WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical substance initial

  1. TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Section 8 (b) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires EPA to compile, keep current, and publish a list of each chemical substance that is manufactured or processed in the United States for TSCA uses.

  2. Production of chemical substances in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boboev, Kh.E.; Nazarov, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Government of the Republic of Tajikistan has signed Convention "On prohibition of chemical weapon application"and no chemical weapon (CHW) is produced on the territory of republic. However, the potential production of CHW by individual persons or groups can be organized, using available production and obtaining chemical substances from other countries. Chemical substances, which have strong damage effect, easily, can be synthesized in chemical laboratories. These are general toxic substances, as hydrocyanic acid acid, phosgene, mustard gas, lewisite, sarin and others. The similar chemical substances of industrial significance are produced in Tajikistan: ammonia, chlorine, explosives, caustic soda, carbamide, formaldehyde and others. For industrial needs and agriculture from other countries Tajikistan is receiving the following: sodium cyanide and potassium for gold-mining; mineral acids; pesticides and others. Besides, there are different deposits in Tajikistan, reprocessing of which gives an opportunity to obtain different chemical substances. What can be obtained from chemicals produced in Tajikistan? Chlorine - from this reagent the fluoride chlorine, phosgene COCl_2 and many other compounds are easily synthesized, which are CHW components. Obtained cyanic compounds for gold mining can be used as precursor for neuroparalytic action. A big amount of metallic aluminum is produced in the republic. The Al powder for rocket fuel can be obtained from it. Obtained from other countries pesticides are potential components for CHW creation. A strong control and account of pesticides use is necessary. It is extremely important to control materials, equipment and technologies which allow countries and separate groups to create weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The most important factor is goods identification. Firstly - inspection of external view, labeling, packing specifications, license availability and etc. Strong control of checklists is necessary according

  3. [Responsibilities of enterprises introducing new dangerous chemical substances and preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Jacek; Majka, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the responsibilities of producers, importers and distributors set in a new Act of January 2001 on chemical substances and preparations (Off. J. 2001, No. 11, item 84, with subsequent amendments). This Act together with executive provisions is aimed at harmonizing Polish legislation with EU requirements. The Act sets conditions, restriction and bans of production placing on the market and use of chemical substances and preparations in order to protect human health and environment against their harmful effects. The Act together with a number of executive provisions render those who introduce dangerous chemicals and chemical preparations, including distributors responsible for: classification and labelling of dangerous chemical substances and preparations; possessing, making available and up-dating safety data sheets; supplying packages containing certain dangerous substances with child-proof fastenings; notifying the Inspector for Chemical Substances and Preparations about placing a dangerous preparation on the market; notifying the Inspector about a new substance and conducting required studies; being properly qualified to handle dangerous substances. The Act strictly defines the term "placing a substance or a preparation on the market"--it means making a substance or a preparation available to third parties on the territory of The Republic of Poland, territories of the Member States of the European Union or the territory of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, unless the Act provides otherwise; it also means introduction of a substance or a preparation from outside of the territory referred to above on the customs territory of The Republic of Poland, or that of the member states of the European Union and other states listed above. In addition, some of the responsibilities defined by the provisions of the law on chemical substances and preparations are also applicable to handling of biocidals, which are classified as dangerous substances. The Act

  4. 78 FR 62443 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...) for perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) chemical substances to add PFAS chemical substances that have... designating (for all listed PFAS chemical substances) processing as a significant new use. EPA is also... 40 CFR 721.9582 for PFAS chemical substances to add PFAS chemical substances that have completed the...

  5. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescent Normative Beliefs and Substance Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Pstudy investigated the effects of baseline levels of academic achievement and longitudinal trends in normative beliefs on adolescent substance initiation across a 42-month time period. Participants were 272 rural adolescents who were an average of 12.3 years old at the baseline assessment. Academic achievement positively predicted the intercept…

  6. 77 FR 48924 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) chemical substances to add PFAS chemical substances that have completed the TSCA... listed PFAS chemical substances) processing as a significant new use. EPA is also proposing a SNUR for... is proposing to amend a SNUR at Sec. 721.9582 for PFAS chemical substances to add PFAS chemical...

  7. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemical Substances which are the Subject of Certain TSCA Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance for people who may be subject to the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule on how their requirements for reporting for 2016 may be affected when chemical substances are the subject of certain TSCA actions.

  8. Algal growth inhibition test results of 425 organic chemical substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Christensen, Anne Munch; Nyholm, Niels

    2018-01-01

    The toxicity towards the algal species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata of 425 organic chemical substances was tested in a growth inhibition test. Precautions were taken to prevent loss of the compounds from the water phase and the test system (closed test system, low biomass, shorter test duration......, silanized glass) and to keep pH constant by applying a higher alkalinity. Chemical phase distribution was modelled taking ionization, volatilisation, and adsorption to glass and biomass into consideration. If the modelled water concentration was below 90% of the nominal concentration the calculated EC...... values were corrected accordingly. The model helped to identify substances, where the calculated water concentration was too uncertain. Substances covering a wide range of physical-chemical properties and different modes of action were tested. Median effect concentrations (EC50) lower than 1000 mg/L were...

  9. Chemicals - potential substances for WMD creation, explosives and rocket fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsova, M.D.; Khakimova, N.U.; Barotov, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Chemical substances (chemicals) have different lists of control regimes. They are produced as: gasses, liquids; metals, alloys; compound substances (monomers, polymers). There is a special substances list which is subject to control. These are explosive substances, uranium hexafluoride, chlorine fluoride, heavy water, phosphoric compounds and etc. Identification methods of chemicals are different. According to external view it is difficult to identify chemicals. That's why different physical and chemical identification methods of chemicals are applied: quality and quantitative chemical analyses; chromatography; spectral methods; mass-spectrometry methods; radiographical methods and others. For chemicals labeling CAS is used - registry number, name of chemicals and control number. Besides, international symbols of danger are used. Let's consider dangerous chemicals. Phosphor penta sulphate - P_2S_5 or P_4S_1_0 are used for chemical weapons (CHW) production, as precursor of neuroparalytic substance, as well as in agriculture as pesticides, plastic additives and for organic synthesis. Produced as powder, granules, and tablets. Has a smell of rotten eggs. Very dangerous at contact with water - a toxic gas is exhaled. Sodium sulphate - Na_2S - is used in CHW production as precursor of blistering agent, as well as for ore flotation, leather production, for rubber and plastic production. Na_2S - is solid substance and white color, has a smell of rotten eggs, exhales toxic gases. Sodium and potassium cyanide - is used for CHW production as agents affecting blood, and neuroparalytic CHW. Besides, it is widely used for gold mining, in metallurgy, in nylon, herbicide and other productions. External view is white powder. Has a smell of bitter almond. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride - HF. Aqueous solution called - hydrofluoric acid. Used in CHW production as precursor of neuroparalytic agents. Besides widely used at uranium and plutonium reprocessing. HF widely used in

  10. Heat-Initiated Chemical Functionalization of Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Guodong; Liu, Dandan; Tang, Shangcheng; Huang, Can; He, Mengci; Guo, Yu; Sun, Xiudong; Gao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    A heat-initiated chemical reaction was developed to functionalize CVD-grown graphene at wafer scale and the reaction was universally extended to carbon nanotubes, and other precursors that could be thermally converted to active radicals. The chemical reaction can occur in absence of oxygen and water vapor when the temperature is above the decomposition temperature of the reactants. The chemical reaction was also found to be substrate-dependent due to surface doping and inhomogeneity. A large-...

  11. Features of the Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, R; Marcello, I

    1994-01-01

    The Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances (Inventario nazionale delle sostanze chimiche, INSC), a factual data bank on chemical toxicology produced by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), consists of a computerized system on existing chemicals developed for routinary and emergency needs. Historical background, current status and future direction of INSC are discussed. The structure and the feature of INSC are briefly examined. Aspects of retrieval of information and the criteria for the inclusion of data and priority selection are also considered.

  12. JICST Factual DatabaseJICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Atsushi; Sohma, Tohru

    JICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database is based on the Database of Safety Laws for Chemical Compounds constructed by Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology & Information Center (JETOC) sponsored by the Sience and Technology Agency in 1987. JICST has modified JETOC database system, added data and started the online service through JOlS-F (JICST Online Information Service-Factual database) in January 1990. JICST database comprises eighty-three laws and fourteen hundred compounds. The authors outline the database, data items, files and search commands. An example of online session is presented.

  13. Chemical substances as risk factors of nephropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease, does not fall into the group of diseases induced by toxic substances or environmental pollution, there is much evidence that some chemicals have considerable importance in its development. Exposure to substances with potential renal toxicity is especially dangerous for diabetics because it accelerates and intensifies diabetic nephropathy. This paper discusses the relationship between the xenobiotics and the development of diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy with particular emphasis on those substances that causes the greatest damage to the kidneys. These are cadmium, iron, lead, arsenic, polychlorinated organic compounds, nitrogen compounds, and contrast agents. In addition, the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus induction or kidney damage by these xenobiotics are described.

  14. 75 FR 4983 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... this substance (see Unit V. of the proposed rule). Use of most flammable refrigerants, including the... 2070-AB27 Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances AGENCY: Environmental Protection...) under section 5(a)(2) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for 15 chemical substances which were...

  15. Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jeżewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. Material and Methods: The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector test method. Results: The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency, the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. Conclusions: The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health. Med Pr 2014;65(1:33–41

  16. Explosive (chemical) substances. 6. rev. and enlarged ed. Explosivstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R

    1985-01-01

    The sixth edition of this review manual again has been enlarged and actualized, the proved concept has been maintained. The text describes in large more than 550 items alphabetically, among them about 120 chemical compounds attributed with structure formulas and data. The properties, preparation procedures, and application possibilities of these substances and of about 70 additives, fuels and oxidants are presented for the reader. By nearly 1500 keywords in the index, English and French translations, and explanations of abbreviations, this book becomes a comprehensive and actual dictionary, not only for the specialist, but also for translators, interpreters, newspaper editors, and patent lawyers. (orig./HK).

  17. 77 FR 18752 - Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances; Di-n

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... those described by the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes 325-chemical... paraffins), which include the chemical substance covered by this proposed rule, as ``toxic'' under the... Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances; Di-n-pentyl phthalate (DnPP); and Alkanes, C[ihel1][ihel2]-[ihel1...

  18. 31 CFR 598.309 - Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; listed chemical. 598.309 Section 598.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.309 Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical. The terms narcotic drug, controlled substance, and listed chemical have the meanings given those terms...

  19. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: harmful substances and how to test them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olea-Serrano Nicolás

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of different groups from: scientists, international regulatory bodies, non-governmental organizations and industry; with an interest in the problem of identifying chemical substances with endocrine disrupting activity. There is also discussion of the consequences that exposure to endocrine disruptors may have for human health, considering concrete issues related to: the estimation of risk; the tests that must be used to detect endocrine disruption; the difficulties to establish an association between dose, time of exposure, individual susceptibility, and effect; and the attempts to create a census of endocrine disruptors. Finally, it is proposed that not all hormonal mimics should be included under the single generic denomination of endocrine disruptors.

  20. Children and the unborn child, Exposure and susceptibility to chemical substances – an evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Thorup, I.; Schnipper, Anette

    Children are at risk of exposure to a lot of high-production-volume synthetic chemical substances which have been introduced into the market within the past 50 years; these chemical substances are used widely in consumer products and are dispersed in the environment. Children as well as the unbor...... knowledge about the biological susceptibility and exposure of chemical substances to children during the embryonic, foetal, and postnatal periods....

  1. Study of grape contamination at the time of harvest using stable chemical substances analyzed by activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miribel, J.; Delmas, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the sixties the SERE, in conjunction with the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), conducted experiments on the contamination of wine produced from vines contaminated at the roots. The contamination must be carried out via the leaves and at different stages of growth so as to come as close as possible to the conditions of fall-out. An initial study of grape contamination at the time of the harvest was carried out using stable chemical substances which were analysed by activation. This technique makes it possible to use a large number of substances at the same time and is harmless for the environment. The results obtained appear to be satisfactory, and the method will be used next year for studies at other stages in the ripening of grapes [fr

  2. Cruel disease, cruel medicine: self-treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with harmful chemical substances in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdas, Sahienshadebie

    2012-09-01

    Why are potentially harmful, non-biomedical chemical substances, such as battery acid, chlorine, herbicides, and insecticides, used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)? What drives people to use these products as medicine? This article is about perceptions of CL, and the quest for a cure, in Suriname, South America. It highlights the associative style of reasoning behind health seeking and discusses the use of harmful chemical substances as medicines. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, affects 1 to 1.5 million people globally. It has a spectrum of clinical manifestations, but the most prominent and disfiguring elements are extensive dermatological ulceration and scar formation from lesions. The data upon which this article is based are derived from anthropological research carried out in different parts of Suriname between September 2009 and December 2010. Data was collected through mainly qualitative methods, including interviewing 205 CL patients using structured questionnaires at the Dermatological Service in the capital Paramaribo. Almost all people with CL said they tried self-treatment, varying from the use of ethno-botanical products to non-biomedical chemical solutions. This article presents and interprets the views and practices of CL patients who sought treatment using harsh chemicals. It argues that a confluence of contextual factors - environmental, occupational, infrastructural, geographical, socio-cultural, economic, socio-psychological - leads to the use of harmful chemical substances to treat CL sores. This study is the first in Suriname - and one of the few done globally - focusing on social and cultural aspects related to CL health seeking. It aims to encourage health policy makers and health professionals to carefully initiate, provide, and evaluate CL treatment and prevention programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High-throughput dietary exposure predictions for chemical migrants from food contact substances for use in chemical prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryol, Derya; Nicolas, Chantel I; Wambaugh, John; Phillips, Katherine; Isaacs, Kristin

    2017-11-01

    Under the ExpoCast program, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) researchers have developed a high-throughput (HT) framework for estimating aggregate exposures to chemicals from multiple pathways to support rapid prioritization of chemicals. Here, we present methods to estimate HT exposures to chemicals migrating into food from food contact substances (FCS). These methods consisted of combining an empirical model of chemical migration with estimates of daily population food intakes derived from food diaries from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A linear regression model for migration at equilibrium was developed by fitting available migration measurements as a function of temperature, food type (i.e., fatty, aqueous, acidic, alcoholic), initial chemical concentration in the FCS (C 0 ) and chemical properties. The most predictive variables in the resulting model were C 0 , molecular weight, log K ow , and food type (R 2 =0.71, pchemicals identified via publicly-available data sources as being present in polymer FCSs were predicted for 12 food groups (combinations of 3 storage temperatures and food type). The model was parameterized with screening-level estimates of C 0 based on the functional role of chemicals in FCS. By combining these concentrations with daily intakes for food groups derived from NHANES, population ingestion exposures of chemical in mg/kg-bodyweight/day (mg/kg-BW/day) were estimated. Calibrated aggregate exposures were estimated for 1931 chemicals by fitting HT FCS and consumer product exposures to exposures inferred from NHANES biomonitoring (R 2 =0.61, pchemicals), they can provide critical refinement to aggregate exposure predictions used in risk-based chemical priority-setting. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Upper parameters of toxicity (LDsub(50/30)) of some radioactive and chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.; Kupriyanova, V.M.; Zasedatelev, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The toxicities of radioactive ( 90 Sr, 210 Po) and chemical (lead nitrate, mercuric chloride) substances were compared using equivalent procedures. Ninety six doses of toxic substances in various concentrations were tested on mice to which these substances were administered by intragastric intubation. The material was processed and analyzed by conventional methods used in toxicology. The upper limits of toxicity for the tested substances were determined from their LDsub(50/30) values by various methods of calculation

  5. 78 FR 64210 - Extension of Review Periods Under the Toxic Substances Control Act; Certain Chemicals and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Under the Toxic Substances Control Act; Certain Chemicals and Microorganisms; Premanufacture... 325 and 324110), e.g., chemical manufacturing and petroleum refineries. The North American Industrial... Agency under section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), received by EPA on or before October 1...

  6. 78 FR 48051 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    .... Potentially affected entities may include: Manufacturers or processors of one or more subject chemical... chemical substance. The extent to which a use changes the type or form of exposure of human beings or the... the regulatory text section of this rule. This rule includes PMN substances, P-09-198 and P-09-199...

  7. Self-esteem and the initiation of substance use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chris G; Kwon, Jae-Young; Ratner, Pamela A

    2012-11-08

    To investigate differences in the relationship between self-esteem and the initiation of substance use (tobacco, alcohol and marijuana) among male and female secondary school students in British Columbia. The data were collected in the 2010 fall and 2011 spring cycles of the British Columbia Adolescent Substance Use Survey (BASUS). The sample consisted of 1,267 adolescents (57% female) in Grades 8 and 9. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the extent to which self-esteem and gender, and their interaction, influenced the odds of having initiated substance use at baseline and at follow-up 6 months later. For each one-point increase on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, there was a reduction in the odds of initiating substance use by up to 9% for tobacco, 3% for alcohol, and 7% for marijuana. The relationships between self-esteem and the initiation of tobacco and alcohol use varied by gender, with boys having slightly less robust associations at the baseline assessment. The results suggest that self-esteem is protective against the initiation of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Researchers are advised to consider the interactive effects of gender in future longitudinal research examining the relationship between self-esteem and the initiation of substance use, including implications related to the development of substance use prevention programs.

  8. Neighborhood Moderation of Sensation Seeking Effects on Adolescent Substance Use Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Michaeline; Chassin, Laurie; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2017-09-01

    Adolescent substance use carries a considerable public health burden, and early initiation into use is especially problematic. Research has shown that trait sensation seeking increases risk for substance use initiation, but less is known about contextual factors that can potentially unmask this risk. This study utilized a diverse longitudinal subsample of youth (N = 454) from a larger study of familial alcoholism (53.1% female, 61% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 27.8% Hispanic, 11.2% other ethnicity). Study questions examined sensation seeking in early adolescence (mean age = 12.16) and its relations with later substance use initiation (mean age = 15.69), and tested whether neighborhood disadvantage moderated sensation seeking's effects on initiation of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Neighborhood disadvantage significantly moderated the relation between sensation seeking and all three forms of substance use. For the most part, sensation seeking effects were weakened as neighborhood disadvantage increased, with the most advantaged neighborhoods exhibiting the strongest link between sensation seeking and substance use initiation. These results highlight the importance of focusing on relatively advantaged areas as potentially risky environments for the sensation seeking pathway to substance use.

  9. [Formation mechanism and chemical safety of nonintentional chemical substances present in chlorinated drinking water and wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Sukeo

    2010-09-01

    This paper reviews the formation mechanism and chemical safety of nonintentional chemical substances (NICS) present in chlorine-treated water containing organic contaminants. Undesirable compounds, i.e., NICS, may be formed under certain conditions when chlorine reacts with organic matter. The rate and extent of chlorine consumption with organics are strongly dependent on their chemical structures, particularly whether double bonds or sulfur and nitrogen atoms occur in the molecules. Organothiophosphorus pesticides (P=S type) are easily oxidized to their phosphorus compounds (P=O type) in chlorinated water containing HOCl as little as 0.5 mg/l, resulting in an increase in cholinesterase-inhibitory activity. Chlorination of phenols in water also produces a series of highly chlorinated compounds, including chlorophenols, chloroquinones, chlorinated carboxylic acids, and polychlorinated phenoxyphenols (PCPPs). In some of these chloroquinones, 2,6-dichloroalkylsemiquinones exhibit a strong mutagenic response as do positive controls used in the Ames test. 2-phenoxyphenols in these PCPPs are particularly interesting, as they are present in the chlorine-treated phenol solution and they are also precursors (predioxins) of the highly toxic chlorinated dioxins. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found to undergo chemical changes due to hypochlorite reactions to give chloro-substituted PAHs, oxygenated (quinones) and hydroxylated (phenols) compounds, but they exhibit a lower mutagenic response. In addition, field work was performed in river water and drinking water to obtain information on chemical distribution and their safety, and the results are compared with those obtained in the model chlorination experiments.

  10. Decision-making and facial emotion recognition as predictors of substance-use initiation among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Monique; Luckenbaugh, David A; Moolchan, Eric T; Temple, Veronica A; Jenness, Jessica; Korelitz, Katherine E; London, Edythe D; Kimes, Alane S

    2010-03-01

    This 4-year longitudinal study examined whether performance on a decision-making task and an emotion-processing task predicted the initiation of tobacco, marijuana, or alcohol use among 77 adolescents. Of the participants, 64% met criteria for an externalizing behavioral disorder; 33% did not initiate substance use; 13% used one of the three substances under investigation, 18% used two, and 36% used all three. Initiation of substance use was associated with enhanced recognition of angry emotion, but not with risky decision-making. In conclusion, adolescents who initiate drug use present vulnerability in the form of bias towards negative emotion but not toward decisions that involve risk. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and early initiation of multiple substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Cornelius, Marie D; Day, Nancy L

    2012-06-01

    Earlier studies have shown a relation between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) and offspring initiation of tobacco use. No prior study has examined the association between PCSE and early initiation of multiple substances (EIMS) including marijuana and alcohol in addition to tobacco. We investigated the association between PCSE and multiple substance use during adolescence. Pregnant women attending an urban prenatal clinic were selected to participate in the prospective longitudinal study based on their substance use. This study is based on the 16-year follow-up phase and consists of 579 mother-offspring dyads. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, 54% were Black, and 53% reported smoking cigarettes. 52% of the offspring were female. EIMS is a measure of the number of substances initiated prior to age 16 by the adolescents; it ranged from 0 (no initiation, N = 166) to 3 (all, N = 162). Adolescents exposed to tobacco during first trimester of gestation were 1.4 times more likely to initiate multiple substances by age 16 than the nonexposed group. PCSE was a significant predictor of EIMS after controlling for other prenatal exposures, home environment, and demographic characteristics, using ordinal polytomous logistic regression. Other risk factors of EIMS were maternal and adolescent depression, less strict and less involved parenting, offspring attention problems, and lack of participation in a youth club. There is a significant relation between PCSE and adolescent's EIMS.

  12. 78 FR 27048 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    .... Potentially affected entities may include: Manufacturers, importers, or processors of one or more subject... of manufacturing and processing of a chemical substance. The extent to which a use changes the type...). CFR citation assigned in the regulatory text section of this rule. This rule includes a PMN substance...

  13. 40 CFR 710.25 - Chemical substances for which information must be reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT TSCA CHEMICAL INVENTORY REGULATIONS 2002 Inventory Update Reporting... the Master Inventory File at the beginning of a reporting period described in § 710.33, unless the...

  14. 77 FR 66149 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... 835.5045 or OECD Test Guideline 302A); a UV/visible absorption test (OPPTS Test Guideline 830.7050... precipitate used to produce phosphors. Based on test data on analogous chemical substances, EPA identified...

  15. NODC Standard Format Marine Toxic Substances and Pollutants (F144) chemical identification codes (NODC Accession 9200273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival information package contains a listing of codes and chemical names that were used in NODC Standard Format Marine Toxic Substances and Pollutants (F144)...

  16. Longitudinal Associations Among Religiousness, Delay Discounting, and Substance Use Initiation in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; McCullough, Michael E; Bickel, W K; Farley, Julee P; Longo, Gregory S

    2015-03-01

    Prior research indicates that religiousness is related negatively to adolescent health risk behaviors, yet how such protective effects operate is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal associations among organizational and personal religiousness, delay discounting, and substance use initiation (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use). The sample comprised 106 early adolescents (10-13 years of age, 52% female) who were not using substances at Time 1. Path analyses suggested that high levels of personal religiousness at Time 1 were related to low levels of substance use at Time 2 (2.4 years later), mediated by low levels of delay discounting. Delay discounting appears to be an important contributor to the protective effect of religiousness on the development of substance use among adolescents.

  17. Internalizing, social competence, and substance initiation: influence of gender moderation and a preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehoj, Catherine J; Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard; Wickrama, K A S

    2004-05-01

    Using latent growth curve modeling, the current study investigated gender moderation of the longitudinal pathways from internalizing to both social competency (i.e., social assertiveness) and the initiation of substance use (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, marijuana), as well as the effect of a preventive intervention on that process. Rural Midwestern adolescents who were participating in a school-based preventive intervention study were an average of 12.3 years old at the pretest assessment conducted in 1998. A latent growth curve comparison analysis found that internalizing was related inversely to initial levels of social assertiveness skill among girls; further, internalizing was related positively to substance use initiation growth trajectories among girls. Girls who participated in the preventive intervention demonstrated a slower increase over time in substance use initiation and a faster increase in social assertiveness. Gender moderation of the impact of internalizing and social assertiveness on substance use initiation and response to the intervention, as well as the utility of latent growth curve modeling in the study of longitudinal change, are discussed.

  18. Data banks of chemical substances and their toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    Rapid proliferation in the development of new chemical compounds, coupled with the discovery and/or identification of those already in existence, has led to a significant need to investigate their physicochemical and biological properties, to document the knowledge gained, and to communicate that knowledge in as convenient a manner as possible. This paper presents and briefly discusses several prominent chemical databases

  19. Conduct Disorder and Initiation of Substance Use: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Christian; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Min, Sung-Joon; McQueen, Matt; Crowley, Thomas; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; Sakai, Joseph; Thurstone, Christian; Hoffenberg, Analice; Hartman, Christie; Hewitt, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of conduct disorder (CD) on substance use initiation. Method: Community adolescents without CD (n = 1,165, mean baseline age = 14.6 years), with CD (n = 194, mean baseline age = 15.3 years), and youth with CD recruited from treatment (n = 268, mean baseline age = 15.7 years) were prospectively followed and…

  20. Analysis of determination modalities concerning the exposure and emission limits values of chemical and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.

    2002-08-01

    This document presents the generic approach adopted by various organizations for the determination of the public exposure limits values to chemical and radioactive substances and for the determination of limits values of chemical products emissions by some installations. (A.L.B.)

  1. 78 FR 39337 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Pursuant to Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations 1301.34(a), this is notice that on May 31, 2013, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, 2820 N. Normandy Drive, Petersburg...

  2. 77 FR 43863 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on June 8, 2012, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals...

  3. 77 FR 43861 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Pursuant to Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations 1301.34(a), this is notice that on June 8, 2012, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N. Normandy Drive...

  4. 78 FR 39340 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on May 31, 2013, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals...

  5. 78 FR 12684 - Proposed Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ..., importers, or processors of one or more subject chemical substances (NAICS codes 325 and 324110), e.g... a use changes the type or form of exposure of human beings or the environment to a chemical... assigned in the regulatory text section of this proposed rule. This proposed rule includes 14 PMN...

  6. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards.

    OpenAIRE

    Palaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT) system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of uniden...

  7. [Exposure to hazardous chemical substances in furniture industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pośniak, Małgorzata; Kowalska, Joanna; Makhniashvili, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the exposure to organic solvents in plants of the furniture industry. Studies were conducted in five furniture plants. Hazardous chemicals present in the air at workposts were determined by capillary gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. The analysis of air samples collected at the workposts allowed to identify the following chemicals occurring during varnishing and cleaning of furniture surface elements: acetone, butan-2-one, ethyl, isobutyl and methoxypropyl acetate, 4-methylpentan-2-on, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes. Indices characteristic of combined exposure ranged from 0.13 to 1.67 and exceeded the limit value at 21% of workposts. The results of the study indicate that chemicals present at representative workposts during the furniture production are harmful to health of workers, especially those involved in varnishing and cleaning of furniture elements.

  8. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) substance flow analysis for safe and sustainable chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junbeum; Hwang, Yongwoo; Yoo, Mijin; Chen, Sha; Lee, Ik-Mo

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the chemical substance flow of hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, HF) in domestic chemical industries in 2014 was analyzed in order to provide a basic material and information for the establishment of organized management system to ensure safety during HF applications. A total of 44,751 tons of HF was made by four domestic companies (in 2014); import amount was 95,984 tons in 2014 while 21,579 tons of HF was imported in 2005. The export amount of HF was 2180 tons, of which 2074 ton (China, 1422 tons, U.S. 524 tons, and Malaysia, 128 tons) was exported for the manufacturing of semiconductors. Based on the export and import amounts, it can be inferred that HF was used for manufacturing semiconductors. The industries applications of 161,123 tons of HF were as follows: manufacturing of basic inorganic chemical substance (27,937 tons), manufacturing of other chemical products such as detergents (28,208 tons), manufacturing of flat display (24,896 tons), and manufacturing of glass container package (22,002 tons). In this study, an analysis of the chemical substance flow showed that HF was mainly used in the semiconductor industry as well as glass container manufacturing. Combined with other risk management tools and approaches in the chemical industry, the chemical substance flow analysis (CSFA) can be a useful tool and method for assessment and management. The current CSFA results provide useful information for policy making in the chemical industry and national systems. Graphical abstract Hydrogen fluoride chemical substance flows in 2014 in South Korea.

  9. Age of initiation with different substances and relationships with resources and vulnerabilities : A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciairano, Silvia; Molinengo, Giorgia; Bonino, Silvia; Miceli, Renato; van Schuur, Wijbrandt

    2009-01-01

    There is still limited knowledge about the interrelations among the age of initiation of different substances and the diverse aspects of adolescent functioning. The present cross-national study aimed at exploring the presence of a time-order pattern of age of initiation of different substances and

  10. The ISS National Inventory of Chemical Substances (INSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Roberto; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; Ceccarelli, Federica; D'angiolini, Antonella; Fabri, Alessandra; Riva, Giovanni; Satalia, Susanna; Marcello, Ida

    2008-01-01

    The INSC (Inventario Nazionale delle Sostanze Chimiche), a factual data bank, produced by Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), consists of an electronic tool on chemical information developed for routine and emergency purposes. Historical background, current status and future perspectives of INSC are discussed. The structure and the feature of INSC are briefly examined. Aspects of information retrieval and the criteria for inclusion of data and priority selection are also considered.

  11. Chemical analysis of bioactive substances in seven siberian Saussurea species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeeva, Elena; Reshetov, Yaroslav; Shurupova, Margarita; Zibareva, Larisa; Borisova, Evgeniia; Belousov, Mikhail

    2017-11-01

    Main groups of biologically active substances of seven siberian Saussurea species (S. controversa DC., S. latifolia Ledeb., S. parviflora (Poir.) DC., S. frolowii Ledeb, S. amara (L.) DC., S. salicifolia (L.) DC. and S. daurica Adams) have been studied using paper, thin-layer, performance liquid chromatography, IR spectroscopy, spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Siberian Saussurea species have a rich elemental composition and contain a variety of phenolic compounds, amino acids, polysaccharides. The majority of polysaccharides are accumulated by S. controversa, S. salicifolia and S. frolowii. These plants contain a significant amount of calcium that may be a species characteristic. All plants contain quercetin and its glycosides, in some species luteolin, kaempferol, glycosides of apigenin and myricetin were revealed. Phenolic acids with predominant content of caffeic, chlorogenic and cinnamic acids were found in all the species. The maximum amount of phenolic acids and flavonoids was determined in the grass of S. latifolia, S. controversa and S. daurica. Characteristic absorption bands of lactone carbonyl of sesquiterpenoids in IR spectrum found in S. latifolia, S. controversa, S. daurica, S. amara and S. salicifolia. HPLC / UV analysis showed that peaks with absorption maxima of 242-246 nm due to the presence of α,β-unsaturated ketone group in the structure of ecdysteroids were found in S. salicifolia, S. controversa, S. daurica and S. latifolia.

  12. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Ellegaard, Ole

    2011-01-01

    attention. Results The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated) biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20...... substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low...

  13. The relevance of national and international initiatives on toxic substances to the management of hazardous air pollutants in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccini, J.

    2001-03-30

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), seeking guidance on current and emerging national and international initiatives, activities, and programs that could impact on the management of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in Canada, commissioned the author to prepare this document. In this report, HAPs are defined as toxic substances subject to airborne transport as a significant route of environmental distribution and/or exposure. Heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were included in this definition. A model, known as toxics cycle, represented the four distinct stages of the process of selecting substances for risk assessment and management: problem identification and priority setting, risk assessment, risk management, and monitoring and evaluation. A large number of international activities were reviewed, such as research, hazard and risk assessment, risk management, and monitoring and surveillance programs. The present report only deals with the programs that had been identified in the National Air Issues Coordinating Committee-Other Air Issues (NAICC-A) of the CCME report published in 1999 and which had recent or foreseen impacts. Five bi-lateral and multi-lateral agreements on persistent toxic substances, as well as national, regional and global programs, activities, and initiatives concerning the assessment of the hazards and risks of chemicals and actions were reviewed. It was recommended that initiatives at all levels continue to be monitored and that Environment Canada continue to be the conduit of information at the international level. Issues and opportunities must be identified by all jurisdictions with regard to risk management. It was suggested by the author that risk assessment be conducted by Environment Canada and the attention of the HAP group be drawn on specific topics as required. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  14. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: a bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette L; Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan A

    2011-11-10

    While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated) biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a 'Matthew' principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.

  15. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. Results The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. Conclusions The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a 'Matthew' principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.

  16. Effects of radiation and chemical substances on cells and organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremuth, F.

    1981-01-01

    The book treats the radiation chemistry part of biophysics and applied biophysics in the sphere of ionizing radiation. Discussed are the concepts of radiation units and radioactivity units and the relative biological efficiency. The effects of ionizing and UV radiations are analyzed at the level of macromolecular changes. Chapters dealing with genetic radiation effects discuss the effects at the cellular level with respect to cell proliferation. All these problems are used to illustrate the effect on the organism as a whole. The chapters on applied biophysics deal with the indications of radiation and chemical damage, sensitivity of cells and the organism, and the study and influencing of growth at the cellular level. The concluding chapter is devoted to the environmental impact of radiation. (J.P.)

  17. Inconsistency... or why differentiate, where prevention is concerned, between radioactive substances and carcinogenic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choquet, R.; Vinit, J.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotracers, low-activity unsealed radioactive sources, and certain chemical products belong to the list of substances and agents known to promote cancers in humans. The dangers of radiotracers and carcinogenic chemicals being very similar, or even identical, it is inadmissible that preventive measures have not been equally developed and are not viewed in the same way in our country. It should be noted that the International Labour Bureau has long since included radioactive products in the list of carcinogenic substances and agents and treated preventive measures as a whole by proceeding in this way it would be easier to account for the possible combined effects of ionising radiations and chemical molecules. After a review of some facts about cancer the present situation is examined with regard to statutory measures applied on the one hand to radioelements and on the other to chemicals recognised as carcinogenic by international organisations. Proposals are made to remedy this illogical situation [fr

  18. Effect of the initial domain on the dispersion dynamics of a diffusing substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestuzheva, A. N.; Smirnov, A. L.

    2018-05-01

    The formulation and analysis of ecological problems involves the mathematical modeling, when some assumptions concerning the nature of the processes are introduced. These assumptions must be justified. In the present paper the effect of the form of the initial domain occupied with a diffusing substance on the process of diffusion is studied. It's shown that the form of the initial domain plays unimportant role and it may be modeled as semi-sphere, for which the problem has analytical solution. That solution may serves as the zeroth approximation in modeling of actual ecological problem taking into account the relief of the bottom and the bottom currents.

  19. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pałaszewska-Tkacz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of unidentified substances where emergency services took action to protect human health or environment were also included. Results: The number of analyzed chemical incidents in 1999–2009 was 2930 with more than 200 different substances released. The substances were classified into 13 groups of substances and mixtures posing analogous risks. Most common releases were connected with non-flammable corrosive liquids, including: hydrochloric acid (199 cases, sulfuric(VI acid (131 cases, sodium and potassium hydroxides (69 cases, ammonia solution (52 cases and butyric acid (32 cases. The next group were gases hazardous only due to physico-chemical properties, including: extremely flammable propane-butane (249 cases and methane (79 cases. There was no statistically significant trend associated with the total number of incidents. Only with the number of incidents with flammable corrosive, toxic and/or harmful liquids, the regression analysis revealed a statistically significant downward trend. The number of victims reported was 1997, including 1092 children and 18 fatalities. Conclusions: The number of people injured, number of incidents and the high 9th place of Poland in terms of the number of Seveso establishments, and 4 times higher number of hazardous industrial establishments not covered by the Seveso Directive justify the need for systematic analysis of hazards and their proper identification. It is advisable enhance health risk assessment, both qualitative and

  20. Assessment of chemical emissions in life cycle impact assessment - focus on low substance data availability and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2004-01-01

    impact approaches, i.e. the assessment factor-based PNEC approach and the PAF-based approach, shows pros and cons for both. However, taking the comparative nature of LCA and its aim for best estimate into account, and combining this with the possibilities for reducing the data demand of an EC50-based PAF......Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies on products or services seem generally to be carried out without a proper inclusion of potential toxic impacts from emissions of chemicals. The first goal of the thesis is to investigate this statement and to clarify whether or not the outcome of an LCA can...... of substance data on known emissions. To be able to characterize the potential toxic impacts on humans and the environment of chemical emissions, substance data on fate and effect are needed. The second goal of this thesis is to investigate how to deal with low substance data availability on especially effect...

  1. Quantitative Exposure Assessment of Various Chemical Substances in a Wafer Fabrication Industry Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Park

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: Benzene, a known human carcinogen for leukemia, and arsine, a hematologic toxin, were not detected in wafer fabrication sites in this study. Among reproductive toxic substances, n-butyl acetate was not detected, but fluorides and PGMEA existed in small amounts in the air. This investigation was focused on the air-borne chemical concentrations only in regular working conditions. Unconditional exposures during spills and/or maintenance tasks and by-product chemicals were not included. Supplementary studies might be required.

  2. Development of a technical scheme for the management of chemical dangerous substances in hospitable environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja Amador, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical substances that are used in the hospitals, and their remainders, represent risks for the environment, the health and security of those who work in these establishments, and of the civil population. The deficiency of a norm that establishes the directives for the handling responsible for such products in the hospitals that our country has motivated the elaboration of a technical scheme that serves as it guides for the correct manipulation, storage and safe disposition of chemical substances in the twenty-nine hospitals of the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, establishing Procedures of Standard Operation for its management. To development of the guideline proposal it took a sample of hospitals that includes three levels of comple complexity: national, regional and peripheral. Applying a methodology of evaluation of risks two factors of risk of hospitable were determined, the zones and the population but affected by the existence of chemical substances, which allowed to identify some operative deficiencies in the product handling diverse. The qualitative analysis of the results lead to the elaboration of a technical scheme that includes an instrument for the identification of risks, guideline for the management responsible for hospitable chemical substances, a friendly tool computations like complementary source of intelligence and the proposal of a governing group in charge of the monitoring of the fulfillment of these lineament. (Author) [es

  3. 40 CFR 710.26 - Chemical substances for which information is not required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT TSCA CHEMICAL INVENTORY REGULATIONS 2002 Inventory Update Reporting... Inventory or in the Master Inventory File, where the asterisk (*) indicates that any sets of characters may... 1985 edition of the Inventory or the Master Inventory File as siloxane and silicone, silsesquioxane, a...

  4. 78 FR 23184 - Proposed Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    .... Potentially affected entities may include: Manufacturers, importers, or processors of one or more subject... manufacturing and processing of a chemical substance. The extent to which a use changes the type or form of... information). CFR citation assigned in the regulatory text section of this proposed rule. The regulatory text...

  5. 77 FR 58665 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Guideline 415); a reproduction and fertility effects test (OECD Test Guideline 416); a reproduction... potentially exposed employees wear specified respirators unless actual measurements of the workplace air show that air-borne concentrations of the PMN substance are below a New Chemical Exposure Limit (NCEL) that...

  6. Guidelines of Italian CCTN for classification of some effects of chemical substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucci, N [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Rome (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Camoni, I [Ist. Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1996-03-01

    Definitions of the categories and the criteria for the classification of chemical substances on the basis of their potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic-reproductive effects, elaborated by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) in 1994. Besides all the allocations effected by the CCTN in the period 1977-1995 are reported, updated according to these criteria.

  7. 78 FR 40175 - Exempt Chemical Preparations Under the Controlled Substances Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...Standard, Inc M-8270-04-ASL, Method 8270B-- Amber ampule: 1 mL...... 1/28/2013 Base/Neutrals Mix. Accu... CSA and its implementing regulations are designed to prevent, detect, and eliminate the diversion of... controlled substances and listed chemicals for legitimate medical, scientific, research, and industrial...

  8. The testing of materials within the purview of the laws concerning the control of chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosselmann, K.; Linden, W.

    1989-01-01

    The main approach adopted for this book is the question of whether and to what extent the commercially available chemical products (ranging from foodstuffs and drugs to pesticides and similar pollutants) have been assessed for environmental and health safety prior to release. The relevant existing laws concerning the testing and characterisation of substances are analysed and compared with a view to the major environmental principle, to prevent chemicals-induced hazards to health and the environment. The book reviews the following laws (and their implementing provisions): law on chemical substances, pesticides, fertilisers, drugs, detergents, leaded petrol, food and feedstuffs, explosives, and transport of hazardous materials. Environmentally significant laws reviewed include the waste management act, the atomic energy act (non-recycable wastes, plutonium, tritium), the water management act, and the act for protection against harmful effects on the environment. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Investigations with beagles about toxicity and radioprotective effect of the chemical radioprotection substance WR 2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.; Sedlmeier, H.; Wustrow, T.; Messerschmidt, O.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of the chemical radioprotection substance WR 2721 (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl-thiophosphate) was examined in 25 beagles. The study showed that the toxicity of the substance increases as the dose gets higher. Between the doses 200 and 250 mg/kg of body weight, the increase of toxicity was significantly greater than could be expected on the basis of the dose difference. Until a dose of 200 mg/kg, the authors found no side effects which would have disturbed vital functions, but higher doses led to marked symptoms of intoxication. (orig.) [de

  10. Increased Pre- and Early-Adolescent Stress in Youth with a Family History of Substance Use Disorder and Early Substance Use Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Bray, Bethany C; Ryan, Stacy R; Lake, Sarah L; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (Family History Positive) are more likely to have early-onset substance use (i.e., prior to age 15), which may contribute to their higher rates of substance use disorders. One factor that may differentiate Family History Positive youth who engage in early-onset substance use from other Family History Positive youth is exposure to stressors. The aim of this study was to quantify how exposure to stressors from age 11-15 varies as a function of family history of substance use disorders and early-onset substance use. Self-reported stressors were prospectively compared in a sample of predominately (78.9%) Hispanic youth that included 68 Family History Positive youth (50% female) who initiated substance use by age 15 and demographically matched non-users with (n = 136; 52.9% female) and without (n = 75; 54.7% female) family histories of substance use disorders. Stressors were assessed at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Both the severity of stressors and the degree to which stressors were caused by an individual's own behavior were evaluated. All three groups differed from one another in overall exposure to stressors and rates of increase in stressors over time, with Family History Positive youth who engaged in early-onset substance use reporting the greatest exposure to stressors. Group differences were more pronounced for stressors caused by the participants' behavior. Family History Positive users had higher cumulative severity of stressors of this type, both overall and across time. These results indicate greater exposure to stressors among Family History Positive youth with early-onset substance use, and suggest that higher rates of behavior-dependent stressors may be particularly related to early-onset use.

  11. A Qualitative Study of the Context of Child and Adolescent Substance Use Initiation and Patterns of Use in the First Year for Early and Later Initiators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Kingston

    Full Text Available Individuals who initiate substance use before high school are at higher risk of negative outcomes. Eighty-six young adults between the ages of 18 and 28 participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on the circumstances surrounding participants' first use of substances and their pattern of use in the year following initiation in order to investigate similarities and differences between early versus later initiators. Initiation and use among early initiators were more likely to be encouraged by poor parental monitoring or active facilitation of use by parents. Early initiators were more likely to report risky patterns of use such as daily use and using alone. The data suggest that interventions targeting this population should focus on improving parental monitoring and decreasing positive parental attitudes toward adolescent substance use and efforts to increase identification and intervention by middle school staff to reach youth from high-risk families.

  12. Analysis of the utilization of existing test data for phase-in substance registration under the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong-In; Kwak, Yeong-Don; Jung, Yu-Mi; Ryu, Byung-Taek; Kim, Chang Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 2000 phase-in substances are subject to registration according to the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances (KREACH), and the expected testing cost is 2.06 trillion Korean won assuming all the test data required for registration are acquired. The extent to which these enormous test costs can be reduced depends on the availability of existing data that can be used to meet the requirements of the K-REACH we examined the current availability of test data that can be used for chemical substance registration. We analyzed the possibility of utilizing the existing test data obtained from 16 reference databases for 369 of 518 kinds of phase-in substances subject to registration that were reported in last October 2014. The physical and chemical properties were available for 57.1% of substances, whereas data regarding human hazards and environmental hazards were available at considerably lower rates, 8.5% and 11.8%, respectively. Physical and chemical properties were available for a fairly high proportion, whereas human hazards and environmental hazards were reported for considerably fewer substances.

  13. Kinetics of chemical reactions initiated by hot atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firsova, L.P.

    1977-01-01

    Modern ideas about kinetics of chemical reactions of hot atoms are generalized. The main points of the phenomenological theories (''kinetic theory'' of Wolfgang-Estrup hot reactions and the theory of ''reactions integral probability'' of Porter) are given. Physico-chemical models of elastic and non-elastic collisions are considered which are used in solving Boltzmann integro-differential equations and stochastic equations in the Porter theory. The principal formulas are given describing probabilities or yields of chemical reactions, initiated with hot atoms, depending on the distribution functions of hot particles with respect to energy. Briefly described are the techniques and the results of applying the phenomenological theories for interpretation of the experimental data obtained during nuclear reactions with hot atoms, photochemical investigations, etc. 96 references are given

  14. Agronomic performance and soil chemical attributes in a banana tree orchard fertigated with humic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Magalhães de Melo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertigation with humic substances products has been adopted in commercial banana tree plantations. However, there are few studies on the procedure to confirm its technical feasibility. This study aimed at assessing the effects of fertigation with humic substances on the chemical attributes of a Dystric Densic Xantic Ferralsol cultivated with the 'BRS Princesa' banana tree cultivar and on the agronomic performance of the orchard. The experiment was conducted using a randomized blocks design, with six treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of a monthly application of humic substances doses based on the commercially recommended reference dose for the banana plantation (12.09 kg ha-1 cycle-1. The doses used were equivalent to percentages of the reference dose (100 %, 150 %, 200 %, 250 % and 300 %, in addition to the control. No significant effects of the fertigation with humic substances that could justify the use of the product at the doses assessed were observed on the soil chemical attributes, banana growth and yield.

  15. Fracture initiation associated with chemical degradation: observation and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byoungho Choi; Zhenwen Zhou; Chudnovsky, Alexander [Illinois Univ., Dept. of Civil and Materials Engineering (M/C 246), Chicago, IL (United States); Stivala, Salvatore S. [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Hoboken, NJ (United States); Sehanobish, Kalyan; Bosnyak, Clive P. [Dow Chemical Co., Freeport, TX (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The fracture initiation in engineering thermoplastics resulting from chemical degradation is usually observed in the form of a microcrack network within a surface layer of degraded polymer exposed to a combined action of mechanical stresses and chemically aggressive environment. Degradation of polymers is usually manifested in a reduction of molecular weight, increase of crystallinity in semi crystalline polymers, increase of material density, a subtle increase in yield strength, and a dramatic reduction in toughness. An increase in material density, i.e., shrinkage of the degraded layer is constrained by adjacent unchanged material results in a buildup of tensile stress within the degraded layer and compressive stress in the adjacent unchanged material due to increasing incompatibility between the two. These stresses are an addition to preexisting manufacturing and service stresses. At a certain level of degradation, a combination of toughness reduction and increase of tensile stress result in fracture initiation. A quantitative model of the described above processes is presented in these work. For specificity, the internally pressurized plastic pipes that transport a fluid containing a chemically aggressive (oxidizing) agent is used as the model of fracture initiation. Experimental observations of material density and toughness dependence on degradation reported elsewhere are employed in the model. An equation for determination of a critical level of degradation corresponding to the offset of fracture is constructed. The critical level of degradation for fracture initiation depends on the rates of toughness deterioration and build-up of the degradation related stresses as well as on the manufacturing and service stresses. A method for evaluation of the time interval prior to fracture initiation is also formulated. (Author)

  16. Classification of chemical substances, reactions, and interactions: The effect of expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stains, Marilyne Nicole Olivia

    2007-12-01

    This project explored the strategies that undergraduate and graduate chemistry students engaged in when solving classification tasks involving microscopic (particulate) representations of chemical substances and microscopic and symbolic representations of different chemical reactions. We were specifically interested in characterizing the basic features to which students pay attention while classifying, identifying the patterns of reasoning that they follow, and comparing the performance of students with different levels of preparation in the discipline. In general, our results suggest that advanced levels of expertise in chemical classification do not necessarily evolve in a linear and continuous way with academic training. Novice students had a tendency to reduce the cognitive demand of the task and rely on common-sense reasoning; they had difficulties differentiating concepts (conceptual undifferentiation) and based their classification decisions on only one variable (reduction). These ways of thinking lead them to consider extraneous features, pay more attention to explicit or surface features than implicit features and to overlook important and relevant features. However, unfamiliar levels of representations (microscopic level) seemed to trigger deeper and more meaningful thinking processes. On the other hand, expert students classified entities using a specific set of rules that they applied throughout the classification tasks. They considered a larger variety of implicit features and the unfamiliarity with the microscopic level of representation did not affect their reasoning processes. Consequently, novices created numerous small groups, few of them being chemically meaningful, while experts created few but large chemically meaningful groups. Novices also had difficulties correctly classifying entities in chemically meaningful groups. Finally, expert chemists in our study used classification schemes that are not necessarily traditionally taught in classroom

  17. Tenth anniversary of the Chemical Substances Act. 10 Jahre Chemikaliengesetz; Bilanz und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, J. (Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)); Arndt, R. (Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitsschutz, Dortmund (Germany)); Bulling, W.B. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Drescher, R.D. (Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)); Elstner, P. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Heinemeyer, G. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Kayser, D. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Lange, A.W. (

    1992-11-01

    The chemical substances act is ten years old. These ten years have witnessed a stormy development in legislation on chemicals: what was new ground still at the beginning of the eighties, is now a vast area of law complemented by detailed individual regulations at the administrative level, firmly interlocked with the other areas of environmental law, and part of an overall concept for the safety of chemicals enjoying an international reputation. Currently, the chemical substances act is in a phase of inner consolidation and completion. This phase was ushered in by the proposed amendment of 1990, an amendment aimed to eliminate weak points on the basis of first experiences with the implementation of legal requirements existing under EC law. In the second part of this phase, revisions or completions which have meanwhile been effected or are being effected in community law must be integrated. Further legal regulations are to be expected in the area of prohibitions and restrictions. These are, so far, mainly attuned to individual cases and reactive in nature. Most important of all is the development of a uniform and appropriate catalogue of criteria. The aim must be to create the necessary boundary conditions for the use of chemicals in our industrial society ensuring sustainable, environmentally compatible development for a long time to come. (orig./HSCH)

  18. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  19. 40 CFR 799.5000 - Testing consent orders for substances and mixtures with Chemical Abstract Service Registry Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section sets forth a list of substances and mixtures which are the subject of testing consent orders... the substances and mixtures which are the subject of these orders and the Federal Register citations... Crotonaldehyde Environmental effects November 9, 1989. Chemical fate November 9, 1989. 4675-54-3 Bisphenol A...

  20. Four chemical trends will shape the next decade's directions in Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl substances research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthoff, Matthias; Bücking, Mark

    2018-04-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) represent a versatile group of ubiquitously occurring chemicals of increasing regulatory concern. The past years lead to an ever expanding portfolio of detected anthropogenic PFAS in numerous products encountered in daily life. Yet no clear picture of the full range of individual substance that comprise PFAS is available and this challenges analytical and engineering sciences. Authorities struggle to cope with uncertainties in managing risk of harm posed by PFAS.This is a result of an incomplete understanding of the range of compounds that they comprise in differing products. There are analytical uncertainties identifying PFAS and estimating the concentrations of the total PFAS loadindividual molecules remain unknown. There are four major trends from the chemical perspective that will shape PFAS research for the next decade. 1.Mobility: A wide and dynamic distribution of short chain PFAS due to their high polarity, persistency and volatility. 2.Substitution of regulated substances: The ban or restrictions of individual molecules will lead to a replacement with substitutes of similar concern. 3.Increase in structural diversity of existing PFAS molecules: Introduction of e.g. hydrogens and chlorine atoms instead of fluorine, as well as branching and cross-linking lead to a high versatility of unknown target molecules. 4. Unknown “Dark Matter”: The amount, identity, formation pathways, and transformation dynamics of polymers and PFAS precursors are largely unknown. These directions require optimized analytical setups, especially multi-methods, and semi-specific tools to determine PFAS-sum parameters in any relevant matrix.

  1. Four Chemical Trends Will Shape the Next Decade's Directions in Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthoff, Matthias; Bücking, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) represent a versatile group of ubiquitously occurring chemicals of increasing regulatory concern. The past years lead to an ever expanding portfolio of detected anthropogenic PFAS in numerous products encountered in daily life. Yet no clear picture of the full range of individual substance that comprise PFAS is available and this challenges analytical and engineering sciences. Authorities struggle to cope with uncertainties in managing risk of harm posed by PFAS. This is a result of an incomplete understanding of the range of compounds that they comprise in differing products. There are analytical uncertainties identifying PFAS and estimating the concentrations of the total PFAS load individual molecules remain unknown. There are four major trends from the chemical perspective that will shape PFAS research for the next decade. Mobility: A wide and dynamic distribution of short chain PFAS due to their high polarity, persistency and volatility.Substitution of regulated substances: The ban or restrictions of individual molecules will lead to a replacement with substitutes of similar concern.Increase in structural diversity of existing PFAS molecules: Introduction of e.g., hydrogens and chlorine atoms instead of fluorine, as well as branching and cross-linking lead to a high versatility of unknown target molecules.Unknown "Dark Matter": The amount, identity, formation pathways, and transformation dynamics of polymers and PFAS precursors are largely unknown. These directions require optimized analytical setups, especially multi-methods, and semi-specific tools to determine PFAS-sum parameters in any relevant matrix.

  2. Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Regional Centres of Excellence Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bril, L.V.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides presents the initiative launched in May 2010 by the European Union to develop at national and regional levels the necessary institutional capacity to fight against the CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear) risk. The origin of the risk can be: -) criminal (proliferation, theft, sabotage and illicit traffics), -) accidental (industrial catastrophes, transport accidents...) and -) natural (mainly pandemics). The initiative consists in the creation of Centres of Excellence for providing assistance and cooperation in the field of CBRN risk and the creation of experts networks for sharing best practices, reviewing laws and regulation, developing technical capacities in order to mitigate the CBRN risk. The initiative is complementary to the instrument for nuclear safety cooperation. Regional Centres of Excellence are being set up in 6 regions: South East Europe, South East Asia, North Africa, West Africa, Middle East, and Central Asia covering nearly 40 countries. A global budget of 100 million Euros will be dedicated to this initiative for the 2009-2013 period. (A.C.)

  3. 78 FR 41768 - Chemical Substances and Mixtures Used in Oil and Gas Exploration or Production; TSCA Section 21...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... expectation is that the TSCA proposal would focus on providing aggregate pictures of the chemical substances... focused attention on hydraulic fracturing due to specific concerns raised about this practice, and most of...

  4. Screening of chemical substances ; Application of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances, USES 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gingnagel P; Vermeire TG; ACT

    1995-01-01

    Priority setting is a sequential process and can be regarded a first step in the risk management of substances. It is used to extract, from the many thousands of substances, those that are expected to be the most riskful to man and the environment and therefore deserve the highest attention from

  5. Notification of the commission on the eco-toxicity of chemical substances; Avis de la commission d'evaluation de l'ecotoxicite des substances chimiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The french commission on the evaluation of the chemical substances eco-toxicity, published recommendations concerning the use of additives for the automotive fuels, for the cooling circuit of electric power plants and for gases against fire. The risks for the public health are analysed and safety precautions are asked. (A.L.B.)

  6. Ab initio quantum chemical calculation as a tool of evaluating diamagnetic susceptibility of magnetically levitating substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Y [Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tanimoto, Y [Faculty of Pharmacy, Osaka Ohtani University, Nishikiorikita, Tondabayashi 584-8540 (Japan)], E-mail: fuji0710@sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    On magnetic force evaluation necessary for magnetically levitated diamagnetic substances, isotropic diamagnetic susceptibility estimation by the ab initio quantum chemical calculation using Gaussian03W was verified for more than 300 molecules in a viewpoint of the accuracy in the absolute value and the calculation level affording good cost performance. From comparison, the method of B3PW91 / 6-311+G(d,p) was found to give the adequate absolute value by the relation of (observed) = (1.03 {+-} 0.005) x (calculated) - (1.22 {+-} 0.60) x 10{sup -6} in a unit of cm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} and good cost performance.

  7. Ab initio quantum chemical calculation as a tool of evaluating diamagnetic susceptibility of magnetically levitating substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Y; Tanimoto, Y

    2009-01-01

    On magnetic force evaluation necessary for magnetically levitated diamagnetic substances, isotropic diamagnetic susceptibility estimation by the ab initio quantum chemical calculation using Gaussian03W was verified for more than 300 molecules in a viewpoint of the accuracy in the absolute value and the calculation level affording good cost performance. From comparison, the method of B3PW91 / 6-311+G(d,p) was found to give the adequate absolute value by the relation of (observed) = (1.03 ± 0.005) x (calculated) - (1.22 ± 0.60) x 10 -6 in a unit of cm 3 mol -1 and good cost performance.

  8. Elimination of micropollutants and hazardous substances at the source in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöcher, C

    2007-01-01

    Industrial wastewater, especially from chemical and pharmaceutical production, often contains substances that need to be eliminated before being discharged into a biological treatment plant and following water bodies. This can be done within the production itself, in selected waste water streams or in a central treatment plant. Each of these approaches has certain advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, a variety of wastewater treatment processes exist that can be applied at each stage, making it a challenging task to choose the best one in economic and ecological terms. In this work a general approach for that and examples from practice are discussed.

  9. Estimating the human exposure to chemical substances and radiation. Definition report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeire, T.G.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1995-06-01

    This report aims at boosting the human exposure assessment activities of the RIVM with regard to chemical substances and radiation. It is the result of thorough discussions with RIVM-experts. The report starts with an overview of past developments in the area of human exposure assessment at the RIVM and continues describing recent projects. Major developments outside the Institute are also discussed. An attempt is made to harmonize definitions which are relevant for exposure assessment, i.e. definitions on exposure, intake, uptake and dose. Important gaps in the human exposure assessment work at the RIVM are identified, leading to proposals for future work. 2 figs., 31 refs., 3 appendices

  10. Resolving the chemical structures of off-odorants and potentially harmful substances in toys-example of children's swords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Philipp; Velasco-Schön, Cristina; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Most children's toys on the market are primarily made out of plastic and other complex composite materials. Consumer complaints about offensive odors or irritating effects associated with toy products have increased in recent years. One example is the strongly perceivable negative odor reported for a particular series of toy swords. Characterizing the presence of contaminants, including those that have the potential to be deleterious to health, in such products is a significant analytical challenge due to the high baseline abundance of chemical constituents of the materials used in the products. In the present study, the nature of offensive odorants associated with toy sword products was examined by gas chromatography (GC). After initial sensory evaluations, the volatile compounds from the toy products were recovered using solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. The extracts were analyzed using GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and two-dimensional GC-O coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-GC-MS/O). A total of 26 odor-active compounds, including aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols, were identified among numerous non-odorous volatile by-products. These substances also included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which were analyzed by GC-MS. Representative substances were naphthalene and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene that exhibited moldy, mothball-like odor impressions, and phenol derivatives with leather-like, phenolic, horse-stable-like smells. The odorants detected correlated with the assigned attributes from the sensory analyses. This study clearly shows that the detection and identification of such odorous contaminants can provide key indications of potentially harmful yet unknown substances in everyday products such as toys. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  11. DYNAMICS OF OPIOID SUBSTITUTION TREATMENTIN DIFFERENT INITIAL SUBSTANCE USER OPIOID DEPENDENT PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todadze, Kh; Mosia, S

    2016-05-01

    figures was observed in all groups in three month period that have been continuing during 21 month of treatment process. Study revealed normalization of scores forbothstatesin groups of heroine, desomorphine, methadone and buprenorphine users. The highest scores of depression and anxiety were observed in the group of poly-drug abusers andwhile depression rate hesitated in the range of clear "no-depression", anxiety index still remained close to the clinical important threshold after 21 month of treatment. Urine-testingon psychotropic-narcotic substances indicated remarkable decrease of illegal drug abuse in all studied groups in three month and although abuse of benzodiazepine drugs was highest in desomorphine and poly-drug abusers, the difference between groups was not statistically significant. Although some disparities have been observed in dynamics of subjects with different spectrum of initial opioid substance use, including homemade desomorphine, there is no significant difference between groups and OST effectively supports to improve depression and anxiety indices, and dramatically decreases use of illegal psychotropic-narcotic drugs during treatment. However poly-drug users seems to be the most resistant to achieve stabilization and require more treatment time and targeted interventions.

  12. Substance Flow Analysis and Source Mapping of Chemical UV-filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, E.; Andersen, H. R.; Ledin, A.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical ultraviolet (UV)-filters are used in sunscreens to protect the skin from harmful UV radiation which may otherwise cause sunburns and skin cancer. Commonly used chemical UV-filters are known to cause endocrine disrupting effects in both aquatic and terrestrial animals as well as in human skin cells. Here, source mapping and substance flow analysis were applied to find the sources of six UV-filters (oxybenzone, avobenzone, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, octyl methoxycinnamate, octyl dimethyl PABA and homosalate) and to identify the most dominant flows of these substances in Denmark. Urban water, composed of wastewater and surface waters, was found to be the primary recipient of UV-filters, whereby wastewater received an estimated 8.5-65 tonnes and surface waters received 7.1-51 tonnes in 2005. In wastewater treatment plants, their sorption onto sludge is perceived to be an important process and presence in effluents can be expected due to a lack of biodegradability. In addition, the use of UV-filters is expected to continue to increase significantly. Not all filters (e.g., octyl dimethyl PABA and homosalate) are used in Denmark. For example, 4-MBC is mainly associated with self-tanning liquids and private import of sunscreens

  13. Substance Flow Analysis and Source Mapping of Chemical UV-filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, E., E-mail: eve@env.dtu.dk; Andersen, H. R.; Ledin, A. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering (Denmark)

    2008-12-15

    Chemical ultraviolet (UV)-filters are used in sunscreens to protect the skin from harmful UV radiation which may otherwise cause sunburns and skin cancer. Commonly used chemical UV-filters are known to cause endocrine disrupting effects in both aquatic and terrestrial animals as well as in human skin cells. Here, source mapping and substance flow analysis were applied to find the sources of six UV-filters (oxybenzone, avobenzone, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, octyl methoxycinnamate, octyl dimethyl PABA and homosalate) and to identify the most dominant flows of these substances in Denmark. Urban water, composed of wastewater and surface waters, was found to be the primary recipient of UV-filters, whereby wastewater received an estimated 8.5-65 tonnes and surface waters received 7.1-51 tonnes in 2005. In wastewater treatment plants, their sorption onto sludge is perceived to be an important process and presence in effluents can be expected due to a lack of biodegradability. In addition, the use of UV-filters is expected to continue to increase significantly. Not all filters (e.g., octyl dimethyl PABA and homosalate) are used in Denmark. For example, 4-MBC is mainly associated with self-tanning liquids and private import of sunscreens.

  14. 78 FR 27860 - Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for One High Production Volume Chemical Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... unit for this chemical substance are no longer supported. III. Amendment to Chemical Testing... proposed rule document (Ref. 4). The EDF comment indicated support for the May 14, 2012 Federal Register.... Fresh Water Algal Growth Inhibition Test with C.I. Pigment Blue 61 study. Submitted on April 13, 2012...

  15. The Influence of Linguistic Acculturation and Gender on the Initiation of Substance Use among Mexican Heritage Preadolescents in the Borderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Kulis, Stephen; Nieri, Tanya; Parsai, Monica; Becerra, David

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the impact of linguistic acculturation and gender on the substance use initiation of a sample of 1,473 Mexican heritage preadolescents attending 30 public schools in Phoenix, Arizona. It was hypothesized that linguistic acculturation operates differently as a risk or protective factor for young children than for older youth.…

  16. Initial treatment dropout in patients with substance use disorders attending a tertiary care de-addiction centre in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Basu

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: This study identified some socio-demographic and clinical variables which might predict treatment attrition in substance use disorders. Clinician's awareness towards these factors and tailor-made intervention might improve initial treatment retention. Future research could be directed to find the validity of this assumption.

  17. Consumption of new psychoactive substances in a Spanish sample of research chemical users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Débora; Ventura, Mireia; Caudevilla, Fernando; Torrens, Marta; Farre, Magi

    2013-07-01

    To know the pattern of use of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) in a Spanish sample of research chemical (RC) users and to deepen the RC user profile and risk reduction strategies employed. This study is a cross-sectional survey by means of a specific questionnaire. Recruitment was carried out at music festivals, at non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and through announcements on an online forum. Two RC user profiles were defined, according to whether they search information through online forums. A total of 230 users participated. The most frequent RCs were hallucinogenic phenethylamines (2C-B 80.0%, 2C-I 39.6%) and cathinones (methylone 40.1%, mephedrone 35.2%). The most frequent combination of RC with other illegal drugs was with cannabis (68.6%) and 2C-B with MDMA (28.3%). Subjects who are consulting drug forums (group 1) use more RC, obtain RC by Internet, and use more frequently risk prevention strategies. Regarding the risk-reduction strategies in this group, users sought information concerning RC before consuming them (100%), used precision scales to calculate dosage (72.3%), and analyzed the contents before consumption (68.8%). There is a specific RC user profile with extensive knowledge and consumption of substances, using different strategies to reduce risks associated to its consumption. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Contribution of chemical radiation research to the general theory of oxidation of organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, B.Ya.; Saraev, V.V.; Revin, A.A.; Zimina, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper studies mechanisms and main elementary stages of liquid-phase oxidation of organic compounds at thermal and radiation initiation of this reaction. The results of investigations into radiation and chemical conversion of organic compounds at presence of oxygen and without it are discussed on the ground of data obtained by means of pulse radiolysis and EPR-spectroscopy. The bach-Engler theory of slow oxidation of organic compounds with participation of peroxides used as intermediate compounds is shown to be proved essentially and to enjoy further development due to the conducted radiation and chemical investigations. 68 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Solutions of the chemical kinetic equations for initially inhomogeneous mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilst, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Following the recent discussions by O'Brien (1971) and Donaldson and Hilst (1972) of the effects of inhomogeneous mixing and turbulent diffusion on simple chemical reaction rates, the present report provides a more extensive analysis of when inhomogeneous mixing has a significant effect on chemical reaction rates. The analysis is then extended to the development of an approximate chemical sub-model which provides much improved predictions of chemical reaction rates over a wide range of inhomogeneities and pathological distributions of the concentrations of the reacting chemical species. In particular, the development of an approximate representation of the third-order correlations of the joint concentration fluctuations permits closure of the chemical sub-model at the level of the second-order moments of these fluctuations and the mean concentrations.

  20. Comparison of point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater for 72 chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Hwang, Sang-Il; Yun, Seong-Taek; Chae, Gitak; Lee, Dongsu; Kim, Ki-Eun

    2017-11-01

    the chemical ranking systems. In the surface spill scenario, the pollutant loadings were zeros for all chemicals, except methylamine to soil whose pollutant loading was smaller than that in the subsurface leak scenario by 4 orders of magnitude. The maximum mass and the average mass multiplied by duration in soil greatly depended on leaching fluxes (r = 1.0 and 0.9, respectively), while the effect of leaching fluxes diminished below the water table. The contribution of this work is that a physics-based numerical model was used to quantitatively compare the subsurface pollutant loading in a chemical accident for 72 chemical substances, which can scientifically defend a simpler and more qualitative assessment of pollutant loadings. Besides, this study assessed pollutant loadings to soil (unsaturated zone) and groundwater (saturated zone) all together and discussed their interactions.

  1. Why the toxic substances control act needs an overhaul, and how to strengthen oversight of chemicals in the interim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Sarah A; Roberts, Jody A

    2011-05-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act gives the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the authority to regulate industrial chemicals not covered by other statutes. Today there are more than 83,000 such chemicals. However, the law is widely perceived as weak and outdated, and various stakeholders have called for its reform, citing the EPA's inability to regulate the use of asbestos, among other substances. We analyze the flaws in the act and suggest ways in which the EPA might better position itself to manage chemical risks and protect the public's health. In addition to the new tools and technologies it is adopting, the agency needs new allies-both inside and outside the government-in its efforts to identify and control hazardous chemicals.

  2. 77 FR 15234 - Controlled Substances and List I Chemical Registration and Reregistration Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ...-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active principle of marijuana) and synthetic cathinones (drugs of the phenethylamine... substances to illicit use. Similarly, an ever expanding number of synthetic substances, such as synthetic...

  3. Colour quantitation for chemical spot tests for a controlled substances presumptive test database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M; Weghorst, Alex C; Quinn, Alicia A; Acharya, Subrata

    2017-02-01

    Crime scene investigators (CSIs) often encounter unknown powders, capsules, tablets, and liquids at crime scenes, many of which are controlled substances. Because most drugs are white powders, however, visual determination of the chemical identity is difficult. Colourimetric tests are a well-established method of presumptive drug identification. Positive tests are often reported differently, however, because two analysts may perceive colour or record colourimetric results in different ways. In addition to perceiving colour differently, it is very common for there to be poor visibility conditions (e.g. rain, darkness) while performing these tests, further obscuring the results. In order to address these concerns and to create uniformity in the reporting of on-site colourimetric test results, this study has evaluated two of the state-of-the-art apps (ColorAssist® and Colorimeter®) for reporting the colour test results quantitatively in red-green-blue (RGB) format. The compiled library database of presumptive test results contains over 3300 data points including over 800 unique drug/test combinations. Variations observed between test replicates, from performing a test on different days, recording with a different device type (e.g. iPod Touch, iPhone models 4, 5c, 5s, or 6), and using different quantities of drug are discussed. Overall, the least variation in Euclidian norm was observed using ColorAssist® with the camera light (25.1±22.1) while the variation between replicates and data recorded using different devices was similar. The resulting library is uploaded to a smartphone application aimed to aid in identifying and interpreting suspected controlled substance evidence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. 40 CFR 723.50 - Chemical substances manufactured in quantities of 10,000 kilograms or less per year, and chemical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section 3 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 2602). (4) Environmental transformation product means any chemical... substance, any reasonably anticipated metabolites, environmental transformation products, or byproducts of... EPA under this section which the manufacturer claims to be confidential business information, the...

  5. 77 FR 43520 - Significant New Use Rules on a Certain Chemical Substance; Removal of Significant New Use Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... April 27, 2012 (77 FR 25236) (FRL-9343-4). If you have questions regarding the applicability of this... (77 FR 25236). If you have questions, consult the technical person listed under FOR FURTHER... 2070-AB27 Significant New Use Rules on a Certain Chemical Substance; Removal of Significant New Use...

  6. 40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture and processing in the special production area. All manufacturing, processing, and use operations... shape or design during manufacture, (ii) which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part... production area, the ambient air concentration of the new chemical substance during manufacture, processing...

  7. 77 FR 48858 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... adverse chronic effects from the presumed degradation product of this PMN substance on humans and wildlife...) human exposure to the substance and its potential degradation products. To protect against these risks... may be significant (or substantial) human exposure to the substances and their potential degradation...

  8. Proposed minimum reporting standards for chemical analysis Chemical Analysis Working Group (CAWG) Metabolomics Standards Initiative (MSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Alexander; Barrett, Dave; Beale, Michael H.; Beger, Richard; Daykin, Clare A.; Fan, Teresa W.-M.; Fiehn, Oliver; Goodacre, Royston; Griffin, Julian L.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Hardy, Nigel; Harnly, James; Higashi, Richard; Kopka, Joachim; Lane, Andrew N.; Lindon, John C.; Marriott, Philip; Nicholls, Andrew W.; Reily, Michael D.; Thaden, John J.; Viant, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    There is a general consensus that supports the need for standardized reporting of metadata or information describing large-scale metabolomics and other functional genomics data sets. Reporting of standard metadata provides a biological and empirical context for the data, facilitates experimental replication, and enables the re-interrogation and comparison of data by others. Accordingly, the Metabolomics Standards Initiative is building a general consensus concerning the minimum reporting standards for metabolomics experiments of which the Chemical Analysis Working Group (CAWG) is a member of this community effort. This article proposes the minimum reporting standards related to the chemical analysis aspects of metabolomics experiments including: sample preparation, experimental analysis, quality control, metabolite identification, and data pre-processing. These minimum standards currently focus mostly upon mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy due to the popularity of these techniques in metabolomics. However, additional input concerning other techniques is welcomed and can be provided via the CAWG on-line discussion forum at http://msi-workgroups.sourceforge.net/ or http://Msi-workgroups-feedback@lists.sourceforge.net. Further, community input related to this document can also be provided via this electronic forum. PMID:24039616

  9. Improving Substance Abuse Treatment: The National Treatment Plan Initiative. Changing the Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

    This report is the result of five expert panels and six regional public hearings around the country that focused on key persistent issues that have characterized discussions of substance abuse over the years: closing the treatment gap; reducing stigma and changing attitudes; improving and strengthening treatment systems; connecting services and…

  10. Substances of very high concern and the transition to a circular economy : An initial inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar PNH; Janssen N; de Poorter LRM; Bodar CWM; VSP; MSP

    2017-01-01

    Reuse and recycling of products are key elements in a circular economy. This exploratory RIVM study shows that a great number of waste streams may contain various substances of very high concern (ZZS), which may hamper safe recycling options in the Netherlands. RIVM recommends an adequate risk

  11. Reasons for entering treatment reported by initially treatment-resistant patients with substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyers, Robert J.; Roozen, Hendrik G.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Evans, Brittany E.

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals with substance use disorders are resistant to entering formal treatment, despite the negative consequences that plague their own lives and the lives of concerned significant others (CSOs). Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) has been developed as an effective

  12. Chemical degradation of 3H-labeled substance P in tris buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, T.; Desiderio, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is an important neuropeptide that has been implicated in several physiological processes, and it is necessary to devise an analytical procedure to measure endogenous SP with a combination of high sensitivity and maximum molecular specificity. However, the unique chemical nature of SP (polarity, chemical stability, ease of oxidation, peptide bond lability) plays a significant role in its analysis, such as in receptor assays, immunoassays, chromatography, and mass spectrometry. In this study, we evaluated in polypropylene and glass assay tubes the effects on the recovery and stability of tritiated SP ([3H]SP) of several pertinent experimental parameters such as buffer, pH, multiple freeze-thaw cycles, and incubation temperature and time. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) effectively reduced the absorption of [3H]SP to polypropylene and glass tube surfaces. Following multiple (6X) freeze-thaw cycles of solutions in BSA-precoated tubes, the recovery of radioactive [3H]SP remained high (greater than 75%) after the last cycle, whereas recovery was minimal in uncoated or siliconized glass tubes. A high level of radioactivity recovery was maintained for 14 days of storage of [3H]SP in triethylamine formate (TEAF) solution in BSA-precoated tubes at 4 and -20 degrees C, but decreased at 37 degrees C to less than 80% in only 3 h. Following storage in Tris-HCl (pH 7.4) buffer, a combination of HPLC and mass spectrometric analyses revealed that a significant amount of peptide bond cleavage occurred to produce the two peptides ArgProLys (RPK) and ArgProLysProGlnGln (RPKPQQ), with only a small amount of remaining intact SP. That decomposition was not observed in triethylamine formate TEAF (pH 3.14) buffer solutions

  13. Surface Chemical Characterisation of Pyrite Exposed to Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Associated Extracellular Polymeric Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian M. La Vars

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A. ferrooxidans and their metabolic products have previously been explored as a viable alternative depressant of pyrite for froth flotation; however, the mechanism by which separation is achieved is not completely understood. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS and captive bubble contact angle measurements have been used to examine the surface physicochemical properties of pyrite upon exposure to A. ferrooxidans grown in HH medium at pH 1.8. C K-edge near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectra collected from PEEM images indicate hydrophilic lipids, fatty acids and biopolymers are formed at the mineral surface during early exposure. After 168 h, the spectra indicate a shift towards protein and DNA, corresponding to an increase in cell population and biofilm formation on the surface, as observed by SEM. The Fe L-edge NEXAFS show gradual oxidation of the mineral surface from Fe(II sulfide to Fe(III oxyhydroxides. The oxidation of the iron species at the pyrite surface is accelerated in the presence of A. ferrooxidans and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS as compared to HH medium controls. The surface chemical changes induced by the interaction with A. ferrooxidans show a significant decrease in surface hydrophobicity within the first 2 h of exposure. The implications of these findings are the potential use of EPS produced during early attachment of A. ferrooxidans, as a depressant for bioflotation.

  14. Evaluation of Common Non-pharmacological Chemical Substance Poisonings in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songül Ünüvar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute intoxications in adolescents and adults are mostly associated with intentional or accidental ingestions. Intoxications are commonly seen in children aged between 1 and 5 years and most of the cases are associated with accidental intake. In most of the children, no clinical symptoms related to intoxication are observed or only mild effects can develop. The main route of drug elimination is through kidneys. Absolute clearance in children is often lower than in adults but weight-adjusted clearance is higher. Depending on more rapid elimination in children the plasma half-life of the drug might be shorter in children than in adults. A shorter elimination half-life means that plasma steady-state is achieved with repeated doses. It is important to prevent childhood intoxications, and the use of child-resistant packaging and adequate supervision together with the secure storage of household substances are the basis of prevention of accidental childhood intoxications. Intoxications represent one of the most common medical emergencies in children, and epidemiological characteristics vary in different countries. Therefore, special epidemiological surveillance is necessary for each country to determine the problem according to which preventive measures should be taken. Early awareness and taking appropriate therapeutic measures seems to be effective in the reduction of mortality rate. The major and most common non-pharmacological chemical intoxications in childhood have been reviewed here with the intent of helping health-care professionals, particularly pediatricians to recognize and reduce the risk of harmful childhood intoxications.

  15. Aqueous media treatment and decontamination of hazardous chemical and biological substances by contact plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivovarov, A.; Kravchenko, A.; Kublanovsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    Usage of non-equilibrium contact plasma for processes of decontamination and neutralization in conditions of manifestation of chemical, biological and radiation terrorism takes on special significance due to portability of equipment and its mobility in places where toxic liquid media hazardous for people's health are located. Processes of decontamination of aqueous media, seminated with pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, treatment of water containing toxic heavy metals, cyanides, surface-active substances, and heavy radioactive elements, are investigated. Examples of activation processes in infected water and toxic aqueous solutions present convincing evidence of the way, how new quality technological approach for achievement of high enough degree of the said media treatment is used in each specific case. Among new properties of water activated as a result of action of non-equilibrium contact plasma, it is necessary to mention presence of cluster structure, confirmed by well-known spectral and physical-chemical methods, presence of peroxide compounds, active particles and radicals. Anti-microbial activity which is displayed under action of plasma in aqueous media (chemically pure water, drinking water, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium iodide, as well as other inorganic compounds) towards wide range of pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic microorganisms allows use them as reliable, accessible and low-cost preparations for increasing the degree of safety of food products. Combination of such processes with known methods of filtration and ultra-filtration gives an efficient and available complex capable of withstanding any threats, which may arise for population and living organisms. Present-day level of machine-building, electrical engineering, and electronics allows predict creation of industrial plasma installations, adapted to conditions of various terrorist threats, with minimized power consumption and optimized technological parameters

  16. Aqueous media treatment and decontamination of hazardous chemical and biological substances by contact plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovarov, A; Kravchenko, A [Ukrainian State University of Chemical Engineering, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine); Kublanovsky, V [V. I. Vernadsky Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of National Academy of Science, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2009-07-01

    Usage of non-equilibrium contact plasma for processes of decontamination and neutralization in conditions of manifestation of chemical, biological and radiation terrorism takes on special significance due to portability of equipment and its mobility in places where toxic liquid media hazardous for people's health are located. Processes of decontamination of aqueous media, seminated with pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, treatment of water containing toxic heavy metals, cyanides, surface-active substances, and heavy radioactive elements, are investigated. Examples of activation processes in infected water and toxic aqueous solutions present convincing evidence of the way, how new quality technological approach for achievement of high enough degree of the said media treatment is used in each specific case. Among new properties of water activated as a result of action of non-equilibrium contact plasma, it is necessary to mention presence of cluster structure, confirmed by well-known spectral and physical-chemical methods, presence of peroxide compounds, active particles and radicals. Anti-microbial activity which is displayed under action of plasma in aqueous media (chemically pure water, drinking water, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium iodide, as well as other inorganic compounds) towards wide range of pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic microorganisms allows use them as reliable, accessible and low-cost preparations for increasing the degree of safety of food products. Combination of such processes with known methods of filtration and ultra-filtration gives an efficient and available complex capable of withstanding any threats, which may arise for population and living organisms. Present-day level of machine-building, electrical engineering, and electronics allows predict creation of industrial plasma installations, adapted to conditions of various terrorist threats, with minimized power consumption and optimized technological parameters

  17. Chemical and structural characterization of soil humic substances under agroforestry and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislane M. de Moraes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have proven that the agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region of the State of Ceará, Brazil, induce an increase in soil organic C levels. Notwithstanding, there is no information if this increase also results in qualitative changes in different pools of soil organic matter. The objective of this study was to verify the possible chemical and structural alterations in fulvic and humic acids of a Luvisol in areas adopting agroforestry, traditional intensive cultivation and native forest in a long-term experiment conducted in the semi-arid region of Ceará State, Brazil. The study was conducted in an experimental area of the National Goat Research Center (Embrapa in Sobral, CE. The following treatments were evaluated: agrosilvopasture (AGP, silvopasture (SILV, intensive cultivation under fallow (ICF, and areas with native forest (NF. Soil fulvic and humic acids fractions were extracted from the 0-6 and 6-12 cm layers and characterized by elemental composition, thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy analyses. The elemental composition analysis of humic acids confirmed the data found for fulvic acids, showing reduction in the C, H and N levels, followed by an increase in O contents in the AGP and ICF treatments over SILV and NF. In all treatments, except to SILV in the 0-6 cm layer, the percentage of mass loss was highest (300-600 °C for humic acids in the thermally most stable region. Despite the similarity between infrared spectra, soil fulvic acids in the SILV treatment extracted from 6-12 cm depth decrease the absorption bands at 1708 and 1408 cm-1 followed by an increase in the absorption band at 1608 cm-1 attributed to aromatic C=C groups. This behavior suggests an increase in the aromatic character of the structure. The AGP and ICF treatments, which increase the soil tilling, favored the maintenance of humic substances with a more aromatic character in the soil than SILV and NF. The less aromatic humic substances in the SILV

  18. 77 FR 42990 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Pigment Manufacturers Association (CPMA) members with similar products, there is no substantiation of... the PMN substances have been incorporated into a polymer, glass, dispersion, cementitious matrix, or a.... Specifically, the PMN substances are intended to replace pigments containing heavy metals such as lead and...

  19. Study of the influence of surface-active substances on the initial stage of copper electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amantay Dalbanbay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of surface-active substances (CMC and DFP on the electrolysis of copper by cyclic voltammetry (CVA and chronoamperometric methods was studied. The working electrode was a glassy carbon electrode. Studies show that in the acid solution of copper sulfate (10-2 M CuSO4 + 0.5 M H2SO4, the three-dimensional electrochemical deposition of copper occurs by the mechanism of instantaneous nucleation. The added surface active substances affect the dischargeionization process, the standard electroreduction potential is shifted to the negative side. The added DFP reduces the cathodic peak current, and the addition of CMC results in its increase. At the deposition potentials corresponding to the regions up to the CVA peak current (here, still, the mixed electrodeposition kinetics, the number of nuclei formed is greater for a pure solution, but at current decay potentials, where the diffusion regime takes place, the nuclei population density (NPD is higher for solutions with surfactants. The most powerful effect here is caused by the addition of DFP. In the case of mixed additives, the NPD values are close to those of the CMC, obviously indicating the preferential adsorption of CMC, whereas the DFP as complexes with copper ions is closer to the near-electrode region.

  20. Fathers for Change for Substance Use and Intimate Partner Violence: Initial Community Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Carla Smith

    2015-12-01

    The lack of focus on the role of men as fathers within intervention programs for men with histories of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) or substance abuse is of significant concern given the large numbers of these men who are actively parenting and coparenting children. Fathers for Change is a new intervention designed to fill this gap. Eighteen fathers with co-occurring IPV and substance abuse were randomly assigned to Fathers for Change or Individual Drug Counseling (IDC). They were assessed at baseline, post-intervention and 3 months following the 16-week intervention period. Men in the Fathers for Change group: (1) were more likely to complete treatment; (2) reported significantly greater satisfaction with the program; (3) reported a trend toward less IPV; and (4) exhibited significantly less intrusiveness in coded play interactions with their children following treatment than fathers in the IDC group. Results indicate further evaluation of this intervention in a larger sample is warranted. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  1. Environmental effects and potential hazards of chemical substances used in waste water purification; Umweltvertraeglichkeit und Gefaehrdungspotentiale von Abwasserbehandlungschemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, H. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene

    1999-07-01

    Waste water purification in sewage systems would be impossible without additions of chemical substances for coagulation, flocculation and neutralisation. However, these substances also pollute the purified waste water and the freshwater supplies. In addition, the non-reactive fraction of toxic substances originally contained in the waste water is discharged with the purified waste water and adds to the pollution of freshwater reservoirs. Detailed investigations are required for defining the state of the art in the use of chemical substances for waste water purification. [German] Um Schadstoffe aus dem Abwasser zu entfernen, werden in der Klaeranlage bestimmte Hilfsstoffe zugesetzt, ohne die eine Reinigung des Abwassers nicht in dieser Qualitaet moeglich waere und unverhaeltnismaessig teuer wuerde. Die Hilfsstoffe unterstuetzen den Reinigungsprozess durch Faellung, Flockung und Neutralisation. Durch den Einsatz dieser Chemikalien zur Behandlung von Abwaessern gelangen jedoch auch - Verunreinigungen durch die Nebenstoff-Matrix der eingesetzten Behandlungschemikalien in das behandelte Abwasser und in die Gewaesser und - durch ueberstoechiometrische Dosierung oder Additive tritt der nicht reagierende Teil toxischer Substanzen ebenfalls im behandelten Abwasserablauf und im Gewaesser auf. Detaillierte Untersuchungen erscheinen geboten, um auf dieser Grundlage den Stand der Technik beim Einsatz von Chemikalien zur Abwasserbehandlung zu formulieren. (orig./SR)

  2. Forskolin and the meiosis inducing substance synergistically initiate meiosis in fetal male germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, A G; Fenger, M; Westergaard, L

    1993-01-01

    We have shown that Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) and forskolin synergistically and dose dependently induce meiosis in germ cells of cultured fetal mouse testes. We used a bioassay which consists of fetal mouse testes and ovaries cultured for 6 days. In this study MIS media are spent culture...... are fixed, squashed, and DNA-stained. In these preparations germ cells and somatic cells can be distinguished, and the number of germ cells in the different stages of meiosis is counted as is the number of somatic cells in mitosis. MIS activity is defined to be present in a medium when meiosis is induced...... in male germ cells during culture. We found that MIS media as well as forskolin induced meiosis in fetal male germ cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MIS media and forskolin acted synergistically by inducing meiosis. Female germ cells seem to be unaffected by the various culture media...

  3. "Transcend": initial outcomes from a posttraumatic stress disorder/substance abuse treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, B; Padin-Rivera, E; Kowaliw, S

    2001-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a comprehensive treatment program for combat veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance abuse (SA). Outcome data are presented on 46 male patients who completed treatment between 1996 and 1998. The treatment approach, defined by a detailed manual, integrates elements of cognitive-behavioral skills training, constructivist theory approaches, SA relapse prevention strategies, and peer social support into a group-focused program. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) were used to assess treatment effectiveness at discharge and 6- and 12-month follow-up. Significant symptom changes revealed on CAPS and ASI scores at discharge and follow-up are analyzed. Discussion focuses on hypotheses regarding treatment effectiveness, study limitations, and suggestions for further research.

  4. Comparative evaluation of tooth substance loss and its correlation with the abrasivity and chemical composition of different dentifrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Prakash; Sharma, Sidhartha; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem; Singh, Surendra

    2016-01-01

    In India, teeth cleaning with tooth powder is common in rural and semi-urban areas. These dentifrices may contain low-quality abrasives, which may have a deleterious effect on dental hard tissues. This study aims to evaluate the tooth substance loss caused by different dentifrices and to correlate it with chemical composition, size, and shape of abrasives used. An indigenously made automated machine was used for brushing the specimens. Sixty-four freshly extracted premolars were allocated to eight groups (n = 8). Colgate toothpaste was used as the control group. Each specimen was brushed in a vertical motion for 2½ h at 200 strokes/min with a constant applied load of 200 g corresponding to 6-month brushing. The difference in weight (pre- and post-brushing) was determined by an analytical weighing machine. Chemical analysis was done to determine the presence of iron oxide by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry method. Shape and size of the abrasive particles was evaluated under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One-way analysis of variance and Paired t-test were used to analyze the data. Tooth substance loss was maximum in the group brushed with red tooth powder, which was shown to contain the highest amount of iron oxide and also exhibited large, irregularly shaped abrasive particles under SEM. Tooth substance loss was documented to be correlated with chemical composition (iron oxide) and the size and shape of abrasive particles used in dentifrices.

  5. 76 FR 61566 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... and (P-09-147) Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium.... Also, based on test data on analogous acrylates, EPA believes exposure to the PMN substance may cause...

  6. All-Russia conference on chemical analysis of substances and materials. Abstracts of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Collection contains abstracts of reports on chemical analysis of foods, drugs, environmental materials. Methods of chemical analysis used in such regions as chemical control in agriculture, criminology, art and archaeology, biotechnology, geology, chemistry and petrochemistry, metallurgy, metrology are presented. Theoretical, methodological and applied aspects of chemical analysis are considered [ru

  7. Readiness to adopt a performance measurement system for substance abuse treatment: Findings from the Service Quality Measures initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Myers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. A performance measurement system – the Service Quality Measures (SQM initiative – has been developed to monitor the quality of South Africa (SA’s substance abuse treatment services. Identifying factors associated with readiness to adopt this system may inform strategies to facilitate its robust implementation. Objective. To examine factors associated with readiness to adopt a performance measurement system among SA substance abuse treatment providers. Methods. We surveyed 81 treatment providers from 13 treatment sites in the Western Cape, SA. The survey examined awareness, resources, organisational climate, leadership support and readiness to adopt the SQM system. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with readiness to adopt this system. Results. Readiness to adopt the SQM initiative was high (M=5.64, standard deviation 1.63. In bivariate analyses, caseload size (F=3.73 (degrees of freedom (df=3.70, p=0.015, awareness (r=0.78, p<0.0001, leadership support (r=0.70, p<0.0001, resources (r=0.65, p<0.0001, openness to change (r=0.372, p=0.001, and external pressure to change were associated with readiness to adopt the SQM. In multivariate analyses, only awareness of the SQM initiative (B=0.34, standard error (SE 0.08, t=4.4, p<0.0001 and leadership support (B=0.45, SE 0.11, t=4.0, p<0.0001 were significantly associated with readiness to adopt this system. Conclusion. While treatment providers report high levels of readiness to adopt the SQM system, findings show that the likelihood of adoption can be further increased through improved provider awareness and enhanced leadership support for this health innovation.

  8. Readiness to adopt a performance measurement system for substance abuse treatment: Findings from the Service Quality Measures initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, B; Petersen Williams, P; Johnson, K; Govender, R; Manderscheid, R; Koch, J R

    2017-01-30

    A performance measurement system - the Service Quality Measures (SQM) initiative - has been developed to monitor the quality of South Africa (SA)'s substance abuse treatment services. Identifying factors associated with readiness to adopt this system may inform strategies to facilitate its robust implementation. To examine factors associated with readiness to adopt a performance measurement system among SA substance abuse treatment providers. We surveyed 81 treatment providers from 13 treatment sites in the Western Cape, SA. The survey examined awareness, resources, organisational climate, leadership support and readiness to adopt the SQM system. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with readiness to adopt this system. Readiness to adopt the SQM initiative was high (M=5.64, standard deviation 1.63). In bivariate analyses, caseload size (F=3.73 (degrees of freedom (df)=3.70), p=0.015), awareness (r=0.78, p<0.0001), leadership support (r=0.70, p<0.0001), resources (r=0.65, p<0.0001), openness to change (r=0.372, p=0.001), and external pressure to change were associated with readiness to adopt the SQM. In multivariate analyses, only awareness of the SQM initiative (B=0.34, standard error (SE) 0.08, t=4.4, p<0.0001) and leadership support (B=0.45, SE 0.11, t=4.0, p<0.0001) were significantly associated with readiness to adopt this system. While treatment providers report high levels of readiness to adopt the SQM system, findings show that the likelihood of adoption can be further increased through improved provider awareness and enhanced leadership support for this health innovation.

  9. Analysis of determination modalities concerning the exposure and emission limits values of chemical and radioactive substances; Analyse des modalites de fixation des valeurs limites d'exposition et d'emission pour les substances chimiques et radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T

    2002-08-01

    This document presents the generic approach adopted by various organizations for the determination of the public exposure limits values to chemical and radioactive substances and for the determination of limits values of chemical products emissions by some installations. (A.L.B.)

  10. Extending Previous cG×I Findings on 5-HTTLPR's Moderation of Intervention Effects on Adolescent Substance Misuse Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Gabriel L; Cleveland, H Harrington; Feinberg, Mark E; Wolf, Pedro S A; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve; Tricou, Eric P; Vandenbergh, David J

    2017-11-01

    This study addresses replication in candidate gene × environment interaction (cG×E) research by investigating if the key findings from Brody, Beach, Philibert, Chen, and Murry (2009) can be detected using data (N = 1,809) from the PROSPER substance use preventive intervention delivery system. Parallel to Brody et al., this study tested the hypotheses that substance misuse initiation would increase faster from age 11 to age 14 and be higher at age 14 among: (a) 5-HTTLPR short carrier adolescents versus long homozygotes, (b) control versus intervention adolescents, and (c) 5-HTTLPR short carriers in the control condition versus all other participants. The hypotheses were generally supported and results were consistent with Brody et al.'s cG×I finding. Results are discussed in light of replication issues in cG×E research and implications for intervention. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. A comparative study of changes in immunological reactivity during prolonged introduction of radioactive and chemical substances into the organism with drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.; Nevstrueva, M.A.; Kalnitskij, S.A.; Livshits, R.E.; Merkushev, G.N.; Pilshchik, E.M.; Ponomareva, T.V.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted into the factors of non-specific protection and specific immunity, allergic and autoallergic reactivities during prolonged exposure of experimental animals to 6 different radioactive and 7 harmful chemical substances. Qualitative and quantitative peculiarities were found in the changes in immunological reactivity during the exposure of the organism to radionuclides and stable chemical compounds. Impairment of immunity plays an essential role in the course and the outcome of effects induced by chronic action of the substances examined. (author)

  12. Veterans in substance abuse treatment program self-initiate box gardening as a stress reducing therapeutic modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Lauren P; Detweiler, Jonna G; Detweiler, Mark B

    2018-02-01

    To assess the experiences of a veteran initiated horticultural therapy garden during their 28-day inpatient Substance Abuse Residential Rehabilitation Treatment Program (SARRTP). Retrospective study. Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC), Salem, Virginia, USA INTERVENTIONS: Group interviews with veterans from the last SARRTP classes and individual interviews with VAMC greenhouse staff in summer of 2016. Time spent in garden, frequency of garden visits, types of passive and active garden activities, words describing the veterans' emotional reactions to utilizing the garden. In 3 summer months of 2016, 50 percent of the 56 veterans interviewed visited and interacted with the gardens during their free time. Frequency of visits generally varied from 3 times weekly to 1-2 times a day. Amount of time in the garden varied from 10min to 2h. The veterans engaged in active and/or passive gardening activities during their garden visits. The veterans reported feeling "calm", "serene", and "refreshed" during garden visitation and after leaving the garden. Although data was secured only at the end of the 2016 growing season, interviews of the inpatient veterans revealed that they used their own initiative and resources to continue the horticulture therapy program for 2 successive growing years after the original pilot project ended in 2014. These non-interventionist, therapeutic garden projects suggest the role of autonomy and patient initiative in recovery programs for veterans attending VAMC treatment programs and they also suggest the value of horticulture therapy as a meaningful evidence- based therapeutic modality for veterans. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. 78 FR 64018 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated June 18, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2013, 78 FR 39340, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N... 21 U.S.C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., to...

  14. 78 FR 64016 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Registration, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals By Notice dated June 18, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2013, 78 FR 39337, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, 2820 N. Normandy Drive, Petersburg...) and determined that the registration of Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals is consistent with the public...

  15. 77 FR 67397 - Importer Of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated July 17, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2012, 77 FR 43861, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N. Normandy Drive...), and determined that the registration of Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., to import the basic...

  16. 40 CFR 720.25 - Determining whether a chemical substance is on the Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... development, end-use application, toxicity testing, etc.). The person must also indicate whether any pilot.... (iii)(A) A brief description of the research and development activities conducted to date related to the substance, including the year in which the person first started to conduct research or development...

  17. 75 FR 35977 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... polymers with amide or imide links; a crosslinker for epoxy type coatings, adhesives and sealants; a crosslinker for epoxy type composites; a monomer for urea and urethane urea polymers used in coatings; a... substances will be used as curing agents for epoxy coating systems. Based on test data on analogous aliphatic...

  18. 77 FR 20296 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... designated in this rule, may be claimed as CBI. Unit IX. discusses a procedure companies may use to ascertain... polyurethane foam catalyst. Based on test data on the PMN substance, EPA identified concerns for dermal...: MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic). CAS number: Not available. Basis for action...

  19. 78 FR 38210 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... change requirements for SNURs based on consent orders and has contributed to SNURs requiring personal protective equipment rather than following the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls where personal... substance as a herbicide intermediate, minimal toxicity effects, and the use of personal protective...

  20. Relative absorption and dermal loading of chemical substances: Consequences for risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Schaafsma, G.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of skin absorption is an essential step in reducing the uncertainty of dermal risk assessment. Data from literature indicate that the relative dermal absorption of substances is dependent on dermal loading. Therefore, an internal exposure calculated with absorption data determined at

  1. Grouping of Petroleum Substances as Example UVCBs by Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry to Enable Chemical Composition-Based Read-Across.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Fabian A; Russell, William K; Luo, Yu-Syuan; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Roy, Tim; Boogaard, Peter J; Ketelslegers, Hans B; Rusyn, Ivan

    2017-06-20

    Substances of Unknown or Variable composition, Complex reaction products, and Biological materials (UVCBs), including many refined petroleum products, present a major challenge in regulatory submissions under the EU Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) and US High Production Volume regulatory regimes. The inherent complexity of these substances, as well as variability in composition obfuscates detailed chemical characterization of each individual substance and their grouping for human and environmental health evaluation through read-across. In this study, we applied ion mobility mass spectrometry in conjunction with cheminformatics-based data integration and visualization to derive substance-specific signatures based on the distribution and abundance of various heteroatom classes. We used petroleum substances from four petroleum substance manufacturing streams and evaluated their chemical composition similarity based on high-dimensional substance-specific quantitative parameters including m/z distribution, drift time, carbon number range, and associated double bond equivalents and hydrogen-to-carbon ratios. Data integration and visualization revealed group-specific similarities for petroleum substances. Observed differences within a product group were indicative of batch- or manufacturer-dependent variation. We demonstrate how high-resolution analytical chemistry approaches can be used effectively to support categorization of UVCBs based on their heteroatom composition and how such data can be used in regulatory decision-making.

  2. Interpersonal Goals and Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Risk Factors for Intentions to Initiate Substance Use during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Bowker, Julie C.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Though peer socialization theories are prominent in the adolescent substance use literature, variability in the degree to which adolescents are vulnerable to peer influence is likely, and few studies have examined this issue. This study examines the association between perceived peer substance use/approval of substance use and adolescent…

  3. History of EPI Suite™ and future perspectives on chemical property estimation in US Toxic Substances Control Act new chemical risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Marcella L; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Lee, Wen-Hsiung; Lynch, David G; Orentas, Nerija S; Lee, Mari Titcombe; Wong, Edmund M; Boethling, Robert S

    2017-03-22

    Chemical property estimation is a key component in many industrial, academic, and regulatory activities, including in the risk assessment associated with the approximately 1000 new chemical pre-manufacture notices the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) receives annually. The US EPA evaluates fate, exposure and toxicity under the 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act (amended by the 2016 Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21 st Century Act), which does not require test data with new chemical applications. Though the submission of data is not required, the US EPA has, over the past 40 years, occasionally received chemical-specific data with pre-manufacture notices. The US EPA has been actively using this and publicly available data to develop and refine predictive computerized models, most of which are housed in EPI Suite™, to estimate chemical properties used in the risk assessment of new chemicals. The US EPA develops and uses models based on (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ([Q]SARs) to estimate critical parameters. As in any evolving field, (Q)SARs have experienced successes, suffered failures, and responded to emerging trends. Correlations of a chemical structure with its properties or biological activity were first demonstrated in the late 19 th century and today have been encapsulated in a myriad of quantitative and qualitative SARs. The development and proliferation of the personal computer in the late 20 th century gave rise to a quickly increasing number of property estimation models, and continually improved computing power and connectivity among researchers via the internet are enabling the development of increasingly complex models.

  4. 78 FR 69414 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ...; Acute emulsion polymerization in Inhalation Toxicity in paper, textile, fiber, and Rats; Bacterial.../ Reproduction Development Toxicity. Note: CAS No. = Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number. Authority: 15 U...

  5. [Initiation and consumption of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults in an Anti-Drug Psychosocial Care Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carolina Carvalho; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Carvalho, Rosely Cabral; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Cruz, Nilma Lázara de Almeida; da Silva, Mariana Rocha

    2014-03-01

    The study seeks to characterize the initiation and consumption pattern of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults enrolled in an Alcohol and Drug Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS-AD). This study was conducted with records of attendance and the consumption pattern was classified in accordance with WHO: infrequent use (lifetime use, per year or up to five days per month); frequent use (6 to 19 times in the past 30 days); heavy use (≥ 20 times in the last 30 days). In the age group comparison, the test for proportion and association analysis was used and the prevalence and prevalence ratio was calculated with a significance level of 5% and 95% confidence interval. Of the total of adolescents and young adults treated between 2003 and 2008 (475), most were male, single, poorly educated, live with relations and have psychic symptoms. Statistical significance was found for age at initiation of use: adolescents compared to young adults started earlier (≤ 14 years): tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, crack and other SPA consumption. Among adolescents, significant results were found for the less frequent consumption of tobacco, more frequent use of alcohol, and heavy consumption of marijuana. These findings may contribute to the preventive and therapeutic CAPS-AD programs.

  6. New law concerning the control of chemical substances - The end of lubricants?; Neues Chemikalienrecht. Das Ende des Schmierstoffes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgaertel, Stephan [Verband Schmierstoff-Industrie e.V. (VSI), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    In recent years, legal requirements on chemicals significantly changed. The introduction of REACH, GHS and the Biocidal Products Directive requires that the manufacturer of lubricants and additives as well as the end user have to fulfill a number of new obligations. This may influences the availability and diversity of lubricants due to the relatively high financial and administrative burden coming along with the new law. A reduction of diversity of substances and, ultimately, lubricant suppliers could be the result. An increased number of lubricants will be labelled as dangerous, without any change in the composition. Risk assessment changes from exposure based to a hazard based risk assessment leading to re-classification of chemicals. However, enhanced customer communication measures and new safety measures are necessary in order to fulfill the new requirements. Lubricants will not disappear from the market but the market will change radically, as outlined in this paper. (orig.)

  7. 77 FR 70188 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ...; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated July 17, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2012, 77 FR 43863, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N... has considered the factors in 21 U.S.C. 823(a) and determined that the registration of Boehringer...

  8. Removal of chemical substances from the atmosphere by photocatalysis; Hikarishokubai ni yoru kiso kagaku busshitsu no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, K; Kutsuna, S [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-01-25

    Suppression at a source is the principle of suppressing air pollution caused by vapor phase chemical substances. For the case of these substances with extremely low concentrations, discussions were given on decomposition by means of photocatalysts (that utilize solar light) to directly purify them in the atmospheric condition. Catalysis takes place in providing and receiving electrons, that is, oxidation and reduction of the electrons, under light irradiation by using photocatalysts in which light excites and causes internal electrons to migrate freely. Titanium oxide was found effective because it is high in catalytic activity, stable chemically, and harmless. Photodecomposition reaction of chlorinated organic compounds on TiO2 proceeds very fast except for fluorocarbons. In practical use, the catalyst must be fixed so that no catalyst powder will scatter around. Porous TiO2 sheets were, therefore, manufactured using fluorine resin as a binder. The sheets were used to have removed successfully NOx, SO2 and low-grade aldehyde with concentrations from 0.01 to 10 ppm (corresponding to gases discharged from a tunnel). Since the catalyst can function even under solar light, it can remove NOx during daytime, and can be regenerated by precipitation (passive environment purification). The catalyst was verified effective when used on roads in urban areas. 16 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Comparison of the rationale used in setting occupational exposure standards for ionizing radiation and hazardous chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.

    1986-12-01

    Ten chemicals which create significant occupational hazard are reviewed. They are toluene diisocyanate, hydrogen fluoride, n-hexane, carbon disulphide, cadmium, inorganic mercury, cobalt, nitroglycerol, silica and vinyl chloride. Each is discussed under the headings of physiological intake and elimination in humans, characteristics of acute and chronic toxicity, sites of occupational exposure and rationale for limits of such exposure. Since radioactive substances yield ionizing radiation as the common hazard the treatment of the current permissible levels of exposure is somewhat simpler. Having set out industrial standards for exposure to hazardous substances and radionuclides, a detailed comparison is made. Exposure limits to ioninzing radiation are sufficiently low to remove the appearance of directly related injury. It is expected however that low level exposure may have a stochastic effect, that is, there is the possibility of a slightly increased incidence of neoplasms in a large exposed population, but numbers will be too small to be able to attribute any particular case to the exposure. TLVs on the other hand, depending on the particular chemical, may be high enough in the workplace to permit some directly related signs or symptoms in the exposed individual. 244 refs

  10. [Application of predictive model to estimate concentrations of chemical substances in the work environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Czerczak, Sławomir; Jakubowski, Marek; Maciaszek, Piotr; Janasik, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure (EASE) predictive model implemented into the European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances (EUSES 2.1.), the exposure to three chosen organic solvents: toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone was estimated and compared with the results of measurements in workplaces. Prior to validation, the EASE model was pretested using three exposure scenarios. The scenarios differed in the decision tree of pattern of use. Five substances were chosen for the test: 1,4-dioxane tert-methyl-butyl ether, diethylamine, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and bisphenol A. After testing the EASE model, the next step was the validation by estimating the exposure level and comparing it with the results of measurements in the workplace. We used the results of measurements of toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone concentrations in the work environment of a paint and lacquer factory, a shoe factory and a refinery. Three types of exposure scenarios, adaptable to the description of working conditions were chosen to estimate inhalation exposure. Comparison of calculated exposure to toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone with measurements in workplaces showed that model predictions are comparable with the measurement results. Only for low concentration ranges, the measured concentrations were higher than those predicted. EASE is a clear, consistent system, which can be successfully used as an additional component of inhalation exposure estimation. If the measurement data are available, they should be preferred to values estimated from models. In addition to inhalation exposure estimation, the EASE model makes it possible not only to assess exposure-related risk but also to predict workers' dermal exposure.

  11. CRIM-TRACK: Sensor System for Detection of Criminal Chemical Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Jens Kristian; Buus, Ole Thomsen; Larsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    of such technology. CRIM-TRACK is developing a sensing device based on these requirements. We engage highly skilled specialists from research institutions, industry, SMEs and LEAs and rely on a team of end users to benefit maximally from our prototypes. Currently we can detect minute quantities of drugs, explosives...... our ability to detect threat compounds amidst harmless substances improves. Different end users prefer their equipment optimized for their specific field. In an explosives-detecting scenario, the end user may prefer false positives over false negatives, while the opposite may be true in a drug...

  12. A Chemical Risk Ranking and Scoring Method for the Selection of Harmful Substances to be Specially Controlled in Occupational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Saemi; Moon, Hyung-Il; Lee, Kwon Seob; Hong, Mun Ki; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to devise a method for prioritizing hazardous chemicals for further regulatory action. To accomplish this objective, we chose appropriate indicators and algorithms. Nine indicators from the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals were used to identify categories to which the authors assigned numerical scores. Exposure indicators included handling volume, distribution, and exposure level. To test the method devised by this study, sixty-two harmful substances controlled by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in Korea, including acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and styrene were ranked using this proposed method. The correlation coefficients between total score and each indicator ranged from 0.160 to 0.641, and those between total score and hazard indicators ranged from 0.603 to 0.641. The latter were higher than the correlation coefficients between total score and exposure indicators, which ranged from 0.160 to 0.421. Correlations between individual indicators were low (−0.240 to 0.376), except for those between handling volume and distribution (0.613), suggesting that each indicator was not strongly correlated. The low correlations between each indicator mean that the indicators and independent and were well chosen for prioritizing harmful chemicals. This method proposed by this study can improve the cost efficiency of chemical management as utilized in occupational regulatory systems. PMID:25419874

  13. A Chemical Risk Ranking and Scoring Method for the Selection of Harmful Substances to be Specially Controlled in Occupational Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saemi Shin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to devise a method for prioritizing hazardous chemicals for further regulatory action. To accomplish this objective, we chose appropriate indicators and algorithms. Nine indicators from the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals were used to identify categories to which the authors assigned numerical scores. Exposure indicators included handling volume, distribution, and exposure level. To test the method devised by this study, sixty-two harmful substances controlled by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in Korea, including acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and styrene were ranked using this proposed method. The correlation coefficients between total score and each indicator ranged from 0.160 to 0.641, and those between total score and hazard indicators ranged from 0.603 to 0.641. The latter were higher than the correlation coefficients between total score and exposure indicators, which ranged from 0.160 to 0.421. Correlations between individual indicators were low (−0.240 to 0.376, except for those between handling volume and distribution (0.613, suggesting that each indicator was not strongly correlated. The low correlations between each indicator mean that the indicators and independent and were well chosen for prioritizing harmful chemicals. This method proposed by this study can improve the cost efficiency of chemical management as utilized in occupational regulatory systems.

  14. 77 FR 25235 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    .... discusses a procedure companies may use to ascertain whether a proposed use constitutes a significant new...-00-2, P-00-5, and P-00-6 Chemical names: Polymeric MDI based polyurethanes (generic). CAS numbers...

  15. 78 FR 69131 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Chattem Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...-Anilino-N-phenethyl-4-piperidine (8333).. II Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw..., or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Chattem Chemicals, Inc., to ensure that...

  16. 78 FR 5498 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Chattem Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...-Anilino-N-phenethyl-4-piperidine (8333).. II Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw... treaties, conventions, or protocols in effect on May 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Chattem Chemicals, Inc...

  17. Predictive Models and Tools for Assessing Chemicals under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed databases and predictive models to help evaluate the hazard, exposure, and risk of chemicals released to the environment and how workers, the general public, and the environment may be exposed to and affected by them.

  18. 78 FR 4446 - Exempt Chemical Preparations Under the Controlled Substances Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... TOXI-LAB DISCS LTD HD Plastic vial: 50 discs... 12/22/2011 Agilent Technologies TOXI-LAB DISCS LTD OP... Chemicals, Inc... (+)-iodo-Lysergic Acid Vial: 1 mL 12/22/2011 diethylamide [125I]. American Radiolabeled.../2011 (1 mg/mL). American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc... Lysergic Acid (1 mg/mL)........ Vial: 1 mL 12...

  19. The relevance of the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemical substances and its role in contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Busani, Luca; Tait, Sabrina; La Rocca, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Food may be contaminated with many chemical substances at any level along the production chain. Chemicals that may be found in food items can simultaneously be present in other matrices, as air, water, soil and dust; therefore, human exposure to chemicals via food has to be summed to the exposure through all the other possible routes. The role played by the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemicals assumes amplified proportions when considering contaminated sites. Indeed the link between environment and food production is undeniable and consequently, when population chemical exposure is considered, an integrated approach assessing the contribution of the different routes of exposure, including dietary exposure, is needed. Such integrated approach allows a realistic and comprehensive risk assessment of chemical substances in order to identify and deploy effective prevention and intervention measures to protect human health.

  20. Online test purchased new psychoactive substances in 5 different European countries: A snapshot study of chemical composition and price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Tibor Markus; Atkinson, Amanda Marie; Nefau, Thomas; Martinez, Magali; Lahaie, Emmanuel; Malzcewski, Artur; Pazitny, Martin; Belackova, Vendula; Brandt, Simon D

    2017-06-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) are on offer worldwide online, in order to shed light on the purity and price of these substances in the European Union, a research collaboration was set up involving France, United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands, Czech Republic and Poland. Per country, around 10 different NPS were test purchased from different webshops. Then, chemical analysis of NPS was done with according reference standards to identify and quantify the contents. In contrast to what is generally advertised on the webshops (>99%), purity varied considerably per test purchased NPS. Several NPS were mislabelled, some containing chemical analogues (e.g. 25B/C-NBOMe instead of 25I-NBOMe, pentedrone instead of 3,4-DMMC). But in some cases NPS differed substantially from what was advertised (e.g. pentedrone instead of AMT or 3-FMC instead of 5-MeO-DALT). Per gram, purity-adjusted prices of cathinones differed substantially between three countries of test purchase, with Poland being the least expensive. Synthetic cannabinoids were relatively the most expensive in the Czech Republic and least expensive in the UK. The current findings provides a snapshot of the price and chemical contents of NPS products purchased by different countries and in different webshops. There is a potential danger of mislabelling of NPS. The great variety in price and purity of the delivered products might be the result of the market dynamics of supply and demand and the role of law enforcement in different European countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Substance Use Initiation and Suicide Ideation and Attempts among School-Aged Adolescents in Four Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa. The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  2. Initial chemical transport of reducing elements and chemical reactions in oxide cathode base metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquais, J.M.; Poret, F.; Doze, R. le; Dufour, P.; Steinbrunn, A.

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, the formation of compounds associated to the diffusion of reducing elements (Mg and Al) to the nickel surface of a one-piece oxide cathode has been studied. Those compounds have been evidenced after the annealing steps at high temperature performed on cathode base metal prior to the emitting coating deposition. Therefore, they form the ''initial'' interface between the nickel and the coating, in other words, the interface existing at the beginning of cathode life. Extensive analysis to characterize the nickel base prior to coating deposition has been performed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). TEM and AES analysis have allowed to identify for the first time a spinel compound of MgAl 2 O 4 . The preferential distribution of the different compounds on the nickel surface has been studied by EDX mapping. Experimental profiles of diffusion of the reducing elements in the nickel have been obtained over the entire thickness of the material by GDOES. The mechanism of formation of these compounds together with a related diffusion model are proposed

  3. Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-06-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  4. Four Chemical Trends Will Shape the Next Decade's Directions in Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kotthoff

    2018-04-01

    Mobility: A wide and dynamic distribution of short chain PFAS due to their high polarity, persistency and volatility.Substitution of regulated substances: The ban or restrictions of individual molecules will lead to a replacement with substitutes of similar concern.Increase in structural diversity of existing PFAS molecules: Introduction of e.g., hydrogens and chlorine atoms instead of fluorine, as well as branching and cross-linking lead to a high versatility of unknown target molecules.Unknown “Dark Matter”: The amount, identity, formation pathways, and transformation dynamics of polymers and PFAS precursors are largely unknown.These directions require optimized analytical setups, especially multi-methods, and semi-specific tools to determine PFAS-sum parameters in any relevant matrix.

  5. CRIM-TRACK: sensor system for detection of criminal chemical substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Jens K.; Buus, Ole T.; Larsen, Jan; Dossi, Eleftheria; Tatlow, Sol; Lässig, Lina; Sandström, Lars; Jakobsen, Mogens H.

    2015-10-01

    Detection of illegal compounds requires a reliable, selective and sensitive detection device. The successful device features automated target acquisition, identification and signal processing. It is portable, fast, user friendly, sensitive, specific, and cost efficient. LEAs are in need of such technology. CRIM-TRACK is developing a sensing device based on these requirements. We engage highly skilled specialists from research institutions, industry, SMEs and LEAs and rely on a team of end users to benefit maximally from our prototypes. Currently we can detect minute quantities of drugs, explosives and precursors thereof in laboratory settings. Using colorimetric technology we have developed prototypes that employ disposable sensing chips. Ease of operation and intuitive sensor response are highly prioritized features that we implement as we gather data to feed into machine learning. With machine learning our ability to detect threat compounds amidst harmless substances improves. Different end users prefer their equipment optimized for their specific field. In an explosives-detecting scenario, the end user may prefer false positives over false negatives, while the opposite may be true in a drug-detecting scenario. Such decisions will be programmed to match user preference. Sensor output can be as detailed as the sensor allows. The user can be informed of the statistics behind the detection, identities of all detected substances, and quantities thereof. The response can also be simplified to "yes" vs. "no". The technology under development in CRIM-TRACK will provide custom officers, police and other authorities with an effective tool to control trafficking of illegal drugs and drug precursors.

  6. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Organic substances and pharmaceuticals engineering. Petrochemistry and chemical processing of alternative feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning organic substances and pharmaceuticals engineering, petrochemistry and chemical processing of alternative feedstock. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  7. 77 FR 61117 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ...: Acrylate ester (generic). CAS number: Not available. Basis for action: The PMN states that the generic (non... acrylates, EPA predicts toxicity to aquatic organisms may occur at concentrations that exceed 50 ppb of the...-149 Chemical name: Potassium titanium oxide. CAS number: 12673-69-7. Effective date of TSCA section 5...

  8. 76 FR 38169 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... (7405M), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania... gold leaf, dyeing mixtures, antifreeze mixtures, extraction of resins and waxes, preservative for...: June 21, 2011. Maria J. Doa, Director, Chemical Control Division, Office of Pollution Prevention and...

  9. 40 CFR 710.46 - Chemical substances for which information is not required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... been hydrolyzed, depolymerized, or otherwise chemically modified, except in cases where the intended... Castor oil, hydrogenated 8001-79-4 Castor oil 8002-03-7 Peanut oil 8002-13-9 Rape oil 8002-43-5 Lecithins... Charcoal, bone 8029-43-4 Syrups, hydrolyzed starch 9004-53-9 Dextrin 9005-25-8 Starch 9050-36-6...

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis in root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carneiro Valera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. Material and Methods: Seventy-two human tooth roots were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days. The groups were divided according to the auxiliary chemical substance into: G1 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, G2 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX, G3 castor oil, G4 glycolic Aloe vera extract, G5 glycolic ginger extract, and G6 sterile saline (control. The samples of the root canal were collected at different intervals: confirmation collection, at 21 days after contamination; 1st collection, after instrumentation; and 2nd collection, seven days after instrumentation. Microbiological samples were grown in culture medium and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Results: The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn (5% statistical tests. NaOCl and CHX completely eliminated the microorganisms of the root canals. Castor oil and ginger significantly reduced the number of CFU of the tested bacteria. Reduction of CFU/mL at the 1st and 2nd collections for groups G1, G2, G3 and G4 was greater in comparison to groups G5 and G6. Conclusion: It was concluded that 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gel were more effective in eliminating C. albicans and E. faecalis, followed by the castor oil and glycolic ginger extract. The Aloe vera extract showed no antimicrobial activity.

  11. Raising awareness of new psychoactive substances: chemical analysis and in vitro toxicity screening of 'legal high' packages containing synthetic cathinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ana Margarida; Valente, Maria João; Carvalho, Márcia; Dias da Silva, Diana; Gaspar, Helena; Carvalho, Félix; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2015-05-01

    The world's status quo on recreational drugs has dramatically changed in recent years due to the rapid emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), represented by new narcotic or psychotropic drugs, in pure form or in preparation, which are not controlled by international conventions, but that may pose a public health threat comparable with that posed by substances listed in these conventions. These NPS, also known as 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs', are typically sold via Internet or 'smartshops' as legal alternatives to controlled substances, being announced as 'bath salts' and 'plant feeders' and is often sought after for consumption especially among young people. Although NPS have the biased reputation of being safe, the vast majority has hitherto not been tested and several fatal cases have been reported, namely for synthetic cathinones, with pathological patterns comparable with amphetamines. Additionally, the unprecedented speed of appearance and distribution of the NPS worldwide brings technical difficulties in the development of analytical procedures and risk assessment in real time. In this study, 27 products commercialized as 'plant feeders' were chemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was also evaluated, for the first time, the in vitro hepatotoxic effects of individual synthetic cathinones, namely methylone, pentedrone, 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Two commercial mixtures ('Bloom' and 'Blow') containing mainly cathinone derivatives were also tested, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was used as the reference drug. The study allowed the identification of 19 compounds, showing that synthetic cathinones are the main active compounds present in these products. Qualitative and quantitative variability was found in products sold with the same trade name in matching or different 'smartshops'. In the toxicity studies performed in

  12. Use of computer-assisted prediction of toxic effects of chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon-Hettich, Brigitte; Rothfuss, Andreas; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The current revision of the European policy for the evaluation of chemicals (REACH) has lead to a controversy with regard to the need of additional animal safety testing. To avoid increases in animal testing but also to save time and resources, alternative in silico or in vitro tests for the assessment of toxic effects of chemicals are advocated. The draft of the original document issued in 29th October 2003 by the European Commission foresees the use of alternative methods but does not give further specification on which methods should be used. Computer-assisted prediction models, so-called predictive tools, besides in vitro models, will likely play an essential role in the proposed repertoire of 'alternative methods'. The current discussion has urged the Advisory Committee of the German Toxicology Society to present its position on the use of predictive tools in toxicology. Acceptable prediction models already exist for those toxicological endpoints which are based on well-understood mechanism, such as mutagenicity and skin sensitization, whereas mechanistically more complex endpoints such as acute, chronic or organ toxicities currently cannot be satisfactorily predicted. A potential strategy to assess such complex toxicities will lie in their dissection into models for the different steps or pathways leading to the final endpoint. Integration of these models should result in a higher predictivity. Despite these limitations, computer-assisted prediction tools already today play a complementary role for the assessment of chemicals for which no data is available or for which toxicological testing is impractical due to the lack of availability of sufficient compounds for testing. Furthermore, predictive tools offer support in the screening and the subsequent prioritization of compound for further toxicological testing, as expected within the scope of the European REACH program. This program will also lead to the collection of high-quality data which will broaden the

  13. Substance use, symptom, and employment outcomes of persons with a workplace mandate for chemical dependency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisner, Constance; Lu, Yun; Hinman, Agatha; Monahan, John; Bonnie, Richard J; Moore, Charles D; Chi, Felicia W; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the role of workplace mandates to chemical dependency treatment in treatment adherence, alcohol and drug abstinence, severity of employment problems, and severity of psychiatric problems. The sample included 448 employed members of a private, nonprofit U.S. managed care health plan who entered chemical dependency treatment with a workplace mandate (N=75) or without one (N=373); 405 of these individuals were followed up at one year (N=70 and N=335, respectively), and 362 participated in a five-year follow up (N=60 and N=302, respectively). Propensity scores predicting receipt of a workplace mandate were calculated. Logistic regression and ordinary least-squares regression were used to predict length of stay in chemical dependency treatment, alcohol and drug abstinence, and psychiatric and employment problem severity at one and five years. Overall, participants with a workplace mandate had one- and five-year outcomes similar to those without such a mandate. Having a workplace mandate also predicted longer treatment stays and improvement in employment problems. When other factors related to outcomes were controlled for, having a workplace mandate predicted abstinence at one year, with length of stay as a mediating variable. Workplace mandates can be an effective mechanism for improving work performance and other outcomes. Study participants who had a workplace mandate were more likely than those who did not have a workplace mandate to be abstinent at follow-up, and they did as well in treatment, both short and long term. Pressure from the workplace likely gets people to treatment earlier and provides incentives for treatment adherence.

  14. Substance Use, Symptom, and Employment Outcomes of Persons With a Workplace Mandate for Chemical Dependency Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisner, Constance; Lu, Yun; Hinman, Agatha; Monahan, John; Bonnie, Richard J.; Moore, Charles D.; Chi, Felicia W.; Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examined the role of workplace mandates to chemical dependency treatment in treatment adherence, alcohol and drug abstinence, severity of employment problems, and severity of psychiatric problems. Methods The sample included 448 employed members of a private, nonprofit U.S. managed care health plan who entered chemical dependency treatment with a workplace mandate (N=75) or without one (N=373); 405 of these individuals were followed up at one year (N=70 and N=335, respectively), and 362 participated in a five-year follow up (N=60 and N=302, respectively). Propensity scores predicting receipt of a workplace mandate were calculated. Logistic regression and ordinary least-squares regression were used to predict length of stay in chemical dependency treatment, alcohol and drug abstinence, and psychiatric and employment problem severity at one and five years. Results Overall, participants with a workplace mandate had one- and five-year outcomes similar to those without such a mandate. Having a workplace mandate also predicted longer treatment stays and improvement in employment problems. When other factors related to outcomes were controlled for, having a workplace mandate predicted abstinence at one year, with length of stay as a mediating variable. Conclusions Workplace mandates can be an effective mechanism for improving work performance and other outcomes. Study participants who had a workplace mandate were more likely than those who did not have a workplace mandate to be abstinent at follow-up, and they did as well in treatment, both short and long term. Pressure from the workplace likely gets people to treatment earlier and provides incentives for treatment adherence. PMID:19411353

  15. Role of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in the Surface Chemical Reactivity of Hymenobacter aerophilus, a Psychrotolerant Bacterium▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M. G.; Lalonde, S. V.; Konhauser, K. O.; Foght, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial surface layers, such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), are known to play an important role in metal sorption and biomineralization; however, there have been very few studies investigating how environmentally induced changes in EPS production affect the cell's surface chemistry and reactivity. Acid-base titrations, cadmium adsorption assays, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to characterize the surface reactivities of Hymenobacter aerophilus cells with intact EPS (WC) or stripped of EPS (SC) and purified EPS alone. Linear programming modeling of titration data showed SC to possess functional groups corresponding to phosphoryl (pKa ∼6.5), phosphoryl/amine (pKa ∼7.9), and amine/hydroxyl (pKa ∼9.9). EPS and WC both possess carboxyl groups (pKa ∼5.1 to 5.8) in addition to phosphoryl and amine groups. FT-IR confirmed the presence of polysaccharides and protein in purified EPS that can account for the additional carboxyl groups. An increased ligand density was observed for WC relative to that for SC, leading to an increase in the amount of Cd adsorbed (0.53 to 1.73 mmol/liter per g [dry weight] and 0.53 to 0.59 mmol/liter per g [dry weight], respectively). Overall, the presence of EPS corresponds to an increase in the number and type of functional groups on the surface of H. aerophilus that is reflected by increased metal adsorption relative to that for EPS-free cells. PMID:19915039

  16. Role of extracellular polymeric substances in the surface chemical reactivity of Hymenobacter aerophilus, a psychrotolerant bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M G; Lalonde, S V; Konhauser, K O; Foght, J M

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial surface layers, such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), are known to play an important role in metal sorption and biomineralization; however, there have been very few studies investigating how environmentally induced changes in EPS production affect the cell's surface chemistry and reactivity. Acid-base titrations, cadmium adsorption assays, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to characterize the surface reactivities of Hymenobacter aerophilus cells with intact EPS (WC) or stripped of EPS (SC) and purified EPS alone. Linear programming modeling of titration data showed SC to possess functional groups corresponding to phosphoryl (pKa approximately 6.5), phosphoryl/amine (pKa approximately 7.9), and amine/hydroxyl (pKa approximately 9.9). EPS and WC both possess carboxyl groups (pKa approximately 5.1 to 5.8) in addition to phosphoryl and amine groups. FT-IR confirmed the presence of polysaccharides and protein in purified EPS that can account for the additional carboxyl groups. An increased ligand density was observed for WC relative to that for SC, leading to an increase in the amount of Cd adsorbed (0.53 to 1.73 mmol/liter per g [dry weight] and 0.53 to 0.59 mmol/liter per g [dry weight], respectively). Overall, the presence of EPS corresponds to an increase in the number and type of functional groups on the surface of H. aerophilus that is reflected by increased metal adsorption relative to that for EPS-free cells.

  17. Improved detection of chemical substances from colorimetric sensor data using probabilistic machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølgaard, Lasse L.; Buus, Ole T.; Larsen, Jan; Babamoradi, Hamid; Thygesen, Ida L.; Laustsen, Milan; Munk, Jens Kristian; Dossi, Eleftheria; O'Keeffe, Caroline; Lässig, Lina; Tatlow, Sol; Sandström, Lars; Jakobsen, Mogens H.

    2017-05-01

    We present a data-driven machine learning approach to detect drug- and explosives-precursors using colorimetric sensor technology for air-sampling. The sensing technology has been developed in the context of the CRIM-TRACK project. At present a fully- integrated portable prototype for air sampling with disposable sensing chips and automated data acquisition has been developed. The prototype allows for fast, user-friendly sampling, which has made it possible to produce large datasets of colorimetric data for different target analytes in laboratory and simulated real-world application scenarios. To make use of the highly multi-variate data produced from the colorimetric chip a number of machine learning techniques are employed to provide reliable classification of target analytes from confounders found in the air streams. We demonstrate that a data-driven machine learning method using dimensionality reduction in combination with a probabilistic classifier makes it possible to produce informative features and a high detection rate of analytes. Furthermore, the probabilistic machine learning approach provides a means of automatically identifying unreliable measurements that could produce false predictions. The robustness of the colorimetric sensor has been evaluated in a series of experiments focusing on the amphetamine pre-cursor phenylacetone as well as the improvised explosives pre-cursor hydrogen peroxide. The analysis demonstrates that the system is able to detect analytes in clean air and mixed with substances that occur naturally in real-world sampling scenarios. The technology under development in CRIM-TRACK has the potential as an effective tool to control trafficking of illegal drugs, explosive detection, or in other law enforcement applications.

  18. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Airline Pilots seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment: An Initial Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has begun to examine the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as it is believed that targeting these core beliefs in treatment may result in improved substance use outcomes. One special population that has received scant attention in the research literature, despite high levels of substance use, is airline pilots. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of a sample of airline pilots ( n = 64) who were seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence and whether they differed in early maladaptive schemas from non-pilot substance abusers who were also seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence ( n = 45). Pre-existing medical records from patients of a residential substance abuse treatment facility were reviewed for the current study. Of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, results demonstrated that pilots scored higher than non-pilots on the early maladaptive schema of unrelenting standards (high internalized standards of behavior), whereas non-pilots scored higher on insufficient self-control (low frustration tolerance and self-control). Early maladaptive schemas may be a relevant treatment target for substance abuse treatment seeking pilots and non-pilots.

  19. Top five industries resulting in injuries from acute chemical incidents—Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayana R; Wu, Jennifer

    2015-04-10

    Because industries using and/or producing chemicals are located in close proximity to populated areas, U.S. residents are at risk for unintentional chemical exposures. 1999-2008. The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical releases and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such releases. This report summarizes data for the top five industries resulting in injuries from an acute chemical incident (lasting truck transportation, educational services, chemical manufacturing, utilities, and food manufacturing) accounted for approximately one third of all incidents in which persons were injured as a result of unintentional release of chemicals; the same five industries were responsible for approximately one third of all persons injured as a result of such releases. Acute chemical incidents in these five industries resulted in serious public health implications including the need for evacuations, morbidity, and mortality. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Targeting chemical incident prevention and preparedness activities towards these five industries provides an efficient use of resources for reducing chemical exposures. A variety of methods can be used to minimize chemical releases in industries. One example is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's hierarchy of controls model, which focuses on controlling exposures to occupational hazards. The hierarchy includes elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment.

  20. A comparison of partial order technique with three methods of multi-criteria analysis for ranking of chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Dorte; Brüggemann, Rainer; Sørensen, Peter; Carlsen, Lars; Nielsen, Ole John

    2002-01-01

    An alternative to the often cumbersome and time-consuming risk assessments of chemical substances could be more reliable and advanced priority setting methods. An elaboration of the simple scoring methods is provided by Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT) and/or Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA). The present study provides an in depth evaluation of HDT relative to three MCA techniques. The new and main methodological step in the comparison is the use of probability concepts based on mathematical tools such as linear extensions of partially ordered sets and Monte Carlo simulations. A data set consisting of 12 High Production Volume Chemicals (HPVCs) is used for illustration. It is a paradigm in this investigation to claim that the need of external input (often subjective weightings of criteria) should be minimized and that the transparency should be maximized in any multicriteria prioritisation. The study illustrates that the Hasse diagram technique (HDT) needs least external input, is most transparent and is least subjective. However, HDT has some weaknesses if there are criteria which exclude each other. Then weighting is needed. Multi-Criteria Analysis (i.e. Utility Function approach, PROMETHEE and concordance analysis) can deal with such mutual exclusions because their formalisms to quantify preferences allow participation e.g. weighting of criteria. Consequently MCA include more subjectivity and loose transparency. The recommendation which arises from this study is that the first step in decision making is to run HDT and as the second step possibly is to run one of the MCA algorithms.

  1. Chemical Composition and Labeling of Substances Marketed as Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators and Sold via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Eichner, Amy; Bhasin, Shalender; Deuster, Patricia A; Eichner, Daniel

    2017-11-28

    Recent reports have described the increasing use of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators, which have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), to enhance appearance and performance. The composition and purity of such products is not known. To determine the chemical identity and the amounts of ingredients in dietary supplements and products marketed and sold through the internet as selective androgen receptor modulators and compare the analyzed contents with product labels. Web-based searches were performed from February 18, 2016, to March 25, 2016, using the Google search engine on the Chrome and Internet Explorer web browsers to identify suppliers selling selective androgen receptor modulators. The products were purchased and the identities of the compounds and their amounts were determined from April to August 2016 using chain-of-custody and World Anti-Doping Association-approved analytical procedures. Analytical findings were compared against the label information. Products marketed and sold as selective androgen receptor modulators. Chemical identities and the amount of ingredients in each product marketed and sold as selective androgen receptor modulators. Among 44 products marketed and sold as selective androgen receptor modulators, only 23 (52%) contained 1 or more selective androgen receptor modulators (Ostarine, LGD-4033, or Andarine). An additional 17 products (39%) contained another unapproved drug, including the growth hormone secretagogue ibutamoren, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ agonist GW501516, and the Rev-ErbA agonist SR9009. Of the 44 tested products, no active compound was detected in 4 (9%) and substances not listed on the label were contained in 11 (25%). In only 18 of the 44 products (41%), the amount of active compound in the product matched that listed on the label. The amount of the compounds listed on the label differed substantially from that found by analysis in 26 of 44 products

  2. Girls Just Want to Know Where to Have Fun: Preventing Substance Use Initiation in an Under-Resourced Community in South Africa Through HealthWise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Linda; Wegner, Lisa; Smith, Edward; Jones, Damon

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how the perception of the availability of leisure opportunities may prevent substance use initiation through HealthWise, a school-based program focused on reducing risky behavior. In this study, we specifically focused on whether HealthWise increased student perceptions of leisure opportunities between 8th grade and 10th grade (N = 5610) in an under-resourced community in South Africa. Path analyses were used to test hypotheses. Given gender differences in substance use patterns, societal norms, and leisure opportunities in under-resourced communities, such as the townships of Cape Town, South Africa, it was especially important to examine associations within each gender. Results suggested that HealthWise directly reduced the likelihood of initiating alcohol and cigarette use and increased the amount of perceived leisure opportunities among girls but not boys. Perceived leisure opportunities mediated the effect of HealthWise on reducing the initiation of alcohol and cigarette use directly, and marijuana use indirectly, among girls but not boys. This is the first study to demonstrate how experimentally targeting leisure through an intervention can increase perceived leisure opportunities and thereby prevent early substance use initiation for a specific population. The importance of considering the context of gender, age, and location is discussed. PMID:27129478

  3. Review of the state of the art of human biomonitoring for chemical substances and its application to human exposure assessment for food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Judy; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Polcher, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the levels of substances in body fluids and tissues. Many countries have conducted HBM studies, yet little is known about its application towards chemical risk assessment, particularly in relation to food safety. Therefore a literature search was performed...... in several databases and conference proceedings for 2002 – 2014. Definitions of HBM and biomarkers, HBM techniques and requirements, and the possible application to the different steps of risk assessment were described. The usefulness of HBM for exposure assessment of chemical substances from food source...... safety areas (namely exposure assessment), and for the implementation of a systematic PMM approach. But further work needs to be done to improve usability. Major deficits are the lack of HBM guidance values on a considerable number of substance groups, for which health based guidance values (HBGVs) have...

  4. Different scale experimental techniques to approach the problem of substances generated in the loss of control of chemical systems: a study on ethyl diazoacetate decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsanich, K.; Barontini, F.; Cozzani, V.; Creemers, A.F.L.; Kersten, R.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Article 2 of European Community Directive 96/82/EC (known as 'Seveso-II' Directive) also requires consideration in the plant inventory of the dangerous substances 'which it is believed may be generated in the loss of control of an industrial chemical process'. The present study was directed to the

  5. History of the occupational exposure to chemical substances in workers with laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Padron, Heliodora; Jova Rodriguez, Mario Candido; Rabelo Padua, Gladys

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study was realized to 400 patients, 200 of them histologically confirmed as incident cases of larynx cancer by the National Institute for Oncology and Radiobiology of Havana, and the others 200 as controls, coming from another hospitals. A survey was applied to both groups, collecting every theirs worker histories with emphasis on occupational exposure, that were codified by an expert group taking into account the carcinogens present according to the guided code of the Epidemiological Units of Environmental Cancer and the Fields Studies and Intervention of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). According to the results obtained, all the patients, cases and controls, presented 1 526 tasks in their labour histories, that represented an average greater than 3 tasks for each one of them. They main activities were in the agriculture, the defence and the sugar cane industry. The most predominant exposures were to the abrasive dusts, motor emissions, mists of mineral oils, gasoline/petroleum/diesel/kerosene and pesticides. In general, the valuation of the chemical risk was considered of low intensity, 1-5% of the real time to the exposure and all had the certain probability of the agent's aggressor presence.

  6. Changes in the strength of peer influence and cultural factors on substance use initiation between late adolescence and emerging adulthood in a Hispanic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Timothy J; Forster, Myriam; Soto, Daniel W; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-01-01

    We examine whether peer substance use and cultural factors differentially influence the initiation of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use in adolescence and emerging adulthood (EA) among a community-based sample of Hispanics. Participants provided data in 11th grade (M = 16.8 years old, SD = 0.54) and emerging adulthood (M = 20.3 years old, SD = 0.6). Peer tobacco use had a stronger association with initiation of tobacco use in emerging adulthood (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.89) than in adolescence (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.40), but this pattern was not observed with initiation of alcohol or marijuana use. Cultural orientation is associated with initiation of tobacco use during EA but not with initiation of alcohol or marijuana use.

  7. Application of Social Control Theory to Examine Parent, Teacher, and Close Friend Attachment and Substance Use Initiation among Korean Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Lee, DongHun

    2016-01-01

    Based on Hirschi's social control theory (1969), this study examined the relationship between attachment (an element of social bonds) and the onset of substance use among South Korean adolescents. Using discrete-time logistic regression, the study investigated how attachment to parents, teachers, and close friends was associated with the timing of…

  8. Detection of chemical substances in water using an oxide nanowire transistor covered with a hydrophobic nanoparticle thin film as a liquid-vapour separation filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekyung Lim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a method to detect the presence of small amounts of chemical substances in water, using a Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film covered with phosphonic acid (HDF-PA self-assembled monolayer. The HDF-PA self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film acts as a liquid-vapour separation filter, allowing the passage of chemical vapour while blocking liquids. Prevention of the liquid from contacting the SnO2 nanowire and source-drain electrodes is required in order to avoid abnormal operation. Using this characteristic, the concentration of chemical substances in water could be evaluated by measuring the current changes in the SnO2 nanowire transistor covered with the HDF-PA self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film.

  9. Chemical characterization of fractions of dissolved humic substances from a marginal sea—a case from the Southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoling; Yang, Keli; Du, Jinzhou; Zhang, Fenfen; Dong, Yaping; Li, Wu

    2018-03-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the largest dynamic pools of organic carbon in the global carbon cycle, yet DOM is still chemically poorly characterized. To better understand the origin, composition, and cycling of DOM in the China marginal sea, dissolved humic substances (DHS) were isolated from seawaters in two locations in the Southern Yellow Sea. The DHS were subdivided into fulvic acids (FAs), humic acids (HAs) and the XAD-4 fractions. Complementary analytical approaches were used to characterize the isolated DHS samples including stable carbon isotopic composition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The results demonstrated that both DHS samples encountered the influences from marine source, indicating that algal and microbial-derived materials are the predominant precursors for the studied samples. The three fractions of DHS showed different properties. FAs presented more aromatic features, whereas HAs contained more aliphatic lipids and proteinaceous materials. The XAD-4 fractions were enriched in 13C and contained more carbohydrates but less aromatic compounds. The lower molecular weight and higher heteroatom content and number of carboxyl groups for the XAD-4 fractions may give them considerable geochemical significance for aspects of trace metal species, bioavailability of pollutants, mineral weathering and water acidification in marine environments.

  10. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates to Initial Platform Chemicals: Chemistry and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, László T; Cséfalvay, Edit; Németh, Áron

    2018-01-24

    The replacement of fossil resources that currently provide more than 90% of our energy needs and feedstocks of the chemical industry in combination with reduced emission of carbon dioxide is one of the most pressing challenges of mankind. Biomass as a globally available resource has been proposed as an alternative feedstock for production of basic building blocks, which could partially or even fully replace the currently utilized fossil-based ones in well-established chemical processes. The destruction of lignocellulosic feed followed by oxygen removal from its cellulose and hemicellulose content by catalytic processes results in the formation of initial platform chemicals (IPCs). However, their sustainable production strongly depends on the availability of resources, their efficient or even industrially viable conversion processes, and replenishment time of feedstocks. Herein, we overview recent advances and developments in catalytic transformations of the carbohydrate content of lignocellulosic biomass to IPCs (i.e., ethanol, 3-hydroxypropionic acid, isoprene, succinic and levulinic acids, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural). The mechanistic aspects, development of new catalysts, different efficiency indicators (yield and selectivity), and conversion conditions of their production are presented and compared. The potential biochemical production routes utilizing recently engineered microorganisms are reviewed, as well. The sustainability metrics that could be applied to the chemical industry (individual set of sustainability indicators, composite indices methods, material and energy flow analysis-based metrics, and ethanol equivalents) are also overviewed as well as an outlook is provided to highlight challenges and opportunities associated with this huge research area.

  11. Thermal chemical-mechanical reactive flow model of shock initiation in solid explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, A.L. III; Tarver, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The three dimensional Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian hydrodynamic computer code ALE3D with fully coupled thermal-chemical-mechanical material models provides the framework for the development of a physically realistic model of shock initiation and detonation of solid explosives. The processes of hot spot formation during shock compression, subsequent ignition of reaction or failure to react, growth of reaction in individual hot spots, and coalescence of reacting hot spots during the transition to detonation can now be modeled using Arrhenius chemical kinetic rate laws and heat transfer to propagate the reactive flow. This paper discusses the growth rates of reacting hot spots in HMX and TATB and their coalescence during shock to detonation transition. Hot spot deflagration rates are found to be fast enough to consume explosive particles less than 10 mm in diameter during typical shock duration times, but larger particles must fragment and create more reactive surface area in order to be rapidly consumed

  12. Fast chemical reaction in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow: initial regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Bourqui, Michel S; Bartello, Peter

    2012-04-01

    This paper studies an infinitely fast bimolecular chemical reaction in a two-dimensional biperiodic Navier-Stokes flow. The reactants in stoichiometric quantities are initially segregated by infinite gradients. The focus is placed on the initial stage of the reaction characterized by a well-defined one-dimensional material contact line between the reactants. Particular attention is given to the effect of the diffusion κ of the reactants. This study is an idealized framework for isentropic mixing in the lower stratosphere and is motivated by the need to better understand the effect of resolution on stratospheric chemistry in climate-chemistry models. Adopting a Lagrangian straining theory approach, we relate theoretically the ensemble mean of the length of the contact line, of the gradients along it, and of the modulus of the time derivative of the space-average reactant concentrations (here called the chemical speed) to the joint probability density function of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent λ with two times τ and τ[over ̃]. The time 1/λ measures the stretching time scale of a Lagrangian parcel on a chaotic orbit up to a finite time t, while τ measures it in the recent past before t, and τ[over ̃] in the early part of the trajectory. We show that the chemical speed scales like κ(1/2) and that its time evolution is determined by rare large events in the finite-time Lyapunov exponent distribution. The case of smooth initial gradients is also discussed. The theoretical results are tested with an ensemble of direct numerical simulations (DNSs) using a pseudospectral model.

  13. Primary processes initiated by nuclear transformations in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hirotoshi

    1975-01-01

    Primary processes of hot atom production initiated by nuclear transformation were discussed from past studies using Moessbauer spectroscopy. Many insulators (dielectric substances) showed various effect, such as abnormaly oxdized condition, following nuclear disintegration within the time duration of the life of Moessbauer nuclear excited state. Supposing these hot atom processes belonged to radiochemical processes, radiochemical characteristics of a certain chemical substance could be clarified by placing Moessbauer nuclide in the neighbourhood of the chemical substance to be studied. Chemical effects of disintegrated atom in the first and second composition, chemical substances produced in the surroundings of disintegrated atom, and environmental disturbance of disintegrated atom were studied and discussed. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  14. Shock-induced hotspot formation and chemical reaction initiation in PETN containing a spherical void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Tzu-Ray; Thompson, Aidan P

    2014-01-01

    We present results of reactive molecular dynamics simulations of hotspot formation and chemical reaction initiation in shock-induced compression of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) with the ReaxFF reactive force field. A supported shockwave is driven through a PETN crystal containing a 20 nm spherical void at a sub-threshold impact velocity of 2 km/s. Formation of a hotspot due to shock-induced void collapse is observed. During void collapse, NO 2 is the dominant species ejected from the upstream void surface. Once the ejecta collide with the downstream void surface and the hotspot develops, formation of final products such as N 2 and H 2 O is observed. The simulation provides a detailed picture of how void collapse and hotspot formation leads to initiation at sub-threshold impact velocities.

  15. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Plenary reports. Engineering of inorganic substances and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of inorganic substances and materials. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  16. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and other substances of concern in food contact materials: an updated review of exposure, effect and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncke, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are an underestimated source of chemical food contaminants and a potentially relevant route of human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Quantifying the exposure of the general population to substances from FCM relies on estimates of food consumption and leaching into food. Recent studies using polycarbonate plastics show that food simulants do not always predict worst-case leaching of bisphenol A, a common FCM substance. Also, exposure of children to FCM substances is not always realistically predicted using the common conventions and thus possibly misjudged. Further, the exposure of the whole population to substances leaching into dry foods is underestimated. Consumers are exposed to low levels of substances from FCM across their entire lives. Effects of these compounds currently are assessed with a focus on mutagenicity and genotoxicity. This approach however neglects integrating recent new toxicological findings, like endocrine disruption, mixture toxicity, and developmental toxicity. According to these new toxicology paradigms women of childbearing age and during pregnancy are a new sensitive population group requiring more attention. Furthermore, in overweight and obese persons a change in the metabolism of xenobiotics is observed, possibly implying that this group of consumers is insufficiently protected by current risk assessment practice. Innovations in FCM risk assessment should therefore include routine testing for EDCs and an assessment of the whole migrate toxicity of a food packaging, taking into account all sensitive population groups. In this article I focus on recent issues of interest concerning either exposure to or effects of FCM-related substances. Further, I review the use of benzophenones and organotins, two groups of known or suspected EDCs, in FCM authorized in the US and EU. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a process for continuous, radiation-chemically initiated, catalytic hydrocarboxylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laege, J.

    1980-01-01

    In the general part are treated technical preparation of aliphatic carboxylic acids and their economical importance, the hydrocarboxylation reaction and general aspects of radiation chemistry. The chapter on results of discontinuous experiments contains experiments of radiochemically initiated catalytical hydroesterification of oct-1-ene and buteneoxide. The chapter on development and arrangement of the continuously working hydrocarboxylation plant deals with the disposition of process flow sheet, single elements of and description of the plant. The chapter on results of continuous experiments describes residence time behaviour of the tube reactor, investigations on the mixing behaviour of educts, influence of residence time and reaction pressure on continuous thermal and thermal-radiochemical hydrocarboxylation. The next chapter proposes a procedure of continuous hydrobarboxylation and esterification at high pressure on an industrial scale. The experimental part presents starting materials, preparation on catalysts and reference substances, performance of discontinuous autoclave experiments, work up and investigation of reaction products, performance of continuous high pressure experiments, Co-60-source, Fricke-dosimetry and analytics. (SPI)

  18. Is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among men associated with initiation or escalation of substance use at 15-month follow-up? A longitudinal study involving young Swiss men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Tanja; Dom, Geert; van de Glind, Geurt; Studer, Joseph; Gmel, Gerhard; Strik, Werner; Moggi, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show higher substance use disorder (SUD) prevalence relative to non-ADHD controls; few longitudinal studies have examined the course of substance use with reference to conduct disorder (CD). We compared initiation and escalation of

  19. Stress corrosion crack initiation of alloy 182 weld metal in primary coolant - Influence of chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calonne, O.; Foucault, M.; Steltzlen, F. [AREVA (France); Amzallag, C. [EDF SEPTEN (France)

    2011-07-01

    Nickel-base alloys 182 and 82 have been used extensively for dissimilar metal welds. Typical applications are the J-groove welds of alloy 600 vessel head penetrations, pressurizer penetrations, heater sleeves and bottom mounted instrumented nozzles as well as some safe end butt welds. While the overall performance of these weld metals has been good, during the last decade, an increasing number of cases of stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 182 weld metal have been reported in PWRs. In this context, the role of weld defects has to be examined. Their contribution in the crack initiation mechanism requires laboratory investigations with small scale characterizations. In this study, the influence of both alloy composition and weld defects on PWSCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking in Primary Water) initiation was investigated using U-bend specimens in simulated primary water at 320 C. The main results are the following: -) the chemical compositions of the weld deposits leading to a large propensity to hot cracking are not the most susceptible to PWSCC initiation, -) macroscopically, superficial defects did not evolve during successive exposures. They can be included in large corrosion cracks but their role as 'precursors' is not yet established. (authors)

  20. Safety evaluation of food contact paper and board using chemical tests and in vitro bioassays: role of known and unknown substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkalampi-Hämäläinen, U; Bradley, E L; Castle, L; Severin, I; Dahbi, L; Dahlman, O; Lhuguenot, J-C; Andersson, M A; Hakulinen, P; Hoornstra, D; Mäki-Paakkanen, J; Salkinoja-Salonen, M; Turco, L; Stammati, A; Zucco, F; Weber, A; von Wright, A

    2010-03-01

    In vitro toxicological tests have been proposed as an approach to complement the chemical safety assessment of food contact materials, particularly those with a complex or unknown chemical composition such as paper and board. Among the concerns raised regarding the applicability of in vitro tests are the effects of interference of the extractables on the outcome of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests applied and the role of known compounds present in chemically complex materials, such as paper and board, either as constituents or contaminants. To answer these questions, a series of experiments were performed to assess the role of natural substances (wood extracts, resin acids), some additives (diisopropylnaphthalene, phthalates, acrylamide, fluorescent whitening agents) and contaminants (2,4-diaminotoluene, benzo[a]pyrene) in the toxicological profile of paper and board. These substances were individually tested or used to spike actual paper and board extracts. The toxic concentrations of diisopropylnaphthalenes and phthalates were compared with those actually detected in paper and board extracts showing conspicuous toxicity. According to the results of the spiking experiments, the extracts did not affect the toxicity of tested chemicals nor was there any significant metabolic interference in the cases where two compounds were used in tests involving xenobiotic metabolism by the target cells. While the identified substances apparently have a role in the cytotoxicity of some of the project samples, their presence does not explain the total toxicological profile of the extracts. In conclusion, in vitro toxicological testing can have a role in the safety assessment of chemically complex materials in detecting potentially harmful activities not predictable by chemical analysis alone.

  1. Effects and risks associated with novel psychoactive substances: mislabeling and sale as bath salts, spice, and research chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Nicolas; Mikus, Gerd; Czock, David

    2014-02-28

    The number of newly reported psychoactive substances in Europe is now higher than ever. In order to evade legal restrictions, old and novel psychoactive substances from medical research and their derivatives are commonly mislabeled as "not for human consumption" and offered for sale on the Internet and elsewhere. Such substances are widely taken by young people as "club drugs." Their consumption must be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric, neurological, cardiovascular, or metabolic disturbances of unclear origin in a young patient. Selective review of pertinent literature retrieved by a PubMed search, including publications by government-sponsored organizations. From 2010 to 2012, 163 substances were reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), mostly either synthetic cannabinoids (39.3%) or synthetic cathinones (16.6%). Synthetic cannabinoids alter mood and perception; intoxications cause agitation, tachy cardia, and arterial hypertension. Synthetic cathinones are hallucinogenic stimulants with predominantly cardiovascular and psychiatric side effects. Severe intoxications cause serotonin syndrome and potentially fatal rhabdomyolysis. Substances in either of these classes often escape detection in screening tests. Young persons who present with agitation and cardiovascular and/or psychiatric manifestations of unclear origin and whose drug screening tests are negative may be suffering from an intoxication with a novel psychoactive substance. Physicians should know the classes of such substances and their effects. Targeted toxicological analysis can be carried out in a toxicology laboratory or a facility for forensic medicine.

  2. The Belfast Youth Development Study (BYDS: A prospective cohort study of the initiation, persistence and desistance of substance use from adolescence to adulthood in Northern Ireland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Higgins

    Full Text Available Substance misuse persists as a major public health issue worldwide with significant costs for society. The development of interventions requires methodologically sound studies to explore substance misuse causes and consequences. This Cohort description paper outlines the design of the Belfast Youth Development (BYDS, one of the largest cohort studies of its kind in the UK. The study was established to address the need for a long-term prospective cohort study to investigate the initiation, persistence and desistance of substance use, alongside life course processes in adolescence and adulthood. The paper provides an overview of BYDS as a longitudinal data source for investigating substance misuse and outlines the study measures, sample retention and characteristics. We also outline how the BYDS data have been used to date and highlight areas ripe for future work by interested researchers.The study began in 2000/1 when participants (n = 3,834 were pupils in their first year of post-primary education (age 10/11 years, school year 8 from over 40 schools in Northern Ireland. Children were followed during the school years: Year 9 (in 2002; aged 12; n = 4,343, Year 10 (in 2003; aged 13; n = 4,522, Year 11 (in 2004; aged 14; n = 3,965 and Year 12 (in 2005; aged 15; n = 3,830 and on two more occasions: 2006/07 (aged 16/17; n = 2,335 and 2010/11 (aged 20/21; n = 2,087. Data were collected on substance use, family, schools, neighbourhoods, offending behaviour and mental health. The most novel aspect of the study was the collection of detailed social network data via friendship nominations allowing the investigation of the spread of substance use via friendship networks. In 2004 (school year 11; respondents aged 14, a sub-sample of participants' parents (n = 1,097 and siblings (n = 211 also completed measures on substance use and family dynamics.The most recent wave (in 2010/2011; respondents aged 20/21 years indicated lifetime use of alcohol, tobacco and

  3. The coordination between mechanical and chemical subsystems initiates locomotion of Physarum plasmodial fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Guy, Robert; Del Alamo, Juan Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Physarum polycephalum is a multinucleated slime mold whose endoplasm flows periodically driven by the contraction of its ectoplasm, a dense shell of F-actin cross-linked by myosin molecular motors and attached to the cell membrane. We find that physarum fragments smaller than 100 microns remain round and stay in place. However, larger fragments break symmetry leading to sustained forward locomotion, in process that is reminiscent of an interfacial instability that seems to settle around two different limit cycles (traveling waves and standing waves). We use both theory and experiments to study how coordination emerges between the different mechanical and chemical subsystems of the fragment to initiate locomotion. The role of many involved factors, such as fragment size, substratum adhesiveness, rheological properties, actin polymerization and traction stresses are investigated, and we find they agree well with our predictive model.

  4. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  5. FY98 Final Report Initial Interfacial Chemical Control for Enhancement of Composite Material Strength; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GE Fryxell; KL Alford; KL Simmons; RD Voise; WD Samuels

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) sponsored this research project to support the development of new self-assembled monolayer fiber coatings. These coatings can greatly increase the bond strength between the fiber and the resin matrix of a composite material. Composite ammunition components molded from such materials will exhibit higher strength than current materials, and will provide a major improvement in the performance of composites in military applications. Use of composite materials in military applications is desirable because of the lighter weight of the materials and their high strengths. The FY97 project investigated initial interfacial chemical control for enhancement of composite material strength. The core of the project was to modify the covalent interface of glass fibers (or other reinforcing fibers) to induce strong, uniform, defect-free adhesion between the fibers' surfaces and the polymer matrix. Installing a self-assembled monolayer tailored to the specific matrix resin accomplished this. Simply, the self-assembled monolayer modifies the fiber to make it appear to have the same chemical composition as the resin matrix. The self-assembled monolayer creates a receptive, hydrophobic interface that the thermoset resin (or polymer precursors) would wet more effectively, leading to a higher contact surface area and more efficient adhesion. The FY97 work phase demonstrated that it is possible to increase the adhesive strength, as well as increase the heat deflection temperature through the use of self-assembled monolayer

  6. Small molecules, big players: the National Cancer Institute's Initiative for Chemical Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliday, Nicola; Clemons, Paul A; Ferraiolo, Paul; Koehler, Angela N; Lewis, Timothy A; Li, Xiaohua; Schreiber, Stuart L; Gerhard, Daniela S; Eliasof, Scott

    2006-09-15

    In 2002, the National Cancer Institute created the Initiative for Chemical Genetics (ICG), to enable public research using small molecules to accelerate the discovery of cancer-relevant small-molecule probes. The ICG is a public-access research facility consisting of a tightly integrated team of synthetic and analytical chemists, assay developers, high-throughput screening and automation engineers, computational scientists, and software developers. The ICG seeks to facilitate the cross-fertilization of synthetic chemistry and cancer biology by creating a research environment in which new scientific collaborations are possible. To date, the ICG has interacted with 76 biology laboratories from 39 institutions and more than a dozen organic synthetic chemistry laboratories around the country and in Canada. All chemistry and screening data are deposited into the ChemBank web site (http://chembank.broad.harvard.edu/) and are available to the entire research community within a year of generation. ChemBank is both a data repository and a data analysis environment, facilitating the exploration of chemical and biological information across many different assays and small molecules. This report outlines how the ICG functions, how researchers can take advantage of its screening, chemistry and informatic capabilities, and provides a brief summary of some of the many important research findings.

  7. Recommendations on chemicals management policy and legislation in the framework of the Egyptian-German twinning project on hazardous substances and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Burkhard O; Aziz, Elham Refaat Abdel; Schwetje, Anja; Shouk, Fatma Abou; Koch-Jugl, Juliane; Braedt, Michael; Choudhury, Keya; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The sustainable management of chemicals and their associated wastes-especially legacy stockpiles-is always challenging. Developing countries face particular difficulties as they often have insufficient treatment and disposal capacity, have limited resources and many lack an appropriate and effective regulatory framework. This paper describes the objectives and the approach of the Egyptian-German Twinning Project under the European Neighbourhood Policy to improve the strategy of managing hazardous substances in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) between November 2008 and May 2011. It also provides an introduction to the Republic of Egypt's legal and administrative system regarding chemical controls. Subsequently, options for a new chemical management strategy consistent with the recommendations of the United Nations Chemicals Conventions are proposed. The Egyptian legal and administrative system is discussed in relation to the United Nations' recommendations and current European Union legislation for the sound management of chemicals. We also discuss a strategy for the EEAA to use the existing Egyptian legal system to implement the United Nations' Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the Stockholm Convention and other proposed regulatory frameworks. The analysis, the results, and the recommendations presented may be useful for other developing countries in a comparable position to Egypt aspiring to update their legislation and administration to the international standards of sound management of chemicals.

  8. Results of a sector-wide quality improvement initiative for substance-abuse care: an uncontrolled before-after study in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilarion, Pilar; Groene, Oliver; Colom, Joan; Lopez, Rosa M; Suñol, Rosa

    2010-10-23

    The Health Department of the Regional Government of Catalonia, Spain, issued a quality plan for substance abuse centers. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of a multidimensional quality improvement initiative in the field of substance abuse care and to discuss potentials and limitations for further quality improvement. The study uses an uncontrolled, sector-wide pre-post design. All centers providing services for persons with substance abuse issues in the Autonomous Community of Catalonia participated in this assessment. Measures of compliance were developed based on indicators reported in the literature and by broad stakeholder involvement. We compared pre-post differences in dimension-specific and overall compliance-scores using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures and the Friedman statistic. We described the spread of the data using the inter-quartile range and the Fligner-Killen statistic. Finally, we adjusted compliance scores for location and size using linear and logistic regression models. We performed a baseline and follow up assessment in 22 centers for substance abuse care and observed substantial and statistically significant improvements for overall compliance (pre: 60.9%; post: 79.1%) and for compliance in the dimensions 'care pathway' (pre: 66.5%; post: 83.5%) and 'organization and management' (pre: 50.5%; post: 77.2%). We observed improvements in the dimension 'environment and infrastructure' (pre: 81.8%; post: 95.5%) and in the dimension 'relations and user rights' (pre: 66.5%; post: 72.5%); however, these were not statistically significant. The regression analysis suggests that improvements in compliance are positively influenced by being located in the Barcelona region in case of the dimension 'relations and user rights'. The positive results of this quality improvement initiative are possibly associated with the successful involvement of stakeholders, the consciously constructed feedback reports on individual and sector

  9. Current direction, chemical, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-09-09 to 1979-11-19 (NODC Accession 8000043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and chemical data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  10. Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1978-06-02 to 1979-06-02 (NODC Accession 8000002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from June 2, 1978...

  11. Chemical, benthic organisms, zooplankton, marine toxic substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1979-08-30 to 1981-09-21 (NODC Accession 8200012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, marine toxic substances, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf...

  12. The effects of the initial mass function on the chemical evolution of elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, Carlo; Matteucci, F.; Vincenzo, F.

    2018-03-01

    We describe the use of our chemical evolution model to reproduce the abundance patterns observed in a catalogue of elliptical galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4. The model assumes ellipticals form by fast gas accretion, and suffer a strong burst of star formation followed by a galactic wind, which quenches star formation. Models with fixed initial mass function (IMF) failed in simultaneously reproducing the observed trends with the galactic mass. So, we tested a varying IMF; contrary to the diffused claim that the IMF should become bottom heavier in more massive galaxies, we find a better agreement with data by assuming an inverse trend, where the IMF goes from being bottom heavy in less massive galaxies to top heavy in more massive ones. This naturally produces a downsizing in star formation, favouring massive stars in largest galaxies. Finally, we tested the use of the integrated Galactic IMF, obtained by averaging the canonical IMF over the mass distribution function of the clusters where star formation is assumed to take place. We combined two prescriptions, valid for different SFR regimes, to obtain the Integrated Initial Mass Function values along the whole evolution of the galaxies in our models. Predicted abundance trends reproduce the observed slopes, but they have an offset relative to the data. We conclude that bottom-heavier IMFs do not reproduce the properties of the most massive ellipticals, at variance with previous suggestions. On the other hand, an IMF varying with galactic mass from bottom heavier to top heavier should be preferred.

  13. Approach to Classifying "Design" Drugs and New Potentially Dangerous Chemical Substances, with a Brief Review of the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullin, Azat R.; Galeeva, Elena Kh.; Achmetova, Elvina A.; Nikolaev, Ivan V.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of this study has become vivid in the light of the growing problem of prevalence and use of new synthetic drug types. Lately there has been a tendency of expanding the range of psychologically active substances (PAS) used by addicts with the purpose of their illegal taking. The aim of this research is an attempt of systematizing and…

  14. PREDICTING CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES FOR MINERALS AND XENOBIOTICS: USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY AND VIRTUAL REALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter we review the literature on scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (VR), and computational chemistry and our earlier work dealing with modeling lignin, lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC), humic substances (HSs) and non-bonded organo-mineral interactions...

  15. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of thermoresponsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) thin films for cell sheet engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Jiao, Alex; Yu, Seungjung; You, Jae Bem; Kim, Deok-Ho; Im, Sung Gap

    2013-08-01

    Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) is a thermoresponsive polymer known to be nontoxic, water soluble and biocompatible. Here, PNVCL homopolymer was successfully synthesized for the first time by use of a one-step vapor-phase process, termed initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that radical polymerization took place from N-vinylcaprolactam monomers without damaging the functional caprolactam ring. A sharp lower critical solution temperature transition was observed at 31°C from the iCVD poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) film. The thermoresponsive PNVCL surface exhibited a hydrophilic/hydrophobic alteration with external temperature change, which enabled the thermally modulated attachment and detachment of cells. The conformal coverage of PNVCL film on various substrates with complex topography, including fabrics and nanopatterns, was successfully demonstrated, which can further be utilized to fabricate cell sheets with aligned cell morphology. The advantage of this system is that cells cultured on such thermoresponsive surfaces could be recovered as an intact cell sheet by simply lowering the temperature, eliminating the need for conventional enzymatic treatments. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Initiated chemical vapor deposited nanoadhesive for bonding National Ignition Facility's targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tom [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-19

    Currently, the target fabrication scientists in National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is studying the propagation force resulted from laser impulses impacting a target. To best study this, they would like the adhesive used to glue the target substrates to be as thin as possible. The main objective of this research project is to create adhesive glue bonds for NIF’s targets that are ≤ 1 μm thick. Polyglycidylmethacrylate (PGMA) thin films were coated on various substrates using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Film quality studies using white light interferometry reveal that the iCVD PGMA films were smooth. The coated substrates were bonded at 150 °C under vacuum, with low inflow of Nitrogen. Success in bonding most of NIF’s mock targets at thicknesses ≤ 1 μm indicates that our process is feasible in bonding the real targets. Key parameters that are required for successful bonding were concluded from the bonding results. They include inert bonding atmosphere, sufficient contact between the PGMA films, and smooth substrates. Average bond strength of 0.60 MPa was obtained from mechanical shearing tests. The bonding failure mode of the sheared interfaces was observed to be cohesive. Future work on this project will include reattempt to bond silica aerogel to iCVD PGMA coated substrates, stabilize carbon nanotube forests with iCVD PGMA coating, and kinetics study of PGMA thermal crosslinking.

  17. Surface functionalization of 3D-printed plastics via initiated chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a useful fabrication technique because it offers design flexibility and rapid prototyping. The ability to functionalize the surfaces of 3D-printed objects allows the bulk properties, such as material strength or printability, to be chosen separately from surface properties, which is critical to expanding the breadth of 3D printing applications. In this work, we studied the ability of the initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD process to coat 3D-printed shapes composed of poly(lactic acid and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. The thermally insulating properties of 3D-printed plastics pose a challenge to the iCVD process due to large thermal gradients along the structures during processing. In this study, processing parameters such as the substrate temperature and the filament temperature were systematically varied to understand how these parameters affect the uniformity of the coatings along the 3D-printed objects. The 3D-printed objects were coated with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymers. Contact angle goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the functionalized surfaces. Our results can enable the use of iCVD to functionalize 3D-printed materials for a range of applications such as tissue scaffolds and microfluidics.

  18. An Initial Evaluation of a Comprehensive Continuing Care Intervention for Clients with Substance Use Disorders: My First Year of Recovery (MyFYR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, James R; Knepper, Cheryl; Deneke, Erin; O'Reilly, Christopher; DuPont, Robert L

    2016-08-01

    Physician health programs (PHPs) generate high rates of sustained abstinence in addicted physicians, through a combination of formal treatment, self-help involvement, regular monitoring via random urine toxicology tests, and powerful incentives generated by the threat of losing one's medical license. Recently, Caron Treatment Centers developed a new continuing care intervention, "My First Year of Recovery" (MyFYR), which is modeled after PHPs but provides extended recovery support to a broader segment of those with substance use disorders. This paper presents initial outcome data from MyFYR. MyFYR features frequent outcomes monitoring via urine toxicology tests, and also includes a web-based social platform to coordinate efforts of recovery coaches, family members, and others (e.g., employers, probation officers). Participants were the first 198 clients who enrolled in MyFYR after participating in residential treatment at Caron. Substance use outcomes were determined by a combination of urine toxicology tests, client self-report, and information from family members obtained during a 12-month period following entry into MyFYR. Clients in MyFYR provided 70% of scheduled urine samples, for an average of 16.4 urine samples per client. Only 4.1% of the samples tested positive for alcohol or any drug. As determined by urine toxicology and client and family reports, 54% of the participants had some use of alcohol or drugs during the follow-up. Of these relapsed clients, 70.1% were retained or re-engaged in MyFYR, and of these, half were able to re-establish abstinence of two months duration or more, as documented by urine toxicology. These initial results are extremely promising, as they document high rates of sustained participation in urine drug test monitoring and positive outcome in clients not under the threat of losing a professional license or incarceration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical evolution of the Galaxy at the initial rapid-collapse phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caimmi, R [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1978-04-01

    Equations for the chemical evolution of the Galaxy are derived, accounting for (i) the dynamical evolution of the Galaxy (i.e. the collapse of the proto-galaxy) and (ii) either a variable mass-spectrum in the birth-rate stellar function of the type B(m,t) = psi(t)phi(m,t), or a constant mass-spectrum with variable lower mass limit for star birth: msub(mf) = msub(mf)(Z). Simple equations are adopted for the collapse of the proto-galaxy, accounting for the experimental data (i.e. axial ratio and major semi-axis) relative to the halo and to the disk, and best fitted for a rapid collapse; gas density is assumed to be always uniform. Numerical computations of several cases show that there is qualitative agreement with the experimental data relative to the Z(t) function when: (i) the mass-spectrum is nearly constant in time: phi(m,t) approximately phi(m) = msup(-2.35); (ii) the efficiency phi(t) proportional to rhosup(..cap alpha..) is sufficiently high; moreover, the super metallic effect (SME) takes place for ..cap alpha.. greater than a given value (..cap alpha.. > approximately 1.5); (iii) the shorter the collapse time Tsub(c), the more rapid is the initial increase of metallicity, the asymptotic value being left nearly unaltered. The theoretical results are not in complete agreement with the observed data bearing on the Nsub(n)(Z) function (Nsub(n) is the number of stars whose Main-Sequence lifetime is not less than the age of the Galaxy), while a hypothesis of star formation with different efficiencies in different zones of the Galaxy, and successive stellar mixing from zone to zone, is not inconsistent with such data.

  20. Chemical evolution of the Galaxy at the initial rapid-collapse phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caimmi, R.

    1978-01-01

    Equations for the chemical evolution of the Galaxy are derived, accounting for (i) the dynamical evolution of the Galaxy (i.e. the collapse of the proto-galaxy) and (ii) either a variable mass-spectrum in the birth-rate stellar function of the type B(m,t) = psi(t)phi(m,t), or a constant mass-spectrum with variable lower mass limit for star birth: msub(mf) = msub(mf)(Z). Simple equations are adopted for the collapse of the proto-galaxy, accounting for the experimental data (i.e. axial ratio and major semi-axis) relative to the halo and to the disk, and best fitted for a rapid collapse; gas density is assumed to be always uniform. Numerical computations of several cases show that there is qualitative agreement with the experimental data relative to the Z(t) function when: (i) the mass-spectrum is nearly constant in time: phi(m,t) approximately phi(m) = msup(-2.35); (ii) the efficiency phi(t) proportional to rhosup(α) is sufficiently high; moreover, the super metallic effect (SME) takes place for α greater than a given value (α > approximately 1.5); (iii) the shorter the collapse time Tsub(c), the more rapid is the initial increase of metallicity, the asymptotic value being left nearly unaltered. The theoretical results are not in complete agreement with the observed data bearing on the Nsub(n)(Z) function (Nsub(n) is the number of stars whose Main-Sequence lifetime is not less than the age of the Galaxy), while a hypothesis of star formation with different efficiencies in different zones of the Galaxy, and successive stellar mixing from zone to zone, is not inconsistent with such data. (Auth.)

  1. 78 FR 35922 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Second List of Chemicals and Substances for Tier 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... health or the environment due to disruption of the endocrine system. The determination that a chemical... chemicals (e.g., triclosan, alkylphenols and alkylphenol polyethoxylates, bisphenol A, musk fragrances, and..., methanol, and perchlorate) can occur naturally in the environment, this is not the only known pathway of...

  2. The legal changes regarding chemical protection used by amateurs, available active substances and the expected impact on the development of pest resistance in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Matyjaszczyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning from June 2015, non-professionals will be allowed to only buy and use plant protection products bearing information on the label that they are intended for use by non-professionals. Based on the current register and derogations, the following products will be available for use by amateurs: 21 fungicides, 30 insecticides and 15 herbicides with respectively 20, 14 and 9 different active substances. Over a third of the mentioned active substances of fungicides and insecticides are classified as “high risk” in terms of probability of pest resistance development. For numerous uses only a single product is available. The area of home gardens in Poland amounts to 53.5 thousand hectares. Sales of plant protection products for use by amateurs is about 7% of the market value. The very limited availability of chemical plant protection products for non-professionals can be a serious problem if seen from the perspective of pest resistance development and dissemination. Resistant pests may also affect farms with commercial production. Poland is an important producer of a variety of fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants with a very limited availability of chemical protection. Resistance development can further reduce the practical means of pest control and became a serious economic problem.

  3. Is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among men associated with initiation or escalation of substance use at 15-month follow-up? A longitudinal study involving young Swiss men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tanja; Dom, Geert; van de Glind, Geurt; Studer, Joseph; Gmel, Gerhard; Strik, Werner; Moggi, Franz

    2016-10-01

    Young adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show higher substance use disorder (SUD) prevalence relative to non-ADHD controls; few longitudinal studies have examined the course of substance use with reference to conduct disorder (CD). We compared initiation and escalation of substance use at 15-month follow-up in men screened positive or negative for ADHD (ADHD(+) versus ADHD(-) ), controlling for CD presence in early adolescence. Participants were recruited during August 2010 and November 2011 from the census of all young men who have to pass mandatory army conscription from three of six Swiss Army recruitment centres. A two-wave data collection was performed via questionnaires at baseline and 15-month follow-up as a part of the longitudinal Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors. Recruitment centres in Lausanne, Windisch and Mels, responsible for 21 cantons in German- and French-speaking areas of Switzerland. Consecutive sample of 5103 male Swiss Army conscripts who provided informed consent and responded to questionnaires at baseline and 15-month follow-up. Their mean age was 20.0 (standard deviation = 1.21) years at baseline. ADHD and CD were assessed using the adult ADHD Self-Report Scale and the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus, respectively, at baseline, and substance use was measured via self-administered substance use questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Compared with the ADHD(-) group, the ADHD(+) group (n = 215, 4.2%) showed heavier baseline substance use and increased likelihood of alcohol (χ(2)  = 53.96; P cannabis use disorders (χ(2)  = 48.43; P cannabis use in the two groups remained stable from baseline to follow-up (no escalation). The ADHD(+) group was more likely to initiate substance use compared with the ADHD(-) group (higher initiation rates), particularly with amphetamines [odds ratio (OR) = 3.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.20-6.60; P ADHD medication (OR

  4. Toxic substances handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  5. Transformation assay in Bhas 42 cells: a model using initiated cells to study mechanisms of carcinogenesis and predict carcinogenic potential of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Umeda, Makoto; Sakai, Ayako; Yamazaki, Shojiro; Tanaka, Noriho

    2015-01-01

    Transformation assays using cultured cells have been applied to the study of carcinogenesis. Although various cell systems exist, few cell types such as BALB/c 3T3 subclones and Syrian hamster embryo cells have been used to study chemically induced two-stage carcinogenesis. Bhas 42 cells were established as a clone by the transfection with the v-Ha-ras gene into mouse BALB/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells and their subsequent selection based on their sensitivity to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Using Bhas 42 cells, transformed foci were induced by the treatment with nongenotoxic carcinogens, most of which act as tumor promoters. Therefore, Bhas 42 cells were considered to be a model of initiated cells. Subsequently, not only nongenotoxic carcinogens but also genotoxic carcinogens, most of which act as tumor initiators, were found to induce transformed foci by the modification of the protocol. Furthermore, transformation of Bhas 42 cells was induced by the transfection with genes of oncogenic potential. We interpret this high sensitivity of Bhas 42 cells to various types of carcinogenic stimuli to be related to the multistage model of carcinogenesis, as the transfection of v-Ha-ras gene further advances the parental BALB/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells toward higher transforming potential. Thus, we propose that Bhas 42 cells are a novel and sensitive cell line for the analysis of carcinogenesis and can be used for the detection of not only carcinogenic substances but also gene alterations related to oncogenesis. This review will address characteristics of Bhas 42 cells, the transformation assay protocol, validation studies, and the various chemicals tested in this assay.

  6. Comparison of the concepts used to develop and apply occupational exposure limits for ionizing radiation and hazardous chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The rationales used by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (AC-GIH) to recommend exposure limits for 10 chemicals were reviewed. The 10 chemicals chosen were known to produce chronic disease after prolonged overexposure in the workplace. The chemicals were toluene diisocyanate, hydrogen fluoride, n-hexane, carbon disulfide, cadmium, inorganic mercury, cobalt, nitroglycerol, silica, and vinyl chloride. The rationales used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to recommend limits for workplace exposure to ionizing radiation were reviewed. The rationales used in occupational health by ACGIH were then compared with those used by ICRP in health physics. The comparison revealed a significant divergence in the underlying concepts and philosophies of the two approaches. This divergence cannot be solely attributed to differences in scientific knowledge about toxicological and radiological effects. In areas of scientific uncertainty, exposure limits for ionizing radiation are based on worst case or conservative assumptions. This approach favors human safety. Parallel approaches could not be found for any of the 10 chemicals reviewed. Other factors such as the costs incurred by industry in meeting the proposed standards played a more significant role in establishing limits for workplace chemicals than for ionizing radiation

  7. The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety Khao Dawk Mali 105 storability II: the case study of chemical and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, P; Pan-in, W; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seed coating substances; chemical fungicide (CA) and biological fungicide polymers [chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL)] on chemical and biochemical changes of rice seeds cv. KDML 105, which have been studied during storage for 12 months. CA significantly affected the rice seed chemical properties and the associated seed deterioration. After 12 months storage, protein content decreased accompanied by declined of lipid content, increased free fatty acids and activated lipoxygenase enzyme. In the case of biological fungicide coated seeds, the antioxidative scavenging enzymes were ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and a high antioxidant activity protected them. Moreover, the sugar content was positive correlated with seed germination and vigor. The biological coated seeds were found to maintain high sugar contents inside the seeds, which resulted high seed storability significantly. In contrast, under fungicide stress (CA), those compounds were lost that directly affected seed vigor during storage.

  8. Providers' perceptions of the implementation of a performance measurement system for substance abuse treatment: A process evaluation of the Service Quality Measures initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Williams, Petal Petersen; Johnson, Kim; Govender, Rajen; Manderscheid, Ron; Koch, J Randy

    2016-02-22

    In South Africa, concerns exist about the quality of substance abuse treatment. We developed a performance measurement system, known as the Service Quality Measures (SQM) initiative, to monitor the quality of treatment and assess efforts to improve quality of care. In 2014, the SQM system was implemented at six treatment sites to evaluate how implementation protocols could be improved in preparation for wider roll-out. To describe providers' perceptions of the feasibility and acceptability of implementing the SQM system, including barriers to and facilitators of implementation. We conducted 15 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with treatment providers from six treatment sites (two sites in KwaZulu-Natal and four in the Western Cape). Providers were asked about their experiences in implementing the system, the perceived feasibility of the system, and barriers to implementation. All IDIs were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A framework approach was used to analyse the data. Providers reported that the SQM system was feasible to implement and acceptable to patients and providers. Issues identified through the IDIs included a perceived lack of clarity about sequencing of key elements in the implementation of the SQM system, questions on integration of the system into clinical care pathways, difficulties in tracking patients through the system, and concerns about maximising patient participation in the process. Findings suggest that the SQM system is feasible to implement and acceptable to providers, but that some refinements to the implementation protocols are needed to maximise patient participation and the likelihood of sustained implementation.

  9. Heterogeneity of Mental Health Service Utilization and High Mental Health Service Use Among Women Eight Years After Initiating Substance Use Disorder Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth; Padwa, Howard; Li, Libo; Lin, Veronique; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine mental health service utilization patterns among women treated for substance use disorders (SUD) and identify factors associated with patterns of high mental health service use. Data were provided by 4447 women treated for SUD in California during 2000-2002 for whom mental health services utilization records were acquired. A latent class model was fitted to women's high use of services (>6 services/year over 8 years). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with utilization patterns. In 8 years after initiating SUD treatment, 50% of women utilized mental health services. High use probability was consistently low for most women (76.9%); for others, however, it decreased immediately following SUD treatment and then increased over time (8.7%), increased immediately following SUD treatment and then decreased (9.3%), or remained consistently high (5.1%). Consistently high services use was negatively associated with marriage (OR 0.60, pwomen with co-occurring mental health disorders at SUD treatment entry did not receive any mental health treatment in the subsequent 8 years. Mental health services utilization patterns among women treated for SUD are heterogeneous and dynamic. Understanding factors related to women's utilization patterns may aid efforts to optimize care and ensure appropriate use of mental health services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-Chemical Stressors and Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Current Initiatives and Potential Air Pollutant Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S.; Sax, Sonja N.; Wason, Susan C.; Campleman, Sharan L.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  11. Mini-lidar sensor for the remote stand-off sensing of chemical/biological substances and method for sensing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mark D.; Sedlacek, Arthur J.

    2003-08-19

    A method and apparatus for remote, stand-off, and high efficiency spectroscopic detection of biological and chemical substances. The apparatus including an optical beam transmitter which transmits a beam having an axis of transmission to a target, the beam comprising at least a laser emission. An optical detector having an optical detection path to the target is provided for gathering optical information. The optical detection path has an axis of optical detection. A beam alignment device fixes the transmitter proximal to the detector and directs the beam to the target along the optical detection path such that the axis of transmission is within the optical detection path. Optical information gathered by the optical detector is analyzed by an analyzer which is operatively connected to the detector.

  12. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  13. DETERMINATION OF SOME PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PECTIN SUBSTANCES FROM THE SOLVENT CAKE OF TAGETES PATULA L. INFLORESCENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Chervonnaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Big molecular weight conditions are responsible for some properties, which are absent in low molecular compounds. Therefore, its determination allows revealing of some physical and technological properties of biopolymers and prediction of the possibility of their practical application. The aim of this work was to determine an average molarweight, to study the superficial properties at the border of “solution-air” phases, and to establish an isoelectric spot of water solutions of pectin substances (PS, isolated from a solvent cake of Tagetes patula inflorescences. Materials and methods. Polysaccharide complexes were isolated from the solvent cake of Tagetes patula inflorescences of Carmen species which was left after a raw material extraction with ethanol 40% with the method of Kochetkov and M. Sinnera. The time of water and PS solutions flow out was measured by the use of a capillary Ostwald viscosimeter; different types of viscosity were calculated. The density of solutions was determined by using a picnometric method, however due to the closeness of density of the analyzed solutions and water, they were not considered in the calculation of the relative viscosity. Series of solutions with 0.01 to 0.5% concentrations were prepared from 1% PS water solutions to determine a surface activity. Monometric liquid tension variations were set in Rehbinder’s apparatus in the moment of an air bubble appearance on the surface of PS solution. Isoelectric spot (IES of PS was determined in acetate buffer solution with pH within 3.2 to 6.2 by using the viscometer method. Results and discussion. Fractioning of the obtained polysaccharide complexes showed that efficiency of the pectin substances amounted to 2.2%. Calculation shows that an average molar weight of PS amounted to 45272 g/mol. About the degree of interaction between macromolecules of polymer and solvent, structural properties of macromolecule, the degree of its branching can be judged by the

  14. 13C-NMR chemical shift databases as a quick tool to evaluate structural models of humic substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop Albers, Christian; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2010-01-01

    Models for humic and fulvic acids are discussed based on 13C liquid state NMR spectra combined with results from elemental analysis and titration studies. The analysis of NMR spectra is based on a full reconstruction of the NMR spectrum done with help of 13C-NMR data bases by adding up chemical...... side missing structural elements in the models can be suggested. A number of proposed structures for humic and fulvic acids are discussed based on the above analysis....

  15. Preventing substance use among early Asian-American adolescent girls: initial evaluation of a web-based, mother-daughter program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P; Cole, Kristin C A

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the efficacy and generalizability of a family-oriented, web-based substance use prevention program to young Asian-American adolescent girls. Between September and December 2007, a total of 108 Asian-American girls aged 10-14 years and their mothers were recruited through online advertisements and from community service agencies. Mother-daughter dyads were randomly assigned to an intervention arm or to a test-only control arm. After pretest measurement, intervention-arm dyads completed a 9-session web-based substance use prevention program. Guided by family interaction theory, the program aimed to improve girls' psychological states, strengthen substance use prevention skills, increase mother-daughter interactions, enhance maternal monitoring, and prevent girls' substance use. Study outcomes were assessed using generalized estimating equations. At posttest, relative to control-arm girls, intervention-arm girls showed less depressed mood; reported improved self-efficacy and refusal skills; had higher levels of mother-daughter closeness, mother-daughter communication, and maternal monitoring; and reported more family rules against substance use. Intervention-arm girls also reported fewer instances of alcohol, marijuana, and illicit prescription drug use, and expressed lower intentions to use substances in the future. A family-oriented, web-based substance use prevention program was efficacious in preventing substance use behavior among early Asian-American adolescent girls. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-method study of the characteristic chemical nature of aquatic humic substances isolated from the Han River, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Yu, Myong-Jin; Han, Ihnsup

    2006-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) from the Han River, Korea was fractionated into humic and non-humic fractions by absorbing onto XAD-7HP, and these fractions were analyzed using UV-absorption, and for dissolved organic C (DOC). The humic fraction (i.e. humic substances; HS) was extracted and its characteristics were compared to commercial humic materials using various spectroscopic methods such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The humic fraction as organic C was 47.0% on the average, however, a rainfall event brought a higher humic fraction into Han River water. The molar ratios of H/C and O/C in the HS from Han River water (HRHS) were 1.40 and 0.76, respectively, and the ratio of aliphatic to aromatic protons in the HS (P Al /P Ar ratio) was 5.8. Aromaticity and humification degree (i.e., degree of condensation) of HRHS were relatively lower than those from other humic materials, while the portion of oxygenated functional groups was relatively higher. FT-IR, 1 H-NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy showed distinct differences between HRHS and the commercial humic materials. Commercial humic materials are not representative of HS extracted from Han River water. The fluorescence spectra, relatively simple measurements, were found to be most useful as fingerprints for humic materials from particular sources

  17. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of pH responsive poly(2-diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaman, Mustafa, E-mail: karamanm@selcuk.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University (Turkey); Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University (Turkey); Cabuk, Nihat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Selcuk University (Turkey)

    2012-08-31

    Poly(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDPAEMA) thin films were deposited on low temperature substrates by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) method using tertbutyl peroxide as an initiator. Very high deposition rates up to 38 nm/min were observed at low filament temperatures due to the use of the initiator. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show the formation of PDPAEMA films with high retention of tertiary amine functionality which is responsible for pH induced changes in the wetting behavior of the surfaces. As-deposited PDPAEMA thin films on flat Si surface showed a reversible switching of water contact angle values between 87 Degree-Sign and 28 Degree-Sign ; after successive treatments of high and low pH water solutions, respectively. Conformal and non-damaging nature of iCVD allowed to functionalize fragile and rough electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) fiber mat surfaces by PDPAEMA, which creates a surface with a switching behavior between superhydrophobic and approaching superhydrophilic with contact angle values of 155 {+-} 3 Degree-Sign and 22 {+-} 5 Degree-Sign , respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Poly(2-diisopropylaminoethyl methacrylate) thin films were deposited by a dry process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initiated chemical vapor deposition can produce thin films on fragile substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a reversible pH-induced transition from hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic.

  18. Chemical characteristics and acidity of soluble organic substances from a northern hardwood forest floor, central Maine, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, G.F.; David, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors understanding of the chemistry, structure, and reactions of organic substances in forest floor leachates is limited and incomplete. Therefore, the authors examined the organic and inorganic chemistry of forest floor leachates collected from a hardwood forest in central Maine over a two-year period (1987-1989), including detailed study of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Seasonal variations in NH 4 + , NO 3 - , K + , and total Al were believed due to organic matter decomposition and release. Leaching of other base cations closely followed that of NO 3 - . Total DOC ranged from 2,228 to 7,193 μmol L -1 with an average of 4,835 μmol L -1 . Monosaccharides and polyphenols constituted 3.9% (range of 3.4 to 4.4%) and 3.0% (2.2 to 3.7%) of the DOC, respectively, which suggests DOC may contain partially oxidized products that are possibly of a lignocellulose nature. Fractionation of the forest floor DOC indicated high organic acid contents (hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids) that averaged 92% of the total DOC. Organic acids were isolated and analyzed for elemental content (C, H, N, and S), and determination of UV absorptivity (E 4 /E 6 ) ratios, CuO oxidation products, FT-IR and 13 C-NMR spectra, and acidity by potentiometric titration. Their FT-IR and 13 C-NMR spectra suggest they are primarily carboxylic acids, with aliphatic and aromatic structure. An organic charge contribution model was developed using titration data, DOC fractionation percentages, and the total DOC in the forest floor leachates. Application of the model to all solutions accounted for 97% of the charge balance deficits

  19. Quantitative structure activity relationship model for predicting the depletion percentage of skin allergic chemical substances of glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Hongzong; Wang Tao; Zhang Kejun; Duan Yunbo; Yuan Shuping; Fu Aiping; Hu Zhide

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative model was developed to predict the depletion percentage of glutathione (DPG) compounds by gene expression programming (GEP). Each kind of compound was represented by several calculated structural descriptors involving constitutional, topological, geometrical, electrostatic and quantum-chemical features of compounds. The GEP method produced a nonlinear and five-descriptor quantitative model with a mean error and a correlation coefficient of 10.52 and 0.94 for the training set, 22.80 and 0.85 for the test set, respectively. It is shown that the GEP predicted results are in good agreement with experimental ones, better than those of the heuristic method

  20. Chemical composition of sublates (difficultly soluble substances) which form on interaction of polyvalent metal ions with potassium alkylcarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Skryleva, T.L.; Sazonova, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    The pH value is considered for its effect on chemical composition of sublates which form on interaction of fatty acid collectors (potassium alkylcarboxylate) with polyvalent ions of Ni, An, Cu and Be. It is shown that interaction of these ions with fatty acid collectors in weakly acid, neutral and weakly alkaline solutions is accompanied by formation of medium soaps. Acid soaps are formed in more acid solutions, while in more alkaline-basic soaps. Domains of stability for medium soaps of Ni, Zn, Cu and Be are determined. 17 refs.; 4 figs

  1. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Measurement of ultra-micro chemical substances and measuring methods of hormone effects; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Chobiryo kagaku busshitsu no keisoku horumon eikyo sayo sokuteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the measurement system of ultra-micro hazardous chemical substances in the global environment, the paper examined the present situation of chemical substances such as dioxins, made an experimental study on the method to analyze dioxins in exhaust gas from an aspect of international consistency, and worked out a JIS draft. As to the standard measuring method of hormone effects of chemical substances, the paper developed the competitive bonding experiment system to measure bonding ability of chemical substances to homo sapiens estrogen receptor (ER). By measuring ER bonding ability of 78 kinds of chemical substances, the measuring method was developed. In the development of the assay system for detection of hormone-like compounds, the assay system with transfer activity via estrogen receptor as an index was established using cultured cells and yeast. Further, the development was made of a measuring method of receptor bonding activity of hormone-like substances. 33 refs., 151 figs., 66 tabs.

  2. PREDICTION OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR POLLUTION BY EMISSIONS OF MOTOR TRANSPORT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of 3D numerical models, which allow us to calculate air pollution process from road transport emissions based on chemical transformation of pollutants. Creating numerical models, which would give the opportunity to predict the level of air pollution in urban areas. Methodology. To address the evaluation of the air pollution problem of emissions of vehicles the equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer were used. In order to solve differential equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer the finite difference methods are used. For the numerical integration of the equation for the velocity potential the method of conditional approximation was applied. The equation for the velocity potential written in difference form, is being split into two equations, and at each step of splitting the unknown value of the potential speed is determined by the explicit scheme of running account and the difference scheme itself is implicit. For the numerical integration of the equation of dispersion of emissions in the atmosphere is used implicit alternating-triangular difference splitting scheme. Emissions from the road are simulated by a series of point sources of a given intensity. The developed numerical models are the basis of established software package.Findings. There were developed 3D numerical models, which belong to the class «diagnostic models». These models take into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere when emissions from road transport taking into account the chemical transformation of pollutants. On the basis of the constructed numerical models a computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution in the street was carried out. Originality. Numerical models that allow you to calculate the 3D aerodynamic of wind flow in urban areas and the process of mass transfer of emissions from the road were developed. The models make it possible to account the

  3. The Anomalous Metalloporphyrin and Chlorophyll a Activated Chemiluminescence of Dimethyldioxetanone. Chemically Initiated Electron-Exchange Luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-26

    cadmium, and magnesium porphyrins the first oxidation is ligand centered. 7 On the other hand, for silver and cobalt porphyrin the first oxidation...kQ . Cyclic voltammetry was done in argon saturated dichlor- omethane solution at (23±2)°C with 0.1 M tetra-n-butyl-ammonium perchlorate as supporting...TECHNICAL REPORT DISTRIBUTION LIST. 051A No. No. Copies Cpe Dr. M. A. El-Sayed Dr. ItI. Rauhut Department of Chemistry Chemical Research Division University

  4. Chemical reactions involved in the initiation of hot corrosion of IN-738

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Sodium-sulfate-induced hot corrosion of preoxidized IN-738 was studied at 975 C with special emphasis placed on the processes occurring during the long induction period. Thermogravimetric tests were run for predetermined periods of time, and then one set of specimens was washed with water. Chemical analysis of the wash solutions yielded information about water soluble metal salts and residual sulfate. A second set of samples was cross sectioned dry and polished in a nonaqueous medium. Element distributions within the oxide scale were obtained from electron microprobe X-ray micrographs. Evolution of SO was monitored throughout the thermogravimetric tests. Kinetic rate studies were performed for several pertinent processes; appropriate rate constants were obtained from the following chemical reactions; Cr203 + 2 Na2S04(1) + 3/2 02 yields 2 Na2Cr04(1) + 2 S03(g)n TiO2 + Na2S04(1) yields Na20(T102)n + 503(g)n T102 + Na2Cro4(1) yields Na2(T102)n + Cr03(g).

  5. Priority setting for existing chemicals : automated data selection routine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haelst, A.G. van; Hansen, B.G.

    2000-01-01

    One of the four steps within Council Regulation 793/93/EEC on the evaluation and control of existing chemicals is the priority setting step. The priority setting step is concerned with selecting high-priority substances from a large number of substances, initially starting with 2,474

  6. On the strain-induced fibrillar microstructure of polyethylene: Influence of chemical structure, initial morphology and draw temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Xiong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of crystalline microstructure and molecular topology on the strain-induced fibrillar transformation of semi-crystalline polyethylenes having various chemical structures including co-unit content and molecular weight and crystallized under various thermal treatments was studied by in situ SAXS at different draw temperatures. The long period of the nascent microfibrils, Lpf, proved to be strongly dependent on the draw temperature but non-sensitive to the initial crystallization conditions. Lpf was smaller than the initial long period. Both findings have been ascribed to the straininduced melting-recrystallization process as generally claimed in the literature. The microfibrils diameter, Df, was shown to depend on the draw temperature and initial microstructure in a different way as Lpf. The evolution of Df was shown to correlate with the interfacial layer thickness that mainly depends on the chemical structure of the chains. It was concluded that, in contrast to Lpf, the microfibril diameter should not be directly sensitive to the strain-induced melting-recrystallization. The proposed scenario is that after the generation of the protofibrils by fragmentation of the crystalline lamellae at yielding, the diameter of the microfibril during the course of their stabilization should be governed by the chain-unfolding and subsequent aggregation of the unfolded chains onto the lateral surface of the microfibrils. The morphogenesis of the microfibrils should therefore essentially depend on the chemical structure of the polymer that governs its crystallization ability, its chain topology and subsequently its fragmentation process at yielding. This scenario is summed up in a sketch.

  7. Pulsed chemical oxygen - iodine laser initiated by a transverse electric discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, Nikolai P; Yuryshev, Nikolai N

    2001-01-01

    A pulsed chemical oxygen - iodine laser with a volume production of atomic iodine in a pulsed transverse electric discharge is studied. An increase in the partial oxygen pressure was shown to increase the pulse energy with retention of the pulse duration. At the same time, an increase in the iodide pressure and the discharge energy shortens the pulse duration. Pulses with a duration of 6.5 μs were obtained, which corresponds to a concentration of iodine atoms of 1.8 x 10 15 cm -3 . This concentration is close to the maximum concentration attained in studies of both cw and pulsed oxygen-iodine lasers. A specific energy output of 0.9 J litre -1 and a specific power of 75 kW litre -1 were obtained. The ways of increasing these parameters were indicated. It was found that SF 6 is an efficient buffer gas favouring improvements in the energy pulse parameters. (lasers)

  8. [Immunotoxicity and environmental substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A well functioning immune system is essential in maintaining integrity of the organism, and malfunction may have severe health consequences. Environmental substances may pose direct toxicity to components of the immune system, often leading to immunosuppression and resulting reduced resistance to infections and tumors. Alternatively, such substances may be recognized by the immune system in a specific fashion, which may result in allergy and autoimmunity. A proper risk assessment of environmental substances in terms of immunotoxicity is necessary. In this manuscript, I reviewed recent three topics about immunotoxicity: (1) IPCS/WHO Guidance for immunotoxicity risk assessment for chemicals, (2) Intestinal immunotoxicity, and (3) Epicutaneous sensitization of food proteins.

  9. Is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among men associated with initiation or escalation of substance use at 15‐month follow‐up? A longitudinal study involving young Swiss men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tanja; Dom, Geert; van de Glind, Geurt; Studer, Joseph; Gmel, Gerhard; Strik, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims Young adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show higher substance use disorder (SUD) prevalence relative to non‐ADHD controls; few longitudinal studies have examined the course of substance use with reference to conduct disorder (CD). We compared initiation and escalation of substance use at 15‐month follow‐up in men screened positive or negative for ADHD (ADHD+ versus ADHD–), controlling for CD presence in early adolescence. Design Participants were recruited during August 2010 and November 2011 from the census of all young men who have to pass mandatory army conscription from three of six Swiss Army recruitment centres. A two‐wave data collection was performed via questionnaires at baseline and 15‐month follow‐up as a part of the longitudinal Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors. Setting Recruitment centres in Lausanne, Windisch and Mels, responsible for 21 cantons in German‐ and French‐speaking areas of Switzerland. Participants Consecutive sample of 5103 male Swiss Army conscripts who provided informed consent and responded to questionnaires at baseline and 15‐month follow‐up. Their mean age was 20.0 (standard deviation = 1.21) years at baseline. Measurements ADHD and CD were assessed using the adult ADHD Self‐Report Scale and the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus, respectively, at baseline, and substance use was measured via self‐administered substance use questionnaires at baseline and follow‐up. Findings Compared with the ADHD– group, the ADHD+ group (n = 215, 4.2%) showed heavier baseline substance use and increased likelihood of alcohol (χ2 = 53.96; P cannabis use disorders (χ2 = 48.43; P cannabis use in the two groups remained stable from baseline to follow‐up (no escalation). The ADHD+ group was more likely to initiate substance use compared with the ADHD– group (higher initiation rates), particularly with amphetamines [odds

  10. Volatile emission in dry seeds as a way to probe chemical reactions during initial asymptomatic deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Sara; Hill, Lisa M; González-Benito, M Elena; Ibáñez, Miguel Angel; Walters, Christina

    2016-03-01

    The nature and kinetics of reactions in dry seeds determines how long the seeds survive. We used gas chromatography to assay volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from seeds of three unrelated species as a means to non-invasively probe chemical changes during very dry, dry, and humid storage (seeds were dried to 5.5, 33, and 75% relative humidity at room temperature). VOCs emitted from seeds stored in humid conditions reflected fermentation-type reactions, with methanol and ethanol being predominant in Lactuca sativa and Carum carvi, and acetaldehyde and acetone being predominant in Eruca vesicaria. Dried C. carvi seeds continued to emit fermentation-type products, although at slower rates than the seeds stored in humid conditions. In contrast, drying caused a switch in VOC emission in L. sativa and E. vesicaria seeds towards higher emission of pentane and hexanal, molecules considered to be byproducts from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Longevity correlated best with the rate of fermentation-type reactions and appeared unrelated to the rate of lipid peroxidation. Emission of VOCs decreased when seed species were mixed together, indicating that seeds adsorbed VOCs. Adsorption of VOCs did not appear to damage seeds, as longevity was not affected in seed mixtures. Collectively, the study shows similarity among species in the types of reactions that occur in dry seeds, but high diversity in the substrates, and hence the byproducts, of the reactions. Moreover, the study suggests that the most abundant VOCs arise from degradation of storage reserves within seed cells, and that these reactions and their byproducts are not, in themselves, damaging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Physico-chemical characterization of SOA derived from catechol and guaiacol – a model substance for the aromatic fraction of atmospheric HULIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Whitmore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA was produced from the aromatic precursors catechol and guaiacol by reaction with ozone in the presence and absence of simulated sunlight and humidity and investigated for its properties as a proxy for HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS. Beside a small particle size, a relatively low molecular weight and typical optical features in the UV/VIS spectral range, HULIS contain a typical aromatic and/or olefinic chemical structure and highly oxidized functional groups within a high chemical diversity. Various methods were used to characterize the secondary organic aerosols obtained: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR demonstrated the formation of several carbonyl containing functional groups as well as structural and functional differences between aerosols formed at different environmental conditions. UV/VIS spectroscopy of filter samples showed that the particulate matter absorbs far into the visible range up to more than 500 nm. Ultrahigh resolved mass spectroscopy (ICR-FT/MS determined O/C-ratios between 0.3 and 1 and observed m/z ratios between 200 and 450 to be most abundant. Temperature-programmed-pyrolysis mass spectroscopy (TPP-MS identified carboxylic acids and lactones/esters as major functional groups. Particle sizing using a condensation-nucleus-counter and differential-mobility-particle-sizer (CNC/DMPS monitored the formation of small particles during the SOA formation process. Particle imaging, using field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM, showed spherical particles, forming clusters and chains. We conclude that catechol and guaiacol are appropriate precursors for studies of the processing of aromatic SOA with atmospheric HULIS properties on the laboratory scale.

  12. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

  13. Current concepts on integrative safety assessment of active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin in homeopathic medicinal products within the European regulatory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholzer, Marie-Luise; Werner, Christine; Knoess, Werner

    2014-03-01

    For active substances of botanical, mineral or chemical origin processed in homeopathic medicinal products for human use, the adequate safety principles as with other human medicinal products are applied in line with the European regulatory framework. In homeopathy, nonclinical safety assessment is facing a particular challenge because of a multitude and diversity of source materials used and due to rarely available toxicological data. Thus, current concepts applied by the national regulatory authority in Germany (BfArM) on integrative safety assessment of raw materials used in homeopathic medicinal products involve several evaluation approaches like the use of the Lowest Human Recommended Dose (LHRD), toxicological limit values, Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), data from food regulation or the consideration of unavoidable environmental or dietary background exposure. This publication is intended to further develop and clarify the practical use of these assessment routes by exemplary application on selected homeopathic preparations. In conclusion, the different approaches are considered a very useful scientific and simultaneously pragmatic procedure in differentiated risk assessment of homeopathic medicinal products. Overall, this paper aims to increase the visibility of the safety issues in homeopathy and to stimulate scientific discussion of worldwide existing regulatory concepts on homeopathic medicinal products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. α--AMYLASES OF Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae AND Bacillus subtilis: THE SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY AND RESISTANCE TO A NUMBER OF CHEMICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Avdiyuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae 80428 and Bacillus subtilis 147 α-amylases to split different carbohydrate-containing substrates, such as maltose, sucrose, trehalose, dextrin, α- and β-cyclodextrin, amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, pullulan, soluble starch, insoluble starch, corn starch, wheat starch, dextran 500 has been studied. It was shown that investigated enzymes differ by substrate specificity. α-Amylase of A. flavus var. oryzae 80428 rapidly hydrolysed soluble potato and wheat starch, while the α-amylase of B. subtilis 147 — only wheat starch. Both enzymes don’t cleave maltose, α-cyclodextrin and dextran 500. A. flavus var. oryzae 80428 α-amylase display very small ability to hydrolyze pullulan, while α-amylase of B. subtilis 147 it does not act in general. The lowest values of Michaelis constant for both enzymes at splitting of glycogen have been obtained, indicating that enzymes have the greatest affinity to this substrate. The studies of influence of chemically active substances on activity of A. flavus var. oryzae 80428 and B. subtilis 147 ?-amylases show there are resistant to urea, deoxycholic acid, Tween-80, Triton X-100 and hydrogen peroxide. It’s indicate the enzymes tested may be competitive in compare with earlier described in literature enzymes. The obtained results give a possibility to propose in future usage these enzymes in different fields of industry, foremost in detergent industry.

  15. Optimization of Nonambulant Mass Casualty Decontamination Protocols as Part of an Initial or Specialist Operational Response to Chemical Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, Robert P; Mitchell, Hannah; Matar, Hazem

    2018-05-30

    The UK's Initial Operational Response (IOR) is a new process for improving the survival of multiple casualties following a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear incident. Whilst the introduction of IOR represents a patient-focused response for ambulant casualties, there is currently no provision for disrobe and dry decontamination of nonambulant casualties. Moreover, the current specialist operational response (SOR) protocol for nonambulant casualty decontamination (also referred to as "clinical decontamination") has not been subject to rigorous evaluation or development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of putatively optimized dry (IOR) and wet (SOR) protocols for nonambulant decontamination in human volunteers. Dry and wet decontamination protocols were objectively evaluated using human volunteers. Decontamination effectiveness was quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the recovery of a chemical warfare agent simulant (methylsalicylate) from skin and hair of volunteers, with whole-body fluorescence imaging to quantify the skin distribution of residual simulant. Both the dry and wet decontamination processes were rapid (3 and 4 min, respectively) and were effective in removing simulant from the hair and skin of volunteers, with no observable adverse effects related to skin surface spreading of contaminant. Further studies are required to assess the combined effectiveness of dry and wet decontamination under more realistic conditions and to develop appropriate operational procedures that ensure the safety of first responders.

  16. Surface modification of reverse osmosis desalination membranes by thin-film coatings deposited by initiated chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaydin-Ince, Gozde, E-mail: gozdeince@sabanciuniv.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Matin, Asif, E-mail: amatin@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Zafarullah, E-mail: zukhan@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Zaidi, S.M. Javaid, E-mail: zaidismj@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gleason, Karen K., E-mail: kkgleasn@mit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-07-31

    Thin-film polymeric reverse osmosis membranes, due to their high permeation rates and good salt rejection capabilities, are widely used for seawater desalination. However, these membranes are prone to biofouling, which affects their performance and efficiency. In this work, we report a method to modify the membrane surface without damaging the active layer or significantly affecting the performance of the membrane. Amphiphilic copolymer films of hydrophilic hydroxyethylmethacrylate and hydrophobic perfluorodecylacrylate (PFA) were synthesized and deposited on commercial RO membranes using an initiated chemical vapor deposition technique which is a polymer deposition technique that involves free-radical polymerization initiated by gas-phase radicals. Relevant surface characteristics such as hydrophilicity and roughness could be systematically controlled by varying the polymer chemistry. Increasing the hydrophobic PFA content in the films leads to an increase in the surface roughness and hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the surface morphology studies performed using the atomic force microscopy show that as the thickness of the coating increases average surface roughness increases. Using this knowledge, the coating thickness and chemistry were optimized to achieve high permeate flux and to reduce cell attachment. Results of the static bacterial adhesion tests show that the attachment of bacterial cells is significantly reduced on the coated membranes. - Highlights: • Thin films are deposited on reverse osmosis membranes. • Amphiphilic thin films are resistant to protein attachment. • The permeation performance of the membranes is not affected by the coating. • The thin film coatings delayed the biofouling.

  17. Initial laboratory studies into the chemical and radiological aging of organic materials in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Babad, H.

    1994-01-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated over many years from plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct bearing on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. The major portion of organic materials that have been added to the tanks consists of tributyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, butyl alcohol, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriadetic acid (HEDTA), other complexants, and lesser quantities of ion exchange polymers and minor organic compounds. A study of how thermal and radiological processes that may have changed the composition of organic tanks constituents has been initiated after a review of the open literature revealed little information was available about the rates and products of these processes under basic pH conditions. This paper will detail the initial findings as they relate to gas generation, e.g. H 2 , CO, NH 3 , CH 4 , and to changes in the composition of the organic and inorganic components brought about by ''Aging'' processes

  18. Proposed chemical plant initiated accident scenarios in a sulphur-iodine cycle plant coupled to a pebble bed modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.R.; Revankar, S.T.; Seker, V.; Downar, Th.J.

    2010-01-01

    In the sulphur-iodine (S-I) cycle nuclear hydrogen generation scheme the chemical plant acts as the heat sink for the very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR). Thus, any accident which occurs in the chemical plant must feedback to the nuclear reactor. There are many different types of accidents which can occur in a chemical plant. These accidents include intra-reactor piping failure, inter-reactor piping failure, reaction chamber failure and heat exchanger failure. Since the chemical plant acts as the heat sink for the nuclear reactor, any of these accidents induce a loss-of-heat-sink accident in the nuclear reactor. In this paper, several chemical plant initiated accident scenarios are presented. The following accident scenarios are proposed: i) failure of the Bunsen chemical reactor; ii) product flow failure from either the H 2 SO 4 decomposition section or HI decomposition section; iii) reactant flow failure from either the H 2 SO 4 decomposition section or HI decomposition section; iv) rupture of a reaction chamber. Qualitative analysis of these accident scenarios indicates that each result in either partial or total loss of heat sink accidents for the nuclear reactor. These scenarios are reduced to two types: i) discharge rate limited accidents; ii) discontinuous reaction chamber accidents. A discharge rate limited rupture of the SO 3 decomposition section of the SI cycle is proposed and modelled. Since SO 3 decomposition occurs in the gaseous phase, critical flow out of the rupture is calculated assuming ideal gas behaviour. The accident scenario is modelled using a fully transient control volume model of the S-I cycle coupled to a THERMIX model of a 268 MW pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR-268) and a point kinetics model. The Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot source model for choked gas flows from a pressurised chamber was utilised as a discharge rate model. A discharge coefficient of 0.62 was assumed. Feedback due to the rupture is observed in the nuclear

  19. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  20. Revision of Import and Export Requirements for Controlled Substances, Listed Chemicals, and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines, Including Changes To Implement the International Trade Data System (ITDS); Revision of Reporting Requirements for Domestic Transactions in Listed Chemicals and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines; and Technical Amendments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Drug Enforcement Administration is updating its regulations for the import and export of tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, and its regulations relating to reports required for domestic transactions in listed chemicals, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and tableting and encapsulating machines. In accordance with Executive Order 13563, the Drug Enforcement Administration has reviewed its import and export regulations and reporting requirements for domestic transactions in listed chemicals (and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) and tableting and encapsulating machines, and evaluated them for clarity, consistency, continued accuracy, and effectiveness. The amendments clarify certain policies and reflect current procedures and technological advancements. The amendments also allow for the implementation, as applicable to tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, of the President's Executive Order 13659 on streamlining the export/import process and requiring the government-wide utilization of the International Trade Data System (ITDS). This rule additionally contains amendments that implement recent changes to the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (CSIEA) for reexportation of controlled substances among members of the European Economic Area made by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act. The rule also includes additional substantive and technical and stylistic amendments.

  1. Estimation of human exposure to chemical substances and radiation. State of the art of the research projects of the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeire, T.G.; Van Veen, M.P.; Janssen, M.P.M.; Smetsers, R.C.G.M.

    1997-03-01

    In 1994, the Sector Substances and Risks of RIVM decided to strengthen strategically its research into risk assessment methodology. In this report the research area of human exposure assessment at the RIVM is outlined. A representative selection of human exposure assessment models for both chemical substances and radiation is analysed with regard to aim, principle, degree of model analyses and values of default parameter. For comparison, a model to assess human exposure to micro-organisms is included as well. All models are operational or nearly so in the production of risk assessments in the Sector Substances and Risks and also in the Sectors Public Health Research and Environmental Research. The models discussed all have a defined area of application and support risk management. The research areas of exposure assessment for substances and radiation are compared and many methodological analogies are apparent. However, at the level of models and parameters an in-depth analysis of analogies and explained or unexplained differences is lacking. A detailed examination of organisation aspects and RIVM-models for human exposure assessment learns that all relevant areas of interest are covered. For all routes of exposure the reach of the actual risk and exposure assessment methodology is large. A more uniform coverage is attained for radiation than for chemical substances. For both areas the estimation and registration of emissions can be improved. The development of risk assessment systems and related harmonisation proJects have already attention for many years (e.g. CSOIL, USES, RIBRON). It is concluded that the RIVM requires a broad, up-to-date range of instruments for exposure assessment and active involvement in all kinds of national and international relevant networks. The RIVM should also remain involved in the development and evaluation of methodology and in projects aiming at harmonisation. 2 figs., 9 tabs., 64 refs

  2. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  3. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  4. Molecular fouling resistance of zwitterionic and amphiphilic initiated chemically vapor-deposited (iCVD) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R; Goktekin, E; Wang, MH; Gleason, KK

    2014-08-08

    Biofouling is a universal problem in various applications ranging from water purification to implantable biomedical devices. Recent advances in surface modification have created a rich library of antifouling surface chemistries, many of which can be categorized into one of the two groups: hydrophilic surfaces or amphiphilic surfaces. We report the straightforward preparation of antifouling thin film coatings in both categories via initiated chemical vapor deposition. A molecular force spectroscopy-based method is demonstrated as a rapid and quantitative assessment tool for comparing the differences in antifouling characteristics. The fouling propensity of single molecules, as opposed to bulk protein solution or bacterial culture, is assessed. This method allows for the interrogation of molecular interaction without the complication resulted from protein conformational change or micro-organism group interactions. The molecular interaction follows the same trend as bacterial adhesion results obtained previously, demonstrating that molecular force probe is a valid method for the quantification and mechanistic examination of fouling. In addition, the molecular force spectroscopy-based method is able to distinguish differences in antifouling capability that is not resolvable by traditional static protein adsorption tests. To lend further insight into the intrinsic fouling resistance of zwitterionic and amphiphilic surface chemistries, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, advancing and receding water contact angles, and atomic force microscopy are used to elucidate the film properties that are relevant to their antifouling capabilities.

  5. Synthesis of ultrathin polymer insulating layers by initiated chemical vapour deposition for low-power soft electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hanul; Seong, Hyejeong; Shin, Woo Cheol; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Mincheol; Lee, Seungwon; Bong, Jae Hoon; Noh, Yong-Young; Cho, Byung Jin; Yoo, Seunghyup; Im, Sung Gap

    2015-06-01

    Insulating layers based on oxides and nitrides provide high capacitance, low leakage, high breakdown field and resistance to electrical stresses when used in electronic devices based on rigid substrates. However, their typically high process temperatures and brittleness make it difficult to achieve similar performance in flexible or organic electronics. Here, we show that poly(1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinyl cyclotrisiloxane) (pV3D3) prepared via a one-step, solvent-free technique called initiated chemical vapour deposition (iCVD) is a versatile polymeric insulating layer that meets a wide range of requirements for next-generation electronic devices. Highly uniform and pure ultrathin films of pV3D3 with excellent insulating properties, a large energy gap (>8 eV), tunnelling-limited leakage characteristics and resistance to a tensile strain of up to 4% are demonstrated. The low process temperature, surface-growth character, and solvent-free nature of the iCVD process enable pV3D3 to be grown conformally on plastic substrates to yield flexible field-effect transistors as well as on a variety of channel layers, including organics, oxides, and graphene.

  6. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1994-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl x , UAl x -Al and U 3 O 8 -Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH x , UErZrH, UO 2 -stainless steel cermet, and U 3 O 8 -stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified

  7. One-dimensional surface-imprinted polymeric nanotubes for specific biorecognition by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Gozde Ozaydin; Armagan, Efe; Erdogan, Hakan; Buyukserin, Fatih; Uzun, Lokman; Demirel, Gokhan

    2013-07-24

    Molecular imprinting is a powerful, generic, and cost-effective technique; however, challenges still remain related to the fabrication and development of these systems involving nonhomogeneous binding sites, insufficient template removing, incompatibility with aqueous media, low rebinding capacity, and slow mass transfer. The vapor-phase deposition of polymers is a unique technique because of the conformal nature of coating and offers new possibilities in a number of applications including sensors, microfluidics, coating, and bioaffinity platforms. Herein, we demonstrated a simple but versatile concept to generate one-dimensional surface-imprinted polymeric nanotubes within anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes based on initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) technique for biorecognition of immunoglobulin G (IgG). It is reported that the fabricated surface-imprinted nanotubes showed high binding capacity and significant specific recognition ability toward target molecules compared with the nonimprinted forms. Given its simplicity and universality, the iCVD method can offer new possibilities in the field of molecular imprinting.

  8. The OH-initiated atmospheric chemical reactions of polyfluorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: A comparative theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaolan; Chen, Jing; Qu, Ruijuan; Pan, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zunyao

    2017-02-01

    The atmospheric chemical reactions of some polyfluorinated dibenzofurans (PFDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), initiated by OH radical, were investigated by performing theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) and B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,p) method. The obtained results indicate that OH addition reactions of PFDFs and PCDFs occurring at C 1∼4 and C A sites are thermodynamic spontaneous changes and the branching ratio of the PF(C)DF-OH adducts is decided primarily by kinetic factor. The OH addition reactions of PFDFs taking place at fluorinated C 1∼4 positions are kinetically comparable with those occurring at nonfluorinated C 1∼4 positions, while OH addition reactions of PCDFs occurring at chlorinated C 1∼4 sites are negligible. The total rate constants of the addition reactions of PFDFs or PCDFs become smaller with consecutive fluorination or chlorination, and substituting at C 1 position has more adverse effects than substitution at other sites. The succedent O 2 addition reactions of PF(C)DF-OH adducts are thermodynamic nonspontaneous processes under the atmospheric conditions, and have high Gibbs free energies of activation (Δ r G ≠ ). The substituted dibenzofuranols are the primary oxidation products for PCDFs under the atmospheric conditions. However, other oxidative products may also be available for PFDFs besides substituted dibenzofuranols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychotoxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-16

    halluci- nations , disturbances of body perception, depersonalization symptoms, and a "psychotic" status. Also with the derivatives, the individual...the substance had also local anesthetic properties. After clinical testing, ibogaine was then used as stimulans for neurasthenics and convalescents1 1 3...con- siderably disturbed by this group of substances. The optic halluci- nations consist to a small extent in scenic proceedings of actions, more

  10. Substance abuse treatment engagement, completion and short-term outcomes in the Western Cape province, South Africa: Findings from the Service Quality Measures Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Williams, Petal Petersen; Govender, Rajen; Manderscheid, Ron; Koch, J Randy

    2018-04-01

    Optimizing the effectiveness of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is critical in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) with limited opportunities for SUD treatment. This is the first study to identify targets for interventions to improve the quality of SUD treatment in a LMIC. We explored correlates of three indicators of treatment quality (treatment engagement, completion and abstinence at treatment exit) using data from a SUD performance measurement system implemented in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The sample included data from 1094 adult treatment episodes representing 53% of the treatment episodes in 2016. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, we modeled socio-demographic, substance use and program correlates of treatment engagement, completion, and abstinence at treatment exit. Overall, 59% of patients completed treatment (48% of patients from outpatient services). Treatment completion was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence at treatment exit. Patients were more likely to complete treatment if they engaged in treatment, were older, and had more severe drug problems (characterized by daily drug use and heroin problems) and attended programs of shorter duration. Residential treatment was associated with greater likelihood of treatment engagement, completion, and abstinence at treatment exit. Improving rates of outpatient treatment completion will enhance the effectiveness of South Africa's SUD treatment system. Interventions that promote engagement in treatment, particularly among younger patients; reduce program length through referral to step-down continuing care; and ensure better matching of drug problem to treatment level and type could improve rates of treatment completion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Substance abuse in anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guasch, Roser; Roigé, Jaume; Padrós, Jaume

    2012-04-01

    Anaesthesiologists have a significantly higher frequency of substance abuse by a factor of nearly 3 when compared with other physicians. This is still a current problem that must be reviewed. Many hypotheses have been formulated to explain why anaesthesiologists appear to be more susceptible to substance abuse than other medical professionals (genetic differences in sensitivity to opioids, stress, the association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology or the second-hand exposure hypothesis). Environmental exposure and sensitization may be an important risk factor in physician addiction. There is a long debate about returning to work for an anaesthetist who has been depending on opioid drugs, and recent debates are discussed. Institutional efforts have been made in many countries and physician health programmes have been developed. As drug abuse among anaesthesiologists has continued, new studies have been conducted to know the theories about susceptibility. Written substance abuse policies and controls must be taken in place and in all countries.

  12. Age of initiation, psychopathology, and other substance use are associated with time to use disorder diagnosis in persons using opioids nonmedically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Ty S; Hakes, Jahn K

    2017-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) is an ongoing public health challenge, as NMUPO is associated with psychopathology, other drug use, and fatal overdose. These concomitant risks are greatest in those with opioid use disorder (OUD), but the development of NMUPO-related use disorder is poorly understood. The primary aim of this study was to establish factors associated with the development of and time to OUD among persons engaged in NMUPO. Data were from wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions, with 1755 participants endorsing lifetime NMUPO. Analyses used sequential design-based logistic regression for DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) opioid dependence correlates, followed by Cox regression of proportional hazards for correlates (e.g., sociodemographics, age of NMUPO initiation, and psychopathology) of time to dependence in those who developed DSM-IV dependence. Earlier age of NMUPO initiation increased OUD odds (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.94-0.96) but slowed OUD development (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.04-1.06) in those who developed OUD (n = 118), after controlling for sociodemographics, psychopathology, and ages of other drug use initiation. Psychopathology and earlier other drug use initiation were associated with higher OUD odds, but only having an alcohol use disorder was associated with shorter time to OUD. Earlier NMUPO initiation is associated with increased odds of OUD, although those with early initiation had a slower progression to OUD. Programs that prevent early NMUPO initiation, which might lower rates of OUD, and/or identify the later initiators at highest risk for rapid OUD development could have great public health benefits.

  13. Current direction, benthic organisms, zooplankton, chemical, toxis substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1981-03-24 to 1982-02-19 (NODC Accession 8200129)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, zooplankton, chemical, toxic substances, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments...

  14. A chemical–biological similarity-based grouping of complex substances as a prototype approach for evaluating chemical alternatives† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6gc01147k Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Fabian A.; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Sirenko, Oksana; Chappell, Grace A.; Wright, Fred A.; Reif, David M.; Braisted, John; Gerhold, David L.; Yeakley, Joanne M.; Shepard, Peter; Seligmann, Bruce; Roy, Tim; Boogaard, Peter J.; Ketelslegers, Hans B.; Rohde, Arlean M.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative assessment of potential human health impacts is a critical step in evaluating both chemical alternatives and existing products on the market. Most alternatives assessments are conducted on a chemical-by-chemical basis and it is seldom acknowledged that humans are exposed to complex products, not individual substances. Indeed, substances of Unknown or Variable composition, Complex reaction products, and Biological materials (UVCBs) are ubiquitous in commerce yet they present a major challenge for registration and health assessments. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and computational approach to categorize UVCBs according to global similarities in their bioactivity using a suite of in vitro models. We used petroleum substances, an important group of UVCBs which are grouped for regulatory approval and read-across primarily on physico-chemical properties and the manufacturing process, and only partially based on toxicity data, as a case study. We exposed induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes to DMSO-soluble extracts of 21 petroleum substances from five product groups. Concentration-response data from high-content imaging in cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, as well as targeted high-throughput transcriptomic analysis of the hepatocytes, revealed distinct groups of petroleum substances. Data integration showed that bioactivity profiling affords clustering of petroleum substances in a manner similar to the manufacturing process-based categories. Moreover, we observed a high degree of correlation between bioactivity profiles and physico-chemical properties, as well as improved groupings when chemical and biological data were combined. Altogether, we demonstrate how novel in vitro screening approaches can be effectively utilized in combination with physico-chemical characteristics to group complex substances and enable read-across. This approach allows for rapid and scientifically-informed evaluation of health impacts of

  15. CHANGES IN STRUCTURE AND CONTENT HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroš SIROTIAK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the process of thermal degradation of humic substances in soil samples exposed to increased temperature. To determine the basic properties of humic substances, humic and fulvic acids are used conventional fractionation chemical laboratory methods. To determine changes in the chemical structure, the method of use of FT-IR ATR spectroscopy technique.

  16. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affects chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer at two different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  17. OpenGeoSys: An open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolditz, O.; Bauer, S.; Bilke, L.

    In this paper we describe the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project, which is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical processes in porous media. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework (using primarily the Finite Element Method (FEM...

  18. Hot spot formation and chemical reaction initiation in shocked HMX crystals with nanovoids: a large-scale reactive molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tingting; Lou, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yangeng; Song, Huajie; Huang, Fenglei

    2016-07-14

    We report million-atom reactive molecular dynamic simulations of shock initiation of β-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX) single crystals containing nanometer-scale spherical voids. Shock induced void collapse and subsequent hot spot formation as well as chemical reaction initiation are observed which depend on the void size and impact strength. For an impact velocity of 1 km s(-1) and a void radius of 4 nm, the void collapse process includes three stages; the dominant mechanism is the convergence of upstream molecules toward the centerline and the downstream surface of the void forming flowing molecules. Hot spot formation also undergoes three stages, and the principal mechanism is kinetic energy transforming to thermal energy due to the collision of flowing molecules on the downstream surface. The high temperature of the hot spot initiates a local chemical reaction, and the breakage of the N-NO2 bond plays the key role in the initial reaction mechanism. The impact strength and void size have noticeable effects on the shock dynamical process, resulting in a variation of the predominant mechanisms leading to void collapse and hot spot formation. Larger voids or stronger shocks result in more intense hot spots and, thus, more violent chemical reactions, promoting more reaction channels and generating more reaction products in a shorter duration. The reaction products are mainly concentrated in the developed hot spot, indicating that the chemical reactivity of the hmx crystal is greatly enhanced by void collapse. The detailed information derived from this study can aid a thorough understanding of the role of void collapse in hot spot formation and the chemical reaction initiation of explosives.

  19. Development of a technical scheme for the management of chemical dangerous substances in hospitable environments; Desarrollo de un esquema tecnico para la gestion de sustancias quimicas peligrosas en ambientes hospitalarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja Amador, C E

    2002-07-01

    The chemical substances that are used in the hospitals, and their remainders, represent risks for the environment, the health and security of those who work in these establishments, and of the civil population. The deficiency of a norm that establishes the directives for the handling responsible for such products in the hospitals that our country has motivated the elaboration of a technical scheme that serves as it guides for the correct manipulation, storage and safe disposition of chemical substances in the twenty-nine hospitals of the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, establishing Procedures of Standard Operation for its management. To development of the guideline proposal it took a sample of hospitals that includes three levels of comple complexity: national, regional and peripheral. Applying a methodology of evaluation of risks two factors of risk of hospitable were determined, the zones and the population but affected by the existence of chemical substances, which allowed to identify some operative deficiencies in the product handling diverse. The qualitative analysis of the results lead to the elaboration of a technical scheme that includes an instrument for the identification of risks, guideline for the management responsible for hospitable chemical substances, a friendly tool computations like complementary source of intelligence and the proposal of a governing group in charge of the monitoring of the fulfillment of these lineament. (Author) [Spanish] Las sustancias quimicas que se usan en los hospitales, y sus residuos, representan riesgos para el medio ambiente, para la salud y seguridad de quienes trabajan en estos establecimientos, y de la poblacion civil. La carencia de una normativa que establezca las directrices para el manejo responsable de tales productos en los hospitales de nuestro pais ha motivado la elaboracion de un esquema tecnico que sirva como guia para la correcta manipulacion, almacenamiento y disposicion segura de sustancias

  20. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  1. Current Chemical Risk Management Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  2. Identifying new persistent and bioaccumulative organics among chemicals in commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Philip H; Muir, Derek C G

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify commercial chemicals that might be persistent and bioaccumulative (P&B) and that were not being considered in current Great Lakes, North American, and Arctic contaminant measurement programs. We combined the Canadian Domestic Substance List (DSL), a list of 3059 substances of "unknown or variable composition complex reaction products and biological materials" (UVCBs), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Update Rule (IUR) database for years 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006 yielding a database of 22263 commercial chemicals. From that list, 610 chemicals were identified by estimates from U.S EPA EPISuite software and using expert judgment. This study has yielded some interesting and probable P&B chemicals that should be considered for further study. Recent studies, following up our initial reports and presentations on this work, have confirmed the presence of many of these chemicals in the environment.

  3. Immersion freezing of water and aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets initiated by humic-like substances as a function of water activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Rigg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Immersion freezing of water and aqueous (NH42SO4 droplets containing leonardite (LEO and Pahokee peat (PP serving as surrogates for humic-like substances (HULIS has been investigated. Organic aerosol containing HULIS are ubiquitous in the atmosphere; however, their potential for ice cloud formation is uncertain. Immersion freezing has been studied for temperatures as low as 215 K and solution water activity, aw, from 0.85 to 1.0. The freezing temperatures of water and aqueous solution droplets containing LEO and PP are 5–15 K warmer than homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures can be represented by a horizontal shift of the ice melting curve as a function of solution aw by Δaw = 0.2703 and 0.2466, respectively. Corresponding hetrogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, Jhet, are (9.6 ± 2.5×104 and (5.4 ± 1.4×104 cm−2 s−1 for LEO and PP containing droplets, respectively, and remain constant along freezing curves characterized by Δaw. Consequently predictions of freezing temperatures and kinetics can be made without knowledge of the solute type when relative humidity and ice nuclei (IN surface areas are known. The acquired ice nucleation data are applied to evaluate different approaches to fit and reproduce experimentally derived frozen fractions. In addition, we apply a basic formulation of classical nucleation theory (α(T-model to calculate contact angles and frozen fractions. Contact angles calculated for each ice nucleus as a function of temperature, α(T-model, reproduce exactly experimentally derived frozen fractions without involving free-fit parameters. However, assigning the IN a single contact angle for the entire population (single-α model is not suited to represent the frozen fractions. Application of α-PDF, active sites, and deterministic model approaches to measured frozen fractions yield similar good representations. Furthermore, when using a single parameterization of α-PDF or

  4. Characterization and chemical control of the dissolved and colloidal substances in the white water of tissue wrapping paper%白水中溶解与胶体物质的特征与化学控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈礼辉; 苗庆显; 黄六莲; 郭幸吉

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the white water recirculation, the dissolved and colloidal substances ( DCS) in the white water of tissue wrapping paper were characterized, and two kinds of cationic polymers were employed to investigate their effects on the control of DCS, the pulp slurry drainability and the paper physical strength property. It could be concluded as that, the DCS were the major components of solid substances in the white water, up to 66. 2% of solid substances, and the main portion of DCS were dissolved substances. For chemical control of DCS, the treatment conditions could be summarized as:dosage of PDADMAC was 0.029 2 g•L-1 and that of PEI 0.040 0 g•L-1 , stirring for 5 min, respectively. The drainability of pulp slurry was improved significantly and the paper tensile strength was increased dramatically.%为了提高纸机白水循环使用程度,以薄页包装纸抄造白水为对象,研究表征了其溶解与胶体物质( DCS)的性质,探讨了阳离子聚合物对白水中DCS的控制效果,以及对纸料抄造性能和纸张物理强度性能的影响。结果表明, DCS是白水固形物中的主要组分,含量66.2%,且以溶解性物质为主。有效控制白水中DCS障碍较合适的处理条件为:聚二甲基二烯丙基氯化铵( PDADMAC)用量0.0292 g•L-1,聚乙烯亚胺( PEI)用量0.0400 g•L-1,处理时间5 min。

  5. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  6. Backbone and sidechain methyl Ile (δ1), Leu and Val chemical shift assignments of RDE-4 (1-243), an RNA interference initiation protein in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiliveri, Sai Chaitanya; Kumar, Sonu; Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Deshmukh, Mandar V

    2012-10-01

    The RNAi pathway of several organisms requires presence of double stranded RNA binding proteins for functioning of Dicer in gene regulation. In C. elegans, a double stranded RNA binding protein, RDE-4 (385 aa, 44 kDa) recognizes long exogenous dsRNA and initiates the RNAi pathway. We have achieved complete backbone and stereospecific methyl sidechain Ile (δ1), Leu and Val chemical shifts of first 243 amino acids of RDE-4, namely RDE-4ΔC.

  7. Waste paper for recycling: Overview and identification of potentially critical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-11-01

    Paper product manufacturing involves a variety of chemicals used either directly in paper and pulp production or in the conversion processes (i.e. printing, gluing) that follow. Due to economic and environmental initiatives, paper recycling rates continue to rise. In Europe, recycling has increased by nearly 20% within the last decade or so, reaching a level of almost 72% in 2012. With increasing recycling rates, lower quality paper fractions may be included. This may potentially lead to accumulation or un-intended spreading of chemical substances contained in paper, e.g. by introducing chemicals contained in waste paper into the recycling loop. This study provides an overview of chemicals potentially present in paper and applies a sequential hazard screening procedure based on the intrinsic hazard, physical-chemical and biodegradability characteristics of the substances. Based on the results, 51 substances were identified as potentially critical (selected mineral oils, phthalates, phenols, parabens, as well as other groups of chemicals) in relation to paper recycling. It is recommended that these substances receive more attention in waste paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, G.

    1979-01-01

    A reivew of the problems and progress in the field of chemical radioprotection is given. After defining the field of research, the practical significance of radioprotective substances and the requirements for a utilizable radioprotective preparation are presented. Trends of development of this field of research, the state of the art, and resulting conclusions for the future development of radioprotective substances of practical value are discussed. (author)

  9. Proceedings of the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center In-House Laboratory Independent Research and Surface Science Initiative Programs FY12

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    toxic chemicals, biological pathogens and fatigue , which can significantly compromise their health and cognitive abilities to perform complex...using piezoelectric material ( PZT ) so that it would be self-actuated and output read as a function of frequency shift. Theoretical analyses were...each design and compare real results with computer-generated, theoretical models. We designed our cantilever using piezoelectric material ( PZT ) so that

  10. Chemical Conversion Pathways and Kinetic Modeling for the OH-Initiated Reaction of Triclosan in Gas-Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a widely used antimicrobial additive in daily consumption, attention has been paid to the degradation and conversion of triclosan for a long time. The quantum chemistry calculation and the canonical variational transition state theory are employed to investigate the mechanism and kinetic property. Besides addition and abstraction, oxidation pathways and further conversion pathways are also considered. The OH radicals could degrade triclosan to phenols, aldehydes, and other easily degradable substances. The conversion mechanisms of triclosan to the polychlorinated dibenzopdioxin and furan (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are clearly illustrated and the toxicity would be strengthened in such pathways. Single radical and diradical pathways are compared to study the conversion mechanism of dichlorodibenzo dioxin (DCDD. Furthermore, thermochemistry is discussed in detail. Kinetic property is calculated and the consequent ratio of kadd/ktotal and kabs/ktotal at 298.15 K are 0.955 and 0.045, respectively. Thus, the OH radical addition reactions are predominant, the substitute position of OH radical on triclosan is very important to generate PCDD and furan, and biradical is also a vital intermediate to produce dioxin.

  11. Chemical conversion pathways and kinetic modeling for the OH-initiated reaction of triclosan in gas-phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Chenxi; Sun, Xiaomin; Kang, Lingyan; Zhao, Yan

    2015-04-10

    As a widely used antimicrobial additive in daily consumption, attention has been paid to the degradation and conversion of triclosan for a long time. The quantum chemistry calculation and the canonical variational transition state theory are employed to investigate the mechanism and kinetic property. Besides addition and abstraction, oxidation pathways and further conversion pathways are also considered. The OH radicals could degrade triclosan to phenols, aldehydes, and other easily degradable substances. The conversion mechanisms of triclosan to the polychlorinated dibenzopdioxin and furan (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are clearly illustrated and the toxicity would be strengthened in such pathways. Single radical and diradical pathways are compared to study the conversion mechanism of dichlorodibenzo dioxin (DCDD). Furthermore, thermochemistry is discussed in detail. Kinetic property is calculated and the consequent ratio of k add/k total and k abs/k total at 298.15 K are 0.955 and 0.045, respectively. Thus, the OH radical addition reactions are predominant, the substitute position of OH radical on triclosan is very important to generate PCDD and furan, and biradical is also a vital intermediate to produce dioxin.

  12. A Review of the Environmental Degradation, Ecotoxicity, and Bioaccumulation Potential of the Low Molecular Weight Polyether Polyol Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Thomas; Austin, Tom; Eadsforth, Charles V; Bossuyt, Bart; Shen, Summer M; West, Robert J

    "Polyalkylene glycol" is the name given to a broad class of synthetic organic chemicals which are produced by polymerization of one or more alkylene oxide (epoxide) monomers, such as ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO), with various initiator substances which possess amine or alcohol groups. A generalization of this polymerization reaction is illustrated in Fig. 1.

  13. Chemical and physical reservoir parameters at initial conditions in Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador: a first assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Amore, F. [CNR, Pisa (Italy). International Institute for Geothermal Research ; Mejia, J.T. [Comision Ejuctiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa, El Salvador (El Salvador)

    1999-02-01

    A study has been made to obtain the main chemical and physical reservoir conditions of the Berlin field (El Salvador), before the commencement of large-scale exploitation of the geothermal resource. The upflow zone and the main flow path within the geothermal system have been determined from the area distribution of chemical parameters such as Cl concentrations, ratios such as Na/K, K/Mg, K/Ca, and temperatures computed from silica concentrations and cation ratios. Gas compositions have been used to calculate reservoir parameters such as temperature, steam fraction and P{sub CO{sub 2}}. The computer code WATCH (new edition 1994) has been used to evaluate the temperature of equilibrium between the aqueous species and selected alteration minerals in the reservoir. The fluid in Berlin flows to the exploited reservoir from the south, entering it in the vicinity of well TR-5. Along its flow-path (south-north direction), the fluid is cooled by boiling and conductive cooling. The chloride-enthalpy diagram indicates the existence of a parent water, with a chemical composition similar to well TR-5, that boils and the residual brine produces the fluid of well TR-3, which is very concentrated in salts. The fluid of TR-5 is probably produced from this parent water, generating the fluids of wells TR-2 and TR-9 by boiling, and the fluids of wells TR-1 and TR-4 by conductive cooling. The computed values for the deep steam fraction clearly indicate that this is a liquid-dominated system, with computed temperature values decreasing from 310{sup o}C (upflow zone) to about 230{sup o}C, from south to north. (author)

  14. Substance Abuse and the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John P.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the effect that a substance abuser may have on the family system and the maladaptive roles sometimes assumed by family members. Discusses dysfunctional family phases and therapeutic issues and presents 11 guidelines for counselors working with chemically dependent families. (JAC)

  15. Improving titer while maintaining quality of final formulated drug substance via optimization of CHO cell culture conditions in low-iron chemically defined media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianlin; Rehmann, Matthew S; Xu, Xuankuo; Huang, Chao; Tian, Jun; Qian, Nan-Xin; Li, Zheng Jian

    2018-04-01

    During biopharmaceutical process development, it is important to improve titer to reduce drug manufacturing costs and to deliver comparable quality attributes of therapeutic proteins, which helps to ensure patient safety and efficacy. We previously reported that relative high-iron concentrations in media increased titer, but caused unacceptable coloration of a fusion protein during early-phase process development. Ultimately, the fusion protein with acceptable color was manufactured using low-iron media, but the titer decreased significantly in the low-iron process. Here, long-term passaging in low-iron media is shown to significantly improve titer while maintaining acceptable coloration during late-phase process development. However, the long-term passaging also caused a change in the protein charge variant profile by significantly increasing basic variants. Thus, we systematically studied the effect of media components, seed culture conditions, and downstream processing on productivity and quality attributes. We found that removing β-glycerol phosphate (BGP) from basal media reduced basic variants without affecting titer. Our goals for late-phase process development, improving titer and matching quality attributes to the early-phase process, were thus achieved by prolonging seed culture age and removing BGP. This process was also successfully scaled up in 500-L bioreactors. In addition, we demonstrated that higher concentrations of reactive oxygen species were present in the high-iron Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures compared to that in the low-iron cultures, suggesting a possible mechanism for the drug substance coloration caused by high-iron media. Finally, hypotheses for the mechanisms of titer improvement by both high-iron and long-term culture are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of methodologies for risk assessment of combined toxic actions of chemical substances and establishment of PBTK/TD models for pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reffstrup, Trine Klein

    for pragmatic reasons, it is often more appropriate to consider the individual compounds as possible candidates for one (or more) cumulative assessment group(s). The cumulative risk assessment of this group will then be performed assuming simple similar action using one of the single compound approaches...... will consists of sets of identical equations, one set for each chemical as well as equations that specifically accounts for the interactions (e.g. competitive inhibition of metabolism in liver or induction of hepatic metabolism). The development of PBTK models is complex and should only be used when...

  17. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal...

  18. Fractionation, solid-phase immobilization and chemical degradation of long pectin oligogalacturonides. Initial steps towards sequencing of oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillaumie, Fanny; Justesen, Sune Frederik Lamdahl; Mutenda, K.E.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents the optimized separation of pectin oligomers, their analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), their subsequent immobilization to supports, and our initial steps towards solid-support assisted sequencing. The ambient...... were produced in excellent purity (> 95%). Elution of OGAs followed by direct analysis of the peak fractions by MALDI-TOF MS. Purified OGAs (DP 5-7) were chemoselectively immobilized onto aminooxy-terminated polyethylene glycol polyacrylamide (PEGA) supports. Solid-phase anchoring took place...... at the reducing end of the oligosaccharide and resulted in the formation of an oxime linkage. The very high coupling yields confirmed the general suitability of aminooxy-PEGA resins for the immobilization of OGAs of different lengths. The OGA-functionalized PEGA supports were subsequently treated with aq TFA...

  19. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gerrard, Victoria; Gomez-Marquez, Jose

    2014-03-01

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  20. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Wellman Center for Photomedicine and Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Linnes, Jacqueline [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Young, Anna; Gomez-Marquez, Jose [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Gerrard, Victoria [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Opportunity Lab, Singapore University for Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

    2014-03-15

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  1. Biochemical imaging of cervical intervertebral discs with glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging: feasibility and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Christoph; Mueller-Lutz, Anja; Zimmermann, Lisa; Boos, Johannes; Wittsack, Hans-Joerg; Antoch, Gerald; Miese, Falk; Schmitt, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer (gagCEST) imaging at 3T in the assessment of the GAG content of cervical IVDs in healthy volunteers. Forty-two cervical intervertebral discs of seven healthy volunteers (four females, three males; mean age: 21.4 ± 1.4 years; range: 19-24 years) were examined at a 3T MRI scanner in this prospective study. The MRI protocol comprised standard morphological, sagittal T2 weighted (T2w) images to assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based grading system for cervical intervertebral disc degeneration (IVD) and biochemical imaging with gagCEST to calculate a region-of-interest analysis of nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF). GagCEST of cervical IVDs was technically successful at 3T with significant higher gagCEST values in NP compared to AF (1.17 % ± 1.03 % vs. 0.79 % ± 1.75 %; p = 0.005). We found topological differences of gagCEST values of the cervical spine with significant higher gagCEST effects in lower IVDs (r = 1; p = 0). We could demonstrate a significant, negative correlation between gagCEST values and cervical disc degeneration of NP (r = -0.360; p = 0.019). Non-degenerated IVDs had significantly higher gagCEST effects compared to degenerated IVDs in NP (1.76 % ± 0.92 % vs. 0.52 % ± 1.17 %; p < 0.001). Biochemical imaging of cervical IVDs is feasible at 3T. GagCEST analysis demonstrated a topological GAG distribution of the cervical spine. The depletion of GAG in the NP with increasing level of morphological degeneration can be assessed using gagCEST imaging. (orig.)

  2. Role of chemical carcinogens in epithelial and mesenchymal neoplasms with tumor initiation-promotion protocol and the effect of 13-cis retinoic acid in chemo prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, S.M.H.; Shahzad, S.Q.; Naeem, S.; Qureshi, G.R.; Naveed, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of chemical carcinogens on epithelial and mesenchymal tumorigenesis with tumor initiation-promotion protocol and the use of 13-cis retinoic acid as a chemo preventive agent. Design: It was an experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Postgraduate Medical Institute (PGML) Lahore for 20 weeks. Materials and Methods: Sixty albino rats were divided into six groups of ten of animals each. First group of animals (control) was not given carcinogens and 13-cis retinoic acid in second group DMBA was applied on the dorsal skin in repeated dos of 100 mu g/ml in acetone, twice a weak. In the third group DMBA was given 100 mu g/ml as single dose while TPA was given 10 mu g//ml in acetone, twice a weak after two weeks of DMBA applications. In fourth group only DMBA 100 mu g/ml in acetone was applied as a single dose. In fifth and sixth groups 13-cis retinoic acid was given topically before and after the application of DMBA and TPA. Results: First and fourth groups did not develop any tumor. In second groups 2 animals developed malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 4 squamous cell carcinoma while 1 dysphasia and 1 carcinoma in situ. Third group developed osteoma (3 animals), papilloma (3 animals, squamous cell carcinoma (01) and dysplasia (01). Conclusion: Our results showed that DMBA acts as tumor initiator while TPA as promoter. DMBA also produces tumors itself when given alone in repeated doses. The chemical carcinogens are not only a cause of epithelial carcinogenesis but also responsible for mesenchymal tumorigenesis. 13 cis retinoic acid was equally effective in both stages of tumorigenesis. It also prevents malignant conversion of chemically induced benign tumors. (author)

  3. The symbolic language of substances and molecules: noise or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most substances are given names and formulae based upon knowledge of their molecules. However for substances most commonly met in elementary chemistry courses, especially inorganic substances, this is often not the case. The potential noise is amplified further when dealing with chemical reaction equations.

  4. A rapid dissolution procedure to aid initial nuclear forensics investigations of chemically refractory compounds and particles prior to gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reading, David G., E-mail: d.reading@noc.soton.ac.uk [GAU-Radioanalytical Laboratories, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phillip E. [GAU-Radioanalytical Laboratories, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Britton, Richard [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-05

    A rapid and effective preparative procedure has been evaluated for the accurate determination of low-energy (40–200 keV) gamma-emitting radionuclides ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 235}U) in uranium ores and uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) using high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The measurement of low-energy gamma photons is complicated in heterogeneous samples containing high-density mineral phases and in such situations activity concentrations will be underestimated. This is because attenuation corrections, calculated based on sample mean density, do not properly correct where dense grains are dispersed within a less dense matrix (analogous to a nugget effect). The current method overcomes these problems using a lithium tetraborate fusion that readily dissolves all components including high-density, self-attenuating minerals/compounds. This is the ideal method for dissolving complex, non-volatile components in soils, rocks, mineral concentrates, and other materials where density reduction is required. Lithium borate fusion avoids the need for theoretical efficiency corrections or measurement of matrix matched calibration standards. The resulting homogeneous quenched glass produced can be quickly dissolved in nitric acid producing low-density solutions that can be counted by gamma spectrometry. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated using uranium-bearing Certified Reference Materials and provides accurate activity concentration determinations compared to the underestimated activity concentrations derived from direct measurements of a bulk sample. The procedure offers an effective solution for initial nuclear forensic studies where complex refractory minerals or matrices exist. It is also significantly faster, safer and simpler than alternative approaches. - Highlights: • Low energy gamma photons (<200 keV) are attenuated in U-bearing compounds. • Corrections based on bulk density do not yield accurate activity

  5. High molecular weight non-polar hydrocarbons as pure model substances and in motor oil samples can be ionized without fragmentation by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Nadim; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2012-10-15

    High molecular weight non-polar hydrocarbons are still difficult to detect by mass spectrometry. Although several studies have targeted this problem, lack of good self-ionization has limited the ability of mass spectrometry to examine these hydrocarbons. Failure to control ion generation in the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source hampers the detection of intact stable gas-phase ions of non-polar hydrocarbon in mass spectrometry. Seventeen non-volatile non-polar hydrocarbons, reported to be difficult to ionize, were examined by an optimized APCI methodology using nitrogen as the reagent gas. All these analytes were successfully ionized as abundant and intact stable [M-H](+) ions without the use of any derivatization or adduct chemistry and without significant fragmentation. Application of the method to real-life hydrocarbon mixtures like light shredder waste and car motor oil was demonstrated. Despite numerous reports to the contrary, it is possible to ionize high molecular weight non-polar hydrocarbons by APCI, omitting the use of additives. This finding represents a significant step towards extending the applicability of mass spectrometry to non-polar hydrocarbon analyses in crude oil, petrochemical products, waste or food. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature on the release of PET-bottle constituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro bioassays with bacteria and human cell lines. Aldehydes, trace metals and other compounds found in plastic packaging were analysed in PET-bottled water stored at different temperatures: 40, 50, and 60°C. In this study, temperature and the presence of CO2 increased the release of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony (Sb). In parallel, genotoxicity assays (Ames and micronucleus assays) and transcriptional-reporter gene assays for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were performed on bottled water extracts at relevant consumer exposure levels. As expected, and in accordance with the chemical formulations specified for PET bottles, neither phthalates nor UV stabilisers were present in the water extracts. However, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, a degradation compound of phenolic antioxidants, was detected. In addition, an intermediary monomer, bis(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate, was found but only in PET-bottled waters. None of the compounds are on the positive list of EU Regulation No. 10/2011. However, the PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or endocrine-disruption activity in the bioassays after exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Humic substances in ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxeus, N.; Allard, B.; Olofsson, U.; Bengtsson, M.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of naturally occurring complexing agents that may enhance the migration of disposed radionuclikes and thus facilitate their uptake by plantsis a problem associated with the underground disposal of radioactive wastes in bedrock. The main purpose of this work is to characterized humic substances from ground water and compare them with humic substances from surface water. The humic materials isolated from ground waters of a borehole in Fjaellveden (Sweden) were characterized by elemental and functional group analyses. Spectroscopic properties, molecular weight distributions as well as acid-base properties of the fulvic and humic fractions were also studied. The ground water humic substances were found to be quite similar in many respects (but not identical) to the Swedish surface water humics concentrated from the Goeta River but appeared to be quite different from the American ground water humics from Biscayne Florida Aquifer or Laramie Fox-Hills in Colorado. The physico-chemical properties of the isolated humic materials are discussed

  8. Sorption of organic chemicals at biogeochemical interfaces - calorimetric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, J.; Lang, F.; Siemens, J.; Kaupenjohann, M.

    2009-04-01

    Biogeochemical interfaces in soil act as sorbents for organic chemicals, thereby controlling the degradation and mobility of these substances in terrestrial environments. Physicochemical properties of the organic chemicals and the sorbent determine sorptive interactions. We hypothesize that the sorption of hydrophobic organic chemicals ("R-determined" chemicals) is an entropy-driven partitioning process between the bulk aqueous phase and biogeochemical interface and that the attachment of more polar organic chemicals ("F-determined" chemicals) to mineral surfaces is due to electrostatic interactions and ligand exchange involving functional groups. In order to determine thermodynamic parameters of sorbate/sorbent interactions calorimetric titration experiments have been conducted at 20˚ C using a Nanocalorimeter (TAM III, Thermometric). Solutions of different organic substances ("R-determined" chemicals: phenanthrene, bisphenol A, "F-determined" chemicals: MCPA, bentazone) with concentrations of 100 mol l-1 were added to suspensions of pure minerals (goethite, muscovite, and kaolinite and to polygalacturonic acid (PGA) as model substance for biofilms in soil. Specific surface, porosity, N and C content, particle size and point of zero charge of the mineral were analyzed to characterize the sorbents. The obtained heat quantities for the initial injection of the organic chemicals to the goethite were 55 and 71 J for bisphenol A and phenanthrene ("R-determined representatives") and 92 and 105 J for MCPA and bentazone ("F-determined" representatives). Further experiments with muscovite, kaolinite and PGA are in progress to determine G and H of the adsorption process.

  9. Summary reports on some ecotoxicologically hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueffer, H.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on industrial waste water discharge into a public sewage system initiated a study in which the available knowlege on ecologically hazardous materials was compiled. The report contains information on polychlorinated biphenyls, acrylonitride, pentachlorophenol, and further toxic substances. (UT) [de

  10. 75 FR 69462 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... 36683), Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N. Normandy Drive, Petersburg, Virginia 23805, made... registration of Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. to import the basic class of controlled substance is..., conventions, or protocols in effect on [[Page 69463

  11. Substance Use among Adolescent Mothers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Shawna L Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-05-01

    Maternal substance abuse is a critical problem, and adolescent mothers appear to be at high risk for such behaviors. We review studies on postpartum adolescent substance use to explore the extent of this problem and avenues for new research. Authors screened 1,300 studies, identifying 12 articles on substance use among postpartum adolescent mothers for this review. Adolescent mothers reported greater substance use before pregnancy compared to other adolescent females. Although some adolescents continued substance use during pregnancy, most stopped using only to resume within six months after birth. Comparisons of use to national samples of nulliparous adolescent females showed a higher prevalence of substance use in this population. Substances used often varied by race/ethnicity, with white mothers more likely to smoke cigarettes and use marijuana, and Black mothers more likely than whites to drink and use drugs. Of all identified studies, only one focused on Hispanics. Beliefs about drug use grew less negative as girls transitioned from pregnancy to parenthood. As they transitioned to adulthood, substance use remained prevalent and stable. Psychological distress and low self-esteem appeared to influence continued use. Friends' cigarette smoking predicted early initiation of and persistent smoking, while increased education predicted quitting. Early initiation of substances often predicted problem behaviors. Adolescent mothers are a vulnerable population, implicating use of problem behavior theory or the self-medication hypothesis in future research. Multiple avenues for new studies are needed to help identify effective treatment and intervention for this understudied population.

  12. Substance use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Suzanne; Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-04-01

    To improve awareness and knowledge of problematic substance use in pregnancy and to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of this challenging clinical issue for all health care providers. This guideline reviews the use of screening tools, general approach to care, and recommendations for clinical management of problematic substance use in pregnancy. Evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of problematic substance use during pregnancy and lactation. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library were searched for articles published from 1950 using the following key words: substance-related disorders, mass screening, pregnancy complications, pregnancy, prenatal care, cocaine, cannabis, methadone, opioid, tobacco, nicotine, solvents, hallucinogens, and amphetamines. Results were initially restricted to systematic reviews and randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials. A subsequent search for observational studies was also conducted because there are few RCTs in this field of study. Articles were restricted to human studies published in English. Additional articles were located by hand searching through article reference lists. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline up to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was also identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on the Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table 1). This guideline is intended to increase the knowledge and comfort level of health care providers caring for pregnant women who have substance use disorders. Improved access to

  13. Storage of hazardous substances in bonded warehouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Artavia, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    A variety of special regulations exist in Costa Rica for registration and transport of hazardous substances; these set the requirements for entry into the country and the security of transport units. However, the regulations mentioned no specific rules for storing hazardous substances. Tax deposits have been the initial place where are stored the substances that enter the country.The creation of basic rules that would be regulating the storage of hazardous substances has taken place through the analysis of regulations and national and international laws governing hazardous substances. The regulatory domain that currently exists will be established with a field research in fiscal deposits in the metropolitan area. The storage and security measures that have been used by the personnel handling the substances will be identified to be putting the reality with that the hazardous substances have been handled in tax deposits. A rule base for the storage of hazardous substances in tax deposits can be made, protecting the safety of the environment in which are manipulated and avoiding a possible accident causing a mess around. The rule will have the characteristics of the storage warehouses hazardous substances, such as safety standards, labeling standards, infrastructure features, common storage and transitional measures that must possess and meet all bonded warehouses to store hazardous substances. (author) [es

  14. A procedure for the measurement of Oxygen Consumption Rates (OCRs) in red wines and some observations about the influence of wine initial chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Carrascón, Vanesa; Bueno, Mónica; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2018-05-15

    The rates at which wine consumes oxygen are important technological parameters for whose measurement there are not accepted procedures. In this work, volumes of 8 wines are contacted with controlled volumes of air in air-tight tubes containing oxygen-sensors and are further agitated at 25 °C until O 2 consumption is complete. Three exposure levels of O 2 were used: low (10 mg/L) and medium or high (18 or 32 mg/L plus the required amount to oxidize all wine SO 2 ). In each oxygen level, 2-4 independent segments following pseudo-first order kinetics were identified, plus an initial segment at which wine consumed O 2 very fast. Overall, multivariate data techniques identify six different Oxygen-Consumption-Rates (OCRs) as required to completely define wine O 2 consumption. Except the last one, all could be modeled from the wine initial chemical composition. Total acetaldehyde, Mn, Cu/Fe, blue and red pigments and gallic acid seem to be essential to determine these OCRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  16. Wiley guide to chemical incompatibilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pohanish, Richard P; Greene, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    .... A portable and easy-to-use reference on reactive substances commonly found in commerce, the Wiley Guide to Chemical Incompatibilities, Third Edition compiles hard-to-find data on over 11,000 chemical...

  17. Characterization of organic nitrate constituents of secondary organic aerosol (SOA from nitrate-radical-initiated oxidation of limonene using high-resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Faxon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The gas-phase nitrate radical (NO3⚫ initiated oxidation of limonene can produce organic nitrate species with varying physical properties. Low-volatility products can contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation and organic nitrates may serve as a NOx reservoir, which could be especially important in regions with high biogenic emissions. This work presents the measurement results from flow reactor studies on the reaction of NO3⚫ with limonene using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS combined with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO. Major condensed-phase species were compared to those in the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM limonene mechanism, and many non-listed species were identified. The volatility properties of the most prevalent organic nitrates in the produced SOA were determined. Analysis of multiple experiments resulted in the identification of several dominant species (including C10H15NO6, C10H17NO6, C8H11NO6, C10H17NO7, and C9H13NO7 that occurred in the SOA under all conditions considered. Additionally, the formation of dimers was consistently observed and these species resided almost completely in the particle phase. The identities of these species are discussed, and formation mechanisms are proposed. Cluster analysis of the desorption temperatures corresponding to the analyzed particle-phase species yielded at least five distinct groupings based on a combination of molecular weight and desorption profile. Overall, the results indicate that the oxidation of limonene by NO3⚫ produces a complex mixture of highly oxygenated monomer and dimer products that contribute to SOA formation.

  18. Characterization of organic nitrate constituents of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from nitrate-radical-initiated oxidation of limonene using high-resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxon, Cameron; Hammes, Julia; Le Breton, Michael; Kant Pathak, Ravi; Hallquist, Mattias

    2018-04-01

    The gas-phase nitrate radical (NO3⚫) initiated oxidation of limonene can produce organic nitrate species with varying physical properties. Low-volatility products can contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and organic nitrates may serve as a NOx reservoir, which could be especially important in regions with high biogenic emissions. This work presents the measurement results from flow reactor studies on the reaction of NO3⚫ with limonene using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) combined with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO). Major condensed-phase species were compared to those in the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) limonene mechanism, and many non-listed species were identified. The volatility properties of the most prevalent organic nitrates in the produced SOA were determined. Analysis of multiple experiments resulted in the identification of several dominant species (including C10H15NO6, C10H17NO6, C8H11NO6, C10H17NO7, and C9H13NO7) that occurred in the SOA under all conditions considered. Additionally, the formation of dimers was consistently observed and these species resided almost completely in the particle phase. The identities of these species are discussed, and formation mechanisms are proposed. Cluster analysis of the desorption temperatures corresponding to the analyzed particle-phase species yielded at least five distinct groupings based on a combination of molecular weight and desorption profile. Overall, the results indicate that the oxidation of limonene by NO3⚫ produces a complex mixture of highly oxygenated monomer and dimer products that contribute to SOA formation.

  19. Effect of different oxidants on polyaniline/single walled carbon nanotubes composites synthesized via ultrasonically initiated in-situ chemical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gull, Nafisa, E-mail: gullchemist@gmail.com [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Khan, Shahzad Maqsood, E-mail: shahzadkhan81@hotmail.com [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Islam, Atif; Zia, Saba; Shafiq, Muhammad; Sabir, Aneela; Munawar, Muhammad Azeem [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Butt, Muhammad Taqi Zahid [College of Engineering and Emerging Technologies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Jamil, Tahir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan)

    2016-04-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the effect of different oxidants on properties of polyaniline/single walled carbon nanotubes (PANI/SWCNT) composites and scrutinizing a suitable oxidant to improve the properties of composites. PANI/SWCNT composites were fabricated via ultrasonically initiated in-situ chemical polymerization technique using four different oxidants; hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), ammonium peroxidisulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}), potassium dichromate (K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and potassium iodate (KIO{sub 3}). Percent yield (97%), molecular weight (45532 g mol{sup −1}) and electrical conductivity (0.835 S cm{sup −1}) were found maximum for composite prepared in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Structural confirmation of PANI and charge transfer complex formation between PANI and SWCNT were confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis verified that the PANI/SWCNT composite synthesized using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} had maximum thermal stability with least thermal degradation (∼28%). Minimal thermal transitions of the composite were also observed for same composite by differential scanning calorimetry. Scanning electron microscopic images of PANI/SWCNT composites revealed that SWCNT were properly dispersed in PANI matrix when H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was used. Above results provide the valuable suggestion that; H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is a promising oxidant to enhance structural, thermal, electrical and microscopic properties of composites. - Highlights: • Ultrasonically initiated in-situ chemical polymerization protocol was devised for synthesis of PANI/SWCNT composites. • SEM micrographs of PANI/SWCNT-1 showed uniform dispersed structure. • Better thermal stability and conductivity was evidenced for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} based PANI/SWCNT composite. • π–π interaction between PANI and SWCNT is confirmed by FTIR and UV

  20. chemical safety and chemical security overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Wafaa M. Abdou. Chemical Industries Division, National Research Centre, ... substances to attain an acceptably low risk of exposure. Security is: ... Sharing locations of chemicals can publicize targets for theft .... D. Personal Protective Equipments (PPE): ... E. Lighting & Noise Levels ... PPE. ➢ Autoclave or sterilize wastes.

  1. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: harmful substances and how to test them Produtos químicos como desreguladores endócrinos: substâncias danosas e como devem ser testadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Olea-Serrano

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of different groups from: scientists, international regulatory bodies, non-governmental organizations and industry; with an interest in the problem of identifying chemical substances with endocrine disrupting activity. There is also discussion of the consequences that exposure to endocrine disruptors may have for human health, considering concrete issues related to: the estimation of risk; the tests that must be used to detect endocrine disruption; the difficulties to establish an association between dose, time of exposure, individual susceptibility, and effect; and the attempts to create a census of endocrine disruptors. Finally, it is proposed that not all hormonal mimics should be included under the single generic denomination of endocrine disruptors.Este artigo apresenta uma análise das opiniões de diferentes grupos, inclusive de cientistas, agências regulatórias internacionais, organizações não-governamentais e indústrias, interessados na questão da identificação de substâncias químicas com atividade desreguladora endócrina. Os autores discutem também o impacto da exposição aos desreguladores endócrinos sobre a saúde humana, considerando as seguintes questões: estimativa de risco; testes utilizados para detectar distúrbios endócrinos; dificuldades na identificação de uma associação entre dose, tempo de exposição, suscetibilidade individual e efeito e tentativas no sentido de mapear os desreguladores endócrinos. Finalmente, os autores argumentam que nem todos os agonistas hormonais devem ser incluídos sob a denominação genérica de desreguladores endócrinos.

  2. Research and application of quantitative assessment model on chemical substances dermal exposure%化学物质经皮职业暴露定量评估模型的研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈会祥; 黄德寅; 王卉; 薄亚莉; 孙倩; 张倩; 李敏嫣

    2017-01-01

    目的 验证NIOSH定量评估模型模拟结果的可靠性和准确性,并通过实例应用,评估有毒化学物质皮肤接触的吸收程度,提出相应的防护措施建议.方法 选择几种典型的易经皮吸收的化学物质,通过欧洲有毒化学物质皮肤吸收的评估和预测数据库(EDETOX Database)获取其经皮吸收实验数据,将这些研究实例通过NIOSH模型进行吸收率的模拟,将模拟结果与实验数据对比并进行统计学分析,评价NIOSH模型的可靠性和准确性.再以三甲苯磷酸酯和苯酚为实例,采用NIOSH模型评估吸收的剂量(mg),将我国的职业接触浓度限值(mg/m3)转换为接触当量限值(mg),对经由皮肤吸收的职业暴露程度进行判定.结果 模型模拟结果和实验数据的差别无统计学意义(P>0.05).实例应用模拟结果显示,三甲苯磷酸酯3种模拟场景的8h、150 h吸收剂量分别为0.01 mg、0.03 mg、0.03 mg和0.76 mg、4.48 mg、6.93 mg,未超过时间折算接触限值当量(0.67 mg、12.56 mg);苯酚3种模拟场景的8h吸收剂量分别为7.10mg、2.35 mg、15.40 mg,亦未超过时间折算接触限值当量(22.46 mg).结论 该模型具有一定的准确性和可靠性.实例应用显示,NIOSH模型对于经皮吸收的影响因素考虑全面,职业暴露场景的设置灵活方便,对于工作场所化学物质经皮吸收职业暴露评估具有较强的实用性.%Objective To verify the reliability and accuracy of NIOSH quantitative assessment model and evaluate the dermal absorption degree of chemical substances by skin exposure by practice application examples,thereby offer corresponding protection proposals.Methods Several typical chemical substances that easy to be absorpted through skin were selected,the experiment data of skin absorption was obtained from EDETOX Database;compare the skin absorption simulation results by NIOSH quantitative as sessment model with the data from EDETOX Database and take statistical analysis

  3. Chemical cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose nanocrystal composite films with high structural stability by spraying Fenton reagent as initiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meili; Yu, Houyong; Gu, Jiping; Ye, Shounuan; Zhou, Yuwei

    2018-07-01

    Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films with high structural stability were prepared by free radical copolymerization between cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and maleic anhydride (MAH) modified PVA through spraying Fenton free radical as initiator. The influence of chemical cross-linked and physical network structure on mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of the composite films were investigated. Compared to PVA and PVA/CNC composite film, significant improvements in the mechanical, thermal and water uptake properties of the cross-linked composite film were found. The tensile strength of the cross-linked composite film was enhanced from 23.1MPa (neat PVA film) and 32.6MPa (PVA/CNC-10%) to 42.5MPa, and the maximum thermal degradation temperature was increased from 266.8°C and 281.2°C to 366.7°C (cross-linked composite film). Besides, the water absorption was reduced from 385.9% and 220.6% to 175.7% for cross-linked composite film. It indicates that compared with physical network structure in PVA/CNC composite film, the multiple cross-linked networks showed excellent thermal stability, resistance of water swelling and structural stability at the same CNC loading level. Thus, the PVA/CNC composite film with the multiple cross-linked network shows greater property reinforcements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Results of Section 4 Chemical Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires that data be developed on the effect of chemical substances and mixtures on health and the environment. This data...

  5. Former substance users working as counselors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    All helping professionals risk participation in "dual relationships". But in the case of former substance users working as counselors, specific dilemmas and problems are accentuated. A qualitative analysis highlights some of the ethical and personal dilemmas faced by these counselors. The data...... is derived from an interview study initiated in 2000 in Denmark on former substance users with 4 -8 years of abstinence. Through an analysis of interview data from a larger group of former substance users, it became evident that those working as counselors experienced specific dilemmas and problems...

  6. Chemical Production using Fission Fragments; Emploi des fragments de fission dans la production de substances chimiques; Ispol'zovanie produkto v raspada v khimicheskom proizvodstve; Empleo de los fragmentos de fision en la industria quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, J K; Moseley, F [AERE, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1960-07-15

    Some reactor design considerations of the use of fission recoil fragment energy for the production of chemicals of industrial importance have been discussed previously in a paper given at the Second United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy [A/Conf. 15/P.76]. The present paper summarizes more recent progress made on this topic at AERE, Harwell. The range-energy relationship for fission fragments is discussed in the context of the choice of fuel system for a chemical production reactor, and the experimental observation of a variation of chemical effect along the length of a fission fragment track is described for the irradiation of nitrogen-oxygen mixtures. Recent results are given on the effect of fission fragments on carbon monoxide-hydrogen gas mixtures and on water vapour. No system investigated to date shows any outstanding promise for large-scale chemical production. (author) [French] En ce qui concerne la construction de reacteurs, certaines considerations relatives a l'emploi de l'energie des fragments de fission de recul pour la production de certaines substances chimiques d'importance industrielle ont deja ete examinees dans un memoire soumis a la deuxieme Conference internationale sur l'utilisation de l'energie atomique a des fins pacifiques [A/Conf. 15/PP. 76]. Le present memoire donne un apercu des progres accomplis depuis lors dans ce domaine par 1'Atomic Energy Research Establishment a Harwell. Les auteurs etudient la relation entre le parcours et l'energie pour des fragments de fission a propos du choix du combustible pour un reacteur destine a la production de substances chimiques; ils decrivent aussi une variation d'effet chimique observee le long de la trajectoire d'un fragment de fission pendant l'irradiation de melanges azote-oxygene. Les auteurs fournissent les resultats de recherches recentes relatives a l'effet des fragments de fission sur des melanges oxyde de carbone-hydrogen e et sur la vapeur d

  7. National Take-Back Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disposal Information Drug and Chemical Information E-commerce Initiatives Federal Agencies & Related Links Federal Register Notices National ... Disposal Information Drug and Chemical Information E-commerce Initiatives Federal Agencies & Related Links Federal Register Notices National ...

  8. 76 FR 56294 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List AGENCY: Environmental... pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous Waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations, Penalties... error in processing the direct- final rule. The online Federal Document Management System (FDMS) did not...

  9. 76 FR 56362 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List AGENCY: Environmental... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous Waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental... processing the deletion notice. The online Federal Document Management System (FDMS) did not include required...

  10. 75 FR 44920 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... State Registry of Inactive Hazardous Waste Disposal Sites as a ``Class 2 Inactive Hazardous Waste Site..., Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations, Natural resources, Oil... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the SMS...

  11. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1 (FGE.22Rev1): Ring substituted phenolic substances from chemical groups 21 and 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance 3...... through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that these 27 candidate substances do not give rise to safety...... concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Adequate specifications for the materials of commerce are available for all 27 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....

  12. Essential Principles for Reform of Chemicals Management Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  13. Substance use - cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse - cocaine; Drug abuse - cocaine; Drug use - cocaine ... thinking clearly Mood and emotional problems, such as aggressive or violent behavior Restlessness and tremors Sleep problems ...

  14. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCP; Substance abuse - phencyclidine; Drug abuse - phencyclidine; Drug use - phencyclidine ... a result, you may act strangely or become aggressive and violent. PCP's other harmful effects include: It ...

  15. Experimental estimation of migration and transfer of organic substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes: Evaluation of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Per Axel; Spaan, Suzanne; Brouwer, Derk H; Marquart, Hans; le Feber, Maaike; Engel, Roel; Geerts, Lieve; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi; Hansen, Brian; De Brouwere, Katleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the key mechanisms governing transport of organic chemical substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes. The results were used to establish a mechanistic model to improve assessment of dermal contact exposure. Four types of PVC flooring, 10 types of textiles and one type of inkjet printed paper were used to establish the mechanisms and model. Kinetic extraction studies in methanol demonstrated existence of matrix diffusion and indicated the presence of a substance surface layer on some articles. Consequently, the proposed substance transfer model considers mechanical transport from a surface film and matrix diffusion in an article with a known initial total substance concentration. The estimated chemical substance transfer values to cotton wipes were comparable to the literature data (relative transfer ∼ 2%), whereas relative transfer efficiencies from spiked substrates were high (∼ 50%). For consumer articles, high correlation (r(2)=0.92) was observed between predicted and measured transfer efficiencies, but concentrations were overpredicted by a factor of 10. Adjusting the relative transfer from about 50% used in the model to about 2.5% removed overprediction. Further studies are required to confirm the model for generic use.

  16. Initial findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of computer-assisted therapy for substance misuse in prisoners: Development, implementation and clinical outcomes from the ‘Breaking Free Health & Justice’ treatment and recovery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elison

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the United Kingdom’s ‘Transforming Rehabilitation’ agenda, reshaping drug and alcohol interventions in prisons is central to the Government’s approach to addressing substance dependence in the prison population and reduce reoffending. To achieve this, a through-care project to support offenders following release, ‘Gateways’, is taking place providing ‘through the gate’ support to released offenders, including help with organising accommodation, education and employment, and access to a peer supporter. In addition, Gateways is providing access to an evidence-based computer-assisted therapy (CAT programme for substance misuse, Breaking Free Health & Justice (BFHJ. Developed in partnership with the Ministry of Justice (MoJ National Offender Management Services (NOMS, and based on a community version of the programme, Breaking Free Online (BFO, BFHJ provides access to clinically-robust techniques based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT and promotes the role of technology-enhanced approaches in recovery from substance misuse. The BFHJ programme is provided via ‘Virtual Campus’ (VC, a secure, web-based learning environment delivered by NOMS and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, which has no links to websites not approved by MoJ, and provides prisoners with access to online training courses around work and skills. Providing BFHJ on VC makes the programme the world’s first online healthcare programme to be provided in prisons. Aims: Although here is an emerging evidence-base for the effectiveness of the community version of the BFO programme and its implementation within community treatment settings (Davies, Elison, Ward, & Laudet, 2015; Elison, Davies, & Ward, 2015a, 2015b; Elison, Humphreys, Ward, & Davies, 2013; Elison, Ward, Davies, Lidbetter, et al., 2014; Elison, Ward, Davies, & Moody, 2014, its potential within prison settings requires exploration. This study therefore sought to

  17. 76 FR 72976 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ..., 2011, 76 FR 36577, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., 2820 N. Normandy Drive, Petersburg, Virginia... Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances is consistent with the public interest at this time. DEA has investigated Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc...

  18. Psilocybin for treating substance use disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, B.T. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Verheij, M.M.M.; Homberg, J.R.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence based treatment for Substance use disorders (SUD) includes psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. However, these are only partially effective. Hallucinogens, such as psilocybin, may represent potential new treatment options for SUD. This review provides a summary of (human) studies on the putative therapeutic effects of psilocybin, and discusses the receptor systems, brain regions and cognitive and emotional processes mediating psilocybin's effects. Psilocybin's chemical st...

  19. Improving substance information in usetox®, part 2: Data for estimating fate and ecosystem exposure factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saouter, Erwan; Aschberger, Karin; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    substance properties, USEtox® quantifies potential human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts by combining environmental fate, exposure and toxicity effects information, considering multimedia fate and multi-pathway exposure processes. The main source to obtain substance properties for USEtox® 1......The scientific consensus model USEtox® is developed since 2003 under the auspices of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative as a harmonized approach for characterizing human and freshwater toxicity in life cycle assessment (LCA) and other comparative assessment frameworks. Using physicochemical.......01 and 2.0 is the Estimation Program Interface (EPI SuiteTM ) from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, since the development of the original USEtox® substance databases, new chemical regulations have been enforced in Europe such as the REACH and the Plant Protection Products regulations...

  20. Radioactive Substances Act 1948

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1948-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive substances and radiation producing devices in the United Kingdom. It provides for the control of import, export, sale, supply etc. of such substances and devices and lays down the safety regulations to be complied with when dealing with them. (NEA) [fr

  1. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  2. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Specker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method Consecutive one-year referrals (524 to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs. Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in data

  3. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Specker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives: 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method: Consecutive one-year referrals (524 to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results: Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs. Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions: These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in

  4. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1998-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. Differential tumor biology effects of double-initiation in a mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis model comparing wild type versus protein kinase Cepsilon overexpression mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yafan; Wheeler, Deric L; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N; Verma, Ajit K; Oberley, Terry D

    2007-12-01

    Our previous studies showed that protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) verexpression in mouse skin resulted in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) elicited by single 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiation and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promotion in the absence of preceding papilloma formation as is typically observed in wild type mice. The present study demonstrates that double-DMBA initiation modulates tumor incidence, multiplicity, and latency period in both wild type and PKCepsilon overexpression transgenic (PKCepsilon-Tg) mice. After 17 weeks (wks) of tumor promotion, a reduction in papilloma multiplicity was observed in double- versus single-DMBA initiated wild type mice. Papilloma multiplicity was inversely correlated with cell death indices of interfollicular keratinocytes, indicating decreased papilloma formation was caused by increased cell death and suggesting the origin of papillomas is in interfollicular epidermis. Double-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice had accelerated carcinoma formation and cancer incidence in comparison to single-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice. Morphologic analysis of mouse skin following double initiation and tumor promotion showed a similar if not identical series of events to those previously observed following single initiation and tumor promotion: putative preneoplastic cells were observed arising from hyperplastic hair follicles (HFs) with subsequent cancer cell infiltration into the dermis. Single-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice exhibited increased mitosis in epidermal cells of HFs during tumor promotion.

  7. Isolation and identification of an allelopathic substance from Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwitchayanon, Prapaipit; Pukclai, Piyatida; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2015-05-01

    In this study, an allelopathic substance was isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. by column chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate. Trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate inhibited the growth of cress hypocotyls and roots at concentrations greater than 10 mM. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of the hypocotyls and roots of cress were 20.3 and 14.4 mM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate suggests that the substance may act as an allelopathic substance of H. sabdariffa.

  8. Hematological Parameters in the Volatile Substance Sniffers

    OpenAIRE

    Dündaröz, Ruşen; Ceylan, Süleyman; Denli, Metin; Açıkel, Cengizhan; Balım, Elvan; Özışık, Tahir

    2009-01-01

    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 1999 Eylül; 6(3) Hematological Parameters in the Volatile Substance Sniffers Ruşen Dündaröz, Süleyman Ceylan, Metin Denli, Cengiz Han Açıkel, Elvan Balım, Tahir Özışık Abstract Glue sniffing is a frequent problem among teenagers. Various chemical substances, especially toluene and benzene, contained in the glues kave been reported to be hematotoxic. The hematological parameters of 44 healthy teenagers ~...

  9. EFFECT OF SUBSTANCE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OF HEALTH OFFICER AND MEDICAL STUDENTS OF JIMMA. UNIVERSITY ... cannabis or marihuana and khat (2, 3). Reports showed that these substances ... mainly through cancer especially lung cancer, of which about 90% of cases are ...

  10. Toxic substances alert program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  11. The natural history of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvet, Aaron L; Hasin, Deborah

    2016-07-01

    Illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco use disorders contribute substantially to the global burden of disease. Knowledge about the major elements of the natural history of substance use disorders (incidence, remission, persistence, and relapse) is crucial to a broader understanding of the course and outcomes of substance use disorders. Prospective cohort studies in nonclinical samples indicate that externalizing psychopathology in earlier life, including early disordered substance use, delinquency, and personality disorders, are related to substance use disorders later in life and chronic course. Externalizing psychopathology may be initiated by early adverse experiences, for example, childhood maltreatment and stressful life events. After controlling for confounders, 'age at first use' as a causal factor for alcohol use disorder later in life and the 'drug substitution' hypothesis are not supported in general population data. Future research should focus on elaborating the causal framework that leads to the development and persistence of severe substance use disorders, with an emphasis on identifying modifiable factors for intervention by policy makers or health professionals. More research is needed on the natural history of substance use disorders in low-income and middle-income countries.

  12. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C to... - Substance Technical Guidelines, Benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance Technical Guidelines, Benzene B Appendix B to... Subpart C to Part 197—Substance Technical Guidelines, Benzene I. Physical and Chemical Data (a) Substance... temperature: 580 °C (1076 °F). (3) Flammable limits in air, % by volume: Lower: 1.3%, Upper: 7.5%. (4...

  13. Chemical Accident Prevention: Site Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chemical safety alert assists facilities that routinely handle extremely hazardous substances, along with SERCs, LEPCs, and emergency responders, in their efforts to reduce criminally caused releases and vulnerability to terrorist activity.

  14. Chemical warfare in freshwater, allelopathic effects of macrophytes on phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field

  15. Chemical warfare in freshwater. Allelpathic effects of macrophytes on phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field

  16. An automated system designed for large scale NMR data deposition and annotation: application to over 600 assigned chemical shift data entries to the BioMagResBank from the Riken Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative internal database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Naohiro; Harano, Yoko; Tochio, Naoya; Nakatani, Eiichi; Kigawa, Takanori; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Mading, Steve; Ulrich, Eldon L.; Markley, John L.; Akutsu, Hideo; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2012-01-01

    Biomolecular NMR chemical shift data are key information for the functional analysis of biomolecules and the development of new techniques for NMR studies utilizing chemical shift statistical information. Structural genomics projects are major contributors to the accumulation of protein chemical shift information. The management of the large quantities of NMR data generated by each project in a local database and the transfer of the data to the public databases are still formidable tasks because of the complicated nature of NMR data. Here we report an automated and efficient system developed for the deposition and annotation of a large number of data sets including 1 H, 13 C and 15 N resonance assignments used for the structure determination of proteins. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our system by applying it to over 600 entries from the internal database generated by the RIKEN Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative (RSGI) to the public database, BioMagResBank (BMRB). We have assessed the quality of the deposited chemical shifts by comparing them with those predicted from the PDB coordinate entry for the corresponding protein. The same comparison for other matched BMRB/PDB entries deposited from 2001–2011 has been carried out and the results suggest that the RSGI entries greatly improved the quality of the BMRB database. Since the entries include chemical shifts acquired under strikingly similar experimental conditions, these NMR data can be expected to be a promising resource to improve current technologies as well as to develop new NMR methods for protein studies.

  17. Brief Family Based Intervention for Substance Abusing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Lynn; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Research has consistently shown that a lack of parental involvement in the activities of their children predicts initiation and escalation of substance use. Parental monitoring, as well as youth disclosure about their whereabouts, parent child communication, positive parenting and family management strategies, e.g., consistent limit setting, and parental communication about and disapproval of substance use, have all been shown to protect against adolescent substance abuse and substance problems. Given the empirical evidence, family and parenting approaches to preventing and intervening on adolescent substance misuse have received support in the literature. This article discusses the theoretical foundations as well as the application of the Family Check-up, a brief family-based intervention for adolescent substance use. PMID:26092741

  18. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2 (FGE.21Rev2): Thiazoles, thiophene, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical group 29. Miscellaneous substances from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 56 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Seven...... of commerce have also been considered. For two substances are an identity test lacking and for one has the stereoisomeric composition to be specified....

  19. Substance Use among Medical Students in Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Khanal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Substance use including tobacco and alcohol is the most important cause of preventable morbidity, disability, and premature mortality. The study aims to specify the prevalence and the pattern of use of different substance. Methods: A cross sectional study was performed amongst first year and final year students in four medical colleges in Kathmandu using self administered anonymous questionnaire.Data collectedfrom 446 students were analyzed. Results: Prevalence of substance use was found to be 60.3% among the medical students. Alcohol (57.6% was the substance most prevalently used followed by tobacco (27.58% and cannabis (12.8%. Mean age of first exposure was 17.94 (Confidence interval: 17.91-17.97. There was significant difference in the useof tobacco and cannabis amongst final year students than first year students. Male and female differed significantly in use of every substance except for benzodiazepine. Medical college, college and school were place of first exposure in 17.26%, 15.92% and 13.23% of the cases respectively. Family history was associated with substance use in medical students and was statistically significant (P<0.0001.Experimentation was the major reason for the use of most of the substances. Conclusions: Substance use is prevalent in male medical students of both first and final year. Hence steps should be initiated early in school, college and medical college to prevent substance use. Keywords: alcohol, medical students, substance use, tobacco.

  20. Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2013-04-02

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  1. Detection of diffusible substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warembourg, M [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France)

    1976-12-01

    The different steps of a radioautographic technique for the detection of diffusible substances are described. Using this radioautographic method, the topographic distribution of estradiol-concentrating neurons was studied in the nervous system and pituitary of the ovariectomized mouse and guinea-pig. A relatively good morphological preservation of structures can be ascertained on sections from unfixed, unembedded tissues prepared at low temperatures and kept-under relatively low humidity. The translocation or extraction of diffusible substances is avoided by directly mounting of frozen sections on dried photographic emulsion. Since no solvent is used, this technique excludes the major sources of diffusion artifacts and permits to be in favourable conditions for the localization of diffusible substances.

  2. Hazardous substances in Europe's fresh and marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Robert; Brack, Werner; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    Chemicals are an essential part of our daily lives. They are used to produce consumer goods, to protect or restore our health and to boost food production, to name but a few examples — and they are also involved in a growing range of environmental technologies. Europe's chemical and associated...... on their pattern of use and the potential for exposure. Certain types of naturally occurring chemicals, such as metals, can also be hazardous. Emissions of hazardous substances to the environment can occur at every stage of their life cycle, from production, processing, manufacturing and use in downstream...... regarding chemical contamination arising from the exploitation of shale gas has grown recently. Hazardous substances in water affect aquatic life… Hazardous substances are emitted to water bodies both directly and indirectly through a range of diffuse and point source pathways. The presence of hazardous...

  3. Substance abuse and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G

    2017-01-01

    Substance abuse is a health problem with serious psychological and psychiatric dimensions and multiple social and economic consequences. Cancer is a disease that threatens not only life and physical integrity but mental health as well. Oncology patients suffer from mental disorders in high rates, especially from depression and anxiety. The role of substance abuse in the pathogenesis of cancer is studied systematically, since there are research data supporting the mutagenic effects of certain substances. It has been supported that a possible dysregulation of the immune system is linked to the oncogenic processes induced by substances of abuse. Specifically, opioids are the first addictive substances that have been identified as oncogenic factors. However, conflicting results have been offered by experimental animal studies, which showed that opioids, such as morphine, depending on the dosage administered, may not only enhance the process of tumor growth, but also inhibit it. Additionally, research data indicate that the use of cannabis may be associated with cancer, either as an independent factor or in relation to other mutagenics, although it is not yet clear to which extent these effects may be connected to the disease, especially once the consumption of tobacco and alcohol by these patients are taken into account. However, it has been argued that certain cannabinoids may have biological -anticancer- activities which could be used therapeutically without being accompanied by the corresponding 9-tetrahydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is well known that alcohol is a risk factor for developing head and neck cancer, and epidemiological studies indicate that the higher the consumption of alcohol, the more mortality due to cancer increases. In addition, it is suggested that there is no safety level for alcohol consumption regarding the risk of developing cancer; that is even a minimum daily consumption is associated with the occurrence of certain types of cancer

  4. On the dose-rate effect of ionizing radiations on the initial radiation-chemical yield of paramagnetic centers upon low-temperature radiolysis of n-heptane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhaev, P.S.; Kiryukhin, D.P.; Kuzina, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    In this work the authors report on an experimental study of the initial regions of dose dependence of paramagnetic centers in n-heptane upon varying the dose rate from 0.035 to 2.3 x 10 3 Gy/s. The buildup at 77 K of paramagnetic centers in n-heptane was studied in outgassed samples placed in Luch-2 glass cells

  5. New York hazardous substances emergency events surveillance: learning from hazardous substances releases to improve safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welles, Wanda Lizak; Wilburn, Rebecca E.; Ehrlich, Jenny K.; Floridia, Christina M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1993, the New York State Department of Health, funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, has collected data about non-petroleum hazardous substances releases through the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (NYHSEES) project. This study investigates risk factors for hazardous substances releases that may result in public health consequences such as injury or reported health effects. The 6428 qualifying events that occurred during the 10-year-period of 1993-2002 involved 8838 hazardous substances, 842 evacuations, more than 75,419 people evacuated, and more than 3120 people decontaminated. These events occurred both at fixed facilities (79%) and during transport (21%). The causative factors most frequently contributing to reported events were equipment failure (39%) and human error (33%). Five of the 10 chemicals most frequently associated with injuries were also among the 10 chemicals most frequently involved in reported events: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite, and carbon monoxide. The chemical categories most frequently associated with events, and with events with adverse health effects were volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and solvents, and acids. Events with releases of hazardous substances were associated with injuries to 3089 people including employees (37%), responders (12%), the general public (29%) and students (22%). The most frequently reported adverse health effects were respiratory irritation, headache, and nausea or vomiting. Most of the injured were transported to the hospital, treated, and released (55%) or treated at the scene (29%). These data have been used for emergency response training, planning, and prevention activities to reduce morbidity and mortality from future events

  6. Drug and chemical residues in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussman, H C

    1975-02-01

    Given the large number of chemical substances that may find their way into the food supply, a system is needed to monitor their presence. The U. S. Department of Agriculture's Meat and Poultry Inspection Program routinely tests for chemical residues in animals coming to slaughter. Pesticides, heavy metals, growth promotants (hormones and hormonelike agents), and antibiotics are included. Samples are taken statistically so that inferences as to national incidence of residues can be drawn. When a problem is identified, a more selective sampling is designed to help follow up on the initial regulatory action. In testing for pesticides, only DDT and dieldrin are found with any frequency and their levels are decreasing; violative residues of any chlorinated hydrocarbon are generally a result of an industrial accident rather than agricultural usage. Analyses for heavy metals have revealed detectable levels of mercury, lead, and others, but none at levels that are considered a health hazard. Of the hormone or hormonelike substances, only diethylstilbestrol has been a residue problem and its future is uncertain. The most extensive monitoring for veterinary drugs is on the antimicrobials, including sulfonamides, streptomycin, and the tetracycline group of antibiotics that constitute the bulk of the violations; their simultaneous use prophylactically and therapeutically has contributed to the problem in certain cases. A strong, well-designed user education program on proper application of pesticides, chemicals, and veterinary drugs appears to be one method of reducing the incidence of unwanted residues.

  7. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, A.

    1988-04-01

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  9. The relationship between structural evolution and electrical percolation of the initial stages of tungsten chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenblat, A.; Haimson, S.; Shacham-Diamand, Y.; Horvitz, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results and a geometric model of the evolution of sheet resistance and surface morphology during the transition from nucleation to percolation of tungsten chemical vapor deposition over ultrathin polycrystalline titanium nitride (TiN). We observed two mechanisms of reduction in sheet resistance. At deposition temperatures higher than 310 deg. C, percolation effect is formed at ∼35% of surface coverage, θ, and characterized with a sharp drop in resistance. At temperature below 310 deg. C, a reduction in resistance occurs in two steps. The first step occurs when θ = 35% and the second step at θ = 85%. We suggest a geometric model in which the electrical percolation pass is modulated by the thickness threshold of the islands at the instant of collision.

  10. Journal of NIRE, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 1996. Special issue: Behavior in the environment and countermeasure technology of hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Contents: Technique for Management of Hazardous Chemical Substances --Risk Assessment; Behaviors of Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment; Numerical Model of Chemical Fate in an Environment; Source Characterization and Chemical Processes of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere; Development of Sensor for Hazardous Substances; Removal of Chemical Substances from the Atmosphere by Photocatalysis; Microbial Degradation of Organic Xenobiotics in Environment.

  11. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  12. Developing human health exposure scenarios for petroleum substances under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.; De Wilde, P.; Maksimainen, K.; Margary, A.; Money, C.; Pizzella, G.; Svanehav, T.; Tsang, W.; Urbanus, J.; Rohde, A.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the approaches that were adopted by CONCAWE to prepare the human exposure estimates in the chemical safety assessments of the REACH registration dossiers for petroleum substances based on all applicable regulatory guidance. Separate exposure estimates were developed for workers and for consumers and included inhalation and dermal routes. The complex nature of petroleum substances required various scientifically justified refinements of the regulatory guidance.

  13. Epidemiology of Substance Use among University Students in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Osman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Youth populations are vulnerable to substance use particularly in developing countries where circumstances may be favorable for it. There is no published data on substance use among the youth in Sudan other than on tobacco use. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, circumstances, and factors associated with substance use. Methods. An institution-based survey was conducted on a sample of 500 students. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed by the WHO for student drug surveys and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results. The overall prevalence of substance use is 31%. The current prevalence of tobacco, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamines, tranquilizers, inhalants, opiates, cocaine, and heroin use was 13.7%, 4.9%, 2.7%, 2.4%, 3.2%, 1%, 1.2%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. Curiosity (33.1% was the main reason for initiation of substance use. The main adverse effects reported were health problems (19.7% and theft (19.7%. Peers (40.9% were the prime source of substance use. On multivariate analysis, male sex was the principle predictor for substance use (AOR: 5.55; 95% CI: 3.38, 9.17. Conclusion. Strategies to control substance use should encompass the role of the university and parents in observing and providing education to improve awareness of substances and their consequences.

  14. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of chemical injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Werner, Charles L; Gubler, K Dean

    2005-01-01

    Chemical injuries are commonly encountered following exposure to acids and alkali, including hydrofluoric acid, formic acid, anhydrous ammonia, cement, and phenol. Other specific agents that cause chemical burns include white phosphorus, elemental metals, nitrates, hydrocarbons, and tar. Even though there are more than 65,000 chemicals available on the market, and an estimated 60,000 new chemicals produced each year, the potential deleterious effects of these chemicals on humans are still unknown. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act contains extensive provisions for emergency planning and the rights of communities to know about toxic chemical releases. Since 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has maintained an active, state-based Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system to describe the public health consequences risked by access to hazardous chemicals. Most chemical agents damage the skin by producing a chemical reaction rather than hyperthermic injury. Although some chemicals produce considerable heat as a result of an exothermic reaction when they come in contact with water, their ability to produce direct chemical changes on the skin accounts for the most skin injury. Specific chemical changes depend on the agent, including acids, alkalis, corrosives, oxidizing and reducing agents, desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The concentration of toxic agent and duration of its contact primarily determine degree of skin destruction. Hazardous materials (hazmats) are substances that may injure life and damage the environment if improperly handled. HAZMAT accidents are particularly dangerous for responding personnel, who are in danger from the moment of arrival on the scene until containment of the accident. Consequently, the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act mandates community preparedness for dealing with hazmat accidents. Paramedics and members of the hazmat response team

  15. Screening organic chemicals in commerce for emissions in the context of environmental and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Knut; Arnot, Jon A; Brown, Trevor N; McLachlan, Michael S; Wania, Frank

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative knowledge of organic chemical release into the environment is essential to understand and predict human exposure as well as to develop rational control strategies for any substances of concern. While significant efforts have been invested to characterize and screen organic chemicals for hazardous properties, relatively less effort has been directed toward estimating emissions and hence also risks. Here, a rapid throughput method to estimate emissions of discrete organic chemicals in commerce has been developed, applied and evaluated to support screening studies aimed at ranking and identifying chemicals of potential concern. The method builds upon information in the European Union Technical Guidance Document and utilizes information on quantities in commerce (production and/or import rates), chemical function (use patterns) and physical-chemical properties to estimate emissions to air, soil and water within the OECD for five stages of the chemical life-cycle. The method is applied to 16,029 discrete substances (identified by CAS numbers) from five national and international high production volume lists. As access to consistent input data remains fragmented or even impossible, particular attention is given to estimating, evaluating and discussing uncertainties in the resulting emission scenarios. The uncertainty for individual substances typically spans 3 to 4 orders of magnitude for this initial tier screening method. Information on uncertainties in emissions is useful as any screening or categorization methods which solely rely on threshold values are at risk of leading to a significant number of either false positives or false negatives. A limited evaluation of the screening method's estimates for a sub-set of about 100 substances, compared against independent and more detailed emission scenarios presented in various European Risk Assessment Reports, highlights that up-to-date and accurate information on quantities in commerce as well as a detailed

  16. Aquatic Humic Substances: Relationship Between Origin and Complexing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guadarrama, María de Jesús; Armienta-Hernández, Ma Aurora; Rosa, André H

    2018-05-01

    Aiming to determine the relationship between source and complexing capacity, humic substances obtained from three sites (Sorocaba and Itapanhau Brasilian rivers, and Xochimilco Lake in Mexico) were studied. Copper, manganese, zinc and arsenic complexing capacity were determined for the three substances under various pH conditions. Results showed similar complexing capacity for the three elements depending on the chemistry of each one and on the physico-chemical conditions. Speciation diagrams showed that these conditions affect both, the humic substances, and the transition metals and arsenic.

  17. Identification of organic nitrates in the NO3 radical initiated oxidation of alpha-pinene by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraud, Véronique; Bruns, Emily A; Ezell, Michael J; Johnson, Stanley N; Greaves, John; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2010-08-01

    The gas-phase reactions of nitrate radicals (NO3) with biogenic organic compounds are a major sink for these organics during night-time. These reactions form secondary organic aerosols, including organic nitrates that can undergo long-range transport, releasing NOx downwind. We report here studies of the reaction of NO3 with alpha-pinene at 1 atm in dry synthetic air (relative humidity approximately 3%) and at 298 K using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) to identify gaseous and particulate products. The emphasis is on the identification of individual organic nitrates in the particle phase that were obtained by passing the product mixture through a denuder to remove gas-phase reactants and products prior to entering the source region of the mass spectrometer. Filter extracts were also analyzed by GC-MS and by APCI time-of-flight mass spectrometry (APCI-ToF-MS) with methanol as the proton source. In addition to pinonaldehyde and pinonic acid, five organic nitrates were identified in the particles as well as in the gas phase: 3-oxopinane-2-nitrate, 2-hydroxypinane-3-nitrate, pinonaldehyde-PAN, norpinonaldehyde-PAN, and (3-acetyl-2,2-dimethyl-3-nitrooxycyclobutyl)acetaldehyde. Furthermore, there was an additional first-generation organic nitrate product tentatively identified as a carbonyl hydroxynitrate with a molecular mass of 229. These studies suggest that a variety of organic nitrates would partition between the gas phase and particles in the atmosphere, and serve as a reservoir for NOx.

  18. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  19. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    A Chitsaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injec...

  20. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  1. The advisory list for selvclassification of dangerous substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemelä, Jay Russell; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    All chemical substances marketed in the EU must be classified and labelled according to the regulation on classification and labelling of dangerous substances (7). Substances with harmonised classifications adopted in the EU are to be found on the List of harmonised classification and labelling...... this issue, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency published the Advisory Self-classification List /5/. This report describes the updating of this list. The Advisory Self-Classification list is created by the use of (Q)SARs ((Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships) to predict the effects...... Skin sensitisation The updated advisory list is available as an Excel file for download from DK-EPA's website and as an online searchable database. This includes the 23,922 chemicals with new advisory classifications resulting from this project, making in all, a total of 30,179 chemicals with advisory...

  2. Treatment outcomes for substance abuse among adolescents with learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jennifer W; Buka, Stephen L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; McCormick, Marie C

    2006-07-01

    This paper assesses whether chemically dependent adolescents with comorbid learning disorders (LDs) derived less effective treatment results when compared to chemically dependent adolescents without LD and examines the moderating effects of prior treatments, treatment length, and treatment completion. Two hundred one adolescents were recruited between 1992 and 1993 from Massachusetts residential treatment centers and subsequently followed up 6 months after enrollment. Compared to chemically dependent teenagers without LD, those with LD were twice as likely to re-use substances at least once by follow-up. LD teenagers were more likely to attend Alcoholics/Narcotics Anonymous if they had prior admissions to treatment programs and longer treatment length. LD teenagers who completed treatment also experienced a greater decrease in current depression compared to LD teenagers not completing the treatment. This study is the first to consider outcomes of substance abuse treatment for adolescents with LD and contributes to the growing literature on comorbidity and substance abuse treatment.

  3. Maintenance and hazardous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhl, K.; Terwoert, J.; Cabecas, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance workers come into close contact with a broad variety of often hazardous chemicals. Depending on the specific type, these chemicals may not only cause diseases like skin sores or cancer, but many of them are highly flammable and explosive. This e-facts focuses on the specific risks

  4. Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

    2013-04-02

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  5. Addiction and substance abuse in anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Ethan O; Silverstein, Jeffrey H

    2008-11-01

    Despite substantial advances in our understanding of addiction and the technology and therapeutic approaches used to fight this disease, addiction still remains a major issue in the anesthesia workplace, and outcomes have not appreciably changed. Although alcoholism and other forms of impairment, such as addiction to other substances and mental illness, impact anesthesiologists at rates similar to those in other professions, as recently as 2005, the drug of choice for anesthesiologists entering treatment was still an opioid. There exists a considerable association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology, and successful treatment for addiction is less likely when comorbid psychopathology is not treated. Individuals under evaluation or treatment for substance abuse should have an evaluation with subsequent management of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Participation in self-help groups is still considered a vital component in the therapy of the impaired physician, along with regular monitoring if the anesthesiologist wishes to attempt reentry into clinical practice.

  6. Analyses of the Erosive Effect of Dietary Substances and Medications on Deciduous Teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Lussi

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analysing the erosive potential of 30 substances (drinks, candies, and medicaments on deciduous enamel, and analyse the associated chemical factors with enamel dissolution. We analysed the initial pH, titratable acidity (TA to pH 5.5, calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphate (Pi, and fluoride (F concentration, and degree of saturation ((pK -pIHAP, (pK -pIFAP, and (pK-pICaF2 of all substances. Then, we randomly distributed 300 specimens of human deciduous enamel into 30 groups (n = 10 for each of the substances tested. We also prepared 20 specimens of permanent enamel for the sake of comparison between the two types of teeth, and we tested them in mineral water and Coca-Cola®. In all specimens, we measured surface hardness (VHN: Vickers hardness numbers and surface reflection intensity (SRI at baseline (SH baseline and SRI baseline, after a total of 2 min (SH2 min and after 4 min (SH4 min and SRI4 min erosive challenges (60 ml of substance for 6 enamel samples; 30°C, under constant agitation at 95 rpm. There was no significant difference in SH baseline between deciduous and permanent enamel. Comparing both teeth, we observed that after the first erosive challenge with Coca-Cola®, a significantly greater hardness loss was seen in deciduous (-90.2 ± 11.3 VHN than in permanent enamel (-44.3 ± 12.2 VHN; p = 0.007, but no differences between the two types of teeth were observed after two challenges (SH4 min. After both erosive challenges, all substances except for mineral water caused a significant loss in relative surface reflectivity intensity, and most substances caused a significant loss in surface hardness. Multiple regression analyses showed that pH, TA and Ca concentration play a significant role in initial erosion of deciduous enamel. We conclude that drinks, foodstuffs and medications commonly consumed by children can cause erosion of deciduous teeth and erosion is mainly associated with pH, titratable acidity and calcium

  7. Analyses of the Erosive Effect of Dietary Substances and Medications on Deciduous Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussi, Adrian; Carvalho, Thiago Saads

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at analysing the erosive potential of 30 substances (drinks, candies, and medicaments) on deciduous enamel, and analyse the associated chemical factors with enamel dissolution. We analysed the initial pH, titratable acidity (TA) to pH 5.5, calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and fluoride (F) concentration, and degree of saturation ((pK -pI)HAP, (pK -pI)FAP, and (pK-pI)CaF2) of all substances. Then, we randomly distributed 300 specimens of human deciduous enamel into 30 groups (n = 10 for each of the substances tested. We also prepared 20 specimens of permanent enamel for the sake of comparison between the two types of teeth, and we tested them in mineral water and Coca-Cola®. In all specimens, we measured surface hardness (VHN: Vickers hardness numbers) and surface reflection intensity (SRI) at baseline (SH baseline and SRI baseline), after a total of 2 min (SH2 min) and after 4 min (SH4 min and SRI4 min) erosive challenges (60 ml of substance for 6 enamel samples; 30°C, under constant agitation at 95 rpm). There was no significant difference in SH baseline between deciduous and permanent enamel. Comparing both teeth, we observed that after the first erosive challenge with Coca-Cola®, a significantly greater hardness loss was seen in deciduous (-90.2 ± 11.3 VHN) than in permanent enamel (-44.3 ± 12.2 VHN; p = 0.007), but no differences between the two types of teeth were observed after two challenges (SH4 min). After both erosive challenges, all substances except for mineral water caused a significant loss in relative surface reflectivity intensity, and most substances caused a significant loss in surface hardness. Multiple regression analyses showed that pH, TA and Ca concentration play a significant role in initial erosion of deciduous enamel. We conclude that drinks, foodstuffs and medications commonly consumed by children can cause erosion of deciduous teeth and erosion is mainly associated with pH, titratable acidity and calcium

  8. Culturally competent substance abuse treatment with transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttbrock, Larry A

    2012-01-01

    Transgender individuals are misunderstood and inadequately treated in many conventional substance abuse treatment programs. This article reviews current concepts regarding the definition and diversity of transgenderism and summarizes the existing literature on the prevalence and correlates of substance use in transgendered populations. Examples of culturally competent and gender-sensitive treatment in specialized settings are cited, with a call to extend these initiatives throughout the gamut of service venues that engage transgender individuals. Cultural competence combined with gender sensitivity should improve the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment for transgender individuals and will contribute to the goal of providing effective services in an increasingly diverse society.

  9. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  10. Peer substance use and homelessness predicting substance abuse from adolescence through early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J; Domoff, Sarah E; Toro, Paul A

    2013-06-01

    Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were housed at the baseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age range from 13 to 25. Many participants experienced a recurrence of homelessness during follow-up, with 64.6 % of the baseline homeless group and 22.6 % of the baseline housed group reporting an additional episode of homelessness. Both alcohol abuse and other drug abuse symptoms showed an increase in adolescence followed by slowing in early adulthood. Recent homelessness and friend alcohol use predicted alcohol abuse symptoms, and the strength of the influence of friend use decreased over time. Recent homelessness and friend drug use predicted other drug abuse symptoms. Duration of the initial episode of adolescent homelessness showed no influence on substance abuse over time, or the effects of other predictors, highlighting the importance of conceptualizing the experience of homelessness as a recent stressor rather than an enduring personal characteristic.

  11. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  12. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  13. Tourette syndrome and excitatory substances: is there a connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-Ping; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Jian-Bo; Lu, Jin-Fang; Liu, Qun; Wang, Hang-Yan

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between excitatory substances by testing the urine in children with Tourette syndrome (TS). We performed a control study involving 44 patients with TS and 44 normal children by investigating the children's daily eating habits. We used the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer from Agilent. Substances for detection included 197 excitatory substances prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and other substances with similar chemical structures or biological functions for urine samples. Forty-four patients who did not take any drugs in the past 2 weeks enrolled in the study. The positive rate in the experiment group was three cases, while it was negative in the control group. The level of 1-testosterone increased in one extremely severe TS patient who ate large amounts of puffed food and drank an average of 350 ml of cola per day. Cathine and other substances with similar chemical constitution or similar biological effects increased in one severe TS patient who ate bags of instant noodles daily, according to the high score of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. An increase in ephedrine type, testosterone, and stimulants may be related to the pathogenesis of TS. Unhealthy food possibly causes TS. The relationship between excitatory substances and TS needs to be explored with the goal of providing more information on diagnosing and treating TS.

  14. Exponential growth of new chemicals and evolution of information relevant to risk control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Roberto; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; Marcello, Ida

    2008-01-01

    The number of new chemicals synthesized and marketed increases exponentially. The database CAS REGISTRY at present contains more than 33 million organic and inorganic substances. However, the little information regarding the potential hazard associated with a large amount of chemicals is an old known problem in the European Union and also in the United States. This critical problem may find a solution in the collaboration of the different involved countries and in a planned task setting at international level. Both in the United States (e.g., the "Gore Initiative") and in European Union (the REACH policy) a big effort has been dedicated to this solution, within standardized procedures and an appropriate collaboration.

  15. 76 FR 65579 - Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Test Rule and Significant New Use Rule; Fourth Group of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ...) or process any of the chemical substances that are listed in Tables A. or B. in Unit III. Potentially... remaining 508 of the 2,782 chemical substances were termed ``orphans'' because they were not sponsored and... the 508 orphans, 405 are no longer produced at HPV levels. Of the remaining 103 chemical substances...

  16. Altered Developmental Trajectories for Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking among Adolescent Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E.; Ryan, Stacy R.; Bray, Bethany C.; Mathias, Charles W.; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have associated impulsivity and sensation seeking with level of substance use and risk for developing a substance use disorder. These relationships may be particularly apparent during adolescence, when developmental changes in impulsivity and sensation seeking occur at the same time as increased opportunities for substance use. To examine this, the current study measured impulsivity and sensation seeking from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence in a sample of youth, the majority of whom were identified as being at risk for developing a substance use disorder based on their family history of substance use disorders. Youth were separated into those who did (n = 117) and did not (n = 269) initiate substance use by mid-adolescence. Results showed that substance users were more impulsive and more sensation seeking during pre-adolescence, prior to any significant substance use, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence was related to heavier substance use by mid-adolescence. In addition, developmental trajectories for substance-using youth showed a greater increase in sensation seeking but a more modest decrease in impulsivity from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence. Taken together, these results indicate that increased impulsivity and sensation seeking is apparent in adolescent substance users as early as pre-adolescence, that the difference between substance users and non-users becomes larger across early adolescence as their developmental trajectories diverge, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence may predict increased substance use by mid-adolescence. PMID:27174219

  17. **1**5N-NMR INVESTIGATION OF HYDROXYLAMINE DERIVATIZED HUMIC SUBSTANCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Mikita, Michael A.

    1986-01-01

    Humic substances are the most abundant naturally occurring refactory organic compounds in soils and water. They have a broad range of physical, chemical and physiological properties. In soils, humic substances contribute to the cation exchange capacity, help maintain the physical structure, and play a role in plant growth and nutrition. In aquatic systems, humic substances serve to regulate the levels of inorganic constituents, yield trihalomethanes upon chlorination, and transport or concentrate organic and inorganic pollutants. The oxygen containing functional groups of humic and fulvic acids are believed to play a key role in the chemical properties of humic substances. This study was undertaken to gain additional information on the specific types of oxygen functionalities in humic substances. Since the analysis of hydroxyl moieties had been earlier established, we focused our attention on the analysis of ketone and aldehyde functional groups in humic substances.

  18. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  19. OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES ELIMINATION MANAGEMENT: THE SUCCESS STORY OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Matlievska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Man, with its activities, produces and uses substances that have negative impact on the environment and the human health, and can cause an economic damage. Consequently, they have a great impact on quality of life. Among the most harmful chemicals are Ozone Depleting Substances that are subject of regulation with international conventions. This Paper supports the fact that each country has to undertake national efforts for ozone depleting substances reduction and elimination. In that respect, the general objective of the Paper is to present the Macedonian unique experience regarding its efforts to reduce or eliminate these substances. The following two aspects were subject to the research: national legislation which regulates the Ozone Depleting Substances import and export as well as the implementation of the projects that resulted with the elimination of Ozone Depleting Substances quantities in the period 1995 – 2010. The research outcomes confirm the starting research hypothesis i.e. that with adequately created and implemented national action, the amount of Ozone Depleting Substances consumption can dramatically fall.

  20. 75 FR 29754 - Claims of Confidentiality of Certain Chemical Identities Contained in Health and Safety Studies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... chemical substances, EPA is aware that some companies believe their competitors are sufficiently knowledgeable that if EPA were to disclose the chemical identity, the competitors would be capable of... a chemical identity of a chemical substance inspires a competitor to ascertain a process for...

  1. Herbivore-plant interactions: mixed-function oxidases and secondary plant substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F; Eisner, T

    1977-06-17

    The mixed-function oxidases of a polyphagous insect larva (the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania) were found to be induced by a diversity of secondary plant substances. The induction proceeds rapidly and in response to a small quantity of secondary substance. Following induction, the larva is less susceptible to dietary poisoning. It is argued that mixed-function oxidases play a major role in protecting herbivores against chemical stress from secondary plant substances.

  2. PETRORISK: a risk assessment framework for petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Comber, Mike H I; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Eadsforth, Charles V; Dmytrasz, Bhodan; King, Duncan; Warren, Christopher S; den Haan, Klaas; Djemel, Nadia

    2014-07-01

    PETRORISK is a modeling framework used to evaluate environmental risk of petroleum substances and human exposure through these routes due to emissions under typical use conditions as required by the European regulation for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Petroleum substances are often complex substances comprised of hundreds to thousands of individual hydrocarbons. The physicochemical, fate, and effects properties of the individual constituents within a petroleum substance can vary over several orders of magnitude, complicating risk assessment. PETRORISK combines the risk assessment strategies used on single chemicals with the hydrocarbon block approach to model complex substances. Blocks are usually defined by available analytical characterization data on substances that are expressed in terms of mass fractions for different structural chemical classes that are specified as a function of C number or boiling point range. The physicochemical and degradation properties of the blocks are determined by the properties of representative constituents in that block. Emissions and predicted exposure concentrations (PEC) are then modeled using mass-weighted individual representative constituents. Overall risk for various environmental compartments at the regional and local level is evaluated by comparing the PECs for individual representative constituents to corresponding predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) derived using the Target Lipid Model. Risks to human health are evaluated using the overall predicted human dose resulting from multimedia environmental exposure to a substance-specific derived no-effect level (DNEL). A case study is provided to illustrate how this modeling approach has been applied to assess the risks of kerosene manufacture and use as a fuel. © 2014 SETAC.

  3. Flask for highly radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The flask for highly radioactive substances described in this invention comprises a thick steel cylinder with leak proof closures at both ends and made up of several coaxial rings in rolled sheet steel, fitted into each other and welded to each other along their edges. The inner ring is preferably in sheet steel with a lining on its internal side, for instance a stainless steel lining. Likewise the outer ring is preferably in sheet steel with a covering on its outer side. The cylindrical body of the flask is welded by its lower end to a forged steel bottom and by its upper end to a forged steel ring. The bottom can also be made with several partitions. This forged steel ring has an inside peripheral shoulder and the upper end of the flask is closed in a leak proof manner by an initial forged steel plus resting on this shoulder and bolted to it and by a second plug bolted to the free end of this ring [fr

  4. Chemical Mechanisms of Shock Initiation of NTO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMillen, D

    1997-01-01

    ...) time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The fracture-induced fragments of NTO are dominated by a single peak, m/z 99, which is completely absent in either the thermal- or laser-desorption spectra obtained in the same...

  5. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Imported Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance and sample reporting scenarios on the reporting exemption for the import of a chemical substance as part of an article, for purposes of the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule.

  6. Radioactive substance solidifying device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, Kotaro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To easily solidify radioactive substances adhering to the surfaces of solid wastes without scattering in the circumference by paints, and further to reduce surface contamination concentrations. Constitution: Solid wastes are placed on a hanging plate, and dipped in paints within a paint dipping treatment tank installed at the lower part of a treatment tank by means of a monorail hoist, and the surfaces of said solid wastes are coated with paints, thereby to solidify the radioactivity on the surfaces of the solid wastes. After dipping, the solid wastes are suspended up to a paint spraying tank to dry the paints. After drying, non-contaminated paints are atomized to apply through an atomizing tube onto the solid wastes. After drying the atomized paints, the solid wastes are carried outside the treatment tank by means of the monorail hoist. (Yoshino, Y.)

  7. Psilocybin for treating substance use disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Veen, Bas T H; Schellekens, Arnt F A; Verheij, Michel M M; Homberg, Judith R

    2017-02-01

    Evidence based treatment for Substance use disorders (SUD) includes psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. However, these are only partially effective. Hallucinogens, such as psilocybin, may represent potential new treatment options for SUD. This review provides a summary of (human) studies on the putative therapeutic effects of psilocybin, and discusses the receptor systems, brain regions and cognitive and emotional processes mediating psilocybin's effects. Psilocybin's chemical structure is similar to that of serotonin. Dysregulations in the serotonin system are associated with alterations in stress hormones, such as cortisol, and mood disorders. After psilocybin administration cortisol levels spike and activate the executive control network, with subsequent increased control over emotional processes, and relief of negative thinking and persistent negative emotions. Preliminary data of ongoing alcohol and smoking addiction studies in humans shows promising effects of psilocybin administration on substance use. Importantly, psilocybin has a low risk of toxicity and dependence and can be used safely under controlled clinical conditions. Areas covered: This paper is a narrative review based on the search terms: psilocybin, substance use disorder, addiction, depression, serotonin. Literature on potential efficacy and mechanisms of action of psilocybin in SUD is discussed. Expert commentary: Recent positive findings with psilocybin need confirmation in well-designed placebo controlled randomized trials employing a large sample size.

  8. Fate and monitoring of hazardous substances in temporary rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ademollo, N.; Capri, S.; Froebrich, J.; Patrolecco, L.; Polesello, S.; Puddu, A.; Rusconi, M.; Valsecchi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Under climate-change conditions, temporary rivers will be the dominant surface-water bodies of the Mediterranean region. In order to manage this kind of water body appropriately, it is necessary to understand the chemical and ecological processes that involve hazardous substances in these

  9. 76 FR 36577 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on May 4, 2011, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Inc., 2820 N. Normandy Drive...

  10. 75 FR 32506 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a) of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on April 12, 2010, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals Inc., 2820 N. Normandy Drive...

  11. Effect of Drug Active Substance Particles on Wet Granulation Process.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bělohlav, Z.; Břenková, L.; Hanika, Jiří; Durdil, P.; Rapek, P.; Tomášek, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 85, A7 (2007) , s. 974-980 ISSN 0263-8762 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : wet granulation * control * active substance Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2007

  12. Composition consisting of a dendrimer and an active substance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a composition consisting of a dendrimer provided with blocking agents and an active substance occluded in the dendrimer. According to the invention a blocking agent is a compound which is sterically of sufficient size, which readily enters into a chemical bond with the

  13. Sustainable hazardous substances management in the supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenvliet, H.; Valk, van der W.; Weele, van A.J.; Esposito, E.

    2012-01-01

    Being compliant to legal hazardous substances regulations is difficult for multinational companies that have a global network of suppliers. The presence of these chemicals has to be monitored throughout the supply chain often even up until the raw materials suppliers. Companies have also to deal

  14. 76 FR 64813 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances Clarification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ..., including security, and must address ``processing integrity'' as set forth in our regulations. Likewise... within DEA that implements and enforces Titles II and III of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and... substances and listed chemicals for legitimate medical, scientific, research, and industrial purposes. \\1...

  15. Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Advisory: Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This advisory recommends ways Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) and chemical facilities can minimize risks from this extremely hazardous substance, especially when present in excess of its 500 pounds threshold planning quantity.

  16. Toxic chemicals: risk prevention through use reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Thomas E; Sachdev, Jayanti A; Engleman, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    ... on the actual toxicity of chemicals currently in use, discusses variables that contribute to the relative toxicity of a substance, compares alternate emphases in existing programs for reducing environmental...

  17. EPA Linked Open Data: Chemical Data Reporting

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This resource consists of the Chemical Data Reporting database that supports the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976, which provides EPA with authority to...

  18. Chemical carcinogenesis and chemoprevention: Scientific priority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    substances beside coal tar. Industrial chemicals .... induced cell signaling and transcriptional activation. Chro- nic alteration ... well known that both oil soluble and water-soluble .... vention and treatment strategies might be applied to these risk ...

  19. Distribution of some chemical elements between dissolved and particulate phases in the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, D.W.; Bacon, M.P.; Sachs, P.L.; Fleer, A.P.; Shafer, D.K.; Belastock, R.A.; Hammer, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    The long-range goal of our research is to understand the processes that control the distribution and fate of chemical elements in the ocean, with emphasis on the rates at which the governing processes operate. Such an understanding is essential in predicting the fate of substances such as heavy metals and radionuclides that are released to the environment as a consequence of energy-producing activities. In pursuit of this goal we have, during the present contract period, devoted all of our effort to participation in the Shelf-Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program. Initial results from SEEP-1 are consistent with our hypothesis of enhanced scavenging of reactive chemical substances in upper slope sediments. During the next year we will complete our analytical work for SEEP-1 and carry out quantitative interpretations of our data with mathematical models to assess the importance of boundary uptake in this region of the continental margin. 8 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  20. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Chemical peels Overview Chemical peels: Overview Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do ... Overview Chemical peels: FAQs Chemical peels: Preparation FAQs Chemical peels: FAQs To help you decide whether this ...

  1. Environmental risk evaluation of difficult substances in USES 2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen P van; ECO

    1998-01-01

    An inventory is given of the problems which arise when difficult substances are evaluated with the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES). It gives an indication about the different classes of chemicals which can give problems in USES. Further, it describes the problems which occur

  2. 77 FR 10450 - Designation of Hazardous Substances; Designation, Reportable Quantities, and Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... in 40 CFR Part 302 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous substances...; Notification Requirements; Reportable Quantity Adjustments. Discharges of mixtures and solutions are subject to these regulations only where a component hazardous substance of the mixture or solution is discharged in...

  3. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Vancutsem, J.; Jorgensen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds) and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual

  4. Persistent toxic substances: sources, fates and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming H; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Naidu, Ravi; Man, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Persistent toxic substances (PTS) include the Stockholm persistent organic pollutants, like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin/furan, etc., and organometallic compounds, like organomercury, organotin, and organolead, which all share the same characteristics of being persistent, toxic, bioaccumulative, and able to travel long distances through different media. The adverse health effects of some of the emerging chemicals like pentabromodiphenyl ether, bisphenol A, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which are widely used in daily appliances (e.g., TVs, computers, mobile phones, plastic baby bottles), have become a public health concern due to more evidence now available showing their adverse effects like disturbance of the endocrine system and cancer. This article is an attempt to review the current status of PTS in our environment, citing case studies in China and North America, and whether our existing drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment processes are adequate in removing them from water. Some management issues of these emerging chemicals of concern are also discussed.

  5. Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its association with substance use and substance use disorders in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, N; Dey, M; Eich-Höchli, D; Foster, S; Gmel, G; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2016-06-01

    Functional and mental health impairments that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience may be exacerbated by regular substance use and co-morbidity with substance use disorders (SUD). This may be especially true during young adulthood, which represents a critical stage of life associated with increased substance use and associated problems. However, previous studies investigating the association between ADHD and substance use and SUD have demonstrated inconsistent results, probably due to methodological limitations (e.g., small and non-representative samples). Thus, the relationship of ADHD with substance use and related disorders remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ADHD and both the use of licit and illicit substances and the presence of SUD in a large, representative sample of young men. The sample included 5677 Swiss men (mean age 20 ± 1.23 years) who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ADHD was assessed using the adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS). The association between ADHD and substance use and SUD was assessed for alcohol, nicotine, cannabis and other illicit drugs, while controlling for socio-demographic variables and co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., major depression (MD) and anti-social personality disorder (ASPD)). Men with ADHD were more likely to report having used nicotine, cannabis and other illicit drugs at some time in their life, but not alcohol. ADHD was positively associated with early initiation of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use, the risky use of these substances, and the presence of alcohol use disorders, and nicotine and cannabis dependence. Additionally, our analyses revealed that these patterns are also highly associated with ASPD. After adjusting for this disorder, the association between ADHD and licit and illicit substance use and the presence of SUDs was reduced, but remained significant. Our findings

  6. Chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Reuver, L.P.J. de; Fidder, A.; Tromp, M.; Verschraagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been initiated towards the chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents, in order to support forensic investigations towards synthesis routes, production sites and suspect chemical suppliers. Within the first stage of the project various chemical warfare agents (VX, sulfur mustard,

  7. Substance Use and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...

  8. Adolescent substance abuse. Assessment in the office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Philomena J

    2002-04-01

    There are no gold-standard tests for evaluating a teen suspected of abusing substances. Awareness of the high prevalence of substance abuse in youth, a high index of suspicion, and a firm desire to be a part of the solution are all that is required to address the problem of substance abuse in youth. In an age of "dotcoms" and societal complexity that fosters an emotionally "disconnected" atmosphere by uniting adolescents only by what they buy, plug into, click on, or blast away, teens need trusted medical homes where caring pediatricians are available to give youth accurate and authoritative facts and care to help them build inner resilience and connect them to the pain and hurt of the people in their lives. Until now, the "three strikes and you're out" maxim has been applied in medical care. This maxim may work for baseball, Clintonomics, and practical office management strategies but is not recommended for addressing the needs of substance using or abusing youth who are prey to advertising strategies. The size of the marketing and advertising budgets of the alcohol and cigarette industries is an indication of the relentless marketing directed toward vulnerable youth. Pediatricians would be doing teens a disservice if they fail to countermand this marketing effect by not using the "rule of seven"--the "seven 'S' screen," seven education attempts, seven different ways over 7 years, and persistence over seven attempts of chemically dependent adolescents to quit. It has been said by Osler that "These are our methods--to carefully observe the phenomena of life in all its stages, to cultivate the reasoning of the faculty so as to be able to know the true from the false. This is our work--to prevent disease, to relieve suffering, to heal the sick," and provide HOPE always.

  9. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  10. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) 8(e) Notices and FYI Submissions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Section 8(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires U.S. chemical manufacturers, importers, processors and distributors to notify EPA within 30 calendar...

  11. Perfluoroalkyl substances measured in breast milk and child neuropsychological development in a Norwegian birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forns, J.; Iszatt, N.; White, R.A.; Mandal, S.; Sabaredzovic, A.; Lamoree, M.H.; Thomsen, C.; Haug, L.S.; Stigum, H.; Eggesbo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are chemicals with potential neurotoxic effects although the current evidence is still limited. This study investigated the association between perinatal exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and neuropsychological

  12. Effect of humic substances on the precipitation of calcium phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong-hui; Hermann H. HAHN; Erhard HOFFMANN; Peter G. WEIDLER

    2006-01-01

    For phosphorus (P) recovery from wastewater, the effect of humic substances (HS) on the precipitation of calcium phosphate was studied. Batch experiments of calcium phosphate precipitation were undertaken with synthetic water that contained 20 mg/L phosphate (as P) and 20 mg/L HS (as dissolved organic carbon, DOC) at a constant pH value in the range of 8.0-10.0. The concentration variations of phosphate, calcium (Ca) and HS were measured in the precipitation process; the crystalline state and compositions of the precipitates were analysed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, respectively. It showed that at solution pH 8.0, the precipitation rate and removal efficiency of phosphate were greatly reduced by HS, but at solution pH ≥9.0,the effect of HS was very small. The Ca consumption for the precipitation of phosphate increased when HS was added; HS was also removed from solution with the precipitation of calcium phosphate. At solution pH 8.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 3.5 mg/L, and at pH ≥ 9.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 10 mg/L, the final precipitates were proved to be hydroxyapatite (HAP) by XRD. The increases of solution pH value and initial Ca/P ratio helped reduce the influence of HS on the precipitation of phosphate.

  13. Teenagers' Awareness of Peers' Substance and Drug Use in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omu, Florence E; Bader, Al-Wadaany; Helen, Delles; Slabeeb, Shukriya; Safar, Hanan; Omu, Alexander E

    Teenage substance use is a global challenge, and youths residing in Kuwait are not immune from it. Tobacco products are licit; however, alcohol and other mood-altering illicit substance are prohibited with severe penalties including imprisonment. Youths residing in Kuwait are being initiated into the use of mood-altering substances like tobacco at an early age, and it is postulated that, as they grow older, they may progress into using alcohol and other prohibited illicit drugs. The aim of this study was to determine licit and illicit substance use by teenagers residing in Kuwait. The study will also explore their awareness of substance use among their peers. A cross-sectional survey using a snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 190 teenagers aged 15-18 years residing in Kuwait. Data were collected using the 130-item questionnaire adapted from 1998 New Jersey Triennial Public High School Survey of Drug and Alcohol Use. Data collection was from September 2012 to June 2013. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 22 for Windows was used. Pearson's chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to test the hypotheses. Tobacco was the most commonly used substance by these teenagers; 8.4% were current smokers, and 50% had experimented. Age of initiation for 21% was before 14 years old. Hashish (marijuana) was the most commonly used illicit drug, with 3.7% current users and 5.3% claiming to have used it. More male than female teenagers in Grade 9 were using tobacco products (χ = 27.428, df = 5, p abuse of mood/mind-altering licit and illicit substances appear to be increasing among older teenagers. Intensifying campaigns about the hazards of substance use and drug testing should start from the primary school level.

  14. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  15. Radioiodination of humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, K.; Kupsch, H. [Inst. of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The known IODO-GEN trademark -method was adapted for radiolabeling of humic and fulvic acids with {sup 131}I. The water insoluble oxidizing agent 1,3,4,6tetrachloro-3{alpha},6{alpha}-diphenylglycoluril (IODO-GEN trademark) forms an iodous ion species (I{sup +}), which undergoes an electrophilic I/H-substitution on aromatic moieties of the humic and fulvic acids. This method offers mild conditions with a lesser extent of oxidative alterations of the target molecule, accompanied by an easy handling due to the virtual water-insolubility of the oxidizing agent. The method was optimized and different techniques were tested for the purification of the radioiodinated humic material. The yield of the labeling procedure varies between 45 and 75% depending on the provenance of the humic material and the applied purification method. A specific activity up to 40 MBq/mg was achieved. Furthermore, the known inherent photo-susceptibility of the iodinated humic substance and the influence of reducing agents were verified. An additional release of {sup 131}I up to 20% and up to 35%, respectively were observed. (orig.)

  16. Distillation of bituminous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    du Buisson, M A.B.B.

    1845-06-23

    New and improved methods are described for the distillation of bituminous schistus and other bituminous substances, as well as for the purification, rectification, and preparation necessary for the employment of the productions obtained by such distillation for various useful purposes. This invention consists, first, in the arrangement and construction of furnace or apparatus for the distillation of schistus, and (any) other bituminous rocks. This furnace is made of circular brick-work, and is provided with the requisite number of fires placed round the circumference. The retort is of a conical or funnel shape, and when ready for use, has the appearance of one inverted cone being placed within a larger cone, in such a manner as to leave a space between the two cones for the reception of the schistus. Both cones are capable of being closed at their apexes, and their mouths, which are placed upwards, are connected together, and hermetically closed by a flat ring. The flame draft is caused to impinge against the lower portion of the outer cone and ascending, turns over the upper edge and descends within the inner cone to the mouth of the chimney, which is placed in the interior, and as low as may be convenient. A third cone is so placed within the inner cone as to cause the flame draft, in its descent, to bind against the surface of the retort.

  17. A method and apparatus for preparing the storage of noxious substances, in particular radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the storage of radioactive substances. It deals with a method for storing a substance, in particular a noxious or radioactive substance, comprising trapping said substance in a solid substance by bombarding said solid substance with ions of the above substance, so that the latter reaches a certain concentration level in the solid substance. This is applicable to the storage of radioactive wastes [fr

  18. Alexithymia in Egyptian Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rasheed, Amany Haroun

    2001-03-01

    Alexithymia is thought of as a trait that predisposes to drug abuse. Moreover, it is suggested to be related to type of the substance abused, with the worst-case scenario including a worse prognosis as well as tendency to relapse or even not to seek treatment at all. To address this important subject in Egyptian patients, a sample of 200 Egyptian substance abusers was randomly selected from inpatients in the Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Egypt. The study also included 200 group-matched controls. DSM-IV criteria were used for assessment of substance use disorders, and toxicologic urine analysis was used to confirm the substances of abuse. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-Arabic version was used for assessment of alexithymia. It was found that alexithymia was significantly more prevalent in the substance use disorders group as compared to healthy controls. It was also found that among the substance use disorders group, alexithymics reported more polysubstance abuse, more opiate use (other than heroin IV), lower numbers of hospitalizations, lower numbers of reported relapses, and a lower tendency to relapse as a result of internal cues compared to patients without alexithymia. Statistically significant associations were also found between alexithymia and more benzodiazepine abuse and nonpersistence in treatment. The results suggest that alexithymia should be targeted in a treatment setting for substance use disorders.

  19. 76 FR 1067 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Mfg & NOES (number based criteria based criteria significant chemicals (lbs) industrial of workers... 2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals AGENCY... section 4(a)(1)(B) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to require manufacturers, importers, and...

  20. Waste paper for recycling: Overview and identification of potentially critical substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    by nearly 20% within the last decade or so, reaching a level of almost 72% in 2012. With increasing recycling rates, lower quality paper fractions may be included. This may potentially lead to accumulation or un-intended spreading of chemical substances contained in paper, e.g. by introducing chemicals...... contained in waste paper into the recycling loop. This study provides an overview of chemicals potentially present in paper and applies a sequential hazard screening procedure based on the intrinsic hazard, physical-chemical and biodegradability characteristics of the substances. Based on the results, 51...

  1. Definition of Substance and Non-substance Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Wang, Xiaomei; Ding, Jianrui; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Substance addiction (or drug addiction) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a recurring desire to continue taking the drug despite harmful consequences. Non-substance addiction (or behavioral addiction) covers pathological gambling, food addiction, internet addiction, and mobile phone addiction. Their definition is similar to drug addiction but they differ from each other in specific domains. This review aims to provide a brief overview of past and current definitions of substance and non-substance addiction, and also touches on the topic of diagnosing drug addiction and non-drug addiction, ultimately aiming to further the understanding of the key concepts needed for a foundation to study the biological and psychological underpinnings of addiction disorders.

  2. Chemical effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philips, G.O.

    1986-01-01

    Ionizing radiations initiate chemical changes in materials because of the high energy of their quanta. In water, highly reactive free radicals are produced which can initiate secondary changes of solutes, and in chemical of biological molecules in contact with the water. Free radicals can also be directly produced in irradiated medical products. Their fate can be identified and the molecular basis of radiation inactivation clarified. Methods have now been developed to protect and minimise such radiation damage. (author)

  3. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chitsaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can

  4. Determination of microscopic interactions between actinides and humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunel, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Large amount of plutonium has been introduced into the environment as a result of nuclear weapons testing, and nuclear power-plant accidents. Contaminated areas, which need a particular survey, have become a very interesting place to study and understand the plutonium behaviour in the environment. Until few years ago, it was admitted that plutonium introduced into subsurface environment is relatively immobile, owing to its low solubility in ground water and strong sorption onto rocks. However, studies of contaminated areas show that humic substances, which are ubiquitous in environment, can alter the speciation of metal ion, e.g. plutonium, and thus their migration. These humic substances are major components of the natural organic matter in soil and water as well as in geological organic deposits such as lake sediments, peats and brown coals. They are complex heterogeneous mixtures of polydisperse supra-molecules formed by biochemical and chemical reactions during the decay and transformation of plant and microbial remains. The knowledge of the impact of humic substances on the plutonium migration is required to assess their transport in natural systems. However, due to the complex and heterogeneous nature of humic substances, there are a lot of difficulties in the description of microscopic interactions. The aim of this PhD thesis is to evaluate as precisely as possible interactions between actinides and humic substances. This work is divided in two parts: on the one hand humic substances will be separated to identify each component, on the other hand the speciation of actinides with characterized humic substances will be studied. In the first part of this study, new methods are developed to study the speciation of actinides with humic substances using two kinds of mass spectrometers: an ICP-MS and a high resolution mass spectrometer using various ionization devices (ESI, APCI, DART, APPI) in order to determine all active molecules for the complexation. In the

  5. Unilateral initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on arms control which is generally thought of in terms of formal negotiations with an opponent, with the resulting agreements embodied in a treaty. This is not surprising, since arms control discussions between opponents are both important and politically visible. There are, however, strong reasons for countries to consider and frequently take unilateral initiatives. To do so is entirely consistent with the established major precepts of arms control which state that arms control is designed to reduce the risk of war, the costs of preparing for war, and the death and destruction if war should come. Unilateral initiatives on what weapons are purchased, which ones are eliminated and how forces are deployed can all relate to these objectives. There are two main categories of motives for unilateral initiatives in arms control. In one category, internal national objectives are the dominant, often sole, driving force; the initiative is undertaken for our own good

  6. Ports Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Ports Initiative works in collaboration with the port industry, communities, and government to improve environmental performance and increase economic prosperity. This effort helps people near ports breath cleaner air and live better lives.

  7. Methodology for environmental assessments of oil and hazardous substance spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W. P.; Scott, G. I.; Getter, C. D.; Hayes, M. O.; Gundlach, E. R.

    1980-03-01

    Scientific assessment of the complex environmental consequences of large spills of oil or other hazardous substances has stimulated development of improved strategies for rapid and valid collection and processing of ecological data. The combination of coastal processes and geological measurements developed by Hayes & Gundlach (1978), together with selected field biological and chemical observations/measurements, provide an ecosystem impact assessment approach which is termed “integrated zonal method of ecological impact assessment.” Ecological assessment of oil and hazardous material spills has been divided into three distinct phases: (1) first-order response studies — conducted at the time of the initial spill event, which gather data to document acute impacts and assist decision-makers in prioritization of cleanup efforts and protection of ecologically sensitive habitats, (2) second-order response studies — conducted two months to one year post-spill, which document any delayed mortality and attempt to identify potential sublethal impacts in sensitive species, and (3) third-order response studies — conducted one to three years post-spill, to document chronic impacts (both lethal and sublethal) to specific indicator species. Data collected during first-order response studies are gathered in a quantitative manner so that the initial assessment may become a baseline for later, more detailed, post-spill scientific efforts. First- and second-order response studies of the “Peck Slip” oil spill in Puerto Rico illustrate the usefulness of this method. The need for contingency planning before a spill has been discussed along with the use of the Vulnerability Index, a method in which coastal environments are classified on a scale of 1 10, based upon their potential susceptibility to oiling. A study of the lower Cook Inlet section of the Alaskan coast illustrates the practical application of this method.

  8. Depletion of mucosal substance P in acute otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schmidt, Peter Thelin; Hermansson, Ann

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is an inducer of neurogenic inflammation and bone resorption in the middle ear. Resorption of the bone tissue structures surrounding the middle ear cavity is a distinct feature of the initial stage of acute otitis media (AOM), which may be due to nerve...

  9. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  10. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  11. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  12. 78 FR 55099 - Established Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... aggregate production quotas, an additional 25% of the estimated medical, scientific, and research needs as... Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and Established Assessment of Annual Needs for... initial 2014 aggregate production quotas for controlled substances in Schedules I and II of the Controlled...

  13. Risk assessment of flavouring substances used in foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norby, Karin; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Greve, Krestine

    2006-01-01

    not to present a safety concern, have been specified. In the project a very comprehensive database (the FLAVIS database) has been developed for the evaluation. It compiles information on the about 2800 flavouring substances used in Europe: specifications, structural class, food categories used in, intake data......The aim of the present project, the FLAVIS project, is to perform risk assessment of chemically defined flavouring substances. The evaluations are then presented to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for final adoption in its Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids...... and materials in contact with food. The regulatory background for the work is found in the European Parliament and Council Regulation No. 2232/96 laying down a procedure for the establishment of a list of flavouring substances the use of which will be authorised to the exclusion of all others in the EU...

  14. Control of Chemical Risks by Substitution of Harmful Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Substitution of volatile, organic solvents with non-volatile, low-toxic esters of fatty acids for cleaning purposes in offset printing has successfully been implemented in several European countries. Similar substitutions in other industrial cleaning processes seem possible, especially regarding...

  15. Chemical Safety Alert: Lightning Hazard to Facilities Handling Flammable Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raises awareness about lightning strikes, which cause more death/injury and damage than all other environmental elements combined, so industry can take proper precautions to protect equipment and storage or process vessels containing flammable materials.

  16. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  17. Monitoring the Internet for emerging psychoactive substances available to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Raimondo; Poesiat, Rosalie; Matthews, Allison Jane

    2013-09-01

    Novel psychoactive substances are increasingly available, both in traditional storefronts and via the Internet. While some use of such substances has been captured in Australian consumer surveys and wastewater analyses, there is little information about the products that are available to Australia via the Internet. Systematic monthly Internet monitoring for emerging psychoactive substances was conducted between July 2011 and July 2012. Webstores identified through searches were examined to determine if they sold stimulant or psychedelic emerging psychoactive substances to Australia. Internet search numbers for these products were examined over time using commercial tools. In 12 months, 43 unique webstores were identified selling to Australia, averaging two new webstores per month; however, two-fifths had closed within six months. Over 200 unique chemically unspecified products sold by purported effect (e.g. 'charge') were identified over 12 months, averaging 10 new products per month. Almost half of these products had disappeared from the market within six months. Eighty-six unique chemically specified products (e.g. methylenedioxypyrovalerone) were identified over 12 months, averaging four new novel substances per month. Once released, these products typically remained available, with almost 90% still available for purchase over a 6-month period. Almost 40 000 searches for these products emanated from Australia per month. This market is fast paced as retailers strive to beat both regulatory processes and competitors. Ongoing attention to these markets, incorporating surveillance of both Internet and traditional storefronts, is crucial as several of the substances identified have demonstrated potential for health and neurological harm. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Measuring Peer Socialization for Adolescent Substance Use: A Comparison of Perceived and Actual Friends’ Substance Use Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Arielle R.; Chernyavskiy, Pavel; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There has been an increase in the use of social network analysis in studies of peer socialization effects on adolescent substance use. Some researchers argue that social network analyses provide more accurate measures of peer substance use, that the alternate strategy of assessing perceptions of friends’ drug use is biased, and that perceptions of peer use and actual peer use represent different constructs. However, there has been little research directly comparing the two effects, and little is known about the extent to which the measures differ in the magnitude of their influence on adolescent substance use, as well as how these two effects may be redundant or separate constructs. Method: Using Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) saturated subsample, we directly compared effects of perception of friends’ use (PFU) and actual friends’ use (AFU) on alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana initiation and persistence of use 1 year later. We also examined potential moderating effects of friendship quality and individual use on the relationship between perceived and actual friends’ substance use and outcomes. Results: Results indicated that, overall, PFU effects were larger than AFU effects; however, these effects did not significantly differ in magnitude for most models. In addition, interaction effects differed for different substances and usage outcomes, indicating the meaning of PFU and AFU constructs (and thus, different types of peer socialization) may change based on substance and type of use. Conclusions: These results highlight the multifaceted nature of peer influence on substance use and the importance of assessing multiple aspects of peer socialization while accounting for distinct contexts related to specific substances and use outcomes. PMID:25785802

  19. Determinants of knowledge and use of psychoactive substance among commercial motorcyclist in Sokoto metropolis, Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O.Raji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance related disorder. Riding commercial motorcycle entails lot of risk, compounded by abuse of drugs, the scenario can only be worse. This study aimed to assess the determinants of knowledge and use of psychoactive substances among commercial motorcyclist in Sokoto metropolis. Methods The study was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted in Sokoto metropolis, among Commercial motorcyclist, 253 respondents were recruited using multi stage sampling technique. Data was obtained using interviewer administered structured questionnaire containing 47‐item structured questions. Data was analysed using IBM statistical software package version 21, 5% was set as level of significance Result Majority of respondent believed that use of alcohol 214 (84.6, cannabis 147 (58.1 and codeine 171 (67.6 can lead to mental problems. Thirty percent of the respondents reported ever use of psychoactive substances. Most of the respondents (49.3% initiated use of Psychoactive substances between 16‐20 years of age. Respondents who had some formal education had less odds of ever using psychoactive substances (p=0.001, OR= 0.337. Respondents who had ever encouraged fellow commercial motorcyclist to use psychoactive substances had 22 times odds of ever having used psychoactive substances (p=0.000 Conclusion Substance abuse is prevalent among commercial motorcyclist. Despite good knowledge of psychoactive substances and the consequences associated with it, the use was still relatively high. The main predictor of ever use of psychoactive substances was willingness to be friends with someone who use psychoactive substance. There is need for continuous counselling and education of commercial motorcyclist, by road safety workers, on the dangers associated

  20. Propriétés physico-chimiques et biologiques des substances humiques en relation avec le développement végétal (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahiri, A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical-chemical and biological properties of humic substances in relation to plant growth. A review. Humic substances (HS are organic compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformation of plant and animal residues. Humic substances are heterogeneous and complex carbon macromolecules, which can be found in soils, sediments, surface water and leachates. They are derived from different humification processes, generating variable and complex molecules mainly composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and functional groups (COOH, OH, C = O. These substances are known to have an effect on soil properties, interacting with plant growth and development and with microorganism activity. The influence on plant growth is expressed directly through stimulation of biochemical and metabolic processes or indirectly through mineral nutrition improvement. But the intensity of the response is dependent on various parameters such as the origin, the nature of the initial organic matter, transformation processes, HS concentration, experimental conditions and plant species. The mechanisms by which HS cause their positive effects on plant growth are not yet fully understood.

  1. Investigation of Evaluation method of chemical runaway reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshihiko; Sasaya, Shinji; Kurakata, Koichiro; Nojiri, Ichiro

    2002-02-01

    Safety study 'Study of evaluation of abnormal occurrence for chemical substances in the nuclear fuel facilities' will be carried out from 2001 to 2005. In this study, the prediction of thermal hazards of chemical substances will be investigated and prepared. The hazard prediction method of chemical substances will be constructed from these results. Therefore, the hazard prediction methods applied in the chemical engineering in which the chemical substances with the hazard of fire and explosion were often treated were investigated. CHETAH (The ASTM Computer Program for Chemical Thermodynamic and Energy Release Evaluation) developed by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) and TSS (Thermal Safety Software) developed by CISP (ChemInform St. Petersburg) were introduced and the fire and explosion hazards of chemical substances and reactions in the reprocessing process were evaluated. From these evaluated results, CHETAH could almost estimate the heat of reaction at 10% accuracy. It was supposed that CHETAH was useful as a screening for the hazards of fire and explosion of the new chemical substances and so on. TSS could calculate the reaction rate and the reaction behavior from the data measured by the various calorimeters rapidly. It was supposed that TSS was useful as an evaluation method for the hazards of fire and explosion of the new chemical reactions and so on. (author)

  2. Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?: Adolescent Interpretations of Parental Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Diana S; Miller-Day, Michelle; Raup-Krieger, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Parents are powerful socialization agents for children and as children reach adolescence parental role models, among other sources of influence, become particularly salient in adolescents' decision-making regarding initiation of substance use. Open parent-adolescent communication about substances is associated with less substance use by adolescents; however, it is unclear how youth interpret anti-drug use messages from their parents, especially if the parents engage in legal and/or illicit substance use themselves. Framed by social learning theory and social constructionism, this study analyzed in-depth interviews with 108 adolescents about personal experiences with substance use, family communication about substance use, and adolescent interpretations of parental use. Emergent themes in the data include : positive parental influence , parental contradictions , and negative outcomes of use . Prevalence of parental use-regardless of legality, rarity of explicit communication about parental use, and various interpretations of parental use are discussed.

  3. Identifying the substance abuse treatment needs of caregivers involved with child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Bellettiere, John; Cross, Theodore P

    2013-07-01

    Parental substance use significantly increases risk of child maltreatment, but is often under-identified by child protective services. This study examined how agency use of standardized substance use assessments and child welfare investigative caseworker education, experience, and caseload affected caseworkers' identification of parental substance abuse treatment needs. Data are from a national probability sample of permanent, primary caregivers involved with child protective services whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on two validated instruments indicated harmful substance use or dependence. Investigative caseworkers reported use of a formal assessment in over two thirds of cases in which substance use was accurately identified. However, weighted logistic regression indicated that agency provision of standardized assessment instruments was not associated with caseworker identification of caregiver needs. Caseworkers were also less likely to identify substance abuse when their caseloads were high and when caregivers were fathers. Implications for agency practice are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics of selected bioaccumulative substances and their impact on fish health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczak Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to evaluate the influence and effects of chosen bioaccumulative substances i.e. heavy metals, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on fish, as well as provide information on time trends and potential threat to human health. Chemical substances which pollute water may affect living organisms in two ways. First of all, large amounts of chemical substances may cause sudden death of a significant part of the population of farmed fish, without symptoms (i.e. during breakdown of factories or industrial sewage leaks. However, more frequently, chemical substances accumulate in tissues of living organisms affecting them chronically. Heavy metals, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent substances with a long-lasting biodegradation process. In a water environment they usually accumulate in sediments, which makes them resistant to biodegradation processes induced by, e.g., the UV light. These substances enter the fish through direct consumption of contaminated water or by contact with skin and gills. Symptoms of intoxication with heavy metals, pesticides, and PCBs may vary and depend on the concentration and bioavailability of these substances, physicochemical parameters of water, and the fish itself.

  5. A New Road to Reactions Part 4. The Substance and Its Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.

    1987-01-01

    Differentiates between chemical nomenclature and the common ways that substances are named and described. Students should learn the chemical nomenclature so that they will be more observant and objective. Cites examples of student misconceptions based upon their own imagination and logic. (TW)

  6. Identification of the Related Substances in Ampicillin Capsule by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-MSn was used to separate and identify related substances in ampicillin capsule. The fragmentation behaviors of related substances were used to identify their chemical structures. Finally, a total of 13 related substances in ampicillin capsule were identified, including four identified components for the first time and three groups of isomers on the basis of the exact mass, fragmentation behaviors, retention time, and chemical structures in the literature. This study avoided time-consuming and complex chemosynthesis of related substances of ampicillin and the results could be useful for the quality control of ampicillin capsule to guarantee its safety in clinic. In the meantime, it provided a good example for the rapid identification of chemical structures of related substances of drugs.

  7. Process of treating carbonaceous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-12-16

    A process is described of removing halogens or halogen compounds (or both) from the products which form when carbonaceous substances are treated thermally in the presence of halogens or halogen compounds, consisting of passing the reaction products at the same temperature with a substance able to fix halogens or acid halides through an apparatus included between the receiver and the heat exchanger, which contains, in a relatively restricted space, internal elements obliquely disposed in relation to the direction of the flow, stretched in this direction and constituted preferably of helicoidal passages.

  8. Chemical leasing--a review of implementation in the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Frank; Jakl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, research on innovative business models to manage the risk of chemical substances has sought to provide solutions to achieve the goals of the World Summit on Sustainable Development of 2002, which called for a renewal of the commitment to the sound management of chemicals and of hazardous wastes throughout their life cycle and set the ambitious goal, by 2020, to use and produce chemicals in ways that do not lead to significant adverse effects on human health and the environment. Chemical Leasing is an innovative business model that shows a great potential to become a global model for sustainable development within chemical management. This paper provides a review of the current standings of literature regarding the implementation of Chemical Leasing in the past decade. In doing so, the paper highlights the potential of this business model to serve as an approach for dematerializing production processes and managing the risks of chemicals at all levels. More in detail, it provides an outline of how Chemical Leasing has supported the alignment and implementation of the objectives of chemicals policy-makers and industry regarding the production and use of chemicals and analyses to what extent Chemical Leasing contributes to the implementation of a number of voluntary global initiatives, such as Cleaner Production, Sustainable Chemistry and Corporate Social Responsibility. This paper provides a systematic analysis of the gaps identified in literature regarding the implementation of Chemical Leasing business models. Based on this analysis, specific aspects in the field of Chemical Leasing are recommended to be further elaborated in order to increase the understanding and applicability of the business model.

  9. [Pharmaceutical chemistry of drug-initiated photosensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Ákos; Tóth, Lívia

    2015-01-01

    The photosensitivity originated from drugs is a common problem in medical and pharmaceutical practice. It is of prominent importance in drug development and in regulatory issues. The photosensitizer effect of drug substances is determined by their chemical structures, and it mainly originates from aromatic chromophore systems and photo-dissociable bonds forming free radicals. The photodegradation may happen in many different types of chemical reaction pathways. Our aim is to demonstrate in this review the interrelations between structure and photodegradation. We show examples for the different reaction types, with drugs from different pharmacologic therapeutic classes. The in vivo chemical reactivity of photodegradates of pharmaceutical substances, the in vitro methods of investigation for testing photoreactivity and phototoxicity, and briefly the clinical tests for photosensitivity disorders are also discussed.

  10. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Comprehensive, peer-reviewed toxicology data for about 5,000 chemicals. The data bank focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced...

  11. Partition of pollution between dissolved and particulate phases: what about emerging substances in urban stormwater catchments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgheib, Sally; Moilleron, Régis; Saad, Mohamed; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results about the occurrence, the concentrations of urban priority substances on both the dissolved and the particulate phases in stormwater. Samples were collected at the outlet of a dense urban catchment in Paris suburb (2.30 km(2)). 13 chemical groups were investigated including 88 individual substances. Results showed that stormwater discharges contained 45 substances among them some metals, organotins, PAHs, PCBs, alkylphenols, pesticides, phthalates, cholorophenols and one volatile organic compound, i.e. methylene chloride. With respect to the European Water Framework Directive, these substances included 47% of the priority hazardous substances (n = 8), 38% of the priority substances (n = 10). The remaining substances (n = 27) belong to a list of others specific urban substances not included in the Water Framework Directive but monitored during this work. Finally, stormwater quality was evaluated by comparing the substance concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQS) and the particulate content to Canadian sediment quality guidelines. This showed that stormwater was highly contaminated and should be treated before being discharged to receiving waters in order to avoid any adverse impact on the river quality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Terrestrial ecotoxicity of eight chemicals in a systematic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund-Rinke, K.; Simon, M. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Background and objective. Terrestrial ecotoxicity data are required for many research purposes. The data are derived either from the literature or elaborated by own investigations. As the terrestrial toxicity tests are usually time-consuming and labour intensive, the experiments are performed with a limited number of test organisms and soils. In the context of a project sponsored by CEFIC-LRI (European Chemical Industry Council - Long-Range Research Initiative), EC{sub 50}-values were systematically elaborated for eight chemicals with a wide range of logK{sub ow}-values (CdCl{sub 2}, Trinitrotoluene, 3,4-dichloroaniline, 2,4-dichlorophenol, Tributyltinchloride, Pentachlorophenol, Benzo(a)pyrene, p,p-dichloro-2,2-diphenyl-1,1,1-trichloroethane). The substances were selected covering a broad range of physico-chemical and ecotoxicological properties. As toxicity endpoints, microbial activities, plant germination and growth as well as reproduction of earthworms and collembola were determined. As such systematic investigations are rarely performed and for some substances no data existed, the data pool is made available to the scientific community. Methods. All toxicity tests were conducted on three different soil types (sandy soil, silty soil, loamy soil), according to ISO and OECD guidelines Results, discussion, conclusion and outlook. The different toxicities of the chemicals, the influence of soil properties on bioavailability as well as different sensitivities of test organisms and test parameters are reflected by the EC{sub 50}-values. The results showed that the EC{sub 50}-values calculated on the basis of nominal concentrations can significantly vary from EC{sub 50}-values derived from analytical concentrations for some substances. To avoid false conclusions, this has to be considered especially when concentrations determined in the field are compared with toxicity data obtained from the literature or calculated on the basis of nominal concentrations. Moreover

  13. CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS TO CLEANUP HIGHLY POLLUTED AUTOMOBILE SERVICE STATION WASTEWATER BY BIOADSORPTION-COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Banchon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses an ecofriendly solution to treat automobile service stations effluents with high concentrations of oily substances, surfactants, organic matter and heavy metals. Bioadsorption using sawdust from pine trees, sugar cane bagasse and coconut coir without any chemical modification removed colloidal contamination up to 70%. Polyaluminium chloride, ferric chloride and polyacrylamide were applied to remove dissolved and colloidal pollutants under saline conditions without change of initial pH. Both bioadsorption and coagulation-flocculation removed up to 97.8% of BOD, COD, surfactants and heavy metals at a saline concentration of 1.5% NaCl. The increase of ionic strength promoted a high sludge index and a representative cost saving in chemicals consumption of almost 70%. High levels of pollution removal with the minimal use of chemicals is herein presented.

  14. Delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and substance P using graphene oxide for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La WG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wan-Geun La,1 Min Jin,1 Saibom Park,1,2 Hee-Hun Yoon,1 Gun-Jae Jeong,1 Suk Ho Bhang,1 Hoyoung Park,1,2 Kookheon Char,1,2 Byung-Soo Kim1,31School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2The National Creative Research Initiative Center for Intelligent Hybrids, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Institute of Bioengineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Engineering Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of KoreaAbstract: In this study, we demonstrate that graphene oxide (GO can be used for the delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and substance P (SP, and that this delivery promotes bone formation on titanium (Ti implants that are coated with GO. GO coating on Ti substrate enabled a sustained release of BMP-2. BMP-2 delivery using GO-coated Ti exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity in bone-forming cells in vitro compared with bare Ti. SP, which is known to recruit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, was co-delivered using Ti or GO-coated Ti to further promote bone formation. SP induced the migration of MSCs in vitro. The dual delivery of BMP-2 and SP using GO-coated Ti showed the greatest new bone formation on Ti implanted in the mouse calvaria compared with other groups. This approach may be useful to improve osteointegration of Ti in dental or orthopedic implants.Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone regeneration, graphene oxides, stem cell recruitment, substance P

  15. Investigating Nitrate-Dependent Humic Substance Oxidation and In-Service K-12 Teachers' Understanding of Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nastassia N.

    2011-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) are the humified portions of totally decomposed soil organic matter that are ubiquitous in nature. Although these substances have been studied for more than 200 years, neither their metabolic capabilities nor a specific chemical structure has yet to be determined. HS have been studied as a carbon source in many environments…

  16. Towards a proportionality assessment of risk reduction measures aimed at restricting the use of persistent and bioaccumulative substances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, Frans; Brouwer, Roy; Janssen, Martien; Verhoeven, Julia; Luttikhuizen, Cees

    2017-01-01

    International chemicals legislation aims at adequately controlling persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and substances of very high concern (SVHCs), such as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) and very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB) substances, with a view to progressively

  17. Risk assessment for chemical substances: the link between toxicology and public health Avaliação de risco de substâncias químicas: o elo entre a toxicologia e a saúde pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. R. Paumgartten

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all chemical substances may cause adverse health effects, depending on the dose and conditions under which individuals are exposed to them. Toxicology - the study of harmful effects of chemicals on living organisms - provides the scientific data base on which risk assessment of adverse health effects stands. Risk assessment (RA is the process of estimating the probability that a chemical compound will produce adverse effects on a given population, under particular conditions of exposure. Risk assessment process consists of four stages: Hazard Identification (HI, Exposure Assessment (EA, Dose-Response Assessment (DRA, and Risk Characterization (RC. The risk assessment process as a whole makes it possible to carry out cost(risk/benefit analysis, and thus risk management, on a rational basis. A capacity to undertake risk assessment is thus sine qua non for making decisions that are concerned with achieving a balance between economic development and adequate protection of public health and the environment.Virtualmente todas as substâncias químicas podem causar efeitos adversos, dependendo da dose e das condições em que os indivíduos são a elas expostos. A toxicologia, isto é, o estudo dos efeitos danosos de substâncias químicas em organismos vivos, fornece a base de dados científicos na qual se apoia a avaliação de risco de efeitos adversos para a saúde. Avaliação de Risco (AR é o processo de se estimar a probabilidade que um composto químico tem de vir a produzir efeitos adversos numa dada população, em determinadas condições de exposição. A avaliação de risco consiste de quatro estágios: identificação da periculosidade (IP; avaliação da exposição (AE; avaliação da relação dose-efeito (ADE; e caracterização do risco (CR. O processo de avaliação de risco como um todo possibilita a realização da análise custo (risco/benefício e, portanto, do gerenciamento do risco, em bases racionais. A capacidade

  18. Microbial utilization of low molecular weight organics in soil depends on the substances properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunina, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Utilization of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS) in soil is regulated by microbial uptake from solution and following incorporation of into specific cell cycles. Various chemical properties of LMWOS, namely oxidation state, number of carbon (C) atoms, number of carboxylic (-COOH) groups, can affect their uptake from soil solution and further microbial utilization. The aim of the study was to trace the initial fate (including the uptake from soil solution and utilization by microorganisms) of three main classes of LMWOS, having contrast properties - sugars, carboxylic and amino acids. Top 10 cm of mineral soil were collected under Silver birch stands within the Bangor DIVERSE experiment, UK. Soil solution was extracted by centrifugation at 4000 rpm during 15 min. Soil was spiked with 14C glucose or fructose; malic, succinic or formic acids; alanine or glycine. No additional non-labeled LMWOS were added. 14C was traced in the dissolved organic matter (DOM), CO2, cytosol and soil organic matter (SOM) during one day. To estimate half-life times (T1 /2)of LMWOS in soil solution and in SOM pools, the single and double first order kinetic equations were fitted to the uptake and mineralization dynamics, respectively. The LMWOS T1 /2in DOM pool varied between 0.6-5 min, with the highest T1 /2for sugars (3.7 min) and the lowest for carboxylic acids (0.6-1.4 min). Thus, initial uptake of LMWOS is not a limiting step of microbial utilization. The T1 /2 of carboxylic and amino acids in DOM were closely related with oxidation state, showing that reduced substances remain in soil solution longer, than oxidized. The initial T1 /2 of LMWOS in SOM ranged between 30-80 min, with the longest T1 /2 for amino acids (50-80 min) and the shortest for carboxylic acids (30-48 min). These T1 /2values were in one-two orders of magnitude higher than LMWOS T1 /2 in soil solution, pointing that LMWOS mineralization occur with a delay after the uptake. Absence of correlations between

  19. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  20. [Acting out and psychoactive substances: alcohol, drugs, illicit substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H

    2001-01-01

    In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare

  1. Do family dinners reduce the risk for early adolescent substance use? A propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P; Warnick, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The risks of early adolescent substance use on health and well-being are well documented. In recent years, several experts have claimed that a simple preventive measure for these behaviors is for families to share evening meals. In this study, we use data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (n = 5,419) to estimate propensity score models designed to match on a set of covariates and predict early adolescent substance use frequency and initiation. The results indicate that family dinners are not generally associated with alcohol or cigarette use or with drug use initiation. However, a continuous measure of family dinners is modestly associated with marijuana frequency, thus suggesting a potential causal impact. These results show that family dinners may help prevent one form of substance use in the short term but do not generally affect substance use initiation or alcohol and cigarette use.

  2. Petitioning for Involuntary Commitment for Chemical Dependency by Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Ian C; Schutt, Paul E; Rasmussen, Keith G

    2017-09-01

    Patients who have chemical dependency (CD) are commonly encountered on medical and surgical wards, often for illnesses and injuries sustained as a direct result of their substance abuse. When these patients are repeatedly admitted to the hospital in certain states that provide a legal framework to commit chemically dependent persons to a treatment facility, clinicians often wonder whether they should initiate that process. Should consulting psychiatrists choose to initiate the commitment process, they put into motion a resource-intensive, time-consuming mechanism, with uncertain outcomes, both in the courtroom and at the bedside. Petitioning for involuntary commitment to chemical dependency treatment of a patient from medical and surgical services is poorly understood. In this study, we examined a series of patients for whom petitions for judicial commitment in the state of Minnesota were entered over a 12-month period, and evaluated the likelihood of commitment to treatment, the demographics of patients involved, and the outcomes for this series of patients. Three vignettes are presented to illustrate the severity of these patients' illnesses and potential outcomes of the process. We further describe potential limitations of the commitment system and alternatives to CD commitment that could be explored further. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  3. On the possibility of biologically active fenole substances forming during irradiation of vegetable origin products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval'skaya, L.P.; Petrash, I.P.; Medvedeva, T.N.; Lezhneva, M.L.; Shchegoleva, G.I.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out whether biologically active substances of phenol nature can form upon irradiation of fresh fruits and vegetables with doses of 200-300 Krad, to ascertain the stability of these substances during storage and processing, and to see whether they display cytostatic effects. The results of the study led to modifications and improvements in the methods used to study biologically active substances of phenol nature in fresh fruits irradiated with 200-300 krad. The total amount of phenolic compounds was found to be somewhat increased upon their extraction with cold ethanol. Of the substances detected in extracts from red tomatoes, the contens of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and naranguenine were appreciably increased. Neither chemical methods nor bioassays revealed in irradiated juices and fruits any biologically active substances affecting the living organism. (E.T.)

  4. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David G; Schriber, Roberta A; Fassbender, Catherine; Atherton, Olivia; Krafft, Cynthia; Robins, Richard W; Hastings, Paul D; Guyer, Amanda E

    2015-12-01

    Early adolescent onset of substance use is a robust predictor of future substance use disorders. We examined the relation between age of substance use initiation and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the core reward processing (nucleus accumbens; NAcc) to cognitive control (prefrontal cortex; PFC) brain networks. Adolescents in a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth reported their substance use annually from ages 10 to 16 years. At age 16, 69 adolescents participated in a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based correlational analyses were conducted using regions of interest in bilateral NAcc. The earlier that adolescents initiated substance use, the stronger the connectivity between bilateral NAcc and right dorsolateral PFC, right dorsomedial PFC, right pre-supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule, and left medial temporal gyrus. The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Olefins and chemical regulation in Europe: REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Mike; Banton, Marcy; Erler, Steffen; Moore, Nigel; Semmler, Klaus

    2015-11-05

    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the European Union's chemical regulation for the management of risk to human health and the environment (European Chemicals Agency, 2006). This regulation entered into force in June 2007 and required manufacturers and importers to register substances produced in annual quantities of 1000 tonnes or more by December 2010, with further deadlines for lower tonnages in 2013 and 2018. Depending on the type of registration, required information included the substance's identification, the hazards of the substance, the potential exposure arising from the manufacture or import, the identified uses of the substance, and the operational conditions and risk management measures applied or recommended to downstream users. Among the content developed to support this information were Derived No-Effect Levels or Derived Minimal Effect Levels (DNELs/DMELs) for human health hazard assessment, Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for environmental hazard assessment, and exposure scenarios for exposure and risk assessment. Once registered, substances may undergo evaluation by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) or Member State authorities and be subject to requests for additional information or testing as well as additional risk reduction measures. To manage the REACH registration and related activities for the European olefins and aromatics industry, the Lower Olefins and Aromatics REACH Consortium was formed in 2008 with administrative and technical support provided by Penman Consulting. A total of 135 substances are managed by this group including 26 individual chemical registrations (e.g. benzene, 1,3-butadiene) and 13 categories consisting of 5-26 substances. This presentation will describe the content of selected registrations prepared for 2010 in addition to the significant post-2010 activities. Beyond REACH, content of the registrations may also be relevant to other European activities, for

  6. Screening Drug, Alcohol and Substance Abuse the Psychometric Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Mohamad Hashim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinalysis was used in previous studies among higher institution students (n=16252 in Malaysia to answer the question of whether university students are involved in drug abuse. However, the use of urinalysis had faced some problems. The problems were related to human rights issues and the cost to perform the urinalysis was expensive and quite impossible to be implemented to a large population of university students. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of psychometric measures in screening drug, alcohol and substance abuse. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory A2 (SASSI-A2 was used for this purpose. SASSI-A2 is a brief screening tool designed to identify individuals who have a high probability of having a substance use disorder, including both substance abuse and substance dependence. SASSI-A2 comprises of 72 items that are rated on a two point scale with response; true and false. SASSI-A2 was translated into Malay language and it was refined through a back-translation technique and focus group approach. Psychometric testing was undertaken on a sample of 750 university students from five public universities in Malaysia. All participants were aged between 19 and 20 years. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for the total scale and its subscales. Chronbach's alpha obtained for SASSI-A2 was 0.72. This relatively high level of Chronbach's alpha showed relatively high level of reliability. The results demonstrated that the whole SASSI-A2 meets the fundamental measurement properties and can discriminate groups of higher institution students from high to low on the substance dependency variable. The accuracy of the test has been found to be unaffected by gender, ethnicity, age and years of education. Although more rigorous validation studies are needed, it is recommended that SASSI-A2 be considered for usage to higher institution students populations when a brief, objective, and

  7. Atividade alelopática de substâncias químicas isoladas do Capim-Marandu e suas variações em função do pH Allelopathic activity of chemical substances isolated from Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and their variations in function of pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos isolar, identificar e caracterizar a atividade alelopática de substâncias químicas produzidas pela Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e determinar as variações na atividade dessas substâncias em função da variação do pH da solução. A atividade alelopática foi realizada em bioensaios de germinação e desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo, utilizando as plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia como receptoras. Os efeitos do pH foram analisados na faixa de 3,0 a 9,0. Os triterpenos pentacíclicos friedelina e epifriedelinol isolados da parte aérea de B. brizantha apresentaram baixa atividade inibitória na germinação de sementes e no desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo das duas plantas daninhas. As duas substâncias apresentaram comportamento diferenciado em relação à variação do pH da solução, com inibições mais marcantes em relação à planta daninha mata-pasto.This work aimed to isolate, identify and determine the allelopathic activity of the chemical substances produced by Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and to verify the effects of the pH in the solution on the activity of these compounds. The allelopathic activity was evaluated based on germination bioassays and radicle and hypocotyl growth using the species 'malícia' (Mimosa pudica and 'mata-pasto' (Senna obtusifolia as receptors. The effect of pH was analyzed in a range from 3.0 to 9.0. The pentacyclic triterpenes friedelin and epifriefelinol isolated from the shoots of B. brizantha showed a low inhibitory activity against seed germination and radicle and hypocotyl growth of the two receptor plants evaluated. The pentacyclic triterpenes friedelin and epifrifelinol presented differentiated behaviors in relation to the pH variation in the solution, with stronger inhibition activity against the weed 'mata-pasto'.

  8. Artificial neural network models' application for radioactive substances' migration forecasting in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.I.; Khil'ko, O.S.; Kundas, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    The work is indicated to the use of artificial neural network (ANN) models in program complex SPS for radioactive substances' migration forecasting in soil. For the problem solution two ANN models are used. One of them forecasts radioactive substances' migration, another carries out forecasting of physical and chemical soil properties. Program complex SPS allows to achieve a low error of forecasting (no more than 5 %) and high training speed. (authors)

  9. Pattern of Substance Use: Study in a De-addiction Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muntasir Maruf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Substance use disorders have become a major public health problem in Bangladesh. We sought to assess the pattern of substance use and related factors among hospitalized patients. Methods: This was a descriptive study that included 105 patients. All patients who were admitted to a private drug de-addiction clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh, between 1 July and 31 December 2013 and diagnosed with substance use disorder were enrolled in the study. Data was collected via face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and the information was complemented by the case-notes. Results: Almost all (90.5% respondents were male and were poly-substance users (91.4%. The mean age of respondents was 28.8±8.0 years. Most (27.6% respondents used three types of substances. Smoking or inhalation was the route used by most (90.5% respondents. More than three-fourths (81.0% of respondents used nicotine. Among the other substances, the majority (79.0% used opioids, followed by cannabinoids (55.2%, and alcohol (41.0%. Curiosity, peer pressure, and for fun were identified as the common reasons for initiating substance use. Conclusions: A high proportion of poly-substance use was found in the study population. Our findings could help in the management and development of prevention strategies for substance use in Bangladesh.

  10. Eye irritancy screening for classification of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Y H; Weterings, P J

    1990-01-01

    A screening method was applied to determine the eye irritation potential of industrial chemicals. Bovine eyes (BE) were used to predict corneal damage and chicken egg chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) to estimate the irritancy potential of chemical substances towards the conjunctivae. Exposure of the BE to a test substance is followed by grading of the corneal opacity and epithelial injury. The CAM is inspected for signs of capillary injection, haemorrhages and coagulation. The tests are collectively called the BECAM assay. So far, almost 150 substances have been evaluated in this test system. A good correlation was observed between the BECAM assay and in vivo data; less than 5% of chemicals showed a clear disagreement. Also the assay is promising for labelling requirements according to the EEC criteria.

  11. Openness initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: open-quotes Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?close quotes To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts

  12. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  13. Brainstorming opportunities for postmarketing surveillance of chemicals : Workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof ED; van Drongelen A; Graven C; Herremans J; de Kaste D; Ossendorp B; Piersma AH; GZB; V&Z

    2017-01-01

    On behalf of the Ministry of Health a survey was prepared of possibilities for setting up a 'post-marketing surveillance' (PMS)-system for chemical substances in consumer products, including food. With such a system, (long-term) health effects of substances which are already on the market may be

  14. 25 CFR 11.451 - Abuse of psychotoxic chemical solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use the solvent in violation of this section. (b) This section does not apply to inhalation of... any glue, gasoline, paint, hair spray, Lysol, or other substance containing one or more of the...) Peptone; (7) Pentachlorophenol; (8) Petroleum ether; or (9) Any other chemical substance the inhalation of...

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLES An epidemiological perspective of substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-09-06

    Sep 6, 2002 ... advertising linking alcohol with the glamour of sport. This inculcates values that ... of substance use is a useful preventive strategy, hence the importance of ... substance use and associated factors (including age, gender,.

  16. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...

  17. EPA Linked Open Data: Substance Registry Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) central system for information about substances that are tracked or regulated by EPA...

  18. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z # Search Form Controls Search The CDC submit Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Note: Javascript ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) , based ...

  19. Initiative hard coal; Initiative Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.

    2007-08-02

    In order to decrease the import dependence of hard coal in the European Union, the author has submitted suggestions to the director of conventional sources of energy (directorate general for energy and transport) of the European community, which found a positive resonance. These suggestions are summarized in an elaboration 'Initiative Hard Coal'. After clarifying the starting situation and defining the target the presupposition for a better use of hard coal deposits as raw material in the European Union are pointed out. On that basis concrete suggestions for measures are made. Apart from the conditions of the deposits it concerns thereby also new mining techniques and mining-economical developments, connected with tasks for the mining-machine industry. (orig.)

  20. 77 FR 71561 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...). Manufacturers of basic organic chemical products (except aromatic petrochemicals, industrial gases, synthetic... Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... EPA. The Interagency Testing Committee (ITC), established under section 4(e) of the Toxic Substances...