film and matrix diffusion in an article with a known initial total substance concentration. The estimated chemical substance transfer values to cotton wipes were comparable to the literature data (relative transfer ∼ 2%), whereas relative transfer efficiencies from spiked substrates were high (∼ 50%). For consumer articles, high correlation (r(2)=0.92) was observed between predicted and measured transfer efficiencies, but concentrations were overpredicted by a factor of 10. Adjusting the relative transfer from about 50% used in the model to about 2.5% removed overprediction. Further studies are required to confirm the model for generic use.

  2. Standard chemical exergy of elements updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, R. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Grupo de Exergia, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Garfias, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Grupo de Exergia, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    The chemical exergy of a substance is the maximum work that can be obtained from it by taking it to chemical equilibrium with the reference environment at constant temperature and pressure. This exergy is normally taken or calculated from tabulated values obtained for standard conditions, i.e. an ambient temperature of 298.15 K, an atmospheric pressure of 1 atm, and a model of reference species which considers the concentration of the most common components of the atmosphere, the oceans and the Earth's crust. The model proposed by Szargut for the calculation of the standard chemical exergy of elements and organic and inorganic substances has been revised. As a result of this revision, updated values of standard chemical exergy of elements are presented and compared with the ones estimated by Szargut. Because of some anomalous behaviour in the chemical exergy when a different salinity of seawater is assumed, some different reference species than those used in the latest version of the Szargut model were proposed for the following elements: silver, gold, barium, calcium, cadmium, copper, mercury, magnesium, nickel, lead, strontium and zinc. A complete set of updated values of chemical exergies of elements for the standard conditions (298.15 K and 1 atm) is tabulated.

  3. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Ronald


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect

  4. Separation and identification of moxifloxacin impurities in drug substance by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Sheng Wu; Zhi Xin Jia; Bao Ming Ning; Jin Lan Zhang; Song Wu


    In this paper,a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection and Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV/FTICRMS) method was described for the investigation of impurity profile in moxifloxacin (MOX) drug substance and chemical reference substance.Ten impurities were detected by HPLC-UV,while eight impurities were identified by using the high accurate molecular mass combined with multiple-stage mass spectrometric data and fragmentation rules.In addition,to our knowledge,five impurities were founded for the first time in MOX drug substance.

  5. Chemical food contaminants; Chemische Lebensmittelkontaminanten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany)


    Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology. (orig.)

  6. Is It the Music? Peer Substance Use as a Mediator of the Link between Music Preferences and Adolescent Substance Use (United States)

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.


    Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data…

  7. Nimbolide B and nimbic acid B, phytotoxic substances in neem leaves with allelopathic activity. (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Salam, Md Abdus; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake


    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been widely used as a traditional medicine and several bioactive compounds have been isolated from this species, but to date no potent allelopathic active substance has been reported. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic property and phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity in neem. An aqueous methanol extract of neem leaves inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress, lettuce, alfalfa, timothy, crabgrass, ryegrass, barnyard grass and jungle rice. The extracts were then purified by several chromatographic runs while monitoring the inhibitory activity and two phytotoxic substances were isolated. The chemical structures of the two substances were determined by spectral data to correspond to novel compounds, nimbolide B (1) and nimbic acid B (2). Nimbolide B inhibited the growth of cress and barnyard grass at concentrations greater than 0.1‒3.0 μM. Nimbic acid B inhibited the growth of cress and barnyard grass at concentrations greater than 0.3-1.0 μM. These results suggest that nimbolide B and nimbic acid B may contribute to the allelopathic effects caused by neem leaves.

  8. Strain- and context-dependent behavioural responses of acute alarm substance exposure in zebrafish. (United States)

    Quadros, Vanessa A; Silveira, Ariane; Giuliani, Giulie S; Didonet, Fernanda; Silveira, Alessandra S; Nunes, Mauro E; Silva, Tális O; Loro, Vania L; Rosemberg, Denis B


    We investigate the behavioural responses of wild type (WT) and leopard (leo) zebrafish elicited by alarm substances of conspecifics at three contexts: during the exposure period (Experiment 1); after exposure, in habituation to novelty (Experiment 2); or after exposure, in the light-dark preference test (Experiment 3), and analyse their influence on pigment response. During the exposure, leo showed decreased vertical drifts, increased number and duration of erratic movements, while WT had increased erratic movements and latency to enter the top. In the novel tank, we observed that angular velocity decreased in WT exposed to alarm substance, which also presented increased fear responses. Contrastingly, leo increased the number of entries and time in top, indicating differences in habituation profile. Alarm substance increased the number of erratic movements in the light-dark test, but elicited different responses between strains in scototaxis, latency to enter the dark compartment and risk assessment episodes. Moreover, the body colour of zebrafish did not change after alarm substance exposure. Principal component analyses suggest that burst swimming, anxiety-like behaviours, and locomotion/exploration were the components that most accounted for total variances of Experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. We conclude that chemical cue from conspecifics triggers strain- and context-dependent responses.

  9. A phytotoxic active substance in the decomposing litter of the fern Gleichenia japonica. (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Saito, Yoshihumi; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake


    The fern Gleichenia japonica often dominates plant communities by forming large monospecific stands throughout the temperate to tropical Asia. The objective of this study was the investigation of allelopathic property and substances of the decomposing litter of the fern to evaluate the possible involvement of its allelopathy in the domination. An aqueous methanol extract of G. japonica litter inhibited the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). This result suggests that G. japonica litter contains growth inhibitory substances. The extract was purified by chromatography while monitoring the inhibitory activity, and a growth inhibitory substance was isolated. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by spectral data to be a novel compound, 13-O-β-fucopyranosyl-3β-hydroxymanool. This compound inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress and barnyard grass at concentrations ranging from 89.7 to 271 μM for 50% inhibition. In addition, the compound had potent growth inhibitory activity with the soil taken from near the colony. The concentration of the compound in soil under a pure colony of G. japonica was 790 μM, suggesting that the compound may contribute to the establishment of monocultural stands by this fern.

  10. 25C-NBOMe--new potent hallucinogenic substance identified on the drug market. (United States)

    Zuba, Dariusz; Sekuła, Karolina; Buczek, Agnieszka


    This publication reports analytical properties of a new hallucinogenic substance identified in blotter papers seized from the drug market, namely 25C-NBOMe [2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine]. The identification was based on results of comprehensive study including several analytical methods, i.e., GC-EI-MS (without derivatization and after derivatization with TFAA), LC-ESI-QTOF-MS, FTIR and NMR. The GC-MS spectrum of 25C-NBOMe was similar to those obtained for other representatives of the 25-NBOMe series, with dominant ions observed at m/z=150, 121 and 91. Fragment ions analogic to those in 2C-C (4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxy-β-phenylethanamine) were also observed, but their intensities were low. Derivatization allowed the determination of molecular mass of the investigated substance. The exact molecular mass and chemical formula were confirmed by LC-QTOF-MS experiments and fragmentation pattern under electrospray ionization was determined. The MS/MS experiments confirmed that the investigated substance was N-(2-methoxy)benzyl derivative of 2C-C. The substance was also characterized by FTIR spectroscopy to corroborate its identity. Final elucidation of the structure was performed by NMR spectroscopy.

  11. Chemical Mahjong (United States)

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy


    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  12. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.


    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  13. Adolescent substance use and unplanned pregnancy: strategies for risk reduction. (United States)

    Connery, Hilary Smith; Albright, Brittany B; Rodolico, John M


    Substance use among adolescents increases the risk of unplanned pregnancies, which then increases the risk of fetal exposure to addictive, teratogenic substances. Specific interventions are necessary to target pregnancy planning and contraception among reproductive-age substance users. Screening for substance use using the CRAFFT is recommended in all health care settings treating adolescent patients. Screening for tobacco and nicotine use is also recommended along with the provision of smoking cessation interventions. Using motivational interviewing style and strategies is recommended to engage adolescents in discussions related to reducing substance use, risky sexual behavior, and probability of unplanned pregnancy or late-detection pregnancy.

  14. Extracellular polymeric substances mediate bioleaching/biocorrosion via interfacial processes involving iron(III) ions and acidophilic bacteria. (United States)

    Sand, Wolfgang; Gehrke, Tilman


    Extracellular polymeric substances seem to play a pivotal role in biocorrosion of metals and bioleaching, biocorrosion of metal sulfides for the winning of precious metals as well as acid rock drainage. For better control of both processes, the structure and function of extracellular polymeric substances of corrosion-causing or leaching bacteria are of crucial importance. Our research focused on the extremophilic bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, because of the "simplicity" and knowledge about the interactions of these bacteria with their substrate/substratum and their environment. For this purpose, the composition of the corresponding extracellular polymeric substances and their functions were analyzed. The extracellular polymeric substances of both species consist mainly of neutral sugars and lipids. The functions of the exopolymers seem to be: (i) to mediate attachment to a (metal) sulfide surface, and (ii) to concentrate iron(III) ions by complexation through uronic acids or other residues at the mineral surface, thus, allowing an oxidative attack on the sulfide. Consequently, dissolution of the metal sulfide is enhanced, which may result in an acceleration of 20- to 100-fold of the bioleaching process over chemical leaching. Experiments were performed to elucidate the importance of the iron(III) ions complexed by extracellular polymeric substances for strain-specific differences in oxidative activity for pyrite. Strains of A. ferrooxidans with a high amount of iron(III) ions in their extracellular polymeric substances possess greater oxidation activity than those with fewer iron(III) ions. These data provide insight into the function of and consequently the advantages that extracellular polymeric substances provide to bacteria. The role of extracellular polymeric substances for attachment under the conditions of a space station and resulting effects like biofouling, biocorrosion, malodorous gases, etc. will be discussed.

  15. Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders in DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcan Gulec


    Full Text Available When we compare the categories about alcohol, and substance-related disorders in DSM-IV and DSM-5, the new category, named addictive disorders is the most striking change. Only gambling disorder have been identified currently in this category. This may be the most remarkable change among the changes in the DSM-5. Because the expansion of the existing diagnostic criteria may cause the assessment of and lsquo;normal behavior' as a disorder. Additionally, withdrawal of caffeine and cannabis are defined in the DSM-5. Disorders collected under the title of substance-related disorders in the DSM-IV were collected under the name of substance-related and addictive disorders in the DSM-5. Specific criterias for substance abuse and substance addiction have been combined into the name of "substance use disorders". In substance abuse, "experienced legal problems" criteria was removed and "a strong desire or urge or craving for substance use" criteria has been introduced. Henceforth, substance abuse is defined as a mild form of substance use disorders in the DSM-5. A change in the prevalence of substance use disorders should be investigated by the new researches.

  16. Colloid facilitated transport of humic substances in soil: laboratory experiment and modeling calculation. (United States)

    Dinu, Marina; Moiseenko, Tatyana


    An understanding of ability to predict the fate and transport of colloids in soil systems are of great importance in many environmental and industrial applications. Especially, in the case study sizes and zeta potentials of lignin and humus components (as a parameter reflecting the mobility and tread of organic substances). The objects of investigation were water extracts of gleepodzolic soil of European territory of Russia and Western Siberia, as well as humus substances extracted from this soil. In this study, evaluation of size, molecular weight distribution and zeta potential were used to predict the mobility of the organic component fractions of the soil. Fractionation was performed using multistage filtration plant (100 Da) and measuring physic-chemical parameters measured with the Malvern Zetasizer Nano ZSP. Significant differences in the distribution of organic matter on the molecular weight, charge (sign) of the zeta potential and the size of the sample of European Russia in comparison with samples of Western Siberia have been found. Also, laboratory studies have demonstrated of any differences in physicochemical parameters as infrared spectra, ultraviolet spectra, complexing ability of samples of the same soil type but different areas of Russia. The results can be used in the prediction of the migration ability of fractions humus substances and their stability at change physic-chemical conditions (the coefficient of mobility of the organic components by calculated in MathCad). This work was supported by the grant № 14-17-00460 RSF from 07.11.2014

  17. Hospital effluents management: Chemical, physical, microbiological risks and legislation in different countries. (United States)

    Carraro, E; Bonetta, Si; Bertino, C; Lorenzi, E; Bonetta, Sa; Gilli, G


    Hospital wastewater (HWW) can contain hazardous substances, such as pharmaceutical residues, chemical hazardous substances, pathogens and radioisotopes. Due to these substances, hospital wastewater can represent a chemical, biological and physical risk for public and environmental health. In particular, several studies demonstrate that the main effects of these substances can't be neutralised by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These substances can be found in a wide range of concentrations due to the size of a hospital, the bed density, number of inpatients and outpatients, the number and the type of wards, the number and types of services, the country and the season. Some hazardous substances produced in hospital facilities have a regulatory status and are treated like waste and are disposed of accordingly (i.e., dental amalgam and medications). Legislation is quite homogeneous for these substances in all industrial countries. Problems that have emerged in the last decade concern substances and microorganisms that don't have a regulatory status, such as antibiotic residues, drugs and specific pathogens. At a global level, guidelines exist for treatment methods for these effluents, but legislation in all major industrial countries don't contain limitations on these parameters. Therefore, a monitoring system is necessary for these effluents as well as for substances and pathogens, as these elements can represent a risk to the environment and public health.

  18. The chemical and environmental property space of REACH chemicals. (United States)

    Öberg, Tomas; Iqbal, M Sarfraz


    The European regulation on chemicals, REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), came into force on 1 June 2007. With pre-registration complete in 2008, data for these substances may provide an overview of the expected chemical space and its characteristics. In this paper, using various in silico computation tools, we evaluate 48782 neutral organic compounds from the list to identify hazardous and safe compounds. Two different classification schemes (modified Verhaar and ECOSAR) identified between 17% and 25% of the compounds as expressing only baseline toxicity (narcosis). A smaller portion could be identified as reactive (19%) or specifically acting (2.7%), while the majority were non-assigned (61%). Overall environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential were evaluated using structure-activity relationships and a multimedia fugacity-based model. A surprisingly high proportion of compounds (20%), mainly aromatic and halogenated, had a very high estimated persistence (>195 d). The proportion of compounds with a very high estimated bioconcentration or bioaccumulation factor (>5000) was substantially less (6.9%). Finally, a list was compiled of those compounds within the applicability domain of the models used, meeting both persistence and bioaccumulation criteria, and with a long-range transport potential comparable to PCB. This list of 68 potential persistent organic pollutants contained many well-known compounds (all halogenated), but notably also five fluorinated compounds that were not included in the EINECS inventory. This study demonstrates the usability of in silico tools for identification of potentially environmentally hazardous chemicals.

  19. Substance Use among Muslim Students in Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inda Mariana Harahap


    Full Text Available Background: Illicit substance use is a serious social problem faced by adolescents worldwide, including adolescents in Aceh and has many negative consequences. In addition, illicit substance use does not fit with the values of Islamic teaching, and is strictly prohibited in Islam. Purpose: The aims of this paper are to determine the prevalence of illicit substance use, the stages of substance use, and types of substance used among Muslim students in senior high schools in Aceh, Indonesia. Method: Four hundred and twenty six students who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from four senior high schools in Banda Aceh by using simple random sampling, and of these, 290 returned a completed questionnaire. A self reported questionnaire was used to collect data. Result: The mean age of the subjects was 15.9 years old and the majority of them were female (68.6%. The study found that the prevalence of substance use was 2.4%with a higher number of females than males who had used illicit substances. The common substances that were used by the students were marijuana and dextromethorphon, as well as intentionally inhaled substances. Lastly, out of the students who had used illegal substances the majority was in the regular use stage (1.4%. Conclusion: This study found that substance use among Muslim students in Aceh exists, although prevalence was low. Thus, several preventive programs may be needed in Aceh not only for Muslims students who have used substances but also for students who have not use illegal substances. Keywords: Adolescents, Substance use, Muslim students, Indonesia.

  20. 76 FR 20994 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug Testing... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for...

  1. 78 FR 69702 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug Testing... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance...

  2. The problem of current toxic chemicals management. (United States)

    Tickner, Joel; Geiser, Ken


    In this article, we explore the limitations of current chemicals management policies worldwide and the evolution of new European, International and U.S. policies to address the problem of toxic chemicals control. It is becoming increasingly apparent that current chemicals management policies in Europe and the United States are inadequate. There is a general lack of toxicity and exposure information on chemicals in commerce and the vast majority of chemicals were considered safe until proven guilty in legislation. Governments must then prove each chemical is dangerous through a slow and resource-intensive risk assessment process. For more than a decade, Nordic countries, such as Denmark and Sweden, have actively promoted integrated chemicals policies to address contamination of critical waterways. They have successfully used a variety of voluntary and mandatory policy tools, such as education, procurement, lists of chemicals of concern, eco-labeling, research and development on safer substitutes, and chemical phase-out requirements, to encourage companies using chemicals to reduce their reliance on harmful substances and to develop safer substitutes. While previously isolated to particular countries, innovative and exciting European-wide policies to promote sustainable chemicals management are now moving forward, including the recently published draft Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of CHemicals (REACH) policy of the European Union. A sweeping change in chemicals management policies in Europe is inevitable and it will ultimately affect manufacturers in the U.S. and globally. The European movement provides an opportunity to initiate a discussion on integrated chemicals policy in the U.S. where some innovative initiatives already are underway.

  3. Failure to get into substance abuse treatment. (United States)

    Fisher, Dennis G; Reynolds, Grace L; D'Anna, Laura H; Hosmer, David W; Hardan-Khalil, Kholoud


    Among substance abusers in the US, the discrepancy in the number who access substance abuse treatment and the number who need treatment is sizable. This results in a major public health problem of access to treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of Persons Who Use Drugs (PWUDs) that either hinder or facilitate access to treatment. 2646 participants were administered the Risk Behavior Assessment (RBA) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The RBA included the dependent variable which was responses to the question "During the last year, have you ever tried, but been unable, to get into a drug treatment or detox program?" In multivariate analysis, factors associated with being unable to access treatment included: Previously been in drug treatment (OR=4.51), number of days taken amphetamines in the last 30days (OR=1.18), traded sex for drugs (OR=1.53), homeless (OR=1.73), Nonplanning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (OR=1.19), age at interview (OR=0.91), and sexual orientation, with bisexual men and women significantly more likely than heterosexuals to have tried but been unable to get into treatment. The answers to the question on "why were you unable to get into treatment" included: No room, waiting list; not enough money, did not qualify, got appointment but no follow through, still using drugs, and went to jail before program start. As expected, findings suggest that limiting organizational and financial obstacles to treatment may go a long way in increasing drug abuse treatment accessibility to individuals in need. Additionally, our study points to the importance of developing approaches for increasing personal planning skills/reducing Nonplanning impulsivity among PWUDs when they are in treatment as a key strategy to ensure access to additional substance abuse treatment in the future.

  4. GABA systems, benzodiazepines, and substance dependence. (United States)

    Malcolm, Robert J


    Alterations in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor complex and GABA neurotransmission influence the reinforcing and intoxicating effects of alcohol and benzodiazepines. Chronic modulation of the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex plays a major role in central nervous system dysregulation during alcohol abstinence. Withdrawal symptoms stem in part from a decreased GABAergic inhibitory function and an increase in glutamatergic excitatory function. GABA(A) receptors play a role in both reward and withdrawal phenomena from alcohol and sedative-hypnotics. Although less well understood, GABA(B) receptor complexes appear to play a role in inhibition of motivation and diminish relapse potential to reinforcing drugs. Evidence suggests that long-term alcohol use and concomitant serial withdrawals permanently alter GABAergic function, down-regulate benzodiazepine binding sites, and in preclinical models lead to cell death. Benzodiazepines have substantial drawbacks in the treatment of substance use-related disorders that include interactions with alcohol, rebound effects, alcohol priming, and the risk of supplanting alcohol dependency with addiction to both alcohol and benzodiazepines. Polysubstance-dependent individuals frequently self-medicate with benzodiazepines. Selective GABA agents with novel mechanisms of action have anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and reward inhibition profiles that have potential in treating substance use and withdrawal and enhancing relapse prevention with less liability than benzodiazepines. The GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen has promise in relapse prevention in a number of substance dependence disorders. The GABA(A) and GABA(B) pump reuptake inhibitor tiagabine has potential for managing alcohol and sedative-hypnotic withdrawal and also possibly a role in relapse prevention.

  5. Randomization in substance abuse clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolson Robert F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A well designed randomized clinical trial rates as the highest level of evidence for a particular intervention's efficacy. Randomization, a fundamental feature of clinical trials design, is a process invoking the use of probability to assign treatment interventions to patients. In general, randomization techniques pursue the goal of providing objectivity to the assignment of treatments, while at the same time balancing for treatment assignment totals and covariate distributions. Numerous randomization techniques, each with varying properties of randomness and balance, are suggested in the statistical literature. This paper reviews common randomization techniques often used in substance abuse research and an application from a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA-funded clinical trial in substance abuse is used to illustrate several choices an investigator faces when designing a clinical trial. Results Comparisons and contrasts of randomization schemes are provided with respect to deterministic and balancing properties. Specifically, Monte Carlo simulation is used to explore the balancing nature of randomization techniques for moderately sized clinical trials. Results demonstrate large treatment imbalance for complete randomization with less imbalance for the urn or adaptive scheme. The urn and adaptive randomization methods display smaller treatment imbalance as demonstrated by the low variability of treatment allocation imbalance. For all randomization schemes, covariate imbalance between treatment arms was small with little variation between adaptive schemes, stratified schemes and unstratified schemes given that sample sizes were moderate to large. Conclusion We develop this paper with the goal of reminding substance abuse researchers of the broad array of randomization options available for clinical trial designs. There may be too quick a tendency for substance abuse researchers to implement the fashionable urn

  6. [Is nutritional obesity a substance use disorder? (United States)

    Albayrak, Özgür; de Zwaan, Martina


    Today, food addiction has become an increasing area of research. Multiple studies aim to characterize individuals in terms of food addiction based on the assumption, that hyperpalatable foods rich of salt, sugar and fat may induce a cluster of behavioral changes that may resemble a substance use disorder, despite the fact that to date there is no evidence, that nutritional factors lead to an addictive eating-like behavior in humans. In this review article, we aim to introduce the basic experiments, that build the framework upon which food addiction is being investigated and to critically discuss the concept of food addiction.

  7. Physical and Chemical Properties and Antimicrobial Spectrum of Antibacterial Substances from Bacillus subtilis W321%枯草芽孢杆菌W321产抑菌物质的理化性质及抑菌谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙珊; 郝林; 王倩


    The bacteriostatic activity of Bacillus subtilis W321 isolated from vinegar was studied. Ensure the strain W321 produced bactericin after eliminating organic acid, oxid catalase, and the bacteriostatic activity was inactived when treated with proteinase K. The study of physical and chemical properties and antimicrobial spectrum of cell- free supernatant fluid showed that: it was heat-stable and remained active after incubation at different pH conditions, sensitive to some proteinases K, trypsin and metal ions and exhibited a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity.%本试验对从醋醅中分离到的枯草芽孢杆菌W321的抑菌性研究,经排酸、排过氧化氢和酶处理确定其产生了细菌素,并进一步对发酵上清液的理化性质和抑菌谱进行了测定。试验结果表明,该抑菌物质热稳定性和酸碱稳定性良好,可被蛋白酶K和胰蛋白酶酶解,其抑菌作用还可由Ca2+、Zn2+和Fe2+增强且抑菌谱广。

  8. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik


    to repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining...... four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental...... concern, the waste-sample concentrations were above the detection limit (e.g. Cd gt; 0.001 mg kg-1, Cr gt; 0.01 mg kg-1, Hg gt; 0.002 mg kg-1, Pb gt; 0.005 mg kg-1). The variance was in the range of 5-100%, depending on material fraction and substance as documented by repeated sampling of two highly...

  9. Critical assessment of extracellular polymeric substances extraction methods from mixed culture biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Domingo Felez, Carlos; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem


    potential of different EPS extraction protocols. We concluded that commonly used methods to assess cell lysis (DNA concentrations or G6PDH activities in EPS extracts) do not correlate with cell viability. Furthermore, we discovered that the presence of certain chemicals in EPS extracts results in severe...... to the nitrifier EPS, had a lower fraction of hydrophobic biopolymers. In general, the easily-extractable EPS fraction was more abundant in carbohydrates and humic substances, while DNA could only be found in tightly bound EPS fractions. In conclusion, the methodology presented herein supports the rational......Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have a presumed determinant role in the structure, architecture, strength, filterability, and settling behaviour of microbial solids in biological wastewater treatment processes. Consequently, numerous EPS extraction protocols have recently been published...

  10. Analysis of the impact of the regulation of toxic substances on Sandia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Pigg, J.


    In recent years, Congress has passed two regulatory acts, namely the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) and the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) which seek to control the manufacture, use, and disposal of hazardous chemical substances. These acts can have a significant impact on Sandia's missions and will particularly affect those organizations involved in materials development and selection. The primary purpose of this report is to describe in some detail the impact of these acts on Sandia's corporate goals and make recommendations on what our response should be. Also described in this report is the present position of Sandia with respect to these regulatory acts and the policies and actions that Sandia has taken to date in an effort to minimize their impact.

  11. Competitive adsorption of heavy metal by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from sulfate reducing bacteria. (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Li, Qing; Li, Ming-Ming; Chen, Tian-Hu; Zhou, Yue-Fei; Yue, Zheng-Bo


    Competitive adsorption of heavy metals by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was investigated. Chemical analysis showed that different EPS compositions had different capacities for the adsorption of heavy metals which was investigated using Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). Batch adsorption tests indicated that EPS had a higher combined ability with Zn(2+) than Cu(2+). This was confirmed and explained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy analysis. FTIR analysis showed that both polysaccharides and protein combined with Zn(2+) while only protein combined with Cu(2+). EEM spectra further revealed that tryptophan-like substances were the main compositions reacted with the heavy metals. Moreover, Zn(2+) had a higher fluorescence quenching ability than Cu(2+).

  12. Membrane biofouling by extracellular polymeric substances or soluble microbial products from membrane bioreactor sludge. (United States)

    Ramesh, A; Lee, D J; Lai, J Y


    This study extracted the soluble microbial products and loosely bound and tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from suspended sludge from a membrane bioreactor, original and aerobically/anaerobically digested, and compared their fouling potentials on a microfiltration membrane. The resistance of cake layer accounts for 95-98% of the total filtration resistances when filtering the whole sludges, with anaerobically digested sludge presenting the highest resistance among the three tested sludges. The tightly bound EPS has the highest potential to foul the membrane; however, the loosely bound EPS contribute most of the filtration resistances of the whole sludges. The foulants corresponding to the irreversible fouling have chemical fingerprints similar to those from loosely bound EPS, which have a greater predilection to proteins and humic substances than to polysaccharides.

  13. Bioactive cotton fabrics containing chitosan and biologically active substances extracted from plants. (United States)

    Mocanu, G; Nichifor, M; Mihai, D; Oproiu, L C


    The paper studies the obtaining of bioactive textiles using chitosan-coated fabrics, in which biologically active substances contained by Viola Tricolor (VT) - an extract of three Viola species (Violaceae) - were immobilized. Chitosan was applied on cotton fabric or on chemically modified cotton (having reactive -CHO or carboxymethyl groups), as tripolyphosphate (TPP) crosslinked fine particles, or by use of glutaraldehyde crosslinking agent. The amount of VT retained on the fabrics was found to depend on the procedure of chitosan application on the cotton. The obtained bioactive textiles are expected to have antioxidant activity due to the biologically active substances from VT; they can be used for obtaining clothes for people with allergies or other skin problems, assuring a controlled release of biomolecules. The study focuses on the in vitro release of VT retained on the fabrics, as well as on its antioxidant activity.

  14. Nově zaváděná evropská legislativa REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Autorisation of Chemicals) a její předpokládané dopady na provádění záchranných a likvidačních prací a na zvýšenou administrativu v českých podnicích


    HLÁSKOVÁ, Jana


    The Regulation No. 1907/2006 on registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemical substances and on establishment of the European Chemicals Agency, the so-called REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances) came into effect on 1 June 2007. The purpose of the Regulation has been to ensure safe functioning of the market with chemical substances and preparations and protection of human health and environment against effects of toxic sub...

  15. Protective factors of substance use in youth subcultures. (United States)

    Bobakova, Daniela; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Klein, Daniel; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P


    Youth subcultures, characterized by a distinctive lifestyle, music preference, shared values and behaviors, are associated with substance use. The aim of this study was to explore whether protective factors such as parental monitoring, parental bonding and parental substance abstinence affect the association between subculture affiliation and adolescents' substance use. We used data from 15-year-old elementary school pupils (N=1380; mean age=15.47; response 79.5%) who participated in the Health Behaviour in School Aged Children 2009/2010 study. The association between subculture affiliation and substance use (smoking, drinking alcohol, drunkenness, and cannabis use) was adjusted for parental monitoring, parental bonding and parental substance abstinence for boys and girls separately using logistic regression. Adolescents affiliated to one of the selected youth subcultures were significantly more likely to use substances than other 15-years-olds, except for cannabis use in girls. Adjustment for parental monitoring reduced the association between subculture affiliation and substance use by 31-64% in girls and by 10-23% in boys. Adjustment for parental bonding and parental substance abstinence led to no changes or minor changes. After adjustments for protective factors, subculture affiliation remained significantly associated with substance use. The role of protective factors in adolescents with a subculture affiliation regarding substance use is rather limited. Our findings imply that preventive strategies targeting youth subcultures should take protective factors into account and be gender-specific.

  16. Periodontal Status amongst Substance Abusers in Indian Population. (United States)

    Reddy, Shantipriya; Kaul, Sanjay; Agrawal, Chaitali; Prasad, M G S; Agnihotri, Jaya; Bhowmik, Nirjhar; Amudha, D; Kambali, Soumya


    Background. In India there have been limited number of studies on periodontal status among drug addicts, and thus this study aims to assess the Oral hygiene and periodontal status in substance abusers and compare it with non-substance abusers. Methods. A comparative study was conducted to assess the periodontal status in substance abusers. Non-substance abusers were procured from the general population of Bangalore. From the control group 250 non-substance abusers were age and sex matched with the study population of substance abusers. The oral hygiene and periodontal condition of all subjects was assessed using Oral hygiene index- simplified (OHI-S), Russell's periodontal indices and Gingival bleeding index. Results. The mean of OHI-S and Periodontal Index (Russell's Index) scores were higher (2.70 and 3.68, resp.) in substance abusers than the control group (2.45 and 2.59, resp.). The mean Gingival bleeding score was lower (9.69) in substance abusers than the control group (22.7) and found to be statistically significant. A positive correlation found between OHI-S and Russell's periodontal index whereas negative correlation was found between OHI-S and Gingival bleeding in substance abusers. Conclusions. Though the oral hygiene was fair, more periodontal destruction and less of gingival bleeding were observed in substance abusers as compared to control group.

  17. Storing the Wisdom: Chemical Concepts and Chemoinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bawden


    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to examine the nature of chemical concepts, and the ways in which they are applied in chemoinformatics systems. An account of concepts in philosophy and in the information sciences leads to an analysis of chemical concepts, and their representation. The way in which concepts are applied in systems for information retrieval and for structure–property correlation are reviewed, and some issues noted. Attention is focused on the basic concepts or substance, reaction and property, on the organising concepts of chemical structure, structural similarity, periodicity, and on more specific concepts, including two- and three-dimensional structural patterns, reaction types, and property concepts. It is concluded that chemical concepts, despite (or perhaps because of their vague and mutable nature, have considerable and continuing value in chemoinformatics, and that an increased formal treatment of concepts may have value in the future.

  18. Defensive use of an acquired substance (carminic acid) by predaceous insect larvae. (United States)

    Eisner, T; Ziegler, R; McCormick, J L; Eisner, M; Hoebeke, E R; Meinwald, J


    Larvae of two insects, a coccinellid beetle (Hyperaspis trifurcata) and a chamaemyiid fly (Leucopis sp.), feed on cochineal insects and appropriate their prey's defensive chemical, carminic acid, for protective purposes of their own. H. trifurcata discharges the chemical with droplets of blood (hemolymph) that it emits when disturbed; Leucopis sp. ejects the compound with rectal fluid. Ants are thwarted by these defenses, which are compared with the previously-described defense of a pyralid caterpillar (Laetilia coccidivora) that disgorges carminic acid-laden crop fluid. The defensive fluid of all three larvae contains carminic acid at concentrations spanning a range (0.2-6.2%) proven deterrent to ants. Many insects are known to appropriate defensive substances from plants. Insects that acquire defensive chemicals from animal sources may be relatively rare.

  19. Drug addiction. Part I. Psychoactive substances in the past and presence. (United States)

    Vetulani, J


    Substances capable of changing the functions of the central nervous system are widely distributed in plant kingdom, and many of them were discovered by ancient food-gatherers at the dawn of humanity. In the Old World only a few substances producing euphoria or altered states of consciousness and having habit-forming properties are still widely used. They are the products of poppy (opium, morphine), hemp (hashish, marijuana), and of fermentation of various organic materials alkohol. This list has recently been joined by the psilocybin-containing mushrooms. The addiction-forming compounds originated in the New World and widely spread are tobacco (nicotine) and cocaine. In the 19th and 20th, century the development of medicinal chemistry resulted in several synthetic compounds, originally proposed as therapeutics, such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines and amphetamines. Due to legal problems, to avoid production of the substances already prohibited, many designer drugs were manufactured. In addition, several compounds were synthesized as recreational drugs. Also some compounds that were not regarded as drugs, such as aromatic hydrocarbons and other cleansing agents, as well as steroids were found to have properties of dangerous, habit-forming agents. The attitude of society and the pattern of use of psychoactive substances have changed with time, particularly in the last decades. The active principles are now more addictive because of concentration, purification, chemical modifications and the way of ingestion, which now favors most rapid transport to the central nervous system. The substance abuse approaches the level of global epidemics, and the recent usage of drugs of addition is also reviewed.

  20. Extracellular polymeric substances of bacteria and their potential environmental applications. (United States)

    More, T T; Yadav, J S S; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y


    Biopolymers are considered a potential alternative to conventional chemical polymers because of their ease of biodegradability, high efficiency, non-toxicity and non-secondary pollution. Recently, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, biopolymers produced by the microorganisms) have been recognised by many researchers as a potential flocculent for their applications in various water, wastewater and sludge treatment processes. In this context, literature information on EPS is widely dispersed and is very scarce. Thus, this review marginalizes various studies conducted so far about EPS nature-production-recovery, properties, environmental applications and moreover, critically examines future research needs and advanced application prospective of the EPS. One of the most important aspect of chemical composition and structural details of different moieties of EPS in terms of carbohydrates, proteins, extracellular DNA, lipid and surfactants and humic substances are described. These chemical characteristics of EPS in relation to formation and properties of microbial aggregates as well as degradation of EPS in the matrix (biomass, flocs etc) are analyzed. The important engineering properties (based on structural characteristics) such as adsorption, biodegradability, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of EPS matrix are also discussed in details. Different aspects of EPS production process such as bacterial strain maintenance; inoculum and factors affecting EPS production were presented. The important factors affecting EPS production include growth phase, carbon and nitrogen sources and their ratio, role of other nutrients (phosphorus, micronutrients/trace elements, and vitamins), impact of pH, temperature, metals, aerobic versus anaerobic conditions and pure and mixed culture. The production of EPS in high concentration with high productivity is essential due to economic reasons. Therefore, the knowledge about all the aspects of EPS production (listed above) is highly

  1. Evidence based psychosocial interventions in substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Jhanjee


    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been significant progress and expansion in the development of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for substance abuse and dependence. A literature review was undertaken using the several electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Database of systemic reviews and specific journals, which pertain to psychosocial issues in addictive disorders and guidelines on this topic. Overall psychosocial interventions have been found to be effective. Some interventions, such as cognitive behavior therapy, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention, appear to be effective across many drugs of abuse. Psychological treatment is more effective when prescribed with substitute prescribing than when medication or psychological treatment is used alone, particularly for opiate users. The evidence base for psychological treatment needs to be expanded and should also include research on optimal combinations of psychological therapies and any particular matching effects, if any. Psychological interventions are an essential part of the treatment regimen and efforts should be made to integrate evidence-based interventions in all substance use disorder treatment programs.

  2. The antioxidative substances in cacao liquor. (United States)

    Osakabe, N; Yamagishi, M; Sanbongi, C; Natsume, M; Takizawa, T; Osawa, T


    The antioxidative substances contained in cacao liquor, which is one of the major ingredients of chocolate, were separated by column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Three major compounds were purified and two of them were identified by 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectra as (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (CA). Their antioxidative activity was measured by monitoring the peroxide value of linoleic acid and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values of erythrocyte ghost membranes and microsomes. EC and CA had strong antioxidative effects in all three methods, but one unidentified peak was found to be less effective. Additionally, we analyzed the polyphenol concentration of cacao liquor extractions produced in several countries. The total polyphenol concentration was 7.0 to 13.0%, catechin concentration was 0.31 to 0.49%, and epicatechin concentration was 0.35 to 1.68% in the extractions. It is believed that chocolate is stable against oxidative deterioration on account of the presence of these polyphenolic compounds, and it is also expected to have a protective role against lipid peroxidation in living systems.

  3. Mutagenic compounds from chlorination of humic substances (United States)

    Holmbom, Bjarne

    Chlorination of natural humic substances, as well as of lignin, produces a myriad of non-chlorinated and chlorinated compounds. The identification of an important class of strongly mutagenic compounds is reviewed. The most important Ames mutagen in chlorinated drinking waters of various origin is the compound 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone ("MX"). This compound occurs at neutral pH in the acyclic form, i.e. in the form of Z-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid. Its E-isomer (E-MX) is present in chlorinated drinking waters at a similar concentration, but is less mutagenic in Ames test. Both oxidised and reduced forms of MX and E-MX are also present in chlorinated waters. The present knowledge of the chemistry and toxicology of these mutagens is examined. The formation and possible elimination of the chlorination mutagens is discussed. The need of understanding the mechanisms of formation of these mutagens from humic substances during drinking water chlorination is emphasized.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭宇; 胡萃; 赵敬钊; 陈建


    We studied the morphological characteristics and the changes of biochemical substances in the embryos during embryonic development in Pirata piraticus. At 28℃, embryonic development took 144 hr, with 42 hr at ea rly embryo stage, 33 hr at metameric phase, 27 hr at inversion phase and 42 hr at prelarva phase.  The early embryo stage ranges from the beginning of the first cleavage to blasto disc stage. During this period, the nucleus division occurred in the center of the zygocyte firstly and then these divided nuclei migrated into the edge where t hey were surrounded by cytoplasm thus formed into the blasterderm. About 23 hour slater, the blastula contracted. In the meantime, most blastocytes aggregated in the upper of the embryos and came to blastodisc. Afterwards, these cells diffe rentiated into three kinds of shapes and located in different position. About 30 hours after oviposition, the cumulus was formed. During the metameric phase, the blastodisc prolonged and formed a lycotropal ger minal band, which gradually differentiated into head lobe, caudal lobe and the middle five somites and made further development of the primodia of chelicera, ta ster and walking legs. About 72 hours after oviposition, in the middle of the germinal band, amedian g roove appeared and gradually widened, which suggested that the embryo developed in to the inversion stage. In this stage, embryonic lateral plate moved towards the dorsallateral surface and concrescent in the dorsal line. The walking legs diff erentiated seven segments. The filators were developed from the rudiments of app endages in the fourth and fifth somites. At the end of this stage, the embryos h ad the typical morphological characters of spiders. The heart and stomach were developed in larva phase and the larva can move slowly. Three pairs of filators came to be formed in 11~12 days following oviposition. The first instar larva molted one time thus enter the second instar stage. The

  5. Substance dependence among those without symptoms of substance abuse in the World Mental Health Survey. (United States)

    Lago, Luise; Glantz, Meyer D; Kessler, Ronald C; Sampson, Nancy A; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Florescu, Silvia; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel; Degenhardt, Louisa


    The World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative uses the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The first 13 surveys only assessed substance dependence among respondents with a history of substance abuse; later surveys also assessed substance dependence without symptoms of abuse. We compared results across the two sets of surveys to assess implications of the revised logic and develop an imputation model for missing values of lifetime dependence in the earlier surveys. Lifetime dependence without symptoms of abuse was low in the second set of surveys (0.3% alcohol, 0.2% drugs). Regression-based imputation models were built in random half-samples of the new surveys and validated in the other half. There were minimal differences for imputed and actual reported cases in the validation dataset for age, gender and quantity; more mental disorders and days out of role were found in the imputed cases. Concordance between imputed and observed dependence cases in the full sample was high for alcohol [sensitivity 88.0%, specificity 99.8%, total classification accuracy (TCA) 99.5%, area under the curve (AUC) 0.94] and drug dependence (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.8%, TCA 99.8%, AUC 1.00). This provides cross-national evidence of the small degree to which lifetime dependence occurs without symptoms of abuse. Imputation of substance dependence in the earlier WMH surveys improved estimates of dependence.

  6. Sludge management paradigms: impact of priority substances and priority hazardous substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Lundy, L.; Donner, E.


    differing local conditions contain a range of PS/PHS including substances whose use has been banned or heavily restricted. Concentrations reported in this study do not exceed the limit values set for the four PS/PHS currently included in the EU Sewage Sludge Directive. However, more stringent national...

  7. Commercial production of specialty chemicals and pharmaceuticals from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McChesney, J.D. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)


    The chemical substances utilized in consumer products, and for pharmaceutical and agricultural uses are generally referred to as specialty chemicals. These may be flavor or fragrance substances, intermediates for synthesis of drugs or agrochemicals or the drugs or agrochemicals themselves, insecticides or insect pheromones or antifeedants, plant growth regulators, etc. These are in contrast to chemicals which are utilized in large quantities for fuels or preparation of plastics, lubricants, etc., which are usually referred to as industrial chemicals. The specific utilization of specialty chemicals is associated with a specific important physiochemical or biological property. They may possess unique properties as lubricants or waxes or have a very desirable biological activity such as a drug, agrochemical or perfume ingredient. These unique properties convey significant economic value to the specific specialty chemical. The economic commercial production of specialty chemicals commonly requires the isolation of a precursor or the specialty chemical itself from a natural source. The discovery, development and commercialization of specialty chemicals is presented and reviewed. The economic and sustainable production of specialty chemicals is discussed.

  8. Investigation of Electric Arc Furnace Chemical Reactions and stirring effect


    Deng, Lei


    Chemical energy plays a big role in the process of modern Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). The objective of this study is to compare the results of chemical reaction enthalpies calculated by four different methods. In general, the “PERRY-NIST-JANAF method” is used to calculate the chemical energies. However, this method heavily depend on heat capacities of the substances which have to be deduced from  “Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook” and “NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables”, even the calculati...

  9. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira


    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  10. [Classification of substances to predict the order of magnitude of their safe water levels in terms of carcinogenic effect]. (United States)

    Zholdakova, Z I; Kharchevnikova, N V


    A classification has been developed to predict the safe water levels of chemical compounds in terms of their carcinogenic effect, by using as the base the LTD@10 value that is a lower 95% confidence limits for the lowest dose that statistically significantly causes a 10% increase in the incidence of cancer in laboratory animals continuously receiving a daily dose of the compound throughout their life, which is given in the CPDB internet resource, and the carcinogenicity classification adopted by the International Agency or Research on Cancer Based on an analysis ofthe maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of the standardized water substances in terms of their carcinogenic effect, the authors determined MA4 C ranges corresponding to different classes in accordance with the proposed classification. They predicted the orders of magnitude of MAC of the standardized water substances without taking into account their carcinogenic effect and those of four substances unstandardized in Russia.

  11. Region 5 Toxic Substances Control Act Producers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the query results from the Envirofacts database for facilities known as Chemical Manufacturers, Processors and Formulators (MPFs) with TSCA...

  12. Linkages between ozone depleting substances, tropospheric oxidation and aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voulgarakis


    Full Text Available Coupling between the stratosphere and the troposphere allows changes in stratospheric ozone abundances to affect tropospheric chemistry. Large-scale effects from such changes on chemically produced tropospheric aerosols have not been systematically examined in past studies. We use a composition-climate model to investigate potential past and future impacts of changes in stratospheric Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS on tropospheric oxidants and sulfate aerosols. In most experiments, we find significant responses in tropospheric photolysis and oxidants, with small but significant effects on methane radiative forcing. The response of sulfate aerosols is sizeable when examining the effect of increasing future nitrous oxide (N2O emissions. We also find that without the regulation of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs through the Montreal Protocol, sulfate aerosols could have increased by 2050 by a comparable amount to the decreases predicted due to relatively stringent sulfur emissions controls. The historical radiative forcing of CFCs through their indirect effects on methane (−22.6 mW m−2 and sulfate aerosols (−3.0 mW m−2 discussed here is non-negligible when compared to known historical CFC forcing. Our results stress the importance of accounting for stratosphere-troposphere, gas-aerosol and composition-climate interactions when investigating the effects of changing emissions on atmospheric composition and climate.

  13. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.A.; Song, L.


    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphous structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphous structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobial, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflammatory, steroid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor consisting of the compositions listed above.

  14. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Allison A. (Kennewick, WA); Song, Lin (Richland, WA)


    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphus structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphus structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobal, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflamatory, steriod, nonsteriod anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor the compositions listed above.

  15. Effect of humic substances on the precipitation of calcium phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong-hui; Hermann H. HAHN; Erhard HOFFMANN; Peter G. WEIDLER


    For phosphorus (P) recovery from wastewater, the effect of humic substances (HS) on the precipitation of calcium phosphate was studied. Batch experiments of calcium phosphate precipitation were undertaken with synthetic water that contained 20 mg/L phosphate (as P) and 20 mg/L HS (as dissolved organic carbon, DOC) at a constant pH value in the range of 8.0-10.0. The concentration variations of phosphate, calcium (Ca) and HS were measured in the precipitation process; the crystalline state and compositions of the precipitates were analysed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, respectively. It showed that at solution pH 8.0, the precipitation rate and removal efficiency of phosphate were greatly reduced by HS, but at solution pH ≥9.0,the effect of HS was very small. The Ca consumption for the precipitation of phosphate increased when HS was added; HS was also removed from solution with the precipitation of calcium phosphate. At solution pH 8.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 3.5 mg/L, and at pH ≥ 9.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 10 mg/L, the final precipitates were proved to be hydroxyapatite (HAP) by XRD. The increases of solution pH value and initial Ca/P ratio helped reduce the influence of HS on the precipitation of phosphate.

  16. Near real time detection of hazardous airborne substances. (United States)

    Leppert, J; Horner, G; Rietz, F; Ringer, J; Schulze Lammers, P; Boeker, P


    A fast near real-time monitoring system for hazardous airborne substances, such as chemical warfare agents (CWA) is presented and limits of detection (LOD) for five CW simulants are determined. A tandem thermal desorber (TTD) continuously collects and pre-concentrates air. The pre-concentrated samples are then separated in a fast gas chromatographic (GC) run of 6.9min. and detected by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). The GC-TOFMS signals are evaluated using chemometric methods for deconvolution and target identification. The high toxicity of nerve agents requires extremely low detection limits; for some as low as 100 ng/m(3) (10 ppt). The combination of TTD, TOFMS and chemometric data evaluation methods enables the system to fulfill this requirement. Calibration measurements for five different CWA simulants show lower limits of detection in the range of 10 ng/m(3)-60 ng/m(3) (1-11 ppt). In addition, the ability to detect trace concentrations of real CWA is demonstrated with a measurement of 30 pg Sarin on column. Several other real CWA measurements are shown, like sulfur mustard in diesel, lewisite under humid conditions and VX. As part of this work the influence of stationary film thickness on peak tailing of organophosphates is investigated for peak shape optimization.

  17. Production of humic substances through coal-solubilizing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Valero


    Full Text Available In this paper, the production of humic substances (HS through the bacterial solubilization of low rank coal (LRC was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out by 19 bacterial strains isolated in microenvironments with high contents of coal wastes. The biotransformed LRC and the HS produced were quantified in vitro in a liquid growth medium. The humic acids (HA obtained from the most active bacterial strain were characterized via elemental composition (C, H, N, O, IR analyses, and the E4/E6 ratio; they were then compared with the HA extracted chemically using NaOH. There was LRC biotransformation ranged from 25 to 37%, and HS production ranged from 127 to 3100 mg.L-1. More activity was detected in the isolated strains of Bacillus mycoides, Microbacterium sp, Acinetobacter sp, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The HA produced by B. mycoides had an IR spectrum and an E4/E6 ratio similar to those of the HA extracted with NAOH, but their elemental composition and their degree of aromatic condensation was different. Results suggest that these bacteria can be used to exploit the LRC resulting from coal mining activities and thus produce HS in order to improve the content of humified organic matter in soils.

  18. Identification of Physiologically Active Substances as Novel Ligands for MRGPRD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Uno


    Full Text Available Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member D (MRGPRD is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR which belongs to the Mas-related GPCRs expressed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG. In this study, we investigated two novel ligands in addition to beta-alanine: (1 beta-aminoisobutyric acid, a physiologically active substance, with which possible relation to tumors has been seen together with beta-alanine; (2 diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic estrogen hormone. In addition to the novel ligands, we found that transfection of MRGPRD leads fibroblast cells to form spheroids, which would be related to oncogenicity. To understand the MRGPRD novel character, oncogenicity, a large chemical library was screened in order to obtain MRGPRD antagonists to utilize in exploring the character. The antagonist in turn inhibited the spheroid proliferation that is dependent on MRGPRD signaling as well as MRGPRD signals activated by beta-alanine. The antagonist, a small-molecule compound we found in this study, is a potential anticancer agent.

  19. Commercial Humates in Agriculture: Real Substance or Smoke and Mirrors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Lyons


    Full Text Available Soil humic substances (HS are known to be beneficial for soils and plants, and most published studies of HS and humates, usually conducted under controlled conditions, show benefits. However, the value of commercial humate application in the field is less certain. This review attempts to answer the question: How effective are commercial humates in the field? Commercial humates, especially K humate, are used widely in agriculture today as “soil conditioners”. A wide range of benefits is claimed, including growth of beneficial soil microbes; deactivation of toxic metals; improvements in soil structure including water retention capacity, enhanced nutrient and micronutrient uptake and photosynthesis; resistance to abiotic stress, including salinity; and increased growth, yield and product quality. Despite this, there is a surprising lack of solid evidence for their on-farm effectiveness and findings are often inconsistent. The industry relies largely on anecdotal case studies to promote humates, which are often applied at unrealistically low levels. It is recommended that products should be well characterised, physically and chemically, and that careful field studies be conducted on foliar humate application and pelletised humates at realistic rates, targeted to the seedling rhizosphere, for a variety of crops in a range of soils, including low C sandy and saline soils.

  20. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA


    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  1. Estimation of Radiative Efficiency of Chemicals with Potentially Significant Global Warming Potential. (United States)

    Betowski, Don; Bevington, Charles; Allison, Thomas C


    Halogenated chemical substances are used in a broad array of applications, and new chemical substances are continually being developed and introduced into commerce. While recent research has considerably increased our understanding of the global warming potentials (GWPs) of multiple individual chemical substances, this research inevitably lags behind the development of new chemical substances. There are currently over 200 substances known to have high GWP. Evaluation of schemes to estimate radiative efficiency (RE) based on computational chemistry are useful where no measured IR spectrum is available. This study assesses the reliability of values of RE calculated using computational chemistry techniques for 235 chemical substances against the best available values. Computed vibrational frequency data is used to estimate RE values using several Pinnock-type models, and reasonable agreement with reported values is found. Significant improvement is obtained through scaling of both vibrational frequencies and intensities. The effect of varying the computational method and basis set used to calculate the frequency data is discussed. It is found that the vibrational intensities have a strong dependence on basis set and are largely responsible for differences in computed RE values.

  2. Substance use, need, and demand for substance user treatment services in patients treated for sexually transmitted diseases in michigan. (United States)

    Aktan, G B; Calkins, R F; Johnson, D R


    The association between substance use and communicable diseases, and the need for substance user treatment services for patients treated for communicable diseases, is well documented. This study builds upon this knowledge in that it quantifies the need and demand for substance user treatment services in a large population of patients treated for communicable diseases, specifically, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), an area in which there is insufficient research published in the literature, but which is essential for policy development. More than 1700 patients treated for STDs in publicly funded clinics in Michigan between 1994-1995 were interviewed about their substance use, consequences of use and demand for substance user treatment services. Results indicated that the rates of substance use and demand for substance user treatment services were significantly higher among persons encountered in the STD clinics compared to the Michigan general adult population; however, a large proportion of STD patients determined to need substance user treatment services according to DSM-III-R criteria for "substance dependence" and "abuse" did not report ever receiving it. These results are followed by a discussion of possible policy implications for planning for substance user treatment services for patients treated for STDs in publicly funded clinics and suggestions for further research.

  3. Modified migration model of chemical substances from paper through plastic coating layer and its universality%纸塑复合包装材料中化学物迁移的改进预测模型及其通用性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀玲; 王志伟; 李明


    以真实纸塑包装-化学物-食品体系为依据,基于一维Fick扩散理论,考虑化学物在纸和塑料涂层内具有不同的扩散系数及纸的厚度为有限厚,引入纸和塑料涂层界面处的分配系数,给出初始条件和边界条件,建立迁移预测模型,得到解析解.同时,对模型进行简化处理,分析其用于双层同种塑料-化学物-食品体系的使用通用性,并与Laoubi-Vergnaud模型进行对比分析,结果发现所建模型不仅可用于纸塑复合包装材料中化学物的迁移预测,同时还可用于双层同种塑料包装材料中化学物的迁移预测.%Paper or recycled paper containing contaminants can be used for food packaging if the food is protected by a functional barrier made of plastic. It is important to research the migration of chemical compounds from these materials. The problem of contaminants transfering through the packaging into food was studied from a theoretical viewpoint. According to the actual system of paper/plastic packaging-compound-food, diffusion equations were built based on one-dimensional Fick diffusion theory. Different diffusion coefficients D_P and D_C of contaminant in paper and plastic, limited paper thickness, and partition coefficient k_(CP) between paper and plastic were considered in the model. Analytical solutions were obtained under specific initial conditions and boundary conditions. In addition, the model universality used for the same bilayer plastic-compound-food system after simplification of the model was discussed. Then analysis was made between the model built and the Laoubi-Vergnaud model. The results showed that the model built can be used not only for the compound migration prediction from paper/plastic material, but also for the compound migration prediction from bilayer plastic material.

  4. A narrative review of secondary hazards in hospitals from cases of chemical self-poisoning and chemical exposure. (United States)

    Stewart-Evans, James L; Sharman, Andrew; Isaac, James


    Secondary hazards are an important consideration when dealing with both self-poisoned and chemically contaminated patients. Secondary exposure of hospital staff following the admission of a poisoned patient is relatively rare but potentially serious. Risks usually arise from chemical conversion of a deliberately ingested toxic substance and subsequent offgassing, but there may be toxic substances on the victim or their clothing. Surface contamination is a more common concern in cases where patients have been exposed to chemical releases. This paper presents a narrative review that considers some of the more commonly encountered toxic chemicals and situations that may present secondary hazards in hospitals. Risks to staff can be lowered by reducing the potential for, and duration of, exposure wherever possible. Good communication with the first responders at the scene, consultation with experts, decontamination and use of personal protective equipment, together with regular training, can minimize risks in the hospital environment.

  5. Changes in the prevalence of new psychoactive substances before and after the introduction of the generic scheduling of synthetic cannabinoids in Japan. (United States)

    Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Kawamura, Nahoko Uchiyama Maiko; Goda, Yukihiro


    To counter the spread of the many analogues of psychoactive substances, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan was amended in 2006 to establish a new category - Designated Substances - in order to more promptly control these drugs. As of March 2013, 106 substances (including one plant, Salvia divinorum) were listed in the category of Designated Substances, and 13 of them had had their category changed from Designated Substances into the much stricter category, Narcotics. However, new analogues of controlled substances, especially synthetic cannabinoids, appeared one-by-one since the new category was introduced. To avoid a cat-and-mouse game between regulators and illicit drug manufacturers, a comprehensive system (generic scheduling) for designating naphthoylindole-type synthetic cannabinoids, with particular substituents, was introduced into the Designated Substances in 2013. Since late 2012, the naphthoylindole-type compounds have been gradually replaced by other types of synthetic cannabinoids, such as cyclopropylmethanones, cannabimimetic carboxamide derivatives, adamanthoyl indoles, and cannabimimetic quinolinyl carboxylates. After the enforcement of the generic scheduling for designating naphthoylindoles in March 2013, these naphthoylindoles have been completely replaced by other types and have rarely been detected in the products. New types of psychoactive substances, including opioid receptor agonists (e.g. AH-7921, MT-45), hallucinogenic phenethylamines (e.g. NBOMe-type compounds), and thiophene derivatives (e.g. methiopropamine, α-PVT) have also appeared. The almost infinite possibilities of altered structures of chemicals make it difficult to carry out effective and exhaustive scheduling. To prevent the widespread distribution and abuse of these new psychoactive substances, continuous and dedicated monitoring for the emergence of these substances is necessary.

  6. Multiple chemical sensitivity and idiopathic environmental intolerance (part one)


    Watanabe, Mitsuyasu; Tonori, Hideki; Aizawa, Yoshiharu


    Multiple chemical sensitivity/idiopathic environmental intolerance (MCS/IEI) is a commonly used diagnostic term for a group of symptoms. These symptoms have been described and commented on for more than 15 years in the USA. Recently, it has also been observed in Japan. The main features of this syndrome are multiple symptoms involving in multiple organ systems that are precipitated by a variety of chemical substances with relapses and exacerbation under certain conditions when exposed to very...

  7. Symbolism and rationality in the politics of psychoactive substances. (United States)

    Room, Robin


    Psychoactive substances take on many symbolic meanings, and thus the politics of psychoactive substances has featured symbolic elements, or value-based rationality, alongside and often dominating instrumental rationality. Drawing particularly on the work of Joseph Gusfield and Nordic scholars, the chapter considers the symbolic dimension in the politics of substance use, even in Nordic countries celebrated for their societal commitment to knowledge-based policymaking, and its effects on the interplay of science and policy.

  8. Rethinking Substance Use and Abuse among Hospitality Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shani


    Full Text Available Prevalent substance use among hospitality employees appears to be the norm, but should this be a cause of concern for employers and the industry as a whole? This commentary illustrates the main shortcomings of current references in the hospitality literature to substance use among employees, calling for a cautious and skeptical approach on the part of hospitality scholars and practitioners in the face of a general alarmism regarding the impact of substance use on the workplace

  9. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use: Developmental Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Dougherty


    Full Text Available Adolescent suicidal behaviors and substance use are disturbingly common. Research suggests overlap of some of the etiological mechanisms for both adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use, yet clear understanding of the complex relations between these behaviors and their causal underpinnings is lacking. A growing body of evidence and a diathesis model (Mann et al. 1999; Mann, 2003 highlight the importance of impulse control as a proximal risk factor for adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. This literature review extends current theory on the relationships between adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use by: (1 examining how, when, and to what extent adolescent development is affected by poor impulse control, stressful life events, substance use behavior, and biological factors; (2 presenting proposed causal mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase risk for suicidal behaviors and substance use; and (3 proposing specific new hypotheses to extend the diathesis model to adolescents at risk for suicide and substance use. More specifically, new hypotheses are presented that predict bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and genetic markers of 5-HT dysregulation; substance use behavior and impulsivity; and substance use behavior and suicide attempts. The importance of distinguishing between different developmental trajectories of suicidal and substance use behaviors, and the effects of specific risk and protective mechanisms are discussed. Use of new statistical approaches that provide for the comparison of latent growth curves and latent class models is recommended to identify differences in developmental trajectories of suicidal behavior and substance use. Knowledge gained from these prospective longitudinal methods should lead to greater understanding on the timing, duration, and extent to which specific risk and protective factors influence the outcomes of suicidal behavior and substance

  10. 76 FR 61692 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information (United States)


    ... marketing'' purposes, which is referred to as a test marketing exemption, or TME. For more information about... application for a test marketing exemption (TME), and to publish in the Federal Register periodic status... new chemical substance for a non-exempt commercial purpose is required by TSCA section 5 to...

  11. A Unified Graphical Representation of Chemical Thermodynamics and Equilibrium (United States)

    Hanson, Robert M.


    During the years 1873-1879, J. Willard Gibbs published his now-famous set of articles that form the basis of the current perspective on chemical thermodynamics. The second article of this series, "A Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by Means of Surfaces," published in 1873, is particularly notable…

  12. Position paper concerning substance related enviromental monitoring: short version; Positionspapier zum stoffbezogenen Umweltmonitoring. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, W.; Schroeter-Kermani, N.T.; Schulze, T.; Schwarzbauer, J.; Theobald, N.; Trenck, K.T. von der; Wagner, G.; Wiesmueller, G.A. [Arbeitskreis Umweltmonitoring in der GDCh-Fachgruppe Umweltchemie und Oekotoxikologie (Germany); Ruedel, H.; Bester, K.; Eisentraeger, A.; Franzaring, J.; Haarich, M.; Koehler, J.; Koerner, W.; Oehlmann, J.; Paschke, A.; Ricking, M.


    Background: Due to the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive and other legal regulations (e.g., national laws like the German Federal Soil Protection Act), but also due to the implementation of the new EU chemicals management system REACh, environmental monitoring will gain increasing importance for the surveillance of environmental quality. Therefore, the Working Group on 'Environmental Monitoring' of the Division of 'Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology' within the German Chemical Society has compiled a position paper on substance-related environmental monitoring. Scope: The main focus of the position paper is the coverage of aspects which have to be observed for the preparation and implementation of a monitoring program. Essential is the clear specification of the targets which determine the development of the monitoring concept and its realization. Of course, also the properties of the substances are important (e.g. lipophilicity/bioaccumulation as pre-requisite for an exposure monitoring with organisms). Moreover, important aspects of the phases sample planning, sampling, storage and transport of samples, selection of analytical methods, quality assurance as well as reporting are discussed. Perspectives: An important issue for the future is to link chemical analyses (exposure and pollution monitoring) more closely to the study of biological effects (effect monitoring) than it was the case up to now. By this means and a spatial differentiation an as comprehensive as possible evaluation of the state of an ecosystem should be obtained and the relevance of the results be improved. (orig.)

  13. Maternal and Neonatal Levels of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Relation to Gestational Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Ashley-Martin


    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs are ubiquitous, persistent pollutants widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods. There is a limited body of literature suggesting that these chemicals may alter metabolic pathways and growth trajectories. The relationship between prenatal exposures to these chemicals and gestational weight gain (GWG has received limited attention. One objective was to analyze the associations among maternal plasma levels of three common perfluoroalkyl substances (perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, perfluorohexanesulfanoate (PFHxS and GWG. Additionally, we explored whether GWG was associated with cord blood PFAS levels. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Our analysis quantified associations between (1 maternal PFAS concentrations and GWG and (2 GWG and cord blood PFAS concentrations. Maternal PFOS concentrations were positively associated with GWG (β = 0.39 95% CI: 0.02, 0.75. Interquartile increases in GWG were significantly associated with elevated cord blood PFOA (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56 and PFOS (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.40 concentrations. No statistically significant associations were observed between GWG and either measure of PFHxS. These findings warrant elucidation of the potential underlying mechanisms.

  14. Collecting substance use data with an anonymous mailed survey. (United States)

    Trinkoff, A M; Storr, C L


    Because mailed surveys minimize personal contact, they are useful for collecting sensitive data on substance use, as long as the problems of achieving adequate response rates can be conquered. To address these issues, we report on an anonymous mailed survey of substance use with a 78% response rate, including data collection and survey methods. Analysis of sociodemographic effects on responding found certain groups required additional contacts. Substance use estimates were not affected by non-response bias, suggesting that anonymous mailed surveys can be a feasible means of collecting data on substance use.

  15. Perceived harmfulness of substance use: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar


    Full Text Available Background: Harm ratings of substances help in understanding the perception toward substance use and formulating policies. Evidence of such harm ratings by substance users and their caregivers provides a clearer perspective of those who experience and observe such harm closely. Materials and Methods: Substance users and their caregivers were recruited from the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh. Sociodemographic details of the subjects were noted. The subjects were then asked to rate a list of psychoactive preparations according to the harms they thought the preparation caused. The list of substances was developed taking into consideration substance commonly encountered in the geographical area. The harm ratings were transformed on a scale of 0-100. Results: All subjects were males and majority of them were educated above 10 th standard, were not employed and belonged to urban background. Most of them had taken psychoactive substances in their lifetimes but were currently abstinent. Most of the subjects endorsed intravenous drugs as the most harmful, followed by heroin. Beer and chewable tobacco considered the least harmful substances. Greater degree of education was associated with lower harm rankings for heroin, cannabis, dextropropoxyphene, and raw opium; while urban residence was associated with greater harm ratings for cannabis and raw opium. Differences in the harms were perceived for different preparations of the same active compound for alcohol and nicotine. Conclusion: Harm ratings of substances can be a useful guide while formulating policies and allocating resources. Need for further research extending this pilot study is emphasized.

  16. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse in substance-abusing adolescents. (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Goodale, Leslie A; Shay-Fiddler, Michele A; Gloster, Susan P; Chang, Samuel Y


    The prevalence of methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine misuse and abuse was examined in 450 adolescents referred for substance abuse treatment. Twenty three percent reported nonmedical use of these substances and six percent were diagnosed as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine abusers. Abuse was more common in individuals who were out of school and had an eating disorder. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse appears to be much less common than abuse of most other substances. It does occur, however, and parents and schools need to exert greater control over the dispensing of these medications. Physicians are advised to prescribe non-stimulant medications (eg, bupropion) when treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance-abusing individuals.

  17. Getting boozy in books: substance use in adolescent literature. (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Callister, Mark; Phillips, James C


    Media effects research provides evidence for a link between adolescent exposure to media portrayals of substance use and usage. Exposure to media content that glamorizes and normalizes substance use carries potential public health risks. Though substance use has been examined in other media, such as film, television, and magazines, no research to date examines usage portrayals in adolescent novels. Given that adolescents do read, and given the potential impact of content on adolescent attitudes and behavior, this study provides a detailed analysis of the frequency and nature of substance use in the understudied area of novels. Substance use was examined in 40 best-selling adolescent novels on the New York Times Best Sellers list (time span June-July 2008). Substance use varied widely. Of the various types of substances, alcohol portrayals were most common. Almost all substance use was portrayed as having no consequences. Alcohol use was portrayed in similar frequencies in books aimed at younger, middle, and older adolescents, though illegal drug use was more likely to be found in books aimed at older ages. Our results suggest that the manner in which substance use is generally portrayed may encourage use among adolescents. Researchers, parents, and adolescents are encouraged to examine books as one potentially overlooked area of influence.

  18. 76 FR 51401 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application (United States)


    ... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The... customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol...

  19. 76 FR 5829 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application (United States)


    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Amphetamine (1100) II... distribution to its customers. In reference to drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to...

  20. 76 FR 17968 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration (United States)


    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I Alphamethadol (9605) I... code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic...