WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical substance initial

  1. Classification of Chemical Substances and Adverse Effects of Chemical Substances on Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Söyleriz, Yüksel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, classification of chemical substances and adverse effects of chemical substances on human health in European Union and Turkey are assessed. Method In this study, national and international legislation and practices in the countries of the European Union are reviewed.

  2. 76 FR 75794 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances; Withdrawal of Two Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ...; Withdrawal of Two Chemical Substances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is withdrawing two significant new use rules (SNURs) promulgated under section 5(a)(2) of the... expedited SNUR rulemaking process. EPA intends to publish in the near future proposed SNURs for these two...

  3. 40 CFR 766.25 - Chemical substances for testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Abstracts Service (CAS) Number and common name. Note: For purposes of guidance only, EPA lists the chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical substances for testing. 766... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS Specific Chemical Testing/Reporting Requirements...

  4. [Responsibilities of enterprises introducing new dangerous chemical substances and preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Jacek; Majka, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the responsibilities of producers, importers and distributors set in a new Act of January 2001 on chemical substances and preparations (Off. J. 2001, No. 11, item 84, with subsequent amendments). This Act together with executive provisions is aimed at harmonizing Polish legislation with EU requirements. The Act sets conditions, restriction and bans of production placing on the market and use of chemical substances and preparations in order to protect human health and environment against their harmful effects. The Act together with a number of executive provisions render those who introduce dangerous chemicals and chemical preparations, including distributors responsible for: classification and labelling of dangerous chemical substances and preparations; possessing, making available and up-dating safety data sheets; supplying packages containing certain dangerous substances with child-proof fastenings; notifying the Inspector for Chemical Substances and Preparations about placing a dangerous preparation on the market; notifying the Inspector about a new substance and conducting required studies; being properly qualified to handle dangerous substances. The Act strictly defines the term "placing a substance or a preparation on the market"--it means making a substance or a preparation available to third parties on the territory of The Republic of Poland, territories of the Member States of the European Union or the territory of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, unless the Act provides otherwise; it also means introduction of a substance or a preparation from outside of the territory referred to above on the customs territory of The Republic of Poland, or that of the member states of the European Union and other states listed above. In addition, some of the responsibilities defined by the provisions of the law on chemical substances and preparations are also applicable to handling of biocidals, which are classified as dangerous substances. The Act

  5. The impact of schools on juvenile substance initiation and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Mach, Traci; Clapp, John D

    2004-06-01

    We use data from the two rounds of the NLSY97 and the corresponding QED data to examine the effectiveness of school endowments and curricula in targeting juvenile use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. Our results support the notion that schools matter in reducing juvenile involvement in substance use. Higher discretionary dollars per pupil are linked to reduced rates of juvenile initiation and repetitive use rates of cigarettes and marijuana. Additionally, school curricula, as indicated by the implementation of year round classes and some innovative and after-school programs--such as gifted and talented, attendance monitoring, homework hotline, international baccalaureate, extended-day, and mentoring, programs, affect both juvenile initiation to tobacco and alcohol use and juvenile repetitive use of tobacco and alcohol. In particular, we find that juvenile initiation to cigarette use is approximately between 2 percentage points and 3 percentage points lower among youths attending schools with gifted and talented and international baccalaureate programs. In addition, juvenile repetitive cigarette use is approximately 54%, 52%, and 48% lower among youths attending schools offering year round classes, international baccalaureate, and twenty-first century programs, respectively. Finally, juvenile initiation to alcohol use and juvenile repetitive use of alcohol are approximately 3% and 20% lower, respectively, among youths in schools offering gifted and talented programs. In sum, while these programs are not implemented to address substance use problems among the student body, we find that the implementation of these programs is often accompanied by a reduction in juvenile initiation and repetitive substance use.

  6. 77 FR 37634 - Proposed Significant New Use Rule on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... chemical substance: PMN number. Chemical name. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number. Basis for the SNUR... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 721 RIN 2070-AB27 Proposed Significant New Use Rule on Certain Chemical Substances... significant new use rule (SNUR) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for chemical substances...

  7. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This NERL-Cincinnati publication, “Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition” was prepared as the continuation of an initiative to gather together under a single cover a compendium of standardized laborato...

  8. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This NERL-Cincinnati publication, “Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices - 2nd Edition” was prepared as the continuation of an initiative to gather together under a single cover a compendium of standardized laborato...

  9. Features of the Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, R; Marcello, I

    1994-01-01

    The Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances (Inventario nazionale delle sostanze chimiche, INSC), a factual data bank on chemical toxicology produced by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), consists of a computerized system on existing chemicals developed for routinary and emergency needs. Historical background, current status and future direction of INSC are discussed. The structure and the feature of INSC are briefly examined. Aspects of retrieval of information and the criteria for the inclusion of data and priority selection are also considered.

  10. Chemical substances as risk factors of nephropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease, does not fall into the group of diseases induced by toxic substances or environmental pollution, there is much evidence that some chemicals have considerable importance in its development. Exposure to substances with potential renal toxicity is especially dangerous for diabetics because it accelerates and intensifies diabetic nephropathy. This paper discusses the relationship between the xenobiotics and the development of diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy with particular emphasis on those substances that causes the greatest damage to the kidneys. These are cadmium, iron, lead, arsenic, polychlorinated organic compounds, nitrogen compounds, and contrast agents. In addition, the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus induction or kidney damage by these xenobiotics are described.

  11. Chemical Abstracts Service Chemical Registry System. 10. Registration of substances from pre-1965 indexes of Chemical Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, K A; Nelson, R D; Vander Stouw, G G; Stobaugh, R E

    1988-11-01

    The Chemical Abstracts Service Chemical Registry System, operating since 1965, uniquely identifies chemical substances on the basis of molecular structure. Chemical Abstracts Service is now registering chemical substances cited in indexes to Chemical Abstracts prior to 1965. This effort will result in several hundred thousand additional chemical structures, along with their names, being available for online searching in the Registry File. Both the newly registered substances and those already on file are being linked to their pre-1965 citations in Chemical Abstracts in a new file called CAOLD. In this effort the printed Formula Index entries are converted to computer-readable form by using optical character recognition with the data subsequently processed with existing computer programs.

  12. Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jeżewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. Material and Methods: The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector test method. Results: The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency, the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. Conclusions: The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health. Med Pr 2014;65(1:33–41

  13. Method for warning of radiological and chemical substances using detection paints on a vehicle surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA

    2012-03-13

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  14. The chemical substances and the neurotoxic effect on workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Morales

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/10/02 - Accepted: 2013/12/13Tens of thousands of workers are exposed to pollution by the neurotoxicity found in their different workplaces, small businesses, handcrafting industries and even at home. The problem gets worst due to the lack of information on the risks posed by these substances and the safety controls to be taken during its use, on the other hand, the overconfidence that exists about the abstraction of this danger when it comes to the exposure to small doses of toxicity by ignoring the cumulative effects of these substances every time they enter the body. In Ecuador, nowadays there are few studies that distinguish this exposure to these substances, and none on the incidence of the neurotoxic syndrome, considering it an important field to research. Workers who are exposed to chemical toxic substances are now associated to adverse human health effects, due to its aggression and because of the worker´s safety before breaking health directly. They enter the body by the respiratory, dermal or digestive system, and show a great affinity with the body grease so that it accumulates and affects the different organs, tissues, the central nervous system, the bone marrow and liver. Immediate acute and chronic long-term effects were detected due to the intensity and duration of the exposure. Some symptoms include drowsiness, loss of appetite, headache, dizziness, depression, anxiety, nervousness, fatigue, irritability, memory problems, mental sluggishness, apathy, seizures, motor skills incoordination, genetic alterations, among others.

  15. How accurate are the European Union's classifications of chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudén, Christina; Hansson, Sven Ove

    2003-09-30

    The European Commission has decided on harmonized classifications for a large number of individual chemicals according to its own directive for classification and labeling of dangerous substances. We have compared the harmonized classifications for acute oral toxicity to the acute oral toxicity data available in the RTECS database. Of the 992 substances eligible for this comparison, 15% were assigned a too low danger class and 8% a too high danger class according to the RTECS data. Due to insufficient transparency-scientific documentations of the classification decisions are not available-the causes of this discrepancy can only be hypothesized. We propose that the scientific motivations of future classifications be published and that the apparent over- and underclassifications in the present system be either explained or rectified, according to what are the facts in the matter.

  16. Chemical Abstracts Service Chemical Registry System. 11. Substance-related statistics: update and additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobaugh, R E

    1988-11-01

    Statistics are updated for types of substances, ring systems, and elemental composition that have been determined for the Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Structure File at different points in time. This paper reports the updated figures and in addition some new statistics and offers some comparisons to show various shifts in file characteristics.

  17. Conduct disorder and initiation of substance use: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Christian; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Min, Sung-Joon; McQueen, Matt; Crowley, Thomas; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; Sakai, Joseph; Thurstone, Christian; Hoffenberg, Analice; Hartman, Christie; Hewitt, John

    2013-05-01

    To examine the influence of conduct disorder (CD) on substance use initiation. Community adolescents without CD (n = 1,165, mean baseline age = 14.6 years), with CD (n = 194, mean baseline age = 15.3 years), and youth with CD recruited from treatment (n = 268, mean baseline age = 15.7 years) were prospectively followed and re-interviewed during young adulthood (mean ages at follow-up respectively: 20, 20.8, and 24). Young adult retrospective reports of age of substance initiation for 10 substance classes were analyzed using Cox regression analyses. Hazard ratios of initiation for the CD cohorts (community without CD as the reference) at ages 15, 18, and 21 were calculated, adjusting for baseline age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Among community subjects, CD was associated with elevated adjusted hazards for initiation of all substances, with comparatively greater hazard ratios of initiating illicit substances at age 15 years. By age 18, the adjusted hazard ratios remained significant except for alcohol. At age 21, the adjusted hazard ratios were significant only for cocaine, amphetamines, inhalants, and club drugs. A substantial portion of community subjects without CD never initiated illicit substance use. Clinical youth with CD demonstrated similar patterns, with comparatively larger adjusted hazard ratios. CD confers increased risk for substance use initiation across all substance classes at age 15 years, with greater relative risk for illicit substances compared to licit substances. This effect continues until age 18 years, with the weakest effect for alcohol. It further diminishes for other substances by age 21, However, the likelihood of initiating cocaine, amphetamines, inhalants and club drug use among those who have not initiated yet continues to be highly elevated by age 21. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of reward sensitivity and regional brain volumes on substance use initiation in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Schissel, Ann; Lim, Kelvin O.; Luciana, Monica

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines associations between baseline individual differences and developmental changes in reward [i.e. behavioral approach system (BAS)] sensitivity and relevant brain structures’ volumes to prospective substance use initiation during adolescence. A community sample of adolescents ages 15–18 with no prior substance use was assessed for substance use initiation (i.e. initiation of regular alcohol use and/or any use of other substances) during a 2-year follow-up period and for alcohol use frequency in the last year of the follow-up. Longitudinal ‘increases’ in BAS sensitivity were associated with substance use initiation and increased alcohol use frequency during the follow-up. Moreover, adolescents with smaller left nucleus accumbens at baseline were more likely to initiate substance use during the follow-up period. This study provides support for the link between developmental increases in reward sensitivity and substance use initiation in adolescence. The study also emphasizes the potential importance of individual differences in volumes of subcortical regions and their structural development for substance use initiation during adolescence. PMID:24526186

  19. Effects of reward sensitivity and regional brain volumes on substance use initiation in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urošević, Snežana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Schissel, Ann; Lim, Kelvin O; Luciana, Monica

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines associations between baseline individual differences and developmental changes in reward [i.e. behavioral approach system (BAS)] sensitivity and relevant brain structures' volumes to prospective substance use initiation during adolescence. A community sample of adolescents ages 15-18 with no prior substance use was assessed for substance use initiation (i.e. initiation of regular alcohol use and/or any use of other substances) during a 2-year follow-up period and for alcohol use frequency in the last year of the follow-up. Longitudinal 'increases' in BAS sensitivity were associated with substance use initiation and increased alcohol use frequency during the follow-up. Moreover, adolescents with smaller left nucleus accumbens at baseline were more likely to initiate substance use during the follow-up period. This study provides support for the link between developmental increases in reward sensitivity and substance use initiation in adolescence. The study also emphasizes the potential importance of individual differences in volumes of subcortical regions and their structural development for substance use initiation during adolescence.

  20. 31 CFR 598.309 - Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; listed chemical. 598.309 Section 598.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.309 Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical. The terms narcotic drug, controlled substance, and listed chemical have the meanings given those...

  1. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: harmful substances and how to test them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olea-Serrano Nicolás

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of different groups from: scientists, international regulatory bodies, non-governmental organizations and industry; with an interest in the problem of identifying chemical substances with endocrine disrupting activity. There is also discussion of the consequences that exposure to endocrine disruptors may have for human health, considering concrete issues related to: the estimation of risk; the tests that must be used to detect endocrine disruption; the difficulties to establish an association between dose, time of exposure, individual susceptibility, and effect; and the attempts to create a census of endocrine disruptors. Finally, it is proposed that not all hormonal mimics should be included under the single generic denomination of endocrine disruptors.

  2. Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse. Initial Findings. Research Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.

    In collaborative efforts three research teams have investigated the problems of urban delinquency and substance abuse in longitudinal studies that have gone on since 1986. The Denver Youth Study is a longitudinal survey that involves annual interviews with probability samples of five different birth cohorts and their parents from areas of Denver…

  3. Chemical leasing business models: a contribution to the effective risk management of chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Cornelia; Moser, Frank

    2007-08-01

    Chemicals indisputably contribute greatly to the well-being of modern societies. Apart from such benefits, however, chemicals often pose serious threats to human health and the environment when improperly handled. Therefore, the European Commission has proposed a regulatory framework for the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) that requires companies using chemicals to gather pertinent information on the properties of these substances. In this article, we argue that the crucial aspect of this information management may be the honesty and accuracy of the transfer of relevant knowledge from the producer of a chemical to its user. This may be particularly true if the application of potentially hazardous chemicals is not part of the user's core competency. Against this background, we maintain that the traditional sales concept provides no incentives for transferring this knowledge. The reason is that increased user knowledge of a chemical's properties may raise the efficiency of its application. That is, excessive and unnecessary usage will be eliminated. This, in turn, would lower the amount of chemicals sold and in competitive markets directly decrease profits of the producer. Through the introduction of chemical leasing business models, we attempt to present a strategy to overcome the incentive structure of classical sales models, which is counterproductive for the transfer of knowledge. By introducing two models (a Model A that differs least and a Model B that differs most from traditional sales concepts), we demonstrate that chemical leasing business models are capable of accomplishing the goal of Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals: to effectively manage the risk of chemicals by reducing the total quantity of chemicals used, either by a transfer of applicable knowledge from the lessor to the lessee (Model A) or by efficient application of the chemical by the lessor him/herself (Model B).

  4. Cruel disease, cruel medicine: self-treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with harmful chemical substances in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdas, Sahienshadebie

    2012-09-01

    Why are potentially harmful, non-biomedical chemical substances, such as battery acid, chlorine, herbicides, and insecticides, used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)? What drives people to use these products as medicine? This article is about perceptions of CL, and the quest for a cure, in Suriname, South America. It highlights the associative style of reasoning behind health seeking and discusses the use of harmful chemical substances as medicines. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, affects 1 to 1.5 million people globally. It has a spectrum of clinical manifestations, but the most prominent and disfiguring elements are extensive dermatological ulceration and scar formation from lesions. The data upon which this article is based are derived from anthropological research carried out in different parts of Suriname between September 2009 and December 2010. Data was collected through mainly qualitative methods, including interviewing 205 CL patients using structured questionnaires at the Dermatological Service in the capital Paramaribo. Almost all people with CL said they tried self-treatment, varying from the use of ethno-botanical products to non-biomedical chemical solutions. This article presents and interprets the views and practices of CL patients who sought treatment using harsh chemicals. It argues that a confluence of contextual factors - environmental, occupational, infrastructural, geographical, socio-cultural, economic, socio-psychological - leads to the use of harmful chemical substances to treat CL sores. This study is the first in Suriname - and one of the few done globally - focusing on social and cultural aspects related to CL health seeking. It aims to encourage health policy makers and health professionals to carefully initiate, provide, and evaluate CL treatment and prevention programs.

  5. 40 CFR 790.26 - Initiation and completion of rulemaking proceedings on ITC-designated chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initiation and completion of rulemaking proceedings on ITC-designated chemicals. 790.26 Section 790.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES GOVERNING TESTING CONSENT AGREEMENTS AND TEST RULES...

  6. 77 FR 60144 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chemic Laboratories, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chemic Laboratories... July 26, 2012, Chemic Laboratories, Inc., 480 Neponset Street, Building 7, Canton, Massachusetts 02021...

  7. Children and the unborn child, Exposure and susceptibility to chemical substances – an evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Thorup, I.; Schnipper, Anette

    Children are at risk of exposure to a lot of high-production-volume synthetic chemical substances which have been introduced into the market within the past 50 years; these chemical substances are used widely in consumer products and are dispersed in the environment. Children as well as the unborn...... child have in some cases appeared to be uniquely vulnerable to chemical toxicants because of their biological growth and development. Furthermore, children may be more heavily exposed than adults to certain chemicals and pollutants in the environment. This report summarises and discusses the current...... knowledge about the biological susceptibility and exposure of chemical substances to children during the embryonic, foetal, and postnatal periods....

  8. Regimes of chemical reaction waves initiated by nonuniform initial conditions for detailed chemical reaction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, M A; Kiverin, A D; Ivanov, M F

    2012-05-01

    Regimes of chemical reaction wave propagation initiated by initial temperature nonuniformity in gaseous mixtures, whose chemistry is governed by chain-branching kinetics, are studied using a multispecies transport model and a detailed chemical model. Possible regimes of reaction wave propagation are identified for stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen and hydrogen-air mixtures in a wide range of initial pressures and temperature levels, depending on the initial non-uniformity steepness. The limits of the regimes of reaction wave propagation depend upon the values of the spontaneous wave speed and the characteristic velocities of the problem. It is shown that one-step kinetics cannot reproduce either quantitative neither qualitative features of the ignition process in real gaseous mixtures because the difference between the induction time and the time when the exothermic reaction begins significantly affects the ignition, evolution, and coupling of the spontaneous reaction wave and the pressure wave, especially at lower temperatures. We show that all the regimes initiated by the temperature gradient occur for much shallower temperature gradients than predicted by a one-step model. The difference is very large for lower initial pressures and for slowly reacting mixtures. In this way the paper provides an answer to questions, important in practice, about the ignition energy, its distribution, and the scale of the initial nonuniformity required for ignition in one or another regime of combustion wave propagation.

  9. Patterns of substance use initiation among young adolescents in a Northern Plains American Indian tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Kaufman, Carol E; Keane, Ellen M; Crow, Cecelia Big; Shangreau, Carly; Mitchell, Christina M

    2012-09-01

    Substantial evidence documents problematic substance use in Northern Plains American Indian communities. Studies suggest that disparities can be traced to disproportionate rates of early substance use, but most evidence comes from the retrospective reports of adults or older adolescents. To use a prospective longitudinal design to examine substance use initiation patterns as they emerge among young American Indian adolescents. Four waves of data were collected across three consecutive school years from middle school students on a Northern Plains reservation (N = 450). Discrete-time survival analyses were used to estimate risks of initiation of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana from age 10 to 13. Risk for cigarette initiation was relatively high at age 10 and stable until age 13. Marijuana risk was low at age 10 but increased sharply by age 12. Alcohol initiation lagged, not surpassing risk for cigarette initiation until age 13 and remaining below risk for marijuana initiation throughout middle school. Hazards for girls trended higher than those for boys across all substances, but differences did not reach significance. Initiation patterns among these American Indian adolescents differed from patterns reported in other US groups, particularly with respect to deviation from the sequence characterized the initiation of marijuana before alcohol that is predicted by the gateway theory. Findings suggest that prevention efforts with youth in this community should begin early with a primary focus on marijuana use. They also suggest the importance of examining sequences of substance initiation among youth in other American Indian communities.

  10. Self-esteem and the initiation of substance use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chris G; Kwon, Jae-Young; Ratner, Pamela A

    2012-11-08

    To investigate differences in the relationship between self-esteem and the initiation of substance use (tobacco, alcohol and marijuana) among male and female secondary school students in British Columbia. The data were collected in the 2010 fall and 2011 spring cycles of the British Columbia Adolescent Substance Use Survey (BASUS). The sample consisted of 1,267 adolescents (57% female) in Grades 8 and 9. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the extent to which self-esteem and gender, and their interaction, influenced the odds of having initiated substance use at baseline and at follow-up 6 months later. For each one-point increase on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, there was a reduction in the odds of initiating substance use by up to 9% for tobacco, 3% for alcohol, and 7% for marijuana. The relationships between self-esteem and the initiation of tobacco and alcohol use varied by gender, with boys having slightly less robust associations at the baseline assessment. The results suggest that self-esteem is protective against the initiation of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Researchers are advised to consider the interactive effects of gender in future longitudinal research examining the relationship between self-esteem and the initiation of substance use, including implications related to the development of substance use prevention programs.

  11. Role of family and peers in initiation and continuation of substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsering Dechenla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the impact of family and peers on both initiation and continuation of substance use among eighth, ninth and tenth grade adolescent high school students. Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Setting: Two high schools of West Bengal, India. Participants: 416 students in class VIII, IX, and X in two schools. Interventions: None. Measurements: Substance use: initiation, sources, reasons for continuation. Then proportions and chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Materials and Methods: This was a population based cross sectional study conducted among 416 students from class VII, IX and X in two high schools( urban and rural of West Bengal, India selected by Multistage random sampling. A self administered anonymous pretested close ended questionnaire was used with the main outcome measures of initiation, sources, reasons for continuation of substance use based on WHO study team questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of substance use was found to be higher among the urban students (15.1% than their rural counterparts (10.7%. The proportion of users was higher in the higher grades as compared to the lower grades. Among urban as well as rural students, 16 years and above were significantly more likely than their counterparts aged 15 years and below to report lifetime use. The mean age of initiation ranged from 12.6 to 13.9 years. Family members and friends were found to have a considerable influence not only on initiation but also important sources for money as well as the substance. Easy availability in the neighborhood was also an important correlate to continuation of substances. Conclusions: Family environment as well as peer groups has an important bearing on initiation and continuation of substance use. Experimentation of substance use motivated by peer groups is common among adolescents and starts early in life. Hence, it is necessary to provide health promotion programs directed toward students and their

  12. [Formation mechanism and chemical safety of nonintentional chemical substances present in chlorinated drinking water and wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Sukeo

    2010-09-01

    This paper reviews the formation mechanism and chemical safety of nonintentional chemical substances (NICS) present in chlorine-treated water containing organic contaminants. Undesirable compounds, i.e., NICS, may be formed under certain conditions when chlorine reacts with organic matter. The rate and extent of chlorine consumption with organics are strongly dependent on their chemical structures, particularly whether double bonds or sulfur and nitrogen atoms occur in the molecules. Organothiophosphorus pesticides (P=S type) are easily oxidized to their phosphorus compounds (P=O type) in chlorinated water containing HOCl as little as 0.5 mg/l, resulting in an increase in cholinesterase-inhibitory activity. Chlorination of phenols in water also produces a series of highly chlorinated compounds, including chlorophenols, chloroquinones, chlorinated carboxylic acids, and polychlorinated phenoxyphenols (PCPPs). In some of these chloroquinones, 2,6-dichloroalkylsemiquinones exhibit a strong mutagenic response as do positive controls used in the Ames test. 2-phenoxyphenols in these PCPPs are particularly interesting, as they are present in the chlorine-treated phenol solution and they are also precursors (predioxins) of the highly toxic chlorinated dioxins. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found to undergo chemical changes due to hypochlorite reactions to give chloro-substituted PAHs, oxygenated (quinones) and hydroxylated (phenols) compounds, but they exhibit a lower mutagenic response. In addition, field work was performed in river water and drinking water to obtain information on chemical distribution and their safety, and the results are compared with those obtained in the model chlorination experiments.

  13. A chemical-biological similarity-based grouping of complex substances as a prototype approach for evaluating chemical alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Fabian A; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Sirenko, Oksana; Chappell, Grace A; Wright, Fred A; Reif, David M; Braisted, John; Gerhold, David L; Yeakley, Joanne M; Shepard, Peter; Seligmann, Bruce; Roy, Tim; Boogaard, Peter J; Ketelslegers, Hans B; Rohde, Arlean M; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-08-21

    Comparative assessment of potential human health impacts is a critical step in evaluating both chemical alternatives and existing products on the market. Most alternatives assessments are conducted on a chemical-by-chemical basis and it is seldom acknowledged that humans are exposed to complex products, not individual substances. Indeed, substances of Unknown or Variable composition, Complex reaction products, and Biological materials (UVCBs) are ubiquitous in commerce yet they present a major challenge for registration and health assessments. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and computational approach to categorize UVCBs according to global similarities in their bioactivity using a suite of in vitro models. We used petroleum substances, an important group of UVCBs which are grouped for regulatory approval and read-across primarily on physico-chemical properties and the manufacturing process, and only partially based on toxicity data, as a case study. We exposed induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes to DMSO-soluble extracts of 21 petroleum substances from five product groups. Concentration-response data from high-content imaging in cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes, as well as targeted high-throughput transcriptomic analysis of the hepatocytes, revealed distinct groups of petroleum substances. Data integration showed that bioactivity profiling affords clustering of petroleum substances in a manner similar to the manufacturing process-based categories. Moreover, we observed a high degree of correlation between bioactivity profiles and physico-chemical properties, as well as improved groupings when chemical and biological data were combined. Altogether, we demonstrate how novel in vitro screening approaches can be effectively utilized in combination with physico-chemical characteristics to group complex substances and enable read-across. This approach allows for rapid and scientifically-informed evaluation of health impacts of

  14. Relevance of the mouse skin initiation-promotion model for the classification of carcinogenic substances encountered at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Thielmann, Heinz W; Meischner, Veronika; Fartasch, Manigé

    2015-06-01

    The Permanent Senate Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area (MAK Commission of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) evaluates chemical substances using scientific criteria to prevent adverse effects on health at the work place. As part of this task there is a need to evaluate tumor promoting activity of chemicals (enhancement of formation of squamous cell carcinomas via premalignant papillomas) obtained from two-stage initiation/promotion experiments using the mouse skin model. In the present communication we address this issue by comparing responses seen in mouse skin with those in humans. We conclude that tumor promotional effects seen in such animal models be carefully analyzed on a case by case basis. Substances that elicit a rather non-specific effect that is restricted to the high dose range are considered to be irrelevant to humans and thus do not require classification as carcinogens. In contrast, substances that might have both a mode of action and a potency similar to the specific effects seen with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), the prototype tumor promoter in mouse skin, which triggers receptor-mediated signal cascades in the very low dose range, have to be classified in a category for carcinogens.

  15. Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances. Applicability of EXAMS II as an advanced Water Quality Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs ACM; Burns LA

    1990-01-01

    In the cluster project "Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances methods are developed to systematically predict and assess the hazards for man and environment. After the basic screening of a substance has been carried out, a more extensive study can be performed using models adhered to the

  16. Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances. Applicability of EXAMS II as an advanced Water Quality Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs ACM; Burns LA

    1990-01-01

    In the cluster project "Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances methods are developed to systematically predict and assess the hazards for man and environment. After the basic screening of a substance has been carried out, a more extensive study can be performed using models adhered to the

  17. 78 FR 5500 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Chemic Laboratories, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Chemic Laboratories... FR 60144, Chemic Laboratories, Inc., 480 Neponset Street, Building 7, Canton, Massachusetts 02021... factors in 21 U.S.C. 823(a), and determined that the registration of Chemic Laboratories, Inc., to...

  18. 78 FR 62443 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 721 RIN 2070-AJ95 Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl... new use rule (SNUR) for perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) chemical substances to add PFAS chemical.... EPA is also finalizing a SNUR for long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylate (LCPFAC) chemical...

  19. [Acute pneumonias in those working with chemical substances that irritate the respiratory tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladyko, N V

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed of acute pneumonia (AP) morbidity among the workers exposed to respiratory irritation inducing chemical substances, which revealed a marked AP prevalence in these professional groups. A qualitative analysis of the AP cases severity helped to establish some peculiarities of the disease course in workers exposed to minor concentrations of the chemical substances, which should be taken into account in diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and out-patient observation.

  20. Conduct Disorder and Initiation of Substance Use: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Christian; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Min, Sung-Joon; McQueen, Matt; Crowley, Thomas; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; Sakai, Joseph; Thurstone, Christian; Hoffenberg, Analice; Hartman, Christie; Hewitt, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of conduct disorder (CD) on substance use initiation. Method: Community adolescents without CD (n = 1,165, mean baseline age = 14.6 years), with CD (n = 194, mean baseline age = 15.3 years), and youth with CD recruited from treatment (n = 268, mean baseline age = 15.7 years) were prospectively followed and…

  1. Behavioral Predictors Of Substance-Use Initiation In Adolescents With And Without ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Substance-use initiation was examined in 28 healthy adolescents and 50 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, followed longitudinally for 4 years at the National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD; National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD; and Neuropsychiatrie Institute, Los Angeles, CA.

  2. Statewide Adoption and Initial Implementation of Contingency Management for Substance-Abusing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Chapman, Jason E.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Randall, Jeff; Shackelford, Jennifer; Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    Four hundred thirty-two public sector therapists attended a workshop in contingency management (CM) and were interviewed monthly for the following 6 months to assess their adoption and initial implementation of CM to treat substance-abusing adolescent clients. Results showed that 58% (n = 131) of the practitioners with at least one…

  3. 40 CFR 721.1660 - Benzidine-based chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reagent for detecting blood; an analytical standard; and also for Colour Index (C.I.) Direct Red 28 (Congo Red, CAS No. 573-58-0) as an indicator dye. (b) List of substances. The following table 1 lists the... N/A -4,4′-diamine, dihydrochloride 573-58-0 C.I. Direct Red 28 22120 1- Naphthalenesulfonic acid, 3...

  4. Data banks of chemical substances and their toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.K.

    1992-12-31

    Rapid proliferation in the development of new chemical compounds, coupled with the discovery and/or identification of those already in existence, has led to a significant need to investigate their physicochemical and biological properties, to document the knowledge gained, and to communicate that knowledge in as convenient a manner as possible. This paper presents and briefly discusses several prominent chemical databases.

  5. Data banks of chemical substances and their toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    Rapid proliferation in the development of new chemical compounds, coupled with the discovery and/or identification of those already in existence, has led to a significant need to investigate their physicochemical and biological properties, to document the knowledge gained, and to communicate that knowledge in as convenient a manner as possible. This paper presents and briefly discusses several prominent chemical databases.

  6. Food contact substances and chemicals of concern: a comparison of inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geueke, Birgit; Wagner, Charlotte C; Muncke, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Food contact materials (FCMs) are intended to be in contact with food during production, handling or storage. They are one possible source of food contamination, because chemicals may migrate from the material into the food. More than 6000 FCM substances appear on regulatory or non-regulatory lists. Some of these substances have been linked to chronic diseases, whilst many others lack (sufficient) toxicological evaluation. The aim of this study was the identification of known FCM substances that are also considered to be chemicals of concern (COCs). The investigation was based on the following three FCM lists: (1) the 2013 Pew Charitable Trusts database of direct and indirect food additives legally used in the United States (or Pew for short), (2) the current European Union-wide positive list for plastic FCMs (or Union for short), and (3) the 2011 non-plastics FCM substances database published by EFSA (or ESCO for short). These three lists of food contact substances (Pew, Union, ESCO lists) were compared with the Substitute It Now! (SIN) list 2.1, which includes chemicals fulfilling the criteria listed in article 57 of Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH), and the TEDX database on endocrine-disrupting chemicals. A total of 175 chemicals used in FCMs were identified as COCs. Fifty-four substances present on the SIN list 2.1 were also found on the Union and/or ESCO lists. Twenty-one of those 54 substances are candidates for Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC), and six of these 21 are listed on Annex XIV and intended for phase-out under REACH. In conclusion, COCs used in FCMs were identified and information about their applications, regulatory status and potential hazards was included.

  7. Assessment of chemical emissions in life cycle impact assessment - focus on low substance data availability and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2004-01-01

    chemical groups, high data availability combined with low data demand, data useable in characterisation, user friendliness and transparency. A mainly qualitative evaluation of the existing selection methods against these performance criteria shows that none of these score high on all criteria...... be significantly dependent on the inclusion of toxicity- or chemical-related impact categories. The two main reasons for poor coverage of potential toxic impacts from chemical emissions in LCA studies are lack of available data on upstream emissions (e.g. emissions during production of raw materials) and lack...... of substance data on known emissions. To be able to characterize the potential toxic impacts on humans and the environment of chemical emissions, substance data on fate and effect are needed. The second goal of this thesis is to investigate how to deal with low substance data availability on especially effect...

  8. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q6A specifications: test procedures and acceptance criteria for new drug substances and new drug products: chemical substances. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing a guidance entitled "Q6A Specifications: Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for New Drug Substances and New Drug Products: Chemical Substances." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance describes or provides recommendations concerning the selection of test procedures and the setting and justification of acceptance criteria for new chemical drug substances and new drug products produced from them. The guidance is intended to assist in the establishment of a single set of global specifications for new drug substances and new drug products.

  9. Age of initiation with different substances and relationships with resources and vulnerabilities : A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciairano, Silvia; Molinengo, Giorgia; Bonino, Silvia; Miceli, Renato; van Schuur, Wijbrandt

    2009-01-01

    There is still limited knowledge about the interrelations among the age of initiation of different substances and the diverse aspects of adolescent functioning. The present cross-national study aimed at exploring the presence of a time-order pattern of age of initiation of different substances and t

  10. Substance use, education, employment, and criminal activity outcomes of adolescents in outpatient chemical dependency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I; Homer, Jenny F; French, Michael T; Weisner, Constance M

    2009-01-01

    Although the primary outcome of interest in clinical evaluations of addiction treatment programs is usually abstinence, participation in these programs can have a wide range of consequences. This study evaluated the effects of treatment initiation on substance use, school attendance, employment, and involvement in criminal activity at 12 months post-admission for 419 adolescents (aged 12 to 18) enrolled in chemical dependency recovery programs in a large managed care health plan. Instrumental variables estimation methods were used to account for unobserved selection into treatment by jointly modeling the likelihood of participation in treatment and the odds of attaining a certain outcome or level of an outcome. Treatment initiation significantly increased the likelihood of attending school, promoted abstinence, and decreased the probability of adolescent employment, but it did not significantly affect participation in criminal activity at the 12-month follow-up. These findings highlight the need to address selection in a non-experimental study and demonstrate the importance of considering multiple outcomes when assessing the effectiveness of adolescent treatment.

  11. The ISS National Inventory of Chemical Substances (INSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Roberto; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; Ceccarelli, Federica; D'angiolini, Antonella; Fabri, Alessandra; Riva, Giovanni; Satalia, Susanna; Marcello, Ida

    2008-01-01

    The INSC (Inventario Nazionale delle Sostanze Chimiche), a factual data bank, produced by Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), consists of an electronic tool on chemical information developed for routine and emergency purposes. Historical background, current status and future perspectives of INSC are discussed. The structure and the feature of INSC are briefly examined. Aspects of information retrieval and the criteria for inclusion of data and priority selection are also considered.

  12. Dangerous chemical substances – Tools supporting occupational risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Dobrzyńska; Małgorzata Pośniak

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of risk associated with exposure to chemicals in the work environment is a task that still poses a lot of difficulties for the employers. At the same time the probability of adverse health effects faced by an employee as a result of such risks, and the related employer’s material losses should motivate employers to seek effective solutions aimed at assessing the risks and controling them to an acceptable level by the application of appropriate preventive measures. The paper pre...

  13. Dangerous chemical substances – Tools supporting occupational risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Dobrzyńska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of risk associated with exposure to chemicals in the work environment is a task that still poses a lot of difficulties for the employers. At the same time the probability of adverse health effects faced by an employee as a result of such risks, and the related employer’s material losses should motivate employers to seek effective solutions aimed at assessing the risks and controling them to an acceptable level by the application of appropriate preventive measures. The paper presents examples of tools to assist the employer in the risk assessment associated with the presence of chemical agents in the workplace. Examples of guides, manuals, checklists and various interactive tools, developed in Poland and other European Union (EU countries, as well as in countries outside the EU and international organizations are described. These tools have been developed to meet the current requirements of the law and allow a rough estimation of chemical risk and based on these estimates take further steps to improve working conditions and safety. Med Pr 2014;65(5:683–692

  14. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. Results The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. Conclusions The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a 'Matthew' principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.

  15. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. Results The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated) biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. Conclusions The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a 'Matthew' principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research. PMID:22074398

  16. New Concepts in the Evaluation of Biodegradation/Persistence of Chemical Substances using a Microbial Inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald eThouand

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The European REACH Regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization of CHemical substances implies, among other things, the evaluation of the biodegradability of chemical substances produced by industry. A large set of test methods is available including detailed information on the appropriate conditions for testing. However, the inoculum used for these tests constitutes a ‘black box’. If biodegradation is achievable from the growth of a small group of specific microbial species with the substance as the only carbon source, the result of the test depends largely on the cell density of this group at ‘time zero’. If these species are relatively rare in an inoculum that is normally used, the likelihood of inoculating a test with sufficient specific cells becomes a matter of probability. Normally this probability increases with total cell density and with the diversity of species in the inoculum. Furthermore the history of the inoculum e.g. a possible pre-exposure to the test substance or similar substances will have a significant influence on the probability. A high probability can be expected for substances that are widely used and regularly released into the environment, whereas a low probability can be expected for new xenobio

  17. [Chemical constituents in higher polar substances from Desmodium caudatum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Wang, Di; Wang, Guang-Hui; Guo, Zhi-Jian; Zou, Xiu-Hong; Lin, Ting; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2014-08-01

    In this study the chemical constituents of the higher polar sustances from Desmodium caudatum were investigated.The compounds were isolated by using column chromatographies over silicagel, polyamide, ODS, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC. The structures of these compounds were identified on the basis of NMR and MS spectra. Thirteen compounds were obtained and their structures were identified as vanillin(1), loliolide(2), indole-3-carboxaldehyde(3), salicylic acid(4), swertisin(5), saccharumoside C(6), isosinensin (7), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (8), isovitexin (9), vitexin (10), nothofagin(11), resveratroloside (12), and 2"-α-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-methylvitexin (13). Except for compound 5, the remaining compounds were isolated from D. caudatum for the first time. Compounds 2, 3, 6-8, 11-13 were separated from the genus Desmodium for the first time.

  18. 78 FR 12684 - Proposed Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... things, that potentially exposed employees wear specified respirators unless actual measurements of the..., reinforcement additive. Based on test data on the PMN substance, and SAR analysis of test data on structurally... additives, mechanical reinforcement additives, energy storage additives, and chemical intermediates....

  19. 78 FR 64016 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals By Notice dated June 18, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2013, 78 FR...

  20. 78 FR 64018 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated June 18, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2013, 78...

  1. 77 FR 67397 - Importer Of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer Of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated July 17, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2012, 77...

  2. 78 FR 23596 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on March 11,...

  3. 77 FR 30026 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Application, Ampac Fine Chemicals LLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Application, Ampac Fine Chemicals LLC. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on April 11, 2012, AMPAC...

  4. 77 FR 30027 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on March 15,...

  5. 77 FR 70188 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated July 17, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2012, 77...

  6. Guidelines of Italian CCTN for classification of some effects of chemical substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucci, N. [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Rome (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Camoni, I. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1996-03-01

    Definitions of the categories and the criteria for the classification of chemical substances on the basis of their potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic-reproductive effects, elaborated by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) in 1994. Besides all the allocations effected by the CCTN in the period 1977-1995 are reported, updated according to these criteria.

  7. Risk Assessment System for New Chemical Substances: Implementation of atmospheric transport of organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet C; de Leeuw FAAM

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of the development of a risk assessment system for new chemical substances, estimation methods concerning exposure of man and environment through air have been investigated. The pathways through which exposure through air takes place in this risk assessment system are exposure

  8. 78 FR 5500 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Ampac Fine Chemicals, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...; verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws; and a review of the company's background... II. The company plans to manufacture the listed controlled substance for distribution to its... AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC to ensure that the company's registration is consistent with the public...

  9. Classification of Chemical Substances Using Particulate Representations of Matter: An Analysis of Student Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stains, Marilyne; Talanquer, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    We applied a mixed-method research design to investigate the patterns of reasoning used by novice undergraduate chemistry students to classify chemical substances as elements, compounds, or mixtures based on their particulate representations. We were interested in the identification of the representational features that students use to build a…

  10. 77 FR 42990 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... by this action. Other types of entities not listed in this unit could also be affected. The North... processing of a chemical substance. The extent to which a use changes the type or form of exposure of human... salts or as the constituent metals, and the structural analogy in the consent order was not based on...

  11. 78 FR 48051 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... chemical substance. The extent to which a use changes the type or form of exposure of human beings or the... generically described as: Plasticizer and lubricant with flame retardant properties. By analogy to medium... Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted these types of actions from review under Executive Order 12866...

  12. 75 FR 63827 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Request for Chemical Substance Nominations for 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... manganese 7439-9 methanol l67-56-1 methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).... 1634-04-4 mirex 2385-85-5 naphthalene...'s current chemicals management program under the Toxic Substances Control Act. PFOA and PFOS...

  13. Risk and Protective Factors for Early Substance Use Initiation: A Longitudinal Study of Mexican-Origin Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Olivia E; Conger, Rand D; Ferrer, Emilio; Robins, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    Substance use initiation in adolescence is a critical issue, given its association with substance dependency and associated problems in adulthood. However, due to the dearth of fine-grained, longitudinal studies, the factors associated with early initiation are poorly understood, especially in minority youth. The present study examined substance use initiation in a sample of Mexican-origin youth (N=674) assessed annually from age 10 to 16. Using discrete-time survival analyses, we found that initiation escalated rapidly from late childhood to adolescence, and we identified a wide range of factors, from the individual to the cultural level of analysis, that significantly increased or decreased risk for early initiation. These findings have important implications for programs aimed at preventing early substance use by Mexican-origin youth.

  14. International comparison of criteria for evaluating sensitization of PRTR-designated chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomoe; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Isse, Toyohi; Ogawa, Masanori; Sugie, Takuya; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we aim to compare the criteria for sensitizers among national organizations in various countries and international organizations, and to specify whether each Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR)-designated chemical substance is a sensitizer by each organization. The definition of sensitizing chemicals and the designation of respective sensitizers according to the PRTR law, Japan Society for Occupational Health (JSOH), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), European Union (EU), and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinshaft (DFG) were studied. Of the 435 PRTR-designated chemical substances, 15 are listed as sensitizers according to the PRTR law, 16 as sensitizers of the airway and 21 as sensitizers of the skin by JSOH, 12 as sensitizers (no discrimination) by ACGIH, 19 (airway) and 85 (skin) by EU, and 15 (airway) and 43 (skin) by DFG. Only 9 substances were designated as sensitizers by all these organizations. The variation in the designation of sensitizers is accounted for by the differences in the classification criteria and grouping of chemical substances. JSOH limits the definition of sensitizers to substances that induce allergic reactions in humans and uses only human data. Other organizations utilize not only human evidence but also appropriate animal tests. In addition, EU designates an isocyanate as a sensitizer except those for which there is evidence showing that they do not cause respiratory sensitivity. The worldwide enforcement of the globally harmonized system (GHS) of classification and labeling of chemicals could promote not only the consistent designation of sensitizers among national and international organizations, but also the development of testing guidelines and classification criteria for mixtures.

  15. Increased Pre- and Early-Adolescent Stress in Youth with a Family History of Substance Use Disorder and Early Substance Use Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Bray, Bethany C; Ryan, Stacy R; Lake, Sarah L; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (Family History Positive) are more likely to have early-onset substance use (i.e., prior to age 15), which may contribute to their higher rates of substance use disorders. One factor that may differentiate Family History Positive youth who engage in early-onset substance use from other Family History Positive youth is exposure to stressors. The aim of this study was to quantify how exposure to stressors from age 11-15 varies as a function of family history of substance use disorders and early-onset substance use. Self-reported stressors were prospectively compared in a sample of predominately (78.9%) Hispanic youth that included 68 Family History Positive youth (50% female) who initiated substance use by age 15 and demographically matched non-users with (n = 136; 52.9% female) and without (n = 75; 54.7% female) family histories of substance use disorders. Stressors were assessed at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Both the severity of stressors and the degree to which stressors were caused by an individual's own behavior were evaluated. All three groups differed from one another in overall exposure to stressors and rates of increase in stressors over time, with Family History Positive youth who engaged in early-onset substance use reporting the greatest exposure to stressors. Group differences were more pronounced for stressors caused by the participants' behavior. Family History Positive users had higher cumulative severity of stressors of this type, both overall and across time. These results indicate greater exposure to stressors among Family History Positive youth with early-onset substance use, and suggest that higher rates of behavior-dependent stressors may be particularly related to early-onset use.

  16. A Qualitative Study of the Context of Child and Adolescent Substance Use Initiation and Patterns of Use in the First Year for Early and Later Initiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Maya; Cohen-Serrins, Julian; Knight, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Individuals who initiate substance use before high school are at higher risk of negative outcomes. Eighty-six young adults between the ages of 18 and 28 participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on the circumstances surrounding participants’ first use of substances and their pattern of use in the year following initiation in order to investigate similarities and differences between early versus later initiators. Initiation and use among early initiators were more likely to be encouraged by poor parental monitoring or active facilitation of use by parents. Early initiators were more likely to report risky patterns of use such as daily use and using alone. The data suggest that interventions targeting this population should focus on improving parental monitoring and decreasing positive parental attitudes toward adolescent substance use and efforts to increase identification and intervention by middle school staff to reach youth from high-risk families. PMID:28122018

  17. What is this Substance? What Makes it Different? Mapping Progression in Students' Assumptions about Chemical Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Courtney; Sevian, Hannah; Talanquer, Vicente

    2014-09-01

    Given the diversity of materials in our surroundings, one should expect scientifically literate citizens to have a basic understanding of the core ideas and practices used to analyze chemical substances. In this article, we use the term 'chemical identity' to encapsulate the assumptions, knowledge, and practices upon which chemical analysis relies. We conceive chemical identity as a core crosscutting disciplinary concept which can bring coherence and relevance to chemistry curricula at all educational levels, primary through tertiary. Although chemical identity is not a concept explicitly addressed by traditional chemistry curricula, its understanding can be expected to evolve as students are asked to recognize different types of substances and explore their properties. The goal of this contribution is to characterize students' assumptions about factors that determine chemical identity and to map how core assumptions change with training in the discipline. Our work is based on the review and critical analysis of existing research findings on students' alternative conceptions in chemistry education, and historical and philosophical analyses of chemistry. From this perspective, our analysis contributes to the growing body of research in the area of learning progressions. In particular, it reveals areas in which our understanding of students' ideas about chemical identity is quite robust, but also highlights the existence of major knowledge gaps that should be filled in to better foster student understanding. We provide suggestions in this area and discuss implications for the teaching of chemistry.

  18. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : II. EFFECT OF DESOXYRIBONUCLEASE ON THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M; Avery, O T

    1946-01-31

    It has been shown that extremely minute amounts of purified preparations of desoxyribonuclease are capable of bringing about the complete and irreversible inactivation of the transforming substance of Pneumococcus Type III. The significance of the effect of the enzyme, and its bearing on the chemical nature of the transforming substance, together with certain considerations concerning the biological specificity of desoxyribonucleic acids in general, are discussed.

  19. SUBSTANCES AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS. TOPICS OF THE UNIVERSITARY ENTRY COURSE TREATED WITH DIFFERENT RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    René O. Güemes; Adriana E. Ortolani; María del C. Tiburzi; Falicoff, Claudia B.; José M. Raffaelli; Odetti, Héctor S.

    2011-01-01

    This research is focused to detect and compare difficulties presented in the comprehension of the topics "Substances" and "Chemical Reactions" in incoming pupils to the National University of the Litoral (Santa Fe, Argentina) implementing two different didactic strategies during the dictation of the "Course of Introduction to Chemistry". We worked with two groups of students; one group used a textbook, while the other worked with multimedia material in a computer classroom. Both groups were e...

  20. Tenth anniversary of the Chemical Substances Act. 10 Jahre Chemikaliengesetz; Bilanz und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, J. (Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)); Arndt, R. (Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitsschutz, Dortmund (Germany)); Bulling, W.B. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Drescher, R.D. (Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)); Elstner, P. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Heinemeyer, G. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Kayser, D. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Lange, A.W. (

    1992-11-01

    The chemical substances act is ten years old. These ten years have witnessed a stormy development in legislation on chemicals: what was new ground still at the beginning of the eighties, is now a vast area of law complemented by detailed individual regulations at the administrative level, firmly interlocked with the other areas of environmental law, and part of an overall concept for the safety of chemicals enjoying an international reputation. Currently, the chemical substances act is in a phase of inner consolidation and completion. This phase was ushered in by the proposed amendment of 1990, an amendment aimed to eliminate weak points on the basis of first experiences with the implementation of legal requirements existing under EC law. In the second part of this phase, revisions or completions which have meanwhile been effected or are being effected in community law must be integrated. Further legal regulations are to be expected in the area of prohibitions and restrictions. These are, so far, mainly attuned to individual cases and reactive in nature. Most important of all is the development of a uniform and appropriate catalogue of criteria. The aim must be to create the necessary boundary conditions for the use of chemicals in our industrial society ensuring sustainable, environmentally compatible development for a long time to come. (orig./HSCH)

  1. Effects of humic substances on the bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Correlations with spectroscopic and chemical properties of humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitzer, M.; Abbt-Braun, G.; Traunspurger, W.; Steinberg, C.E.W.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of dissolved humic substances (HS, fulvic and humic acids) generally reduces the uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds into aquatic organisms. The extent of this effect depends both on the concentration and on the origin of the HS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of qualitative differences between HS from different origins. The effects of seven different HS on the bioconcentration of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were related to the spectroscopic and chemical properties of the HS. The effect of each humic material on the bioconcentration of pyrene or BaP was quantified as a 'biologically determined' partition coefficient K(DOC). We observed significant linear relationships between K(DOC) and the atomic H/C ratio, the specific absorptivity at 254 nm, the content of aromatic carbons (as determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the copper-complexing capacity, the content of phenolic OH groups, and the molecular weight of the HS. There was no discernible relationship of K(DOC) with the atomic (N + O)/C ratio, an indicator of the polarity of HS. Taken together, our results show that the variability in the effects of HS from different origins could be related to variations in bulk properties of the HS. Parameters describing the aromaticity of the humic materials seemed to be most useful for estimating effects of HS on the bioconcentration of pyrene and BaP.

  2. STUDENT AWARD FINALIST: Plasma Acid: A Chemically and Physically Metastable Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shainsky, Natalie; Dobrynin, Danil; Ercan, Utku; Joshi, Suresh; Brooks, Ari; Ji, Haifeng; Fridman, Gregory; Cho, Young; Fridman, Alexander; Friedman, Gennady

    2011-10-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge applied to the surface of a liquid creates a chemically and physically metastable substance. The properties and lifetime of the substance depend on the treatment conditions such as gas atmosphere and liquid medium used, treatment dose, and other parameters. When deionized water is used, the metastable substance becomes a strong oxidizer. We show that direct exposure of deionized water to neutral and charged species produced in plasma creates a strong oxidizer and acidic substance in this water which, for the lack of a better term, we termed plasma acid. Plasma acid can remain stable for relatively long time and its oxidizing power may be linked to the significant lowering of its pH. We report experiments that demonstrate plasma acid's metastability. We also show that observed pH of as low as 2.0 cannot be completely accounted for by the production of nitric acid; and that the conjugate base derived from superoxide is at least partly responsible for both, lowering of the pH and increase in the oxidizing power of the solution.

  3. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting Manufactured Chemical Substances from Metal Mining and Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance on the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of mined metals, intermediates, and byproducts manufactured during metal mining and related activities.

  4. 40 CFR 799.5000 - Testing consent orders for substances and mixtures with Chemical Abstract Service Registry Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and mixtures with Chemical Abstract Service Registry Numbers. 799.5000 Section 799.5000 Protection of... Testing consent orders for substances and mixtures with Chemical Abstract Service Registry Numbers. This... adopted under 40 CFR part 790. Listed below in Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Registry Number order...

  5. [International Chemical Safety Cards: information source on hazards caused by chemical substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulska, Daria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2007-01-01

    International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) are produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) in collaboration with the European Commission and various IPCS-participating institutions in different countries. ICSCs disseminate essential information on chemicals to promote their safe production, transport and use. Application of standard terminology along with relevant criteria facilitates the comparison of risk related to different chemicals, which makes the cards a successful hazard-communication tool. Translation of the cards into various languages all over the world reflects the range of their growing use. A multi-stage compilation of information contained in ICSCs, based on the most up-to-date world literature and professional databases, assures its reliability. Their concise form makes them easy in everyday use as a source of information on chemical safety. The range of information contained in ICSCs corresponds to that provided by Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), however, the former are more concise and simpler. Although ICSCs have no legal status they may complement a 16-point MSDSs and help in the implementation of labeling and classification of chemicals according to the Globally Harmonized System.

  6. Characterization and differentiation of chemical heterogeneity in humic substances by continuous intrinsic proton affinity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.X.; Dong, W.M.; Huang, M.E.; Tao, Z.Y.

    2002-07-01

    The chemical heterogeneity of proton binding on humic substances was studied via continuous intrinsic proton affinity distributions calculated using the condensation approximation from the master curves for two soil fulvic acids (FAs), one soil humic acid (HA) and one fulvic acid obtained from weathered coal. The master curves, i.e. plots of theta(T.H) (the overall protonation degree) versus Hs (the proton concentration in the diffuse double layer), were obtained from potentiometric titration curves at three ionic strengths. The value of Hs was calculated using an electrical double-layer model in which the humic substances were considered as rigid impermeable spheres. For all four samples, the proton affinity distributions were characterized by a few peaks with peak positions in the range 4-5.5. The similarities and differences between the samples studied were discussed.

  7. Initiation of Combustion of a Gel-Like Condensed Substance by a Local Source of Limited Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    A physical and a mathematical model of the gas-phase ignition of a gel-like condensed substance, containing a combustible (hydrazine) and an oxidizer (liquefied oxygen) in its composition, at a cryogenic initial temperature have been developed. A numerical investigation of the integral characteristics of the interrelated physicochemical processes occurring in the initiation of combustion of such a substance by a typical energy source of limited heat content (an individual small-size particle heated to a high temperature) has been perfumed. The dependence of the delay time of ignition of the indicated substance on the heat content of a local heat source was determined. The minimum values of the main parameters of hot particles (their temperature and sizes), at which the ignition conditions are fulfilled, were estimated. It is shown that the delay time of ignition of a gel-like condensed substance depends mainly on the initial temperature of an energy source. The characteristic features of the conditions and regimes of initiation of combustion of condensed substances found in different aggregate states (solid, liquid, gel-like) under conditions of their local heating by a heat source of limiting power were analyzed.

  8. Notification of the commission on the eco-toxicity of chemical substances; Avis de la commission d'evaluation de l'ecotoxicite des substances chimiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The french commission on the evaluation of the chemical substances eco-toxicity, published recommendations concerning the use of additives for the automotive fuels, for the cooling circuit of electric power plants and for gases against fire. The risks for the public health are analysed and safety precautions are asked. (A.L.B.)

  9. Prospective influence of music-related media exposure on adolescent substance-use initiation: a peer group mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D; Henry, Kimberly L

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests prospective effects of music-related media content (from television, Internet, and magazines) on youth alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use initiation. Indirect effects through association with substance-using peers were tested in a 4-wave longitudinal data set (2,729 middle school students for the alcohol model, 2,716 students for the cigarette model, and 2,710 students for the marijuana model) from schools across the United States. In so doing, the authors examine theoretical claims regarding socialization mechanisms for effects of popular music listenership on substance use initiation. Results supported direct effects on alcohol and cigarette uptake, and indirect effects through association with substance-using peers on all 3 substances. This research, in combination with prior studies by several research teams, suggests elevated popular music involvement is a risk factor with respect to younger adolescents' substance use behavior. This influence is in part explained by the role of music-related media content in socialization to substance-using peer groups.

  10. DYNAMICS OF OPIOID SUBSTITUTION TREATMENTIN DIFFERENT INITIAL SUBSTANCE USER OPIOID DEPENDENT PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todadze, Kh; Mosia, S

    2016-05-01

    figures was observed in all groups in three month period that have been continuing during 21 month of treatment process. Study revealed normalization of scores forbothstatesin groups of heroine, desomorphine, methadone and buprenorphine users. The highest scores of depression and anxiety were observed in the group of poly-drug abusers andwhile depression rate hesitated in the range of clear "no-depression", anxiety index still remained close to the clinical important threshold after 21 month of treatment. Urine-testingon psychotropic-narcotic substances indicated remarkable decrease of illegal drug abuse in all studied groups in three month and although abuse of benzodiazepine drugs was highest in desomorphine and poly-drug abusers, the difference between groups was not statistically significant. Although some disparities have been observed in dynamics of subjects with different spectrum of initial opioid substance use, including homemade desomorphine, there is no significant difference between groups and OST effectively supports to improve depression and anxiety indices, and dramatically decreases use of illegal psychotropic-narcotic drugs during treatment. However poly-drug users seems to be the most resistant to achieve stabilization and require more treatment time and targeted interventions.

  11. Goadsporin, a chemical substance which promotes secondary metabolism and morphogenesis in streptomycetes. I. Purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, H; Tabata, H; Igarashi, Y; Sato, Y; Furumai, T

    2001-12-01

    Streptomycetes, which belong to the Gram-positive bacteria, produce secondary metabolites and sporulate. The timing of starting the secondary metabolite production and the sporulation depends on environmental conditions such as nitrogen and carbon sources. In order to obtain a tool for understanding the regulation mechanism, we carried out screening for chemical substances that induce secondary metabolism and sporulation in streptomycetes and found an active substance from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. TP-A0584. This substance designated goadsporin promoted the formation of red pigment and sporulation at a concentration of 1 microM in Streptomyces lividans TK23 which does not produce the pigment under normal growth conditions. Goadsporin is an oligopeptide consisting of 19 amino acids with the molecular formula C72H97N19020S2. Sporulation and/or secondary metabolite production was induced in 36 streptomycetes strains among 42 strains tested. These results suggest that goadsporin acts on a common regulation pathway for sporulation and secondary metabolism in streptomycetes and can be a powerful tool to analyze the regulation mechanism.

  12. Passive samplers for chemical substance monitoring and associated toxicity assessment in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, N; Devier, M H; Soulier, C; Creusot, N; Le Menach, K; Aït-Aïssa, S; Vrana, B; Budzinski, H

    2011-01-01

    The European legislation, and in particular the Water Framework Directive requires the development of cost efficient monitoring tools that can provide the required information for the assessment of water contamination. Passive sampling methods represent one of the novel tools that have a potential to be used in various regulatory monitoring programmes aimed at assessing the levels of chemical pollutants. These methods are particularly interesting for sampling polar organic pollutants in water because they provide representative information of the water quality over extended time periods (days to weeks) in environments with fluctuating contaminant concentrations. This is achieved by integrative sampling of pollutants over the whole sampler deployment period. These tools can be coupled to toxicity testing using bioassays that give information on toxic and ecotoxic hazards associated to substances that are present, these substances being identified or not. In this study the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) was used in surface water to evaluate the water contamination by polar organic compounds and their potential toxicity.

  13. [Relation between oxygen uptake rate and biosorption of activated sludge against chemical substance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Yuichi; Inoue, Tatsuaki; Yokota, Katsushi

    2005-02-01

    In this study, the elucidation of the toxicity mechanism was undertaken regarding the IC(50) of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) with relevance to the biosorption as a toxicity evaluation of chemical substances for activated sludge (AS). At the IC(50) oflinear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS), alkyl ethoxy sulfonate (AES), alpha-olefine sulfonate (AOS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), formaldehyde (FA), benzalkonium chloride (BZaC), benzethonium chloride (BZeC), rhodamine 6G (R-6G) and fuchsine (Fuc) in which the IC(50) belonged to the 100-1000 mg/l group, when it was compared with CV and MG. In ethanol (EtOH), isopropanol (PrOH), nile blue (NB), evans blue (EB), methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), paraquat (PQ), chlorophyllin (Chl) and auramine (Aur), the IC(50) was large, and the biosorption of AS was weak at 0-15%. The biosorption of MG for AS followed the adsorption isotherm equation Y=0.002X(0.511) of Freundrich. The correlation coefficient was gamma=0.998 (n=8), and a very high correlation was obtained. In the qualitative OUR curve by AS pretreated with MG or CV which belonged to the IC(50) small group, the inhibition of remarkable OUR was observed. Therefore, the findings of the present investigation suggest that the inhibition of the OUR for AS by the tested chemical substances was markedly affected by the biosorption.

  14. The Influence of Linguistic Acculturation and Gender on the Initiation of Substance Use among Mexican Heritage Preadolescents in the Borderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Kulis, Stephen; Nieri, Tanya; Parsai, Monica; Becerra, David

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the impact of linguistic acculturation and gender on the substance use initiation of a sample of 1,473 Mexican heritage preadolescents attending 30 public schools in Phoenix, Arizona. It was hypothesized that linguistic acculturation operates differently as a risk or protective factor for young children than for older youth.…

  15. The Influence of Linguistic Acculturation and Gender on the Initiation of Substance Use among Mexican Heritage Preadolescents in the Borderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Kulis, Stephen; Nieri, Tanya; Parsai, Monica; Becerra, David

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the impact of linguistic acculturation and gender on the substance use initiation of a sample of 1,473 Mexican heritage preadolescents attending 30 public schools in Phoenix, Arizona. It was hypothesized that linguistic acculturation operates differently as a risk or protective factor for young children than for older youth.…

  16. What Is This Substance? What Makes It Different? Mapping Progression in Students' Assumptions about Chemical Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Courtney; Sevian, Hannah; Talanquer, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Given the diversity of materials in our surroundings, one should expect scientifically literate citizens to have a basic understanding of the core ideas and practices used to analyze chemical substances. In this article, we use the term 'chemical identity' to encapsulate the assumptions, knowledge, and practices upon which chemical…

  17. What Is This Substance? What Makes It Different? Mapping Progression in Students' Assumptions about Chemical Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Courtney; Sevian, Hannah; Talanquer, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Given the diversity of materials in our surroundings, one should expect scientifically literate citizens to have a basic understanding of the core ideas and practices used to analyze chemical substances. In this article, we use the term 'chemical identity' to encapsulate the assumptions, knowledge, and practices upon which chemical…

  18. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  19. Initial feasibility and validity of a prospective memory training program in a substance use treatment population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M; Rass, Olga; Johnson, Patrick S; Strain, Eric C; Berry, Meredith S; Vo, Hoa T; Fishman, Marc J; Munro, Cynthia A; Rebok, George W; Mintzer, Miriam Z; Johnson, Matthew W

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders have shown deficits in the ability to implement future intentions, called prospective memory. Deficits in prospective memory and working memory, a critical underlying component of prospective memory, likely contribute to substance use treatment failures. Thus, improvement of prospective memory and working memory in substance use patients is an innovative target for intervention. We sought to develop a feasible and valid prospective memory training program that incorporates working memory training and may serve as a useful adjunct to substance use disorder treatment. We administered a single session of the novel prospective memory and working memory training program to participants (n = 22; 13 men, 9 women) enrolled in outpatient substance use disorder treatment and correlated performance to existing measures of prospective memory and working memory. Generally accurate prospective memory performance in a single session suggests feasibility in a substance use treatment population. However, training difficulty should be increased to avoid ceiling effects across repeated sessions. Consistent with existing literature, we observed superior performance on event-based relative to time-based prospective memory tasks. Performance on the prospective memory and working memory training components correlated with validated assessments of prospective memory and working memory, respectively. Correlations between novel memory training program performance and established measures suggest that our training engages appropriate cognitive processes. Further, differential event- and time-based prospective memory task performance suggests internal validity of our training. These data support the development of this intervention as an adjunctive therapy for substance use disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment: implications of SAMHSA's SBIRT initiative for substance abuse policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Del Boca, Frances; Bray, Jeremy W

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the major findings and public health implications of a cross-site evaluation of a national Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) demonstration program funded by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Eleven multi-site programs in two cohorts of SAMHSA grant recipients were each funded for 5 years to promote the adoption and sustained implementation of SBIRT. The SBIRT cross-site evaluation used a multi-method evaluation design to provide comprehensive information on the processes, outcomes and costs of SBIRT as implemented in a variety of medical and community settings. SBIRT programs in the two evaluated SAMHSA cohorts screened more than 1 million patients/clients. SBIRT implementation was facilitated by committed leadership and the use of substance use specialists, rather than medical generalists, to deliver services. Although the quasi-experimental nature of the outcome evaluation does not permit causal inferences, pre-post differences were clinically meaningful and statistically significant for almost every measure of substance use. Greater intervention intensity was associated with larger decreases in substance use. Both brief intervention and brief treatment were associated with positive outcomes, but brief intervention was more cost-effective for most substances. Sixty-nine (67%) of the original performance sites adapted and redesigned SBIRT service delivery after initial grant funding ended. Four factors influenced SBIRT sustainability: presence of program champions, availability of funding, systemic change and effective management of SBIRT provider challenges. The US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) demonstration program was adapted successfully to the needs of early identification efforts for hazardous use of alcohol and illicit drugs. SBIRT is an innovative way to integrate the

  1. Antimycobacterial activity of chemically defined natural substances from the Caribbean flora in Guadeloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, N; Abaul, J; Goh, K S; Devallois, A; Philogène, E; Bourgeois, P

    1998-04-01

    Eight chemically defined, naturally occurring compounds were extracted from the tropical flora of the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe: pilocarpine, an alkaloid from Pilocarpus racemosus; heraclenol and isomeranzin, coumarins from Triphasia trifolia; lochnerin, an indole alkaloid from Rauwolfia biauriculata; ibogaine and voacangine, indole alkaloids from Tabernaemontana citrifolia; texalin, an oxazole from Amyris elemifera; and canellal, a sesquiterpene dialdehyde from Canella winterana. An essential oil fraction from Canella winterana was also tested. The antimycobacterial activity of these substances was tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium and M. kansasii using the Middlebrook 7H11 agar medium, the Bactec 460-TB radiometric methodology, and determination of bacterial viable counts. Three compounds, namely ibogaine, voacangine and texalin, showed antimycobacterial activity. Investigations on the structure-modification and structure-activity relationships of these compounds may help determine new targets for future drug development.

  2. Sperm motility-initiating substance in newt egg-jelly induces differential initiation of sperm motility based on sperm intracellular calcium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akihiko; Takayama-Watanabe, Eriko; Vines, Carol A; Cherr, Gary N

    2011-01-01

    Sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS), a novel motility inducer from newt egg-jelly, is activated by the release from associated jelly substances at the beginning of internal fertilization and affects female-stored sperm. We examined motility initiation kinetics of newt sperm in response to SMIS by monitoring the changes of sperm intracellular calcium ([Ca²(+)](i)). In quiescent non-motile sperm loaded with the Ca²(+) indicator Fluo-4, intracellular free Ca²(+) was observed around mitochondria using confocal scanning laser microscopy. A slight increase in [Ca²(+)](i) occurred simultaneously and transiently at motility initiation in sperm treated with either heated jelly extract (hJE) containing activated SMIS, or a low osmotic solution, which naturally initiates motility in externally-fertilizing amphibians and can initiate motility in urodele sperm. When the increase of [Ca²(+)](i) at motility-initiation was monitored using spectrofluorometry, large increases in [Ca²(+)](i) occurred immediately in the low osmotic solution and within 1.5 min in the hJE. In the intact jelly extract (no heating), small increases of [Ca²(+)](i) irregularly occurred from around 1 min and for about 4 min, during which motility was differentially initiated among sperm. These results indicate that the SMIS induces differential initiation of sperm motility depending on the activational states of the SMIS and its overall activity. The motility initiation in the jelly extract was delayed in sperm whose intracellular Ca²(+) had been chelated with BAPTA-AM. The relative levels of [Ca²(+)](i) were variable with a mean of 414 ± 256 nmol/L among resting sperm, suggesting that the level of [Ca²(+)](i) in the resting sperm modulates the responsiveness to the SMIS.

  3. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T P; Kooi, S E; Chang, S H; Sedransk, K L; Gleason, K K

    2007-02-01

    The vapor phase deposition of polymeric antimicrobial coatings is reported. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a solventless low-temperature process, is used to form thin films of polymers on fragile substrates. For this work, finished nylon fabric is coated by iCVD with no affect on the color or feel of the fabric. Infrared characterization confirms the polymer structure. Coatings of poly(dimethylaminomethyl styrene) of up to 540 microg/cm2 were deposited on the fabric. The antimicrobial properties were tested using standard method ASTM E2149-01. A coating of 40 microg/cm2 of fabric was found to be very effective against gram-negative Escherichia coli, with over a 99.99%, or 4 log, kill in just 2 min continuing to over a 99.9999%, or 6 log, reduction in viable bacteria in 60 min. A coating of 120 microg/cm2 was most effective against the gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. Further tests confirmed that the iCVD polymer did not leach off the fabric.

  4. An initial meta-analysis of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for treating substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eric B; An, Woolee; Levin, Michael E; Twohig, Michael P

    2015-10-01

    In the past decade, multiple studies have examined the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for substance use disorders relative to other active treatments. The current meta-analysis examined the aggregate effect size when comparing ACT to other treatments (e.g., CBT, pharmacotherapy, 12-step, treatment as usual) specifically on substance use outcomes. A total of 10 randomized controlled trials were identified through systematic searches. A significant small to medium effect size was found favoring ACT relative to active treatment comparisons following treatment. Effect sizes were comparable across studies for smoking cessation (k=5) and for other drug use disorders (k=5). Based on these findings, ACT appears to be a promising intervention for substance use disorders. Limitations and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Substances of very high concern and the transition to a circular economy : An initial inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar PNH; Janssen N; de Poorter LRM; Bodar CWM; VSP; MSP

    2017-01-01

    Reuse and recycling of products are key elements in a circular economy. This exploratory RIVM study shows that a great number of waste streams may contain various substances of very high concern (ZZS), which may hamper safe recycling options in the Netherlands. RIVM recommends an adequate risk

  6. Reasons for entering treatment reported by initially treatment-resistant patients with substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyers, Robert J.; Roozen, Hendrik G.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Evans, Brittany E.

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals with substance use disorders are resistant to entering formal treatment, despite the negative consequences that plague their own lives and the lives of concerned significant others (CSOs). Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) has been developed as an effective

  7. 75 FR 57169 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... substance will be as a pigment for plastics. Based on test data on analogous substances, EPA has concerns... effects of the PMN substance: A bacterial reverse mutation test (OPPTS Test Guideline 870.5100) with... foam applications. Based on EcoSAR analysis of test data on analogous aliphatic amines, EPA...

  8. Concentration of 'forgotten' substances using the XAD concentration method. Suitability of the method for hydrophilic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collombon MT; LER

    2007-01-01

    Concentration of forgotten substances using the XAD concentration method In the nineties, RIVM developed a method to concentrate toxic substances on XAD (a synthetic resin). Using bioassays, the toxicity can be determined in the concentrate. 'Modern' toxic substances tend to be more polar then 'clas

  9. Colour quantitation for chemical spot tests for a controlled substances presumptive test database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M; Weghorst, Alex C; Quinn, Alicia A; Acharya, Subrata

    2017-02-01

    Crime scene investigators (CSIs) often encounter unknown powders, capsules, tablets, and liquids at crime scenes, many of which are controlled substances. Because most drugs are white powders, however, visual determination of the chemical identity is difficult. Colourimetric tests are a well-established method of presumptive drug identification. Positive tests are often reported differently, however, because two analysts may perceive colour or record colourimetric results in different ways. In addition to perceiving colour differently, it is very common for there to be poor visibility conditions (e.g. rain, darkness) while performing these tests, further obscuring the results. In order to address these concerns and to create uniformity in the reporting of on-site colourimetric test results, this study has evaluated two of the state-of-the-art apps (ColorAssist® and Colorimeter®) for reporting the colour test results quantitatively in red-green-blue (RGB) format. The compiled library database of presumptive test results contains over 3300 data points including over 800 unique drug/test combinations. Variations observed between test replicates, from performing a test on different days, recording with a different device type (e.g. iPod Touch, iPhone models 4, 5c, 5s, or 6), and using different quantities of drug are discussed. Overall, the least variation in Euclidian norm was observed using ColorAssist® with the camera light (25.1±22.1) while the variation between replicates and data recorded using different devices was similar. The resulting library is uploaded to a smartphone application aimed to aid in identifying and interpreting suspected controlled substance evidence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Solutions of the chemical kinetic equations for initially inhomogeneous mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilst, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Following the recent discussions by O'Brien (1971) and Donaldson and Hilst (1972) of the effects of inhomogeneous mixing and turbulent diffusion on simple chemical reaction rates, the present report provides a more extensive analysis of when inhomogeneous mixing has a significant effect on chemical reaction rates. The analysis is then extended to the development of an approximate chemical sub-model which provides much improved predictions of chemical reaction rates over a wide range of inhomogeneities and pathological distributions of the concentrations of the reacting chemical species. In particular, the development of an approximate representation of the third-order correlations of the joint concentration fluctuations permits closure of the chemical sub-model at the level of the second-order moments of these fluctuations and the mean concentrations.

  11. THE ANTIGENIC COMPLEX OF STREPTOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS : III. CHEMICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SPECIES-SPECIFIC SUBSTANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancefield, R C

    1928-02-29

    1. The chemical and immunological characteristics of the species-specific substance (C) of Streptococcus haemolyticus are considered. (a) It seems to be a carbohydrate because considerably purified preparations of C resisted prolonged tryptic and peptic digestion and were negative for the ordinary protein color tests but gave positive Molisch reactions to the limit of the precipitin titer. One such "purified" lot, however, had 4.2 per cent nitrogen and only 28 per cent reducing sugars on hydrolysis. Whether the nitrogen was due to impurities or was combined in the C substance itself, as is true of the Type I pneumococcus specific polysaccharide, cannot be stated without more material. (b) The C substance forms precipitates with antibacterial sera prepared against heterologous, as well as against homologous hemolytic streptococci. These precipitates are typical discs like those formed by type-specific carbohydrates of other species of bacteria. C does not precipitate antinucleoprotein sera. (c) While there is only slight direct evidence that the C substance is not antigenic, there is considerable indirect proof that this is the case. It probably is a haptene in the sense of Landsteiner. 2. A discussion is included of the chemical and immunological relationships of all the serologically active substances so far identified in extracts of the hemolytic streptococcus.

  12. Assessing the potential hazard of chemical substances for the terrestrial environment. Development of hazard classification criteria and quantitative environmental indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, J V; Fresno, A; Aycard, S; Ramos, C; Vega, M M; Carbonell, G

    2000-03-20

    Hazard assessment constitutes an essential tool in order to evaluate the potential effects of chemical substances on organisms and ecosystems. It includes as a first step, hazard identification, which must detect the potential dangers of the substance (i.e. the kind of effects that the substance may produce), and a second step to quantify each danger and to set the expected dose/response relationships. Hazard assessment plays a key role in the regulation of chemical substances, including pollution control and sustainable development. However, the aquatic environment has largely received more attention than terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents the extrapolation of several basic concepts from the aquatic to the terrestrial compartment, and suggests possibilities for their regulatory use. Two specific proposals are discussed. The first focuses on the scientific basis of the hazard identification-classification criteria included in the EU regulations and their extrapolation to the terrestrial environment. The second focuses on the OECD programme for environmental indicators and the development of a soil pollution pressure indicator to quantify the potential hazards for the soil compartment and its associated terrestrial ecosystem related to the toxic chemicals applied deliberately (i.e. pesticides) or not (i.e. heavy metals in sludge-based fertilisers; industrial spills) to the soil.

  13. Comparison of some chemical and physico-chemical properties of natural and model sodium humates and of the biological activity of both substances in tomato water cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gumiński

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural humate from compost and the model sunstance obtained from p-benzoquinone were dissolved in an acetone-water mixture and subjected to chromatography on a column of aluminium oxide. Similar fractions were obtained which were chemically and spectrophotometrically investigated for the content of functional groups. The particle size of these substances was determined by filtration on Sephadex molecular sieves. Experiments were performed with tomato in water cultures on stagnant nutrient solution. The biological activity of the corresponding fractions of natural and model humates was found to be analogous. The results are discussed and confronted with functional groups content and particle size of the respective substances.

  14. Fathers for Change for Substance Use and Intimate Partner Violence: Initial Community Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Carla Smith

    2015-12-01

    The lack of focus on the role of men as fathers within intervention programs for men with histories of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) or substance abuse is of significant concern given the large numbers of these men who are actively parenting and coparenting children. Fathers for Change is a new intervention designed to fill this gap. Eighteen fathers with co-occurring IPV and substance abuse were randomly assigned to Fathers for Change or Individual Drug Counseling (IDC). They were assessed at baseline, post-intervention and 3 months following the 16-week intervention period. Men in the Fathers for Change group: (1) were more likely to complete treatment; (2) reported significantly greater satisfaction with the program; (3) reported a trend toward less IPV; and (4) exhibited significantly less intrusiveness in coded play interactions with their children following treatment than fathers in the IDC group. Results indicate further evaluation of this intervention in a larger sample is warranted. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  15. Initial Development and Psychometric Properties of a New Measure of Substance Use Disorder "Recovery Progression": The Recovery Progression Measure (RPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elison, Sarah; Davies, Glyn; Ward, Jonathan

    2016-07-28

    There is a growing literature around substance use disorder treatment outcomes measures. Various constructs have been suggested as being appropriate for measuring recovery outcomes, including "recovery capital" and "treatment progression." However, these previously proposed constructs do not measure changes in psychosocial functioning during the recovery process. Therefore, a new psychometric assessment, the "Recovery Progression Measure" (RPM), has been developed to measure this recovery oriented psychosocial change. The aims of this study were to evaluate the reliability and factor structure of the RPM via data collected from 2218 service users being treated for their substance dependence. Data were collected from service users accessing the Breaking Free Online (BFO) substance use disorder treatment and recovery program, which has within its baseline assessment a 36-item psychometric measure previously developed by the authors to assess the six areas of functioning described in the RPM. Reliability analyses and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were conducted to examine the underlying factor structure of the RPM measure. Internal reliability of the RPM measure was found to be excellent (α > .70) with the overall assessment to have reliability α = .89, with item-total correlations revealing moderate-excellent reliability of individual items. EFA revealed the RPM to contain an underlying factor structure of eight components. This study provides initial data to support the reliability of the RPM as a recovery measure. Further work is now underway to extend these findings, including convergent and predictive validity analyses.

  16. Characteristics of U.S. substance abuse treatment facilities adopting buprenorphine in its initial stage of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alison L; Arfken, Cynthia L; Schuster, Charles R

    2006-07-27

    This study examined the adoption of buprenorphine for the treatment of opiate dependence among U.S. substance abuse treatment facilities and their characteristics at the time of the initial availability of the medication. Data come from a 2003 national survey of all substance abuse treatment facilities in the U.S. Out of our sample of 13,060 facilities, 5.5% of facilities reported they offered buprenorphine. Not unexpectedly, the prevalence was higher in certified opioid treatment programs (11.3%) compared to other facilities (4.6%). For opioid treatment programs, offering Naltrexone (OR=8.34, 95% CI=5.53, 12.58) and offering medically supervised withdrawal (OR=2.76, 95% CI=1.38, 5.52) were independent and robust predictors of offering buprenorphine. These same variables were independent predictors for the non-opioid treatment programs as well (Naltrexone, OR=14.32, 95% CI=7.85, 26.10; and medically supervised withdrawal services, OR=4.42, 95% CI=3.01, 6.49). Our results suggest that the adoption of buprenorphine soon after the Food and Drug Administration approved its use for treatment of opioid dependence and the shipping of the medication commenced was associated with facilities already offering pharmacotherapies such as Naltrexone and medically assisted withdrawal. These findings provide baseline data to track the adoption of buprenorphine by substance abuse treatment programs in future years.

  17. Sperm motility initiation by egg jelly of the anuran, Discoglossus pictus may be mediated by sperm motility-initiating substance of the internally-fertilizing newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama-Watanabe, Eriko; Campanella, Chiara; Kubo, Hideo; Watanabe, Akihiko

    2012-11-01

    The egg jelly of Discoglossus pictus contains sperm motility-activating activity, the molecular basis of which has not been studied. Discoglossus pictus sperm initiated motility immediately after immersion in egg-jelly extract, as well as after immersion in hyposmotic solution, which initiates sperm motility in the external fertilization of anuran amphibians. Sequential treatment of the D. pictus sperm with these two solutions revealed the predominant effect of hyposmolality in initiation of motility. The motility initiation induced by jelly extract was suppressed by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that is specific for the 34 kDa sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS) in the egg jelly of the newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Immunoblotting using the anti-SMIS mAb revealed several antigenic proteins that included major ones with sizes of 18- and 34-kDa in D. pictus jelly extract. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that granules of jelly matrix, in which SMIS localizes and which have a critical role in the internal fertilization of C. pyrrhogaster, were not observed near the surface of the D. pictus egg jelly. These results suggest that sperm motility-activating activity in egg jelly of D. pictus may be mediated by SMIS homologous proteins that act through a mechanism that is partially different from that of C. pyrrhogaster.

  18. Forskolin and the meiosis inducing substance synergistically initiate meiosis in fetal male germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, A G; Fenger, M; Westergaard, L

    1993-01-01

    We have shown that Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) and forskolin synergistically and dose dependently induce meiosis in germ cells of cultured fetal mouse testes. We used a bioassay which consists of fetal mouse testes and ovaries cultured for 6 days. In this study MIS media are spent culture...... are fixed, squashed, and DNA-stained. In these preparations germ cells and somatic cells can be distinguished, and the number of germ cells in the different stages of meiosis is counted as is the number of somatic cells in mitosis. MIS activity is defined to be present in a medium when meiosis is induced...... in male germ cells during culture. We found that MIS media as well as forskolin induced meiosis in fetal male germ cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MIS media and forskolin acted synergistically by inducing meiosis. Female germ cells seem to be unaffected by the various culture media...

  19. Variation in sensitivity of aquatic species to toxicants: Practical consequences for effect assessment of chemical substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaal, M.A.; Van Leeuwen, C.J.; Hoekstra, J.A.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2000-04-01

    This study addresses the relation between the sensitivity of aquatic species and mode of action of different classes or organic chemicals. The authors analyzed large data sets of ecotoxicological information to reveal the interspecies variation in sensitivity, to relate this variation to the compounds' mode of action, and to explain the observed patterns using general biological information. Here the authors present a general framework and recommendations for risk assessment procedures. The authors recommend the use of toxicologically based classification schemes at an early stage of the risk assessment procedure. Screening programs are most efficiently run when only one species per compound is tested to prioritize substances. The toxicity of compounds belonging to the class of nonpolar narcotics is highly predictable and shows little interspecies variation. For these compounds quantitative structure-activity relationships (WSARs) can be used to estimate effect levels. Most effort should be put into testing reactive compounds and compounds with a specific mode of action as toxicity to some species can be 10{sup 5}--10{sup 6} times higher compared with less sensitive species. The use of assessment factors in effect assessment procedures may lead to an underestimation of effects on the more sensitive species. For many priority pollutants there is little information on their ecotoxicity. Predictive techniques are needed to compensate for this lack of data. Knowledge of the relation between modes of action of compounds and interspecies variation in sensitivity should be integrated in risk assessment procedures in order to make more efficient use of the limited financial resources available.

  20. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5.

  1. Development of a new QSPR based tool to predict explosibility properties of chemical substances within the framework of REACH and GHS

    OpenAIRE

    Fayet, Guillaume; ROTUREAU, Patricia; Joubert, Laurent; Adamo, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The new European régulation of Chemicals named REACH (for "Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals") turned out in the practical registration phase in December 2008. It requires the new assessment of hazard properties for up to 140000 substances. In this context, the development of alternative prédictive methods for assessing hazardous properties of chemical substances is promoted in REACH and in the related new European classification System of substan...

  2. Initial assessment of the hazards and risks of new chemicals for man and the environment. Part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire TG; van Iersel AAJ; de Leeuw FAAM; Peijnenburg WJGM; van der Poel P; Taalman RDFM; Toet C

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the initial hazard and risk assessment process for new substances at the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in the Netherlands. This assessment pertains to both man and the environment and is performed within the framework of the European C

  3. Extraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from anaerobic granular sludges: comparison of chemical and physical extraction protocols

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted with nine different extraction protocols from four different types of anaerobic granular sludge were studied. The efficiency of four physical (sonication, heating, cationic exchange resin (CER), and CER associated with sonication) and four chemical (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ethanol, formaldehyde combined with heating, or NaOH) EPS extraction methods was compared to a control extraction protocols (i.e., centr...

  4. Initiating nuclear-chemical transformations in native systems: Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timashev, S. F.

    2016-10-01

    A possible mechanism of nuclear transformations in biological systems in vivo is proposed. Reasons why there is no ionizing radiation that could be detrimental to native systems during the corresponding nuclear reactions are given. It is established that the initial stage of these processes is associated with that of ATP hydrolysis, which initiates the action of the inner-shell electron of an atom participating in the reaction on its nucleus according to the mechanism of weak nuclear interaction. This results in the formation of a nucleus in a metastable state with a disturbed nucleon structure and a charge one unit lower than that of the initial nucleus. It is also assumed that the atom participating in the reaction is adsorbed near the mouth of one of the transport ATPases in the cell's cytoplasmic membrane, and the reason for the initiating impact the electron has on the nucleus is due to the emergence of a local electric field formed during ATP hydrolysis near the ion channel of a donor-acceptor pair of charges that is opposite to the direction of the average membrane field. It is concluded that as a result of the key role of weak nuclear interaction in these processes, the energy of nuclear transformations in biological systems in vivo is released through the emission of neutrino-antineutrino pairs that are harmless to living organisms.

  5. 78 FR 27048 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... identification, pass through a metal detector, and sign the EPA visitor log. All visitor bags are processed...) use of the substance is as a component in drilling fluid. Based on EcoSAR analysis of test data...

  6. 77 FR 48858 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... (non-confidential) use of the substance will be as a surfactant additive for dispersive use in fire fighting foams and vapor suppressing foams. In addition, EPA has concerns for the formation of...

  7. 75 FR 29429 - Revocation of Significant New Use Rule on a Certain Chemical Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... identification, pass through a metal detector, and sign the EPA visitor log. All visitor bags are processed... testing, EPA has determined that the substance is readily biodegradable, mitigating concerns for...

  8. Physico-chemical characterization of secondary organic aerosol derived from catechol and guaiacol as a model substance for atmospheric humic-like substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ofner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol was produced from the aromatic precursors catechol and guaiacol by reaction with ozone in the presence and absence of simulated sunlight and humidity and investigated for its properties as a proxy for humic-like substances (HULIS. Beside a small particle size, a relatively low molecular weight and typical optical features in the UV/VIS spectral range, HULIS contain a typical aromatic and/or olefinic chemical structure and highly oxidized functional groups within a high chemical diversity. Various methods were used to characterize the secondary organic aerosols obtained: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR demonstrated the formation of different carbonyl containing functional groups as well as structural and functional differences between aerosols formed at different environmental conditions. UV/VIS spectroscopy of filter samples showed that the particulate matter absorbs far into the visible range up to more than 500 nm. Ultrahigh resolved mass spectroscopy (ICR-FT/MS determined O/C-ratios between 0.3 and 1 and main molecular weights between 200 and 500 Da. Temperature-programmed-pyrolysis mass spectroscopy identified carboxylic acids and lactones as major functional groups. Particle sizing using CNC-DMPS demonstrated the formation of small particles during a secondary organic aerosol formation process. Particle imaging using field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM showed spherical particles, forming clusters and chains. Hence, secondary organic aerosols from catechol and guaiacol are appropriate model substances for studies of the processing of aromatic secondary organic aerosols and atmospheric HULIS on the laboratory scale.

  9. Readiness to adopt a performance measurement system for substance abuse treatment: Findings from the Service Quality Measures initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Myers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. A performance measurement system – the Service Quality Measures (SQM initiative – has been developed to monitor the quality of South Africa (SA’s substance abuse treatment services. Identifying factors associated with readiness to adopt this system may inform strategies to facilitate its robust implementation. Objective. To examine factors associated with readiness to adopt a performance measurement system among SA substance abuse treatment providers. Methods. We surveyed 81 treatment providers from 13 treatment sites in the Western Cape, SA. The survey examined awareness, resources, organisational climate, leadership support and readiness to adopt the SQM system. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with readiness to adopt this system. Results. Readiness to adopt the SQM initiative was high (M=5.64, standard deviation 1.63. In bivariate analyses, caseload size (F=3.73 (degrees of freedom (df=3.70, p=0.015, awareness (r=0.78, p<0.0001, leadership support (r=0.70, p<0.0001, resources (r=0.65, p<0.0001, openness to change (r=0.372, p=0.001, and external pressure to change were associated with readiness to adopt the SQM. In multivariate analyses, only awareness of the SQM initiative (B=0.34, standard error (SE 0.08, t=4.4, p<0.0001 and leadership support (B=0.45, SE 0.11, t=4.0, p<0.0001 were significantly associated with readiness to adopt this system. Conclusion. While treatment providers report high levels of readiness to adopt the SQM system, findings show that the likelihood of adoption can be further increased through improved provider awareness and enhanced leadership support for this health innovation.

  10. Analysis of determination modalities concerning the exposure and emission limits values of chemical and radioactive substances; Analyse des modalites de fixation des valeurs limites d'exposition et d'emission pour les substances chimiques et radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T

    2002-08-01

    This document presents the generic approach adopted by various organizations for the determination of the public exposure limits values to chemical and radioactive substances and for the determination of limits values of chemical products emissions by some installations. (A.L.B.)

  11. 40 CFR 720.25 - Determining whether a chemical substance is on the Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... portion of the Inventory by a specific chemical name (either a Chemical Abstracts (CA) Index Name or a CA Preferred Name) and a Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number if its identity is not confidential... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determining whether a chemical...

  12. Evaluating the implementation of nurse-initiated HIV rapid testing in three Veterans Health Administration substance use disorder clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, E E; Hagedorn, H J; Butler, J N; Felmet, K; Hoang, T; Wilson, P; Klima, G; Sudzina, E; Anaya, H D

    2012-11-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) are at higher risk of HIV infection, yet recent studies show rates of HIV testing are low among this population. We implemented and evaluated a nurse-initiated HIV oral rapid testing (NRT) strategy at three Veterans Health Administration SUD clinics. Implementation of NRT includes streamlined nurse training and a computerized clinical reminder. The evaluation employed qualitative interviews with staff and a quantitative evaluation of HIV testing rates. Barriers to testing included lack of laboratory support and SUD nursing resistance to performing medical procedures. Facilitators included the ease of NRT integration into workflow, engaged management and an existing culture of disease prevention. Six-months post intervention, rapid testing rates at SUD clinics in sites 1, 2, and 3 were 5.0%, 1.1% and 24.0%, respectively. Findings indicate that NRT can be successfully incorporated into some types of SUD subclinics with minimal perceived impact on workflow and time.

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of SOA derived from catechol and guaiacol - a model substance for the aromatic fraction of atmospheric HULIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. Ofner; H.-U. Krüger; H. Grothe; P. Schmitt-Kopplin; K. Whitmore; C. Zetzsch

    2011-01-01

    ... for HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS). Beside a small particle size, a relatively low molecular weight and typical optical features in the UV/VIS spectral range, HULIS contain a typical aromatic and/or olefinic chemical structure...

  14. Transport of Substances on Different Stages of Processes Initiated by Free Fallen Drop Impact on Surface of Quiescent Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinykh, A. Yu.

    2012-04-01

    Collision of a free fallen drop with a surface of quiescent layer of water initiates a sequence of processes including initial shock, formation of cavern and crown with a chevron edge emitted small water drops, wide central trough surrounding by a train of running surface circular capillary waves, splash, secondary cavern collapsing with a streamer discharge and gradual decal of all disturbances. Fine structure of the drop splashes and transport of substances carrying by the drop inside accepting target fluid are studied by methods of direct registering of flow images by fast video- and photo cameras. Different directions of observations were realized that are side, top and bottom view of flow patterns. Flow patterns produced by clean and coloured water, alcohol (changing the surface tension) and oil drops were investigated. Attention was concentrated on small scale processes dynamics studying which produce fast variations of water surface shapes with sharp local irregularities. Shapes and textures of craters and surrounding rim surfaces as well as coloured filaments of a drop substance inside the fluid body were registered and analyzed. Two groups of flows with relatively large scales defined by the drop diameter and very fine scales were identified. It is supposed that short living and fast changing flow components are result of strong short-acting forces impact. Their manifestations depend on surface tension on the boundaries fluid-fluid and fluid-air. Effects of surface tension gradients on the drop dye propagation pattern are also demonstrated and discussed. Experiments were performed on set-up USU "HPC IPMec RAS" under support of Ministry of Education and Science RF (Goscontract No. 16.518.11.7059).

  15. "New drug" designations for new therapeutic entities: new active substance, new chemical entity, new biological entity, new molecular entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Sarah K; Agranat, Israel

    2014-11-13

    This Perspective addresses ambiguities in designations of "new drugs" intended as new therapeutic entities (NTEs). Designation of an NTE as a new drug is significant, as it may confer regulatory exclusivity, an important incentive for development of novel compounds. Such designations differ between jurisdictions according to their drug laws and drug regulations. Chemical, biological, and innovative drugs are addressed in turn. The terms new chemical entity (NCE), new molecular entity (NME), new active substance (NAS), and new biological entity (NBE) as applied in worldwide jurisdictions are clarified. Differences between them are explored through case studies showing why new drugs have different periods of exclusivity in different jurisdictions or none at all. Finally, this Perspective recommends that in future, for the purpose of new drug compilations, NME is used for a new chemical drug, NBE for a new biological drug, and the combined designation NTE should refer to either an NME or an NBE.

  16. 77 FR 58665 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... states that the generic (non-confidential) use of the substances will be as pigment dispersants. Based on... consumer products, or any use involving an application method that generates a vapor, mist, or spray may... test (OECD Test Guideline 422); a bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD Test Guideline 471); an...

  17. 78 FR 39340 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 126 (Monday, July 1, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 39340] [FR Doc No: 2013-15604] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances..., Office of Diversion Control, Drug Enforcement Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-15604 Filed 6-28-13; 8:45...

  18. 78 FR 38210 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... equipment rather than following the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls where personal protective... health and environmental effects and risks. Moreover there were no CBI claims for health and safety data in the health and safety studies for the substances subject to the proposed SNUR. Comment 7: The...

  19. 77 FR 20296 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... polyurethane foam catalyst. Based on test data on the PMN substance, EPA identified concerns for dermal...) analysis of test data on analogous aliphatic amines and phenol-amines, EPA predicts toxicity to aquatic... of test data on analogous aliphatic amines and phenol-amines, EPA predicts toxicity to...

  20. 77 FR 15234 - Controlled Substances and List I Chemical Registration and Reregistration Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... overall strengths and weaknesses in recovering the full costs of the DCP. Based on the analysis provided... control of the manufacture, distribution, dispensing, importation, and exportation of controlled... Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (CSIEA) (21 U.S.C. 801-971), as amended (hereinafter,...

  1. 77 FR 24985 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; ISP Freetown Fine Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... and testing of the company's physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore, pursuant to 21 U... Phenylacetone (8501), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The company plans to import...

  2. 77 FR 64142 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, ISP Freetown Fine Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... the company's physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore, pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 952(a) and... (8501), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The company plans to import the...

  3. Effect of chemical reactivity on the detonation initiation in shock accelerated flow in a confined space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Jin Zhu; Gang Dong; Yi-Xin Liu; Bao-Chun Fan; Hua Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The interactions of a spherical flame with an incident shock wave and its reflected shock wave in a confined space were investigated using the three-dimensional reactive Navier-Stokes equations,with emphasis placed on the effect of chemical reactivity of mixture on the flame distortion and detonation initiation after the passage of the reflected shock wave.It is shown that the spatio-temporal characteristics of detonation initiation depend highly on the chemical reactivity of the mixture.When the chemical reactivity enhances,the flame can be severely distorted to form a reactive shock bifurcation structure with detonations initiating at different three-dimensional spatial locations.Moreover,the detonation initiation would occur earlier in a mixture of more enhanced reactivity.The results reveal that the detonations arise from hot spots in the unburned region which are initiated by the shock-detonation-transition mechanism.

  4. [Initiation and consumption of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults in an Anti-Drug Psychosocial Care Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carolina Carvalho; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Carvalho, Rosely Cabral; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Cruz, Nilma Lázara de Almeida; da Silva, Mariana Rocha

    2014-03-01

    The study seeks to characterize the initiation and consumption pattern of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults enrolled in an Alcohol and Drug Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS-AD). This study was conducted with records of attendance and the consumption pattern was classified in accordance with WHO: infrequent use (lifetime use, per year or up to five days per month); frequent use (6 to 19 times in the past 30 days); heavy use (≥ 20 times in the last 30 days). In the age group comparison, the test for proportion and association analysis was used and the prevalence and prevalence ratio was calculated with a significance level of 5% and 95% confidence interval. Of the total of adolescents and young adults treated between 2003 and 2008 (475), most were male, single, poorly educated, live with relations and have psychic symptoms. Statistical significance was found for age at initiation of use: adolescents compared to young adults started earlier (≤ 14 years): tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, crack and other SPA consumption. Among adolescents, significant results were found for the less frequent consumption of tobacco, more frequent use of alcohol, and heavy consumption of marijuana. These findings may contribute to the preventive and therapeutic CAPS-AD programs.

  5. History of EPI Suite™ and future perspectives on chemical property estimation in US Toxic Substances Control Act new chemical risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Marcella L; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Lee, Wen-Hsiung; Lynch, David G; Orentas, Nerija S; Lee, Mari Titcombe; Wong, Edmund M; Boethling, Robert S

    2017-03-22

    Chemical property estimation is a key component in many industrial, academic, and regulatory activities, including in the risk assessment associated with the approximately 1000 new chemical pre-manufacture notices the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) receives annually. The US EPA evaluates fate, exposure and toxicity under the 1976 Toxic Substances Control Act (amended by the 2016 Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21(st) Century Act), which does not require test data with new chemical applications. Though the submission of data is not required, the US EPA has, over the past 40 years, occasionally received chemical-specific data with pre-manufacture notices. The US EPA has been actively using this and publicly available data to develop and refine predictive computerized models, most of which are housed in EPI Suite™, to estimate chemical properties used in the risk assessment of new chemicals. The US EPA develops and uses models based on (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ([Q]SARs) to estimate critical parameters. As in any evolving field, (Q)SARs have experienced successes, suffered failures, and responded to emerging trends. Correlations of a chemical structure with its properties or biological activity were first demonstrated in the late 19(th) century and today have been encapsulated in a myriad of quantitative and qualitative SARs. The development and proliferation of the personal computer in the late 20(th) century gave rise to a quickly increasing number of property estimation models, and continually improved computing power and connectivity among researchers via the internet are enabling the development of increasingly complex models.

  6. 78 FR 4446 - Exempt Chemical Preparations Under the Controlled Substances Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ...). American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc... 1,1-Dimethyltryptamine (1 mg/ Vial: 1 mL 12/22/2011 mL). American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc... 1,1-Dimethyltryptamine Vial: 1 mL 12/22/2011 -3H] as TFA salt. American...

  7. Adapting SimpleTreat for simulating behaviour of chemical substances during industrial sewage treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, J.; van de Meent, D.; Schowanek, D.; Buchholz, H.; Patoux, R.; Wolf, T.; Austin, T.; Tolls, J.; van Leeuwen, K.; Galay-Burgos, M.

    2016-01-01

    The multimedia model SimpleTreat, evaluates the distribution and elimination of chemicals by municipal sewage treatment plants (STP). It is applied in the framework of REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals). This article describes an adaptation of this model for

  8. Early Substance Use Initiation and Suicide Ideation and Attempts among School-Aged Adolescents in Four Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa. The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  9. A chemical risk ranking and scoring method for the selection of harmful substances to be specially controlled in occupational environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Saemi; Moon, Hyung-Il; Lee, Kwon Seob; Hong, Mun Ki; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2014-11-20

    This study aimed to devise a method for prioritizing hazardous chemicals for further regulatory action. To accomplish this objective, we chose appropriate indicators and algorithms. Nine indicators from the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals were used to identify categories to which the authors assigned numerical scores. Exposure indicators included handling volume, distribution, and exposure level. To test the method devised by this study, sixty-two harmful substances controlled by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in Korea, including acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and styrene were ranked using this proposed method. The correlation coefficients between total score and each indicator ranged from 0.160 to 0.641, and those between total score and hazard indicators ranged from 0.603 to 0.641. The latter were higher than the correlation coefficients between total score and exposure indicators, which ranged from 0.160 to 0.421. Correlations between individual indicators were low (-0.240 to 0.376), except for those between handling volume and distribution (0.613), suggesting that each indicator was not strongly correlated. The low correlations between each indicator mean that the indicators and independent and were well chosen for prioritizing harmful chemicals. This method proposed by this study can improve the cost efficiency of chemical management as utilized in occupational regulatory systems.

  10. A Chemical Risk Ranking and Scoring Method for the Selection of Harmful Substances to be Specially Controlled in Occupational Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saemi Shin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to devise a method for prioritizing hazardous chemicals for further regulatory action. To accomplish this objective, we chose appropriate indicators and algorithms. Nine indicators from the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals were used to identify categories to which the authors assigned numerical scores. Exposure indicators included handling volume, distribution, and exposure level. To test the method devised by this study, sixty-two harmful substances controlled by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in Korea, including acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and styrene were ranked using this proposed method. The correlation coefficients between total score and each indicator ranged from 0.160 to 0.641, and those between total score and hazard indicators ranged from 0.603 to 0.641. The latter were higher than the correlation coefficients between total score and exposure indicators, which ranged from 0.160 to 0.421. Correlations between individual indicators were low (−0.240 to 0.376, except for those between handling volume and distribution (0.613, suggesting that each indicator was not strongly correlated. The low correlations between each indicator mean that the indicators and independent and were well chosen for prioritizing harmful chemicals. This method proposed by this study can improve the cost efficiency of chemical management as utilized in occupational regulatory systems.

  11. 77 FR 48924 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... complete version of the comment that includes information claimed as CBI, a copy of the comment that does... cleaners, floor polishes, inks, photographic film, denture cleaners, shampoos, chemical intermediates...

  12. 76 FR 38170 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...: Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. Fifteenth Ed. Richard J. Lewis, Sr. published by John Wiley... Standardization/Final Draft International Standard; OECD--Organisation for Economic Co- operation and Development...

  13. [A survey of utilization of and problems with the MSDS in chemical substances management at workplaces in Kanagawa Prefecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshi, Kimiko; Mouri, Tetuo; Sugimori, Hiroki; Numano, Takashi; Ashida, Toshifumi; Hiro, Hisanori; Miyake, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Michiko; Ishiwata, Kouichi

    2002-09-01

    Kanagawa Occupational Health Promotion Center conducted a survey on how the MSDS is utilized at workplaces with more than 50 employees handling chemical substances, and what measures are taken to help employees to thoroughly understand information in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Questionnaires were sent out to 265 enterprises in Kanagawa prefecture, putting questions to industrial physicians and industrial hygiene supervisors. The objective of the survey was to find out how MSDS is adopted in the system to manage occupational health, what improvements the survey respondents want in MSDS and what expectations the respondents have of our center. 193 enterprises (72.8%) returned answers to the questionnaire. The major findings are as follows. (1) In many companies, information on hazardous/toxic materials is "controlled by a division using such materials", and roughly half of the companies have compiled a common list shared throughout the company. (2) For the most part suppliers submit to the MSDS. Larger companies have a higher rate of posting up or filing the MSDS at their workplaces. Only 25.8% of the companies "rewrite the MSDS so that workers can understand it." (3) Companies that carry out a hazard/toxicity assessment before introducing a new chemical substance account for 72.1%, which is higher than we expected. It indicates that even though the companies don't manage the MSDS adequately, they are highly concerned about hazard control of chemical substances. (4) The rate of answering that "the current MSDS is not easy to understand" is higher among large-sized enterprises and lower among enterprises with fewer than 300 employees. (5) Asked what improvement needs to be made on the MSDS, the industrial physicians and industrial hygiene supervisors gave same answers such as "Workers find the terminology difficult to understand." and "Levels of toxicity can't be clearly identified." (6) The respondents expect our center to provide information for the MSDS

  14. CRIM-TRACK: sensor system for detection of criminal chemical substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Jens K.; Buus, Ole T.; Larsen, Jan; Dossi, Eleftheria; Tatlow, Sol; Lässig, Lina; Sandström, Lars; Jakobsen, Mogens H.

    2015-10-01

    Detection of illegal compounds requires a reliable, selective and sensitive detection device. The successful device features automated target acquisition, identification and signal processing. It is portable, fast, user friendly, sensitive, specific, and cost efficient. LEAs are in need of such technology. CRIM-TRACK is developing a sensing device based on these requirements. We engage highly skilled specialists from research institutions, industry, SMEs and LEAs and rely on a team of end users to benefit maximally from our prototypes. Currently we can detect minute quantities of drugs, explosives and precursors thereof in laboratory settings. Using colorimetric technology we have developed prototypes that employ disposable sensing chips. Ease of operation and intuitive sensor response are highly prioritized features that we implement as we gather data to feed into machine learning. With machine learning our ability to detect threat compounds amidst harmless substances improves. Different end users prefer their equipment optimized for their specific field. In an explosives-detecting scenario, the end user may prefer false positives over false negatives, while the opposite may be true in a drug-detecting scenario. Such decisions will be programmed to match user preference. Sensor output can be as detailed as the sensor allows. The user can be informed of the statistics behind the detection, identities of all detected substances, and quantities thereof. The response can also be simplified to "yes" vs. "no". The technology under development in CRIM-TRACK will provide custom officers, police and other authorities with an effective tool to control trafficking of illegal drugs and drug precursors.

  15. Vitellogenin synthesis in primary cultures of fish liver cells as endpoint for in vitro screening of the (anti)estrogenic activity of chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, José M; Segner, Helmut

    2006-10-25

    Concern over possible adverse effects of endocrine-disrupting compounds on fish has caused the development of appropriate testing methods. In vitro screening assays may provide initial information on endocrine activities of a test compound and thereby may direct and optimize subsequent testing. Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) is used as a biomarker of exposure of fish to estrogen-active substances. Since VTG induction can be measured not only in vivo but also in fish hepatocytes in vitro, the use of VTG induction response in isolated fish liver cells has been suggested as in vitro screen for identifying estrogenic-active substances. The main advantages of the hepatocyte VTG assay are considered its ability to detect effects of estrogenic metabolites, since hepatocytes in vitro remain metabolically competent, and its ability to detect both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects. In this article, we critically review the current knowledge on the VTG response of cultured fish hepatocytes to (anti)estrogenic substances. In particular, we discuss the sensitivity, specificity, and variability of the VTG hepatocyte assay. In addition, we review the available data on culture factors influencing basal and induced VTG production, the response to natural and synthetic estrogens as well as to xenoestrogens, the detection of indirect estrogens, and the sources of assay variability. The VTG induction in cultured fish hepatocytes is clearly influenced by culture conditions (medium composition, temperature, etc.) and culture system (hepatocyte monolayers, aggregates, liver slices, etc.). The currently available database on estrogen-mediated VTG induction in cultured teleost hepatocytes is too small to support conclusive statements on whether there exist systematic differences of the VTG response between in vitro culture systems, VTG analytical methods or fish species. The VTG hepatocyte assay detects sensitively natural and synthetic estrogens, whereas the response to

  16. Effect of test concentration in the ready biodegradability test for chemical substances: Improvement of OECD test guideline 301C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeoka, Ryosuke; Taruki, Masanori; Kayashima, Takakazu; Yoshida, Tomohiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, understanding the environmental persistence of chemicals is very important for risk assessment, and ready biodegradability tests are mainly conducted according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 301C. However, the highest test concentration specified in test guideline 301C, 100 mg/L, may cause microbial toxicity and incomplete biodegradation. The authors performed test guideline 301C tests at test concentrations of 30 mg/L for 13 substances that were readily biodegradable in ready biodegradability tests but not in test guideline 301C tests. Of the 5 substances with potential to cause microbial toxicity at 100 mg/L, the percentage of biodegradation of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate, 4-chloro-3-cresol (CC), thymol (THY), and p-tert-butyl-α-methylbenzenepropionaldehyde measured by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) increased in the test guideline 301C test at 30 mg/L, suggesting a reduction in toxicity effects. Furthermore, CC and THY met the criteria for ready biodegradability, which are more than 60% of biodegradation by BOD and a 10-d window. Of the 8 substances with a low potential for causing microbial toxicity at 100 mg/L, the percentage of biodegradation of only 2-(diethylamino)ethanol increased in the test guideline 301C test at 30 mg/L. Employing a lower test concentration in the standard test guideline 301C test will contribute to improvement of consistency between results of a test guideline 301C test and other ready biodegradability tests. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. [The disturbances of the thyroid hormone homeostasis caused by chemical substances occurring in natural environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Doroszewska, Katarzyna; Mrozińska, Sandra; Milewicz, Tomasz; Stochmal, Ewa; Krzysiek, Józef

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid is an endocrine gland synthesizing, storaging and secreting thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Currently, there are more and more reports and evidences that various chemical contaminants present in the environment, mainly polychlorinated biphenyls, interfere with stages of regulation, synthesis, secretion, transport of thyroid hormones. That can have a significant negative impact on the human body's endocrine homeostasis.

  18. 75 FR 4983 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... determination of odor and taste threshold by a forced- choice ascending concentration series method of limits... used as a chemical intermediate for the manufacture of a dye in imaging media/ products. Based on test... irritation to mucous membranes. Also, based on test data on analogous neutral organic compounds, EPA...

  19. The Developing Brain: A Largely Overlooked Health Endpoint in Risk Assessments for Synthetic Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElgunn, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    A large body of experimental animal research on the neurotoxic effects of certain environmental chemicals provides evidence of a cascade of neurobehavioural effects including learning deficits, hyperactivity, anxiety, depression, lack of motivation, increased aggressiveness, altered maternal care and bonding, and an over-reaction to small…

  20. The Developing Brain: A Largely Overlooked Health Endpoint in Risk Assessments for Synthetic Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElgunn, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    A large body of experimental animal research on the neurotoxic effects of certain environmental chemicals provides evidence of a cascade of neurobehavioural effects including learning deficits, hyperactivity, anxiety, depression, lack of motivation, increased aggressiveness, altered maternal care and bonding, and an over-reaction to small…

  1. 77 FR 24988 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; ISP Freetown Fine Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ..., verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background... Amphetamine (1100) II Phenylacetone (8501) II The company plans to manufacture bulk API, for distribution to... ISP Freetown Fine Chemicals to ensure that the company's registration is consistent with the public...

  2. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Ellegaard, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract...

  3. 76 FR 81447 - Proposed Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... mechanical properties of rubbers, plastics, and lubricants; and a compound for use as an additive to increase... soluble particulates, including some carbon-based nano-sized chemicals, and test data correlating lung... device, and a compound that improves the mechanical properties of lubricants and plastics (P-09-142,...

  4. Production of energy and chemical substances by microalgae. Bisai morui ni yoru energy oyobi kagaku busshitsu no seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Miura, Yoshiharu (Osaka Univ., Osaka, (Japan). Faculty of Pharamaceutical Science)

    1989-11-01

    Microalgae can fix carbon dioxide by photosynthesis but the conversion rate is only 5 to 6%. Dried algae contain different lipids of 20 to 40%. Therfore, it is desirable to culture a large amount of an alga or algae having high photosynthetic and lipid producing abilities in order to effectively convert photoenergy to liquid fuel. It is reported that US established the target of 50g dry wt/m{sup 2}/day by greatly improving the productivity for 4 years since 1982 and the lipid amount exceeded 60% in 1986. A method to make photosysnthesis during daytime to avoid the interference with oxygen and to generate hydrogen by decomposing stored organic substances during night is studied and regarded as promising. In addition, the production of vitamines and other fine chemicals by microalgae is also paid attention. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 3 tabs.

  5. Migration of humus substances from soil to water and the main chemical reaction (in different natural zone of Russian Federation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, Marina; Moiseenko, Tatiana; Gashkina, Natalia; Kremleva, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    Migration of humus substances (HS) from soil to natural water has zonal specificity. Soil HS of different natural areas characterized by specific functional features, different molecular weight (MW) distribution and other physicochemical parameters. Due to the specifics of formation, waters in Russia widely distributed colored water with high concentrations of humus substances. HS involved in many chemical reactions in natural waters/soil. The most important: 1.Dissociation, association and same destruction - reactions are particularly important for assessing the acidification of natural waters 2.Complexation with metals - reactions reduce the toxicity of most metals We researched the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition of soil HS catchment and HS in natural waters of some climatic zones. Samples were taking: the mixing zone forests (sod-podzolic soils) and the steppe zone (black earth) European Territory of Russia (ETR). In order to examine process of migration humus substances from soil to water have been performed HPLC, IR spectrometry and mass spectrometry analyses. We funded change of HS structure and MW in soil/water. The water HS of the mixed forest characterized as same ratio of functional groups as soil catchments. The molecular weight distribution in water - predominate medium (500-1000 kDa), and low molecular weight fractions (soils. In HS catchment soils predominate nitrogen- and sulfur- functional group and in HS water - nitrogen-, oxygen- functional group. The molecular weight of HS in natural waters is macromolecular fractions ( > 1000 kDa). For evaluating of the acidification effect on structures of humic substances in natural waters/soil we used date of survey more than 300 lakes on the European Russia (ETP) and Western Siberia (WS) for assessing chemical parameters. Chemical analyzes of water samples were performed by a single method in accordance with the recommendations ICP-Water report 105/2010, 2010. We researched HS

  6. In vitro antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis in root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carneiro Valera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. Material and Methods: Seventy-two human tooth roots were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days. The groups were divided according to the auxiliary chemical substance into: G1 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, G2 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX, G3 castor oil, G4 glycolic Aloe vera extract, G5 glycolic ginger extract, and G6 sterile saline (control. The samples of the root canal were collected at different intervals: confirmation collection, at 21 days after contamination; 1st collection, after instrumentation; and 2nd collection, seven days after instrumentation. Microbiological samples were grown in culture medium and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Results: The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn (5% statistical tests. NaOCl and CHX completely eliminated the microorganisms of the root canals. Castor oil and ginger significantly reduced the number of CFU of the tested bacteria. Reduction of CFU/mL at the 1st and 2nd collections for groups G1, G2, G3 and G4 was greater in comparison to groups G5 and G6. Conclusion: It was concluded that 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gel were more effective in eliminating C. albicans and E. faecalis, followed by the castor oil and glycolic ginger extract. The Aloe vera extract showed no antimicrobial activity.

  7. Raising awareness of new psychoactive substances: chemical analysis and in vitro toxicity screening of 'legal high' packages containing synthetic cathinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ana Margarida; Valente, Maria João; Carvalho, Márcia; Dias da Silva, Diana; Gaspar, Helena; Carvalho, Félix; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2015-05-01

    The world's status quo on recreational drugs has dramatically changed in recent years due to the rapid emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), represented by new narcotic or psychotropic drugs, in pure form or in preparation, which are not controlled by international conventions, but that may pose a public health threat comparable with that posed by substances listed in these conventions. These NPS, also known as 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs', are typically sold via Internet or 'smartshops' as legal alternatives to controlled substances, being announced as 'bath salts' and 'plant feeders' and is often sought after for consumption especially among young people. Although NPS have the biased reputation of being safe, the vast majority has hitherto not been tested and several fatal cases have been reported, namely for synthetic cathinones, with pathological patterns comparable with amphetamines. Additionally, the unprecedented speed of appearance and distribution of the NPS worldwide brings technical difficulties in the development of analytical procedures and risk assessment in real time. In this study, 27 products commercialized as 'plant feeders' were chemically characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was also evaluated, for the first time, the in vitro hepatotoxic effects of individual synthetic cathinones, namely methylone, pentedrone, 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Two commercial mixtures ('Bloom' and 'Blow') containing mainly cathinone derivatives were also tested, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was used as the reference drug. The study allowed the identification of 19 compounds, showing that synthetic cathinones are the main active compounds present in these products. Qualitative and quantitative variability was found in products sold with the same trade name in matching or different 'smartshops'. In the toxicity studies performed in

  8. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Airline Pilots seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment: An Initial Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has begun to examine the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as it is believed that targeting these core beliefs in treatment may result in improved substance use outcomes. One special population that has received scant attention in the research literature, despite high levels of substance use, is airline pilots. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of a sample of airline pilots (n = 64) who were seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence and whether they differed in early maladaptive schemas from non-pilot substance abusers who were also seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence (n = 45). Pre-existing medical records from patients of a residential substance abuse treatment facility were reviewed for the current study. Of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, results demonstrated that pilots scored higher than non-pilots on the early maladaptive schema of unrelenting standards (high internalized standards of behavior), whereas non-pilots scored higher on insufficient self-control (low frustration tolerance and self-control). Early maladaptive schemas may be a relevant treatment target for substance abuse treatment seeking pilots and non-pilots.

  9. Transferring Chemical Research to a Spin-Off Initiative in Health Care: The Lipidomic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Carla; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Ferreri, Rosaria

    2008-01-01

    Lipidomics is an emerging discipline in life sciences related to the lipid metabolism of living organisms. In the last decade chemical and biological research has attributed very important roles to membrane phospholipids in relationship to free radical stress and metabolic situations. An entrepreneurial initiative for diagnostic tools and health…

  10. Initiated-chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon layers: Monomer adsorption, bulk growth, and process window definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aresta, G.; Palmans, J.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Creatore, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organosilicon layers have been deposited from 1,3,5-trivinyl-1,3,5-trimethylcyclotrisiloxane (V3D3) by means of the initiated-chemical vapor deposition (i-CVD) technique in a deposition setup, ad hoc designed for the engineering of multilayer moisture permeation barriers. The application of Fourier

  11. Initial chemical transport of reducing elements and chemical reactions in oxide cathode base metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roquais, J.M.; Poret, F.; Doze, R. le; Dufour, P.; Steinbrunn, A

    2002-11-30

    In the present work, the formation of compounds associated to the diffusion of reducing elements (Mg and Al) to the nickel surface of a one-piece oxide cathode has been studied. Those compounds have been evidenced after the annealing steps at high temperature performed on cathode base metal prior to the emitting ing deposition. Therefore, they form the ''initial'' interface between the nickel and the coating, in other words, the interface existing at the beginning of cathode life. Extensive analysis to characterize the nickel base prior to coating deposition has been performed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). TEM and AES analysis have allowed to identify for the first time a spinel compound of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The preferential distribution of the different compounds on the nickel surface has been studied by EDX mapping. Experimental profiles of diffusion of the reducing elements in the nickel have been obtained over the entire thickness of the material by GDOES. The mechanism of formation of these compounds together with a related diffusion model are proposed.

  12. Improved detection of chemical substances from colorimetric sensor data using probabilistic machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølgaard, Lasse L.; Buus, Ole T.; Larsen, Jan; Babamoradi, Hamid; Thygesen, Ida L.; Laustsen, Milan; Munk, Jens Kristian; Dossi, Eleftheria; O'Keeffe, Caroline; Lässig, Lina; Tatlow, Sol; Sandström, Lars; Jakobsen, Mogens H.

    2017-05-01

    We present a data-driven machine learning approach to detect drug- and explosives-precursors using colorimetric sensor technology for air-sampling. The sensing technology has been developed in the context of the CRIM-TRACK project. At present a fully- integrated portable prototype for air sampling with disposable sensing chips and automated data acquisition has been developed. The prototype allows for fast, user-friendly sampling, which has made it possible to produce large datasets of colorimetric data for different target analytes in laboratory and simulated real-world application scenarios. To make use of the highly multi-variate data produced from the colorimetric chip a number of machine learning techniques are employed to provide reliable classification of target analytes from confounders found in the air streams. We demonstrate that a data-driven machine learning method using dimensionality reduction in combination with a probabilistic classifier makes it possible to produce informative features and a high detection rate of analytes. Furthermore, the probabilistic machine learning approach provides a means of automatically identifying unreliable measurements that could produce false predictions. The robustness of the colorimetric sensor has been evaluated in a series of experiments focusing on the amphetamine pre-cursor phenylacetone as well as the improvised explosives pre-cursor hydrogen peroxide. The analysis demonstrates that the system is able to detect analytes in clean air and mixed with substances that occur naturally in real-world sampling scenarios. The technology under development in CRIM-TRACK has the potential as an effective tool to control trafficking of illegal drugs, explosive detection, or in other law enforcement applications.

  13. Structural basis for perception of diverse chemical substances by T1r taste receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuemket, Nipawan; Yasui, Norihisa; Kusakabe, Yuko; Nomura, Yukiyo; Atsumi, Nanako; Akiyama, Shuji; Nango, Eriko; Kato, Yukinari; Kaneko, Mika K; Takagi, Junichi; Hosotani, Maiko; Yamashita, Atsuko

    2017-05-23

    The taste receptor type 1 (T1r) family perceives 'palatable' tastes. These receptors function as T1r2-T1r3 and T1r1-T1r3 heterodimers to recognize a wide array of sweet and umami (savory) tastes in sugars and amino acids. Nonetheless, it is unclear how diverse tastes are recognized by so few receptors. Here we present crystal structures of the extracellular ligand-binding domains (LBDs), the taste recognition regions of the fish T1r2-T1r3 heterodimer, bound to different amino acids. The ligand-binding pocket in T1r2LBD is rich in aromatic residues, spacious and accommodates hydrated percepts. Biophysical studies show that this binding site is characterized by a broad yet discriminating chemical recognition, contributing for the particular trait of taste perception. In contrast, the analogous pocket in T1r3LBD is occupied by a rather loosely bound amino acid, suggesting that the T1r3 has an auxiliary role. Overall, we provide a structural basis for understanding the chemical perception of taste receptors.

  14. Effects of thermal processing and various chemical substances on formaldehyde and dimethylamine formation in squid Dosidicus gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junli; Li, Jianrong; Jia, Jia

    2012-09-01

    Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) in squid is demethylated to dimethylamine (DMA) and formaldehyde (FA) during storage and processing. This study examined the effects of thermal processing and various chemical substances on FA and DMA formation in squid. The thermal conversion of TMAO was assessed by analysing four squid and four gadoid fish species, which revealed that FA, DMA and trimethylamine (TMA) were gradually produced in squid, whereas TMA increased and FA decreased in gadoid fish. A significant increase in both FA and DMA levels was observed in the supernatant of jumbo squid with increased heating temperature and extended heating time at pH 6-7. Ferrous chloride combined with cysteine and/or ascorbate had a significantly positive effect on FA formation in the heated supernatant of jumbo squid. No significant difference was observed in the levels of Cu and Fe in squid and gadoid fish. The capability of Fe(2+) to promote the formation of FA and DMA was not completely attributable to its reducing power in squid. Non-enzymatic decomposition of TMAO was a key pathway during the thermal processing of jumbo squid, and Fe(2+) was a crucial activator in the formation of FA and DMA. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Top five industries resulting in injuries from acute chemical incidents—Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayana R; Wu, Jennifer

    2015-04-10

    Because industries using and/or producing chemicals are located in close proximity to populated areas, U.S. residents are at risk for unintentional chemical exposures. 1999-2008. The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical releases and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such releases. This report summarizes data for the top five industries resulting in injuries from an acute chemical incident (lasting truck transportation, educational services, chemical manufacturing, utilities, and food manufacturing) accounted for approximately one third of all incidents in which persons were injured as a result of unintentional release of chemicals; the same five industries were responsible for approximately one third of all persons injured as a result of such releases. Acute chemical incidents in these five industries resulted in serious public health implications including the need for evacuations, morbidity, and mortality. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Targeting chemical incident prevention and preparedness activities towards these five industries provides an efficient use of resources for reducing chemical exposures. A variety of methods can be used to minimize chemical releases in industries. One example is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's hierarchy of controls model, which focuses on controlling exposures to occupational hazards. The hierarchy includes elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment.

  16. Some new psychoactive substances: precursor chemicals and synthesis-driven end-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some of the new classes of 'designer drugs' being encountered today by forensic scientists and law enforcement agencies in Europe, the United States, and Australia. In particular, it concentrates on new cathinone derivatives, the tryptamines, new-generation phenethylamines, and some of the synthetic cannabinoids. The synthetic approaches towards many of these designer drugs including a discussion of the chemical precursors used in the syntheses are presented. Many of today's so-called designer drugs exist as a result of legitimate research into medical conditions and the natural product chemistry. A link between synthetic approaches published in the open scientific and medical literature and the exploitation of this research by clandestine manufacture of drugs for illicit purposes is drawn.

  17. [A system for predicting the toxicity and hazard of chemical substances, based on the joint use of logistic and numerical methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchevnikova, N V

    2005-01-01

    A version of a logical combinatorial intellectual system (DMS system) has been developed to predict the toxicity and hazards of chemical substances. The system is based on the combined description of the substances, which includes both structural and numerical descriptors, particularly those characterizing the reactivity of compounds or their metabolites. The selection of numerical descriptors is based on the classification of processes of the interaction of the substance with the body in accordance with the key stage of the mechanism responsible for its toxic action. The new version of the DSM system takes into account the fact that the toxicity and hazard of chemicals are frequently determined by their bioactivation. Examples of how to apply the system to the prediction of carcinogenicity are given.

  18. Chemiczna charakterystyka substancji pektynowych w liściach tytoniu [Chemical analysis of the pectic substances in the tobacco leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Blaim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic analysis of pectic substances from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, N. rustica and N. glauca has shown that the pectic substances from these species have similar composition of monosaccharides. The only differences found are in the relative quantities of the sugars present in pectic substances.

  19. Tracking chemicals in products around the world: introduction of a dynamic substance flow analysis model and application to PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wania, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Dynamically tracking flows and stocks of problematic chemicals in products (CiPs) in the global anthroposphere is essential to understanding their environmental fates and risks. The complex behavior of CiPs during production, use and waste disposal makes this a challenging task. Here we introduce and describe a dynamic substance flow model, named Chemicals in Products - Comprehensive Anthropospheric Fate Estimation (CiP-CAFE), which facilitates the quantification of time-variant flows and stocks of CiPs within and between seven interconnected world regions and the generation of global scale emission estimates. We applied CiP-CAFE to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), first to evaluate its ability to reproduce previously reported global-scale atmospheric emission inventories and second to illustrate its potential applications and merits. CiP-CAFE quantifies the pathways of PCBs during production, use and waste disposal stages, thereby deducing the temporal evolution of in-use and waste stocks and identifying their long-term final sinks. Time-variant estimates of PCB emissions into air, water and soil can be attributed to different processes and be fed directly into a global fate and transport model. By capturing the international movement of PCBs as technical chemicals, and in products and waste, CiP-CAFE reveals that the extent of global dispersal caused by humans is larger than that occurring in the natural environment. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the model output is most sensitive to the PCB production volume and the lifetime of PCB-containing products, suggesting that a shortening of that lifetime is key to reducing future PCB emissions.

  20. Different scale experimental techniques to approach the problem of substances generated in the loss of control of chemical systems: a study on ethyl diazoacetate decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsanich, K.; Barontini, F.; Cozzani, V.; Creemers, A.F.L.; Kersten, R.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Article 2 of European Community Directive 96/82/EC (known as 'Seveso-II' Directive) also requires consideration in the plant inventory of the dangerous substances 'which it is believed may be generated in the loss of control of an industrial chemical process'. The present study was directed to the f

  1. Application of Social Control Theory to Examine Parent, Teacher, and Close Friend Attachment and Substance Use Initiation among Korean Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Lee, DongHun

    2016-01-01

    Based on Hirschi's social control theory (1969), this study examined the relationship between attachment (an element of social bonds) and the onset of substance use among South Korean adolescents. Using discrete-time logistic regression, the study investigated how attachment to parents, teachers, and close friends was associated with the timing of…

  2. Detection of chemical substances in water using an oxide nanowire transistor covered with a hydrophobic nanoparticle thin film as a liquid-vapour separation filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Taekyung; Lee, Jonghun; Ju, Sanghyun

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a method to detect the presence of small amounts of chemical substances in water, using a Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film covered with phosphonic acid (HDF-PA) self-assembled monolayer. The HDF-PA self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film acts as a liquid-vapour separation filter, allowing the passage of chemical vapour while blocking liquids. Prevention of the liquid from contacting the SnO2 nanowire and source-drain electrodes is required in order to avoid abnormal operation. Using this characteristic, the concentration of chemical substances in water could be evaluated by measuring the current changes in the SnO2 nanowire transistor covered with the HDF-PA self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film.

  3. Detection of chemical substances in water using an oxide nanowire transistor covered with a hydrophobic nanoparticle thin film as a liquid-vapour separation filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekyung Lim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a method to detect the presence of small amounts of chemical substances in water, using a Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film covered with phosphonic acid (HDF-PA self-assembled monolayer. The HDF-PA self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film acts as a liquid-vapour separation filter, allowing the passage of chemical vapour while blocking liquids. Prevention of the liquid from contacting the SnO2 nanowire and source-drain electrodes is required in order to avoid abnormal operation. Using this characteristic, the concentration of chemical substances in water could be evaluated by measuring the current changes in the SnO2 nanowire transistor covered with the HDF-PA self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film.

  4. Groundwater contamination by microbiological and chemical substances released from hospital wastewater: health risk assessment for drinking water consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Evens; Pierre, Marie Gisèle; Perrodin, Yves

    2009-05-01

    Contamination of natural aquatic ecosystems by hospital wastewater is a major environmental and human health issue. Disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, radionuclides and solvents are widely used in hospitals for medical purposes and research. After application, some of these substances combine with hospital effluents and, in industrialised countries, reach the municipal sewer network. In certain developing countries, hospitals usually discharge their wastewater into septic tanks equipped with diffusion wells. The discharge of chemical compounds from hospital activities into the natural environment can lead to the pollution of water resources and risks for human health. The aim of this article is to present: (i) the steps of a procedure intended to evaluate risks to human health linked to hospital effluents discharged into a septic tank equipped with a diffusion well; and (ii) the results of its application on the effluents of a hospital in Port-au-Prince. The procedure is based on a scenario that describes the discharge of hospital effluents, via septic tanks, into a karstic formation where water resources are used for human consumption. COD, Chloroform, dichlomethane, dibromochloromethane, dichlorobromomethane and bromoform contents were measured. Furthermore, the presence of heavy metals (chrome, nickel and lead) and faecal coliforms were studied. Maximum concentrations were 700 NPP/100 ml for faecal coliforms and 112 mg/L for COD. A risk of infection of 10(-5) infection per year was calculated. Major chemical risks, particularly for children, relating to Pb(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI) and Ni(II) contained in the ground water were also characterised. Certain aspects of the scenario studied require improvement, especially those relating to the characterisation of drugs in groundwater and the detection of other microbiological indicators such as protozoa, enterococcus and viruses.

  5. The role of extracellular polymeric substances in the toxicity response of activated sludge bacteria to chemical toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Inês D S; Love, Nancy G

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the respiration inhibition induced by octanol, cadmium, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and cyanide on activated sludge biomasses with different floc structures but similar physiological characteristics. Mechanical shearing was applied to fresh mixed liquor to produce biomasses with different floc structure properties. Specific oxygen uptake rate assays were conducted on the sheared and unsheared mixed liquors. The results showed that mechanical shearing resulted in release of biopolymers from the floc extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix into the bulk liquid and a simultaneous reduction in floc size. Shearing did not impact biomass viability. The respiration inhibition by octanol and cadmium was more severe in sheared mixed liquor than in the unsheared biomass. Conversely, the respiration inhibition induced by NEM and cyanide was similar for the different mixed liquors tested. We conclude that the EPS matrix functions as a protective barrier for the bacteria inside activated sludge flocs to chemicals that it has the potential to interact with, such as hydrophobic (octanol) and positively charged (cadmium) compounds, but that the toxicity response for soluble, hydrophilic toxins (NEM and cyanide) is not influenced by the presence of the polymer matrix.

  6. Chemical characterization of fractions of dissolved humic substances from a marginal sea—a case from the Southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoling; Yang, Keli; Du, Jinzhou; Zhang, Fenfen; Dong, Yaping; Li, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the largest dynamic pools of organic carbon in the global carbon cycle, yet DOM is still chemically poorly characterized. To better understand the origin, composition, and cycling of DOM in the China marginal sea, dissolved humic substances (DHS) were isolated from seawaters in two locations in the Southern Yellow Sea. The DHS were subdivided into fulvic acids (FAs), humic acids (HAs) and the XAD-4 fractions. Complementary analytical approaches were used to characterize the isolated DHS samples including stable carbon isotopic composition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The results demonstrated that both DHS samples encountered the influences from marine source, indicating that algal and microbial-derived materials are the predominant precursors for the studied samples. The three fractions of DHS showed different properties. FAs presented more aromatic features, whereas HAs contained more aliphatic lipids and proteinaceous materials. The XAD-4 fractions were enriched in 13C and contained more carbohydrates but less aromatic compounds. The lower molecular weight and higher heteroatom content and number of carboxyl groups for the XAD-4 fractions may give them considerable geochemical significance for aspects of trace metal species, bioavailability of pollutants, mineral weathering and water acidification in marine environments.

  7. Effect of petroleum-derived substances on life history traits of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) and on the growth and chemical composition of broad bean

    OpenAIRE

    Rusin, Milena; GOSPODAREK, Janina; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances, namely petrol, diesel fuel and spent engine oil, on life history traits and population dynamics of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. and on growth and chemical composition of its host plant Vicia faba L. Each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 g kg−1 and 18 g kg−1). The experiment was conducted in four replications (four pots with five plants in each pot per treatment). Pl...

  8. Initial assessment of the hazards and risks of new chemicals to man and the environment. Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire TG; Kroese ED; Meijer GW; Mohn GR; Notenboom J; Peijnenburg WJGM; Piersma AH; Roghair CJ

    1993-01-01

    This report is a continuation of the description of the initial hazard and risk assessment process for new substances at the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in the Netherlands. This assessment pertains to both man and the environment and is performed within t

  9. Is parental socio-economic status related to the initiation of substance abuse by young people in an English city? An event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Alex

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to examine the relationship between parental socio-economic status (SES) and adolescent substance use. The central question posed in the title is approached in two stages. First, theoretical and empirical research in this area is reviewed. Second, data from an ongoing longitudinal study of young people in England (the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study--PADS+) are used to highlight the nature of this relationship in one city. Results from discrete-time event history analyses show that when examining what predicts initiation of substance use, familial and demographic factors emerge as important predictors, but SES does not appear to be relevant. The concluding discussion focuses on whether support is found for hypotheses derived from the existing literature and implications for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Shock initiated thermal and chemical responses of HMX crystal from ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tingting; Song, Huajie; Liu, Yi; Huang, Fenglei

    2014-07-21

    To gain an atomistic-level understanding of the thermal and chemical responses of condensed energetic materials under thermal shock, we developed a thermal shock reactive dynamics (TS-RD) computational protocol using molecular dynamics simulation coupled with ReaxFF force field. β-Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) was selected as a a target explosive due to its wide usage in the military and industry. The results show that a thermal shock initiated by a large temperature gradient between the "hot" region and the "cold" region results in thermal expansion of the particles and induces a thermal-mechanical wave propagating back and forth in the system with an averaged velocity of 3.32 km s(-1). Heat propagating along the direction of thermal shock leads to a temperature increment of the system and thus chemical reaction initiation. Applying a continuum reactive heat conduction model combined with the temperature distribution obtained from the RD simulation, a heat conduction coefficient is derived as 0.80 W m(-1) K(-1). The chemical reaction mechanisms during thermal shock were analyzed, showing that the reaction is triggered by N-NO2 bond breaking followed by HONO elimination and ring fission. The propagation rates of the reaction front and reaction center are obtained to be 0.069 and 0.038 km s(-1), based on the time and spatial distribution of NO2. The pressure effect on the thermal shock was also investigated by employing uniaxial compression before the thermal shock. We find that compression significantly accelerates thermal-mechanical wave propagation and heat conduction, resulting in higher temperature and more excited molecules and thus earlier initiation and faster propagation of chemical reactions.

  11. Analysis of initial reactions of MALDI based on chemical properties of matrixes and excitation condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yin-Hung; Wang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Chiu Wen; Liu, Bo-Hong; Lin, Sheng Hsien; Lee, Yuan Tseh; Wang, Yi-Sheng

    2012-08-16

    This investigation concerns the initial chemical reactions that affect the ionization of matrixes in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). The study focuses on the relaxations of photon energy that occur on a comparable time scale to that of ionization, in which the available laser energy is shared and the ionization condition is changed. The relaxations include fluorescence, fragmentation, and nonradiative relaxation from the excited state to the ground state. With high absorption cross section and long excited-state lifetime, photoionization of matrix plays an important role if sufficient laser energy is used. Under other conditions, thermal ionization of the molecule in the ground state is predicted to be one of the important reactions. Evidence of change in the branching ratio of initial reactions with the matrix and the excitation wavelength was obtained with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, sinapinic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone. These matrixes are studied by obtaining their mixed crystal absorption spectra, fluorescence properties, laser-induced infrared emission, and product ions. The exact ionization pathway depends on the chemical properties of matrixes and the excitation conditions. This concept may explain the diversity of experimental results observed in MALDI experiments, which provides an insight into the ensemble of chemical reactions that govern the generation of ions.

  12. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and other substances of concern in food contact materials: an updated review of exposure, effect and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncke, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are an underestimated source of chemical food contaminants and a potentially relevant route of human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Quantifying the exposure of the general population to substances from FCM relies on estimates of food consumption and leaching into food. Recent studies using polycarbonate plastics show that food simulants do not always predict worst-case leaching of bisphenol A, a common FCM substance. Also, exposure of children to FCM substances is not always realistically predicted using the common conventions and thus possibly misjudged. Further, the exposure of the whole population to substances leaching into dry foods is underestimated. Consumers are exposed to low levels of substances from FCM across their entire lives. Effects of these compounds currently are assessed with a focus on mutagenicity and genotoxicity. This approach however neglects integrating recent new toxicological findings, like endocrine disruption, mixture toxicity, and developmental toxicity. According to these new toxicology paradigms women of childbearing age and during pregnancy are a new sensitive population group requiring more attention. Furthermore, in overweight and obese persons a change in the metabolism of xenobiotics is observed, possibly implying that this group of consumers is insufficiently protected by current risk assessment practice. Innovations in FCM risk assessment should therefore include routine testing for EDCs and an assessment of the whole migrate toxicity of a food packaging, taking into account all sensitive population groups. In this article I focus on recent issues of interest concerning either exposure to or effects of FCM-related substances. Further, I review the use of benzophenones and organotins, two groups of known or suspected EDCs, in FCM authorized in the US and EU.

  13. Initial Temperature and Extent of Chemical Equilibration of Partons in Relativistic Collision of Heavy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Dinesh K; Mustafa, Munshi G

    2016-01-01

    We emphasize that a knowledge of energy and entropy densities of quark gluon plasma - a thermalized de-confined matter, formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions fixes the formation temperature and the product of gluon fugacity and formation time uniquely, {\\em provided} we know the relative fugacities of quarks and gluons. This also provides that a smaller formation time would imply larger fugacities for partons. Next we explore the limits of chemical equilibration of partons during the initial stages in relativistic collision of heavy nuclei. The experimentally measured rapidity densities of transverse energy and charged particle multiplicity at RHIC and LHC energies are used to estimate the energy and number densities with the assumption of formation of a thermally equilibrated quark gluon plasma which may be chemically equilibrated to the same or differing extents for quarks and gluons. The estimates are found to be very sensitive to the correction factor used for the Bj\\"{o}rken energy density for iden...

  14. Fast chemical reaction in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow: initial regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Bourqui, Michel S; Bartello, Peter

    2012-04-01

    This paper studies an infinitely fast bimolecular chemical reaction in a two-dimensional biperiodic Navier-Stokes flow. The reactants in stoichiometric quantities are initially segregated by infinite gradients. The focus is placed on the initial stage of the reaction characterized by a well-defined one-dimensional material contact line between the reactants. Particular attention is given to the effect of the diffusion κ of the reactants. This study is an idealized framework for isentropic mixing in the lower stratosphere and is motivated by the need to better understand the effect of resolution on stratospheric chemistry in climate-chemistry models. Adopting a Lagrangian straining theory approach, we relate theoretically the ensemble mean of the length of the contact line, of the gradients along it, and of the modulus of the time derivative of the space-average reactant concentrations (here called the chemical speed) to the joint probability density function of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent λ with two times τ and τ[over ̃]. The time 1/λ measures the stretching time scale of a Lagrangian parcel on a chaotic orbit up to a finite time t, while τ measures it in the recent past before t, and τ[over ̃] in the early part of the trajectory. We show that the chemical speed scales like κ(1/2) and that its time evolution is determined by rare large events in the finite-time Lyapunov exponent distribution. The case of smooth initial gradients is also discussed. The theoretical results are tested with an ensemble of direct numerical simulations (DNSs) using a pseudospectral model.

  15. Shock-induced hotspot formation and chemical reaction initiation in PETN containing a spherical void

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Tzu-Ray; Thompson, Aidan P.

    2014-05-01

    We present results of reactive molecular dynamics simulations of hotspot formation and chemical reaction initiation in shock-induced compression of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) with the ReaxFF reactive force field. A supported shockwave is driven through a PETN crystal containing a 20 nm spherical void at a sub-threshold impact velocity of 2 km/s. Formation of a hotspot due to shock-induced void collapse is observed. During void collapse, NO2 is the dominant species ejected from the upstream void surface. Once the ejecta collide with the downstream void surface and the hotspot develops, formation of final products such as N2 and H2O is observed. The simulation provides a detailed picture of how void collapse and hotspot formation leads to initiation at sub-threshold impact velocities.

  16. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Substance Use Diagnoses, Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders, and Treatment Initiation among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in an Integrated Health Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storholm, Erik D.; Silverberg, Michael J.; Satre, Derek D.

    2017-01-01

    Access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a critical issue for women with HIV. This study examined differences in SUD diagnoses, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and predictors of SUD treatment initiation among a racial/ethnically diverse sample of HIV-positive women (N=228) and a demographically similar cohort of HIV-negative women (N=693). Diagnoses and service utilization data were obtained from electronic health records of members of a large integrated healthcare system in Northern California. Overall, HIV-positive women were less likely to initiate SUD treatment. Among HIV-positive women, being diagnosed with an amphetamine use disorder, comorbid depressive disorder, and anxiety disorder was more common among white woman, while cocaine diagnosis was more common among black women. Among HIV-negative women, a diagnosis of alcohol SUD, comorbid depressive disorder, and comorbid anxiety disorder was more common among white women; diagnosis of cannabis SUD and cocaine SUD was more common among black women; and a diagnosis of amphetamine SUD and depressive disorder was more common among Latina women. Multivariable logistic regression models showed that alcohol, cannabis, and opiate diagnoses were predictive of SUD treatment initiation for both cohorts, while amphetamine SUD, comorbid depressive disorder, and being white or Latina were predictive of SUD treatment initiation for HIV-negative, but not HIV-positive women. Findings suggest that clinicians need to be aware of differences in substances of abuse, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and to consider the demographic and social factors that may contribute to differences in SUD treatment initiation among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. PMID:27767406

  17. Dose-response modeling : Evaluation, application, and development of procedures for benchmark dose analysis in health risk assessment of chemical substances

    OpenAIRE

    Sand, Salomon

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, dose-response modeling and procedures for benchmark dose (BMD) analysis in health risk assessment of chemical substances have been investigated. The BMD method has been proposed as an alternative to the NOAEL (no-observedadverse- effect-level) approach in health risk assessment of non-genotoxic agents. According to the BMD concept, a dose-response model is fitted to data and the BMD is defined as the dose causing a predetermined change in response. A lowe...

  18. Evaluation of a substance abuse, HIV and hepatitis prevention initiative for urban Native Americans: the Native Voices program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kyle; Tom, Nazbah

    2011-01-01

    Although many community-based prevention interventions are conducted in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, few studies report the outcomes. This article is a mixed methods outcome evaluation of an HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, and substance abuse prevention intervention for an urban AI/AN community, Native Voices. The study group wascomposed of 100youth (ages 13 to 18) who lived in the San Francisco Bay Area. The outcome measures of interest were knowledge, perception of risk, sexual self-efficacy, ethnic identity, and sexual risk behavior. The findings indicate that knowledge, perception of risk, and sexual self-efficacy increased, while no change was shown in measures of ethnic identity and behavior. Findings extended prior research by evaluating the Gathering of Native Americans (GONA) curriculum, a promising intervention designed for AI/AN people.

  19. Role of initial cell density of algal bioassay of toxic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Shrivastava, Alok Kumar

    2016-07-01

    A variety of toxicants such as, metal ions, pesticides, dyes, etc. are continuously being introduced anthropogenically in the environment and adversely affect to the biotic component of the ecosystem. Therefore, the assessment of negative effects of these toxicants is required. However, toxicity assessment anticipated by chemical analysis are extremely poor, therefore the application of the living systems for the same is an excellent approach. Concentration of toxicant as well as cell density both influenced the result of the algal toxicity assay. Here, Scenedesmus sp, a very fast growing green microalgae was selected for study the effects of initial cell densities on the toxicity of Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), paraquat and 2,4-D. Results demonstrated concentration dependent decrease in biomass and specific growth rate of Scenedesmus sp. on exposure of abovesaid toxicants. Paraquat and 2,4-D emerged as extremely toxic to the test alga which reflected from the lowest EC value and very steep decline in biomass was evident with increasing concentration of paraquat and 2,4-D in the medium. Result also demonstrated that initial cell density is a very important parameter than specific growth rate for algal bioassay of various toxicants. Present study clearly illustrated that the use of smaller cell density is always recommended for assaying toxicity of chemicals in algal assays. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Extraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from anaerobic granular sludges: comparison of chemical and physical extraction protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abzac, D' P.; Bordas, F.; Hullebusch, E.; Lens, P.N.L.; Guibaud, G.

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted with nine different extraction protocols from four different types of anaerobic granular sludge were studied. The efficiency of four physical (sonication, heating, cationic exchange resin (CER), and CER associated with son

  1. Extraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from anaerobic granular sludges: comparison of chemical and physical extraction protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abzac, D' P.; Bordas, F.; Hullebusch, E.; Lens, P.N.L.; Guibaud, G.

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted with nine different extraction protocols from four different types of anaerobic granular sludge were studied. The efficiency of four physical (sonication, heating, cationic exchange resin (CER), and CER associated with

  2. Effect of petroleum-derived substances on life history traits of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) and on the growth and chemical composition of broad bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Milena; Gospodarek, Janina; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances, namely petrol, diesel fuel and spent engine oil, on life history traits and population dynamics of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. and on growth and chemical composition of its host plant Vicia faba L. Each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 g kg(-1) and 18 g kg(-1)). The experiment was conducted in four replications (four pots with five plants in each pot per treatment). Plants were cultivated in both control and contaminated soils. After six weeks from soil contamination and five weeks from sowing the seeds, observations of the effect of petroleum-derived substances on traits of three successive generations of aphids were conducted. Aphids were inoculated separately on leaves using cylindrical cages hermetically closed on both sides. Contamination of aphid occurred through its host plant. Results showed that all tested substances adversely affected A. fabae life history traits and population dynamics: extension of the prereproductive period, reduction of fecundity and life span, reduction of the population intrinsic growth rate. In broad bean, leaf, roots, and shoot growth was also impaired in most conditions, whereas nutrient and heavy metal content varied according to substances, their concentration, as well as plant part analysed. Results indicate that soil contamination with petroleum-derived substances entails far-reaching changes not only in organisms directly exposed to these pollutants (plants), but also indirectly in herbivores (aphids) and consequently provides information about potential negative effects on further links of the food chain, i.e., for predators and parasitoids.

  3. Stress corrosion crack initiation of alloy 182 weld metal in primary coolant - Influence of chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calonne, O.; Foucault, M.; Steltzlen, F. [AREVA (France); Amzallag, C. [EDF SEPTEN (France)

    2011-07-01

    Nickel-base alloys 182 and 82 have been used extensively for dissimilar metal welds. Typical applications are the J-groove welds of alloy 600 vessel head penetrations, pressurizer penetrations, heater sleeves and bottom mounted instrumented nozzles as well as some safe end butt welds. While the overall performance of these weld metals has been good, during the last decade, an increasing number of cases of stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 182 weld metal have been reported in PWRs. In this context, the role of weld defects has to be examined. Their contribution in the crack initiation mechanism requires laboratory investigations with small scale characterizations. In this study, the influence of both alloy composition and weld defects on PWSCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking in Primary Water) initiation was investigated using U-bend specimens in simulated primary water at 320 C. The main results are the following: -) the chemical compositions of the weld deposits leading to a large propensity to hot cracking are not the most susceptible to PWSCC initiation, -) macroscopically, superficial defects did not evolve during successive exposures. They can be included in large corrosion cracks but their role as 'precursors' is not yet established. (authors)

  4. Results of a sector-wide quality improvement initiative for substance-abuse care: an uncontrolled before-after study in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colom Joan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Department of the Regional Government of Catalonia, Spain, issued a quality plan for substance abuse centers. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of a multidimensional quality improvement initiative in the field of substance abuse care and to discuss potentials and limitations for further quality improvement. Methods The study uses an uncontrolled, sector-wide pre-post design. All centers providing services for persons with substance abuse issues in the Autonomous Community of Catalonia participated in this assessment. Measures of compliance were developed based on indicators reported in the literature and by broad stakeholder involvement. We compared pre-post differences in dimension-specific and overall compliance-scores using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures and the Friedman statistic. We described the spread of the data using the inter-quartile range and the Fligner-Killen statistic. Finally, we adjusted compliance scores for location and size using linear and logistic regression models. Results We performed a baseline and follow up assessment in 22 centers for substance abuse care and observed substantial and statistically significant improvements for overall compliance (pre: 60.9%; post: 79.1% and for compliance in the dimensions 'care pathway' (pre: 66.5%; post: 83.5% and 'organization and management' (pre: 50.5%; post: 77.2%. We observed improvements in the dimension 'environment and infrastructure' (pre: 81.8%; post: 95.5% and in the dimension 'relations and user rights' (pre: 66.5%; post: 72.5%; however, these were not statistically significant. The regression analysis suggests that improvements in compliance are positively influenced by being located in the Barcelona region in case of the dimension 'relations and user rights'. Conclusion The positive results of this quality improvement initiative are possibly associated with the successful involvement of stakeholders, the consciously

  5. Training Substance Use Disorder Counselors in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression: Development and Initial Exploration of an Online Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Geoffrey M; Woo, Stephanie M; Hepner, Kimberly A; Lai, Wen Pin; Kramer, Teresa L; Drummond, Karen L; Weingardt, Ken

    2015-11-01

    Evidence based psychotherapies (EBPs) remain underutilized. Models for EBP training and implementation that are cost-effective, minimally disruptive, and sufficiently flexible are needed. Internet-based technology is a promising platform, but questions remain about how this technology can address the barriers to implementation. We developed and examined the implementation of an online training for the Building Recovery by Improving Goals, Habits, and Thoughts (BRIGHT) intervention-a manualized, sixteen-session group depression treatment for individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs). We explored the feasibility of replacing in-person BRIGHT training with a self-paced, online training. A highly partnered and iterative process was followed to translate the written BRIGHT manual and associated didactic training materials into a media rich, interactive, and detailed (12-16 h) online training. Subsequently, 8 volunteer counselors across 7 Veterans' Affairs SUD programs completed the training. Semi-structured interviews focused on the counselors' experiences and their plans for implementing BRIGHT groups. A template approach, using a mixture of deductive and inductive coding, was used for data analyses. The most important barrier to completing training was a lack of protected time. Most counselors were not afforded protected time and reported a sometimes frustrating and fragmented training experience. Many used personal time at work and at home to complete the work. Facilitators to completing the training included positive reactions/attitudes towards the training modules, supervisor support, counselor dedication, and strong beliefs supporting providing services for depression. Many counselors were also concerned about the feasibility of fitting 16 group sessions (2h each) into their program's clinical schedule, but many had devised potential solutions or "work-arounds" to accommodate or approximate the recommended treatment course (e.g., using lunch times, reducing

  6. INITIAL CHEMICAL AND RESERVOIR CONDITIONS AT LOS AZUFRES WELLHEAD POWER PLANT STARTUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.; Semprini, L.; Verma, S.; Barragan, R.; Molinar, R.; Aragon, A.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, C.

    1985-01-22

    One of the major concerns of electric utilities in installing geothermal power plants is not only the longevity of the steam supply, but also the potential for changes in thermodynamic properties of the resource that might reduce the conversion efficiency of the design plant equipment. Production was initiated at Los Azufres geothermal field with wellhead generators not only to obtain electric energy at a relatively early date, but also to acquire needed information about the resource so that plans for large central power plants could be finalized. Commercial electric energy production started at Los Azufres during the summer of 1982 with five 5-MWe wellhead turbine-generator units. The wells associated with these units had undergone extensive testing and have since been essentially in constant production. The Los Azufres geothermal reservoir is a complex structural and thermodynamic system, intersected by at least 4 major parallel faults and producing geothermal fluids from almost all water to all steam. The five wellhead generators are associated with wells of about 30%, 60%, and 100% steam fraction. A study to compile existing data on the chemical and reservoir conditions during the first two years of operation has been completed. Data have been compiled on mean values of wellhead and separator pressures, steam and liquid flowrates, steam fraction, enthalpy, and pertinent chemical components. The compilation serves both as a database of conditions during the start-up period and as an initial point to observe changes with continued and increased production. Current plans are to add additional wellhead generators in about two years followed by central power plants when the data have been sufficiently evaluated for optimum plant design. During the next two years, the data acquired at the five 5-MWe wellhead generator units can be compared to this database to observe any significant changes in reservoir behavior at constant production.

  7. Current direction, benthic organisms, zooplankton, chemical, toxis substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 24 March 1981 - 19 February 1982 (NODC Accession 8200129)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, zooplankton, chemical, toxic substances, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments...

  8. Chemical, benthic organisms, zooplankton, marine toxic substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 30 August 1979 - 21 September 1981 (NODC Accession 8200012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, marine toxic substances, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf...

  9. Current direction, chemical, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 09 September 1978 - 19 November 1979 (NODC Accession 8000043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and chemical data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  10. Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 02 June 1978 - 02 June 1979 (NODC Accession 8000002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from June 2, 1978...

  11. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on the project for research and development of an intellectual base creating and utilizing technology. Research and development of standard substances related to internal secretion disturbing chemical substances (researches on preservation stability and the valuing methods related to pure substance standard substances, mixed standard substances and composition type standard substances); 1999 nendo chiteki kiban sosei riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Naibunpi kakuran kagaku busshitsu kanren hyojun busshitsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (junbusshitsu hyojun, kongo hyojun oyobi soseigata hyojun busshitsu ni kakawaru hozon anteisei, nezuke hoho nado ni tsuite no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1999 on researching and developing standard substances related to internal secretion disturbing chemical substances. Environmental contamination due to environmental hormones has a large number of scientifically unclear points. These points are related to the basic conditions for the existence of living organisms, whereas serious impacts transcending the generations are feared. In addition, the environmental hormones have been observed in water quality, water bottom quality, and living environments for aquatic animals. Standardization in technologies to measure them, and arrangement of standard substances are demanded strongly. Based on these circumstances, evaluations were given on the following matters: determination of purity of the reference substances with regard to the standard solutions of di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diethyl phthalate among the standard substances required for the measurement, establishment of methods for measuring impurities and preparing the standard solutions, establishment of the methods to measure concentrations of the standard solutions, and the preservation stability of the standard solutions. As a result, standard solutions with accurate concentrations and excellent stability were developed. In addition, development was performed on the composition type standard substance for which a certified value was given to PCB in soil. (NEDO)

  12. Recommendations on chemicals management policy and legislation in the framework of the Egyptian-German twinning project on hazardous substances and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Burkhard O; Aziz, Elham Refaat Abdel; Schwetje, Anja; Shouk, Fatma Abou; Koch-Jugl, Juliane; Braedt, Michael; Choudhury, Keya; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The sustainable management of chemicals and their associated wastes-especially legacy stockpiles-is always challenging. Developing countries face particular difficulties as they often have insufficient treatment and disposal capacity, have limited resources and many lack an appropriate and effective regulatory framework. This paper describes the objectives and the approach of the Egyptian-German Twinning Project under the European Neighbourhood Policy to improve the strategy of managing hazardous substances in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) between November 2008 and May 2011. It also provides an introduction to the Republic of Egypt's legal and administrative system regarding chemical controls. Subsequently, options for a new chemical management strategy consistent with the recommendations of the United Nations Chemicals Conventions are proposed. The Egyptian legal and administrative system is discussed in relation to the United Nations' recommendations and current European Union legislation for the sound management of chemicals. We also discuss a strategy for the EEAA to use the existing Egyptian legal system to implement the United Nations' Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the Stockholm Convention and other proposed regulatory frameworks. The analysis, the results, and the recommendations presented may be useful for other developing countries in a comparable position to Egypt aspiring to update their legislation and administration to the international standards of sound management of chemicals.

  13. Super-Hydrophobic and Oloephobic Crystalline Coatings by Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coclite, Anna Maria; Shi, Yujun; Gleason, Karen K.

    Preferred crystallographic orientation (texture) in thin films frequently has a strong effect on the properties of the materials and it is important for stable surface properties. Organized molecular films of poly-perfluorodecylacrylate p(PFDA) were deposited by initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD). The high tendency of p(PFDA) to crystallize has been fully retained in the polymers prepared by iCVD. The degree of crystallinity and the preferred orientation of the perfluoro side chains, either parallel or perpendicular to the surface, were controlled by tuning the CVD process parameters (i.e. initiator to monomer flow rate ratio, filament temperature, and substrate temperature). Super- hydrophobicity (advancing water contact angle, WCA, of 160°, low hysteresis of 5°), and oleophobicity (advancing CA with mineral oil of 120°) were achieved. Low hysteresis was associated with high crystallinity, particularly when the orientation of the crystallites resulted in the perfluoro side groups being oriented parallel to the surface. The latter texture resulted in smoother film (RMS roughness < 30 nm) than the texture with the chains oriented perpendicularly to the surface. This can be very advantageous for applications that require smooth but still crystalline films.

  14. PREDICTING CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES FOR MINERALS AND XENOBIOTICS: USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY AND VIRTUAL REALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter we review the literature on scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (VR), and computational chemistry and our earlier work dealing with modeling lignin, lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC), humic substances (HSs) and non-bonded organo-mineral interactions...

  15. Approach to Classifying "Design" Drugs and New Potentially Dangerous Chemical Substances, with a Brief Review of the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullin, Azat R.; Galeeva, Elena Kh.; Achmetova, Elvina A.; Nikolaev, Ivan V.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of this study has become vivid in the light of the growing problem of prevalence and use of new synthetic drug types. Lately there has been a tendency of expanding the range of psychologically active substances (PAS) used by addicts with the purpose of their illegal taking. The aim of this research is an attempt of systematizing and…

  16. PREDICTING CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES FOR MINERALS AND XENOBIOTICS: USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY AND VIRTUAL REALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter we review the literature on scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (VR), and computational chemistry and our earlier work dealing with modeling lignin, lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC), humic substances (HSs) and non-bonded organo-mineral interactions...

  17. Chemical and light absorption properties of humic-like substances from biomass burning emissions under controlled combustion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Shik; Yu, Jaemyeong

    2016-07-01

    PM2.5 samples from biomass burning (BB) emissions of three types - rice straw (RS), pine needles (PN), and sesame stems (SS) - were collected through laboratory-controlled combustion experiments and analyzed for the mass, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), humic-like substances (HULIS), and water soluble inorganic species (Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and oxalate). The combustion experiments were carried out at smoldering conditions. Water-soluble HULIS in BB samples was isolated using a one-step solid phase extraction method, followed by quantification with a total organic carbon analyzer. This study aims to explore chemical and light absorption characteristics of HULIS from BB emissions. The contributions of HULIS (=1.94 × HULIS-C) to PM2.5 emissions were observed to be 29.5 ± 2.0, 15.3 ± 3.1, and 25.8 ± 4.0%, respectively, for RS, PN, and SS smoke samples. Contributions of HULIS-C to OC and WSOC for the RS, PN, and SS burning emissions were 0.26 ± 0.03 and 0.63 ± 0.05, 0.15 ± 0.04 and 0.36 ± 0.08, and 0.29 ± 0.08 and 0.51 ± 0.08, respectively. Light absorption by the water extracts from BB aerosols exhibited strong wavelength dependence, which is characteristic of brown carbon spectra with a sharply increasing absorption as wavelength decreases. The average absorption Ångström exponents (AAE) of the water extracts (WSOC) fitted between wavelengths of 300-400 nm were 8.3 (7.4-9.0), 7.4 (6.2-8.5), and 8.0 (7.1-9.3) for the RS, PN, and SS burning samples, which are comparable to the AAE values of BB samples reported in previous publications (e.g., field and laboratory chamber studies). The average mass absorption efficiencies of WSOC measured at 365 nm (MAE365) were 1.37 ± 0.23, 0.86 ± 0.09, and 1.38 ± 0.21 m2/gṡC for RS, PN, and SS burning aerosols, respectively. Correlations of total WSOC, hydrophilic WSOC (= total WSOC-HULIS-C), and HULIS-C concentrations in solution with the light

  18. 40 CFR 723.50 - Chemical substances manufactured in quantities of 10,000 kilograms or less per year, and chemical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meter. (v) Land or groundwater. For releases to land or groundwater, no releases to groundwater, to land... paragraph (e) of this section that the new substance has negligible groundwater migration potential. (d...), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW...

  19. Review of the state of the art of human biomonitoring for chemical substances and its application to human exposure assessment for food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Judy; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Polcher, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) measures the levels of substances in body fluids and tissues. Many countries have conducted HBM studies, yet little is known about its application towards chemical risk assessment, particularly in relation to food safety. Therefore a literature search was performed in se......, expanded monitoring of highly exposed and vulnerable subgroups, uptake of EFSA guidance concerning dietary intake assessment, as well as biobanking, surveillance synergies and targeted research, and an EU wide collaborative approach to support the future use of HBM in PMM....

  20. [Heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of the primordial organic substance as an initial stage of biological evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, Iu N; Tuzinkevich, A V; Frisman, E Ia

    2011-01-01

    An approach to describe the emergence of the primordial evolving system has been developed. The dynamics of polymerization/depolymerization of some spatially distributed prebiological structures has been analyzed, and two phases of the development of the system have been identified. In the first phase, the polymerization of organic monomers occurs by the influence of external factors, and in the second one depolymerization takes place. Both processes are accompanied by "diffuse mixing" of reaction products. The dynamic equations of the system are presented. The numerical examination of the space nonuniform solution of model equations has shown that, in conditions of low stability of uniform space distribution, these solutions resolve into a number of discrete peaks of non-zero density, which are isolated from each other by free space. Such nonuniform distributions are stable when being close to the bifurcation point; yet in other conditions, they can lose their stability, which entails a more pronounced nonuniformity of space dynamics. Thus, interaction of polymerization/depolymerization processes results in the chaotic self-organization and leads to the origination of complex and nomhomogeneous (putchy) spatial structures. These structures can reflect the emergency of the spatial nonuniformity in primordial associations, in physical space, in the distributive space of characters can correspond to the initial steps of individualization of the first discrete domains fixed in the biological evolution.

  1. Initiated chemical vapor deposited nanoadhesive for bonding National Ignition Facility's targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tom [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-19

    Currently, the target fabrication scientists in National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is studying the propagation force resulted from laser impulses impacting a target. To best study this, they would like the adhesive used to glue the target substrates to be as thin as possible. The main objective of this research project is to create adhesive glue bonds for NIF’s targets that are ≤ 1 μm thick. Polyglycidylmethacrylate (PGMA) thin films were coated on various substrates using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Film quality studies using white light interferometry reveal that the iCVD PGMA films were smooth. The coated substrates were bonded at 150 °C under vacuum, with low inflow of Nitrogen. Success in bonding most of NIF’s mock targets at thicknesses ≤ 1 μm indicates that our process is feasible in bonding the real targets. Key parameters that are required for successful bonding were concluded from the bonding results. They include inert bonding atmosphere, sufficient contact between the PGMA films, and smooth substrates. Average bond strength of 0.60 MPa was obtained from mechanical shearing tests. The bonding failure mode of the sheared interfaces was observed to be cohesive. Future work on this project will include reattempt to bond silica aerogel to iCVD PGMA coated substrates, stabilize carbon nanotube forests with iCVD PGMA coating, and kinetics study of PGMA thermal crosslinking.

  2. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of thermoresponsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) thin films for cell sheet engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Jiao, Alex; Yu, Seungjung; You, Jae Bem; Kim, Deok-Ho; Im, Sung Gap

    2013-08-01

    Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) is a thermoresponsive polymer known to be nontoxic, water soluble and biocompatible. Here, PNVCL homopolymer was successfully synthesized for the first time by use of a one-step vapor-phase process, termed initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that radical polymerization took place from N-vinylcaprolactam monomers without damaging the functional caprolactam ring. A sharp lower critical solution temperature transition was observed at 31°C from the iCVD poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) film. The thermoresponsive PNVCL surface exhibited a hydrophilic/hydrophobic alteration with external temperature change, which enabled the thermally modulated attachment and detachment of cells. The conformal coverage of PNVCL film on various substrates with complex topography, including fabrics and nanopatterns, was successfully demonstrated, which can further be utilized to fabricate cell sheets with aligned cell morphology. The advantage of this system is that cells cultured on such thermoresponsive surfaces could be recovered as an intact cell sheet by simply lowering the temperature, eliminating the need for conventional enzymatic treatments.

  3. A Novel Chemically Modified Curcumin Reduces Severity of Experimental Periodontal Disease in Rats: Initial Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna S. Elburki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetracycline-based matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- inhibitors are currently approved for two inflammatory diseases, periodontitis and rosacea. The current study addresses the therapeutic potential of a novel pleiotropic MMP-inhibitor not based on an antibiotic. To induce experimental periodontitis, endotoxin (LPS was repeatedly injected into the gingiva of rats on one side of the maxilla; the contralateral (control side received saline injections. Two groups of rats were treated by daily oral intubation with a chemically modified curcumin, CMC 2.24, for two weeks; the control groups received vehicle alone. After sacrifice, gingiva, blood, and maxilla were collected, the jaws were defleshed, and periodontal (alveolar bone loss was quantified morphometrically and by μ-CT scan. The gingivae were pooled per experimental group, extracted, and analyzed for MMPs (gelatin zymography; western blot and for cytokines (e.g., IL-1β; ELISA; serum and plasma samples were analyzed for cytokines and MMP-8. The LPS-induced pathologically excessive bone loss was reduced to normal levels based on either morphometric (P=0.003 or μ-CT (P=0.008 analysis. A similar response was seen for MMPs and cytokines in the gingiva and blood. This initial study, on a novel triketonic zinc-binding CMC, indicates potential efficacy on inflammatory mediators and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis and warrants future therapeutic and pharmacokinetic investigations.

  4. Effect of transition metal salts on the initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, Philip; Seidel, Scott; Gupta, Malancha, E-mail: malanchg@usc.edu [Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, 925 Bloom Walk, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In this work, the effect of transition metal salts on the initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymer thin films was studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The polymerizations of 4-vinyl pyridine and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate were studied using copper(II) chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) and iron(III) chloride (FeCl{sub 3}) as the transition metal salts. It was found that the surface coverages of both poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP) and poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate) were decreased on CuCl{sub 2}, while the surface coverage of only P4VP was decreased on FeCl{sub 3}. The decreased polymer surface coverage was found to be due to quenching of the propagating radicals by the salt, which led to a reduction of the oxidation state of the metal. The identification of this reaction mechanism allowed for tuning of the effectiveness of the salts to decrease the polymer surface coverage through the adjustment of processing parameters such as the filament temperature. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the ability of transition metal salts to decrease the polymer surface coverage could be extended to the fabrication of patterned cross-linked coatings, which is important for many practical applications such as sensors and microelectronics.

  5. Identifying families with complex needs after an initial child abuse investigation: A comparison of demographics and needs related to domestic violence, mental health, and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, James David; Brooks, Devon

    2017-03-16

    Families with complex needs related to domestic violence, mental health, and substance use have some of the worst child protective services (CPS) outcomes. Although many of these families are identified during a CPS investigation and subsequently referred to home-based postinvestigation services (HBPS), many are re-reported to CPS, so it is important to understand the postinvestigation experiences of this vulnerable group. Therefore, this study compared families with and without complex needs to understand their uniquedemographics, needs, and postinvestigation outcomes. The sample consisted of 2008 caregivers who received HBPS following an initial CPS investigation. The Family Assessment Form (FAF) was used to measure family functioning in eight domains using a 1-5 scale with higher ratings representing worse functioning. Complex needs were indicated by a mean FAF score of 3 or higher for either domestic violence, mental health, or substance use. Using Pearson chi-square analyses and two-sample t-tests, comparisons were made between families with (n=836) and without (n=1172) complex needs. Half of caregivers with complex needs had a history of abuse, 25% had three to five needs, and nearly half had six to eight needs; 90% of caregivers without complex needs had zero to two needs. Furthermore, caregivers with complex needs had higher mean scores for concrete, educational, and clinical needs. These findings highlight the importance of recognizing variation among families referred to HBPS and accurate screening to ensure that families with complex needs are offered and receive services matched to their unique characteristics and needs.

  6. Best practice in workplace hazardous substances management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, C

    1995-09-01

    Chemical-induced injury and disease remains a significant problem in workers in industry. As a result of this problem, a number of national and international initiatives have recommended the development of conventions, regulations, and codes of practice to attempt to deal with the problems of hazardous substances at work. Within Australia, workplace hazardous substances regulations are in development which will impose legal obligations and responsibilities on the suppliers of hazardous substances and on the employers who use them. At the same time, internationally consistent ISO standards are in use, or are being developed, for quality systems, environmental management, and occupational health and safety. These standards outline a model for the management of quality, environment, or safety, and the processes involved are applicable to the management of hazardous substances. This process includes: obtaining commitment from senior management; instituting consultative mechanisms; developing a hazardous substances policy; identifying components of the hazardous substances management program; resourcing, implementing, and reviewing the program; and integrating the program into the organisation's strategic plan. Only by blending in a specific management program for hazardous substances into the overall planning of an organization will they be managed effectively and efficiently.

  7. Report of the OCVCI-PAPRICAN forest-based chemicals biorefinery Northern Ontario Commercialization Initiative workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdzinski, L. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    This workshop was held to establish commercial processes for the generation of sustainable chemical feedstock from pulp mills. The workshop was attended by over 60 participants from the pulp and paper industry as well as members of the chemical, forestry, and industrial biotechnology industries. Representatives from governments and academic institutions also attended. Links were established between the Ontario forest sector and the Ontario chemical and and polymer sectors. The workshop presented a range of topics for discussion among participants, including issues related to the development of industrial chemicals from pulp mills and methods of sustainably extracting chemicals from hemicellulose. Issues related to the development of bioplastics from pulp production were discussed as well as new developments in wood-derived pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. Ontario forestry resources were reviewed, and a Paprican biorefinery agenda was presented. Current pulp mill bio-based chemicals were discussed, and sustainable feedstocks for the production of chemicals were identified. Industrial bioconversion processes were also outlined.

  8. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  9. Comparison of two chemical extraction methods for proteins and polysaccharides of Spirogyra fluviatilis in extracellular polymeric substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuiping; Lee, Yichao

    2017-05-01

    Under natural circumstances, Spirogyra fluviatilis excretes large amounts of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and forms a mucilage layer. This study used two algal EPS extraction methods such as NH4OH and formaldehyde-NaOH to compare the extraction yields of EPS and the levels of its primary components of polysaccharides and proteins. The results indicated that the extraction yields of EPS using formaldehyde-NaOH and NH4OH are 8.05 mg EPS/g-fresh algae and 5.26 mg EPS/g-fresh algae, respectively. The ratio of proteins to polysaccharides in EPS is around 0.24 to 0.34, which is not a significant difference between the two extraction methods. In other words, the level of polysaccharides is always higher than the level of proteins in EPS extraction with both two methods

  10. The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety Khao Dawk Mali 105 storability II: the case study of chemical and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, P; Pan-in, W; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seed coating substances; chemical fungicide (CA) and biological fungicide polymers [chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL)] on chemical and biochemical changes of rice seeds cv. KDML 105, which have been studied during storage for 12 months. CA significantly affected the rice seed chemical properties and the associated seed deterioration. After 12 months storage, protein content decreased accompanied by declined of lipid content, increased free fatty acids and activated lipoxygenase enzyme. In the case of biological fungicide coated seeds, the antioxidative scavenging enzymes were ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and a high antioxidant activity protected them. Moreover, the sugar content was positive correlated with seed germination and vigor. The biological coated seeds were found to maintain high sugar contents inside the seeds, which resulted high seed storability significantly. In contrast, under fungicide stress (CA), those compounds were lost that directly affected seed vigor during storage.

  11. TVOntario's Substance Abuse Series: Dealing with Drugs and Chemical Solutions. A Summative Evaluation. Report No. 19-1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filson, Gerald W.

    A summative evaluation of the two TVOntario series, Dealing with Drugs and Chemical Solutions was carried out in the April-to-June 1991 period. Classes (N=23) were recruited for the intermediate and senior grade level study, which included more than 550 students. The intermediate series, Dealing with Drugs, designed for grade 7 and 8 students,…

  12. 13C-NMR chemical shift databases as a quick tool to evaluate structural models of humic substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop Albers, Christian; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2010-01-01

    Models for humic and fulvic acids are discussed based on 13C liquid state NMR spectra combined with results from elemental analysis and titration studies. The analysis of NMR spectra is based on a full reconstruction of the NMR spectrum done with help of 13C-NMR data bases by adding up chemical s...

  13. Reducing the Risks. In the aftermath of a terrorist attack, wastewater utilities may have to contend with decontamination water containing chemical, biological, or radiological substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Linda P.; Hornback, Chris; Strom, Daniel J.

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack, decontamination of people and infrastructure will be needed. Decontamination inevitably produces wastewater, and wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) need to know how to handle decontamination wastewater. This article describes CBR substances; planning, coordinating, and communicating responses across agencies; planning within a utility; coordination with local emergency managers and first responders; mitigating effects of decontamination wastewater; and mitigating effects on utility personnel. Planning for Decontamination Wastewater: A Guide for Utilities, the document on which this article is based, was developed under a cooperative agreement from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) and its contractor, CH2MHILL, Inc.

  14. Size distribution and chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol formed from Cl-initiated oxidation of toluene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingqiang Huang; Weijun Zhang; Xuejun Gu; Changjin Hu; Weixiong Zhao; Zhenya Wang; Li Fang

    2012-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from Cl-initiated oxidation of toluene was investigated in a home-made smog chamber.The size distribution and chemical composition of SOA particles were measured using aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer and the aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS),respectively.According to a large number of single aerosol diameter and mass spectra,the size distribution and chemical composition of SOA were obtained statistically.Experimental results showed that SOA particles created by Cl-initiated oxidation of toluene is predominantly in the form of fine particles,which have diameters less than 2.5 μm (i.e.,PM2.5),and glyoxal,benzaldehyde,benzyl alcohol,benzoquinone,benzoic acid,benzyl hydroperoxide and benzyl methyl nitrate are the major products components in the SOA.The possible reaction mechanisms leading to these products are also proposed.

  15. Stable dropwise condensation for enhancing heat transfer via the initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) of grafted polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Adam T; Yagüe, Jose L; Gleason, Karen K; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2014-01-22

    Ultra-thin copolymer films are deposited by initiated chemical deposition (iCVD) to investigate their performance under the condensation of water vapor. By forming a grafted interface between the coating and the substrate, the films exhibit stable dropwise condensation even when subjected to 100 °C steam. The applicability of the iCVD to complex substrate geometries is demonstrated on a copper condenser coil.

  16. Dyeing, moisture regain and mechanical properties of wool fabric grafted with PMMA by chemical and radiation-initiated methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naggar, A.M.; Marie, M.M.; El Gendy, E.H.; El Miligy, A.A. [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-04-01

    PMMA polymer has been grafted onto wool fabric by two methods of grafting preirradiation method and chemical initiation using KMnO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} system. The grafted wool showed an enhancement in dyeability towards some basic dyes differing in size and chemical structure. Preirradiated grafted wool exhibited a relatively higher dyeing affinity than that prepared by the chemical method. Graft yield of up to 26% of PPMA did not have a noticeable effect on the moisture regain of wool fabric. Further increase in graft yield was found to cause a slight reduction in moisture regain. The tensile strength was reduced by the graft process, but elongation at break was not affects. (author).

  17. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Measurement of ultra-micro chemical substances and measuring methods of hormone effects; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Chobiryo kagaku busshitsu no keisoku horumon eikyo sayo sokuteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the measurement system of ultra-micro hazardous chemical substances in the global environment, the paper examined the present situation of chemical substances such as dioxins, made an experimental study on the method to analyze dioxins in exhaust gas from an aspect of international consistency, and worked out a JIS draft. As to the standard measuring method of hormone effects of chemical substances, the paper developed the competitive bonding experiment system to measure bonding ability of chemical substances to homo sapiens estrogen receptor (ER). By measuring ER bonding ability of 78 kinds of chemical substances, the measuring method was developed. In the development of the assay system for detection of hormone-like compounds, the assay system with transfer activity via estrogen receptor as an index was established using cultured cells and yeast. Further, the development was made of a measuring method of receptor bonding activity of hormone-like substances. 33 refs., 151 figs., 66 tabs.

  18. Non-chemical stressors and cumulative risk assessment: an overview of current initiatives and potential air pollutant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S; Sax, Sonja N; Wason, Susan C; Campleman, Sharan L

    2011-06-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  19. Charge effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on their surface functionalization by photo-initiated chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javanbakht, Taraneh [Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, Department of Chemical Engineering (Canada); Laurent, Sophie; Stanicki, Dimitri [University of Mons, Laboratory of NMR and Molecular Imaging (Belgium); Raphael, Wendell; Tavares, Jason Robert, E-mail: jason.tavares@polymtl.ca [Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, Department of Chemical Engineering (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Diverse applications of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in the chemical and biomedical industry depend on their surface properties. In this paper, we investigate the effect of initial surface charge (bare, positively and negatively charged SPIONs) on the resulting physicochemical properties of the particles following treatment through photo-initiated chemical vapour deposition (PICVD). Transmission electron microscopy shows a nanometric polymer coating on the SPIONs and contact angle measurements with water demonstrate that their surface became non-polar following functionalization using PICVD. FTIR and XPS data confirm the change in the chemical composition of the treated SPIONs. Indeed, XPS data reveal an initial charge-dependent increase in the surface oxygen content in the case of treated SPIONs. The O/C percentage ratios of the bare SPIONs increase from 1.7 to 1.9 after PICVD treatment, and decrease from 1.7 to 0.7 in the case of negatively charged SPIONs. The ratio remains unchanged for positively charged SPIONs (1.7). This indicates that bare and negatively charged SPIONs showed opposite preference for the oxygen or carbon attachment to their surface during their surface treatment. These results reveal that both the surface charge and stereochemical effects have determinant roles in the polymeric coating of SPIONs with PICVD. Our findings suggest that this technique is appropriate for the treatment of nanoparticles.Graphical Abstract.

  20. Maternal Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Fetal Markers of Metabolic Function and Birth Weight: The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E; Bouchard, Maryse F; Fisher, Mandy; Morriset, Anne-Sophie; Monnier, Patricia; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Dallaire, Renee; Taback, Shayne; Fraser, William; Platt, Robert W

    2017-01-09

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous, persistent chemicals that have been widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods for their nonflammable, lipophobic, and hydrophobic properties. Inverse associations between maternal or umbilical cord blood concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonate and birth weight have been identified. This literature has primarily examined each PFAS individually without consideration of the potential influence of correlated exposures. Further, the association between PFAS exposures and indicators of metabolic function (i.e., leptin and adiponectin) has received limited attention. We examined associations between first-trimester maternal plasma PFAS concentrations and birth weight and cord blood concentrations of leptin and adiponectin using data on 1,705 mother-infant pairs from the Maternal Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada birth cohort study that recruited women between 2008 and 2011. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to quantify associations and calculate credible intervals. Maternal perfluorooctanoic acid concentrations were inversely associated with birth weight z score, though the null value was included in all credible intervals (log10 β = -0.10, 95% credible interval: -0.34, 0.13). All associations between maternal PFAS concentrations and cord blood adipocytokine concentrations were of small magnitude and centered around the null value. Follow-up in a cohort of children is required to determine how the observed associations manifest in childhood.

  1. Volatile emission in dry seeds as a way to probe chemical reactions during initial asymptomatic deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature and kinetics of reactions in dry seeds determines how long they survive. We used gas chromatography to assay volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from seeds of three unrelated species as a means to non-invasively probe chemical changes during very dry, dry and humid (15, 33 and 75% RH...

  2. Sampling in the Great Lakes for pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine-disrupting substances using the passive polar organic chemical integrative sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxia; Helm, Paul A; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2010-04-01

    The passive polar organic chemical integrative sampler in the pharmaceutical configuration (i.e., pharmaceutical-POCIS) was calibrated for sampling at water temperatures of 5, 15 and 25 degrees C to determine the influence of temperature on chemical-specific sampling rates (R(S)), thus providing more robust estimates of the time-weighted average concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting substances (EDS) in surface water. The effect of water temperature and flow on the R(S) of these analytes was evaluated in the laboratory with a static system. The loss of the test compounds from water by uptake into POCIS was linear over an 8-d period, and these experimental data yielded R(S) values in the range of 0.07 to 2.46 L/d across the temperature range for the 30 compounds tested. Water temperature and flow influenced POCIS uptake rates, but these effects were relatively small, which is consistent with the theory for uptake into POCIS samplers. Therefore, under a narrow range of water temperatures and flows, it may not be necessary to adjust the R(S) for POCIS. Except for acidic drugs and sulfonamide antibiotics, R(S) values were positively correlated with octanol-water partition coefficients (log K(OW)) of the test compounds. A linear relationship was also observed between R(S) and chromatographic retention times on a C18 reversed-phase column. These observations may provide a rapid method for estimating the R(S) of additional chemicals in the POCIS. The application of the R(S) to POCIS deployed for one month in Lake Ontario, Canada, during the summers of 2006 and 2008 yielded estimates of PPCP and EDS concentrations that are consistent with conventional concentration measurements of these compounds in Lake Ontario surface water. (c) 2009 SETAC.

  3. In-Situ Landmine Neutralization Using Chemicals to Initiate Low Order Burning of Main Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    of the gun tube. Once the squib is fired, it produces gas pressure, driving a hammer to impact a firing pin , which in turn fires a cartridge. The...Large Reactive Mine Clearance-II (REMIC-II) The large REMIC-II body is cast in two identical polyurethane halves, connected by four small pins ... four prototype chemical delivery systems. Two systems use diethylene triamine (DETA), which is hypergolic with TNT, Tetryl and TNT based

  4. Priority setting for existing chemicals : automated data selection routine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haelst, A.G. van; Hansen, B.G.

    2000-01-01

    One of the four steps within Council Regulation 793/93/EEC on the evaluation and control of existing chemicals is the priority setting step. The priority setting step is concerned with selecting high-priority substances from a large number of substances, initially starting with 2,474 high-production

  5. Automated indexing of the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Carlo; Chang, Hua Florence; Moore, Dorothy; Fonger, George C

    2003-01-01

    The Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), produced and maintained by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), contains over 4600 records on potentially hazardous chemicals. To enhance information retrieval from HSDB, NLM has undertaken the development of an automated HSDB indexing protocol as part of its Indexing Initiative. The NLM Indexing Initiative investigates methods whereby automated indexing may partially or completely substitute for human indexing. The poster's purpose is to describe the HSDB Automated Indexing Project.

  6. Automated Indexing of the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), produced and maintained by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), contains over 4600 records on potentially hazardous chemicals. To enhance information retrieval from HSDB, NLM has undertaken the development of an automated HSDB indexing protocol as part of its Indexing Initiative. The NLM Indexing Initiative investigates methods whereby automated indexing may partially or completely substitute for human indexing. The poster’s purpose is to describe...

  7. Morphological and chemical study of the initial growth of CdS thin films deposited using an ammonia-free chemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon-Montijo, D.A.; Sotelo-Lerma, M.; Quevedo-Lopez, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 130, 83190 Hermosillo, Son. (Mexico); El-Bouanani, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 305310 Denton, TX 76203-5310 (United States); Alshareef, H.N. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, TX 78741 (United States); Espinoza-Beltran, F.J. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, 76001 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Ramirez-Bon, R. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, 76001 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)], E-mail: rrbon@qro.cinvestav.mx

    2007-11-15

    We study the initial growth stages of CdS thin films deposited by an ammonia-free chemical bath deposition process. This ammonia-free process is more environmentally benign because it reduces potential ammonia release to the environment due to its high volatility. Instead of ammonia, sodium citrate was used as the complexing agent. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM), Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate the morphological and chemical modifications at the substrate surface during the first initial stages of the CdS deposition process. Additionally, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical transmission spectroscopy measurements were carried out to compliment the study. XPS results show that the first nucleation centers are composed by Cd(OH){sub 2} which agglomerate in patterns of bands, as demonstrated by AFM results. It is also observed that the conversion to CdS (by anionic exchange) of the first nucleus begins before the substrate surface is completely covered by a homogenous film.

  8. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  9. Chemical reactions involved in the initiation of hot corrosion of IN-738

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Sodium-sulfate-induced hot corrosion of preoxidized IN-738 was studied at 975 C with special emphasis placed on the processes occurring during the long induction period. Thermogravimetric tests were run for predetermined periods of time, and then one set of specimens was washed with water. Chemical analysis of the wash solutions yielded information about water soluble metal salts and residual sulfate. A second set of samples was cross sectioned dry and polished in a nonaqueous medium. Element distributions within the oxide scale were obtained from electron microprobe X-ray micrographs. Evolution of SO was monitored throughout the thermogravimetric tests. Kinetic rate studies were performed for several pertinent processes; appropriate rate constants were obtained from the following chemical reactions; Cr203 + 2 Na2S04(1) + 3/2 02 yields 2 Na2Cr04(1) + 2 S03(g)n TiO2 + Na2S04(1) yields Na20(T102)n + 503(g)n T102 + Na2Cro4(1) yields Na2(T102)n + Cr03(g).

  10. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PCT DATA FOR THE INITIAL SET OF HANFORD ENHANCED WASTE LOADING GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2014-06-02

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test results for 20 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation ranges of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. Two components of the study glasses, fluorine and silver, were not measured since each of these species would have required the use of an additional preparation method and their measured values were likely to be near or below analytical detection limits. Some of the glasses were difficult to prepare for chemical analysis. A sodium peroxide fusion dissolution method was successful in completely dissolving the glasses. Components present in the glasses in minor concentrations can be difficult to measure using this dissolution method due to dilution requirements. The use of a lithium metaborate preparation method for the minor components (planned for use since it is typically successful in digesting Defense Waste Processing Facility HLW glasses) resulted in an unacceptable amount of undissolved solids remaining in the sample solutions. An acid dissolution method was used instead, which provided more thorough dissolution of the glasses, although a small amount of undissolved material remained for some of the study glasses. The undissolved material was analyzed to determine those components of the glasses that did not fully dissolve. These components (e.g., calcium and chromium) were present in sufficient quantities to be reported from the measurements resulting from the sodium peroxide fusion preparation method, which did not leave undissolved material. Overall, the analyses resulted in sums of

  11. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PCT DATA FOR THE INITIAL SET OF HANFORD ENHANCED WASTE LOADING GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2014-06-02

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test results for 20 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation ranges of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. Two components of the study glasses, fluorine and silver, were not measured since each of these species would have required the use of an additional preparation method and their measured values were likely to be near or below analytical detection limits. Some of the glasses were difficult to prepare for chemical analysis. A sodium peroxide fusion dissolution method was successful in completely dissolving the glasses. Components present in the glasses in minor concentrations can be difficult to measure using this dissolution method due to dilution requirements. The use of a lithium metaborate preparation method for the minor components (planned for use since it is typically successful in digesting Defense Waste Processing Facility HLW glasses) resulted in an unacceptable amount of undissolved solids remaining in the sample solutions. An acid dissolution method was used instead, which provided more thorough dissolution of the glasses, although a small amount of undissolved material remained for some of the study glasses. The undissolved material was analyzed to determine those components of the glasses that did not fully dissolve. These components (e.g., calcium and chromium) were present in sufficient quantities to be reported from the measurements resulting from the sodium peroxide fusion preparation method, which did not leave undissolved material. Overall, the analyses resulted in sums of

  12. Physico-chemical characterization of SOA derived from catechol and guaiacol – a model substance for the aromatic fraction of atmospheric HULIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Whitmore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA was produced from the aromatic precursors catechol and guaiacol by reaction with ozone in the presence and absence of simulated sunlight and humidity and investigated for its properties as a proxy for HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS. Beside a small particle size, a relatively low molecular weight and typical optical features in the UV/VIS spectral range, HULIS contain a typical aromatic and/or olefinic chemical structure and highly oxidized functional groups within a high chemical diversity. Various methods were used to characterize the secondary organic aerosols obtained: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR demonstrated the formation of several carbonyl containing functional groups as well as structural and functional differences between aerosols formed at different environmental conditions. UV/VIS spectroscopy of filter samples showed that the particulate matter absorbs far into the visible range up to more than 500 nm. Ultrahigh resolved mass spectroscopy (ICR-FT/MS determined O/C-ratios between 0.3 and 1 and observed m/z ratios between 200 and 450 to be most abundant. Temperature-programmed-pyrolysis mass spectroscopy (TPP-MS identified carboxylic acids and lactones/esters as major functional groups. Particle sizing using a condensation-nucleus-counter and differential-mobility-particle-sizer (CNC/DMPS monitored the formation of small particles during the SOA formation process. Particle imaging, using field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM, showed spherical particles, forming clusters and chains. We conclude that catechol and guaiacol are appropriate precursors for studies of the processing of aromatic SOA with atmospheric HULIS properties on the laboratory scale.

  13. Initiation of modern-style plate tectonics recorded in Mesoarchean marine chemical sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkoski, Aaron M.; Fralick, Philip; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2017-07-01

    The chemistry of the oceans in part reflects a balance between inputs from the continents and mantle. Traditionally, it has been thought that Archean ocean chemistry was dominated by mantle sources, but recent work has suggested that continental weathering during the Archean provided a much higher flux to the oceans than previously recognized. Here, we present new Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope compositions on carbonate (dolomite and limestone) from the 2.94 Ga Red Lake and 2.80 Ga Steep Rock groups in the Superior Province, Canada to assess the potential impact continental weathering had on ocean chemistry during the Mesoarchean, a time when initiation of modern-style plate tectonics has been proposed to have occurred. The low Rb contents of all carbonate samples suggest that clastic contamination does not affect the Sr isotope compositions. Using O and Sr isotope modeling, we identified unaltered samples and estimate a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70173 for seawater at 2.94 Ga and 0.70182 at 2.80 Ga. Strontium isotope compositions from both Red Lake and Steep Rock indicate that seawater was significantly more radiogenic than contemporaneous mantle, and suggests that weathering of evolved continental crust was an important input to seawater. Continental weathering likely affected seawater chemistry through uplift of continental lithosphere during the initiation of modern-style plate tectonics at 3.2 Ga, a model that is contrary to those that suggest the Archean continents were small in extent and largely submerged. Initiation of modern-style plate tectonics and associated continental weathering had an important effect on the biosphere, including increased nutrient delivery, as well as creation of ecological niches that allowed development of the first biologically produced shallow marine redox gradients.

  14. Substance use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse; Illicit drug abuse; Narcotic abuse; Hallucinogen abuse ... Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  15. Mass spectrometric study of the kinetics of chemical reactions in tetrafluoroethylene initiated by a gas discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zyn' , V.I.; Oparin, V.B.; Potapov, V.K.; Tuzov, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    In this investigation of the time dependence of the partial pressures of fluorohydrocarbons synthesized from tetrafluoroethylene in an atypical glow discharge, the mass spectrometric method was used. The product yield sequence in a state reactor was determined: C/sub 4/F/sub 8/, C/sub 3/F/sub 8/, C/sub 2/F/sub 6/, C/sub 4/F/sub 10/, CF/sub 4/. In the 6-80 Pa range the C/sub 2/F/sub 4/ decomposition rate does not depend on the initial monomer pressure. A kinetic model giving a good description of the experimental results is proposed.

  16. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of dissolved humic substances in a mangrove-fringed estuary in the eastern coast of Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yaoling; DU Jinzhou; PENG Bo; ZHANG Fenfen; ZHAO Xin; ZHANG Jing

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) has an important effect on estuarine and coastal area on a large scale.In order to improve the understanding of origin,composition,and fate of DOM in mangrove-fringed estuarine and coastal areas,dissolved humic substances (DHS) were isolated from one mangrove pore-water sample and one near-shore seawater sample downstream the mangrove pore-water site in the eastern coast of Hainan Island,South China.Fulvic acids,humic acids and XAD-4 fractions were obtained from the two water samples by using a two-column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins.Chemical and spectroscopic methods were used to analyze the features of these DHS.Compared to the mangrovepore-water DHS,the near-shore seawater DHS were found rich in 13C with lower C/N ratios and more aliphatic compounds and carbohydrates,but less aromatic structures and carboxyl groups.As for the three fractions of the two DHS,XAD-4 fractions contain more aliphatics,carbohydrates,carboxyl groups,and enrich in 13C with respect to both fulvic and humic acids.Photo-oxidation transformation and contribution from marine-derived DOM were considered as the main reasons resulted in the difference in compositional features for these DHS in this study.

  17. Development and validation of an ultra high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of a diastereomeric impurity in (+)-pinoresinol diglucoside chemical reference substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jing-Zheng; Cheung, Lok Man; Liu, Xin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Zhou, Yan; Li, Song-Lin; Chen, Shi-Lin; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-07-01

    (+)-Pinoresinol 4,4'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside ((+)-PDG) is one of the major lignans with various pharmacological activities which could be isolated from Duzhong and other plant species. In this study, a diastereomeric impurity, (-)-pinoresinol 4,4'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside ((-)-PDG), the main impurity was identified in (+)-PDG chemical reference substance (CRS) and a reliable chromatographic method for rapid purity determination of (+)-PDG CRS was firstly developed. The optimal chromatographic condition was found to be using ACN/1,4-dioxane-water (2.5:6:91.5, v/v/v) as mobile phase on a Waters Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.8 microm) with column temperature of 37 degrees C. The method was validated and applied to determine the chromatographic purity of five (+)-PDG CRS samples. The content of (-)-PDG in four commercial (+)-PDG CRS was 8.47-20.30%, whereas no (-)-PDG was detected in our in-house prepared (+)-PDG CRS in which purity was confirmed to be 99.80%. The above results confirmed that this method is fast and highly efficient for purity determination of the (+)-PDG CRS.

  18. α--AMYLASES OF Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae AND Bacillus subtilis: THE SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY AND RESISTANCE TO A NUMBER OF CHEMICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Avdiyuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae 80428 and Bacillus subtilis 147 α-amylases to split different carbohydrate-containing substrates, such as maltose, sucrose, trehalose, dextrin, α- and β-cyclodextrin, amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, pullulan, soluble starch, insoluble starch, corn starch, wheat starch, dextran 500 has been studied. It was shown that investigated enzymes differ by substrate specificity. α-Amylase of A. flavus var. oryzae 80428 rapidly hydrolysed soluble potato and wheat starch, while the α-amylase of B. subtilis 147 — only wheat starch. Both enzymes don’t cleave maltose, α-cyclodextrin and dextran 500. A. flavus var. oryzae 80428 α-amylase display very small ability to hydrolyze pullulan, while α-amylase of B. subtilis 147 it does not act in general. The lowest values of Michaelis constant for both enzymes at splitting of glycogen have been obtained, indicating that enzymes have the greatest affinity to this substrate. The studies of influence of chemically active substances on activity of A. flavus var. oryzae 80428 and B. subtilis 147 ?-amylases show there are resistant to urea, deoxycholic acid, Tween-80, Triton X-100 and hydrogen peroxide. It’s indicate the enzymes tested may be competitive in compare with earlier described in literature enzymes. The obtained results give a possibility to propose in future usage these enzymes in different fields of industry, foremost in detergent industry.

  19. Functional polymers synthesized by grafting of glycidyl methacrylate onto swift heavy ions irradiated BOPP films using chemical initiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, Shashi [Amity School of Engineering and Technology, New Delhi (India); Ghosh, Anup K. [Centre for Polymer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India); Avasthi, Devesh K.; Kulriya, Pawan K. [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi (India); Ahmad, Sharif [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110 025 (India)], E-mail: sharifahmad_jmi@yahoo.co.in

    2009-07-01

    Commercially available biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) films were irradiated with 90 MeV Ni{sup 8+} ions and 120 MeV Ag{sup 11+} ions at different fluencies varying from 10{sup 10} to 3 x 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} and then grafted with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as chemical initiator. As the reaction temperature was below the melting point, PP was modified in the solid phase. A comparative study for the GMA grafting using BPO initiator in virgin as well as in the SHI irradiated BOPP indicates that the heterogeneity of the grafted GMA domains on the BOPP surface was higher in SHI irradiated system. Contact angle measurements showed an increasingly hydrophilic nature in the direction from pure PP to grafted PP-g-GMA. These results are intended to benefit the synthesis and properties of a functional polymer, useful in developing a compatibilizer for PP/Cloisite 30B nanocomposites.

  20. Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) Polymer Thin Films: Structure-Property Effects on Thermal Degradation and Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharamaiah Jeevendrakumar, Vijay Jain

    Opportunities and challenges for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of polymer thin films stems from their applications in electronics, sensors, and adhesives with demands for control over film composition, conformity and stability. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a subset of the CVD technique that conjoins bulk free-radical polymerization chemistry with gas-phase processing. The novelty of iCVD technique stems from the use of an initiator that can be activated at low energies (150 -- 300 °C) to react with surface adsorbed monomer to form a polymer film. This reduces risk for potential unwarranted side-reactions. Until recently, majority of iCVD research was limited to understanding the deposition kinetics with monomer properties being the principal parameters. However, there is a lack of study on the properties of deposited films which is critical for utilizing the technique in any real-world applications. The work presented here aims to advance investigation in this direction by characterizing the thermal properties of iCVD polymer films with primary focus on the initiators. A detailed characterization of custom-built iCVD system served as ground work for following investigations. Poly(neopentyl methacrylate) (PnPMA) thin films were deposited with tert-butyl peroxide (TBPO) initiators and their Tg, CTE and thermal degradation properties were investigated. iCVD PnPMA films presented low-temperature degradation peaks attributed to weak linkages from H-abstraction and beta-scission reactions of TBPO. To test this hypothesis, PnPMA films were deposited with tert-butyl peroxybenzoate (TBPOB) which is selective towards vinyl addition. Contrary to expected results, TBPOB initiated films showed degradation at lower temperatures compared to TBPO initiated films. It is postulated that with TBPOB, the surface initiator concentration is higher and consequently small oligomeric molecules were formed that degraded easily. Following these investigations, poly

  1. Using hot wire and initiated chemical vapor deposition for gas barrier thin film encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spee, D.A., E-mail: diederickspee@gmail.com; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2015-01-30

    Hot wire CVD (HWCVD) and initiated CVD (iCVD) are very well suited deposition techniques for the fabrication of transparent thin film gas barriers. Single inorganic or organic layers, however, face challenges, which are hard to overcome: unavoidable defects and low intrinsic barrier function. We demonstrate that by combining inorganic HWCVD films and organic iCVD films, a water vapor transmission rate a low as 5 ∗ 10{sup −6} g/m{sup 2}/day at 60 °C and 90% RH for a simple pinhole free three layer structure is obtained even with non-optimized individual layers. Given the 100 °C deposition temperature, the layer stacks can be deposited on any sensitive electronic device.

  2. Synthesis of coaxial nanotubes of polyaniline and poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate by oxidative/initiated chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Balkan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vapor-phase synthesis techniques of polymeric nanostructures offer unique advantages over conventional, solution-based techniques because of their solventless nature. In this work, we report the fabrication of coaxial polymer nanotubes using two different chemical vapor deposition methods. The fabrication process involves the deposition of an outer layer of the conductive polyaniline (PANI by oxidative chemical vapor deposition, followed by the deposition of the inner layer of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA hydrogel by initiated chemical vapor deposition. The vapor-phase techniques allowed for fine-tuning of the thickness of the individual layers, keeping the functionalities of the polymers intact. The response of the single components and the coaxial nanotubes to changes in humidity was investigated for potential humidity sensor applications. For single-component conductive PANI nanotubes, the resistance changed parabolically with relative humidity because of competing effects of doping and swelling of the PANI polymer under humid conditions. Introducing a hydrogel inner layer increased the overall resistance, and enhanced swelling, which caused the resistance to continuously increase with relative humidity.

  3. Volatile emission in dry seeds as a way to probe chemical reactions during initial asymptomatic deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Sara; Hill, Lisa M; González-Benito, M Elena; Ibáñez, Miguel Angel; Walters, Christina

    2016-03-01

    The nature and kinetics of reactions in dry seeds determines how long the seeds survive. We used gas chromatography to assay volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from seeds of three unrelated species as a means to non-invasively probe chemical changes during very dry, dry, and humid storage (seeds were dried to 5.5, 33, and 75% relative humidity at room temperature). VOCs emitted from seeds stored in humid conditions reflected fermentation-type reactions, with methanol and ethanol being predominant in Lactuca sativa and Carum carvi, and acetaldehyde and acetone being predominant in Eruca vesicaria. Dried C. carvi seeds continued to emit fermentation-type products, although at slower rates than the seeds stored in humid conditions. In contrast, drying caused a switch in VOC emission in L. sativa and E. vesicaria seeds towards higher emission of pentane and hexanal, molecules considered to be byproducts from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Longevity correlated best with the rate of fermentation-type reactions and appeared unrelated to the rate of lipid peroxidation. Emission of VOCs decreased when seed species were mixed together, indicating that seeds adsorbed VOCs. Adsorption of VOCs did not appear to damage seeds, as longevity was not affected in seed mixtures. Collectively, the study shows similarity among species in the types of reactions that occur in dry seeds, but high diversity in the substrates, and hence the byproducts, of the reactions. Moreover, the study suggests that the most abundant VOCs arise from degradation of storage reserves within seed cells, and that these reactions and their byproducts are not, in themselves, damaging.

  4. Fate models for chemical substances in exposure and risk assessment. Focused on estimation of atmospheric concentration; Bakuro{center_dot}risuku hyoka ni okeru kagaku busshitsu unmei yosoku moderu. Taikichu nodo suitei wo chushin toshite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, H. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-09-20

    A fate model is one of the most effective tools in exposure and risk assessment of chemical substances. Two different type models are available for estimating the atmospheric concentration. One is unit box and multi compartment type model, the other is atmospheric dispersion model. These models should be used in different suitable situations because each model has both advantage and disadvantage. Estimation of the long-term average concentration in a comparatively wide region into which substances are continuously discharged should be required in the environmental assessment of chemical substances. We developed the model with which to estimate long-term average atmospheric concentrations of chemicals. The model validation was conducted for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene concentrations in the atmosphere by comparing calculated values and observed values. Good agreement with the measured values was obtained for the monthly average concentration. The model is capable of estimating the long-term (such as monthly) average distribution of concentration of chemicals in a wide flat area such as the Kanto plain. (author)

  5. Initiation of Plate Tectonics from Post-Magma Ocean Thermo-Chemical Convection

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, Bradford J; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2014-01-01

    Leading theories for the presence of plate tectonics on Earth typically appeal to the role of present day conditions in promoting rheological weakening of the lithosphere. However, it is unknown whether the conditions of the early Earth were favorable for plate tectonics, or any form of subduction, and thus how subduction begins is unclear. Using physical models based on grain-damage, a grainsize-feedback mechanism capable of producing plate-like mantle convection, we demonstrate that subduction was possible on the Hadean Earth (hereafter referred to as proto-subduction or proto-plate tectonics), that proto-subduction differed from modern day plate tectonics, and that it could initiate rapidly. Scaling laws for convection with grain-damage show that, though either higher mantle temperatures or higher surface temperatures lead to slower plates, proto-subduction, with plate speeds of $\\approx 1.75$ cm/yr, can still be maintained in the Hadean, even with a CO$_2$ rich primordial atmosphere. Furthermore, when the...

  6. Initial development and chemical components of sugarcane under water stress associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem C. M. de Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water stress levels in the soil and a mix (or: a mixed inoculum of four species: Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Gigasporas rosea, Acaulospora longula, Fuscutata heterogama of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on initial vegetative growth, fresh and dry biomass production, root colonization, phosphorus, proteins, enzymes and amino acid of the sugarcane variety RB 857515 under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was set in a randomized block design in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme with four treatments (T1 - 50% PC - pot capacity, with AMF; T2 - 100% PC with AMF; T3 - 50% PC without AMF; T4 - 100% PC without AMF with 16 replicates. The water stress level of 50% PC decreased stem diameter and shoot and root fresh weight of sugarcane plants, as well as AMF in the soil and in plant roots. However, AMF and the water stress level of 50% PC, separately or combined, did not affect plant height, number of leaves, dry matter and contents of phosphorus, total soluble proteins, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase and proline of the sugarcane variety RB857515.

  7. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : III. AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE ISOLATION OF THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTANCE AND ITS APPLICATION TO PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPES II, III, AND VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M; Avery, O T

    1946-01-31

    1. An improved method is outlined for the isolation and purification of the pneumococcal transforming substance. This method makes use of the fact that citrate inhibits the destructive action of the enzyme, desoxyribonuclease, which is released together with the active material during lysis of the living bacterial cells. A fivefold greater yield of purified transforming agent is obtained by the present method than by the procedure previousiy described. 2. The specific transforming substance has been isolated from pneumococci of types II and VI, in addition to Type III. In each instance the biologically active material has been found to consist of desoxyribonucleic acid.

  8. Chemical substances injection in wells through the gas-lift line: state of the art; Injecao de produtos quimicos em pocos atraves de linha de gas-lift: estado-da-arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Joao Batista Vianey da Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Tecnologia de Producao, Processamento e Transporte]. E-mail: jramalho@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-12-01

    Injecting chemical substances on the subsurface in order to control incrustation, corrosion, emulsion and waxes, among other problems caused by the production at the oil wells, has not been used much because of the way they are usually injected. Recently, these products have been injected in wells through the gas-lift line, thus allowing control over the individual treatment in each well. The main conclusions arrived at with the reports made are the following: it is possible to inject chemical substances through the gas-lift line. The formulations of such products must be specific and they must contain the proper amounts of solvent to prevent the segregation of active matter. These products must be injected individually in the gas-lift line at each well. (author)

  9. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  10. Initial stages of growth and the influence of temperature during chemical vapor deposition of sp{sup 2}-BN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubarov, Mikhail; Pedersen, Henrik; Högberg, Hans; Henry, Anne, E-mail: anne.henry@liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Czigány, Zsolt [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Centre for Energy Research of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly-Thege Miklós út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-11-15

    Knowledge of the structural evolution of thin films, starting by the initial stages of growth, is important to control the quality and properties of the film. The authors present a study on the initial stages of growth and the temperature influence on the structural evolution of sp{sup 2} hybridized boron nitride (BN) thin films during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with triethyl boron and ammonia as precursors. Nucleation of hexagonal BN (h-BN) occurs at 1200 °C on α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an AlN buffer layer (AlN/α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). At 1500 °C, h-BN grows with a layer-by-layer growth mode on AlN/α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to ∼4 nm after which the film structure changes to rhombohedral BN (r-BN). Then, r-BN growth proceeds with a mixed layer-by-layer and island growth mode. h-BN does not grow on 6H-SiC substrates; instead, r-BN nucleates and grows directly with a mixed layer-by-layer and island growth mode. These differences may be caused by differences in substrate surface temperature due to different thermal conductivities of the substrate materials. These results add to the understanding of the growth process of sp{sup 2}-BN employing CVD.

  11. Surface modification of reverse osmosis desalination membranes by thin-film coatings deposited by initiated chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaydin-Ince, Gozde, E-mail: gozdeince@sabanciuniv.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Matin, Asif, E-mail: amatin@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Zafarullah, E-mail: zukhan@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Zaidi, S.M. Javaid, E-mail: zaidismj@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gleason, Karen K., E-mail: kkgleasn@mit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-07-31

    Thin-film polymeric reverse osmosis membranes, due to their high permeation rates and good salt rejection capabilities, are widely used for seawater desalination. However, these membranes are prone to biofouling, which affects their performance and efficiency. In this work, we report a method to modify the membrane surface without damaging the active layer or significantly affecting the performance of the membrane. Amphiphilic copolymer films of hydrophilic hydroxyethylmethacrylate and hydrophobic perfluorodecylacrylate (PFA) were synthesized and deposited on commercial RO membranes using an initiated chemical vapor deposition technique which is a polymer deposition technique that involves free-radical polymerization initiated by gas-phase radicals. Relevant surface characteristics such as hydrophilicity and roughness could be systematically controlled by varying the polymer chemistry. Increasing the hydrophobic PFA content in the films leads to an increase in the surface roughness and hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the surface morphology studies performed using the atomic force microscopy show that as the thickness of the coating increases average surface roughness increases. Using this knowledge, the coating thickness and chemistry were optimized to achieve high permeate flux and to reduce cell attachment. Results of the static bacterial adhesion tests show that the attachment of bacterial cells is significantly reduced on the coated membranes. - Highlights: • Thin films are deposited on reverse osmosis membranes. • Amphiphilic thin films are resistant to protein attachment. • The permeation performance of the membranes is not affected by the coating. • The thin film coatings delayed the biofouling.

  12. Revision of Import and Export Requirements for Controlled Substances, Listed Chemicals, and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines, Including Changes To Implement the International Trade Data System (ITDS); Revision of Reporting Requirements for Domestic Transactions in Listed Chemicals and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines; and Technical Amendments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Drug Enforcement Administration is updating its regulations for the import and export of tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, and its regulations relating to reports required for domestic transactions in listed chemicals, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and tableting and encapsulating machines. In accordance with Executive Order 13563, the Drug Enforcement Administration has reviewed its import and export regulations and reporting requirements for domestic transactions in listed chemicals (and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) and tableting and encapsulating machines, and evaluated them for clarity, consistency, continued accuracy, and effectiveness. The amendments clarify certain policies and reflect current procedures and technological advancements. The amendments also allow for the implementation, as applicable to tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, of the President's Executive Order 13659 on streamlining the export/import process and requiring the government-wide utilization of the International Trade Data System (ITDS). This rule additionally contains amendments that implement recent changes to the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (CSIEA) for reexportation of controlled substances among members of the European Economic Area made by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act. The rule also includes additional substantive and technical and stylistic amendments.

  13. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  14. CHEMICALS

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  15. Stability Evaluation and Chemical Type of Bioactive Substances Produced by Actinomyces Strain A01%放线菌A01发酵液中活性成分稳定性及其化学类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢彩鸽; 刘伟成; 刘霆; 王慧敏; 刘德文; 裘季燕

    2009-01-01

    The physical-chemical characteristics and chemical type of the bioactive substance obtained from the fermentation broth of actinomyces strain A01 were studied. The bioactive substance showed high inhibitory activity to many plant pathogenic fungi such as Botrytis cirwrea and Fusarium spp. . The ion characteristics and chemical type identification of the antibiotics were analysized by paper chromatogra-phy, paper electrophoresis and UV absorption spectrum. The results showed that the bioactive substance in neutral and alkaline environment was relatively stable. Its relative activity remained at 81.19% when treated 30 min under 100 ℃. It was not sensitive to protease, but more sensitive to UV. UV spectrum showed that the active compound presented three typical absorbance peaks at 291 nm, 305 nm and 319 nm, which is the typical characteristic of conjugated polyene chemicals. Combining the results of paper chromatography and paper electrophoresis, we may infer that the active substance produced by strain A01 could be a tetar-alkene neutral antibiotic. This study provides valuable information for the purification of the active substance and its further agricultural application.%本文研究了对多种植物病原真菌均表现出良好抑菌活性的菌株A01发酵液中活性成分对热、酸碱、蛋白酶及紫外线的稳定性,并采用pH纸层析、捷克氏八溶剂系统纸层析、纸电泳和紫外波长扫描等方法对其进行了化学类型的早期鉴别.结果表明,菌株A01发酵液中活性物质在中性及偏碱性环境中比较稳定;100℃处理30min相对活性还保持在81.19%;对蛋白酶不敏感,但对紫外线较敏感;紫外扫描在291、305和319nm处有典型共轭四烯生色基团的吸收峰,结合纸层析和纸电泳结果,表明该活性物质归为四烯类中性抗生素.

  16. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  17. Chemical warfare in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, Gabi

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field expe

  18. Capturing Chemical Identity Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Courtney; Sevian, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Chemical identity, the idea that every substance has at least one property that makes it unique and able to be differentiated from other substances, is core to the practice of chemistry. Such practice requires using properties to classify as well as to differentiate. Learning which substance properties are productive in chemical identity thinking…

  19. Chemical warfare in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, Gabi

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field

  20. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  1. The OH-initiated atmospheric chemical reactions of polyfluorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: A comparative theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaolan; Chen, Jing; Qu, Ruijuan; Pan, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zunyao

    2017-02-01

    The atmospheric chemical reactions of some polyfluorinated dibenzofurans (PFDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), initiated by OH radical, were investigated by performing theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) and B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,p) method. The obtained results indicate that OH addition reactions of PFDFs and PCDFs occurring at C1∼4 and CA sites are thermodynamic spontaneous changes and the branching ratio of the PF(C)DF-OH adducts is decided primarily by kinetic factor. The OH addition reactions of PFDFs taking place at fluorinated C1∼4 positions are kinetically comparable with those occurring at nonfluorinated C1∼4 positions, while OH addition reactions of PCDFs occurring at chlorinated C1∼4 sites are negligible. The total rate constants of the addition reactions of PFDFs or PCDFs become smaller with consecutive fluorination or chlorination, and substituting at C1 position has more adverse effects than substitution at other sites. The succedent O2 addition reactions of PF(C)DF-OH adducts are thermodynamic nonspontaneous processes under the atmospheric conditions, and have high Gibbs free energies of activation (ΔrG(≠)). The substituted dibenzofuranols are the primary oxidation products for PCDFs under the atmospheric conditions. However, other oxidative products may also be available for PFDFs besides substituted dibenzofuranols.

  2. Synthesis of ultrathin polymer insulating layers by initiated chemical vapour deposition for low-power soft electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hanul; Seong, Hyejeong; Shin, Woo Cheol; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Mincheol; Lee, Seungwon; Bong, Jae Hoon; Noh, Yong-Young; Cho, Byung Jin; Yoo, Seunghyup; Im, Sung Gap

    2015-06-01

    Insulating layers based on oxides and nitrides provide high capacitance, low leakage, high breakdown field and resistance to electrical stresses when used in electronic devices based on rigid substrates. However, their typically high process temperatures and brittleness make it difficult to achieve similar performance in flexible or organic electronics. Here, we show that poly(1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinyl cyclotrisiloxane) (pV3D3) prepared via a one-step, solvent-free technique called initiated chemical vapour deposition (iCVD) is a versatile polymeric insulating layer that meets a wide range of requirements for next-generation electronic devices. Highly uniform and pure ultrathin films of pV3D3 with excellent insulating properties, a large energy gap (>8 eV), tunnelling-limited leakage characteristics and resistance to a tensile strain of up to 4% are demonstrated. The low process temperature, surface-growth character, and solvent-free nature of the iCVD process enable pV3D3 to be grown conformally on plastic substrates to yield flexible field-effect transistors as well as on a variety of channel layers, including organics, oxides, and graphene.

  3. Molecular fouling resistance of zwitterionic and amphiphilic initiated chemically vapor-deposited (iCVD) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R; Goktekin, E; Wang, MH; Gleason, KK

    2014-08-08

    Biofouling is a universal problem in various applications ranging from water purification to implantable biomedical devices. Recent advances in surface modification have created a rich library of antifouling surface chemistries, many of which can be categorized into one of the two groups: hydrophilic surfaces or amphiphilic surfaces. We report the straightforward preparation of antifouling thin film coatings in both categories via initiated chemical vapor deposition. A molecular force spectroscopy-based method is demonstrated as a rapid and quantitative assessment tool for comparing the differences in antifouling characteristics. The fouling propensity of single molecules, as opposed to bulk protein solution or bacterial culture, is assessed. This method allows for the interrogation of molecular interaction without the complication resulted from protein conformational change or micro-organism group interactions. The molecular interaction follows the same trend as bacterial adhesion results obtained previously, demonstrating that molecular force probe is a valid method for the quantification and mechanistic examination of fouling. In addition, the molecular force spectroscopy-based method is able to distinguish differences in antifouling capability that is not resolvable by traditional static protein adsorption tests. To lend further insight into the intrinsic fouling resistance of zwitterionic and amphiphilic surface chemistries, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, advancing and receding water contact angles, and atomic force microscopy are used to elucidate the film properties that are relevant to their antifouling capabilities.

  4. 从化学物质管理到产品管理的最新技术体系%From Chemical Substance Management to Product Management Technical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于丽娜; 霍立彬; 叶旌; 聂晶磊

    2014-01-01

    介绍化学品从传统的物质管理到产品管理的体系现状,从物质使用环节入手,减少有害化学物质的倒逼化学品环境管理模式,以至实现有毒有害化学物质的全过程管控。发达国家通过实施政策法规和环境标签非强制手段,提供化学物质管控的技术、建立替代评估模型,在引导公众自愿前提下倡导企业在更广泛的产品和化学物质领域开展信息收集和公开制度。借鉴国外产品中化学品管理的丰富经验,在法律规定下由少到多分别列明管控的物质清单和产品清单,以替代评估为技术支持,引导公众自愿推进管理,为我国化学品管理决策提供有力支持。%The article describes chemicals management situation,from substance management to product management, which is forced to start from the use sector,the reversed model of chemicals environmental management to realize the whole process of toxic and hazardous chemicals management. Developed countries implement non-coercive means such as appro-priate policies and regulations and environmental labeling;provide technology to control chemical substances and build al-ternative assessment models;in premise of guiding public voluntary,advocate companies in the wider products and chemi-cal substances in the field information collection and disclosure system. Learning from foreign experience of chemicals man-agement,listing controlled material inventory and products inventory separately from least to greatest under the regulation of law,taking alternative assessment as technical support,and guiding the public to promote management voluntarily,can provide strong support to the chemical product management of our country.

  5. Cross-linking and ultrathin grafted gradation of fluorinated polymers synthesized via initiated chemical vapor deposition to prevent surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Andong; Goktekin, Esma; Gleason, Karen K

    2014-12-02

    Poly(fluoroalkyl acrylate)s with long perfluorooctyl pendant groups have been found to lead to the release of biopersistent perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). Those with no more than six perfluorinated carbons in pedant groups do not cause such problems. They, however, give poor dynamic water repellency due to extensive reorganization of surface fluorinated groups when exposed to the water interface. In this work, thin films exhibiting improved dynamic water repellency, as evidenced by water contact angle (WCA) measurements, were synthesized via substrate-independent initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) from 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl acrylate (C6PFA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) using two methods: copolymerization and ultrathin grafted gradation. The copolymerization between C6PFA and the cross-linker, DVB, was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The cross-linking is concluded to hinder the reorganization of surface fluorinated groups. The grafted gradation, consisting of an ultrathin pC6PFA top layer and a pDVB base layer, was characterized by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) measurements, which indicated that the top layer of pC6PFA is water repellency. The outmost surface of this structure is fully covered by fluorinated groups, giving hydrophobicity. Concurrently, thanks to the interlayer grafting and the ultrathinness of the top layer, the fluorinated groups' tendency to migrate away from water interface is sterically blocked by the highly cross-linked pDVB base layer. The proposed approaches effectively reduced WCA hysteresis of C6PFA-based thin film to as low as 26.9° while maintaining sufficient hydrophobicity (advanced WCA of 119.6°). Due to the conformal and substrate-independent nature of iCVD technique, the films could be used to coat textured surfaces to generate superhydrophobicity.

  6. A NEW METHOD ON THE CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF DOPED POLYPYRROLE INITIATED BY CuCl2-C2H5OH SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; SHE Yongbo; LU Bin; ZHOU Yuliang; FU Kejian

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives were to develop a new chemical method for the polymerization of pyrrole. CuCl2 dissolved in C2H5OH solvent is primarily used for the initiation polymerization of pyrrole. The polymers with different yield and conductivity were obtained by varing the initial concentration of Cu2+. The initial concentrations of Cu2+ varied from 1.2 × 10-4 mole to 6.48 ×10-3 mole Cu2+ with 2. 16 × 10-2mole pyrrole. The polypyrrole obtained was characterized with elemental analyzer, XPS, IR spectroscopy, Four-point probe and SEM.

  7. Immersion freezing of water and aqueous ammonium sulfate droplets initiated by humic-like substances as a function of water activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Rigg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Immersion freezing of water and aqueous (NH42SO4 droplets containing leonardite (LEO and Pahokee peat (PP serving as surrogates for humic-like substances (HULIS has been investigated. Organic aerosol containing HULIS are ubiquitous in the atmosphere; however, their potential for ice cloud formation is uncertain. Immersion freezing has been studied for temperatures as low as 215 K and solution water activity, aw, from 0.85 to 1.0. The freezing temperatures of water and aqueous solution droplets containing LEO and PP are 5–15 K warmer than homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures can be represented by a horizontal shift of the ice melting curve as a function of solution aw by Δaw = 0.2703 and 0.2466, respectively. Corresponding hetrogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, Jhet, are (9.6 ± 2.5×104 and (5.4 ± 1.4×104 cm−2 s−1 for LEO and PP containing droplets, respectively, and remain constant along freezing curves characterized by Δaw. Consequently predictions of freezing temperatures and kinetics can be made without knowledge of the solute type when relative humidity and ice nuclei (IN surface areas are known. The acquired ice nucleation data are applied to evaluate different approaches to fit and reproduce experimentally derived frozen fractions. In addition, we apply a basic formulation of classical nucleation theory (α(T-model to calculate contact angles and frozen fractions. Contact angles calculated for each ice nucleus as a function of temperature, α(T-model, reproduce exactly experimentally derived frozen fractions without involving free-fit parameters. However, assigning the IN a single contact angle for the entire population (single-α model is not suited to represent the frozen fractions. Application of α-PDF, active sites, and deterministic model approaches to measured frozen fractions yield similar good representations. Furthermore, when using a single parameterization of α-PDF or

  8. Risk factors for acute chemical releases with public health consequences: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance in the U.S., 1996–2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Wendy E

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Releases of hazardous materials can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. To reduce and prevent the public health consequences (victims or evacuations from uncontrolled or illegally released hazardous substances, a more comprehensive analysis is needed to determine risk factors for hazardous materials incidents. Methods Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES data from 1996 through 2001 were analyzed using bivariate and multiple logistic regression. Fixed-facility and transportation-related events were analyzed separately. Results For fixed-facility events, 2,327 (8% resulted in at least one victim and 2,844 (10% involved ordered evacuations. For transportation-related events, 759 (8% resulted in at least one victim, and 405 (4% caused evacuation orders. Fire and/or explosion were the strongest risk factors for events involving either victims or evacuations. Stratified analysis of fixed-facility events involving victims showed a strong association for acid releases in the agriculture, forestry, and fisheries industry. Chlorine releases in fixed-facility events resulted in victims and evacuations in more industry categories than any other substance. Conclusions Outreach efforts should focus on preventing and preparing for fires and explosions, acid releases in the agricultural industry, and chlorine releases in fixed facilities.

  9. PROMISING RESEARCH AREAS-I. A STUDY OF THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EMPLOYING THE CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEDICAL RESEARCH, PREDICTIONS), (*BIOCHEMISTRY, MEDICAL RESEARCH), MOLECULAR PROPERTIES, MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY, FLUORESCENCE, CHEMICAL REACTIONS, ANESTHETICS, MEMBRANES(BIOLOGY), POLARIZATION, XENON, PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY , PROTEINS

  10. Identifying new persistent and bioaccumulative organics among chemicals in commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Philip H; Muir, Derek C G

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify commercial chemicals that might be persistent and bioaccumulative (P&B) and that were not being considered in current Great Lakes, North American, and Arctic contaminant measurement programs. We combined the Canadian Domestic Substance List (DSL), a list of 3059 substances of "unknown or variable composition complex reaction products and biological materials" (UVCBs), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Update Rule (IUR) database for years 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006 yielding a database of 22263 commercial chemicals. From that list, 610 chemicals were identified by estimates from U.S EPA EPISuite software and using expert judgment. This study has yielded some interesting and probable P&B chemicals that should be considered for further study. Recent studies, following up our initial reports and presentations on this work, have confirmed the presence of many of these chemicals in the environment.

  11. Hot spot formation and chemical reaction initiation in shocked HMX crystals with nanovoids: a large-scale reactive molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tingting; Lou, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yangeng; Song, Huajie; Huang, Fenglei

    2016-07-14

    We report million-atom reactive molecular dynamic simulations of shock initiation of β-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (β-HMX) single crystals containing nanometer-scale spherical voids. Shock induced void collapse and subsequent hot spot formation as well as chemical reaction initiation are observed which depend on the void size and impact strength. For an impact velocity of 1 km s(-1) and a void radius of 4 nm, the void collapse process includes three stages; the dominant mechanism is the convergence of upstream molecules toward the centerline and the downstream surface of the void forming flowing molecules. Hot spot formation also undergoes three stages, and the principal mechanism is kinetic energy transforming to thermal energy due to the collision of flowing molecules on the downstream surface. The high temperature of the hot spot initiates a local chemical reaction, and the breakage of the N-NO2 bond plays the key role in the initial reaction mechanism. The impact strength and void size have noticeable effects on the shock dynamical process, resulting in a variation of the predominant mechanisms leading to void collapse and hot spot formation. Larger voids or stronger shocks result in more intense hot spots and, thus, more violent chemical reactions, promoting more reaction channels and generating more reaction products in a shorter duration. The reaction products are mainly concentrated in the developed hot spot, indicating that the chemical reactivity of the hmx crystal is greatly enhanced by void collapse. The detailed information derived from this study can aid a thorough understanding of the role of void collapse in hot spot formation and the chemical reaction initiation of explosives.

  12. Current Chemical Risk Reduction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  13. Psychotoxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-16

    began an in- tensive research for the clarification of the mechanism of the effect of psychotomimetic substances. In addition to the semi-synthetically...Dibenamine i.v. 200,000 ... 6oo,000 Ethyl ether p.o. 200,000 ... 400,000 Cocaine s.c. 80,000 ... 300,000 Mescaline p.o. 10,000 ... 20,000 Morphia s.c. 5,000...Autonomic functions Excitement, mood Pyramidal and extra- Meso-diencephalic changes: pyramidal effects: effects: Euphoria , depres- Ataxia, spastic

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of a Porous Silicon Drug Delivery System with an Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition Temperature-Responsive Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Steven J P; Szili, Endre J; Al-Bataineh, Sameer A; Vasani, Roshan B; Xu, Jingjing; Alf, Mahriah E; Gleason, Karen K; Short, Robert D; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2016-01-12

    This paper reports on the fabrication of a pSi-based drug delivery system, functionalized with an initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) polymer film, for the sustainable and temperature-dependent delivery of drugs. The devices were prepared by loading biodegradable porous silicon (pSi) with a fluorescent anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT) and coating the surface with temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-diethylene glycol divinyl ether) (pNIPAM-co-DEGDVE) or non-stimulus-responsive poly(aminostyrene) (pAS) via iCVD. CPT released from the uncoated oxidized pSi control with a burst release fashion (∼21 nmol/(cm(2) h)), and this was almost identical at temperatures both above (37 °C) and below (25 °C) the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the switchable polymer used, pNIPAM-co-DEGDVE (28.5 °C). In comparison, the burst release rate from the pSi-pNIPAM-co-DEGDVE sample was substantially slower at 6.12 and 9.19 nmol/(cm(2) h) at 25 and 37 °C, respectively. The final amount of CPT released over 16 h was 10% higher at 37 °C compared to 25 °C for pSi coated with pNIPAM-co-DEGDVE (46.29% vs 35.67%), indicating that this material can be used to deliver drugs on-demand at elevated temperatures. pSi coated with pAS also displayed sustainable drug delivery profiles, but these were independent of the release temperature. These data show that sustainable and temperature-responsive delivery systems can be produced by functionalization of pSi with iCVD polymer films. Benefits of the iCVD approach include the application of the iCVD coating after drug loading without causing degradation of the drug commonly caused by exposure to factors such as solvents or high temperatures. Importantly, the iCVD process is applicable to a wide array of surfaces as the process is independent of the surface chemistry and pore size of the nanoporous matrix being coated.

  15. Waste paper for recycling: Overview and identification of potentially critical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-11-01

    Paper product manufacturing involves a variety of chemicals used either directly in paper and pulp production or in the conversion processes (i.e. printing, gluing) that follow. Due to economic and environmental initiatives, paper recycling rates continue to rise. In Europe, recycling has increased by nearly 20% within the last decade or so, reaching a level of almost 72% in 2012. With increasing recycling rates, lower quality paper fractions may be included. This may potentially lead to accumulation or un-intended spreading of chemical substances contained in paper, e.g. by introducing chemicals contained in waste paper into the recycling loop. This study provides an overview of chemicals potentially present in paper and applies a sequential hazard screening procedure based on the intrinsic hazard, physical-chemical and biodegradability characteristics of the substances. Based on the results, 51 substances were identified as potentially critical (selected mineral oils, phthalates, phenols, parabens, as well as other groups of chemicals) in relation to paper recycling. It is recommended that these substances receive more attention in waste paper.

  16. Regulations and Testing Technology of the Restricted Chemical Substances in Consumer Products%消费品中限用化学物质的法规要求及相关检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建国; 蚁乐洲; 黄理纳; 刘莹峰

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many consuming products containing the restricted chemical substances such as heavy metal, phthalate, azodyes, formaldehyde and volatile organic solvent, etc. have caused the quality and safety accidents in the world, resulting in countries and consumer product manufacturers massive recalls of the products which have been sold. Consumers have payed more and more attention to the restricted chemical substances in consuming products with the improvement of consumer awareness of quality and safety of consuming goods. Many countries have issued new laws and regulations on consuming goods to increase demands on the chemical substances in consuming products. This paper attempts to systematically investigate the new situation and the latest detection technology of the limited chemicals with the related technical regulations for the quality and safety of the important consuming goods, such as toy, textile clothing, electrical and electronic equipment, furniture, food contact materials, in European Union, America and China. At the same time, the paper also discusses the latest sample pre-treatment technology and instrument analysis technology in order to meet the demand of production and foreign trade customs clearance inspection.%近期国内外市场相继发生多起消费品因含有重金属、邻苯二甲酸酯增塑剂、致癌芳香胺等有害化学物质而大规模召回的质量安全事件,引致各国陆续发布涉及消费品化学物质的技术性法规和标准,对其中含有的化学物质提出越来越高的要求.该文研究了欧盟、美国和中国等国家涉及玩具、纺织品服装、电子电气产品、家具和食品接触材料等重要消费品的质量安全技术法规的状况及相关的禁(限)用化学物质的要求,并针对检测这些化学物质所涉及的多种最新样品前处理技术和先进仪器分析检测技术进行了综述,以满足其在生产和外贸通关的检验需求.

  17. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated (chemical group 30, miscellaneous substances when used as a flavouring for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizic acid is extracted from the dried and ground rhizome and root portions of the perennial leguminous plant Glycyrrhiza glabra L., native to southern Europe and Central Asia, or other species of the genus Glycyrrhiza. It is currently listed in the register of flavouring substances, allowing its use in food without restriction. Glycyrrhyzic acid ammoniated is safe at the concentration of 1 mg/kg complete feed for all species, except chickens for fattening and laying hens. For these two categories, a safe concentration of 0.3 mg/kg complete feed applies. The Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP cannot conclude on the safety of the additive used in water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated in animal nutrition would not measurably increase consumer exposure. In the absence of data on user safety, the FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated as an irritant to skin, eyes and respiratory tract and as a skin sensitiser. The use of glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated in animal feeds would not pose a risk to the environment. As glycyrrhizic acid ammoniated is used in food as a flavouring, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  18. 78 FR 45167 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances,...

  19. 78 FR 49993 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations,...

  20. REACH. Analytical characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R.; Forbes, S.; Gennart, J.P.; Gimeno Cortes, M.J.; Hovius, H.; King, D.; Kleise, H.; Martinez Martin, C.; Montanari, L.; Pinzuti, M.; Pollack, H.; Ruggieri, P.; Thomas, M.; Walton, A.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to summarise the findings of the scientific and technical work undertaken by CONCAWE to assess the feasibility and potential benefit of characterising petroleum UVCB substances (Substances of Unknown or Variable Composition, Complex reaction products or Biological Materials) beyond the recommendations issued by CONCAWE for the substance identification of petroleum substances under REACH. REACH is the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (EC 1907/2006). It deals with the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances. The report is based on Member Company experience of the chemical analysis of petroleum UVCB substances, including analysis in support of REACH registrations undertaken in 2010. This report is structured into four main sections, namely: Section 1 which provides an introduction to the subject of petroleum UVCB substance identification including the purpose of the report, regulatory requirements, the nature of petroleum UVCB substances, and CONCAWE's guidance to Member Companies and other potential registrants. Section 2 provides a description of the capabilities of each of the analytical techniques described in the REACH Regulation. This section also includes details on the type of analytical information obtained by each technique and an evaluation of what each technique can provide for the characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances. Section 3 provides a series of case studies for six petroleum substance categories (low boiling point naphthas, kerosene, heavy fuel oils, other lubricant base oils, residual aromatic extracts and bitumens) to illustrate the value of the information derived from each analytical procedure, and provide an explanation for why some techniques are not scientifically necessary. Section 4 provides a summary of the conclusions reached from the technical investigations undertaken by CONCAWE Member Companies, and summarising the

  1. 基于低沸点化学物质的无源轿车轮胎温度监测系统%A Passive Car Tire Temperature Monitoring System Using Low-boiling Point Chemical Substance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健伟; 董群; 王鉴; 胡林杰

    2014-01-01

    利用低沸点化学物质具有较高的饱和蒸汽压的特性,设计了一种无源轿车轮胎温度监测系统。系统中的胎温传感器将温度变化通过低沸点化学物质的饱和蒸汽压的相应变化转变为磁铁的位移信号,再利用线性霍尔传感器转变为电压信号,最后通过信号检测系统对信号进行处理和转换,实现对轮胎温度的实时监测和高温报警。通过静态实验,选定了满足胎温传感器要求的感温物质;通过动态实验,考察了报警系统的检测精确度。结果表明,系统检测相对误差绝对值≤6%,测温精度为1℃。%By utilizing the property of higher saturated vapor pressure of low-boiling point chemical sub-stances, a passive car tire temperature monitoring system is designed, in which the change of temperature in tire temperature sensor is transformed into the displacement signal of magnet through the corresponding change in satu-rated vapor pressure of chemical substance. Then the displacement signal of magnet is transformed into voltage sig-nal by linear Hall sensor, and through certain signal processing and transform, the real time monitoring and high temperature alarm of tire temperature are realized. The temperature sensing chemical substance meeting the require-ments of tire temperature sensor are selected by static test, while the detection accuracy of warning system is investi-gated by dynamic test. The results show that the system achieves a relative error no more than 6% and a temperature measuring accuracy of 1℃.

  2. Fractionation, solid-phase immobilization and chemical degradation of long pectin oligogalacturonides. Initial steps towards sequencing of oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillaumie, Fanny; Justesen, Sune Frederik Lamdahl; Mutenda, K.E.

    2006-01-01

    at 40 or 60 degrees C, and the chemical degradation products released from the support were analyzed by ESIMS. In all cases, the original OGA was degraded into smaller oligomers of various sizes down to the monomer. This work illustrates some of the basic principles underlying a strategy ultimately...

  3. Fractionation, solid-phase immobilization and chemical degradation of long pectin oligogalacturonides. Initial steps towards sequencin of oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillaumie, Fanny; Justesen, Sune F. L.; Mutenda, Kudzai E.

    2006-01-01

    at 40 or 60 degrees C, and the chemical degradation products released from the support were analyzed by ESIMS. In all cases, the original OGA was degraded into smaller oligomers of various sizes down to the monomer. This work illustrates some of the basic principles underlying a strategy ultimately...

  4. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal...

  5. 烤烟品种间烟叶化学成分含量对海拔高度的响应%Different Response of Chemical Substances to Altitude in Leaves of Different Flue-cured Tobacco Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军营; 方敦煌; 宋春满; 李向阳; 逄涛; 邓建华; 刘腾飞

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨品种间烤烟化学成分与海拔高度的相关性,在云南不同海拔( 706 ~ 2356m)植烟区采集182个烤烟中部烟叶样品,品种涉及云烟87、云烟85、K326和红大,检测了样品中的34种化学成分,通过相关分析和聚类分析,比较了化学成分及其与海拔高度相关性在品种间的差异.结果表明,4个品种中红大可溶性糖类和有机酸类含量最低,总氮、烟碱、质体色素和多酚类物质含量最高,明显区别于其他3个品种.相关分析表明,K326中总耱、总氮、烟碱、石油醚提取物等指标与海拔高度的相关性明显不同于其他3个品种,类似的结果也体现在丙二酸、丁二酸和亚油酸、β-胡萝卜素、单双糖含量等指标.因此,烟叶的化学成分及其随海拔高度的变化情况存在着较大的品种差异.%In order to study the correlation between contents of chemical substances and altitude, 182 of flue-cured tobacco cutter leaf samples were collected from different altitudes in Yunnan. The sampling altitude ranged from 706 m to 2356 m and the tobacco cultivars included Yunyan87, Yunyan85, K326 and Honghuadajinyuan (HD). The main chemical substances and aroma precursors such as organic acids, polyphenols, were detected in these samples. The difference in chemical substance contents and their correlation with altitude were studied through correlation and cluster analysis. The results showed that the contents of soluble sugars, organic acid in HD were the lowest in four tobacco cultivars, while total nitrogen, nicotine, plastid pigments and polyphenols were the highest. The correlations between contents of total sugar, total nitrogen, nicotine and petroleum ether extracts and altitude in K326 were different from the other three tobacco cultivars. The same results were found in the correlation between organic acids (malonic acid, succinic acid, linoleic acid), plastid pigments (beta renieratene), monosaccharide and disaccharide and

  6. Chemical Conversion Pathways and Kinetic Modeling for the OH-Initiated Reaction of Triclosan in Gas-Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a widely used antimicrobial additive in daily consumption, attention has been paid to the degradation and conversion of triclosan for a long time. The quantum chemistry calculation and the canonical variational transition state theory are employed to investigate the mechanism and kinetic property. Besides addition and abstraction, oxidation pathways and further conversion pathways are also considered. The OH radicals could degrade triclosan to phenols, aldehydes, and other easily degradable substances. The conversion mechanisms of triclosan to the polychlorinated dibenzopdioxin and furan (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are clearly illustrated and the toxicity would be strengthened in such pathways. Single radical and diradical pathways are compared to study the conversion mechanism of dichlorodibenzo dioxin (DCDD. Furthermore, thermochemistry is discussed in detail. Kinetic property is calculated and the consequent ratio of kadd/ktotal and kabs/ktotal at 298.15 K are 0.955 and 0.045, respectively. Thus, the OH radical addition reactions are predominant, the substitute position of OH radical on triclosan is very important to generate PCDD and furan, and biradical is also a vital intermediate to produce dioxin.

  7. Evaluation of methodologies for risk assessment of combined toxic actions of chemical substances and establishment of PBTK/TD models for pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reffstrup, Trine Klein

    assessment process. This Ph.D.-thesis provides an overview of the current knowledge on methods for risk assessment of combined actions of chemicals focussing on pesticides. Some of the methods are based on knowledge on the whole mixture and others are based on data on the single compounds in the mixture...... of pesticides for cumulative risk assessment should be based on criteria providing the best and most robust grouping such as chemical structure, mechanism of action, common toxic mode of action or common toxic effect. Unfortunately, such data are seldom available for all of the compounds of concern. Instead...... in the area of pharmacology but the use in the area of toxicology is relatively new. In a PBTK model the animal or man is described as a set of tissue compartments which is combined by mathematical descriptions of biological tissues and physiological processes in the body. Thereby it is possible...

  8. Influences of released and predictable substances of very high concern on textile chemicals%已发布及可预见的高度关注物质对纺织化学品的影响(待续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣圻

    2014-01-01

    REACH迄今已发布了8批共138个高度关注物质(SVHC),发布SVHC的种数和数量逐渐加快。我们关注的是其中的纺织化学品,而且仅是已经发布的。还应关注可预见的,做到未雨绸缪。因为从已发布的SVHC可见一斑,例如:24个致癌芳胺已发布了9个,剩下的15个终要继续发布。而涉嫌的禁用偶氮染料一个也未列入,列入SVHC的是4个几近淘汰的三芳甲烷染料,同样情况是重金属无机颜料、邻苯二甲酸酯增塑剂、阻燃剂、有机锡等化学品。农药只发布了一只,真乃冰山一角,离世界各国包括欧盟禁用农药还差很多。本文作了大胆预测,非但列举,还讲清楚危害性和应用领域,希望对染料、助剂和印染企业有参考价值。%REACH has released 8 groups of total 138 substances of very high concern (SVHC) so far. The species and quantity of released SVHC are gradually accelerated. Among the SVHC, only the published textile chemicals are concerned. But it is also necessary to pay attention to the predictable substances in order to take precautions, because it is evident in the released SVHC. For example, 9 of 24 cancer-causing aromatic amines have been published and the rest will be sequentially released. None of suspected banned azo dyes are listed in SVHC while 4 nearly abandoned triarylmethane dyes are included. Other chemicals such as heavy metal inorganic pigments, phthalate plasticizers, flame retardants and organic tin are in the same case. Only one pesticide has been published, which is the tip of an iceberg and is far different from the banned pesticides in countries around the world including EU. It is boldly forecasted, listed and detailedly described the hazard and application fields of the substances, hoping to give some reference values on dyes, auxiliaries and dyeing and printing enterprises.

  9. Hydrothermal carbonisation of poultry litter: Effects of initial pH on yields and chemical properties of hydrochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanim, Bashir M; Kwapinski, Witold; Leahy, James J

    2017-08-01

    In this study, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of poultry litter (PL) was carried out to evaluate the impact of initial pH using acetic acid (CH3COOH) or sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on the yields and properties of hydrochar (HC). The PL samples were treated by HTC at various initial pH and at 250°C for 2h. The HCs produced were characterized by ultimate, proximate and fibre analyses as well as heating value and surface area measurements. The results indicated that undertaking HTC in the presence of acids (CH3COOH, H2SO4) significantly affects the yields and properties of HC. The C content and HHV of the HC increased with decreasing initial pH. In the presence of H2SO4, the hydrochar yield (HY) increased while the ash content was significantly reduced. The lowest ash content and the highest HY were measured in the HC produced from the suspension with an initial pH of 2 using H2SO4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Use and impact of usual intake models on dietary exposure estimate and risk assessment of chemical substances: a practical example for cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Sirot, Véronique; Busani, Luca; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Hulin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    To estimate of food and nutrient intakes, 24-h recalls are frequently used in dietary assessment. However intake data collected for a short period are a limited estimator of long-term usual intake. An important limitation of such data is that the within-person variability tends to inflate the intake distribution leading to a biased estimation of extreme percentiles. Statistical models, named usual-intake models, that separate the within-person variability from the between-persons variability, have lately been implemented. The main objectives of this study were to highlight the potential impact that usual-intake models can have on exposure estimate and risk assessment and to point out which are the key aspects to be considered in order to run these models properly and be sure to interpret the output correctly. To achieve the goal we used the consumption data obtained by the French dietary survey INCA2 and the concentration data collected during the French TDS2, using Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software, release 8.0. For the three substances included in this study (cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites), the exposure of the upper percentiles was significantly reduced when using usual-intake models in comparison with the results obtained in the observed individual mean models, even if in terms of risk assessment the impact of using usual-intake models was limited. From the results it appears that the key aspects to consider when using usual-intake models are: (1) the normality of the log-transformed intake distribution, (2) the contribution per single food group to the total exposure, and (3) the independency of food consumption data on multiple days. In conclusion, usual-intake models may have an impact on exposure estimates although, referring to the results, it did not bring any changes in terms of risk assessment, but further investigations are needed.

  11. Organic Matter Fractions and Quality of the Surface Layer of a Constructed and Vegetated Soil After Coal Mining. I - Humic Substances and Chemical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio dos Anjos Leal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After open coal mining, soils are “constructed”, which usually contain low levels and quality of organic matter (OM. Therefore, the use of plant species for revegetation and reclamation of degraded areas is essential. This study evaluated the distribution of carbon (C in the chemical fractions as well as the chemical characteristics and humification degree of OM in a soil constructed after coal mining under cultivation of perennial grasses. The experiment was established in 2003 with the following treatments: Hemarthria altissima (T1, Paspalum notatum (T2, Cynodon dactilon (T3, Urochloa brizantha (T4, bare constructed soil (T5, and natural soil (T6. In 2009, soil samples were collected from the 0.00-0.03 m layer and the total organic carbon stock (TOC and C stock in the chemical fractions: acid extract (CHCl, fulvic acid (CFA, humic acid (CHA, and humin (CHU were determined. The humic acid (HA fraction was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and the laser-induced fluorescence index (ILIF of OM was also calculated. After six years, differences were only observed in the CHA stocks, which were highest in T1 (0.89 Mg ha-1 and T4 (1.06 Mg ha-1. The infrared spectra of HA in T1, T2 and T4 were similar to T6, with greater contribution of aliphatic organic compounds than in the other treatments. In this way, ILIF decreased in the sequence T5>T3>T4>T1>T2>T6, indicating higher OM humification in T3 and T5 and more labile OM in the other treatments. Consequently, the potential of OM quality recovery in the constructed soil was greatest in treatments T1 and T4.

  12. Two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining several alternatives for identification of eye irritation potential of chemicals including insoluble or volatile substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Mori, Taeko; Abo, Takayuki; Ooshima, Kenichi; Hayashi, Takumi; Komano, Tomoko; Takahashi, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Takatsu, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2012-10-01

    For the assessment of eye irritation, one alternative test may not completely replace the rabbit Draize test. In the present study, we examined the predictive potential of a tiered approach analyzing the results from several alternatives (i.e., the Short Time Exposure (STE) test, the EpiOcular assay, the Hen's Egg Test-Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) assay and the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay) for assessing Globally Harmonized System (GHS) eye irritation categories. Fifty-six chemicals including alcohols, surfactants, and esters were selected with a balanced GHS category and a wide range of chemical classes. From a standpoint of both assessable sample numbers and predictive accuracy, the more favorable tiered approach was considered to be the two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining the STE test, the EpiOcular assay followed by the BCOP assay (accuracy 69.6%, under prediction rate 8.9%). Moreover, a more favorable predictive capacity (accuracy 71.4%, under prediction rate 3.6%) was obtained when high volatile alcohols/esters with vapor pressures >6 kilopascal (kPa) at 25°C were evaluated with EpiOcular assay instead of the STE test. From these results, the two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining the STE test, the EpiOcular assay followed by the BCOP assay might be a promising method for the classification of GHS eye irritation category (Not classified (NC), Category 2 (Cat. 2), and Category 1 (Cat. 1)) for a wide range of test chemicals regardless of solubility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical and physical reservoir parameters at initial conditions in Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador: a first assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Amore, F. [CNR, Pisa (Italy). International Institute for Geothermal Research ; Mejia, J.T. [Comision Ejuctiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa, El Salvador (El Salvador)

    1999-02-01

    A study has been made to obtain the main chemical and physical reservoir conditions of the Berlin field (El Salvador), before the commencement of large-scale exploitation of the geothermal resource. The upflow zone and the main flow path within the geothermal system have been determined from the area distribution of chemical parameters such as Cl concentrations, ratios such as Na/K, K/Mg, K/Ca, and temperatures computed from silica concentrations and cation ratios. Gas compositions have been used to calculate reservoir parameters such as temperature, steam fraction and P{sub CO{sub 2}}. The computer code WATCH (new edition 1994) has been used to evaluate the temperature of equilibrium between the aqueous species and selected alteration minerals in the reservoir. The fluid in Berlin flows to the exploited reservoir from the south, entering it in the vicinity of well TR-5. Along its flow-path (south-north direction), the fluid is cooled by boiling and conductive cooling. The chloride-enthalpy diagram indicates the existence of a parent water, with a chemical composition similar to well TR-5, that boils and the residual brine produces the fluid of well TR-3, which is very concentrated in salts. The fluid of TR-5 is probably produced from this parent water, generating the fluids of wells TR-2 and TR-9 by boiling, and the fluids of wells TR-1 and TR-4 by conductive cooling. The computed values for the deep steam fraction clearly indicate that this is a liquid-dominated system, with computed temperature values decreasing from 310{sup o}C (upflow zone) to about 230{sup o}C, from south to north. (author)

  14. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : INDUCTION OF TRANSFORMATION BY A DESOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID FRACTION ISOLATED FROM PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPE III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, O T; Macleod, C M; McCarty, M

    1944-02-01

    1. From Type III pneumococci a biologically active fraction has been isolated in highly purified form which in exceedingly minute amounts is capable under appropriate cultural conditions of inducing the transformation of unencapsulated R variants of Pneumococcus Type II into fully encapsulated cells of the same specific type as that of the heat-killed microorganisms from which the inducing material was recovered. 2. Methods for the isolation and purification of the active transforming material are described. 3. The data obtained by chemical, enzymatic, and serological analyses together with the results of preliminary studies by electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, and ultraviolet spectroscopy indicate that, within the limits of the methods, the active fraction contains no demonstrable protein, unbound lipid, or serologically reactive polysaccharide and consists principally, if not solely, of a highly polymerized, viscous form of desoxyribonucleic acid. 4. Evidence is presented that the chemically induced alterations in cellular structure and function are predictable, type-specific, and transmissible in series. The various hypotheses that have been advanced concerning the nature of these changes are reviewed.

  15. Fractionation, solid-phase immobilization and chemical degradation of long pectin oligogalacturonides. Initial steps towards sequencin of oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillaumie, Fanny; Justesen, Sune F. L.; Mutenda, Kudzai E.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents the optimized separation of pectin oligomers, their analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), their subsequent immobilization to supports, and our initial steps towards solid-support assisted sequencing. The ambient...... pressure strong anion-exchange resin Source 15Q combined with ammonium formate buffer (AF) was used for the separation of unsaturated and saturated pectic oligogalacturonides (OGAs) derived from enzymatic digestion of pectin. Routinely, multi-milligram quantities of defined sizes OGAs with DPs from 5 to 19...

  16. Atmospheric pressure plasma-initiated chemical vapor deposition (AP-PiCVD) of poly(diethylallylphosphate) coating: a char-forming protective coating for cellulosic textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Florian; Boscher, Nicolas D; Duday, David; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Levalois-Grützmacher, Joëlle; Choquet, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    An innovative atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition method toward the deposition of polymeric layers has been developed. This latter involves the use of a nanopulsed plasma discharge to initiate the free-radical polymerization of an allyl monomer containing phosphorus (diethylallylphosphate, DEAP) at atmospheric pressure. The polymeric structure of the film is evidence by mass spectrometry. The method, highly suitable for the treatment of natural biopolymer substrate, has been carried out on cotton textile to perform the deposition of an efficient and conformal protective coating.

  17. The advisory list for selvclassification of dangerous substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemelä, Jay Russell; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    All chemical substances marketed in the EU must be classified and labelled according to the regulation on classification and labelling of dangerous substances (7). Substances with harmonised classifications adopted in the EU are to be found on the List of harmonised classification and labelling...... of hazardous substances (Annex VI of 1272/2008/EU). This list covers around 7000 substances which have been classified for their hazardous properties. However, this also means that about 93,000 of the 100,204 existing substances in the EU (EINECS list), are not formally classified. With these substances...... Skin sensitisation The updated advisory list is available as an Excel file for download from DK-EPA's website and as an online searchable database. This includes the 23,922 chemicals with new advisory classifications resulting from this project, making in all, a total of 30,179 chemicals with advisory...

  18. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Wellman Center for Photomedicine and Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Linnes, Jacqueline [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Young, Anna; Gomez-Marquez, Jose [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Gerrard, Victoria [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Opportunity Lab, Singapore University for Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

    2014-03-15

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  19. Chemical Evolution in Hierarchical Models Of Cosmic Structure I: Constraints on the Early Stellar Initial Mass Function

    CERN Document Server

    Tumlinson, J

    2006-01-01

    I present a new Galactic chemical evolution model motivated by and grounded in the hierarchical theory of galaxy formation, as expressed by a halo merger history of the Galaxy. This model accurately reproduces the "metallicity distribution function" (MDF) for Population II stars residing today in the Galactic halo. The observed MDF and the apparent absence of true Population III stars from the halo strongly imply that there is some critical metallicity, Z_crit = 8 - 42 Msun. This mass range is similar to the masses predicted by models of primordial star formation that account for formation feedback. The model also implies that metal-poor halo stars below [Fe/H] <~ -3 had only 1 - 10 metal-free stars as their supernova precursors, such that the relative abundances in these halo stars exhibit IMF-weighted averages over the intrinsic yields of the first supernovae. This paper is the first part of a long term project to connect the high-redshift in situ indicators of early star formation with the low-z, old r...

  20. Biochemical imaging of cervical intervertebral discs with glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging: feasibility and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Christoph; Mueller-Lutz, Anja; Zimmermann, Lisa; Boos, Johannes; Wittsack, Hans-Joerg; Antoch, Gerald; Miese, Falk [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Dusseldorf (Germany); Schmitt, Benjamin [Siemens Ltd. Australia, Healthcare Sector, Macquarie Park, NSW (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer (gagCEST) imaging at 3T in the assessment of the GAG content of cervical IVDs in healthy volunteers. Forty-two cervical intervertebral discs of seven healthy volunteers (four females, three males; mean age: 21.4 ± 1.4 years; range: 19-24 years) were examined at a 3T MRI scanner in this prospective study. The MRI protocol comprised standard morphological, sagittal T2 weighted (T2w) images to assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based grading system for cervical intervertebral disc degeneration (IVD) and biochemical imaging with gagCEST to calculate a region-of-interest analysis of nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF). GagCEST of cervical IVDs was technically successful at 3T with significant higher gagCEST values in NP compared to AF (1.17 % ± 1.03 % vs. 0.79 % ± 1.75 %; p = 0.005). We found topological differences of gagCEST values of the cervical spine with significant higher gagCEST effects in lower IVDs (r = 1; p = 0). We could demonstrate a significant, negative correlation between gagCEST values and cervical disc degeneration of NP (r = -0.360; p = 0.019). Non-degenerated IVDs had significantly higher gagCEST effects compared to degenerated IVDs in NP (1.76 % ± 0.92 % vs. 0.52 % ± 1.17 %; p < 0.001). Biochemical imaging of cervical IVDs is feasible at 3T. GagCEST analysis demonstrated a topological GAG distribution of the cervical spine. The depletion of GAG in the NP with increasing level of morphological degeneration can be assessed using gagCEST imaging. (orig.)

  1. Effects of metformin, buformin, and phenformin on the post-initiation stage of chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zongjian; Jiang, Weiqin; Thompson, Matthew D; Echeverria, Dimas; McGinley, John N; Thompson, Henry J

    2015-06-01

    Metformin is a widely prescribed drug for the treatment of type II diabetes. Although epidemiologic data have provided a strong rationale for investigating the potential of this biguanide for use in cancer prevention and control, uncertainty exists whether metformin should be expected to have an impact in nondiabetic patients. Furthermore, little attention has been given to the possibility that other biguanides may have anticancer activity. In this study, the effects of clinically relevant doses of metformin (9.3 mmol/kg diet), buformin (7.6 mmol/kg diet), and phenformin (5.0 mmol/kg diet) were compared with rats fed control diet (AIN93-G) during the post-initiation stage of 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea-induced (50 mg/kg body weight) mammary carcinogenesis (n = 30/group). Plasma, liver, skeletal muscle, visceral fat, mammary gland, and mammary carcinoma concentrations of the biguanides were determined. In comparison with the control group, buformin decreased cancer incidence, multiplicity, and burden, whereas metformin and phenformin had no statistically significant effect on the carcinogenic process relative to the control group. Buformin did not alter fasting plasma glucose or insulin. Within mammary carcinomas, evidence was obtained that buformin treatment perturbed signaling pathways related to energy sensing. However, further investigation is needed to determine the relative contributions of host systemic and cell autonomous mechanisms to the anticancer activity of biguanides such as buformin.

  2. Improving substance information in usetox®, part 2: Data for estimating fate and ecosystem exposure factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saouter, Erwan; Aschberger, Karin; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    . These regulations require that a chemical risk assessment for humans and the environment is performed before a chemical is placed on the European market. Consequently, additional physicochemical property data and new toxicological end-points are now available for thousands of chemical substances. The aim.......01 and 2.0 is the Estimation Program Interface (EPI SuiteTM ) from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, since the development of the original USEtox® substance databases, new chemical regulations have been enforced in Europe such as the REACH and the Plant Protection Products regulations...... of the present study is to explore to which extent the new available data can be used as input for USEtox® - especially for application in Environmental Footprint studies - and to discuss how this would influence the quantification of fate and exposure factors. Initial results show that the choice of data source...

  3. Effect of the initial structure on the electrical property of crystalline silicon films deposited on glass by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yung-Bin; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Bae, Sung-Hwan; Park, Hyung-Ki; Jung, Jae-Soo; Hwang, Nong-Moon

    2012-07-01

    Crystalline silicon films on an inexpensive glass substrate are currently prepared by depositing an amorphous silicon film and then crystallizing it by excimer laser annealing, rapid thermal annealing, or metal-induced crystallization because crystalline silicon films cannot be directly deposited on glass at a low temperature. It was recently shown that by adding HCI gas in the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) process, the crystalline silicon film can be directly deposited on a glass substrate without additional annealing. The electrical properties of silicon films prepared using a gas mixture of SiH4 and HCl in the HWCVD process could be further improved by controlling the initial structure, which was achieved by adjusting the delay time in deposition. The size of the silicon particles in the initial structure increased with increasing delay time, which increased the mobility and decreased the resistivity of the deposited films. The 0 and 5 min delay times produced the silicon particle sizes of approximately 10 and approximately 28 nm, respectively, in the initial microstructure, which produced the final films, after deposition for 300 sec, of resistivities of 0.32 and 0.13 Omega-cm, mobilities of 1.06 and 1.48 cm2 V(-1) S(-1), and relative densities of 0.87 and 0.92, respectively.

  4. A rapid dissolution procedure to aid initial nuclear forensics investigations of chemically refractory compounds and particles prior to gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reading, David G., E-mail: d.reading@noc.soton.ac.uk [GAU-Radioanalytical Laboratories, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phillip E. [GAU-Radioanalytical Laboratories, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Britton, Richard [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-05

    A rapid and effective preparative procedure has been evaluated for the accurate determination of low-energy (40–200 keV) gamma-emitting radionuclides ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 235}U) in uranium ores and uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) using high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The measurement of low-energy gamma photons is complicated in heterogeneous samples containing high-density mineral phases and in such situations activity concentrations will be underestimated. This is because attenuation corrections, calculated based on sample mean density, do not properly correct where dense grains are dispersed within a less dense matrix (analogous to a nugget effect). The current method overcomes these problems using a lithium tetraborate fusion that readily dissolves all components including high-density, self-attenuating minerals/compounds. This is the ideal method for dissolving complex, non-volatile components in soils, rocks, mineral concentrates, and other materials where density reduction is required. Lithium borate fusion avoids the need for theoretical efficiency corrections or measurement of matrix matched calibration standards. The resulting homogeneous quenched glass produced can be quickly dissolved in nitric acid producing low-density solutions that can be counted by gamma spectrometry. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated using uranium-bearing Certified Reference Materials and provides accurate activity concentration determinations compared to the underestimated activity concentrations derived from direct measurements of a bulk sample. The procedure offers an effective solution for initial nuclear forensic studies where complex refractory minerals or matrices exist. It is also significantly faster, safer and simpler than alternative approaches. - Highlights: • Low energy gamma photons (<200 keV) are attenuated in U-bearing compounds. • Corrections based on bulk density do not yield accurate activity

  5. 75 FR 8266 - Final Clarification for Chemical Identification Describing Activated Phosphors for TSCA Inventory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) section 8(b) Chemical Substance Inventory (TSCA Inventory) will be... substances as ] yttrium, europium, germanium, gallium, strontium, antimony, manganese, or magnesium. When an.... In 1995, EPA issued the publication entitled ``Toxic Substances Control Act Inventory...

  6. Substance use and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews intercultural variability of substance use behaviors, including availability of international statistics on consumption of alcohol and other drugs, as well as the use of drugs available locally only. Within a conceptual framework of intercultural relations, it considers the history of transcultural spread of substance use behaviors and possible reactions to the introduction of new drugs within a culture or jurisdiction, including illustrations of the "law of alien poisons." Although intercultural views of substance use have generally concentrated on majority groups' views of substance use in minority groups, minority and non-Western views of substance use need to be considered in the context of increasing international and intercultural communications that increase the rate at which substance use behaviors spread. Both Western and non-Western experiences with substance use and misuse must be taken into account so that better interventions can be developed to deal with addictions and other substance-related problems.

  7. Substance Use in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency room or die from overdose or other effects of certain substances. Women who are victims of domestic violence are at increased risk of substance use. Divorce, loss of child custody, or the death of ...

  8. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.

  9. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1 (FGE.22Rev1): Ring substituted phenolic substances from chemical groups 21 and 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance 3...... concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Adequate specifications for the materials of commerce are available for all 27 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....

  10. OpenGeoSys: An open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolditz, O.; Bauer, S.; Bilke, L.

    In this paper we describe the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project, which is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical processes in porous media. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework (using primarily the Finite Element Method (FEM......)) for solving multi-field problems in porous and fractured media for applications in geoscience, hydrology and energy storage. To this purpose OGS is based on an object-oriented FEM concept including a broad spectrum of interfaces for pre- and postprocessing. The OGS idea has been in development since the mid......, the parallelization of OO codes still lacks efficiency. High-performance-computing efficiency of OO codes is subject to future research (Wang et al. [2]). Currently, OGS development efforts are dedicated to visual data and model integration for complex hydrological applications (Rink et al. [3])...

  11. Estimation of the amount of the nuclear transformation products formed under explosion-induced compression of a substance to the superdense state

    OpenAIRE

    Adamenko, S. V.; Adamenko, A. S.; Kossko, I. A.; Kurochkin, V. D.; Kovylyaev, V. V.; Ponomarev, S. S.; Andreev, A. V.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work carried out at the Electrodynamics Laboratory Proton-21 with the use of X-ray electron probe microanalysis (XEPMA) and glow-discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS) techniques, we study the chemical composition of a substance formed as a result of the explosion-induced compression of solid targets and deposited on the surfaces of accumulating screens. We established that the explosion products contain chemical elements which were not included in the composition of the initial ma...

  12. Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) of Highly Cross-Linked Polymer Films for Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Youngmin; Kim, Byung Gon; Pak, Kwanyong; Han, Sung Jae; Song, Heon-Sik; Choi, Jang Wook; Im, Sung Gap

    2015-08-26

    We report an initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) process to coat polyethylene (PE) separators in Li-ion batteries with a highly cross-linked, mechanically strong polymer, namely, polyhexavinyldisiloxane (pHVDS). The highly cross-linked but ultrathin pHVDS films can only be obtained by a vapor-phase process, because the pHVDS is insoluble in most solvents and thus infeasible with conventional solution-based methods. Moreover, even after the pHVDS coating, the initial porous structure of the separator is well preserved owing to the conformal vapor-phase deposition. The coating thickness is delicately controlled by deposition time to the level that the pore size decreases to below 7% compared to the original dimension. The pHVDS-coated PE shows substantially improved thermal stability and electrolyte wettability. After incubation at 140 °C for 30 min, the pHVDS-coated PE causes only a 12% areal shrinkage (versus 90% of the pristine separator). The superior wettability results in increased electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity, leading to significantly improved rate performance. The current approach is applicable to a wide range of porous polymeric separators that suffer from thermal shrinkage and poor electrolyte wetting.

  13. Substance, Reality, and Distinctness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Hennig

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Descartes claims that God is a substance, and that mind and body are two different and separable substances. This paper provides some background that renders these claims intelligible. For Descartes, that something is real means it can exist in separation, and something is a substance if it does not depend on other substances for its existence. Further, separable objects are correlates of distinct ideas, for an idea is distinct (in an objective sense if its object may be easily and clearly separated from everything that is not its object. It follows that if our idea of God is our most distinct idea, as Descartes claims, then God must be a substance in the Cartesian sense of the term. Also, if we can have an idea of a thinking subject which does not in any sense refer to bodily things, and if bodily things are substances, then mind and body must be two different substances.

  14. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  15. 77 FR 22707 - Electronic Reporting Under the Toxic Substances Control Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... for TSCA section 5 submissions, which would use existing e-PMN software. This action is intended to... the evaluation of the potential adverse human health and environmental effects from exposure to... substance'' as any chemical substance that is not on the TSCA Inventory of Chemical Substances compiled...

  16. Emission of chemical substances from office equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kowalska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of potentially harmful pollutants are emitted from office equipment. Printers and copiers are sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC, which at least partly, are generated from the heated toner and paper dust during printing process. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, and formaldehyde were detected in the blended emissions emitted from printing devices. Office printing devices are recognized to be the major sources of indoor fine and ultrafine aerosol particles. The emissions of certain pollutants from office equipment may be at relatively low level compared to other known sources (e.g. building materials. However, office equipment is potentially the important source of human exposure due to the short distance for the people operating them both at home and in the office.

  17. Emission of chemical substances from office equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kowalska; Małgorzata Szewczyńska; Małgorzata Pośniak

    2012-01-01

    A number of potentially harmful pollutants are emitted from office equipment. Printers and copiers are sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which at least partly, are generated from the heated toner and paper dust during printing process. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, and formaldehyde were detected in the blended emissions emitted from printing devices. Office printing devices are recognized to be the major sources of indoor fine and ultrafi...

  18. Adolescent pregnancy and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, P; Kokotailo, P

    1999-03-01

    during pregnancy and early childrearing years. Many of these young people are embedded in an environment with very high rates of use among family, partners, and peers. There appears to be strong evidence of covariation of risk behaviors. It is possible that for some youths, pregnancy can be viewed as an opportunity and a chance to intervene to decrease risks for initiating and decrease use among adolescents already using substances. It may be a natural touch point, and pregnancy and parenthood may transition youths out of a high-risk experimentation phase of their adolescence. Further research, especially that of a longitudinal nature, is needed to address the complex issues of adolescent pregnancy and substance use.

  19. Former substance users working as counselors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    is derived from an interview study initiated in 2000 in Denmark on former substance users with 4 -8 years of abstinence. Through an analysis of interview data from a larger group of former substance users, it became evident that those working as counselors experienced specific dilemmas and problems......All helping professionals risk participation in "dual relationships". But in the case of former substance users working as counselors, specific dilemmas and problems are accentuated. A qualitative analysis highlights some of the ethical and personal dilemmas faced by these counselors. The data...

  20. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: harmful substances and how to test them Produtos químicos como desreguladores endócrinos: substâncias danosas e como devem ser testadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Olea-Serrano

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of different groups from: scientists, international regulatory bodies, non-governmental organizations and industry; with an interest in the problem of identifying chemical substances with endocrine disrupting activity. There is also discussion of the consequences that exposure to endocrine disruptors may have for human health, considering concrete issues related to: the estimation of risk; the tests that must be used to detect endocrine disruption; the difficulties to establish an association between dose, time of exposure, individual susceptibility, and effect; and the attempts to create a census of endocrine disruptors. Finally, it is proposed that not all hormonal mimics should be included under the single generic denomination of endocrine disruptors.Este artigo apresenta uma análise das opiniões de diferentes grupos, inclusive de cientistas, agências regulatórias internacionais, organizações não-governamentais e indústrias, interessados na questão da identificação de substâncias químicas com atividade desreguladora endócrina. Os autores discutem também o impacto da exposição aos desreguladores endócrinos sobre a saúde humana, considerando as seguintes questões: estimativa de risco; testes utilizados para detectar distúrbios endócrinos; dificuldades na identificação de uma associação entre dose, tempo de exposição, suscetibilidade individual e efeito e tentativas no sentido de mapear os desreguladores endócrinos. Finalmente, os autores argumentam que nem todos os agonistas hormonais devem ser incluídos sob a denominação genérica de desreguladores endócrinos.

  1. 40 CFR 720.85 - Chemical identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... particular chemical substance, and agree to furnish to EPA upon request: (A) An elemental analysis. (B...? How could a competitor use such information given the fact that the identity of the substance...) Has the identity of the chemical substance been kept confidential to the extent that your...

  2. Project WINGS (Women Initiating New Goals of Safety): A randomised controlled trial of a screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) service to identify and address intimate partner violence victimisation among substance-using women receiving community supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Louisa; Shaw, Stacey A; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Rowe, Jessica; McCrimmon, Tara; Almonte, Maria; Goodwin, Sharun; Epperson, Matthew

    2015-12-10

    The high rate of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimisation found among substance-using women receiving community supervision underscores the need for effective IPV victimisation screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment services (SBIRT) for this population. This randomised controlled trial (RCT) aims to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of a single-session computerised self-paced IPV SBIRT (Computerised WINGS) in identifying IPV victimisation among women under community supervision and increasing access to IPV services, compared to the same IPV SBIRT service delivered by a case manager (Case Manager WINGS). This RCT was conducted with 191 substance-using women in probation and community court sites in New York City. No significant differences were found between Computerised and Case Manager WINGS arms on any outcomes. Both arms reported identical high rates of any physical, sexual or psychological IPV victimisation in the past year (77% for both arms) during the intervention. Both arms experienced significant increases from baseline to the 3-month follow-up in receipt of IPV services, social support, IPV self-efficacy and abstinence from drug use. Findings suggest that both modalities of WINGS show promise in identifying and addressing IPV victimisation among substance-using women receiving community supervision. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effect of different oxidants on polyaniline/single walled carbon nanotubes composites synthesized via ultrasonically initiated in-situ chemical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gull, Nafisa, E-mail: gullchemist@gmail.com [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Khan, Shahzad Maqsood, E-mail: shahzadkhan81@hotmail.com [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Islam, Atif; Zia, Saba; Shafiq, Muhammad; Sabir, Aneela; Munawar, Muhammad Azeem [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Butt, Muhammad Taqi Zahid [College of Engineering and Emerging Technologies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Jamil, Tahir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan)

    2016-04-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the effect of different oxidants on properties of polyaniline/single walled carbon nanotubes (PANI/SWCNT) composites and scrutinizing a suitable oxidant to improve the properties of composites. PANI/SWCNT composites were fabricated via ultrasonically initiated in-situ chemical polymerization technique using four different oxidants; hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), ammonium peroxidisulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}), potassium dichromate (K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and potassium iodate (KIO{sub 3}). Percent yield (97%), molecular weight (45532 g mol{sup −1}) and electrical conductivity (0.835 S cm{sup −1}) were found maximum for composite prepared in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Structural confirmation of PANI and charge transfer complex formation between PANI and SWCNT were confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis verified that the PANI/SWCNT composite synthesized using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} had maximum thermal stability with least thermal degradation (∼28%). Minimal thermal transitions of the composite were also observed for same composite by differential scanning calorimetry. Scanning electron microscopic images of PANI/SWCNT composites revealed that SWCNT were properly dispersed in PANI matrix when H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was used. Above results provide the valuable suggestion that; H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is a promising oxidant to enhance structural, thermal, electrical and microscopic properties of composites. - Highlights: • Ultrasonically initiated in-situ chemical polymerization protocol was devised for synthesis of PANI/SWCNT composites. • SEM micrographs of PANI/SWCNT-1 showed uniform dispersed structure. • Better thermal stability and conductivity was evidenced for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} based PANI/SWCNT composite. • π–π interaction between PANI and SWCNT is confirmed by FTIR and UV

  4. 78 FR 48844 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  5. 75 FR 26166 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... 40 CFR part 300 which is the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  6. 78 FR 65210 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of California... 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  7. Does physical abuse in early childhood predict substance use in adolescence and early adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2010-05-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from 585 families were used to examine parents' reports of child physical abuse in the first 5 years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first 5 years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls'substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance use at age 12. For boys, age 12 substance use predicted age 16 substance use, and age 16 substance use predicted age 24 substance use, but physical abuse in the first 5 years of life was unrelated to subsequent substance use. These findings suggest that for females, a mechanism of influence of early physical abuse on substance use into early adulthood appears to be through precocious initiation of substance use in early adolescence.

  8. Nitrogen Forms in Humic Substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUOSU-NENG; WENQI-XIAO

    1992-01-01

    In this paper,the nitrogen forms in newly-formed humic substances,including humic acid (HA),fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid in humin (HAI),were studied by using the 15N CP-MAS NMR technique in combination with chemical approaches.Results show that the majority of nitrogen in HA,FA and HAI was in the amide form with some presented as aliphatic and/ or aromatic amines and some as pyrrole type nitrogen,although the contents of nonhydrolyzable nitrogen in them differed greatly from each other (15-55%).

  9. The problem of current toxic chemicals management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickner, Joel; Geiser, Ken

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we explore the limitations of current chemicals management policies worldwide and the evolution of new European, International and U.S. policies to address the problem of toxic chemicals control. It is becoming increasingly apparent that current chemicals management policies in Europe and the United States are inadequate. There is a general lack of toxicity and exposure information on chemicals in commerce and the vast majority of chemicals were considered safe until proven guilty in legislation. Governments must then prove each chemical is dangerous through a slow and resource-intensive risk assessment process. For more than a decade, Nordic countries, such as Denmark and Sweden, have actively promoted integrated chemicals policies to address contamination of critical waterways. They have successfully used a variety of voluntary and mandatory policy tools, such as education, procurement, lists of chemicals of concern, eco-labeling, research and development on safer substitutes, and chemical phase-out requirements, to encourage companies using chemicals to reduce their reliance on harmful substances and to develop safer substitutes. While previously isolated to particular countries, innovative and exciting European-wide policies to promote sustainable chemicals management are now moving forward, including the recently published draft Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of CHemicals (REACH) policy of the European Union. A sweeping change in chemicals management policies in Europe is inevitable and it will ultimately affect manufacturers in the U.S. and globally. The European movement provides an opportunity to initiate a discussion on integrated chemicals policy in the U.S. where some innovative initiatives already are underway.

  10. Development and initial characterization of a chemically stabilized elastin-glycosaminoglycan-collagen composite shape-memory hydrogel for nucleus pulposus regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Jeremy; Addington, Caroline; Pascal, Richard; Gill, Sanjitpal; Simionescu, Dan

    2014-12-01

    Nucleus pulposus (NP) is a resilient and hydrophilic tissue which plays a significant role in the biomechanical function of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Destruction of the NP extracellular matrix (ECM) is observed during the early stages of IVD degeneration. Herein, we describe the development and initial characterization of a novel biomaterial which attempts to recreate the resilient and hydrophilic nature of the NP via the construction of a chemically stabilized elastin-glycosaminoglycan-collagen (EGC) composite hydrogel. Results demonstrated that a resilient, hydrophilic hydrogel which displays a unique "shape-memory" sponge characteristic could be formed from a blend of soluble elastin aggregates, chondroitin-6-sulfate, hyaluronic acid and collagen following freeze-drying, stabilization with a carbodiimide and penta-galloyl glucose-based fixative, and subsequent partial degradation with glycosaminoglycan degrading enzymes. The resultant material exhibited the ability to restore its original dimensions and water content following multi-cycle mechanical compression and illustrated resistance to accelerated enzymatic degradation. Preliminary in vitro studies utilizing human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) demonstrated that the material was cytocompatible and supported differentiation towards an NP cell-like phenotype. In vivo biocompatibility studies illustrated host cell infiltration and evidence of active remodeling following 4 weeks of implantation. Feasibility studies demonstrated that the EGC hydrogel could be delivered via minimally invasive methods.

  11. OpenGeoSys: an open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we describe the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project, which is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical processes in porous media. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework (using primarily the Finite Element Method (FEM)) for solving multifield problems in porous and fractured media for applications in geoscience and hydrology. To this purpose OGS is based on an object-oriented FEM concept including a broad spectrum of interfaces for pre- and postprocessing. The OGS idea has been in development since the mid-eighties; meanwhile we are working on its 6th version. We provide a short historical note about the continuous process of concept and software development having evolved through Fortran, C, and C++ implementations. The idea behind OGS is to provide an open platform to the community, outfitted with professional software-engineering tools such as platform-independent compiling and automated benchmarking. A comprehensive benchmarking book has been prepared for publication. Benchmarking has been proven to be a valuable tool for cooperation between different developer teams, for example, for code comparison and validation purposes (DEVOVALEX, CO2BENCH and SSBENCH projects). On one hand, object-orientation (OO) provides a suitable framework for distributed code development; however, the parallelization of OO codes still lacks efficiency. High-performance-computing efficiency of OO codes is subject to future research (accompanying poster).

  12. Variations of the initial mass function in semi-analytical models: implications for the chemical enrichment of galaxies in the GAEA model

    CERN Document Server

    Fontanot, Fabio; Hirschmann, Michaela; Bruzual, Gustavo; Charlot, Stephane; Zibetti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the implications of the Integrated Galaxy-wide stellar Initial Mass Function (IGIMF) approach in the framework of the semi-analytic model GAEA (GAlaxy Evolution and Assembly), which features a detailed treatment of chemical enrichment and stellar feedback. The IGIMF provides an analytic description of the dependence of the stellar IMF shape on the rate of star formation in galaxies. We find that our model with a universal IMF predicts a rather flat [$\\alpha$/Fe]-stellar mass relation. The model assuming the IGIMF, instead, is able to reproduce the observed increase of $\\alpha$-enhancement with stellar mass. This is mainly due to the fact that massive galaxies are characterized by larger SFRs at high-redshift, leading to stronger $\\alpha$-enhancement with respect to low-mass galaxies. At the same time, the IGIMF hypothesis does not affect significantly the trend for shorter star formation timescales for more massive galaxies. We argue that in the IGIMF scenario the [$\\alpha$/Fe] ra...

  13. Variations of the stellar initial mass function in semi-analytical models: implications for the mass assembly and the chemical enrichment of galaxies in the GAEA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanot, Fabio; De Lucia, Gabriella; Hirschmann, Michaela; Bruzual, Gustavo; Charlot, Stéphane; Zibetti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the implications of the integrated galaxy-wide stellar initial mass function (IGIMF) approach in the framework of the semi-analytical model GAEA (GAlaxy Evolution and Assembly), which features a detailed treatment of chemical enrichment and stellar feedback. The IGIMF provides an analytic description of the dependence of the stellar IMF shape on the rate of star formation in galaxies. We find that our model with a universal IMF predicts a rather flat [α/Fe]-stellar mass relation. The model assuming the IGIMF, instead, is able to reproduce the observed increase of α-enhancement with stellar mass, in agreement with previous studies. This is mainly due to the fact that massive galaxies are characterized by larger star formation rates at high redshift, leading to stronger α-enhancement with respect to low-mass galaxies. At the same time, the IGIMF hypothesis does not affect significantly the trend for shorter star formation time-scales for more massive galaxies. We argue that in the IGIMF scenario the [α/Fe] ratios are good tracers of the highest star formation events. The final stellar masses and mass-to-light ratio of our model massive galaxies are larger than those estimated from the synthetic photometry assuming a universal IMF, providing a self-consistent interpretation of similar recent results, based on dynamical analysis of local early-type galaxies.

  14. Results of Section 4 Chemical Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires that data be developed on the effect of chemical substances and mixtures on health and the environment. This data...

  15. Creativity and Psychoactive Substance Use: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The role of psychoactive substance use in the research of artistic creation and creativity is a long-standing topic. Ever since the discovery of LSD, researchers have examined the relationship between the effects of chemical substances and the artistic creative process. The goal of the present study was to systematically review all published empirical publications and case reports in refereed journals that focused on the relationship between psychoactive substances and creativity/creative art...

  16. Chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book, suitable as an introductory text for undergraduates, presents temperature, internal energy, and entropy with a minimum of mathematics. The basic mathematical models of classical chemical thermodynamics are developed later in the text. Includes numerous problems at the end of each chapter, an appendix giving thermodynamic data for common substances, a short list of references, answers to selected problems, and a subject index. Contents, abridged: Energy and the first law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic functions. The third law of thermodynamics and absolute entropies. Thermodynamics of chemical reactions. Phase equilibria: the activity function. Thermodynamics of ions in solution. Statistical thermodynamics. Appendices. Index.

  17. Experimental estimation of migration and transfer of organic substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes: Evaluation of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Per Axel; Spaan, Suzanne; Brouwer, Derk H; Marquart, Hans; le Feber, Maaike; Engel, Roel; Geerts, Lieve; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi; Hansen, Brian; De Brouwere, Katleen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the key mechanisms governing transport of organic chemical substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes. The results were used to establish a mechanistic model to improve assessment of dermal contact exposure. Four types of PVC flooring, 10 types of textiles and one type of inkjet printed paper were used to establish the mechanisms and model. Kinetic extraction studies in methanol demonstrated existence of matrix diffusion and indicated the presence of a substance surface layer on some articles. Consequently, the proposed substance transfer model considers mechanical transport from a surface film and matrix diffusion in an article with a known initial total substance concentration. The estimated chemical substance transfer values to cotton wipes were comparable to the literature data (relative transfer ∼ 2%), whereas relative transfer efficiencies from spiked substrates were high (∼ 50%). For consumer articles, high correlation (r(2)=0.92) was observed between predicted and measured transfer efficiencies, but concentrations were overpredicted by a factor of 10. Adjusting the relative transfer from about 50% used in the model to about 2.5% removed overprediction. Further studies are required to confirm the model for generic use.

  18. Initial findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of computer-assisted therapy for substance misuse in prisoners: Development, implementation and clinical outcomes from the ‘Breaking Free Health & Justice’ treatment and recovery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elison

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the United Kingdom’s ‘Transforming Rehabilitation’ agenda, reshaping drug and alcohol interventions in prisons is central to the Government’s approach to addressing substance dependence in the prison population and reduce reoffending. To achieve this, a through-care project to support offenders following release, ‘Gateways’, is taking place providing ‘through the gate’ support to released offenders, including help with organising accommodation, education and employment, and access to a peer supporter. In addition, Gateways is providing access to an evidence-based computer-assisted therapy (CAT programme for substance misuse, Breaking Free Health & Justice (BFHJ. Developed in partnership with the Ministry of Justice (MoJ National Offender Management Services (NOMS, and based on a community version of the programme, Breaking Free Online (BFO, BFHJ provides access to clinically-robust techniques based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT and promotes the role of technology-enhanced approaches in recovery from substance misuse. The BFHJ programme is provided via ‘Virtual Campus’ (VC, a secure, web-based learning environment delivered by NOMS and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, which has no links to websites not approved by MoJ, and provides prisoners with access to online training courses around work and skills. Providing BFHJ on VC makes the programme the world’s first online healthcare programme to be provided in prisons. Aims: Although here is an emerging evidence-base for the effectiveness of the community version of the BFO programme and its implementation within community treatment settings (Davies, Elison, Ward, & Laudet, 2015; Elison, Davies, & Ward, 2015a, 2015b; Elison, Humphreys, Ward, & Davies, 2013; Elison, Ward, Davies, Lidbetter, et al., 2014; Elison, Ward, Davies, & Moody, 2014, its potential within prison settings requires exploration. This study therefore sought to

  19. Essential Principles for Reform of Chemicals Management Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  20. Waste paper for recycling: Overview and identification of potentially critical substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    contained in waste paper into the recycling loop. This study provides an overview of chemicals potentially present in paper and applies a sequential hazard screening procedure based on the intrinsic hazard, physical-chemical and biodegradability characteristics of the substances. Based on the results, 51...... substances were identified as potentially critical (selected mineral oils, phthalates, phenols, parabens, as well as other groups of chemicals) in relation to paper recycling. It is recommended that these substances receive more attention in waste paper....

  1. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. A Microstructural Comparison of the Initial Growth of AIN and GaN Layers on Basal Plane Sapphire and SiC Substrates by Low Pressure Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Depositon

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, T.; Pike, W. T.; Khan, M. A.; Kuznia, J. N.; Chang-Chien, P.

    1994-01-01

    The initial growth by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and subsequent thermal annealing of AIN and GaN epitaxial layers on SiC and sapphire substrates is examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  3. 海洋分离芽胞杆菌抗白念珠菌活性物质的理化性质及类别%Physico-Chemical Characters & Classification of Anti-Candida Bioactive Substances Produced by 7 Marine-Derived Bacillus Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全永; 杨铭; 王书锦

    2015-01-01

    为寻找新型抗真菌活性物质,采用管碟法对7株分离自海洋的芽胞杆菌在不同NaCl浓度下产生抗白念珠菌活性物质特性、活性物质的耐热性及不同pH值条件下的活性进行了比较,八大溶剂系统纸层析法对活性物质的类别进行了初步鉴定。结果表明,随着NaCl浓度的变化产生活性物质的量也在变化,NaCl浓度达7%时均不能产生,但在正常海洋环境盐浓度( NaCl含量2%~3%)下都产生;活性物质有很强的耐热性和耐酸碱性,说明其较稳定;7株菌产生的抗白念珠菌活性物质均为碱性水溶性抗生素。由于目前临床上抑制人体病原真菌活性物质绝大多数为脂溶性,因而这些芽胞杆菌产生的抗白念珠活性物质有可能为新型物质,此外本研究结果为这些菌株所产生活性物质的分离纯化提供了依据。%In order to search for new type of anti-fungal bioactive substances,method of tube plate was adopted to compare the features of 7 marine-isolated Bacillus strains producing anti-candida bioactive substances at different NaCl concentrations and their thermal resistance and under the condition of different pH value activity. Eight major solvent system of paper chromatography to initially identify the category of active substances was carried out. The result showed that with the variation of NaCl concentration the amount of the bioactive substances produced by the Bacillus strains also varied,all the Bacillus strains cannot produce anti-candida substances when NaCl was as high as 7%, however,they all could produce bioactive substances under normal sea circumstances saline concentration( NaCl con-tent at 2% ~3%);the active substances had strong heat and acid-alkaline resistances,suggesting they are fairly sta-ble. The anti-candida active substances produced by 7 strains were all alkaline and water soluble antibiotics. Due to the current clinically inhibiting human pathogenic fungi active

  4. ECVAM, ECETOC and the EU chemicals policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botham, Philip A

    2002-12-01

    ECVAM's initiatives in validation have received significant support from the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), especially through the provision of reference chemical data banks, which contain peer-reviewed, high-quality in vivo data on commercially available chemical substances. Chemicals have been selected from these ECETOC data banks for validation studies on alternative methods for skin corrosion and irritation and for eye irritation and, in addition, an ECETOC task force peer-reviewed the selection and classification, on the basis of in vivo data, of chemicals used in the validation of three alternative methods for developmental toxicity. More recently, ECVAM and ECETOC have been pursuing parallel initiatives on the proposed new EU chemicals policy, with the common goals of ensuring that industry and European Commission resources are used to investigate only those chemicals that pose a significant risk to human health and the environment, and that the Policy requires that any testing which is required follows the Three Rs principles of reduction, refinement and replacement.

  5. Supervision: Substance and Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  6. Young People's Involvement in a Substance Misuse Communications Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew; Salmon, Debra; Orme, Judy

    2004-01-01

    There is growing emphasis in public policy on involving young people in the development of health promotion campaigns and information resources on substance misuse. To date there has been little literature that explores the level and nature young people's involvement in such initiatives. This paper reports on an evaluation of a substance misuse…

  7. Adolescent Romantic Couples Influence on Substance Use in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudonis-Miller, Lauren C.; Lewis, Lisa; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Aalsma, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescent peer group affiliations are consistent predictors of substance use initiation and maintenance; it is less clear how adolescent "romantic" relationships influence substance use behavior. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants in the final dataset…

  8. Adolescent Romantic Couples Influence on Substance Use in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudonis-Miller, Lauren C.; Lewis, Lisa; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Aalsma, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescent peer group affiliations are consistent predictors of substance use initiation and maintenance; it is less clear how adolescent "romantic" relationships influence substance use behavior. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants in the final dataset for the…

  9. Electronegativity, Bond Energy, and Chemical Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, R. Thomas

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the Pauling electronegativity concept which rationalizes several kinds of chemical reactions of covalent substances. Electronegativity differences applied to some reactions are demonstrated. (SA)

  10. Per and polyfluorinated substances in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posner, Stefan; Roos, Sandra; Brunn Poulsen, Pia;

    prioritized in 2) There is a lack of physical chemical data, analystical reference substances, human and environmental occurrence and toxicology data, as well as market information regarding PFCs other than PFOA and PFOS and the current legislation cannot enforce disclosure of specific PFC substance......This Tema Nord report presents a study based on open information and custom market research to review the most common perfluorinated substances (PFC) with less focus on PFOS and PFOA. The study includes three major parts: 1) Identification of relevant per-and polyfluorinated substances...... and their use in various industrial sectors in the Nordic market by interviews with major players and database information 2) Emissions to and occurence in the Nordic environment of the substances described in 1) 3) A summary of knowledge of the toxic effects on humans and the environment of substances...

  11. Correlative Analysis between Several Chemical Substances and Chinese Chives Cultivar Resistance to Bradysia odoriphage Yang et Zhang%几种生化物质与韭菜抗迟眼蕈蚊的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘敏; 杨建平; 曹安堂

    2011-01-01

    选用20个具有不同迟眼蕈蚊抗性的韭菜栽培品种,在迟眼蕈蚊发生高峰期对韭菜叶组织中的粗纤维、芳香油、可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖、色素、叶绿素a及游离氨基酸含量进行了测定,通过与韭菜抗虫性评价指标(虫口密度、受害植株比例和叶片被害指数)的相关分析,进行了韭菜生化物质含量与韭菜抗虫性的相互关系研究.结果表明,与感虫品种相比,抗虫品种中均有较低的芳香油、可溶性糖和游离氨基酸含量;抗虫品种较感虫品种有较高的粗纤维、可溶性蛋白、色素和叶绿素a含量.基于相关分析和逐步回归分析的韭菜抗虫性和生化指标间关系分析表明:芳香油、可溶性蛋白和游离氨基酸等3个生化指标与韭菜品种抗虫性有较为紧密的关系,其中又以芳香油含量与韭菜抗虫性的关系最为密切.%Twenty Chinese chives cultivars that showed different resistance to Bradysia odoriphage were selected to study the correlations between the pest resistance ( based on 3 pest resistant index: pest density, percentage of infected plants and leaf suffering index ) and the content of several physiological chemical substances, including coarse-fiber, naphtha, soluble sugar, soluble protein, pigment, chlorophl-a and dissociative amino acids. The results showed that the contents of naphths, soluble sugar and dissociative amino acids in the resistant cultivars appeared with lower content than those of the infective ones. But the contents of coarse-fiber, soluble protein, pigment and chlorophl-a in the resistant cultivars showed higher values than the infective ones. The results of correlative analysis showed that the contents of naphtha, soluble protein and dissociative amino acids displayed distinct correlations with the level of pest resistance. And the results of regression analysis also revealed that the content of naphtha might be the most important factor for the pest resistance.

  12. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  13. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  14. Chemical Abstracts Service Chemical Registry System: History, Scope, and Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgerber, David W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the history, scope, and applications of the Chemical Abstracts Service Chemical Registry System, a computerized database that uniquely identifies chemical substances on the basis of their molecular structures. Explains searching the system is and discusses its use as an international resource. (66 references) (Author/LRW)

  15. Chemical warfare in freshwater. Allelpathic effects of macrophytes on phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field expe

  16. Chemical warfare in freshwater. Allelpathic effects of macrophytes on phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes can excrete chemical substances into their enviroment and these compounds may inhibit the growth of phytoplankton. This process is defined as allelopathy: one organism has effects on another via the excretion of a (mixture of) chemical substance(s). With laboratory and field

  17. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  18. (Chemical thermodynamics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesmer, R.E.

    1990-09-12

    The purpose of this travel was for the traveler to participate in the 11th IUPAC International Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics and to present a paper of which he is co-author entitled The Transition from Strong-to-Weak Electrolyte Behavior Near the Critical Point of Water'' in the session on Solutions. The conference brought together nearly 500 scientists from around the world to discuss broad aspects of experimental thermodynamics and theoretical modeling. The traveler also visited the University of Karlsruhe to discuss current research with E.U. Franck and his collaborators. This institution has been for many years one of the leading centers for experimental studies on phase equilibrium and physical chemical studies especially on pure substances under the direction of Franck.

  19. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2 (FGE.21Rev2): Thiazoles, thiophene, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical group 29. Miscellaneous substances from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 56 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Seven of the su...... of commerce have also been considered. For two substances are an identity test lacking and for one has the stereoisomeric composition to be specified....

  20. Teaching of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Based on Aspen-Plus ( Ⅱ )Saturated Property Calculation of Pure Substance%基于Aspen-Plus的化工热力学教学(Ⅱ)纯物质饱和性质计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新志; 赵倩; 钱超

    2011-01-01

    化工热力学作为化学工程的基础学科,是化学工程与工艺专业的一门核心课程,在化学工程的教学过程中占有极其重要的地位。我们借助专业化工模拟软件Aspen-Plus完成化工热力学教学中的纯物质饱和性质计算,得到了较为理想的结果,为用Aspen-Plus辅助化工热力学教学提高教学效率,加强应用能力培养夯实了基础。%As the basic subject, chemical engineering thermodynamics is a main course for process of chemical engineering. Aspen-Plus software which is widely used in chemical engineering and industry has been adopted to calculate the saturated thermodynamic properties of pure substance, and satisfactory re- suits are given. It has provided better basis for teaching of chemical engineering thermodynamics and training of its application ability with the help of Aspen-Plus.

  1. The advisory list for selvclassification of dangerous substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemelä, Jay Russell; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    All chemical substances marketed in the EU must be classified and labelled according to the regulation on classification and labelling of dangerous substances (7). Substances with harmonised classifications adopted in the EU are to be found on the List of harmonised classification and labelling...... this issue, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency published the Advisory Self-classification List /5/. This report describes the updating of this list. The Advisory Self-Classification list is created by the use of (Q)SARs ((Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships) to predict the effects...... of chemicals. The updated Advisory Self-Classification list contains the results of a systematic assessment of 49,292 discrete organic EINECS substances in relation to the following endpoints for which new and/or improved (Q)SAR model predictions were available: o Mutagenicity o Carcinogenicity o Reproductive...

  2. [New psychoactive substances and their prevalence in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravčík, Viktor; Běláčková, Vendula; Grohmannová, Kateřina; Zábranský, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there is a global growing concern over the new (mainly synthetic) psychoactive substances, known as legal highs, research chemicals or bath salts. They are represented by various chemical groups imitating "old" illicit drugs with stimulant, euphoric, hallucinogenic or sedative effects. In the Czech Republic, the peak of their use and supply was observed at the beginning of 2011, when new psychoactive substances were available in smart shops known locally as Amsterdam shops - in that time mainly synthetic cathinones and also synthetic cannabinoids were present. After legislative change that placed tens of new substances under the control of criminal law in April 2011, new psychoactive substances are available at Internet and their use is (after short and media driven boom in early 2011) rather limited and decreasing. Though, the use of new synthetic stimulants was recently reported locally among problem (injecting) drug users; new very potent synthetic opioids represent potential threat of further expansion in this users subgroup.

  3. Surface with two paint strips for detection and warning of chemical warfare and radiological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2013-04-02

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  4. Paint for detection of corrosion and warning of chemical and radiological attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2010-08-24

    A system for warning of corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances. The system comprises painting a surface with a paint or coating that includes an indicator material and monitoring the surface for indications of the corrosion, chemical, or radiological substances.

  5. Chemical management and control strategies: experiences from the GTZ pilot project on chemical safety in Indonesian small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, M; Scholaen, S

    2003-10-01

    In 1998 the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) launched the Convention Project on Chemical Safety in developing countries. The project aims to support developing countries in the implementation of the Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions, create human resources and institutional capacities and to demonstrate via pilot measures how chemical safety in the partner countries can be improved and sustainably implemented in line with international standards. With this objective the development of a Chemical Management Guide (CM Guide) for small and medium-sized enterprises in developing countries has been initiated. The guide describes a step-by-step approach which is based on identifying 'hot-spots' as a first step, and making a chemical inventory as a second step. The third step is the continuous improvement of chemical management. In total, there are six tools that aim to support the chemical management process: basic concepts for risk assessment; description of control approaches; using material safety data sheets (MSDSs); risk phrases for hazardous substances; safety phrases for hazardous substances; symbols used for labelling hazardous substances. In the course of the test-implementation of the CM Guide in Indonesia, it was found that MSDSs were not available in most of the smaller companies. In contrast, medium-sized and larger companies do have more MSDSs available. It was also found that the way to engage the minds of company owners and managers is with economic arguments related to the loss, waste and expiry of materials, and quality standards expected from importing countries.

  6. Epidemiology of Substance Use among University Students in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Osman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Youth populations are vulnerable to substance use particularly in developing countries where circumstances may be favorable for it. There is no published data on substance use among the youth in Sudan other than on tobacco use. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, circumstances, and factors associated with substance use. Methods. An institution-based survey was conducted on a sample of 500 students. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed by the WHO for student drug surveys and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results. The overall prevalence of substance use is 31%. The current prevalence of tobacco, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamines, tranquilizers, inhalants, opiates, cocaine, and heroin use was 13.7%, 4.9%, 2.7%, 2.4%, 3.2%, 1%, 1.2%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. Curiosity (33.1% was the main reason for initiation of substance use. The main adverse effects reported were health problems (19.7% and theft (19.7%. Peers (40.9% were the prime source of substance use. On multivariate analysis, male sex was the principle predictor for substance use (AOR: 5.55; 95% CI: 3.38, 9.17. Conclusion. Strategies to control substance use should encompass the role of the university and parents in observing and providing education to improve awareness of substances and their consequences.

  7. TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN THE FOOD CHAIN – RISK ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Zomborszky-Kovács

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available It seems to be impossible to keep toxic substances out of the food chain. Interaction of natural environmental toxins and other chemicals or residues in food may result in harmful synergistic effects. In order to protect human health against the deleterious effects of different toxic substances it is imperative that tolerance levels be established. Tolerance levels can only be established on the basis of comprehensive risk assessment studies.

  8. Developing human health exposure scenarios for petroleum substances under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.; De Wilde, P.; Maksimainen, K.; Margary, A.; Money, C.; Pizzella, G.; Svanehav, T.; Tsang, W.; Urbanus, J.; Rohde, A.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the approaches that were adopted by CONCAWE to prepare the human exposure estimates in the chemical safety assessments of the REACH registration dossiers for petroleum substances based on all applicable regulatory guidance. Separate exposure estimates were developed for workers and for consumers and included inhalation and dermal routes. The complex nature of petroleum substances required various scientifically justified refinements of the regulatory guidance.

  9. Presence of potentially critical substances in waste paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    The paper industry accounts for a significant share of the chemicals consumed by the industrial sector. Most of the chemicals used are additives, i.e. chemical substances added during pulp and paper preparation and final product manufacturing (conversion and printing) in order to facilitate the p...... of the critical additives potentially present in paper products and quantification of a selected group of additives (Mineral Oil Hydrocarbons) in waste paper and board source segregated from Danish municipal solid waste....

  10. Control of Oxygen Concentration by Using a Carbonaceous Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanad Jadan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of oxygen concentration in gas flow may be used in chemical industry, heat power engineering, ecology, automobile construction and other industrial branches. This control is realized over a broad range of oxygen concentrations. The control of the oxygen concentration is based on passing of gas flow through a measuring cavity of radio spectrometer and measurement of a magnetic resonance signal. A change in the magnetic resonance signal of a dispersed carbonaceous substance, placed into the cavity, indicates to the changes in oxygen concentrations. The dispersed anthracite and thermal treatment cellulose substance in the oxygen-free medium are proposed to use as a carbonaceous substance.

  11. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  12. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  13. Food contact materials, flavouring substances and smoke flavourings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engel K-H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The EFSA Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC Panel and the subsequent Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF Panel have undertaken evaluations of the safety of flavourings (both chemically defined substances and mixtures such as smoke flavourings and food contact materials (FCM, as well as assessments on other substances used in food. The major progress in methodologies for the evaluation of the safety of these substances is highlighted in this article. By December 2011, scientific opinions had been adopted for 247 substances for food contact materials, mainly plastics. Adoption of a series of opinions on active and/or intelligent packaging substances and on recycling processes of plastics is planned between July 2012 and December 2013. Panel opinions, EFSA statements/reports and guidance documents were published on specific issues and on substances for which there was an urgent request for safety evaluation (for example isopropylthioxanthone (ITX, bisphenol A (BPA, phthalates, epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO, benzophenone and 4-methylbenzophenone. By 2009, the AFC and CEF Panels had completed the safety review of 2 067 flavourings substances used in the EU. Additional data, which were requested for 404 substances, are currently under evaluation or have been generated. Eleven smoke flavourings have been evaluated, and the CEF Panel has prepared a guidance document on the future data required for the evaluation of flavourings.

  14. [The comprehensive investigation of the new psychoactive substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A I; Malkova, T L; Apushkin, D Yu; Bulatov, I P; Mashchenko, P S

    2016-01-01

    This article was designed to discuss the issues related to ensuring the methodological uniformity of investigations of the novel psychoactive substances based on the system of the newly established specialized laboratories. The authors propose the methodological approaches to the implementation of comprehensive chemical and pharmacological research including chemical, biological, and sociological studies. The main specific features of these approaches are the use of laboratory animals and the automation of in vivo experiments. Also, we discuss the use of the concrete results of the computational experiments designed to elucidate the parameters responsible for the chemical similarity of psychoactive substances. The mechanisms of their action are considered. The special emphasis is placed on the necessity of close cooperation between scientific and expert communities with a view to accumulation of the data on the newly developed and potentially harmful psychoactive substances as a basis for the efficacious prevention of their illegal trafficking.

  15. Evolutionary game theory and multiple chemical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlin, D B

    1999-01-01

    Newlin's [Newlin D.B. Evolutionary game theory of tolerance and sensitization in substance abuse. Paper presented to the Research Society on Alcoholism, Hilton Head, SC, 1998] evolutionary game theory of addictive behavior specifies how evolutionarily stable strategies for survival and reproduction may lead to addiction. The game theory of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) assumes that: (1) the MCS patient responds to low-level toxicants as stressors or as direct threats to their survival and reproductive fitness, (2) this activates the cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system, (3) this system is a survival motivation center--not a 'reward center', (4) the subject emits a counter-response that is in the same direction as the naive response to the chemicals, (5) previously neutral stimuli associated with chemicals also trigger conditioned responses that mimic those to the chemicals, (6) these counter-responses further activate the dopaminergic survival motivation system, and (7) this produces a positive feedback loop that leads to strong neural sensitization in these structures and in behavior controlled by this system, despite a small initial response. Psychologically, the MCS patient with a sensitized cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system is behaving as though his/her survival is directly threatened by these chemicals. Non-MCS subjects have counter-responses opposite in direction to those of the chemicals and show tolerance. An autoshaping/sign-tracking model of this game is discussed. This evolutionary game makes several specific, testable predictions about differences between MCS subjects, non-MCS controls, and substance abusers in laboratory experiments, and between sensitized and nonsensitized animals.

  16. Maintenance and hazardous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhl, K.; Terwoert, J.; Cabecas, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance workers come into close contact with a broad variety of often hazardous chemicals. Depending on the specific type, these chemicals may not only cause diseases like skin sores or cancer, but many of them are highly flammable and explosive. This e-facts focuses on the specific risks relate

  17. Substance use -- inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rags or toilet paper soaked with the chemical. Effects of Inhalants on the Brain When inhaled, the chemicals are absorbed by the ... to replace the ones that involved inhalant use. Exercise and eat healthy ... the harmful effects of inhalants. Avoid triggers. These triggers can be ...

  18. A GHS-consistent approach to health hazard classification of petroleum substances, a class of UVCB substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charles R; McKee, Richard H; Freeman, James J; Swick, Derek; Mahagaokar, Suneeta; Pigram, Glenda; Roberts, Linda G; Smulders, Chantal J; Beatty, Patrick W

    2013-12-01

    The process streams refined from petroleum crude oil for use in petroleum products are among those designated by USEPA as UVCB substances (unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products and biological materials). They are identified on global chemical inventories with unique Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers and names. The chemical complexity of most petroleum substances presents challenges when evaluating their hazards and can result in differing evaluations due to the varying level of hazardous constituents and differences in national chemical control regulations. Global efforts to harmonize the identification of chemical hazards are aimed at promoting the use of consistent hazard evaluation criteria. This paper discusses a systematic approach for the health hazard evaluation of petroleum substances using chemical categories and the United Nations (UN) Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling. Also described are historical efforts to characterize the hazard of these substances and how they led to the development of categories, the identification of potentially hazardous constituents which should be considered, and a summary of the toxicology of the major petroleum product groups. The use of these categories can increase the utility of existing data, provide better informed hazard evaluations, and reduce the amount of animal testing required.

  19. Chemicals of Common bitercress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marenich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of Common bitter cress (Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.. Shows indicators of good quality, optimal parameters extraction, trace element composition, amino acid composition, content of biologically active substances and volatile of raw material.

  20. Culturally competent substance abuse treatment with transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttbrock, Larry A

    2012-01-01

    Transgender individuals are misunderstood and inadequately treated in many conventional substance abuse treatment programs. This article reviews current concepts regarding the definition and diversity of transgenderism and summarizes the existing literature on the prevalence and correlates of substance use in transgendered populations. Examples of culturally competent and gender-sensitive treatment in specialized settings are cited, with a call to extend these initiatives throughout the gamut of service venues that engage transgender individuals. Cultural competence combined with gender sensitivity should improve the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment for transgender individuals and will contribute to the goal of providing effective services in an increasingly diverse society.

  1. 虫害诱导的杨树化学物质对分月扇舟蛾生长发育的影响%Influence of pest induced poplar chemical substances on the growth and development of Clostera anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚淑艳; 孟怡君

    2012-01-01

    As a new plant resistance type, induced resistance has a great potential in the feeding and egg laying prospects ofphytopha- gous insects. In this research, feeding selection behaviors of Clostera anastomos/s larvae to poplar leaves processed in different ways were observed indoor with a selective method. After 2-3 year larvae were fed with leaves damaged by insect pests for 48 hours, nutri- lional effect of the leaves damaged by insect pests was tested and the influences on the development period, pupa weight, emergence rate and other growth and development conditions of Clostera anastomosis larvae fed with the leaves damaged by insect pests was ana- lyzed. A biochemical method was used to detect the change of nutrient substances and secondary substances of the damage leaves. The results shown that the leaves damaged with insect pests had repellency against Clostera anastomosis; mechanical injury did not af- fect selectivity to hosts; and after Clostera anastomosis larvae eaten damaged leaves, the development period was prolonged, pupa weight, emergence rate, soluble sugar content were reduced, and the contents of tannin and tlavone were increased.%诱导抗性作为一种新的植物抗性类型,在防御植食性昆虫的取食和产卵方面具有很大的潜力。该项研究在室内采用选择性方法,观察了分月扇舟蛾幼虫对不同处理的杨树叶的取食选择行为。用虫害叶喂食2-3龄幼虫48h,测定其营养效应,分析了喂食虫害叶对分月扇舟蛾的幼虫发育历期、蛹重、羽化率等生长发育的影响。利用生化方法测定了杨树叶片虫害后营养物质和次生物质的变化。结果表明:虫害叶对分月扇舟蛾表现为忌避作用;机械损伤叶不影响对寄主的选择性。分月扇舟蛾取食虫害叶后幼虫的发育历期延长、蛹重增加、羽化率降低,可溶性糖含量下降,单宁和黄酮含量增加。

  2. The transtheoretical model and substance dependence: theoretical and practical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to present and discuss the Transtheoretical Model and its importance for the treatment of substance abuse disorders. METHOD: A literature review was made based on articles from the last 10 years in substance use with human subjects found in PubMed (Medline) and the Scientific Electronic Library Online, as well as on the main books written by the creators of the model. From the initial collection of articles related to the Transtheoretical Model, the University of Rh...

  3. The FEMA GRAS assessment of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and related substances used as flavor ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, T B; Gavin, C Lucas; Taylor, S V; Waddell, W J; Cohen, S M; Feron, V J; Goodman, J; Rietjens, I M C M; Marnett, L J; Portoghese, P S; Smith, R L

    2008-09-01

    This publication is the 12th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Since then, the number of flavoring substances has grown to more than 2200 chemically-defined substances. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, toxicodynamics and toxicology. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation for the use of aliphatic, linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and structurally related substances as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of substances was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their low level of flavor use; the rapid absorption and metabolism of low in vivo concentrations by well-recognized biochemical pathways; adequate metabolic detoxication at much higher levels of exposure in humans and animals; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies. While some of the compounds described here have exhibited positive in vitro genotoxicity results, evidence of in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity occurs only under conditions in which animals are repeatedly and directly exposed to high irritating concentrations of the aldehyde. These conditions are not relevant to humans who consume alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes as flavor ingredients at low concentrations distributed in a food or beverage matrix.

  4. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  5. Analyses of the Erosive Effect of Dietary Substances and Medications on Deciduous Teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Lussi

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analysing the erosive potential of 30 substances (drinks, candies, and medicaments on deciduous enamel, and analyse the associated chemical factors with enamel dissolution. We analysed the initial pH, titratable acidity (TA to pH 5.5, calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphate (Pi, and fluoride (F concentration, and degree of saturation ((pK -pIHAP, (pK -pIFAP, and (pK-pICaF2 of all substances. Then, we randomly distributed 300 specimens of human deciduous enamel into 30 groups (n = 10 for each of the substances tested. We also prepared 20 specimens of permanent enamel for the sake of comparison between the two types of teeth, and we tested them in mineral water and Coca-Cola®. In all specimens, we measured surface hardness (VHN: Vickers hardness numbers and surface reflection intensity (SRI at baseline (SH baseline and SRI baseline, after a total of 2 min (SH2 min and after 4 min (SH4 min and SRI4 min erosive challenges (60 ml of substance for 6 enamel samples; 30°C, under constant agitation at 95 rpm. There was no significant difference in SH baseline between deciduous and permanent enamel. Comparing both teeth, we observed that after the first erosive challenge with Coca-Cola®, a significantly greater hardness loss was seen in deciduous (-90.2 ± 11.3 VHN than in permanent enamel (-44.3 ± 12.2 VHN; p = 0.007, but no differences between the two types of teeth were observed after two challenges (SH4 min. After both erosive challenges, all substances except for mineral water caused a significant loss in relative surface reflectivity intensity, and most substances caused a significant loss in surface hardness. Multiple regression analyses showed that pH, TA and Ca concentration play a significant role in initial erosion of deciduous enamel. We conclude that drinks, foodstuffs and medications commonly consumed by children can cause erosion of deciduous teeth and erosion is mainly associated with pH, titratable acidity and calcium

  6. Adolescent Substance Use Initiation: Correlates of the Profiles of Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Andrea L.; Amoyal, Nicole R.; Johnson, Janet L.; Prochaska, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Using cluster analysis, 717 students who reported that they had never smoked and the nondrinking 292 students who reported that they had never drank alcohol were classified into four profile groups based on their Pros and Cons of not using and temptation to use. Profiles were labeled Most Protected, Least Positive, Most Negative, and Most Tempted.…

  7. Tourette syndrome and excitatory substances: is there a connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-Ping; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Jian-Bo; Lu, Jin-Fang; Liu, Qun; Wang, Hang-Yan

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between excitatory substances by testing the urine in children with Tourette syndrome (TS). We performed a control study involving 44 patients with TS and 44 normal children by investigating the children's daily eating habits. We used the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer from Agilent. Substances for detection included 197 excitatory substances prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and other substances with similar chemical structures or biological functions for urine samples. Forty-four patients who did not take any drugs in the past 2 weeks enrolled in the study. The positive rate in the experiment group was three cases, while it was negative in the control group. The level of 1-testosterone increased in one extremely severe TS patient who ate large amounts of puffed food and drank an average of 350 ml of cola per day. Cathine and other substances with similar chemical constitution or similar biological effects increased in one severe TS patient who ate bags of instant noodles daily, according to the high score of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. An increase in ephedrine type, testosterone, and stimulants may be related to the pathogenesis of TS. Unhealthy food possibly causes TS. The relationship between excitatory substances and TS needs to be explored with the goal of providing more information on diagnosing and treating TS.

  8. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  9. Application of the improved BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation assay to the examination of the initiating and promoting activities of chemicals: the second interlaboratory collaborative study by the non-genotoxic carcinogen study group of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Umeda, Makoto; Tanaka, Noriho; Sakai, Ayako; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Isao; Ajimi, Syozo; Asada, Shin; Asakura, Masumi; Baba, Hiroshi; Dewa, Yasuaki; Ebe, Youji; Fushiwaki, Yuichi; Hagiwara, Yuji; Hamada, Shuichi; Hamamura, Tetsuo; Iwase, Yumiko; Kajiwara, Yoshitsugu; Kasahara, Yasushi; Kato, Yukihiko; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Kitada, Emiko; Kaneko, Kazuko; Kizaki, Yuko; Kubo, Kinya; Miura, Daisaku; Mashiko, Kaori; Mizuhashi, Fukutaro; Muramatsu, Dai; Nakajima, Madoka; Nakamura, Tetsu; Oishi, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Toshiaki; Shimada, Sawako; Takahashi, Chitose; Takeda, Yuko; Wakuri, Sinobu; Yajima, Nobuhiro; Yajima, Satoshi; Yatsushiro, Tomoko

    2010-03-01

    The Non-genotoxic Carcinogen Study Group in the Environmental Mutagen Society of Japan organised the second step of the inter-laboratory collaborative study on one-stage and two-stage cell transformation assays employing BALB/c 3T3 cells, with the objective of confirming whether the respective laboratories could independently produce results relevant to initiation or promotion. The method was modified to use a medium consisting of DMEM/F12 supplemented with 2% fetal bovine serum and a mixture of insulin, transferrin, ethanolamine and sodium selenite, at the stationary phase of cell growth. Seventeen laboratories collaborated in this study, and each chemical was tested by three to five laboratories. Comparison between the one-stage and two-stage assays revealed that the latter method would be beneficial in the screening of chemicals. In the test for initiating activity with the two-stage assay (post-treated with 0.1microg/ml 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), the relevant test laboratories all obtained positive results for benzo[a]pyrene and methylmethane sulphonate, and negative results for phenanthrene. Of those laboratories assigned phenacetin for the initiation phase, two returned positive results and two returned negative results, where the latter laboratories tested up to one dose lower than the maximum dose used by the former laboratories. In the exploration of promoting activity with the twostage assay (pretreated with 0.2microg/ml 3-methylcholanthrene), the relevant test laboratories obtained positive results for mezerein, sodium orthovanadate and TGF-beta1, and negative results for anthralin, phenacetin and phorbol. Two results returned for phorbol 12,13-didecanoate were positive, but one result was negative - again, the maximum dose to achieve the latter result was lower than that which produced the former results. These results suggest that this modified assay method is relevant, reproducible and transferable, provided that dosing issues, such as the

  10. OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES ELIMINATION MANAGEMENT: THE SUCCESS STORY OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Matlievska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Man, with its activities, produces and uses substances that have negative impact on the environment and the human health, and can cause an economic damage. Consequently, they have a great impact on quality of life. Among the most harmful chemicals are Ozone Depleting Substances that are subject of regulation with international conventions. This Paper supports the fact that each country has to undertake national efforts for ozone depleting substances reduction and elimination. In that respect, the general objective of the Paper is to present the Macedonian unique experience regarding its efforts to reduce or eliminate these substances. The following two aspects were subject to the research: national legislation which regulates the Ozone Depleting Substances import and export as well as the implementation of the projects that resulted with the elimination of Ozone Depleting Substances quantities in the period 1995 – 2010. The research outcomes confirm the starting research hypothesis i.e. that with adequately created and implemented national action, the amount of Ozone Depleting Substances consumption can dramatically fall.

  11. **1**5N-NMR INVESTIGATION OF HYDROXYLAMINE DERIVATIZED HUMIC SUBSTANCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Mikita, Michael A.

    1986-01-01

    Humic substances are the most abundant naturally occurring refactory organic compounds in soils and water. They have a broad range of physical, chemical and physiological properties. In soils, humic substances contribute to the cation exchange capacity, help maintain the physical structure, and play a role in plant growth and nutrition. In aquatic systems, humic substances serve to regulate the levels of inorganic constituents, yield trihalomethanes upon chlorination, and transport or concentrate organic and inorganic pollutants. The oxygen containing functional groups of humic and fulvic acids are believed to play a key role in the chemical properties of humic substances. This study was undertaken to gain additional information on the specific types of oxygen functionalities in humic substances. Since the analysis of hydroxyl moieties had been earlier established, we focused our attention on the analysis of ketone and aldehyde functional groups in humic substances.

  12. Risk assessment of flavouring substances used in foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norby, Karin; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Greve, Krestine

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present project, the FLAVIS project, is to perform risk assessment of chemically defined flavouring substances. The evaluations are then presented to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for final adoption in its Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids...... and materials in contact with food. The regulatory background for the work is found in the European Parliament and Council Regulation No. 2232/96 laying down a procedure for the establishment of a list of flavouring substances the use of which will be authorised to the exclusion of all others in the EU...... the approach developed by the “Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives” (JECFA) and referred to in Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000. First, the 2800 flavouring substances are divided into groups of structurally related substances. The Procedure is then a stepwise approach that integrates...

  13. Quantum chemical analysis of the unfolding of a penta-glycyl 310-helix initiated by HO•, HO2•, and O2-•

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Michael C.; Viskolcz, Bela; Csizmadia, Imre G.

    2011-07-01

    In this study, the thermodynamic functions of hydrogen abstraction from the Cα and amide nitrogen of Gly3 in a homo-pentapeptide (N-Ac-GGGGG-NH2; G5) by HO•, HO2•, and O2-• were computed using the Becke three-parameter Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) density functional. The thermodynamic functions, standard enthalpy (ΔH°), Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), and entropy (ΔS°), of these reactions were computed with G5 in the 310-helical (G5Hel) and fully-extended (G5Ext) conformations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) and B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) levels of theory, both in the gas phase and using the conductor-like polarizable continuum model implicit water model. H abstraction is more favorable at the Cα than at the amide nitrogen. The secondary structure of G5 affects the bond dissociation energy of the H-Cα, but has a negligible effect on the dissociation energy of the H-N bond. The HO• radical is the strongest hydrogen abstractor, followed by HO2•, and finally O2-•. The secondary structure elements, such as H-bonds in the 310-helix, protect the peptide from radical attack by disabling the potential electron delocalization at the Cα, which is possible when G5 is in the extended conformation. The unfolding of the peptide radicals is more favorable than the unfolding of G5Hel; however, only the HO• can initiate the unfolding of G5Hel and the formation of G5Ext•. These results are relevant to peptides that are prone to undergoing transitions from helical structures to β-sheets in the cellular condition known as "oxidative stress" and the results are discussed in this context.

  14. Biodegradation of fluorinated alkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    The incorporation of fluorine into organic molecules entails both positive and adverse effects. Although fluorine imparts positive and unique properties such as water-and oil-repellency and chemical stability, adverse effects often pervade members of this compound class. A striking property of long perfluoroalkyl chains is their very pronounced environmental persistence. The present review is the first one designed to summarize recent accomplishments in the field of biodegradation of fluorine-containing surfactants, their metabolites, and structural analogs. The pronounced scientific and public interest in these chemicals has given impetus to undertake numerous degradation studies to assess the sources and origins of different fluorinated analog chemical known to exist in the environment. It was shown that biodegradation plays an important role in understanding how fluorinated substances reach the environment and, once they do, what their fate is. Today, PFOS and PFOA are ubiquitously detected as environmental contaminants. Their prominence as contaminants is mainly due to their extreme persistence, which is linked to their perfluoroalkyl chain length. It appears that desulfonation of a highly fluorinated surfactants can be achieved if an α-situated H atom, in relation to the sulfonate group, is present, at least under sulfur-limiting conditions. Molecules that are less heavily fluorinated can show very complex metabolic behavior, as is the case for fluorotelomer alcohols. These compounds are degraded via different but simultaneous pathways, which produce different stable metabolites, one of which is the respective perfluoroalkanoate (8:2-FTOH is transformed to PFOA). Preliminary screening tests indicate that fluorinated functional groups, such as the trifluoromethoxy group and the p-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy group, may be useful implementations in novel, environmentally benign fluorosurfactants. More specifically, trifluoromethoxy groups constitute a substitute

  15. Interactions of astringent substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, H T; Corrigan, C J; Lee, C B

    1994-04-01

    Two-component mixtures of astringent materials were rated for perceived intensity of astringent and taste attributes over time. Components included alum (a complex salt), gallic acid (the monomeric component of hydrolyzable tannins), catechin (the monomeric component of condensed tannins) and citric acid. Mixtures of alum and gallic acid showed mixture suppression, in that the 50/50 mixture was less intense than either component in astringency, drying, roughing and puckery/drawing sensations. Suppression was seen at concentration levels producing moderate to strong astringency but was absent or less pronounced at lower concentration levels. A similar pattern held for citric acid, although the suppressive effects were less pronounced. Catechin and gallic acid mixtures were additive. Sensory interactions between astringent materials appears to depend on the substances involved and their concentrations (or intensity levels).

  16. Potential health hazards of organic pigments and dyes used in the manufacture of paints and surface coatings. Appendix I: scientific basis for the proposed regulation of dyes derived from the chemical substances benzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.L.

    1978-05-08

    The scientific bases for regulating dyes derived from benzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine are presented. Studies of these compounds have demonstrated that benzidine-type dyes undergo nearly complete cleavage to known potent human carcinogenic agents through several metabolic and biological pathways, that these metabolites are carcinogenic in human and animal studies, that the toxicity and carcinogenicity of benzidine-type dyes has been demonstrated in animals, and that there is a high incidence of bladder cancer among users of benzidine-type dyes. Industrial workers were at risk through the inhalation of dye dusts, absorption through skin exposure, and accidental ingestion. Industries involved included dye manufacture, textile finishing, leather working, and paper dyeing. Direct dyes sold for home and craft use that may contain benzidine type dyes were listed by brand name and company or distributor. Commercial trade names of dyes and pigments based on these chemical substances were listed. Chemical identification of benzidine type dyes was described. Alternatives to benzidine type dyes were suggested, and a history of legislative attempts to regulate benzidine type dye production was provided.

  17. FY 1998 annual report on the research on the possibility of introducing a usable chemical substance manufacturing system by utilizing natural gas containing CO2; CO{sub 2} gan'yu tennen gas den katsuyo ni yoru yuyo kagaku busshitsu seizo system donyu kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trends of effective use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields are surveyed, and usable chemical substance manufacturing systems which utilize natural energy are investigated, evaluated and analyzed, to extract promising systems for effective use of CO2-containing natural gas and thereby to promote its effective use. Chapter 1 outlines possibility of integrated use of gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields and natural gas energy. Chapter 2 describes the research trends in the CO2 conversion reactions for using unexploited CO2 as the carbon source. Chapter 3 describes natural energy utilization technology applicable to gas containing CO2 from natural gas fields. Chapter 4 describes performance of chemical manufacturing systems utilizing natural gas containing CO2. The energy balances and CO2 emission coefficients are estimated, based on the above. The evaluation is implemented in the order of (1) conventional steam reforming, (2) steam reforming in which heat is supplied by a solar furnace, (3) examination of the exhaust gases from a methanol synthesis process, and (4) examination of CO2-mixed reforming. Chapter 5 describes summary and proposals. (NEDO)

  18. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  19. Towards the Design of a Textile Chemical Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Prieto Ferrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to present the initial version of a Textile Chemical Ontology, to be used by textile professionals with the purpose of conceptualising and representing the banned and harmful chemical substances that are forbidden in this domain. After analysing different methodologies and determining that “Methontology” is the most appropriate for the purposes, this methodology is explored and applied to the domain. In this manner, an initial set of concepts are defined, together with their hierarchy and the relationships between them. This paper shows the benefits of using the ontology through a real use case in the context of Information Retrieval. The potentiality of the proposed ontology in this preliminary evaluation encourages extending the ontology with a higher number of concepts and relationships, and validating it within other Natural Language Processing applications.

  20. Psilocybin for treating substance use disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Veen, Bas T H; Schellekens, Arnt F A; Verheij, Michel M M; Homberg, Judith R

    2017-02-01

    Evidence based treatment for Substance use disorders (SUD) includes psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. However, these are only partially effective. Hallucinogens, such as psilocybin, may represent potential new treatment options for SUD. This review provides a summary of (human) studies on the putative therapeutic effects of psilocybin, and discusses the receptor systems, brain regions and cognitive and emotional processes mediating psilocybin's effects. Psilocybin's chemical structure is similar to that of serotonin. Dysregulations in the serotonin system are associated with alterations in stress hormones, such as cortisol, and mood disorders. After psilocybin administration cortisol levels spike and activate the executive control network, with subsequent increased control over emotional processes, and relief of negative thinking and persistent negative emotions. Preliminary data of ongoing alcohol and smoking addiction studies in humans shows promising effects of psilocybin administration on substance use. Importantly, psilocybin has a low risk of toxicity and dependence and can be used safely under controlled clinical conditions. Areas covered: This paper is a narrative review based on the search terms: psilocybin, substance use disorder, addiction, depression, serotonin. Literature on potential efficacy and mechanisms of action of psilocybin in SUD is discussed. Expert commentary: Recent positive findings with psilocybin need confirmation in well-designed placebo controlled randomized trials employing a large sample size.

  1. 76 FR 22422 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration By Notice dated November 19, 2010, and published in the Federal Register on December 3, 2010, 75 FR 75495, Chattem Chemicals... the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as an importer of...

  2. Detonation of CHO working substances in a laser jet engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageichik, A. A.; Repina, E. V.; Rezunkov, Yu. A.; Safronov, A. L.

    2009-03-01

    Laser-induced ablation of materials (including polymers and a variety of polycrystalline substances with a CHO chemical composition) is studied theoretically and experimentally. Based on experimental data, a parametric physicochemical model of detonation of these materials is put forward with the aim to estimate the efficiency of laser thrust formation in jet engines.

  3. Fate and monitoring of hazardous substances in temporary rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ademollo, N.; Capri, S.; Froebrich, J.; Patrolecco, L.; Polesello, S.; Puddu, A.; Rusconi, M.; Valsecchi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Under climate-change conditions, temporary rivers will be the dominant surface-water bodies of the Mediterranean region. In order to manage this kind of water body appropriately, it is necessary to understand the chemical and ecological processes that involve hazardous substances in these environmen

  4. Identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) using handheld Raman spectroscopy employing both 785 and 1064nm laser sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, Amira; Girotto, Sarah; Berti, Benedetta; Stair, Jacqueline L

    2017-02-04

    The chemical identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in the field is challenging due not only to the plethora of substances available, but also as a result of the chemical complexity of products and the chemical similarity of NPS analogues. In this study, handheld Raman spectroscopy and the use of two excitation wavelengths, 785 and 1064nm, were evaluated for the identification of 60 NPS products. The products contained a range of NPS from classes including the aminoindanes, arylalkylamines, benzodiazepines, and piperidines & pyrrolidines. Identification was initially assessed using the instruments' in built algorithm (i.e., % HQI) and then further by visual inspection of the Raman spectra. Confirmatory analysis was preformed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. For the 60 diverse products, an NPS was successfully identified via the algorithm in 11 products (18%) using the 785nm source and 29 products (48%) using the 1064nm source. Evaluation of the Raman spectra showed that increasing the excitation wavelength from 785 to 1064nm improved this 'first pass' identification primarily due to a significant reduction in fluorescence, which increased S/N of the characteristic peaks of the substance identified. True positive correlations between internet products and NPS signatures ranged from 57.0 to 91.3% HQI with typical RSDs<10%. Tablet formulations and branded products were particularly challenging as a result of low NPS concentration and high chemical complexity, respectively. This study demonstrates the advantage of using a 1064nm source with handheld Raman spectroscopy for improved 'first pass' NPS identification when minimal spectral processing is required, such as when working in field. Future investigations will focus on the use of mixture algorithms, effect of NPS concentration, and further improvement of spectral libraries.

  5. 77 FR 46009 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Maine... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous...

  6. 76 FR 77457 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals,...

  7. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Vancutsem, J.; Jorgensen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds) and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual s

  8. A survey on the presence of undesirable botanical substances in feed in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Vancutsem, J.; Jorgensen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed lists a range of substances from botanical origin (weed seeds) and additionally some chemical compounds directly originating from specific weeds. In order to examine the actual s

  9. Application of the TTC concept to unknown substances found in analysis of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, S.; Boobis, A.R.; Cubberley, R.; Hollnagel, H.M.; Richling, E.; Wildemann, T.; Würtzen, G.; Galli, C.L.

    2011-01-01

    Unknown substances, not previously observed, are frequently detected in foods by quality control laboratories. In many cases, the assessment of these 'new' substances requires additional chemical analysis for their identification prior to assessing risk. This identification procedure can be time-con

  10. 40 CFR 716.105 - Additions of substances and mixtures to which this subpart applies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additions of substances and mixtures to which this subpart applies. 716.105 Section 716.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING Specific Chemical...

  11. Persistent toxic substances: sources, fates and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming H; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Naidu, Ravi; Man, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Persistent toxic substances (PTS) include the Stockholm persistent organic pollutants, like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin/furan, etc., and organometallic compounds, like organomercury, organotin, and organolead, which all share the same characteristics of being persistent, toxic, bioaccumulative, and able to travel long distances through different media. The adverse health effects of some of the emerging chemicals like pentabromodiphenyl ether, bisphenol A, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which are widely used in daily appliances (e.g., TVs, computers, mobile phones, plastic baby bottles), have become a public health concern due to more evidence now available showing their adverse effects like disturbance of the endocrine system and cancer. This article is an attempt to review the current status of PTS in our environment, citing case studies in China and North America, and whether our existing drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment processes are adequate in removing them from water. Some management issues of these emerging chemicals of concern are also discussed.

  12. 40 CFR 82.5 - Apportionment of baseline production allowances for class I controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...,358 Vulcan Chemicals 21,931,987 (e) For Group V controlled substances: Methyl Chloroform Dow Chemical Company, USA 168,030,117 E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co 2 PPG Industries, Inc 57,450,719 Vulcan Chemicals...

  13. Buffering effect of religiosity for adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas Ashby; Yaeger, Alison M; Sandy, James M

    2003-03-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that religiosity buffers the impact of life stress on adolescent substance use. Data were from a sample of 1,182 participants surveyed on 4 occasions between 7th grade (mean age = 12.4 years) and 10th grade. Religiosity was indexed by Jessor's Value on Religion Scale (R. Jessor & S. L. Jessor, 1977). Zero-order correlations showed religiosity inversely related to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Significant Life Events x Religiosity buffer interactions were found in cross-sectional analyses for tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. A latent growth analysis showed that religiosity reduced the impact of life stress on initial level of substance use and on rate of growth in substance use over time. Implications for further research on religiosity and substance use are discussed.

  14. Influence of different kind of peats on some physic-chemical properties, biochemical activity, the content of different forms of nitrogen and fractions of humic substances of The Great Vasyugan Mire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    Mires, or peatlands belong to the wetlands ecosystems where carbon is bounded in primary production and deposited as peat in water saturated, anoxic conditions. In those conditions, the rate of the supply of new organic matter has exceeded that the decomposition, resulting in carbon accumulation. Place of sampling belongs to an oligotrophic landscapes of the river Klyuch basin in spurs of Vasyugan mire. The catchment represents reference system for Bokchar swampy area (political district of Tomsk region). Landscape profile crosses main kinds of swampy biogeocoenosis (BGC) toward the mire center: paludal tall mixed forest, pine undershrub Sphagnum (high riam, trans-accumulative part of a profile, P2), pine-undershrub Sphagnum (low riam, transit part, P3), sedge-moss swamp (eluvial part, P5). The latter represents an eluvial part of a slope of watershed massif where it is accomplished discharge of excess, surface, soil-mire waters. The depth of peat deposit of sedge-moss swamp reaches 2,5m. To the depth of 0,6m there is a layer of Sphagnum raised bog peat, then it is a mesotrophic Scheuchzeria Sphagnum layer and at the bottom there is a thick layer of low-mire horsetail peat. The samples of peats were taken from two places (P2 and P3), both from the depth 0-75 cm of the great Vasyugan Mire. These materials represent (P2) Sphagnum fuscum peat (ash content ranged from 10.8 to 15.1%), but samples P3 belong to low-moor sedge peat (ash content ranged from 4.5-4.8%). The differences in water level, redox potential, pH, degree of degradation, bulk density, number of microorganisms, activity of enzymes, different kinds of nitrogen and humic substances were studied in two different peat soils characterized by different type of peat. In general in P2 the redox potential changed from 858 to /-140/ mV, higher activity of xanthine oxidase and peroxidase, different kinds of microorganisms (ammonifing bacteria and cellulose decomposing microorganisms) and different kinds of

  15. Effect of sunlight exposure on the release of intentionally and/or non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and in vitro toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2014-11-01

    The effect of sunlight exposure on chemical migration into PET-bottled waters was investigated. Bottled waters were exposed to natural sunlight for 2, 6 and 10 days. Migration was dependent on the type of water. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and Sb migration increased with sunlight exposure in ultrapure water. In carbonated waters, carbon dioxide promoted migration and only formaldehyde increased slightly due to sunlight. Since no aldehydes were detected in non-carbonated waters, we conclude that sunlight exposure has no effect. Concerning Sb, its migration levels were higher in carbonated waters. No unpredictable NIAS were identified in PET-bottled water extracts. Cyto-genotoxicity (Ames and micronucleus assays) and potential endocrine disruption effects (transcriptional-reporter gene assays) were checked in bottled water extracts using bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium) and human cell lines (HepG2 and MDA-MB453-kb2). PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any toxic effects (cyto-genotoxicity, estrogenic or anti-androgenic activity) in vitro at relevant consumer-exposure levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of humic substances on the precipitation of calcium phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong-hui; Hermann H. HAHN; Erhard HOFFMANN; Peter G. WEIDLER

    2006-01-01

    For phosphorus (P) recovery from wastewater, the effect of humic substances (HS) on the precipitation of calcium phosphate was studied. Batch experiments of calcium phosphate precipitation were undertaken with synthetic water that contained 20 mg/L phosphate (as P) and 20 mg/L HS (as dissolved organic carbon, DOC) at a constant pH value in the range of 8.0-10.0. The concentration variations of phosphate, calcium (Ca) and HS were measured in the precipitation process; the crystalline state and compositions of the precipitates were analysed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, respectively. It showed that at solution pH 8.0, the precipitation rate and removal efficiency of phosphate were greatly reduced by HS, but at solution pH ≥9.0,the effect of HS was very small. The Ca consumption for the precipitation of phosphate increased when HS was added; HS was also removed from solution with the precipitation of calcium phosphate. At solution pH 8.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 3.5 mg/L, and at pH ≥ 9.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 10 mg/L, the final precipitates were proved to be hydroxyapatite (HAP) by XRD. The increases of solution pH value and initial Ca/P ratio helped reduce the influence of HS on the precipitation of phosphate.

  17. Patient registries for substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Betty Tai,1 Lian Hu,2 Udi E Ghitza,1 Steven Sparenborg,1 Paul VanVeldhuisen,2 Robert Lindblad2 1Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2The EMMES Corporation, Rockville, MD, USA Abstract: This commentary discusses the need for developing patient registries of substance use disorders (SUD in general medical settings. A patient registry is a tool that documents the natural history of target diseases. Clinicians and researchers use registries to monitor patient comorbidities, care procedures and processes, and treatment effectiveness for the purpose of improving care quality. Enactments of the Affordable Care Act 2010 and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act 2008 open opportunities for many substance users to receive treatment services in general medical settings. An increased number of patients with a wide spectrum of SUD will initially receive services with a chronic disease management approach in primary care. The establishment of computer-based SUD patient registries can be assisted by wide adoption of electronic health record systems. The linkage of SUD patient registries with electronic health record systems can facilitate the advancement of SUD treatment research efforts and improve patient care. Keywords: substance use disorders, primary care, registry, electronic health records, chronic care model

  18. Toxicity of 56 substances to trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-06-17

    Toxicity data of substances to higher plants is needed for the purpose of risk assessment, site evaluation, phytoremediation, and plant protection. However, the results from the most common phytotoxicity tests, like the OECD algae and Lemna test, are not necessarily valid for higher terrestrial plants. The willow tree toxicity test uses inhibition of transpiration (aside of growth and water use efficiency) of willow cuttings grown in spiked solutions or soils as end point to quantify toxicity. This overview presents results from 60 studies including 24 new unpublished experiments for 56 different chemicals or substrates. Highest toxicity (EC50 algae, while volatile compounds like chlorinated solvents or benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene had less effect on trees than on these aquatic plants, due to volatilization from leaves and test media. In particular low (g/L range) toxicity was observed for tested nanomaterials. Effects of pharmaceuticals (typically weak acids or bases) depended strongly of the solution pH. Like for algae, baseline toxicity was observed for willows, which is related to the water solubility of the compounds, with absolute chemical activity ranging from 0.01 to 0.1, but with several exceptions. We conclude that the willow tree toxicity test is a robust method for relating uptake, accumulation, and metabolism of substances to the toxicity to trees.

  19. 76 FR 57701 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... rule published on July 29, 2011, (76 FR 45484) is withdrawn as of September 16, 2011. ADDRESSES... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  20. 76 FR 57662 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... withdrawal of the direct final action (76 FR 45432) is effective as of September 16, 2011. ADDRESSES... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous...

  1. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) 8(e) Notices and FYI Submissions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Section 8(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires U.S. chemical manufacturers, importers, processors and distributors to notify EPA within 30 calendar...

  2. Finding the "Meaning" of Native American Substance Abuse: Implications for Community Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Jill

    1983-01-01

    Provides one possible meaning for Native American chemical use by exploring the factors that create its context. Explores the implications that follow for the area of substance abuse prevention. Outlines the appropriate components of a prevention program. (RC)

  3. Substance dependence among those without symptoms of substance abuse in the World Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Luise; Glantz, Meyer D; Kessler, Ronald C; Sampson, Nancy A; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Florescu, Silvia; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2017-02-17

    The World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative uses the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The first 13 surveys only assessed substance dependence among respondents with a history of substance abuse; later surveys also assessed substance dependence without symptoms of abuse. We compared results across the two sets of surveys to assess implications of the revised logic and develop an imputation model for missing values of lifetime dependence in the earlier surveys. Lifetime dependence without symptoms of abuse was low in the second set of surveys (0.3% alcohol, 0.2% drugs). Regression-based imputation models were built in random half-samples of the new surveys and validated in the other half. There were minimal differences for imputed and actual reported cases in the validation dataset for age, gender and quantity; more mental disorders and days out of role were found in the imputed cases. Concordance between imputed and observed dependence cases in the full sample was high for alcohol [sensitivity 88.0%, specificity 99.8%, total classification accuracy (TCA) 99.5%, area under the curve (AUC) 0.94] and drug dependence (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.8%, TCA 99.8%, AUC 1.00). This provides cross-national evidence of the small degree to which lifetime dependence occurs without symptoms of abuse. Imputation of substance dependence in the earlier WMH surveys improved estimates of dependence.

  4. Substâncias químicas, trabalho e alterações neurológicas: possíveis relações entre estas variáveis Substancias químicas, trabajo y alteraciones neurológicas: posibles relaciones entre estas variables Chemical substances, work and neurological alterations: possible relationship among these variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz Robazzi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigados 239 prontuários de pacientes atendidos em um hospital, portadores de patologias neurológicas de etiologias desconhecidas, buscando-se alguma relação entre a doença apresentada e o uso ocupacional de substâncias químicas. Em 32 prontuários havia registros sobre ocupação. 37.50% dos pacientes trabalhavam na agricultura; 34.37% eram empregadas domésticas/donas de casa; 12.50% eram pedreiros; um era sapateiro, um seleiro; um montador de móveis e os demais trabalhavam com máquinas. Em decorrência de sua atividade, possivelmente utilizaram substâncias químicas. As poucas informações relacionando o uso destes produtos e a doença apresentada pelos pacientes demonstram a reduzida importância conferida a estas variáveis.Fueron investigadas 239 historias clinicas de pacientes atendidos en un hospital, portadores de patologías neurológicas de etiología desconocida fueron investigados buscandose una posible relación entre el uso ocupacional de substancias químicas y la enfermedad presentada. En 32 historias había registro sobre ocupación. 37.50% de los pacientes trabajaban en la agricultura; 34.37% eran empleadas domesticas/amas; 12.50% eran pedreros y uno presentaba una historia laboral previa en labra. Uno era zapatero, uno talabartero; uno carpintero y los otros trabajaban con máquinas. Debido a su actividad, posiblemente utilizaron substancias químicas. Las pocas informaciones relacionando el uso y la enfermedad demuestran la reducida importancia que han conferido a estas variables.Authors searched 239 reports of patients admitted in a hospital who carried neurological pathologies with unknown etiologies in order to find the possible relationship between the disease and the occupational use of chemical substances. They found the occupation in 32 reports. 37.50% of the patients worked with agriculture; 34.37% were maids/worked at home; 12.50% were masons; one was a shoemaker, one a saddler; one made

  5. Chemical experiment - the basis in learning chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dalabayeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Particular classification and method carrying out chemical experiment and their place in learning chemistry was considered. And also was showed that an application of kinds of chemical experiments competence develops in learning at the decision of experimental problems in chemistry. Features of solubility of firm substances in water are discussed at the chemical experiment and the process of dissolution.

  6. Chemical experiment - the basis in learning chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    N. Dalabayeva

    2012-01-01

    Particular classification and method carrying out chemical experiment and their place in learning chemistry was considered. And also was showed that an application of kinds of chemical experiments competence develops in learning at the decision of experimental problems in chemistry. Features of solubility of firm substances in water are discussed at the chemical experiment and the process of dissolution.

  7. Isolation of haloorganic groundwater humic substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, M.; Grøn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Humic substances were isolated from groundwater according to a revised method designed to avoid organohalogen artefacts. The prepared humic substances exhibited lower halogen contents than humic substances isolated according to the conventionally used method. Excessive oxidation or hydrolysis...

  8. Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?: Adolescent Interpretations of Parental Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Ebersole, Diana S.; Miller-Day, Michelle; Raup-Krieger, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Parents are powerful socialization agents for children and as children reach adolescence parental role models, among other sources of influence, become particularly salient in adolescents’ decision-making regarding initiation of substance use. Open parent-adolescent communication about substances is associated with less substance use by adolescents; however, it is unclear how youth interpret anti-drug use messages from their parents, especially if the parents engage in legal and/or illicit su...

  9. [An evaluation of methods for the quantitative determination of praziquantel as a substance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatin, B V; Bebris, N K; Lopatina, N B

    1989-01-01

    Feasibility of quantitative determination of a new helminthicide prasiquantel as a substance by spectral and chemical analytic procedures has been investigated. Chemical methods based on nitrogen measurement in the samples were shown to lack precision which is obligatory for drug analysis. The quantitative analytic procedures based on UV spectrophotometry are of low precision and selectivity. Infrared spectroscopy is the only method of prasiquantel assay that meets the requirements for drug substance measurement.

  10. Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Frank L

    2006-06-01

    The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has reduced the diversion of controlled substances at the manufacturing and distribution levels. Recent increased diversion has occurred at the retail level. Levels of diversion and abuse of controlled substances with similar abuse potential and therapeutic indications often parallel availability for medical use, while rates of diversion and abuse may be influenced by factors related to specific products, including their formulations and risk management plans. Abuse deterrent formulations may reduce abuse and attendant adverse health consequences even if the products are diverted. Their development should consider how, to what extent and by whom products containing the targeted substance are abused. It should take into consideration all potential types of abuse including "as is", multiple doses, alternate routes of administration, physical or chemical separation of the active ingredient, compromised extended release mechanisms and abuse in combination with other substances. Industry incentives for developing abuse-resistant formulations include enhanced corporate image and potentially less restrictive scheduling or risk management plans. Scheduling is substance specific, but the CSA includes products/formulations that are differentially scheduled. Issues to be considered for differential scheduling under the CSA include: (1) whether there is legal authority to do so; (2) application of standard scheduling criteria to individual products; (3) product specific data for "eight factor analyses"; (4) development of predictive data and standards accepted by the scientific and regulatory communities; (5) use of predictive data or post marketing surveillance data; (6) international treaty obligations. These issues must be addressed before differential scheduling can be considered.

  11. New Active Organic Substance in Oyster Shell Capable of Scavenging Oxygen Free Radicals with High Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    A light purple organic active substance capable of scavenging hydroxyl radical·OH with a high efficiency was extracted from Oyster shell at an extraction rate of 2.49%.It was found for the first time that this active substance may scavenge ·OH with the efficiency far higher than that of vitamin C.This active substance may scavenge also superoxide radical(O2-·)although the scavenging efficiency is far lower than that of vitamin C.Infrared spectrometry and routine chemical analysis primarily reveal that this active substance belongs to glycoprotein.

  12. Presence of potentially critical substances in waste paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    The paper industry accounts for a significant share of the chemicals consumed by the industrial sector. Most of the chemicals used are additives, i.e. chemical substances added during pulp and paper preparation and final product manufacturing (conversion and printing) in order to facilitate...... the process itself as well as the quality or functionality of the final product. Such additives may be re-introduced to the paper production process once waste paper is recycled, leading to their accumulation and spreading in newly manufactured paper and board products. This study aimed at identification...

  13. Depletion of mucosal substance P in acute otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schmidt, Peter Thelin; Hermansson, Ann

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is an inducer of neurogenic inflammation and bone resorption in the middle ear. Resorption of the bone tissue structures surrounding the middle ear cavity is a distinct feature of the initial stage of acute otitis media (AOM), which may be due to nerve...

  14. Does Smoking Intervention Influence Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2008-01-01

    Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking…

  15. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture in Elder Abuse Mental capacity, consent, and undue influence The relationship between elder abuse and substance abuse ... older person's financial resources and to wield significant ... financially or, in the case of illegal drug use, less likely to report. ...

  16. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  17. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  18. The JFFMA assessment of flavoring substances structurally related to menthol and uniquely used in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirokuji, Yoshiharu; Abe, Hajime; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Saito, Kenji; Sekiya, Fumiko; Hayashi, Shim-mo; Maruyama, Shinpei; Ono, Atsushi; Nakajima, Madoka; Degawa, Masakuni; Ozawa, Shogo; Shibutani, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio

    2014-02-01

    Using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), we performed safety evaluations on four flavoring substances structurally related to menthol (L-menthyl 2-methylbutyrate, DL-menthyl octanoate, DL-menthyl palmitate, and DL-menthyl stearate) uniquely used in Japan. While no genotoxicity study data were available in the literature, all four substances had no chemical structural alerts predictive of genotoxicity. Moreover, they all four are esters consisting of menthol and simple carboxylic acids that were assumed to be immediately hydrolyzed after ingestion and metabolized into innocuous substances for excretion. As menthol and carboxylic acids have no known genotoxicity, it was judged that the JECFA procedure could be applied to these four substances. According to Cramer's classification, these substances were categorized as class I based on their chemical structures. The estimated daily intakes for all four substances were within the range of 1.54-4.71 μg/person/day and 60-1250 μg/person/day, using the methods of Maximized Survey-Derived Intake and Single Portion Exposure Technique, respectively, based on the annual usage data of 2001, 2005, and 2010 in Japan. As the daily intakes of these substances were below the threshold of concern applied to class I substances viz., 1800 μg/person/day, it was concluded that all four substances raise no safety concerns when used for flavoring foods under the currently estimated intake levels.

  19. Longitudinal Associations between Other-Sex Friendships and Substance Use in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Francois; Denault, Anne-Sophie; Pedersen, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the changes in the gender composition of friendship networks during early adolescence on substance use in late adolescence was examined. The hypothesis was that initial level and increase in the proportion of other-sex friends in the network would be associated with higher levels of substance use among girls, but not among boys.…

  20. Music, Substance Use, and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Grube, Joel W.; Waiters, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated whether young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Method Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and from a sample of community college students aged 15-25 (N = 1056; 43% male). A structural equation modeling method was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors, taking into account respondents’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking. Results Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. Additionally, alcohol and illicit drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables such as sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. Conclusion The findings suggest that young people’s substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Conversely, music listening preference may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. Alternatively, substance use, aggression and music preference are independent constructs, but share common “third factors.” PMID:16608146

  1. 75 FR 70248 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    .... List of Subjects Environmental protection, Chemicals, Drinking water, Endocrine disruptors, Pesticides... AGENCY Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening AGENCY... chemicals and substances for which EPA intends to issue test orders under the Endocrine Disruptor...

  2. Chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Reuver, L.P.J. de; Fidder, A.; Tromp, M.; Verschraagen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A program has been initiated towards the chemical profiling of chemical warfare agents, in order to support forensic investigations towards synthesis routes, production sites and suspect chemical suppliers. Within the first stage of the project various chemical warfare agents (VX, sulfur mustard, sa

  3. 中国GBZ2.1与美国ACGIH工作场所化学有害因素职业接触限值比较研究%Comparative study on occupational exposure limits of chemical substances in workplace betweent GBZ 2.1 in China and ACGIH in USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文捷; 张敏; 王丹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically compare occupational exposure limits(OELs) in GBZ 2.1 with the ones in TLV-CS of ACGIH on quantity,level,procedures of management etc.; to propose priority chemicals for establishing OELs and suggestions on the revisions of occupational health standards; to provide basic scientific evidence for the planning and development of occupational health standards.Method Compilation of a database on OELs in GBZ 2.1 and in TLV-CS of ACGIH according to types of exposure limits,and comparison of the data in the two systems on the values of exposure limits,quantitative descriptions of specific occupational hazards,legal status,TLV-CS setting up principles、basis、condition and procedures,key adverse effect,application of carcinogenicity/sensitization/skin notations,adjustment of OELs for unusual work schedules,the concept and application of combined effects,the concept and application of Excursion Limits,the identity of particles,and analysis of the comparison result.Results (1)There are 339 chemical substances included in GBZ 2.1 and 656 in TLV-CS in ACGIH.(2)The number of the chemical substances in GBZ 2.1 with specified OELs but not included in TLV-CS of ACGIH is 52; the chemical substances with OELs in TLVCS of ACGIH but not in GBZ 2.1 are 371.(3)There are 260 chemical substances which have OELs in both GBZ 2.1 and ACGIH and with a total of 302 OELs,among them,47 OELs are higher and 96 are lower in the GBZ 2.1 than the ones in TLV-CS of ACGIH,81 of them are similar,and 77 are the same in the two.(4) Guidelines on notations of carcinogenicity,sensitization and skin in China need to be developed.(5)Guidelines for adjustment of OELs for unusual work schedules need to be adopted in China.(6)There is still a wide gap between OELs in GBZ 2.1 and in TLV-CS of ACGIH in many aspects.The management and approval procedures of China in setting up OELs are more bureaucratic,and the biological plausibility and feasibility aspects should be strengthed

  4. Naturally occurring toxic substances in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R L; Newberne, P M

    1977-11-01

    Numerous chemical toxins, including normal components of natural foods, e.g., mycotoxins, and toxic chemicals as contaminants such as pesticides, fertilizers, food additives, and preservatives, which are potentially toxic to humans, are discussed. Potential toxicity, the hazard to man represented by most of these chemicals, may be low because the concentration in food may be low. The gap in our knowledge of long-term effects makes rational decisions as to allowable levels of these substances a major problem. On the other hand, nitrosamines and aflatoxins are toxins for which there exists a voluminous literature documentaing extreme biologic activity in experimental animals and indirect evidence for activity in man. Epidemiologic evidence has linked them to human cancers, and because of increasing evidence of long-term human exposure to these toxins either as inadvertent contaminants during food preparation or as the metabolites of mycotic infestation this possible hazard demands intensive investigation. An exhaustive review of data from epidemiologic surveys in various parts of the world, as well as from long-term laboratory studies, represents an impressive start in this direction.

  5. Identifying the substance abuse treatment needs of caregivers involved with child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Bellettiere, John; Cross, Theodore P

    2013-07-01

    Parental substance use significantly increases risk of child maltreatment, but is often under-identified by child protective services. This study examined how agency use of standardized substance use assessments and child welfare investigative caseworker education, experience, and caseload affected caseworkers' identification of parental substance abuse treatment needs. Data are from a national probability sample of permanent, primary caregivers involved with child protective services whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on two validated instruments indicated harmful substance use or dependence. Investigative caseworkers reported use of a formal assessment in over two thirds of cases in which substance use was accurately identified. However, weighted logistic regression indicated that agency provision of standardized assessment instruments was not associated with caseworker identification of caregiver needs. Caseworkers were also less likely to identify substance abuse when their caseloads were high and when caregivers were fathers. Implications for agency practice are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicity of 56 substances to trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    different chemicals or substrates. Highest toxicity (EC50 metals like copper and cadmium. Also, organotins and free cyanide showed very high toxicity. The toxic effect of chlorophenols on willows was comparable to that on duck weed (Lemna) and green algae, while......Toxicity data of substances to higher plants is needed for the purpose of risk assessment, site evaluation, phytoremediation, and plant protection. However, the results from the most common phytotoxicity tests, like the OECD algae and Lemna test, are not necessarily valid for higher terrestrial...... plants. The willow tree toxicity test uses inhibition of transpiration (aside of growth and water use efficiency) of willow cuttings grown in spiked solutions or soils as end point to quantify toxicity. This overview presents results from 60 studies including 24 new unpublished experiments for 56...

  7. [Safe usage of chemicals in European Union countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Barański, Bogusław

    2010-01-01

    New legal provisions have changed the rules of production, import and use of chemicals in the European Union Member States. Chemical substances present on the common market are covered by registration duty. Manufacturers and importers of substances are obliged to ensure that the risk posed by a given substance is adequately controlled on each stage. Information on substances is to be transferred both downstream and upstream in a supply chain. Substances of very high concern are the subject of authorisation procedure and will be gradually replaced by their safer equivalents. Information on substances of very high concern is transferred to downstream users and consumers. The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and Member States Competent Authorities have been established. National Helpdesks on REACH are operating in Member States, giving help to enterprises and other stakeholders.

  8. How do nursing students perceive substance abusing nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Martha A; Nosek, Laura J

    2014-02-01

    Substance abuse among nurses was recognized by nurse leaders and professional nursing organizations as a growing threat to patient safety and to the health of the abusing nurse more than 30years ago. Although numerous studies on nurse impairment were published in the 1980s and 1990s, there was minimal focus on student nurses' perceptions about impaired nurses and less research has been published more recently, despite a growing rate of substance abuse. A quasi-experimental study to explore the perceptions of student nurses toward nurses who are chemically dependent was conducted using a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The Perception of Nurse Impairment Inventory (PNII) was completed by student nurses at the beginning of their junior course work, prior to formal education about substance abuse. The PNII was repeated after the students received substance abuse education. The PNII was also completed by a control group of sophomore student nurses who did not receive the formal substance abuse education. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to measure the differences between the two groups of students. Students who received the education chose more compassionate responses on the PNII and were more likely to respond that an impaired nurse's supervisor is responsible for supporting and guiding the impaired nurse to access professional care. Discrepancies in study findings about the efficacy of education for effecting positive attitudes of student nurses toward impaired nurses may be related to the length and type of the education.

  9. 76 FR 1067 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ...; Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle); American Chemistry Council (ACC); Chlorinated Paraffins Industry... Responsible Medicine (PCRM), the Alternatives Research Development Foundation (ARDF), and the American Anti... Medicine. B. Are these chemical substances produced and/or imported in substantial quantities? EPA...

  10. Best practice in substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne L

    2012-08-01

    While substance misuse by adolescents in the UK has declined over the last decade, the UK continues to have some of the highest rates of alcohol and drug use in Europe. Many young people will try smoking and drinking alcohol during their adolescence and a significant minority will misuse alcohol and illicit drugs. This behaviour remains a significant cause for concern owing to its associated risks to the health and wellbeing of adolescents. Guidance is emerging regarding good practice in the assessment and management of adolescent substance misuse. Paediatricians may encounter substance-misusing adolescents in a variety of clinical settings and can play a valuable role in the screening, management and support of this group of young people.

  11. Women and substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hesse

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorders belong to the class of externalizing behaviours that are generally more common among men than women. Those women who do have substance disorders therefore deviate more from the norms of society compared with men, tend to live in an environment characterized by high risk of violence and other forms of abuse, and tend to be survivors of childhood trauma. In terms of seeking treatment, women often have difficulty acknowledging their problems with substance use disorders, and professionals are reluctant to ask women about drug or alcohol use. Even when they do seek treatment, women in many countries face practical and financial barriers to access treatment. For women who do enter treatment, outcomes are generally comparable to outcomes for men, suggesting that facilitating entry into treatment can yield substantial benefits for women with addictions.

  12. 40 CFR 766.38 - Reporting on precursor chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...,2,4-Trichlorobenzene. 348-51-6 o-Chorofluorobenzene. 350-30-1 3-Chloro-4-fluoronitrobenzene. 615-67...-61-6 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene. 87-84-3 1,2,3,4,5-Pentabromo-6-chloro-cyclohexane. 89-61-2 1,4-Dichloro...-Chlororesorcinol. 95-94-3 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene. 97-50-7......

  13. Control of Chemical Risks by Substitution of Harmful Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Substitution of volatile, organic solvents with non-volatile, low-toxic esters of fatty acids for cleaning purposes in offset printing has successfully been implemented in several European countries. Similar substitutions in other industrial cleaning processes seem possible, especially regarding ...

  14. Propriétés physico-chimiques et biologiques des substances humiques en relation avec le développement végétal (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahiri, A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical-chemical and biological properties of humic substances in relation to plant growth. A review. Humic substances (HS are organic compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformation of plant and animal residues. Humic substances are heterogeneous and complex carbon macromolecules, which can be found in soils, sediments, surface water and leachates. They are derived from different humification processes, generating variable and complex molecules mainly composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and functional groups (COOH, OH, C = O. These substances are known to have an effect on soil properties, interacting with plant growth and development and with microorganism activity. The influence on plant growth is expressed directly through stimulation of biochemical and metabolic processes or indirectly through mineral nutrition improvement. But the intensity of the response is dependent on various parameters such as the origin, the nature of the initial organic matter, transformation processes, HS concentration, experimental conditions and plant species. The mechanisms by which HS cause their positive effects on plant growth are not yet fully understood.

  15. Characteristics of selected bioaccumulative substances and their impact on fish health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczak Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to evaluate the influence and effects of chosen bioaccumulative substances i.e. heavy metals, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on fish, as well as provide information on time trends and potential threat to human health. Chemical substances which pollute water may affect living organisms in two ways. First of all, large amounts of chemical substances may cause sudden death of a significant part of the population of farmed fish, without symptoms (i.e. during breakdown of factories or industrial sewage leaks. However, more frequently, chemical substances accumulate in tissues of living organisms affecting them chronically. Heavy metals, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent substances with a long-lasting biodegradation process. In a water environment they usually accumulate in sediments, which makes them resistant to biodegradation processes induced by, e.g., the UV light. These substances enter the fish through direct consumption of contaminated water or by contact with skin and gills. Symptoms of intoxication with heavy metals, pesticides, and PCBs may vary and depend on the concentration and bioavailability of these substances, physicochemical parameters of water, and the fish itself.

  16. 75 FR 3462 - Claims of Confidentiality of Certain Chemical Identities Submitted under Section 8(e) of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Act (TSCA) for confidential business information (CBI) claims of chemical identities listed on the public portion of the TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory. Where a health and safety study submitted under... Chemical Substances Inventory, EPA expects to find that the chemical identity clearly is not entitled to...

  17. Simultaneous determination by HPLC of 6 components in zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections with replacement method of chemical reference substance%HPLC替代对照品法同时测定莪术油及其注射液中6种成分的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何欢; 马双成; 张启明; 田颂九

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To establish and validate an HPLC method with single marker to simultaneously determine six components in zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections.Methods:The relative correction factors(RCF)of the five components(curdione,curcumol,curzerene,furanodiene,β-elemene)were measured by HPLC under different conditions with germacrone as standard reference.Assay of zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections was determined by replacement method of chemical reference substance and the conventional HPLC method with the above SIX components as the index components.The analysis was performed on a Waters Symmetry C_(18)(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 m)column;The mobile phase was composed of methanol-water with a linear gradient elution:The flow rate Was 1.0 mL·min~(-1) and the temperature of colulun was 30 ℃;The UV detection wavelength was set at 215 nm.Results:The quantitative results of the new method were almost consistent with the results of conventional HPLC method.Conclusion:For the first time,the replacement method of chemical reference substance is adopted in HPLC simultaneous determination of zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections.The new method is economical and practical which is highly effective and accurate for quality control of zedoary turmeric oil and its related injections.%目的:建立HPLC替代对照品法同时测定莪术油及其注射液中6种成分含量.方法:本文采用HPLC方法,在不同条件下测定(牛龙)牛儿酮与其他5种成分(莪术二酮、莪术醇、莪术烯、呋喃二烯及β-榄香烯)间的相对校正因子(RCF).以上述6种成分为指标,分别利用替代对照品法和常规含量测定方法对莪术油及其注射液进行含量测定.色谱条件:采用Waters Symmetry C_(18)(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm)色谱柱,流动相为甲醇-水,梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL·min~(-1),柱温30℃,检测波长215 nm.结果:以替代对照品法测得的结果与常规含量测定方法结果一致.结论:本试验在

  18. A New Road to Reactions Part 4. The Substance and Its Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.

    1987-01-01

    Differentiates between chemical nomenclature and the common ways that substances are named and described. Students should learn the chemical nomenclature so that they will be more observant and objective. Cites examples of student misconceptions based upon their own imagination and logic. (TW)

  19. Biologically Active Substances of Plants from Sali x L. Genus

    OpenAIRE

    O. O. Frolova; E. V. Kompantseva; T. M. Dementieva

    2016-01-01

    The review systematizes data about chemical composition of bark, leaves, inflorescences, and sprouts of different species of Salix L. The closest attention is payed to investigations of Salix, which has been recently carried out in our country and abroad. For every group of biologically active substances described in Salix there are data about suppressed types of pharmacological activity.

  20. Biologically Active Substances of Plants from Sali x L. Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Frolova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review systematizes data about chemical composition of bark, leaves, inflorescences, and sprouts of different species of Salix L. The closest attention is payed to investigations of Salix, which has been recently carried out in our country and abroad. For every group of biologically active substances described in Salix there are data about suppressed types of pharmacological activity.

  1. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  2. Analytical Chemistry of Perfluoroalkylated Substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, P.; Saez Ribas, M.

    2006-01-01

    Polyfluorinated alkylated substances have recently gainedscientific interest because they have been found to be present in appreciable concentrations in human serum, in surface waters, and in tissues of wildlife from remote areas. The developments in analytical chemistry of these mainly neutral or

  3. Juvenile Justice and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Laurie Chassin focuses on the elevated prevalence of substance use disorders among young offenders in the juvenile justice system and on efforts by the justice system to provide treatment for these disorders. She emphasizes the importance of diagnosing and treating these disorders, which are linked both with continued offending and with a broad…

  4. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  5. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  6. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Comprehensive, peer-reviewed toxicology data for about 5,000 chemicals. The data bank focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced...

  7. Chemical occupational risks identified by nurses in a hospital environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rosicler Xelegati; Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz Robazzi; Maria Helena Palucci Marziale; Vanderlei José Haas

    2006-01-01

    Hospital nursing workers are exposed to occupational chemical risks. This quantitative study aimed to identify what chemical substances nurses have contact with in their activities, what substances cause health problems and what alterations correspond to possible problems caused by the chemical products they mention. A self-administered data collection instrument was answered by 53 nurses, who mentioned exposure mainly to antibiotics and benzene (100%), iodine (98.1%) and latex-talc (88.7%); ...

  8. Investigating Nitrate-Dependent Humic Substance Oxidation and In-Service K-12 Teachers' Understanding of Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nastassia N.

    2011-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) are the humified portions of totally decomposed soil organic matter that are ubiquitous in nature. Although these substances have been studied for more than 200 years, neither their metabolic capabilities nor a specific chemical structure has yet to be determined. HS have been studied as a carbon source in many environments…

  9. Investigating Nitrate-Dependent Humic Substance Oxidation and In-Service K-12 Teachers' Understanding of Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nastassia N.

    2011-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) are the humified portions of totally decomposed soil organic matter that are ubiquitous in nature. Although these substances have been studied for more than 200 years, neither their metabolic capabilities nor a specific chemical structure has yet to be determined. HS have been studied as a carbon source in many environments…

  10. Control of a chemical precursor used in the illicit manufacture of fentanyl as a List I chemical. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-25

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is finalizing the Interim Rule with Request for Comment published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2007. The Interim Rule controlled the chemical N-phenethyl-4- piperidone (NPP) as a List I chemical under the Controlled Substances Act. Clandestine laboratories are using this chemical to illicitly manufacture the schedule II controlled substance fentanyl. No comments to the Interim Rule were received. This Final Rule finalizes the regulations without change.

  11. Microbial utilization of low molecular weight organics in soil depends on the substances properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunina, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Utilization of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS) in soil is regulated by microbial uptake from solution and following incorporation of into specific cell cycles. Various chemical properties of LMWOS, namely oxidation state, number of carbon (C) atoms, number of carboxylic (-COOH) groups, can affect their uptake from soil solution and further microbial utilization. The aim of the study was to trace the initial fate (including the uptake from soil solution and utilization by microorganisms) of three main classes of LMWOS, having contrast properties - sugars, carboxylic and amino acids. Top 10 cm of mineral soil were collected under Silver birch stands within the Bangor DIVERSE experiment, UK. Soil solution was extracted by centrifugation at 4000 rpm during 15 min. Soil was spiked with 14C glucose or fructose; malic, succinic or formic acids; alanine or glycine. No additional non-labeled LMWOS were added. 14C was traced in the dissolved organic matter (DOM), CO2, cytosol and soil organic matter (SOM) during one day. To estimate half-life times (T1 /2)of LMWOS in soil solution and in SOM pools, the single and double first order kinetic equations were fitted to the uptake and mineralization dynamics, respectively. The LMWOS T1 /2in DOM pool varied between 0.6-5 min, with the highest T1 /2for sugars (3.7 min) and the lowest for carboxylic acids (0.6-1.4 min). Thus, initial uptake of LMWOS is not a limiting step of microbial utilization. The T1 /2 of carboxylic and amino acids in DOM were closely related with oxidation state, showing that reduced substances remain in soil solution longer, than oxidized. The initial T1 /2 of LMWOS in SOM ranged between 30-80 min, with the longest T1 /2 for amino acids (50-80 min) and the shortest for carboxylic acids (30-48 min). These T1 /2values were in one-two orders of magnitude higher than LMWOS T1 /2 in soil solution, pointing that LMWOS mineralization occur with a delay after the uptake. Absence of correlations between

  12. Pattern of Substance Use: Study in a De-addiction Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muntasir Maruf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Substance use disorders have become a major public health problem in Bangladesh. We sought to assess the pattern of substance use and related factors among hospitalized patients. Methods: This was a descriptive study that included 105 patients. All patients who were admitted to a private drug de-addiction clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh, between 1 July and 31 December 2013 and diagnosed with substance use disorder were enrolled in the study. Data was collected via face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and the information was complemented by the case-notes. Results: Almost all (90.5% respondents were male and were poly-substance users (91.4%. The mean age of respondents was 28.8±8.0 years. Most (27.6% respondents used three types of substances. Smoking or inhalation was the route used by most (90.5% respondents. More than three-fourths (81.0% of respondents used nicotine. Among the other substances, the majority (79.0% used opioids, followed by cannabinoids (55.2%, and alcohol (41.0%. Curiosity, peer pressure, and for fun were identified as the common reasons for initiating substance use. Conclusions: A high proportion of poly-substance use was found in the study population. Our findings could help in the management and development of prevention strategies for substance use in Bangladesh.

  13. Background of REACH in EU regulations on evaluation of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, H; Hayes, Aw

    2008-06-01

    Industrial chemicals are needed for chemical synthesis or technical purposes. These beneficial effects are counterbalanced by the potential health risks for all who come into contact with them. The new chemical legislation of the EU, Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) will force the responsibility of manufacturers and importers of chemical substances to gather the right information needed to decide on the right circumstances of use and control of chemical substances and products. In order to understand the roots of REACH, experiences gained with regard to existing chemicals legislation, particularly in Germany, will be reviewed. Since Council Directive 67/548/EEC all chemicals placed on the market need a set of standard information and provisions for safe transportation. This directive and its amendments (Council Directive(s) 79/831/EEC and 92/32/EEC) have established for new substances a sound information data basis for classification of dangerous properties. Under Council Regulation 793/93/EEC, regulations and administrative provisions have established the requirement to assess the risk to man and the environment of existing substances. So far, only 119 substances have been evaluated under the forces of this regulation. This separation has led to a substantial imbalance between existing substances and new substances with respect to available data needed to recognize hazards for health. The register of produced and imported chemical substances under REACH should eliminate some of this separation and will also be the key for selection of substances of very high concern by the authorization process to restrict the use and distribution accordingly.

  14. Using Cloninger's Temperament Scales to Predict Substance-Related Behaviors in Adolescents: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christie; Hopfer, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John; Stallings, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives We tested one of Cloninger's temperament theories – that high novelty seeking (NS), along with low harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD), and persistence (PE), predicts early-onset substance problems. Methods In a community-based sample of 777 adolescents examined at two time points (mean age 13 and 18, respectively), we examined whether Cloninger's four temperament dimensions at wave 1 predicted five substance-related outcomes at wave 2: age of initiation for cigarettes, alcohol, and illicit drugs, number of substance classes tried, and total number of DSM-IV substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms. Results Cloninger's predicted temperament pattern did significantly predict the number of SUD symptoms at wave 2. For initiation of cigarettes/illicit drugs and number of substance classes tried, HA/NS/PE fit the pattern, but RD did not. For onset of alcohol, only NS and PE fit Cloninger's prediction. Results for NS and PE were most consistent. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Overall, this study provides evidence that Cloninger's theory may hold true for predicting problem use more than for predicting “use” or experimentation. In addition, youth with high novelty seeking and low persistence may find substances especially reinforcing, and identifying these youth and intervening before initiation has occurred may reduce the risk of future substance-related problems. PMID:23617866

  15. Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use Email Facebook Twitter Two hour- ... School, in Minneapolis, conducted the trial with 315 adolescent and parent/caregiver pairs. Their findings strengthen evidence, ...

  16. Risk assessment for chemical substances: the link between toxicology and public health Avaliação de risco de substâncias químicas: o elo entre a toxicologia e a saúde pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. R. Paumgartten

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all chemical substances may cause adverse health effects, depending on the dose and conditions under which individuals are exposed to them. Toxicology - the study of harmful effects of chemicals on living organisms - provides the scientific data base on which risk assessment of adverse health effects stands. Risk assessment (RA is the process of estimating the probability that a chemical compound will produce adverse effects on a given population, under particular conditions of exposure. Risk assessment process consists of four stages: Hazard Identification (HI, Exposure Assessment (EA, Dose-Response Assessment (DRA, and Risk Characterization (RC. The risk assessment process as a whole makes it possible to carry out cost(risk/benefit analysis, and thus risk management, on a rational basis. A capacity to undertake risk assessment is thus sine qua non for making decisions that are concerned with achieving a balance between economic development and adequate protection of public health and the environment.Virtualmente todas as substâncias químicas podem causar efeitos adversos, dependendo da dose e das condições em que os indivíduos são a elas expostos. A toxicologia, isto é, o estudo dos efeitos danosos de substâncias químicas em organismos vivos, fornece a base de dados científicos na qual se apoia a avaliação de risco de efeitos adversos para a saúde. Avaliação de Risco (AR é o processo de se estimar a probabilidade que um composto químico tem de vir a produzir efeitos adversos numa dada população, em determinadas condições de exposição. A avaliação de risco consiste de quatro estágios: identificação da periculosidade (IP; avaliação da exposição (AE; avaliação da relação dose-efeito (ADE; e caracterização do risco (CR. O processo de avaliação de risco como um todo possibilita a realização da análise custo (risco/benefício e, portanto, do gerenciamento do risco, em bases racionais. A capacidade

  17. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Congestion is a major problem in most cities and the problem is growing (Quiroga, 2000) (Faghri & Hamad, 2002). When the congestion level is increased the drivers notice this as delays in the traffic (Taylor, Woolley, & Zito, 2000), i.e., the travel time for the individual driver is simply...... increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  18. Microbiological tests and measurements in the assessment of harmful substances and pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Ahtiainen, Jukka

    2002-01-01

    New chemicals are produced in increasing numbers. In Finland every year about 28 000 different products are manufactured or imported which can be classified as harmful. These products contain about 5000 different harmful substances. We also receive harmful compounds in airborne emissions. Substances are further transformed in industrial processes, in waste management and in the environment by human activities and natural processes. However, only rather limited monitoring data is available abo...

  19. Youth employment and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Robert; Sasso, Anthony Lo; Callison, Kevin; Yarnoff, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A significant portion of teens work while in school and the consequences of that work are of potential concern to society. While there is widespread support for combining work and school, and some evidence that employment has positive effects on youth development, previous research has revealed some potentially harmful consequences of employment among teens. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between teen employment and substance use. We extended this literature by studying two different cohorts of youth, and by exploiting arguably exogenous variation in youth employment and earnings caused by changes in minimum wages and the business cycle (unemployment). Estimates suggest that hours of work are positively associated with alcohol and cigarette use. However, if selection on unobserved variables were equal to selection on observed variables, these associations would be close to zero. With respect to the association between earnings and substance use, the evidence is less clear.

  20. Family Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Andy L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Study used self-report questionnaire data from high school students to determine the relation between adolescents' perception of family characteristics and adolescent substance use patterns. Results indicate adolescents' perception of maternal substance use, family hardiness, and age of the adolescent were significant predictors of substance use.…