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Sample records for chemical stockpile disposal

  1. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program: Review and comment on the Phase 1 environmental report for the Pueblo Depot Activity, Pueblo, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olshansky, S.J.; Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1994-03-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at the Pueblo Depot Activity (PUDA) in Pueblo, Colorado. The Phase I report addresses new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). These concerns are addressed by examining site-specific data for the PUDA. On the basis of our review of the Phase I report, we concluded that on-site meteorological data from December 1988 to June 1992 appear to be of insufficient quality to have been used instead of the off-site Pueblo airport data. No additional meteorological data have been collected since June 1992. The Phase I report briefly mentions problems with the air pollution control system. These problems will likely require the systems to be upgraded at the Johnston Atoll site and at each of the other depots in the continental United States. Without such improvements, the probability of accidents during start-up and shutdown would likely increase. The Army has a lessons-learned program to incorporate improvements into the design of future facilities. The Phase I report does not make any design change commitments. These issues need to be fully evaluated and resolved before any final conclusion concerning the adequacy of the decision in the FPEIS can be made with respect to the PUDA. With the exception of this issue, the inclusion of other more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at the PUDA). We recommend that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process.

  4. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program: Review and comment on the Phase 1 environmental report for the Pueblo Depot Activity, Pueblo, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at the Pueblo Depot Activity (PUDA) in Pueblo, Colorado. The Phase I report addresses new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). These concerns are addressed by examining site-specific data for the PUDA. On the basis of our review of the Phase I report, we concluded that on-site meteorological data from December 1988 to June 1992 appear to be of insufficient quality to have been used instead of the off-site Pueblo airport data. No additional meteorological data have been collected since June 1992. The Phase I report briefly mentions problems with the air pollution control system. These problems will likely require the systems to be upgraded at the Johnston Atoll site and at each of the other depots in the continental United States. Without such improvements, the probability of accidents during start-up and shutdown would likely increase. The Army has a lessons-learned program to incorporate improvements into the design of future facilities. The Phase I report does not make any design change commitments. These issues need to be fully evaluated and resolved before any final conclusion concerning the adequacy of the decision in the FPEIS can be made with respect to the PUDA. With the exception of this issue, the inclusion of other more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at the PUDA). We recommend that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process

  5. Planning guidance for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumpert, B.L.; Watson, A.P.; Sorensen, J.H. [and others

    1995-02-01

    This planning guide was developed under the direction of the U.S. Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which jointly coordinate and direct the development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). It was produced to assist state, local, and Army installation planners in formulating and coordinating plans for chemical events that may occur at the chemical agent stockpile storage locations in the continental United States. This document provides broad planning guidance for use by both on-post and off-post agencies and organizations in the development of a coordinated plan for responding to chemical events. It contains checklists to assist in assuring that all important aspects are included in the plans and procedures developed at each Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) location. The checklists are supplemented by planning guidelines in the appendices which provide more detailed guidance regarding some issues. The planning guidance contained in this document will help ensure that adequate coordination between on-post and off-post planners occurs during the planning process. This planning guide broadly describes an adequate emergency planning base that assures that critical planning decisions will be made consistently at every chemical agent stockpile location. This planning guide includes material drawn from other documents developed by the FEMA, the Army, and other federal agencies with emergency preparedness program responsibilities. Some of this material has been developed specifically to meet the unique requirements of the CSEPP. In addition to this guidance, other location-specific documents, technical studies, and support studies should be used as needed to assist in the planning at each of the chemical agent stockpile locations to address the specific hazards and conditions at each location.

  6. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

  7. The chemical stockpile intergovernmental consultation program: Lessons for HLW public involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the appropriateness of the US Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program's (CSDP) Intergovernmental Consultation and Coordination Boards (ICCBs) as models for incorporating public concerns in the future siting of HLW repositories by DOE. ICCB structure, function, and implementation are examined, along with other issues relevant to the HLW context. 27 refs

  8. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pueblo Depot Activity, Colorado. Final, Phase 1: Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.W.; Blasing, T.J.; Ensminger, J.T.; Johnson, R.O.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Shor, J.T.; Staub, W.P.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1995-04-01

    Under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the US Army proposes to dispose of lethal chemical agents and munitions stored at eight existing Army installations in the continental United States. In 1988, the US Army issued the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP. The FPEIS and the subsequent Record of Decision (ROD) identified an on-site disposal process as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. That is, the FPEIS determined the environmentally preferred alternative to be on-site disposal in high-temperature incinerators, while the ROD selected this alternative for implementation as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. In this Phase I report, the overall CSDP decision regarding disposal of the PUDA Stockpile is subjected to further analyses, and its validity at PUDA is reviewed with newer, more detailed data than those providing the basis for the conclusions in the FPEIS. The findings of this Phase I report will be factored into the scope of a site-specific environmental impact statement to be prepared for the destruction of the PUDA stockpile. The focus of this Phase I report is on those data identified as having the potential to alter the Army`s previous decision regarding disposal of the PUDA stockpile; however, several other factors beyond the scope of this Phase I report must also be acknowledged to have the potential to change or modify the Army`s decisions regarding PUDA.

  9. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  10. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  11. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final Phase 1 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  12. THE BNL ASTD FIELD LAB - NEAR - REAL - TIME CHARACTERIZATION OF BNL STOCKPILED SOILS TO ACCELERATE COMPLETION OF THE EM CHEMICAL HOLES PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of October 2001, approximately 7,000 yd3 of stockpiled soil remained at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) after the remediation of the BNL Chemical/Animal/Glass Pits disposal area. The soils were originally contaminated with radioactive materials and heavy metals, depending on what materials had been interred in the pits, and how the pits were excavated. During the 1997 removal action, the more hazardous/radioactive materials were segregated, along with, chemical liquids and solids, animal carcasses, intact gas cylinders, and a large quantity of metal and glass debris. Nearly all of these materials have been disposed of. In order to ensure that all debris was removed and to characterize the large quantity of heterogeneous soil, BNL initiated an extended sorting, segregation, and characterization project directed at the remaining soil stockpiles. The project was co-funded by the Department of Energy Environmental Management Office (DOE EM) through the BNL Environmental Restoration program and through the DOE EM Office of Science and Technology Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program. The focus was to remove any non-conforming items, and to assure that mercury and radioactive contaminant levels were within acceptable limits for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Soils with mercury concentrations above allowable levels would be separated for disposal as mixed waste. Sorting and segregation were conducted simultaneously. Large stockpiles (ranging from 150 to 1,200 yd3) were subdivided into manageable 20 yd3 units after powered vibratory screening. The 1/2-inch screen removed almost all non-conforming items (plus some gravel). Non-conforming items were separated for further characterization. Soil that passed through the screen was also visually inspected before being moved to a 20 yd3 ''subpile.'' Eight samples from each subpile were collected after establishing a grid of four quadrants: north, east, south and west, and two layers: top and

  13. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  14. Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1.03. User guide: Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

  15. Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1. 03. [Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

  16. Decision making technical support study for the US Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.L.; Dobson, J.E.

    1990-08-01

    This report examines the adequacy of current command and control systems designed to make timely decisions that would enable sufficient warning and protective response to an accident at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, and at Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA), Arkansas. Institutional procedures designed to facilitate rapid accident assessment, characterization, warning, notification, and response after the onset of an emergency and computer-assisted decision-making aids designed to provide salient information to on- and-off-post emergency responders are examined. The character of emergency decision making at APG and PBA, as well as potential needs for improvements to decision-making practices, procedures, and automated decision-support systems (ADSSs), are described and recommendations are offered to guide equipment acquisition and improve on- and off-post command and control relationships. We recommend that (1) a continued effort be made to integrate on- and off-post command control, and decision-making procedures to permit rapid decision making; (2) the pathways for alert and notification among on- and off-post officials be improved and that responsibilities and chain of command among off-post agencies be clarified; (3) greater attention be given to organizational and social context factors that affect the adequacy of response and the likelihood that decision-making systems will work as intended; and (4) faster improvements be made to on-post ADSSs being developed at APG and PBA, which hold considerable promise for depicting vast amounts of information. Phased development and procurement of computer-assisted decision-making tools should be undertaken to balance immediate needs against available resources and to ensure flexibility, equity among sites, and compatibility among on- and off-post systems. 112 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Enzymes for Degradation of Energetic Materials and Demilitarization of Explosives Stockpiles - SERDP Annual (Interim) Report, 12/98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.M.

    1999-01-18

    The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001, over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed. This project is developing safe, economical, and environmentally sound processes using biocatalyst (enzymes) to degrade energetic materials and to convert them into economically valuable products. Alternative methods for destroying these materials are hazardous, environmentally unacceptable, and expensive. These methods include burning, detonation, land and sea burial, treatment at high temperature and pressure, and treatment with harsh chemicals. Enzyme treatment operates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a water solution.

  18. Health Aspects of the Disposal of Waste Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Joe W., Ed.

    Intended to be a source of information on the nature and significance of health effects related to chemical disposal, this document is the final report of the Executive Scientific Panel on Health Aspects of the Disposal of Waste Chemicals. The panel, which was organized by the Universities Associated for Research and Education in Pathology…

  19. Chemical reagent and process for refuse disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for treating refuse by mixing them with a reactive chemical and a puzzolana-type material. Said chemical includes a retarding agent which modifies the viscosity and an accelerating agent. (author)

  20. Assessment of Soil Solution Chemicals after Tannery Effluents Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia A.   Surita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about soil solution chemicals is important for assessing their mobility, availability, migration to groundwater and toxicity to plants. The objective of this study was to apply factor analysis to data obtained on soil solution chemicals during a one-year monitoring program in a controlled experiment with tannery effluents disposed on the soil surface, to extract information on their relationship and identify the main contaminants. Seventeen chemical parameters were monitored at six different depths on soil profile, focusing on metals and nitrate in soil solution. Four Factors accounted for 79.20% of the total variance, of which the most important were: Factor 1 (48.35% showed significant loadings for Mn2+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, Pb2+ and electric conductivity, strongly influenced by high load effluent disposal; Factor 2 (12.21% was related with SO42+, Factor 3 (10.16% associated with Cu2+ and Zn2+ and Factor 4 (8.49% associated with nitrogen mineralization dynamics after high disposal.

  1. Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

    2008-04-18

    The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

  2. Thorium Nitrate Stockpile Drum Characterization Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium nitrate (ThN) has been stored at depots for several decades and the Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC) has evaluated options for its disposition. In support of this project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has directed a characterization campaign for the ThN. The analytical results lead to the following conclusions: the ThN could be classified as LSA-1; the ThN does not contain hazardous contaminants at concentrations that would cause it to be categorized as a mixed waste if were declared to be a waste; the ThN is not required to be classfied as a Division 5.1 oxidizer per the US Dept. of Transportation definition; and, the disposal of the ThN would not be regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and thus it could be accepted for disposal at the Nevada Test Site. This report disucsses the regulatory requirements involved with the packaging, transportation, and disposal of the ThN stockpile at the NTS. It also provides background information about the ThN stockpile, the current packaging configurations, and the current storage arrangements. The reader is also provided a description of the ThN and headspace gas sampling activities that wer conducted in 2002 and 2003 respectively. The basis for using ISO containers to transport and dispose of the ThN is discussed

  3. Risk in the Weapons Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    When it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile, risk must be as low as possible. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk.

  4. Views on chemical safety information and influences on chemical disposal behaviour in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined how groups representing four tiers in the chemical supply chain (manufacturers, vendors, workers and consumers) understood safety information, and the factors that influenced disposal behaviour. Data from seven, semi-structured, focus groups was analysed both qualitatively (textual analysis) and quantitatively (network analysis). Such combined analytical methods enabled us to achieve both detailed insights into perceptions and behaviour and an objective understanding of the prevailing opinions that occurred within and between the focus group discussions. We found issues around awareness, trust, access and disposal behaviours differed between groups within the supply chain. Participants from the lower tiers perceived chemical safety information to be largely inaccessible. Labels were the main source of information on chemical risks for the middle and bottom tiers of the supply chain. Almost all of the participants were aware of the St Andrew's Cross and skull and crossbones symbols but few were familiar with the Volatile Organic Compound logo or the fish and tree symbol. Both the network and thematic analysis demonstrated that whilst frequent references to health risks associated with chemicals were made environmental risks were usually only articulated after prompting. It is clear that the issues surrounding public understanding of chemical safety labels are highly complex and this is compounded by inconsistencies in the cognitive profiles of chemical users. Substantially different cognitive profiles are likely to contribute towards communication difficulties between different tiers of the supply chain. Further research is needed to examine the most effective ways of communicating chemical hazards information to the public. The findings demonstrate a need to improve and simplify disposal guidance to members of the public, to raise public awareness of the graphic symbols in the CHIP 3.1, 2005 regulations and to improve access to disposal guidance

  5. Views on chemical safety information and influences on chemical disposal behaviour in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinks, J. [Enviresearch Ltd., Nanotechnology Centre, Herschel Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Bush, J. [Institute for Health and Society, Newcastle University, William Leech Building, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Judith.bush@ncl.ac.uk; Andras, P. [School of Computing Science, Newcastle University, Claremont Tower, Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Garratt, J. [Institute for Health and Society, Newcastle University, William Leech Building, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Pigott, G. [NuFarm UK, Wyke, Bradford, West Yorkshire, BD12 9EJ (United Kingdom); Kennedy, A. [Enviresearch Ltd., Nanotechnology Centre, Herschel Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Pless-Mulloli, T. [Institute for Health and Society, Newcastle University, William Leech Building, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    This study examined how groups representing four tiers in the chemical supply chain (manufacturers, vendors, workers and consumers) understood safety information, and the factors that influenced disposal behaviour. Data from seven, semi-structured, focus groups was analysed both qualitatively (textual analysis) and quantitatively (network analysis). Such combined analytical methods enabled us to achieve both detailed insights into perceptions and behaviour and an objective understanding of the prevailing opinions that occurred within and between the focus group discussions. We found issues around awareness, trust, access and disposal behaviours differed between groups within the supply chain. Participants from the lower tiers perceived chemical safety information to be largely inaccessible. Labels were the main source of information on chemical risks for the middle and bottom tiers of the supply chain. Almost all of the participants were aware of the St Andrew's Cross and skull and crossbones symbols but few were familiar with the Volatile Organic Compound logo or the fish and tree symbol. Both the network and thematic analysis demonstrated that whilst frequent references to health risks associated with chemicals were made environmental risks were usually only articulated after prompting. It is clear that the issues surrounding public understanding of chemical safety labels are highly complex and this is compounded by inconsistencies in the cognitive profiles of chemical users. Substantially different cognitive profiles are likely to contribute towards communication difficulties between different tiers of the supply chain. Further research is needed to examine the most effective ways of communicating chemical hazards information to the public. The findings demonstrate a need to improve and simplify disposal guidance to members of the public, to raise public awareness of the graphic symbols in the CHIP 3.1, 2005 regulations and to improve access to disposal

  6. Groundwater hydrology study of the Ames Chemical Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ames Laboratory Chemical Disposal Site is located in northwestern Ames, Iowa west of Squaw Creek. From 1957 to 1966, Ames Laboratory conducted research to develop processes to separate uranium and thorium from nuclear power fuel and to separate yttrium from neutron shielding sources. The wastes from these processes, which contained both hazardous and radiological components, were placed into nine burial pits. Metal drums, plywood boxes, and steel pails were used to store the wastes. Uranium was also burned on the ground surface of the site. Monitoring wells were placed around the waste burial pits. Groundwater testing in 1993 revealed elevated levels of Uranium 234, Uranium 238, beta and alpha radiation. The north side of the burial pit had elevated levels of volatile organic compounds. Samples in the East Ravine showed no volatile organics; however, they did contain elevated levels of radionuclides. These analytical results seem to indicate that the groundwater from the burial pit is flowing down hill and causing contamination in the East Ravine. Although there are many avenues for the contamination to spread, the focus of this project is to understand the hydrogeology of the East Ravine and to determine the path of groundwater flow down the East Ravine. The groundwater flow data along with other existing information will be used to assess the threat of chemical migration down the East Ravine and eventually off-site. The primary objectives of the project were as follows: define the geology of the East Ravine; conduct slug tests to determine the hydraulic conductivity of both oxidized and unoxidized till; develop a three-dimensional mathematical model using ModIME and MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow in the East Ravine

  7. Chemical analyses of dredged spoil disposal sites at the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Bavo; Ruttens, Ann; Ampe, Bart; Waegeneers, Nadia; Gauquie, Johanna; Devriese, Lisa; Cooreman, Kris; Parmentier, Koen

    2016-08-01

    The chemical status of five dredged spoil disposal sites in the Belgian Part of the North Sea is evaluated. A linear mixed-effect model was applied to PCB, PAH and heavy metal data from 2005 to 2014. No decrease in PCB concentrations was found, with even an increase at two disposal sites. Hg/AL ratios increased with 62% at one disposal site (BR&WS2) from 2005 to 2006 to 2013-2014. Cu and Zn concentrations increased at two disposal sites. Additional harbour sampling suggests that the latter is possibly linked to antifouling paints. Based on OSPAR environmental assessment criteria, the current chemical status of the sites suggests no chronic effect of dredged spoil disposal. However, increasing time trend data for PCB, Hg, Cu and Zn demonstrate the importance of monitoring to identify adverse trends. PMID:27176939

  8. JOHNSTON ATOLL CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL SYSTEM (JACADS) CLOSURE PLAN DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The JACADS project consists of four incinerators including a liquid chemical agent waste processor, an explosives treatment incinerator and a batch metal parts treatment unit. Its mission was to disassemble and destroy chemcial weapons and bulk chemical agent. This prototypical...

  9. Analytical Characterization of the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattus, CH

    2003-12-30

    and the results of previous tests--classified the ThN as low-level radioactive waste for disposal purposes. This characterization was necessary to continue the efforts associated with disposition of the material at the Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada. With the current work presented in this report, the analytical characterization phase is completed for this source material stockpile.

  10. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Miller, R.L.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Tolbert, V.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Rickert, L.W.; Rogers, G.O.; Staub, W.P.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, a status report is presented on the maturity of the disposal technology (and now it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD). Inclusion of these more recent data into the FPEIS decision method resulted in confirmation of on-site disposal for ANAD. No unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD have been identified. A review of the technology status identified four principal technology developments that have occurred since publication of the FPEIS and should be of value in the implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD: the disposal of nonlethal agent at Pine Bluff Arsenal, located near Pine Bluff, Arkansas; construction and testing of facilities for disposal of stored lethal agent at Johnston Atoll, located about 1300 km (800 miles) southwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean; lethal agent disposal tests at the chemical agent pilot plant operations at Tooele Army Depot, located near Salt Lake City, Utah; and equipment advances. 18 references, 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Chemical hazard evaluation of material disposal area (MDA) B closure project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laul, Jagdish C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-19

    TA-21, MDA-B (NES) is the 'contaminated dump,' landfill with radionuclides and chemicals from process waste disposed in 1940s. This paper focuses on chemical hazard categorization and hazard evaluation of chemicals of concern (e.g., peroxide, beryllium). About 170 chemicals were disposed in the landfill. Chemicals included products, unused and residual chemicals, spent, waste chemicals, non-flammable oils, mineral oil, etc. MDA-B was considered a High hazard site. However, based on historical records and best engineering judgment, the chemical contents are probably at best 5% of the chemical inventory. Many chemicals probably have oxidized, degraded or evaporated for volatile elements due to some fire and limited shelf-life over 60 yrs, which made it possible to downgrade from High to Low chemical hazard site. Knowing the site history and physical and chemical properties are very important in characterizing a NES site. Public site boundary is only 20 m, which is a major concern. Chemicals of concern during remediation are peroxide that can cause potential explosion and beryllium exposure due to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). These can be prevented or mitigated using engineering control (EC) and safety management program (SMP) to protect the involved workers and public.

  12. Fuel cycle and waste management. 7. Thorium Nitrate Stockpile Stewardship and Disposition Technical Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing work for the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) to assist in a future determination of the disposition for thorium nitrate hydrate [Th(NO3)4.5H2O] currently stored at Hammond, Indiana, and Curtis Bay, Maryland. The DLA has ∼3500 tons of ThN contained in 21 000 drums of various configurations. This material has been declared surplus to the needs of the DOD. The ORNL efforts will supply technical input to quantify the potential for use in a thorium fuel cycle and identify characterization requirements and processing requirements consistent with available waste disposition pathways. The Defense National Support Command stores ∼7 million pounds of thorium nitrate crystals (hydrate form) at two depot locations in the United States (75 wt% at the Curtis Bay, Maryland, depot and 25 wt% at the Hammond, Indiana, depot). The managing agency is the DLA. An upgrade evaluation is required to define and control risks and costs associated with long-term management of the thorium nitrate stockpile. Technical studies are underway to determine the most viable options to be compared against continued storage in the present conditions. The generalized alternatives for technical analysis include the following: A. Retain the stockpile in the thorium nitrate form for disposal. B. Retain the stockpile in the thorium nitrate form for long-term storage. C. Process the stockpile to reduce the thorium nitrate to a suitable thorium form for disposal, without preserving chemical purity. D. Process the stockpile to reduce the thorium nitrate to pure thorium oxide for long-term storage. The technical assessment of option results is the focus of this paper. The methodology for analytical characterization is included because strategies are impacted by whether or not the ThN falls into a hazardous waste category. Baseline location and other relevant information are presented, as impact options, from

  13. 75 FR 54852 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Comments on the Potential Market Impact of Proposed Stockpile Disposals for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Bureau... Commerce and State, is seeking public comments on the potential market impact of the proposed disposal... potential market impact of the sale of these materials. Public comments are an important element of...

  14. National Bases Constructed to Stockpile Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Rong

    2003-01-01

    @@ CNPC has recently started the preliminary work for construction of the large-scale oil stockpiling base in Yizheng City, Jiangsu Province. When the base is completed, it will be connected to CNPC's other oil stockpiling bases in Qinhuangdao and Huangdao, shaping the country's national oil stockpiling base at its preliminary stage.

  15. Time-lapse camera studies of sea-disposed chemical munitions in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Margo H.; Fornari, Daniel J.; Rognstad, Mark R.; Kelley, Christopher D.; Mah, Christopher L.; Davis, Logan K.; Flores, Kyle R. M.; Main, Erin L.; Bruso, Natalie L.

    2016-06-01

    The interactions between fauna and sea-disposed munitions provide important evidence regarding whether munitions constituents affect the health of the ocean environment and its inhabitants. To date few studies of these interactions have been conducted at deep-water disposal sites; typically observations of fauna in the vicinity of sea-disposed munitions are limited to the few minutes or hours required to collect physical samples at a specific location. During the 2012 Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) field program we deployed two deep-sea time-lapse camera systems with the objectives of cataloging the diversity of fauna visiting sea-disposed chemical munitions and observing faunal behavior and physiology. Over the 1- and 3-day deployments we recorded 28 different species of fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, cnidarians, and echinoderms at the two sites. Both cameras captured the previously undocumented behavior of brisingid sea stars repositioning themselves along chemical munitions casings. Despite the fact that brisingid sea stars are able to move, for the duration of both time-lapse experiments they remained on chemical munitions casings. We interpret this result to indicate that the advantages of residing on a hard substrate slightly elevated above the seafloor outweigh the effects of chemical munitions constituents for brisingid sea stars. One type of physiological anomaly observed on several arms of the brisingid sea stars at the time-lapse sites led to the collection and examination of six specimens. As reported by Mah (2015. Deep Sea Res. II, 2015, XX-XX), these physiological features are the result of parasitic crustaceans and are not caused by chemical munitions constituents.

  16. Defending against a stockpiling terrorist

    OpenAIRE

    Hausken, Kjell; Zhuang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    A government defends against a terrorist who attacks repeatedly and stockpiles its resources over time. The government defends an asset and attacks the terrorist’s resources. The terrorist defends its resources and attacks the government. We find four possible equilibrium solutions: (1) the government attacks only, deterring the terrorist; (2) both players defend and attack; (3) the government defends but does not attack, and the terrorist attacks only; and (4) the terrorist...

  17. Chemical modelling studies in support of radiological risk assessments of radioactive waste disposal 1984-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the testing of computer programs identified as being capable of modelling chemical processes in radioactive waste disposal systems. The functions, limitations and data requirements of the programs assembled at UWIST are discussed and the organisation of an extensive thermodynamic database compiled to support the codes described. The role of chemical models in DoE probabilistic radiological assessment (PRA) methodology, is outlined. Their potential for radiological assessment purposes has been addressed through a series of case studies on existing and potential low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Results to date suggest them to be capable of fulfilling their intended role within the constraints of model assumptions. A number of collaborative projects designed to verify, validate and improve the models have been established. (author)

  18. Chemical toxicity in final disposal of spent nuclear fuel; Kemiallinen myrkyllisyys kaeytetyn ydinpolttoaineen loppusijoituksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, E. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Nordman, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    This report studies the chemical long-term environmental effects of the substances released from the canisters of spent nuclear fuel. An overall inventory has been made of all the chemical elements contained in the canister materials and spent fuel. The release and transport of the most toxic and abundant elements have been studied with calculations using the solubilities of elements or with analyses carried out by computer codes. The resulting concentrations of elements in groundwater have been compared to the concentration limits defined in the pertinent authority requirements for drinking water. The results show that the chemical toxicity is not a significant factor as regards the safety of the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. (orig.) 26 refs. Working report

  19. Development of land disposal restrictions for military chemical agent-associated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.; Rosenblatt, D.H. [and others

    1997-04-01

    In July 1988, the State of Utah, Department of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW) listed certain military chemical agents as hazardous waste, as well as residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, and testing of these chemicals. These materials are listed as hazardous waste in Utah, but are not listed as hazardous wastes under the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the primary law governing management of hazardous waste in the United States. Pursuant to the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment standards for most categories of hazardous wastes. However, considering that EPA has not listed chemical agent-associated wastes as hazardous waste under RCRA, LDR treatment standards have not been established specifically for these wastes. In February 1995, the DSHW announced a regulatory initiative to develop LDRs for chemical agent-associated wastes and solicited data and information from the U.S. Army to support a rulemaking effort. The Army`s Chemical and Biological Defense Command (CBDCOM) was designated the lead agency for the Army to assist the DSHW in developing the rule. CBDCOM established the U.S. Army Land Disposal Restrictions Utah Group (LDRUG) and initiated a project with Argonne National Laboratory to support the LDRUG. The focus is on providing the state with accurate and up-to-date data and information to support the rulemaking and the establishment of LDRs. The purpose of this paper is to review the general direction of the proposed rule and to discuss overall progress. Potential impacts of the imposition of LDRs on the management of agent-associated wastes are also reviewed.

  20. Stockpile Stewardship at Los Alamos(U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-29

    Stockpile stewardship is the retention of nuclear weapons in the stockpile beyond their original design life. These older weapons have potential changes inconsistent with the original design intent and military specifications. The Stockpile Stewardship Program requires us to develop high-fidelity, physics-based capabilities to predict, assess, certify and design nuclear weapons without conducting a nuclear test. Each year, the Lab Directors are required to provide an assessment of the safety, security, and reliability our stockpile to the President of the United States. This includes assessing whether a need to return to testing exists. This is a talk to provide an overview of Stockpile Stewardship's scientific requirements and how stewardship has changed in the absence of nuclear testing. The talk is adapted from an HQ talk to the War college, and historical unclassified talks on weapon's physics.

  1. Online data sources for regulation and remediation of chemical production, distribution, use and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental awareness is essential for todays corporation. Corporations have been held liable for the short-term and long-term effects of such chemicals as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and petrochemicals to name a few. Furthermore, corporations have been held accountable for disposal of wastes or by-products of chemical production. Responsibility for the environment either mandated by government agencies or done voluntarily is an economic factor for business operations. Remediation of environmental hazards on a voluntary basis has often created goodwill and a payoff for being socially responsible. Remediation also can result in new business opportunities or savings in production costs. To be environmentally aware and socially responsible, the chemist should know where to find regulatory information for countries worldwide. Using online data sources is an efficient method of seeking this information

  2. Solid waste disposal in the soil: effects on the physical, chemical, and organic properties of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regina Lasaro Mangieri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is growing concern over the final destination of the solid waste generated by society. Landfills should not be considered the endpoint for substances contained or generated in solid waste. The sustainable use of natural resources, especially soil and water, has become relevant, given the increase in anthropogenic activities. Agricultural use is an alternative to solid waste (leachate, biosolid disposal, considering the hypothesis that the agricultural use of waste is promising for reducing waste treatment costs, promoting nutrient reuse and improving the physical and chemical conditions of soil. Thus, this literature review, based on previously published data, seeks to confirm or disprove the hypothesis regarding the promising use of solid waste in agriculture to decrease the environmental liability that challenges public administrators in the development of efficient management. The text below addresses the following subtopics after the introduction: current solid waste disposal and environmental issues, the use of solid waste in agriculture, and the effect on the physical and chemical properties of soil and on organic matter, ending with final considerations.

  3. Filtragem de rejeitos de minério de ferro visando à sua disposição em pilhas Filtering of iron ore tailings for its disposal in stockpiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Caixeta Guimarães

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A metodologia tradicional de disposição de rejeitos em forma de polpa requer grandes áreas para disposição e apresenta grande impacto ambiental e, por conseguinte, as empresas têm dificuldade na aquisição de novos licenciamentos. A proximidade de áreas urbanas e a pressão pública têm despertado a necessidade de se buscarem alternativas a essa metodologia. Uma solução viável para essa questão contribuirá com o processo de licenciamento ambiental, garantindo a sobrevivência da mineração no Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Foram realizados ensaios de filtragem em bancada com amostras de rejeitos nas principais tecnologias de filtragem: a vácuo, sob pressão, capilar e hiperbárica. Os resultados mostraram que, com exceção das lamas, é possível filtrar os rejeitos com uma boa taxa de filtragem e umidade adequada para empilhamento. A filtragem das lamas sob pressão resultou em taxa unitária de filtragem relativamente baixa e alta umidade da torta (próximo a 20%. A torta derivada das lamas poderia ser misturada à torta de rejeitos grossos e/ou o estéril da mina para permitir o seu empilhamento, porém requerendo estudos geotécnicos complementares.The traditional method for the disposal of slurry in tailing dams requires large areas, with large environmental impact and therefore makes it difficult to acquire new licenses. The proximity of urban areas, together with public pressure, has raised the need to seek alternatives for this methodology. A viable solution to this issue will contribute to the environmental licensing process for new projects, ensuring the survival of mining in the Iron Quadrangle. Laboratory-scale filtration tests were conducted with tailing's samples using the main filtering technologies: vacuum filtration, pressure, hyperbaric and capillary filters. The results showed that with the exception of the slimes, it is possible to filter the tailings from the processing plants with a good filtration rate and

  4. Features of the process of drilling sludge’s disposal with the chemical method using a phosphogypsum

    OpenAIRE

    Аблєєва, Ірина Юріївна; Пляцук, Леонід Дмитрович; Коцюба, Ірина Григорівна

    2014-01-01

    A negative impact on the environment while drilling for oil has been characterized. It is proved that the drilling sludge creates environmental burden and reduces the stability of the territories. Therefore, to solve this problem it is necessary to disposal it with the use of environmentally safe and cost-effective technology. The chemical method of disposal of this type of waste using phosphogypsum has been proposed. It was determined that the process of interaction will largely influence th...

  5. IEA Shows Concerns Over China's Oil Stockpiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reportedly, China's oil imports accounted for nearly one third of the world's total oil supply in 2003. The country's oil imports are estimated at 110~120 million tons in 2004,equal to 2.2~2.4 million barrels per day, much higher than 91 million tons in 2003. International Energy Agency has helped the Chinese government with the country's strategic oil stockpiling plan by offering the training. The Paris-based IEA has urged China to take into consideration how to operate and maintain the national strategic oil stockpiling system and clarify the roles of the enterprises and the State in oil stockpiling.

  6. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide generation from disposed gypsum drywall using chemical inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of gypsum drywall in landfills has been demonstrated to elevate hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations in landfill gas, a problem with respect to odor, worker safety, and deleterious effect on gas-to-energy systems. Since H2S production in landfills results from biological activity, the concept of inhibiting H2S production through the application of chemical agents to drywall during disposal was studied. Three possible inhibition agents - sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4), ferric chloride (FeCl3), and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) - were evaluated using flask and column experiments. All three agents inhibited H2S generation, with Na2MoO4 reducing H2S generation by interrupting the biological sulfate reduction process and Ca(OH)2 providing an unfavorable pH for biological growth. Although FeCl3 was intended to provide an electron acceptor for a competing group of bacteria, the mechanism found responsible for inhibiting H2S production in the column experiment was a reduction in pH. Application of both Na2MoO4 and FeCl3 inhibited H2S generation over a long period (over 180 days), but the impact of Ca(OH)2 decreased with time as the alkalinity it contributed was neutralized by the generated H2S. Practical application and potential environmental implications need additional exploration.

  7. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide generation from disposed gypsum drywall using chemical inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy; Bitton, Gabriel

    2011-07-15

    Disposal of gypsum drywall in landfills has been demonstrated to elevate hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) concentrations in landfill gas, a problem with respect to odor, worker safety, and deleterious effect on gas-to-energy systems. Since H(2)S production in landfills results from biological activity, the concept of inhibiting H(2)S production through the application of chemical agents to drywall during disposal was studied. Three possible inhibition agents - sodium molybdate (Na(2)MoO(4)), ferric chloride (FeCl(3)), and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)) - were evaluated using flask and column experiments. All three agents inhibited H(2)S generation, with Na(2)MoO(4) reducing H(2)S generation by interrupting the biological sulfate reduction process and Ca(OH)(2) providing an unfavorable pH for biological growth. Although FeCl(3) was intended to provide an electron acceptor for a competing group of bacteria, the mechanism found responsible for inhibiting H(2)S production in the column experiment was a reduction in pH. Application of both Na(2)MoO(4) and FeCl(3) inhibited H(2)S generation over a long period (over 180 days), but the impact of Ca(OH)(2) decreased with time as the alkalinity it contributed was neutralized by the generated H(2)S. Practical application and potential environmental implications need additional exploration. PMID:21592650

  8. A disposal strategy of industrial hazardous wastes in the Three Gorges Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A large quantity of industrial hazardous wastes (IHWs) accumulates in the Three Gorges Region. This study found that approximately 15 000 t IHWs were piled in the region by October 2001. These IHWs came from various sources and were complex in composition, mostly toxic and difficult to be disposed. IHW is regarded as a potential threat to the ecological environment, water resources and survival of local residents. It is important and indispensable to dispose the waste properly. To meet the regulation requirements on the disposal of IHWs and to minimize environmental effects on the Three Gorges Region, a disposal strategy is proposed, according to which approximately 600 t of the IHWs can be disposed by chemical stabilization,incineration and other treatment measures, and the rest need be stockpiled in safe and reliable places situated above the 177 m impoundment line of the Three Gorges dam.

  9. Chemical Decomposition of High-Level Nuclear Waste Storage/Disposal Glasses Under Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is to employ the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR), in conjunction with other experimental methods, to study radiation-induced decomposition of vitreous compositions proposed for immobilization/disposal of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) or excess weapons plutonium. ESR is capable of identifying, even at the parts-per-million level, displaced atoms, ruptured bonds, and free radicals created by radiation in such glassy forms. For example, one of the scientific goals is to search for ESR-detectable superoxide (O2 -) and ozonide (O3 -) ions, which could be precursors of radiation-induced oxygen gas bubbles reported by other investigators via the disproportionation reaction, 2O2 - : O2 2- + O2. The fundamental understandings obtained in this study will enable reliable predictions of the long-term effects of a and B decays of the immobilized radionuclides on the chemical integrity of HLW glasses

  10. Chemical Decomposition of High-Level Nuclear Waste Storage/Disposal Glasses Under Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griscom, David L.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this project is to employ the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR), in conjunction with other experimental methods, to study radiation-induced decomposition of vitreous compositions proposed for immobilization/disposal of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) or excess weapons plutonium. ESR is capable of identifying, even at the parts-per-million level, displaced atoms, ruptured bonds, and free radicals created by radiation in such glassy forms. For example, one of the scientific goals is to search for ESR-detectable superoxide (O2 -) and ozonide (O3 -) ions, which could be precursors of radiation-induced oxygen gas bubbles reported by other investigators via the disproportionation reaction, 2O2 - : O2 2- + O2. The fundamental understandings obtained in this study will enable reliable predictions of the long-term effects of a and B decays of the immobilized radionuclides on the chemical integrity of HLW glasses.

  11. 16 CFR 1201.6 - Prohibited stockpiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... number of affected architectural products incorporating glazing material not complying with this part... SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard § 1201.6 Prohibited stockpiling. (a... materials, fabricators, and manufacturers or importers of architectural products specified in §...

  12. FY 2016 - Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  13. FY 2015 - Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-01

    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  14. Disposal of phosphogypsum waste containing enhanced levels of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: From production of phosphoric acid based on the reaction of phosphorite with sulphuric acid, manufacturers either have released the phosphogypsum containing uranium decay products into the aquatic environment or have stockpiled the phosphogypsum on land. In Portugal two factories have produced phosphoric acid by this wet chemistry method during several decades, from the 30s till the late 80s. The radioactivity remaining in the phosphogypsum depends upon the composition of the raw material used and upon the efficiency of the chemical reaction method. In one factory, using mainly phosphorites from Syria and Tunisia, 226Ra concentrations in the gypsum were at about 600 Bq kg-1 and at about the same level for 210Pb and 210Po. In another factory, using mainly phosphorites imported from Morocco, radionuclide concentrations in gypsum were higher, at about 1000 Bq kg-1 for the same radionuclides. Phosphogypsum waste stockpiled on land and uncovered may undergo weathering, including the slow dissolution of calcium sulphate by rain water. This process may be accompanied with partial dissolution of 226Ra, which leaches from the stockpiles, whereas the less soluble 210Pb and 210Po nuclides may remain in the gypsum. In one place, the stockpiles of phosphogypsum have been exposed in the open air for years until recent coverage with soil and vegetation. This remedial action to confine the phosphogypsum have reduced surface runoff, radium leaching and waste disposal. It may have contributed also to reduce radon emanation. In another site, the gypsum stockpiles are still uncovered in the open air. The disposal site was a former salt evaporation basin with compact, highly impermeable, fine grained grounds. The gypsum stockpiles are surrounded by ditches to retain rain water drainage. In the water accumulated in the ditches high concentrations of 226Ra were measured as well as relatively high concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po, although these ones associated mainly to

  15. The Impact of the Quality of Coal Mine Stockpile Soils on Sustainable Vegetation Growth and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky M Mushia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stockpiled soils are excavated from the ground during mining activities, and piled on the surface of the soil for rehabilitation purposes. These soils are often characterized by low organic matter (SOM content, low fertility, and poor physical, chemical, and biological properties, limiting their capability for sustainable vegetation growth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of stockpile soils of differing depth and quality on vegetation growth and productivity. Soils were collected at three different depths (surface, mid, and deep as well as mixed (equal proportion of surface, mid and deep from two stockpiles (named Stockpile 1: aged 10 and Stockpile 2: 20 years at the coal mine near Witbank in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Soils were amended with different organic and inorganic fertilizer. A 2 × 4 × 5 factorial experiment in a completely randomized blocked design with four replications was established under greenhouse conditions. A grass species (Digiteria eriantha was planted in the pots with unamended and amended soils under greenhouse conditions at 26–28 °C during the day and 16.5–18.5 °C at night. Mean values of plant height, plant cover, total fresh biomass (roots, stems and leaves, and total dry biomass were found to be higher in Stockpile 1 than in Stockpile 2 soils. Plants grown on soils with no amendments had lower mean values for major plant parameters studied. Soil amended with poultry manure and lime was found to have higher growth rate compared with soils with other soil amendments. Mixed soils had better vegetation growth than soil from other depths. Stockpiled soils in the study area cannot support vegetation growth without being amended, as evidenced by low grass growth and productivity in this study.

  16. 'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-12

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  17. Chemical stability and adsorption of atracurium besylate injections in disposable plastic syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramar, Y V; Loucas, V A; Word, D

    1996-06-01

    Atracurium besylate (AB) is supplied as a sterile, non-pyrogenic aqueous solution for intravenous use. Hospitals pre-fill disposable plastic syringes with these solutions so that they are ready for immediate use when required. Drug loss due to potential adsorption on to the plastic material of the syringes has not been studied. Atracurium is also administered by intravenous infusion using a diluted solution in either 5% dextrose injection (USP) or 0.9% sodium chloride injection USP. Drug solutions not used within 24 h are usually discarded, resulting in tremendous waste. The purpose of these investigations was to determine the adsorption behaviour of atracurium when stored in plastic syringes, and to study the degradation of atracurium in i.v. fluids. For the adsorption study, 10 mg/ml solutions were used, whereas the diluted infusion solutions were prepared to contain 0.5 mg/ml of atracurium. Drug degradation was monitored using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Degradation studies were conducted at 5 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 40 degrees C. Refrigeration was observed to improve drug stability. The manufacturer's recommended expiry period was too conservative. Storage at room temperature for up to 6 weeks can be safely recommended, without significant loss of chemical stability.

  18. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Shenggang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); College of Chemistry, Baotou Teachers’ College, Baotou 014030 (China); Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Liqiu, E-mail: zhangliqiu@163.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Different chemical pollution accidents were simplified using the event tree analysis. • Emergency disposal technique plan repository of chemicals accidents was constructed. • The technique evaluation index system of chemicals accidents disposal was developed. • A combination of group decision and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was employed. • Group decision introducing similarity and diversity factor was used for data analysis. - Abstract: The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012.

  19. Crude Oil Stockpiling Needed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Bin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The two oil crises in the 1970's had badly disturbed the economy and the way of life of those oil importing countries, which began to realize the importance of oil stockpiling. With the rapid development of economy, China could no longer satisfy itself soly with the domesticallyproduced oil.

  20. Stockpile stewardship past, present, and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Marvin L., E-mail: mladams@tamu.edu [Institute for National Security Education and Research, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The U.S. National Academies released a report in 2012 on technical issues related to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. One important question addressed therein is whether the U.S. could maintain a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear-explosion testing. Here we discuss two main conclusions from the 2012 Academies report, which we paraphrase as follows: 1) Provided that sufficient resources and a national commitment to stockpile stewardship are in place, the U.S. has the technical capabilities to maintain a safe, secure, and reliable stockpile of nuclear weapons into the foreseeable future without nuclear-explosion testing. 2) Doing this would require: a) a strong weapons science and engineering program that addresses gaps in understanding; b) an outstanding workforce that applies deep and broad weapons expertise to deliver solutions to stockpile problems; c) a vigorous, stable surveillance program that delivers the requisite data; d) production facilities that meet stewardship needs. We emphasize that these conclusions are independent of CTBT ratification-they apply provided only that the U.S. continues its nuclear-explosion moratorium.

  1. Search and Stockpiling in Retail Gasoline Markets

    OpenAIRE

    David P. Byrne; Nicolas de Roos

    2014-01-01

    This note presents some simple, direct tests for search and dynamic demand behavior in retail gasoline markets. We exploit a unique market-level dataset that allows us to directly measure search intensity with daily web traffic data from a gasoline price reporting website, and perfectly measure daily changes in price levels and dispersion. We find stark evidence of both search and stockpiling behavior.

  2. A functional on-chip pressure generator using solid chemical propellant for disposable lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chien-Chong; Murugesan, Suresh; Kim, Sanghyo; Beaucage, Gregory; Choi, Jin-Woo; Ahn, Chong H

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents a functional on-chip pressure generator that utilizes chemical energy from a solid chemical propellant to perform fluidic delivery in applications of plastic-based disposable biochips or lab-on-a-chip systems. In this functional on-chip pressure generator, azobis-isobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the solid chemical propellant is deposited on a microheater using a screen-printing technique, which can heat the AIBN at 70 degrees C to produce nitrogen gas. The output pressure of nitrogen gas, generated from the solid chemical propellant, is adjustable to a desired pressure by controlling the input power of the heater. Using this chemical energy source, the generated pressure depends on the deposited amount of the solid chemical propellant and the temperature of the microheater. Experimental measurements show that this functional on-chip pressure generator can achieve around 3 000 Pa pressure when 189 mJ of energy is applied to heat the 100 microg of AIBN. This pressure can drive 50 nl of water through a microfluidic channel of 70 mm and cross-sectional area of 100 microm x 50 microm. Due to its compact size, ease of fabrication and integration, high reliability (no moving parts), biologically inert gas output along with functionality of gas generation, this pressure generator will be an excellent pressure source for handling the fluids of disposable lab-on-a-chip, biochemical analysis systems or drug delivery systems.

  3. Research on the transformation of nitrate due to its chemical interaction with metals in TRU waste disposal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some TRU wastes contain nitrate ions as salt. The nitrate ions might transform into NO2- and NH3, etc. in the disposal site environment because of reducing agent such as metals, possibly changing disposal site environment or affecting nuclide migration parameters. Therefore, we investigated of chemical interaction between NO3- and metals in a low oxygen environment that corresponds to the disposal site environment. (1) The reaction rate constant between carbon steel and NO3- in an environment with low oxygen and high pH underground water was obtained through electrochemical tests. (2) The long-term data on the products (NH3,H2, etc.) of reaction between metals (carbon steel, stainless steel, zircaloy) and NO3- was obtained through immersion tests in an environment with low oxygen and high pH underground water. According to the long-term data of [NO3-], [NO2-] and [NH3], it was considered that reducing reaction of nitrate was consecutive reaction (NO3- → NO2- → NH3). (3) The decomposition and transition behavior of No3- around disposal facilities evaluated, using the geochemical code (PHREEQM-2D), which have considered geochemical reaction based on experimental results. (author)

  4. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. This document contains Volume II which consists of Appendices A through H

  5. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Chemical and biological warfare: Protection, decontamination, and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the means to defend against chemical and biological agents used in military operations, and to eliminate the effects of such agents on personnel, equipment, and grounds. Protection is accomplished through protective clothing and masks, and in buildings and shelters through filtration. Elimination of effects includes decontamination and removal of the agents from clothing, equipment, buildings, grounds, and water, using chemical deactivation, incineration, and controlled disposal of material in injection wells and ocean dumping. Other Published Searches in this series cover chemical warfare detection; defoliants; general studies; biochemistry and therapy; and biology, chemistry, and toxicology associated with chemical warfare agents. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Evaluation of improved chemical waste disposal and recovery methods for N reactor fuel fabrication operations: 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory personnel identified and evaluated alternative methods for recovery, recycle, and disposal of waste acids produced during N Reactor fuel operations. This work was conducted under a program sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc.; the program goals were to reduce the volume of liquid waste by rejuvenating and recycling acid solutions and to generate a residual waste low in nitrates, fluorides, and metals. Disposal methods under consideration included nitric acid reclamation, grout encapsulation of final residual waste, nitrogen fertilizer production, biodenitrifaction, chemical or thermal destruction of NO3, and short-term impoundment of liquid NO3/SO4 wastes. Preliminary testing indicated that the most feasible and practicable of these alternatives were (1) nitric acid reclamation followed by grouting of residual waste and (2) nitrogen fertilizer production. This report summarizes the investigations, findings, and recommendations for the 1984 fiscal year

  8. Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

  9. China to Establish Strategic Oil Stockpile Bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Based on the reports from China's State Development and Reform Committee, a new department of the State Council recently put into operation, the relevant departments have located a number of places as the country's strategic oil stockpile bases, such as Zhoushan and Zhenghai in Zhejiang Province, Huangdao in Shandong Province and Daya Bay in Guangdong Province. However, the plan still needs to be examined and approved by the State Council.

  10. Update on the Stockpile Monitor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, T.; Harry, H.H.

    1999-04-01

    In 1991 the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) launched a program to develop a comprehensive database of warhead storage conditions. Because of the extended lifetimes expected of the Stockpile, it became desirable to obtain as much detailed information on the storage environments as possible. Temperature and relative humidity at various facilities capable of storing and/or handling nuclear weapons were used as monitoring locations. The Stockpile Monitor Program (SMP) was implemented in a variety of locations as illustrated in a figure. Probably the most useful data come from the most extreme conditions monitored. The hottest outside temperatures and relative humidities come from Barksdale, while some of the lowest relative humidity values come from Nellis, which continue to be monitored. The coldest conditions come from Grand Forks, Griffiss, and KI Sawyer, none of which are presently being monitored. For this reason, the authors would like to begin monitoring Minot, ND. The outside extreme temperatures are ameliorated by the structures to a significant degree. For example, the hottest outside temperature (120 F) is contrasted by the corresponding cooler inside temperature (85 F), and the coldest outside temperature ({minus}35 F) is contrasted by the corresponding warmer inside temperature (+25 F). These data have become useful for calculations related to stockpile-to-target sequence (STS) and other analyses. SMP information has been provided to a number of outside agencies.

  11. Reliability Degradation Due to Stockpile Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David G.

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this reseach is the investigation of alternative methods for characterizing the reliability of systems with time dependent failure modes associated with stockpile aging. Reference to 'reliability degradation' has, unfortunately, come to be associated with all types of aging analyes: both deterministic and stochastic. In this research, in keeping with the true theoretical definition, reliability is defined as a probabilistic description of system performance as a funtion of time. Traditional reliability methods used to characterize stockpile reliability depend on the collection of a large number of samples or observations. Clearly, after the experiments have been performed and the data has been collected, critical performance problems can be identified. A Major goal of this research is to identify existing methods and/or develop new mathematical techniques and computer analysis tools to anticipate stockpile problems before they become critical issues. One of the most popular methods for characterizing the reliability of components, particularly electronic components, assumes that failures occur in a completely random fashion, i.e. uniformly across time. This method is based primarily on the use of constant failure rates for the various elements that constitute the weapon system, i.e. the systems do not degrade while in storage. Experience has shown that predictions based upon this approach should be regarded with great skepticism since the relationship between the life predicted and the observed life has been difficult to validate. In addition to this fundamental problem, the approach does not recognize that there are time dependent material properties and variations associated with the manufacturing process and the operational environment. To appreciate the uncertainties in predicting system reliability a number of alternative methods are explored in this report. All of the methods are very different from those currently used to assess

  12. Research requirements for a unified approach to modelling chemical effects associated with radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of a review of the current modelling, laboratory experiments and field experiments being conducted in the United Kingdom to aid understanding and improve prediction of the effects of chemistry on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The aim has been to summarise present work and derive a structure for future research effort that would support the use of probabilistic risk assessment (pra) methods for the disposal of radioactive wastes. The review was conducted by a combination of letter and personal visits, and preliminary results were reported to a plenary meeting of participants held in April, 1986. Following this meeting, copies of the report were circulated to participants at draft stage, so that the finalised report should be taken to provide as far as possible a consensus of opinion of research requirements. (author)

  13. Solid waste disposal in the soil: effects on the physical, chemical, and organic properties of soil

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Regina Lasaro Mangieri; João Tavares Filho

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is growing concern over the final destination of the solid waste generated by society. Landfills should not be considered the endpoint for substances contained or generated in solid waste. The sustainable use of natural resources, especially soil and water, has become relevant, given the increase in anthropogenic activities. Agricultural use is an alternative to solid waste (leachate, biosolid) disposal, considering the hypothesis that the agricultural use of waste is promisi...

  14. Disposal - practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most Polish power plants have stockyards for storage of fly ash and slag. This paper describes the: methods of fly ash and slag storage used, methods of conveying the waste to the stockpiles (by railway cars, trucks, belt conveyors or hydraulically); construction of wet stockyards and dry stockyards and comparison of the ash dumped, development of methods of ash disposal in mine workings; composition and properties of fly ash and slag from hard coal; and the effects of ash storage yards on the environment (by leaching of trace elements, dust, effect on soils, and noise of machinery). 16 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for stockpile stewardship and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the end of the Cold War and changes in the world's political regimes, the United States is not producing new-design nuclear weapons. Instead, the emphasis of the U.S. nuclear weapons program is on reducing the size of the Nation's nuclear stockpile by dismantling existing nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management PEIS describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program

  16. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shenggang; Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan; Zhang, Liqiu

    2014-07-15

    The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012. PMID:24887122

  17. Cost-Benefit of Stockpiling Drugs for Influenza Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Balicer, Ran D.; Huerta, Michael; Davidovitch, Nadav; Grotto, Itamar

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed strategies for the use of stockpiled antiviral drugs in the context of a future influenza pandemic and estimated cost-benefit ratios. Current stockpiling of oseltamivir appears to be cost-saving to the economy under several treatment strategies, including therapeutic treatment of patients and postexposure prophylactic treatment of patients' close contacts.

  18. Occurrence and possible sources of arsenic in seafloor sediments surrounding sea-disposed munitions and chemical agents near O´ahu, Hawai´i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michael S.; De Carlo, Eric Heinen

    2016-06-01

    The Department of Defense disposed of conventional and chemical munitions as well as bulk containers of chemical agents in US coastal waters including those surrounding the State of Hawai´i. The Hawai´i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment has been collecting biota, water, and sediment samples from two disposal areas south of the island of O´ahu in waters 500 to 600 m deep known to have received both conventional munitions and chemical agents (specifically sulfur mustard). Unlike a number of other sea-disposed munitions investigations which used grabs or corers lowered from surface vessels, we used manned submersibles to collect the samples. Using this approach, we were able to visually identify the munitions and precisely locate our samples in relation to the munitions on the seafloor. This paper focuses on the occurrence and possible sources of arsenic found in the sediments surrounding the disposed military munitions and chemical agents. Using nonparametric multivariate statistical techniques, we looked for patterns in the chemical data obtained from these sediment samples in order to determine the possible sources of the arsenic found in these sediments. The results of the ordination technique nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicate that the arsenic is associated with terrestrial sources and not munitions. This was not altogether surprising given that: (1) the chemical agents disposed of in this area supposedly did not contain arsenic, and (2) the disposal areas studied were under terrestrial influence or served as dredge spoil disposal sites. The sediment arsenic concentrations during this investigation ranged from <1.3 to 40 mg/kg-dry weight with the lower concentrations typically found around control sites and munitions (not located in dredge disposal areas) and the higher values found at dredge disposal sites (with or without munitions). During the course of our investigation we did, however, discover that mercury appears to be loosely associated

  19. Natural weathering in dry disposed ash dump: Insight from chemical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis of fresh and unsaturated drilled cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, S A; Akinlua, A; Gitari, W M; Khuse, N; Eze, P; Akinyeye, R O; Petrik, L F

    2012-07-15

    Some existing alternative applications of coal fly ash such as cement manufacturing; road construction; landfill; and concrete and waste stabilisation use fresh ash directly collected from coal-fired power generating stations. Thus, if the rate of usage continues, the demand for fresh ash for various applications will exceed supply and use of weathered dry disposed ash will become necessary alternative. As a result it's imperative to understand the chemistry and pH behaviour of some metals inherent in dry disposed fly ash. The bulk chemical composition as determined by XRF analysis showed that SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 were the major oxides in fresh ash and unsaturated weathered ashes. The unsaturated weathered ashes are relatively depleted in CaO, Fe2O3, TiO2, SiO2, Na2O and P2O5 due to dissolution and hydrolysis caused by chemical interaction with ingressing CO2 from the atmosphere and infiltrating rain water. Observed accumulations of Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, K2O, Na2O and SO3 and Zn, Zr, Sr, Pb, Ni, Cr and Co in the lower layers indicate progressive downward movement through the ash dump though at a slow rate. The bulk mineralogy of unsaturated weathered dry disposed ash, as determined by XRD analysis, revealed quartz and mullite as the major crystalline phases; while anorthite, hematite, enstatite, lime, calcite, and mica were present as minor mineral phases. Pore water chemistry revealed a low concentration of readily soluble metals in unsaturated weathered ashes in comparison with fresh ash, which shows high leachability. This suggests that over time the precipitation of transient minor secondary mineral phases; such as calcite and mica might retard residual metal release from unsaturated weathered ash. Chloride and sulphate species of the water soluble extracts of weathered ash are at equilibrium with Na+ and K+; these demonstrate progressive leaching over time and become supersaturated at the base of unsaturated weathered ash. This suggests that the ash dump does not

  20. Science-based stockpile stewardship at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Let me tell you a little about the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) and how some of the examples you heard about from Sig Hecker and John Immele fit together in this view of a different world in the future where defense, basic and industrial research overlap. I am going to talk about science-based stockpile stewardship at LANSCE; the accelerator production of tritium (APT), which I think has a real bearing on the neutron road map; the world-class neutron science user facility, for which I will provide some examples so you can see the connection with defense science; and lastly, testing concepts for a high-power spallation neutron target and waste transmutation.

  1. Chemical stability and adsorption of succinylcholine chloride injections in disposable plastic syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramar, Y V; Moniz, D; Hobbs, D

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of these investigations was to determine the stability and adsorption behaviour of succinylcholine chloride (SCC) when stored in plastic syringes. Drug degradation was monitored using the USP high-pressure liquid chromatography method. Solutions containing 20 mg/ml of SCC in 5% dextrose, and in normal saline, were studied at 5, 25 and 40 degrees C. The hydrolysis of SCC in i.v. fluids followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The manufacturer's recommended expiry period was found to be too conservative. If protected from light, storage at room temperature for up to 3 months can be safely recommended, without significant loss of chemical stability. However, microbiological quality assurance will need to be implemented and an appropriate shelf-life assigned on the basis of both microbiological and chemical stability data. PMID:7962223

  2. Treatment and disposal of steam generator and heat exchanger chemical cleaning wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet air oxidation was effective in reducing the organic loading of Ontario Hydro's EDTA-based steam generator cleaning wastes and the organic acid formulation used for heat exchanger chemical cleaning. Destruction of the complexing agents resulted in direct precipitation of iron from the waste steam generator magnetite solvent and from the heat exchanger cleaning waste. The oxidized liquors contain lower molecular weight organic acids, ammonia and amines, suitable for secondary biological treatment. The oxidized copper waste requires further treatment to reduce dissolved copper levels prior to biological digestion. A preliminary evaluation of UV and ozone degradation of these wastes showed less promise than wet air oxidation. 24 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  3. FY 2014 - Stockpile and Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  4. 30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from the areas to be disturbed before drilling, blasting, or mining. (b) The minimum depth of soil and... permit area where they will not be disturbed or be subject to excessive erosion. If left in place for... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil removal and stockpiling. 823.12...

  5. Leachate From Biosolid Stockpiles: Nutrients and Metal Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckenham, J. M.; Nadeau, J. A.; Amirbahman, A.; Brutsaert, W.; Wilson, J.

    2004-05-01

    Field stacking of biosolids prior to utilization is a standard agricultural practice. The Maine Department of Environmental Protection is concerned about how this stacking affects groundwater quality, in particular, nitrate-N leached from stockpiles. Maine regulations have had much stricter siting standards for field stacking since 2002. In 2002 we initiated an experiment to characterize the nitrogen chemistry of leachate. Mass loading of nitrogen leaving stockpiles was determined experimentally by placing biosolids on plastic-lined cells to collect liquid flowing through and over the pile. These piles contained approximately 60 cubic meters of biosolids. Biosolid stockpile geometry affects the amount of leachate generated. In a parallel experiment, the composition of leachate moving through till-derived soil has been gauged using pan lysimeters and shallow wells under field conditions. Initial results indicate that ammonia is the dominant nitrogen species released (2,200 to 4,800 mg/L). Nitrate concentrations were found to be less than 1 mg/L in the leachate. Dissolved organic carbon loading was also high (5,800 to 10,000 mg/L). Several heavy metals and phosphorous were detected in association with the leachate in the surrounding lysimeters and boreholes. Additional data from sites reclaimed using biosolids substantiate the transport of nitrogen and metals to groundwater, even without the concentrating effect of stockpiles. These data suggest that soils may not significantly attenuate metal transport under ambient conditions.

  6. CNPC Uses Stockpiles to Avert Natural Gas Shortage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), the country's largest oil and gas producer, has used gas from its stockpiles to meet the rising demand for winter energy.The company recently took 13.7 million cubic meters of gas from its Dagang storage facility in Tianjin because of extra demand for heating in Beijing and Tianjin.

  7. Assessing Worker and Environmental Chemical Exposure Risks at an e-Waste Recycling and Disposal Site in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Caravanos

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling/disposal site in Accra, Ghana revealed an area with extensive lead contamination in both ambient air and topsoil. Given the urban nature of this site e as well as the large adjacent food distribution market, the potential for human health impact is substantial both to workers and local residents.

  8. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  9. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

    2011-06-20

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  10. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed Stockpile Stewardship and Maintenance Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. This document contains Volume I of the PEIS

  11. Halomonhystera disjuncta - a young-carrying nematode first observed for the Baltic Sea in deep basins within chemical munitions disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Katarzyna; Kotwicki, Lech

    2016-06-01

    Three deep basins in the Baltic Sea were investigated within the framework of the CHEMSEA project (Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment), which aims to evaluate the ecological impact of chemical warfare agents dumped after World War II. Nematode communities, which comprise the most numerous and diverse organisms in the surveyed areas, were investigated as a key group of benthic fauna. One of the most successful nematode species was morphologically identified as Halomonhystera disjuncta (Bastian, 1865). The presence of this species, which is an active coloniser that is highly resistant to disturbed environments, may indicate that the sediments of these disposal sites are characterised by toxic conditions that are unfavourable for other metazoans. Moreover, ovoviviparous reproductive behaviour in which parents carry their brood internally, which is an important adaptation to harsh environmental conditions, was observed for specimens from Gdansk Deep and Gotland Deep. This reproductive strategy, which is uncommon for marine nematodes, has not previously been reported for nematodes from the Baltic Sea sediment.

  12. Physico-chemical characterization of clays at Kalpakkam nuclear plant site towards assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Colloidal clay particles in groundwater have the potential to transport radionuclides in the ground environment. → Transport of radionuclides through groundwater depends on the nature of the clay colloids and its zeta potential. → The low CEC value of the kaolinite clay colloids ensures reduced potential for transport of radionuclides. → The low cation exchange capacity of the clay mineral in the study area emphasizes the requirement of suitable backfill materials around disposal facilities. - Abstract: In order to evaluate the safety of a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation, it is necessary to study the prevailing sub surface geology surrounding the disposal facility. The Kalpakkam subsurface was found to comprise of charnockite/hypersthene granite which is overlain by clay, sandy clay and sand. Clays can act as a barrier for groundwater flow and attenuate radionuclide migration. Accordingly, in the present study, clay samples were collected at chosen depths in the subsurface within the study area at Kalpakkam and colloidal clay fractions were separated. The clay colloids after separation were characterized for their size, shape, morphology, elemental composition and zeta potential. Photon correlation spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction technique and zetasizer were used to characterize the colloidal particles. The detailed characterization and analysis has revealed that the major clay mineral present in the subsurface at Kalpakkam is kaolinite. Minor quantities of smectite and illite were also identified in some clay samples. It was observed that the clays present in the study area are having low cation exchange capacity for radionuclides and emphasizes the requirement of proper backfill materials around disposal facilities for retardation of radionuclide migration. The occurrence of clay minerals at depths within the aquifer thickness warrants analysis of

  13. Uranium purchasing and stockpiling policies of European utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most European utilities almost entirely depend on uranium imports. Around 1970 there was a worldwide oversupply of uranium, and utilities concluded short and medium term supply contracts for initial power plant programs. A few years later the situation had changed, with uranium becoming scarce and expensive. Many European utilities decided to participate, directly or indirectly, in the exploration and development of uranium resources. In 1984 most utilities believed that long term contracts from each of the big producer regions should supply 20-25% of their demand. Some remaining demand was reserved for the spot market and reprocessed fuel. This buying policy has t be supplemented by uranium stockpiles corresponding to the demand for the coming two years. However, with the declining worldwide economy power demand has not grown as predicted, and supply contracts have obliged utilities to take delivery of more uranium than needed. Stockpiles have grown larger than planned. (L.L.) (7 figs.)

  14. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS.

  15. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS

  16. Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste: Investigating the Thermo-Hygro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Coupled Processes at the Waste Canister- Bentonite Barrier Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. W.; Davie, D. C.; Charles, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geological disposal of nuclear waste is being increasingly considered to deal with the growing volume of waste resulting from the nuclear legacy of numerous nations. Within the UK there is 650,000 cubic meters of waste safely stored and managed in near-surface interim facilities but with no conclusive permanent disposal route. A Geological Disposal Facility with incorporated Engineered Barrier Systems are currently being considered as a permanent waste management solution (Fig.1). This research focuses on the EBS bentonite buffer/waste canister interface, and experimentally replicates key environmental phases that would occur after canister emplacement. This progresses understanding of the temporal evolution of the EBS and the associated impact on its engineering, mineralogical and physicochemical state and considers any consequences for the EBS safety functions of containment and isolation. Correlation of engineering properties to the physicochemical state is the focus of this research. Changes to geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, swelling pressure and swelling kinetics are measured after laboratory exposure to THMC variables from interface and batch experiments. Factors affecting the barrier, post closure, include corrosion product interaction, precipitation of silica, near-field chemical environment, groundwater salinity and temperature. Results show that increasing groundwater salinity has a direct impact on the buffer, reducing swelling capacity and plasticity index by up to 80%. Similarly, thermal loading reduces swelling capacity by 23% and plasticity index by 5%. Bentonite/steel interaction studies show corrosion precipitates diffusing into compacted bentonite up to 3mm from the interface over a 4 month exposure (increasing with temperature), with reduction in swelling capacity in the affected zone, probably due to the development of poorly crystalline iron oxides. These results indicate that groundwater conditions, temperature and corrosion

  17. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for stockpile stewardship and management. Comment response document. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the end of the Cold War and changes in the world's political regimes, the United States is not producing new-design nuclear weapons. Instead, the emphasis on the U.S. nuclear weapons program is on reducing the size of the Nation's nuclear stockpile by dismantling existing nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management PEIS describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program

  18. "Cut holes and sink 'em": chemical weapons disposal and cold war history as a history of risk

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Using the incident of the scuttling of the USS Le Baron Russell Briggs, loaded with roughly 22,000 tons of outdated chemical weapons in 1970, this contribution extrapolates how, why, and when in the United States chemical weapons that had been produced as the ultimate answer to the risk of nuclear war became reframed as a risk themselves. The analysis settles on how questions of knowing and not-knowing about potentialities of future events influenced these re-negotiation processes between the...

  19. Contaminant accumulation and biomarker responses in caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to evaluate bioavailability and toxicological effects of remobilized chemicals during dredging and disposal operations in harbour areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocchetti, Raffaella; Fattorini, Daniele; Pisanelli, Barbara [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri Monte d' Ago, 60100 Ancona (Italy); Macchia, Simona; Oliviero, Lisa; Pilato, Fabiano; Pellegrini, David [Istituto Centrale per la Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica Applicata al Mare (ICRAM), Viale Nazario Sauro 4, 57128 Livorno (Italy); Regoli, Francesco [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri Monte d' Ago, 60100 Ancona (Italy)], E-mail: f.regoli@univpm.it

    2008-09-29

    Remobilization of chemicals from contaminated sediments is a major risk associated with dredging and disposal operations in harbour areas. In this work caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, were chosen as bioindicator organisms to reveal the impact and recovery of organisms from these activities in the harbour of Piombino (Tuscany, Italy) where approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of sediments were removed and disposed in a local confined disposal facility (CDF). Organisms were deployed before, during and after the end of operations, selecting sites differently impacted by these activities. Temporal changes in environmental bioavailability and biological effects of pollutants were assessed by integrating analyses of trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in tissues of caged mussels with a wide array of biomarkers reflecting exposure to specific classes of pollutants and different levels of cellular unbalance or toxicity. Such biological responses included levels of metallothioneins, activity of acyl CoA oxidase (AOX) as a marker of peroxisome proliferation, oxidative stress biomarkers (content of glutathione, enzymatic activities of catalase, glutathione S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases), total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) toward peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, lysosomal membrane stability and genotoxic effects measured as DNA strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei. Obtained results indicated that a general disturbance was already present in the whole harbour area and especially in the inner site before the beginning of operations, when caged mussels exhibited a significant accumulation of PAHs and Pb, lower TOSC values and higher levels of both lysosomal and genotoxic damages. Bioavailability of trace metals and PAHs markedly increased during dredging activities with values up to 40 {mu}g/g for Pb and up to 2200 ng/g for PAHs in tissues of caged mussels, a significant inhibition of antioxidant

  20. Stockpile strategy for China's emergency oil reserve: A dynamic programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is currently accelerating construction of its strategic petroleum reserves. How should China fill the SPR in a cost-effective manner in the short-run? How might this affect world oil prices? Using a dynamic programming model to answer these questions, the objective of this paper is to minimize the stockpiling costs, including consumer surplus as well as crude acquisition and holding costs. The crude oil acquisition price in the model is determined by global equilibrium between supply and demand. Demand, in turn, depends on world market conditions including China's stockpile filling rate. Our empirical study under different market conditions shows that China's optimal stockpile acquisition rate varies from 9 to 19 million barrels per month, and the optimal stockpiling drives up the world oil price by 3–7%. The endogenous price increase accounts for 52% of total stockpiling costs in the base case. When the market is tighter or the demand function is more inelastic, the stockpiling affects the market more significantly and pushes prices even higher. Alternatively, in a disruption, drawdown from the stockpile can effectively dampen soaring prices, though the shortage is likely to leave the price higher than before the disruption. - Highlights: • China's SPR policies are examined by dynamic programming. • The optimal stockpile acquisition rate varies from 9 to 19 million barrels per month. • The optimal stockpiling drives up world oil price by 3–7%

  1. Joint stockpiling and emergency sharing of oil: Arrangements for regional cooperation in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The East Asia region includes three of the world's top five oil-importing nations-China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. As a consequence, international oil supply disruptions and oil price spikes, and their effects on the economies of the region, have historically been of significant concern. Each of these three nations, as well as other nations in East Asia, has developed or is developing their own strategic oil stockpiles, but regional coordination in stockpiling arrangements and sharing of oil stocks in an emergency could provide significant benefits. This article describes the overall oil supply security situation in East Asia, reviews the attributes of different stockpiling arrangements to address energy supply security concerns, summarizes ongoing national approaches to stockpiling in East Asia, describes the development of joint oil stockpile initiatives in the region, and suggests the most attractive options for regional cooperation on oil stockpiling issues. - Highlights: → Rising oil consumption will make East Asia more vulnerable to energy insecurity. → There have been various dialogs on the need for a joint regional oil stockpile. → No serious joint oil stockpiling efforts have been made in East Asia to date. → Despite various impediments, diverse benefits justify oil stockpile cooperation.

  2. Compilation of existing chemical agent guidelines table as of September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1998-08-01

    Public Law 99-145 requires the US Department of the Army to dispose of the lethal chemical agents and munitions stockpile stored at eight Army installations throughout the continental US and Johnston Atoll in the Pacific. Recognition by the US Army that a potential threat to the public from continued storage was greater than the threat from transportation and demilitarization of chemical agents gave rise to the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). CSEPP is a community emergency preparedness program complementing the Department of Defense`s initiative to destroy domestic stockpiles of aged chemical warfare agent munitions. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the US Army jointly coordinate and direct the CSEPP. The Compilation of Existing Chemical Agent Guidelines Table was developed under the direction of FEMA and the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM). The purpose of this Table is to identify established chemical warfare agent guidelines, standards, and interim standards as of September 1997, and place them in an explanatory context for ready use by the CSEPP community. This Table summarizes and organizes information from numerous agencies and review bodies responsible for recommending exposure guidelines [e.g., The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Committee on Toxicology (COT), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), FEMA, Army and other federal agencies]. This Table provides references for the interested reader, but does not provide data and assumptions on which exposure guidelines were based, or comment on the rationale or appropriateness of the given values. To do so is beyond the scope of work for this task.

  3. FY 2017 Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan - Biennial Plan Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    This year’s summary report updates the Fiscal Year 2016 Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (FY 2016 SSMP), the 25-year strategic program of record that captures the plans developed across numerous NNSA programs and organizations to maintain and modernize the scientific tools, capabilities, and infrastructure necessary to ensure the success of NNSA’s nuclear weapons mission. The SSMP is a companion to the Prevent, Counter, and Respond: A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2017-2021) report, the planning document for NNSA’s nuclear threat reduction mission. New versions of both reports are published each year in response to new requirements and challenges. Much was accomplished in FY 2015 as part of the program of record described in this year’s SSMP. The science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program allowed the Secretaries of Energy and Defense to certify for the twentieth time that the stockpile remains safe, secure, and effective without the need for underground nuclear explosive testing. The talented scientists, engineers, and technicians at the three national security laboratories, the four nuclear weapons production plants, and the national security site are primarily responsible for this continued success. Research, development, test, and evaluation programs have advanced NNSA’s understanding of weapons physics, component aging, and material properties through first-of-a-kind shock physics experiments, along with numerous other critical experiments conducted throughout the nuclear security enterprise. The multiple life extension programs (LEPs) that are under way made progress toward their first production unit dates. The W76-1 LEP is past the halfway point in total production, and the B61-12 completed three development flight tests. Critical to this success is the budget. The Administration’s budget request for NNSA’s Weapons Activities has increased for all but one of the past seven years, resulting in a total increase of

  4. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The objective of this project is to employ the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR), in conjunction with other experimental methods, to study radiation-induced decomposition of vitreous compositions proposed for immobilization/disposal of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) or excess weapons plutonium. ESR is capable of identifying, even at the parts-per-million level, displaced atoms, ruptured bonds, and free radicals created by radiation in such glassy forms. For example, one of the scientific goals is to determine whether ESR-detectable superoxide (O2-) and ozonide (O3-) ions are precursors of radiation-induced oxygen gas bubbles reported by other investigators. The fundamental understandings obtained in this study will enable reliable predictions of the long-term effects of and decays of the immobilized radionuclides on HLW glasses. This report represents the results of an 18-month effort performed under a 3-year research award. Four categories of materials were studied: (1) several actual and proposed HLW glass compositions fabricated at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), samples of which had been irradiated to a dose of 30 MGy (1 Gy = 100 rad) to simulate decay effects, (2) several high-iron phosphate glasses fabricated at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), (3) one other model HLW glass and several simulated natural glasses which had been implanted with 160-keV He+ ions to simulate-decay damage, and (4) an actual geological glass damaged by decays of trace amounts of contained 238U and 232Th over a period of 65 Myears. Among the category-1 materials were two samples of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) borosilicate glasses modeling compositions currently being used to vitrify HLW at SRTC. The ESR spectra recorded for the unirradiated DWPF-glass simulants were attributable to Fe 3+ ions. The 30-MGy irradiation was found to change the Fe3+ concentration of these glasses by a statistically insignificant factor (0.987 261 0.050) and not to

  5. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griscom, D.L.; Merzbacher, C.I.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to employ the technique of electron spin resonance (ESR), in conjunction with other experimental methods, to study radiation-induced decomposition of vitreous compositions proposed for immobilization/disposal of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) or excess weapons plutonium. ESR is capable of identifying, even at the parts-per-million level, displaced atoms, ruptured bonds, and free radicals created by radiation in such glassy forms. For example, one of the scientific goals is to determine whether ESR-detectable superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}) and ozonide (O{sub 3}{sup -}) ions are precursors of radiation-induced oxygen gas bubbles reported by other investigators. The fundamental understandings obtained in this study will enable reliable predictions of the long-term effects of and decays of the immobilized radionuclides on HLW glasses. This report represents the results of an 18-month effort performed under a 3-year research award. Four categories of materials were studied: (1) several actual and proposed HLW glass compositions fabricated at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), samples of which had been irradiated to a dose of 30 MGy (1 Gy = 100 rad) to simulate decay effects, (2) several high-iron phosphate glasses fabricated at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), (3) one other model HLW glass and several simulated natural glasses which had been implanted with 160-keV He{sup +} ions to simulate-decay damage, and (4) an actual geological glass damaged by decays of trace amounts of contained {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th over a period of 65 Myears. Among the category-1 materials were two samples of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) borosilicate glasses modeling compositions currently being used to vitrify HLW at SRTC. The ESR spectra recorded for the unirradiated DWPF-glass simulants were attributable to Fe 3{sup +} ions. The 30-MGy irradiation was found to change the Fe{sup 3+} concentration of these glasses by a

  6. Modeling the filtration ability of stockpiled filtering facepiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottach, Dana R.

    2016-03-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) are often stockpiled for use during public health emergencies such as an infectious disease outbreak or pandemic. While many stockpile administrators are aware of shelf life limitations, environmental conditions can lead to premature degradation. Filtration performance of a set of FFR retrieved from a storage room with failed environmental controls was measured. Though within the expected shelf life, the filtration ability of several respirators was degraded, allowing twice the penetration of fresh samples. The traditional picture of small particle capture by fibrous filter media qualitatively separates the effect of inertial impaction, interception from the streamline, diffusion, settling, and electrostatic attraction. Most of these mechanisms depend upon stable conformational properties. However, common FFR rely on electrets to achieve their high performance, and over time heat and humidity can cause the electrostatic media to degrade. An extension of the Langevin model with correlations to classical filtration concepts will be presented. The new computational model will be used to predict the change in filter effectiveness as the filter media changes with time.

  7. The Role of the Two-Component System BaeSR in Disposing Chemicals through Regulating Transporter Systems in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Feng Lin

    Full Text Available Bacterial two-component regulatory systems (TCSs facilitate changes in gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. TCS BaeR regulons influence tigecycline susceptibility in Acinetobacter baumannii through positively regulating the pump genes adeA and adeB. In this study, we demonstrate that an additional two transport systems, AdeIJK and MacAB-TolC, are also regulated by BaeSR. In the wild type and clinical tigecycline-resistant A. baumannii strains, gene expression of AdeIJK and MacAB-TolC increased after tigecycline induction, implicating their importance to tigecycline resistance in addition to AdeABC. Phenotypic microarray results showed that A. baumannii is vulnerable to certain chemicals, especially tannic acid, after deleting baeR, which was confirmed using the spot assay. The wild-type strain of A. baumannii also exhibited 1.6-fold and 4.4-fold increase in gene expression of adeJ and macB in the medium with 100 μg/mL tannic acid, but the increase was fully inhibited by baeR deletion. An electrophoretic motility shift assay based on an interaction between His-BaeR and the adeA, adeI and macA promoter regions did not demonstrate direct binding. In conclusion, A. baumannii can use the TCS BaeSR in disposing chemicals, such as tannic acid and tigecycline, through regulating the efflux pumps.

  8. Treatment and Disposal of Status and Analysis for Chemical Waste%废弃化学品处理处置现状与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弓创周; 丁灵; 李洁; 夏俊玲; 安晓英; 赵美敬

    2015-01-01

    我国工业经济的迅速发展,带来了工业三废量的急剧增长,不加处理随意排放,将对周边大气、水体、土壤及生态系统带来了严重破坏,造成有回收利用价值的废弃化学品资源的浪费。加强废弃化学品处理处置标准化工作,进行资源化科技创新,深入实施节能减排、资源综合再利用,促进循环经济、绿色产业、低碳技术发展,符合我国的产业政策发展规划的总体要求。%Along with the rapid development of industry in our country, three industrial wastes are increasing quickly. If these untreated substances are discharged arbitrarily it will cause serious environmental pollution and waste of resources for chemical waste. It was conformed that the overall requirement of the industrial policy of development was planed in our country, such as strengthening the standardization work of treatment and disposaling for chemical waste, proceeding technological innovation, implementation energy - saving and utilization of resources, promoting the development of the circular economy, green industries and low-carbon technologies.

  9. Development of biological and chemical methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage facilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-04-01

    Hazardous chemicals in the environment have received ever increasing attention in recent years. In response to ongoing problems with hazardous waste management, Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976. In 1980, Congress adopted the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly called Superfund to provide for emergency spill response and to clean up closed or inactive hazardous waste sites. Scientists and engineers have begun to respond to the hazardous waste challenge with research and development on treatment of waste streams as well as cleanup of polluted areas. The magnitude of the problem is just now beginning to be understood. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List as of September 13 1985, contained 318 proposed sites and 541 final sites (USEPA, 1985). Estimates of up to 30,000 sites containing hazardous wastes (1,200 to 2,000 of which present a serious threat to public health) have been made (Public Law 96-150). In addition to the large number of sites, the costs of cleanup using available technology are phenomenal. For example, a 10-acre toxic waste site in Ohio is to be cleaned up by removing chemicals from the site and treating the contaminated groundwater. The federal government has already spent more than $7 million to remove the most hazardous wastes and the groundwater decontamination alone is expected to take at least 10 years and cost $12 million. Another example of cleanup costs comes from the State of California Commission for Economic Development which predicts a bright economic future for the state except for the potential outlay of $40 billion for hazardous waste cleanup mandated by federal and state laws.

  10. Discussion on Disposing Acid Waste Water by Physico-chemical Treatment Technology%利用物化技术处理含酸废水的技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍坤

    2013-01-01

    Based on analyzing al kinds of the disposal technology characters and application on acid waste water, the article approves that the physico-chemical treatment technology could effectively dispose al kinds of acid waste water. The physico-chemical treatment technology had some advantages such as wide adaptability on waste water, high heavy metal removal efficiency, and so on. So it can be used widely in the waste water disposal projects. According to the application of waste water disposal projects, the article points out several shortcomings need to be solved, such as the high disposal cost, the hard process control.%  通过分析各种含酸废水处理技术的特点和工程应用,指出利用物化技术能够有效处理各种含酸废水,具有废水适应性广、重金属去除效率高等优点,适合工程应用;物化技术在实际工程应用中,还存在处理成本高、工艺控制点不易控制等不足,需进一步研究加以克服。

  11. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management: Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. This document consists of Volume III, Appendix I entitled ''National Ignition Facility Project-Specific Analysis,'' which investigates the environmental impacts resulting from constructing and operating the proposed National Ignition Facility

  12. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The objective of this research is to use the sensitive technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) to look for evidence of radiation-induced chemical decomposition of vitreous forms contemplated for immobilization of plutonium and/or high-level nuclear wastes, to interpret this evidence in terms of existing knowledge of glass structure, and to recommend certain materials for further study by other techniques, particularly electron microscopy and measurements of gas evolution by high-vacuum mass spectroscopy. Previous ESR studies had demonstrated that an effect of y rays on a simple binary potassium silicate glass was to induce superoxide (O2-) and ozonide (O3-) as relatively stable product of long-term irradiation Accordingly, some of the first experiments performed as a part of the present effort involved repeating this work. A glass of composition 44 K2O: 56 SiO2 was prepared from reagent grade K2CO3 and SiO2 powders melted in a Pt crucible in air at 1,200 C for 1.5 hr. A sample irradiated to a dose of 1 MGy (1 MGy = 108 rad) indeed yielded the same ESR results as before. To test the notion that the complex oxygen ions detected may be harbingers of radiation-induced phase separation or bubble formation, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment was performed. SANS is theoretically capable of detecting voids or bubbles as small as 10 305 in diameter. A preliminary experiment was carried out with the collaboration of Dr. John Barker (NIST). The SANS spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples were indistiguishable. A relatively high incoherent background (probably due to the presence of protons) may obscure scattering from small gas bubbles and therefore decrease the effective resolution of this technique. No further SANS experiments are planned at this time.'

  13. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griscom, D.L.; Merzbacher, C.I.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of this research is to use the sensitive technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) to look for evidence of radiation-induced chemical decomposition of vitreous forms contemplated for immobilization of plutonium and/or high-level nuclear wastes, to interpret this evidence in terms of existing knowledge of glass structure, and to recommend certain materials for further study by other techniques, particularly electron microscopy and measurements of gas evolution by high-vacuum mass spectroscopy. Previous ESR studies had demonstrated that an effect of y rays on a simple binary potassium silicate glass was to induce superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}) and ozonide (O{sub 3}{sup -}) as relatively stable product of long-term irradiation Accordingly, some of the first experiments performed as a part of the present effort involved repeating this work. A glass of composition 44 K{sub 2}O: 56 SiO{sub 2} was prepared from reagent grade K{sub 2}CO3 and SiO{sub 2} powders melted in a Pt crucible in air at 1,200 C for 1.5 hr. A sample irradiated to a dose of 1 MGy (1 MGy = 10{sup 8} rad) indeed yielded the same ESR results as before. To test the notion that the complex oxygen ions detected may be harbingers of radiation-induced phase separation or bubble formation, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment was performed. SANS is theoretically capable of detecting voids or bubbles as small as 10 \\305 in diameter. A preliminary experiment was carried out with the collaboration of Dr. John Barker (NIST). The SANS spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples were indistiguishable. A relatively high incoherent background (probably due to the presence of protons) may obscure scattering from small gas bubbles and therefore decrease the effective resolution of this technique. No further SANS experiments are planned at this time.'

  14. Science-based stockpile stewardship at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immele, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    I would like to start by working from Vic Reis`s total quality management diagram in which he began with the strategy and then worked through the customer requirements-what the Department of Defense (DoD) is hoping for from the science-based stockpile stewardship program. Maybe our customer`s requirements will help guide some of the issues that we should be working on. ONe quick answer to {open_quotes}why have we adopted a science-based strategy{close_quotes} is that nuclear weapons are a 50-year responsibility, not just a 5-year responsibility, and stewardship without testing is a grand challenge. While we can do engineering maintenance and turn over and remake a few things on the short time scale, without nuclear testing, without new weapons development, and without much of the manufacturing base that we had in the past, we need to learn better just how these weapons are actually working.

  15. Nuclear Theory for Astrophysics, Stockpile Stewardship, and Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Anna

    2004-10-01

    A large number of problems key to astrophysics, stockpile stewardship, and homeland defense rely on knowledge of nuclear physics in regimes inaccessible to experiment. In stellar and nuclear explosions unstable nuclei and nuclear isomers are produced in copious quantities and are used to diagnose the explosion. Similarly, analysis of the unstable nuclei from the debris will be key to attribution in the event of a terrorist domestic nuclear attack. In the case of nuclear non-proliferation a number of new schemes are being considered by the IAEA to address the ever greater needs, including neutrino monitoring of the plutonium content of reactors. For all of these problems detailed nuclear theory is required. In this talk I discuss the theoretical physics needs for the type of problems of overlapping interest to astrophysics and national security.

  16. Disposable rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  17. Optimal vaccine stockpile design for an eradicated disease: application to polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer; Pallansch, Mark A; Alexander, James P; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2010-06-11

    Eradication of a disease promises significant health and financial benefits. Preserving those benefits, hopefully in perpetuity, requires preparing for the possibility that the causal agent could re-emerge (unintentionally or intentionally). In the case of a vaccine-preventable disease, creation and planning for the use of a vaccine stockpile becomes a primary concern. Doing so requires consideration of the dynamics at different levels, including the stockpile supply chain and transmission of the causal agent. This paper develops a mathematical framework for determining the optimal management of a vaccine stockpile over time. We apply the framework to the polio vaccine stockpile for the post-eradication era and present examples of solutions to one possible framing of the optimization problem. We use the framework to discuss issues relevant to the development and use of the polio vaccine stockpile, including capacity constraints, production and filling delays, risks associated with the stockpile, dynamics and uncertainty of vaccine needs, issues of funding, location, and serotype dependent behavior, and the implications of likely changes over time that might occur. This framework serves as a helpful context for discussions and analyses related to the process of designing and maintaining a stockpile for an eradicated disease. PMID:20430122

  18. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  19. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  20. Science and technology in the stockpile stewardship program, S & TR reprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, E

    1998-04-08

    This document reports on these topics: Computer Simulations in Support of National Security; Enhanced Surveillance of Aging Weapons; A New Precision Cutting Tool: The Femtosecond Laser; Superlasers as a Tool of Stockpile Stewardship; Nova Laser Experiments and Stockpile Stewardship; Transforming Explosive Art into Science; Better Flash Radiography Using the FXR; Preserving Nuclear Weapons Information; Site 300Õs New Contained Firing Facility; The Linear Electric Motor: Instability at 1,000 gÕs; A Powerful New Tool to Detect Clandestine Nuclear Tests; High Explosives in Stockpile Surveillance Indicate Constancy; Addressing a Cold War Legacy with a New Way to Produce TATB; JumpinÕ Jupiter! Metallic Hydrogen; Keeping the Nuclear Stockpile Safe, Secure, and Reliable; The Multibeam FabryÐPerot Velocimeter: Efficient Measurements of High Velocities; Theory and Modeling in Material Science; The Diamond Anvil Cell; Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometry; X-Ray Lasers and High-Density Plasma

  1. Role of combination antiviral therapy in pandemic influenza and stockpiling implications

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Mooney, John D; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to predict which drugs will be effective against a new pandemic strain of influenza. Sotirios Tsiodras and colleagues argue that failure to stockpile both major classes of antiviral drugs could prove costly

  2. Computer controlled measurement of spontaneous combustion in coal stockpiles of the Western Lignite Corporation, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The spontaneous combustion event in coal stockpiles is inevitable when appropriate environmental conditions are available.The objective of a computerized measurement system is to measure temperature changes existing in a coal stockpile.In order to achieve this intention, the electrical signal conversion of temperatures sensed by 20 temperature sensors placed in certain points inside the coal stockpile, the transfer of these electrical signals into computer media by using analogue-digital conversion unit after applying necessary filterization and upgrading processes and the record of these information into a database in particular time intervals are provided.Afterwards, the diagrams of these time-temperature data are plotted.With the help of these graphs, the competent company will be able to examine the behavior of coal stockpiles in terms of spontaneous combustion and take necessary precautions against self-combustion beforehand.

  3. E-commerce as a Stockpiling Technology - Implications for Consumer Savings

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Pozzi

    2013-01-01

    Shopping on the Internet spares customers the discomfort of carrying around heavy and bulky baskets of goods, since the service usually includes home de- livery. This makes e-commerce a technology well suited to helping consumers to buy in bulk or to stockpile items on discount. I use grocery scanner data provided by a supermarket chain selling both online and through traditional stores to show that the introduction of e-commerce leads to an increase in bulk purchase and stockpiling behavior ...

  4. Disposal of SNL-designed electronics assemblies associated with the nuclear weapons program - challenges and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the common waste streams generated throughout the nuclear weapon complex is 'hardware' originating from the nuclear weapons program. The activities associated with this hardware at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) include design and development, environmental testing, reliability and stockpile surveillance testing, and military liaison training. SNL-designed electronic assemblies include radars, arming/fusing/firing systems, power sources, and use-control and safety systems, Waste stream characterization using process knowledge is difficult due to the age of some components and lack of design information oriented towards hazardous constituent identification. Chemical analysis methods such as the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) are complicated by the inhomogeneous character of these components and the fact that many assemblies have aluminum or stainless steel cases, with the electronics encapsulated in a foam or epoxy matrix. In addition, some components may contain explosives, radioactive materials, toxic substances (PCBs, asbestos), and other regulated or personnel hazards which must be identified prior to handling and disposal. In spite of the above difficulties, we have succeeded in characterizing a limited number of weapon components using a combination of process knowledge and chemical analysis. For these components, we have shown that if the material is regulated as RCRA hazardous waste, it is because the waste exhibits one or more hazardous characteristics; primarily reactivity and/or toxicity (Pb, Cd). (author)

  5. Modelling soil and soil to plant transfer processes of radionuclides and toxic chemicals at long time scales for performance assessment of Radwaste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Achim; Miquel, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Performance assessments for surface nuclear waste disposal facilities require simulation of transfer processes from the waste canisters to a reference group living near-by. Such simulations need to be extended over several hundred to hundred thousand years, depending on waste type, restraining possibilities to represent short term system complexity and variability. Related modelling can be simplified as long as processes are represented conservatively with assessment endpoints estimated larger compared to more realistic modelling approaches. The indicators are doses for radionuclides (RN) and risk factors for toxic chemicals (TC, i.e. heavy metals, nitrate). We discuss a new simulation tool (SCM-Andra-multilayer-model, SAMM) that, among others, allows to model situations where RN/TC move through a soil profile characterised by temporal undersaturation and root growth (soil-plant subsystem of the biosphere model compared to the adjacent saturated geosphere). SAMM describes all relevant transfer and reaction processes (advection, diffusion, root transport, radioactive decay, chemical reactions incl. sorption - desorption) using well known differential equations solved numerically within MATLAB with scenario description and parameterisation defined in Excel sheets. With this conservative approach in mind, we apply global parameters for which the solid-solution (Kd) or soil-to-plant (TF) distribution coefficients are the most relevant. Empirical data are available for homogeneous situations, such as one compartment pot experiments, but rare for entire soil profiles. Similarly soil hydrology, in particular upward and downward advective fluxes are modelled using an empirical approach solely based on key soil hydrological parameters (precipitation, evapotranspiration, irrigation, water table level) and the soil porosity. Variability of soil hydrology in space and time, likely to change drastically even on hourly bases (i.e. intense precipitation event) or within a single

  6. An Introduction to Risk with a Focus on Design Diversity in the Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-13

    The maintenance and security of nuclear weapons in the stockpile involves decisions based on risk analysis and quantitative measures of risk. Risk is a factor in all decisions, a particularly important factor in decisions of a large scale. One example of high-risk decisions we will discuss is the risk involved in design diversity within the stockpile of nuclear weapons arsenal. Risk is defined as 'possibility of loss or injury' and the 'degree of probability of such loss' (Kaplan and Garrick 12). To introduce the risk involved with maintaining the weapons stockpile we will draw a parallel to the design and maintenance of Southwest Airlines fleet of Boeing 737 planes. The clear benefits for cost savings in maintenance of having a uniform fleet are what historically drove Southwest to have only Boeing 737s in their fleet. Less money and resources are need for maintenance, training, and materials. Naturally, risk accompanies those benefits. A defect in a part of the plane indicates a potential defect in that same part in all the planes of the fleet. As a result, safety, business, and credibility are at risk. How much variety or diversity does the fleet need to mitigate that risk? With that question in mind, a balance is needed to accommodate the different risks and benefits of the situation. In a similar way, risk is analyzed for the design and maintenance of nuclear weapons in the stockpile. In conclusion, risk must be as low as possible when it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk, and to help balance options in stockpile stewardship.

  7. A summary of chemical and biological testing of proposed disposal of sediment from Richmond Harbor relative to the Deep Off-Shelf Reference Area, the Bay Farm Borrow Area, and the Alcatraz Environs Reference Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Gruendell, B.D.; Pinza, M.R. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers was authorized to dredge Richmond Harbor to accomodate large, deep-draft vessels. An ecological evaluation of the Harbor sediments was performed describing the physical characteristics, toxic substances, effects on aquatic organisms,and potential for bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants. The objective of this report is to compare the sediment chemistry, acute toxicity, and bioaccumulation results of the Richmond Harbor sediments to each of the reference areas; i.e., the Deep Off-Shelf Reference Area, the Bay Farm Borrow Area, and the Alcatraz Environs Reference Area. This report will enable the US Army Corps of Engineers to determine whether disposal at a reference area is appropriate for all or part of the dredged material from Richmond Harbor. Chemical analyses were performed on 30 sediment samples; 28 of those samples were then combined to form 7 composites. The seven composites plus sediment from two additional stations received both chemical and biological evaluations.

  8. Report to Congress on stockpile reliability, weapon remanufacture, and the role of nuclear testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.H.; Brown, P.S.; Alonso, C.T.

    1987-10-01

    This report analyzes two issues: (1) ''whether past warhead reliability problems demonstrate that nuclear explosive testing is needed to identify or to correct stockpile reliability,'' or (2) ''whether a program of stockpile inspection, nonnuclear testing, and remanufacture would be sufficient to deal with stockpile reliability problems.'' Chapter 1 examines the reasons for nuclear testing. Although the thrust of the request from Congressman Aspin et al., has to do with the need for nuclear testing as it relates to stockpile reliability and remanufacture, there are other very important reasons for nuclear testing. Since there has been increasing interest in the US Congress for more restrictive nuclear test limits, we have addressed the overall need for nuclear testing and the potential impact of further nuclear test limitations. Chapter 1 also summarizes the major conclusions of a recent study conducted by the Scientific and Academic Advisory Committee (SAAC) for the President of the University of California; the SAAC report is entitled, ''Nuclear Weapon Tests: The Role of the University of California-Department of Energy Laboratories.'' Chapter 2 presents a brief history of stockpile problems that involved post-deployment nuclear testing for their resolution. Chapter 3 addresses the problems involved in remanufacturing nuclear weapons, and Chapter 4 discusses measures that should be taken to prepare for possible future restrictive test limits.

  9. Using Direct Sub-Level Entity Access to Improve Nuclear Stockpile Simulation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Y. Parker

    1999-08-01

    Direct sub-level entity access is a seldom-used technique in discrete-event simulation modeling that addresses the accessibility of sub-level entity information. The technique has significant advantages over more common, alternative modeling methods--especially where hierarchical entity structures are modeled. As such, direct sub-level entity access is often preferable in modeling nuclear stockpile, life-extension issues, an area to which it has not been previously applied. Current nuclear stockpile, life-extension models were demonstrated to benefit greatly from the advantages of direct sub-level entity access. In specific cases, the application of the technique resulted in models that were up to 10 times faster than functionally equivalent models where alternative techniques were applied. Furthermore, specific implementations of direct sub-level entity access were observed to be more flexible, efficient, functional, and scalable than corresponding implementations using common modeling techniques. Common modeling techniques (''unbatch/batch'' and ''attribute-copying'') proved inefficient and cumbersome in handling many nuclear stockpile modeling complexities, including multiple weapon sites, true defect analysis, and large numbers of weapon and subsystem types. While significant effort was required to enable direct sub-level entity access in the nuclear stockpile simulation models, the enhancements were worth the effort--resulting in more efficient, more capable, and more informative models that effectively addressed the complexities of the nuclear stockpile.

  10. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.)

  11. Guide about petroleum strategic stockpiles in France; Repere sur les stocks strategiques petroliers en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The strategic character of petroleum products has been perceived since the first world war. It has led France to impose the petroleum operators to make stockpiles to provide against the consequences of a serious disruption of supplies. As a difference with some other industrialized countries like the USA or Japan, French stockpiles are made of finite products. A balanced geographical distribution of these stocks over the whole national territory increases their efficiency. Stockpiles of IEA member states must represent 90 days of net imports while those of European Union member states must represent 90 days of average domestic consumption. In France, each chartered operator contributes to the strategic storage and the stored volumes are defined by the law no 92-1443 from December 31, 1992. These stocks are permanently controlled and financial sanctions are applied in case of infraction. Particular dispositions are applied in overseas departments which are summarized in this paper. (J.S.)

  12. Treatment-donation-stockpile dynamics in ebola convalescent blood transfusion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xi; Sun, Xiaodan; Lan, Kunquan; Wu, Jianhong

    2016-03-01

    The interim guidance issued by the World Health Organization during the West Africa 2014 Ebola outbreak provides guidelines on the use of convalescent blood from Ebola survivors for transfusion therapy. Here we develop a novel mathematical model, based on the interim guidance, to examine the nonlinear transmission-treatment-donation-stockpile dynamics during an Ebola outbreak and with a large scale use of the transfusion therapy in the population. We estimate the reduction of case fatality ratio by introducing convalescent blood transfusion as a therapy, and inform optimal treatment-donation-stockpile strategies to balance the treatment need for case fatality ratio reduction and the strategic need of maintaining a minimal blood bank stockpile for other control priorities. PMID:26721704

  13. Covering of milled peat stockpile with wood chips; Jyrsinturveauman peittaeminen hakkeella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franssila, T.; Leinonen, A.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is to research the applicability of wooden materials for protection of milled peat stockpile against losses during storaging. Water transmission features of sawdust, wastewood chip and whole tree chip were investigated in laboratory with raining experiments. The plan for raining experiments was made with experiment planning program and results were analysed with multivariate analysis. Freezing features were investigated thorough breaking tests with hydraulic piston vice. Laboratory experiments were completed with field tests in Laakasuo near Sotkamo. On the basis of results covering peat stockpiles with sawdust is fully competitive comparing to present covering methods. Chip materials are technically not as good covering materials as sawdust

  14. U.S. Nuclear Weapons Modernization - the Stockpile Life Extension Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Donald

    2016-03-01

    Underground nuclear testing of U.S. nuclear weapons was halted by President George H.W. Bush in 1992 when he announced a moratorium. In 1993, the moratorium was extended by President Bill Clinton and, in 1995, a program of Stockpile Stewardship was put in its place. In 1996, President Clinton signed the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Twenty years have passed since then. Over the same time, the average age of a nuclear weapon in the stockpile has increased from 6 years (1992) to nearly 29 years (2015). At its inception, achievement of the objectives of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) appeared possible but very difficult. The cost to design and construct several large facilities for precision experimentation in hydrodynamics and high energy density physics was large. The practical steps needed to move from computational platforms of less than 100 Mflops/sec to 10 Teraflops/sec and beyond were unknown. Today, most of the required facilities for SSP are in place and computational speed has been increased by more than six orders of magnitude. These, and the physicists and engineers in the complex of labs and plants within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) who put them in place, have been the basis for underpinning an annual decision, made by the weapons lab directors for each of the past 20 years, that resort to underground nuclear testing is not needed for maintaining confidence in the safety and reliability of the U.S stockpile. A key part of that decision has been annual assessment of the physical changes in stockpiled weapons. These weapons, quite simply, are systems that invariably and unstoppably age in the internal weapon environment of radioactive materials and complex interfaces of highly dissimilar organic and inorganic materials. Without an ongoing program to rebuild some components and replace other components to increase safety or security, i.e., life extending these weapons, either underground testing would again be

  15. Syringe Stockpiling by Persons Who Inject Drugs: An Evaluation of Current Measures for Needle and Syringe Program Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Angus R; Aitken, Campbell K; Burns, Lucinda A; Cogger, Shelley; Dietze, Paul M

    2016-05-01

    Needle and syringe program (NSP) coverage is commonly used to assess NSP effectiveness. However, existing measures don't capture whether persons who inject drugs (PWIDs) stockpile syringes, an important and novel aspect of NSP coverage. In this study, we determine the extent of stockpiling in a sample of Australian PWIDs and assess whether including stockpiling enhances NSP coverage measures. As part of the Illicit Drug Reporting System study, PWIDs reported syringes procured and given away, total injections in the last month, and syringes currently stockpiled in 2014. We calculated NSP coverage with and without stockpiling to determine proportional change in adequate NSP coverage. We conducted receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine whether inclusion of stockpiled syringes in the measure improved sensitivity in discriminating cases and noncases of risky behaviors. Three-quarters of the sample reported syringe stockpiling, and stockpiling was positively associated with nonindigenous background, stable accommodation, no prison history, longer injecting careers, and more frequent injecting. Compared with previous measures, our measure was significantly better at discriminating cases of risky behaviors. Our results could inform NSP policy to loosen restricted-exchange practice, allowing PWIDs greater flexibility in syringe procurement practices, promoting greater NSP coverage, and reducing PWIDs' engagement in risky behaviors. PMID:27049004

  16. Analysis and Disposal of Organic Pollutants in Waste Soil Chemical Pollution Accident Risk%化工污染事故危险废土中有机污染物的分析与处置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧敏; 王晓毅; 时治富

    2012-01-01

    以(某)化工公司污染事故为例,针对危险固废中主要污染物进行了测试分析和危险特性鉴别,通过对污染土壤焚烧实验研究,着重分析讨论了各种处置方法的优缺点,结果表明,利用民生砖厂隧道窑配制烧砖处置方案较好,通过实际应用,取得了良好效果。%Take a chemical company's pollution accident for example, after the accident of pollution, the test analysis and identification of hazardous properties is made for the major pollutants in the contaminated waste soil. The selection of incineration parameters of contaminated soil is studied and analyzed. Further exploration and study of environmental emergency disposal solution of pollution soil is made, so to provide a soild waste disposal methods for dealing with hazardous waste soil in chemical company pollution acci- dent.

  17. Some considerations of the fuel stockpile on the security of energy for thermal and nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By estimating the fuel stockpile for thermal and nuclear power plants, the external costs of the energy security have been calculated. The stockpiles for these power plants are: 32.85 million kilo liters of oil, 3.60 million tons of coal, 2.61 million tons of LNG, and 2892 tons of nuclear fuel, which is contained in the nuclear reactors, the quantity being equivalent to 3 years in the equilibrium cycle. The external costs for the fuel stockpile per year have been estimated at -0.028, -0.090, -0.086, and -4.43 yen/kWh respectively. The fuel stockpile for nuclear power plants contained in the reactors have been to be calculated to be equal to 435 days worth of crude oil. (The amount totals to 580 days worth of the oil, if the stockpile in the fabrication plants was added.) (author)

  18. 76 FR 58463 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Comments on the Potential Market Impact of Proposed Stockpile for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Bureau of... Departments of Commerce and State, is seeking public comments on the potential market impact of the proposed.... The Committee is seeking public comments on the potential market impact of the sale of these...

  19. Proposed Laser-Based HED physics experiments for Stockpile Stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fernandez, Juan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-04

    An analysis of the scientific areas in High Energy Density (HED) physics that underpin the enduring LANL mission in Stockpile Stewardship (SS) has identified important research needs that are not being met. That analysis has included the work done as part of defining the mission need for the High Intensity Laser Laboratory (HILL) LANL proposal to NNSA, LDRD DR proposal evaluations, and consideration of the Predictive Capability Framework and LANL NNSA milestones. From that evaluation, we have identified several specific and scientifically-exciting experimental concepts to address those needs. These experiments are particularly responsive to physics issues in Campaigns 1 and 10. These experiments are best done initially at the LANL Trident facility, often relying on the unique capabilities available there, although there are typically meritorious extensions envisioned at future facilities such as HILL, or the NIF once the ARC short-pulse laser is available at sufficient laser intensity. As the focus of the LANL HEDP effort broadens from ICF ignition of the point design at the conclusion of the National Ignition Campaign, into a more SS-centric effort, it is useful to consider these experiments, which address well-defined issues, with specific scientific hypothesis to test or models to validate or disprove, via unit-physics experiments. These experiments are in turn representative of a possible broad experimental portfolio to elucidate the physics of interest to these campaigns. These experiments, described below, include: (1) First direct measurement of the evolution of particulates in isochorically heated dense plasma; (2) Temperature relaxation measurements in a strongly-coupled plasma; (3) Viscosity measurements in a dense plasma; and (4) Ionic structure factors in a dense plasma. All these experiments address scientific topics of importance to our sponsors, involve excellent science at the boundaries of traditional fields, utilize unique capabilities at LANL

  20. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  1. Strategic planning for waste management: Characterization of chemically and radioactively hazardous waste and treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for diverse and varied multisite operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about current and projected waste generation as well as available treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) capabilities and needs is crucial for effective, efficient, and safe waste management. This is especially true for large corporations that are responsible for multisite operations involving diverse and complex industrial processes. Such information is necessary not only for day-to-day operations, but also for strategic planning to ensure safe future performance. This paper reports on some methods developed and successfully applied to obtain requisite information and to assist waste management planning at the corporate level in a nationwide system of laboratories and industries. Waste generation and TSD capabilities at selected US Department of Energy (DOE) sites were studied. 1 ref., 2 tabs

  2. Growth, Structural and Optical Characterization of ZnO Nanotubes on Disposable-Flexible Paper Substrates by Low-Temperature Chemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Soomro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes (NTs on paper substrates by low-temperature hydrothermal method. The growth of ZnO NTs on the paper substrate is discussed; further, the structural and optical properties are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and cathodoluminescence (CL, and it was found that the ZnO NTs on paper substrate fulfill the structural and optical properties of ZnO NTs grown on other conventional substrates. This will be more beneficial in future usage of ZnO NTs in different fields and applications. Particularly, this approach opens the ways in research and development for high volume manufacturing of low-cost, flexible optoelectronics devices on disposable paper substrates and can be used in the future miniaturization trends.

  3. Waste package degradation from thermal and chemical processes in performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes modeling of waste container degradation in performance assessments conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As understanding of the Yucca Mountain disposal system increased, modeling of container degradation evolved from a component of the source term in 1984 to a separate module describing both container and drip shield degradation in 2008. A thermal module for evaluating the influence of higher heat loads from more closely packed, large waste packages was also introduced. In addition, a module for evaluating drift chemistry was added in later PAs to evaluate the potential for localized corrosion of the outer barrier of the waste container composed of Alloy 22, a highly corrosion-resistant nickel–chromium–tungsten–molybdenum alloy. The uncertainty of parameters related to container degradation contributed significantly to the estimated uncertainty of performance measures (cumulative release in assessments prior to 1995 and individual dose, thereafter). - Highlights: • Progression of container modeling from an assumption of complete failure before 1993 to a stochastic description after 1995 is described. • Introduction of thermal-hydrologic model to examine interaction between the engineered and natural barrier, and container degradation is described. • The introduction of a water chemistry module to evaluate the possibility of localized corrosion of the container is described. • The addition of seismic damage models to evaluate container damage from drift degradation and container movement is described

  4. A Conceptual Framework for Allocation of Federally Stockpiled Ventilators During Large-Scale Public Health Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaza, Stephanie; Koonin, Lisa M; Ajao, Adebola; Nystrom, Scott V; Branson, Richard; Patel, Anita; Bray, Bruce; Iademarco, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Some types of public health emergencies could result in large numbers of patients with respiratory failure who need mechanical ventilation. Federal public health planning has included needs assessment and stockpiling of ventilators. However, additional federal guidance is needed to assist states in further allocating federally supplied ventilators to individual hospitals to ensure that ventilators are shipped to facilities where they can best be used during an emergency. A major consideration in planning is a hospital's ability to absorb additional ventilators, based on available space and staff expertise. A simple pro rata plan that does not take these factors into account might result in suboptimal use or unused scarce resources. This article proposes a conceptual framework that identifies the steps in planning and an important gap in federal guidance regarding the distribution of stockpiled mechanical ventilators during an emergency. PMID:26828799

  5. High capacity stockpile equipment for a coal power plant in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrae, H.J.; Wolf, G.; Haensig, B.

    1984-11-01

    The design and performance are explained for stacker-reclaimers operating at the 1.3 Mt coal storage facility of the Aghios Dimitrios brown coal power plant. Three Ks-S 5600/5600.48 stacker-reclaimers, built jointly by TAKRAF and BBC, operate in parallel form at this facility serving 4 stockpile lanes. The equipment, with a theoretical stacking capacity of 5600 m/sup 3//h each, is computer controlled. Automated stacking and reclaiming of coal on stockpiles 385 m long and 15 m high is carried out with the Windrow network scheme. Technical specifications, photographs and further features of the equipment are discussed including automation system, frame structure, boom design, belt conveyors and electrical drive. Layout of the storage facility is also shown.

  6. Aspects of employing continuously hauling stockpile equipment predominantly at bulk handling harbors and coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrae, H.J.

    1985-08-01

    Operation and specifications are reviewed for stackers and stacker-reclaimer series produced by TAKRAF in the GDR. The equipment is employed in open air coal and mineral stockpile facilities; its haulage capacity varies between 450 and 12,500 m/sup 3//h. Continuous haulage of bulk is based on belt conveyor systems with belt widths between 0.8 and 2.25 m; stacking booms are up to 40 m long. The combined stacker-reclaimer series operates with a reclaiming bucket wheel of 5600 m/sup 3//h maximum capacity. The performance of stockpile equipment series at large bulk handling harbors and at coal power plant storage yards is discussed.

  7. 20 Years of Success: Science, Technology, and the Nuclear Weapons Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-10-22

    On Oct. 22, 2015, NNSA celebrated the proven success of the Stockpile Stewardship Program at a half-day public event featuring remarks by Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz, Secretary of State John Kerry, and Under Secretary for Nuclear Security and NNSA Administrator Lt. Gen. (retired) Frank G. Klotz. The event also featured remarks by Deputy Secretary of Energy Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall and NNSA Principal Deputy Administrator Madelyn Creedon.

  8. Anthrax vaccine as a component of the strategic national stockpile: a dilemma for Homeland Security

    OpenAIRE

    Rempfer, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    CHDS State/Local The author explains how past problems with the Defense Department anthrax vaccine currently affect Department of Homeland Security and Department of Health and Human Services policy. The departments included the BioThrax® anthrax vaccine in the Strategic National Stockpile following the 2001 anthrax letter attacks. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the vaccine's "failing" status possibly motivated the letter attacks to create demand for the vaccine. This ...

  9. Certainty in Stockpile Computing: Recommending a Verification and Validation Program for Scientific Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.R.

    1998-11-01

    As computing assumes a more central role in managing the nuclear stockpile, the consequences of an erroneous computer simulation could be severe. Computational failures are common in other endeavors and have caused project failures, significant economic loss, and loss of life. This report examines the causes of software failure and proposes steps to mitigate them. A formal verification and validation program for scientific software is recommended and described.

  10. COMPARISON BETWEEN MULTICOPTER UAV AND TOTAL STATION FOR ESTIMATING STOCKPILE VOLUMES

    OpenAIRE

    Arango, C.; Morales, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently the UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) have become an alternative for different engineering applications, especially in surveying, one of these applications is the calculation of volumes of stockpiled material, but there are questions about its accuracy and efficiency, the purpose of this article is to compare traditional surveying methods for estimating total volumes through data obtained by total stations and data obtained by a multicopter UAV. In order to answer these questions we obt...

  11. Dissipation of Three Veterinary Antimicrobials in Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure Stockpiled over Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-05-01

    Dissipation of veterinary antimicrobials is known to occur during aerated windrow composting of beef cattle manure. However, it is unclear if a similar dissipation occurs during stockpiling. Chlortetracycline, tylosin, and sulfamethazine are three of the most commonly used veterinary antimicrobials in beef cattle production in western Canada. Their dissipation in stockpiled manure was investigated over 140 d during winter in Alberta, Canada. Beef cattle housed in pens were administered 44 mg of chlortetracycline kg feed (dry weight), 44 mg of chlortetracycline + 44 mg sulfamethazine kg feed, 11 mg of tylosin kg feed, or feed without antimicrobials (control). Manure samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction, and the extracts were analyzed for chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin by LC-MS-MS. Dissipation of all three antimicrobials in the manure was explained by exponential decay kinetics. Times for 50% dissipation (DT) were 1.8 ± 0.1 d for chlortetracycline alone or 6.0 ± 0.8 d when mixed with sulfamethazine, 20.8 ± 3.8 d for sulfamethazine, and 4.7 ± 1.2 d for tylosin. After 77 d, manure did not inhibit microbial activity, as indicated by temperature and mass losses of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). The C/N ratio in the manure decreased over the stockpiling period, indicating decomposition of manure to a more stable state. Dissipation of excreted residues with DT values 1.8 to 20.8 d showed that stockpiling can be as effective as windrow composting in mitigating the transfer of these three veterinary antimicrobials into the environment during land application of processed manure.

  12. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  13. Evaluation of environmental effect of coal stockpile in Muara Telang, Banyuasin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusdianasari; Arita, Susila; Ibrahim, Eddy; Ngudiantoro

    2013-04-01

    Stockpile commonly serves as a temporary dump before the coal is transported through the waterways. This study investigated the effects of coal stockpiles on the surrounding environment: air, water, and soil. The location of the study is in the estuary of Telang, South-Sumatra, Indonesia, which is located at the edge of the river of Telang and close to the residential community. The monitoring of the environmental impact from the stockpile is intended to conduct an environmental assessment owing the existence and operations of coal accumulation. Enviromental impact analysis was conducted based on the value of the effluent, air pollution (dust), soil and water by determining the parameters of the coal wastewater pH, total suspended solid, ferrous dan ferrous metals contents. The results indicate that the total suspended particulate, total suspended solids, noise level, ferrous metal and manganese metal were 10-14 μg/Nm3 249-355 mg/L, 41.3 to 50.3 dBA, 6.074 to7.579 mg/L, and 1.987 to 2.678 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile the pH of water and soil were 3 to 4 and 2.83 to 4.02 respectively. It is concluded that the pH value are beyond the threshold standard.

  14. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  15. Problems of radioactive waste disposal in cryolithozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the problems of utilizing perennially frozen rocks as host medium for underground disposal of radwaste. Peculiarities of mechanical, thermal and chemical interaction of radwaste with frozen ground are shown. Significant differences in the impact of low-, intermediate- and high-active waste on the geological environment of cryolithozone are established; the differences require a mathematical modeling of thermal interaction of heat emitting radwaste with frozen soils. The investigations show that a long-term reliable disposal of radwaste in the frozen rock formations is feasible and, according to many indicators, is more preferable as compared to the disposal in nonfrozen rock formations. 15 refs., 10 figs

  16. 钚在某处置工程屏障水环境中化学形态及影响因素%Chemical Forms and Influence Factors of Plutonium in Environmental Water of a Disposal Engineering Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马应明; 何艺峰; 李哲; 刘莉; 刘艳; 石建芳

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at backfill structure in the engineering barrier of a certain disposal project,the geochemical modeling software,EQ3/6,was applied to simulate chemical forms of plutonium based on results of barrier samples leaching by the fracture water and chemical analysis of leaching samples.Results showed that the form of plutonium was Pu(OH)5-in Pu(Ⅳ)valence state.Changes of pH and Eh values in environmental water will affect the forms and valence state of plutonium.%针对某放射性废物包装容器回填处置工程屏障结构特征,采用岩体裂隙水浸泡工程屏障样品的方式,在对各平衡水样化学成分分析的基础上,利用地球化学模拟软件EQ3/6对钚在回填工程屏障水环境中的存在化学形态进行了模拟计算,得出钚在回填工程屏障水环境中主要以Pu(Ⅳ)价态Pu(OH)5形式存在,同时水环境中pH值和Eh值的变化皆会影响钚的存在化学形态和价态.

  17. Radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsibilities of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Ministry policy on radioactive waste disposal are described. The disposal of solid radioactive waste at sea is subject to detailed safeguards developed within two international agreements to which the United Kingdom is a contracting party. The agreements are discussed together with a research and monitoring programme to provide scientific data for informed decisions on waste disposal authorisations and dumping licences. (U.K.)

  18. Hedging against antiviral resistance during the next influenza pandemic using small stockpiles of an alternative chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Wu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of single-drug antiviral interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality during the next influenza pandemic will be substantially weakened if transmissible strains emerge which are resistant to the stockpiled antiviral drugs. We developed a mathematical model to test the hypothesis that a small stockpile of a secondary antiviral drug could be used to mitigate the adverse consequences of the emergence of resistant strains. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a multistrain stochastic transmission model of influenza to show that the spread of antiviral resistance can be significantly reduced by deploying a small stockpile (1% population coverage of a secondary drug during the early phase of local epidemics. We considered two strategies for the use of the secondary stockpile: early combination chemotherapy (ECC; individuals are treated with both drugs in combination while both are available; and sequential multidrug chemotherapy (SMC; individuals are treated only with the secondary drug until it is exhausted, then treated with the primary drug. We investigated all potentially important regions of unknown parameter space and found that both ECC and SMC reduced the cumulative attack rate (AR and the resistant attack rate (RAR unless the probability of emergence of resistance to the primary drug p(A was so low (less than 1 in 10,000 that resistance was unlikely to be a problem or so high (more than 1 in 20 that resistance emerged as soon as primary drug monotherapy began. For example, when the basic reproductive number was 1.8 and 40% of symptomatic individuals were treated with antivirals, AR and RAR were 67% and 38% under monotherapy if p(A = 0.01. If the probability of resistance emergence for the secondary drug was also 0.01, then SMC reduced AR and RAR to 57% and 2%. The effectiveness of ECC was similar if combination chemotherapy reduced the probabilities of resistance emergence by at least ten times. We extended our model

  19. 粉煤灰场复垦地肥力状况及对土壤理化性质的影响%Reclaimed Soil Fertility and Its Response to the Physical-Chemical Properties in Fly Ash Disposal Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长垒; 严家平; 陈孝杨

    2013-01-01

    选择安徽省淮南市上窑镇粉煤灰处置场覆土复垦地为研究区域,测定覆土厚度和土壤剖面各层的容重、pH、含水量、有机质等理化性质,土壤总氮、有效磷、速效钾等养分含量,以及冬小麦抽穗期的生物量,研究粉煤灰处置场复垦土壤理化性质及其与土壤养分的相关性,不同覆土厚度复垦地冬小麦生长的差异性.结果表明,粉煤灰场复垦地土壤总氮含量约0.90 g/kg,有效磷和速效钾含量分别为12~76 mg/kg、114~135 mg/kg,土壤肥力与作物生长状况和自然农业土壤相比差异不显著;除复垦土壤厚度、容重、含水量对有效磷含量影响显著外,其余土壤养分与土壤理化性质和表土厚度的相关性不强.%The reclaimed field of fly ash disposal sites was selected as the research area in Shaoyao,Huainan.The cover soil thickness,some soil physico-chemical properties (bulk density,water content,pH and organic matter),soil nutrients (total nitrogen,available phosphorus and available potassium) and winter wheat biomass in heading stage were determined,and the correlation of the reclaimed soil physico-chemical properties and its nutrient was analyzed in fly ash disposal sites.The winter wheat growth differences were also studied under different coversoil thickness conditions.The results showed that the total nitrogen content was about 900 mg/kg in reclaimed soil of fly ash disposal sites,the content of available phosphorus and available potassium was 12~76mg/kg and 114~135 mg/kg respectively.The soil fertility and crop growth conditions were not significant difference with natural agricultural soils.The available phosphorus content and reclaimed soil bulk density,water content had a significant correlation.In addition,the response relationship between the reclaimed soil fertility and its properties,topsoil thickness was not obvious.

  20. Algal biochar enhances the re-vegetation of stockpiled mine soils with native grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Cole, Andrew J; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-09-15

    In most countries the mining industry is required to rehabilitate disturbed land with native vegetation. A typical approach is to stockpile soils during mining and then use this soil to recreate landforms after mining. Soil that has been stockpiled for an extended period typically contains little or no organic matter and nutrient, making soil rehabilitation a slow and difficult process. Here, we take freshwater macroalgae (Oedogonium) cultivated in waste water at a coal-fired power station and use it as a feedstock for the production of biochar, then use this biochar to enhance the rehabilitation of two types of stockpiled soil - a ferrosol and a sodosol - from the adjacent coal mine. While the biomass had relatively high concentrations of some metals, due to its cultivation in waste water, the resulting biochar did not leach metals into the pore water of soil-biochar mixtures. The biochar did, however, contribute essential trace elements (particularly K) to soil pore water. The biochar had very strong positive effects on the establishment and growth of a native plant (Kangaroo grass, Themeda australis) in both of the soils. The addition of the algal biochar to both soils at 10 t ha(-1) reduced the time to germination by the grass and increased the growth and production of plant biomass. Somewhat surprisingly, there was no beneficial effect of a higher application rate (25 t ha(-1)) of the biochar in the ferrosol, which highlights the importance of matching biochar application rates to the requirements of different types of soil. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that algal biochar can be produced from biomass cultivated in waste water and used at low application rates to improve the rehabilitation of a variety of soils typical of coal mines. This novel process links biomass production in waste water to end use of the biomass in land rehabilitation, simultaneously addressing two environmental issues associated with coal-mining and processing. PMID:26172107

  1. Recommendations on chemicals management policy and legislation in the framework of the Egyptian-German twinning project on hazardous substances and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Burkhard O; Aziz, Elham Refaat Abdel; Schwetje, Anja; Shouk, Fatma Abou; Koch-Jugl, Juliane; Braedt, Michael; Choudhury, Keya; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The sustainable management of chemicals and their associated wastes-especially legacy stockpiles-is always challenging. Developing countries face particular difficulties as they often have insufficient treatment and disposal capacity, have limited resources and many lack an appropriate and effective regulatory framework. This paper describes the objectives and the approach of the Egyptian-German Twinning Project under the European Neighbourhood Policy to improve the strategy of managing hazardous substances in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) between November 2008 and May 2011. It also provides an introduction to the Republic of Egypt's legal and administrative system regarding chemical controls. Subsequently, options for a new chemical management strategy consistent with the recommendations of the United Nations Chemicals Conventions are proposed. The Egyptian legal and administrative system is discussed in relation to the United Nations' recommendations and current European Union legislation for the sound management of chemicals. We also discuss a strategy for the EEAA to use the existing Egyptian legal system to implement the United Nations' Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the Stockholm Convention and other proposed regulatory frameworks. The analysis, the results, and the recommendations presented may be useful for other developing countries in a comparable position to Egypt aspiring to update their legislation and administration to the international standards of sound management of chemicals. PMID:23417361

  2. Nuclear stockpile stewardship and Bayesian image analysis (DARHT and the BIE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    Since the end of nuclear testing, the reliability of our nation's nuclear weapon stockpile has been performed using sub-critical hydrodynamic testing. These tests involve some pretty 'extreme' radiography. We will be discussing the challenges and solutions to these problems provided by DARHT (the world's premiere hydrodynamic testing facility) and the BIE or Bayesian Inference Engine (a powerful radiography analysis software tool). We will discuss the application of Bayesian image analysis techniques to this important and difficult problem.

  3. TECHNO – ECONOMIC ACCEPTABILITY ANALISYS OF WASTE DISPOSAL BY INJECTION INTO APPROPRIATE FORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav Brkić; Daria Karasalihović Sedlar

    2013-01-01

    During exploration and production of oil and natural gas, various types of waste must be disposed in a permanent and safe way. There is a range of methods for processing and disposal of waste, such as disposal into landfills, solidification, namely chemical stabilization, thermal processing, appropriate formation injections uncovered by a deep well, disposal into salt domes and bioremediation. The method of waste disposal into appropriate formations is a method where strict geological and tec...

  4. Stockpile, salt dome or both? RWE investigates locations for energy storage; Halde, Salzstock, oder beides? RWE erkundet Standorte fuer Energiespeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschaetsch, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-07-01

    The slag stockpiles of coal mines in the Ruhr region primarily have been used as a local recreation area to date. Even the last pope once has visited a dump in Bottrop (Federal Republic of Germany) and has left a permanent impression. Even skiers throw themselves from one of these stockpiles into the depths for some time. Only now the electricity producer RWE AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) and the mining company RAG AG (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) have used the idea to utilize the difference in height between the summit of the stockpiles and the normal environment energetically. An idea that is now being reviewed extensively by the experts of both companies. If all goes as intended, green power will be generated from the black heritage of Ruhrkohle.

  5. A Evaluation of Models of Particulate Suspension for a Thorium Ore Stockpile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. John, II

    Fifteen mathematical models of particle saltation, suspension, and resuspension were reviewed and categorized. Appropriate models were applied to the estimation of particulate releases from a hypothetical thorium ore storage pile. An assumed location (near Lemhi Pass, Montana) was used to permit the development of site specific information on ore characteristics and environmental influences. The available models were characterized in terms of suitability for representing aspects of the ore pile, such as rough surface features, wide particle size range, and site specific climate. Five models were selected for detailed study. A computer code for each of these is given. Site specific data for the assumed ore stockpile location were prepared. These data were manipulated to provide the input values required for each of the five models. Representative values and ranges for model variables are tabulated. The response of each model to input data for selected variables was determined. Each model was evaluated in terms of the physical realism of its responses and its overall ability to represent the features of an ore stockpile. The two models providing the best representation were a modified version of the dust suspension subroutine TAILPS from the computer code MILDOS, and the dust suspension formulation from the code REDIST. Their responses are physically reasonable, although different from each other for two parameters: ore moisture and surface roughness. With the input values judged most representative of an ore pile near Lemhi Pass, the estimate of the release of suspended particulates is on the order of 1 g/m('2)-yr.

  6. 高放废物处置库雅满苏和天湖地段地下水化学特征%Groundwater Chemical Characteristics in Yamansu and Tianhu Section for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Repository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永海; 李娜娜; 周志超; 董建楠; 季瑞利; 刘淑芬

    2014-01-01

    Yamansu and Tianhu area in Xinjiang is the main preselected section of disposal repository for high level radioactive waste(HLW)in our country.In the siting and site char-acterization study for high level radioactive waste repository,the groundwater chemical char-acteristics are the one of the most important evaluation factors.From 2009 to 2013,the field hydrogeochemical investigation was carried out and more than 30 groundwater samples were collected.According to the measurement data,the paper discussed the groundwater chemical features in Yamansu and Tianhu preselected section for China’s high level radioactive waste repository.The main conclusion is that:the groundwater in the study area is mainly saline water with high dissolved solids,7.69-9.64 pH value,11.8-24.0℃,542.7-413 375.5 mg/L total dissolved solids and Cl · SO4—Na,SO4 · Cl—Na and Cl—Na chemical types.The hydrogeochemical features show that lixiviation and evaporation are the basic pattern forming the groundwater chemistry in the section.%新疆雅满苏和天湖地区是我国高放废物处置库场址的主要预选地段之一。在高放废物处置库选址和评价中,水文地球化学特征是最重要的评价因素之一。在2009—2013年间,开展了雅满苏和天湖地段区域水文地球化学调查,采集地下水样品30余组,根据样品测试结果,讨论了该地区水文地球化学特征,其主要结论是:研究区地下水主要为高矿化的咸水。地下水的 pH=7.69~9.64;水温11.8~24.0℃;地下水矿化度(TDS)在542.7~413375.5 mg/L之间变化,地下水的主要化学类型为Cl·SO4—Na、SO4·Cl—Na和Cl—Na型。控制地下水化学形成的主要作用是溶滤作用和蒸发浓缩作用。

  7. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces biological waste water treatment with basic theory and activated sludge process, which includes chemical reaction engineering with reaction velocity and mass balance, an effector, characteristic of water treatment effector and biological waste water disposal such as flow pattern and tracer test. This is biological theory of steady on waste water treatment, design and management.

  8. Special waste disposal in Austria - cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present situation of special waste disposal in Austria is summarized for radioactive and nonradioactive wastes. A cost benefit analysis for regulary collection, transport and disposal of industrial wastes, especially chemical wastes is given and the cost burden for the industry is calculated. (A.N.)

  9. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids. PMID:27620110

  10. Shallow land disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L'Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Development of the Borehole Disposal Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Energy Corporation of South Africa (Necsa) initiated the Borehole Disposal Concept (BDC) with a view to improving radioactive waste management practices in Africa. An IAEA Technical Cooperation project was launched to investigate the technical feasibility and economic viability of a borehole for the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources. Phase III of the project was completed by the end of 2004, and the main objective of this phase was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the concept by means of a practical demonstration. The disposal concept consists of a 260 mm diameter borehole drilled to a depth of up to 100 m in which stainless steel disposal containers are emplaced and backfilled with cement. Each disposal container contains a source within a stainless steel capsule within a containment barrier. Included in the terms of reference of Phase III were the design and the evaluation of the disposal concept. The evaluation included container materials, backfill materials and a generic post-closure safety assessment. The post-closure safety assessment and the associated derivation of activity limits showed that, through the use of multiple physical and chemical barriers, the BDC provides an appropriate degree of long term safety. Furthermore, the safety of the disposal concept is not reliant on an extended period of institutional control, and owing to its small 'footprint', the likelihood of direct human intrusion into the borehole is small. An international peer review team positively assessed the technical feasibility, economic viability and overall safety of the concept, and thus concluded the development phase of the project. The Member States of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) have decided to proceed to Phase IV of the project with the main aim to implement the borehole disposal technology. (author)

  12. Co-disposal of mixed waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-disposal of process waste streams with hazardous and radioactive materials in landfills results in large, use-efficiencies waste minimization and considerable cost savings. Wasterock, produced from nuclear and chemical process waste streams, is segregated, treated, tested to ensure regulatory compliance, and then is placed in mixed waste landfills, burial trenches, or existing environmental restoration sites. Large geotechnical unit operations are used to pretreat, stabilize, transport, and emplace wasterock into landfill or equivalent subsurface structures. Prototype system components currently are being developed for demonstration of co-disposal

  13. When are stockpiled products consumed faster? A convenience-salience framework of postpurchase consumption incidence and quantity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandon, P.; Wansink, B.

    2002-01-01

    When people stockpile products, how do they decide when and how much they will consume? To answer this question, the authors develop a framework that shows how the salience and convenience of products influence postpurchase consumption incidence and quantity. Multiple research methods¿including scan

  14. Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R; Fried, L; Campbell, G; Saab, A; Kotovsky, J; Carter, C; Chang, J

    2009-10-11

    As the nation's nuclear weapons age and the demands placed on them change, significant challenges face the nuclear stockpile. Risks include material supply issues, ever-increasing lifecycle costs, and loss of technical expertise across the weapons complex. For example, non-nuclear materials are becoming increasingly difficult to replace because manufacturing methods and formulations have evolved in such a way as to render formerly available materials unprofitable, unsafe, or otherwise obsolete. Subtle formulation changes in available materials that occur without the knowledge of the weapons community for proprietary reasons have frequently affected the long-term performance of materials in the nuclear weapon environment. Significant improvements in performance, lifetime, or production cost can be realized with modern synthesis, modeling, and manufacturing methods. For example, there are currently supply and aging issues associated with the insensitive high explosive formulations LX-17 and PBX 9502 that are based on triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and Kel-F, neither of which are commercially available today. Assuring the reliability of the stockpile through surveillance and regularly scheduled Life Extension Programs is an increasingly expensive endeavor. Transforming our current stockpile surveillance--a system based on destructive testing of increasingly valuable assets--to a system based on embedded sensors has a number of potential advantages that include long-term cost savings, reduced risk associated with asset transportation, state-of-health assessments in the field, and active management of the stockpile.

  15. COMPARISON BETWEEN MULTICOPTER UAV AND TOTAL STATION FOR ESTIMATING STOCKPILE VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Arango

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently the UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle have become an alternative for different engineering applications, especially in surveying, one of these applications is the calculation of volumes of stockpiled material, but there are questions about its accuracy and efficiency, the purpose of this article is to compare traditional surveying methods for estimating total volumes through data obtained by total stations and data obtained by a multicopter UAV. In order to answer these questions we obtain data from the same location and the results were compared. After comparing the results it was found that there was a 2,88% difference between the volume calculated with the total station data and the actual volume, and −0,67% difference between the volume calculated with the UAV data and the actual volume, concluding that the estimated volume with UAV data is more accurate.

  16. A Comparison of Distillery Stillage Disposal Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sajbrt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the main stillage disposal methods from the point of view of technology, economics and energetics. Attention is paid to the disposal of both solid and liquid phase. Specifically, the following methods are considered: a livestock feeding, b combustion of granulated stillages, c fertilizer production, d anaerobic digestion with biogas production and e chemical pretreatment and subsequent secondary treatment. Other disposal techniques mentioned in the literature (electrofenton reaction, electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis have not been considered, due to their high costs and technological requirements.Energy and economic calculations were carried out for a planned production of 120 m3 of stillage per day in a given distillery. Only specific treatment operating costs (per 1 m3 of stillage were compared, including operational costs for energy, transport and chemicals. These values were determined for January 31st, 2009. Resulting sequence of cost effectiveness: 1. – chemical pretreatment, 2. – combustion of granulated stillage, 3. – transportation of stillage to a biogas station, 4. – fertilizer production, 5. – livestock feeding. This study found that chemical pretreatment of stillage with secondary treatment (a method developed at the Department of Process Engineering, CTU was more suitable than the other methods. Also, there are some important technical advantages. Using this method, the total operating costs are approximately 1 150 ??/day, i.e. about 9,5 ??/m3 of stillage. The price of chemicals is the most important item in these costs, representing about 85 % of the total operating costs.

  17. Physical and Chemical Characteristics and Disposal Ways of Sorting Waste in Shanghai%上海市分类垃圾理化特性分析及处置方式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾悦; 董晓丹; 夏苏湘; 李晓勇

    2013-01-01

    通过现场采样和室内试验,对上海市生活垃圾分类后干垃圾、湿垃圾的物理组成、含水率、容重、发热量、元素以及生化指标等理化特性进行了分析研究,并在此基础上探讨了分类垃圾的处置方式。结果表明:分类干垃圾有机物减少30%,而潜在可回收废物、易燃物均提高约75%,含水率、容重显著降低,而热值(湿基低位发热量)6881~7279 kJ/kg。适合作焚烧处置,利于处置效果的实现;分类湿垃圾有机物比重80%,含水率为72%,容重达304 kg/m3,热值(湿基低位发热量)低于2500 kJ/kg ,有机质、蛋白质、粗脂肪的含量占其干物质比例,分别为75%、14%、7%,是生化堆肥的良好材料。%This article studies the physical and chemical characteristics of the sorting waste (dry and wet waste)in Shanghai based on field sampling and laboratory testing ,and monitors the indexes including physical composition , moisture ,unit weight , calorific value , elements and biochemical indexes . And then it proposes some relevant treatment measures .The results show that ,for dry sorting waste ,the organic matter decreases by 30% ,while potentially recyclable waste and combustible materials increase about 75% , moisture and unit weight decrease significantly ,and the calorific value (wet low calorific value) is between 6881~7279 kJ/kg ,which is suitable for incineration disposal ;for wet sorting waste ,organic matter is 80% ,moisture is 72% ,unit weight is 304 kg/m3 , calorific value is lower than 2500 kJ/kg ,organic matter ,protein and fat content are respectively 75% ,14% and 7%of dry material proportion ,which is proved to be a good material for biochemical compost .

  18. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Elevated Concentrations of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Unsaturated-Zone Vapors Near a Chemical and Low-Level Radioactivity Waste-Disposal Facility, Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R. J.; Andraski, B. J.; Walvoord, M. A.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Prudic, D. E.; Luo, W.

    2003-12-01

    As part of its Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, the U.S. Geological Survey is studying contaminant-transport processes in an arid environment at the Amargosa Desert Research Site (http://nevada.usgs.gov/adrs/). The site is near waste-disposal facilities 20 kilometers east of Death Valley National Park. Low-level radioactive waste was buried in unlined trenches of varying depth during 1962-92. Hazardous chemical waste was buried in unlined trenches at an adjacent facility during 1970-88. Mean annual precipitation at the site from 1981 to 2000 was 108 millimeters. The unsaturated zone is aerobic down to the water table, which is about 110 m (meters) deep. Sampling infrastructure south and west of the facility includes a grid of vapor probes 1.5 m deep, a 23.8-m-deep background borehole (JFDB), and two approximately 100-m-deep boreholes (UZB-2 and UZB-3), which are 160 m and 100 m from the nearest trench, respectively, and are instrumented for multi-level sampling. Analytes detected in unsaturated-zone-vapor samples include elevated concentrations of tritium and carbon-14; three chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds, eight chlorinated solvent compounds, and toluene, all at concentrations exceeding 1,000 parts per billion (ppb) in UZB-3, and at lower concentrations in UZB-2 and in the shallow-vapor-probe grid; and CO2 in concentrations up to 2% in UZB-3, whereas maximum CO2 concentrations in JFDB are less than 0.2%. With the notable exception of toluene, VOCs that are known to be highly biodegradable are generally absent or occur at low concentrations (1,000 ppb) in UZB-3 are relatively recalcitrant to biodegradation in this environment. 4. The similarity among their vertical and radial concentration profiles indicates that the same vapor-transport phenomena are responsible for the observed elevated levels of CO2, hydrocarbons, and radionuclides. The CO2- and VOC-concentration data will be used to enhance ongoing efforts to develop process-based models of contaminant

  19. Geological disposal concept hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article outlines the progress to date on AECL spent-nuclear fuel geological disposal concept. Hearings for discussion, organised by the federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, of issues related to this type of disposal method occur in three phases, phase I focuses on broad societal issues related to long term management of nuclear fuel waste; phase II will focus on the technical aspects of this method of disposal; and phase III will consist of community visits in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This article provides the events surrounding the first two weeks of phase I hearings (extracted from UNECAN NEWS). In the first week of hearings, where submissions on general societal issues was the focus, there were 50 presentations including those by Natural Resources Canada, Energy Probe, Ontario Hydro, AECL, Canadian Nuclear Society, Aboriginal groups, environmental activist organizations (Northwatch, Saskatchewan Environmental Society, the Inter-Church Uranium Committee, and the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear responsibility). In the second week of hearings there was 33 presentations in which issues related to siting and implementation of a disposal facility was the focus. Phase II hearings dates are June 10-14, 17-21 and 27-28 in Toronto

  20. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  1. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    OpenAIRE

    Meenashisundaram V.; Narayanaswamy R.; Senthilkumar R. D.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  2. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenashisundaram V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  3. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, R. D.; Narayanaswamy, R.; Meenashisundaram, V.

    2012-04-01

    Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  4. Hazardous materials waste disposal. 1977-June, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1977-Jun 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-06-01

    Topics relate to disposal of pesticides, explosives, chemical warfare agents, dangerous industrial chemicals, and other types of hazardous materials. The citations include research on management planning, spills, toxicity, water pollution abatement, and National Disposal Sites. Pollution studies related to disposal in landfills and by incineration are also covered as is deep mine disposal. Radioactive wastes are excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 217 abstracts, 38 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  5. The impact of an automated dose-dispensing scheme on user compliance, medication understanding, and medication stockpiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Bira; Haugbølle, Lotte Stig

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been assumed that a new health technology, automated dose-dispensing (ADD), would result in benefits for medication users, including increased compliance, enhanced medication understanding, and improved safety. However, it was legislators and health professionals who pinpointed...... the more frequent type of behavior. After switching to ADD, most users experienced no change in understanding of their medications. ADD did not lead to automatic removal of old medications in users' homes; in fact for some users, ADD led to even larger medication stockpiles. Overall, reports from patients...... understanding, nor does it automatically eliminate stockpiles of old medication in users' homes. The gap between the perspectives of users and health professionals makes a compelling case for considering users' voices in the development and implementation of future health technologies....

  6. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and disposing of the material according to the manufacturer’s directions. It is critical to store household chemicals in places where children cannot access them. Remember that products such as aerosol cans of hair spray and deodorant, nail polish ...

  7. TRU waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which is located on an arid 10,240 acre site in the remote Los Medanos (the dunes) region of the northern Chihuahuan desert in southeast New Mexico near Carlsbad. The mission of the WIPP is to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste resulting from the nation's defense program activities. Authorized by Congress in 1979 via Public Law 96-164, the WIPP represents a necessary, environmentally responsible, deep geologic disposal option. Initially thought to be subject to regulation under the Atomic Energy Act, further definition of the 1980 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1986 and 1988 has made it clear that this demonstration must also show compliance with RCRA. The majority of retrievable TRU waste proposed and available for eventual disposal at the WIPP also contains hazardous constituents defined by RCRA, with the resultant mixed waste subject to its provisions

  8. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public

  9. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  10. Recycling of plastics from stockpiles performed by means of low-pressure injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gintowt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A viability analysis of manufacturing goods out of plastics, from stockpiles and municipal residues, has been carried out. The analysispertains goods in the form of inserts manufactured in light molds of big-sizes, by means of low-pressure injection. The cost analysis of the investment and manufacturing suggests that those goods are not price-competitive, as compared to other ones used in similar situations. Exploitation analysis proves that the goods, used outdoors are easily damaged on the surface by UV exposure, temperature differences of 24-hour cycle, as well as by water and plants. Re-recycling, and especially, the grinding of the product poses another challenge in the future. An analysis of the environmental impact of energy acquisition during the manufacturing of those goods was also carried out. The analysis also pertains the method of identifying the type of raw-material, in the process of segregation that stems from the necessity of a complex content training of staff running waste segregation posts.

  11. Level Decreasing Kinetics Model of Heavy Metal Contents in the Coal Stockpile Wastewater with Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdianasari Rusdianasari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation is one of methods used to treat wastewater in the coal stockpile without using coagulants. Characteristics of wastewater observed are heavy metals (Fe and Mn and pH.  The decrease in the heavy metals content and the increase in the pH of this wastewater treatment process will then be proposed in the adsorption kinetics model. The influence of  variations in currents and processing time were observed. The time variation of the adsorption process were 60 to 120 minutes with current variations from 1.3 to 3.0 Ampere at a fixed 12 voltages. The results obtained that the Fe content could be decreased to 0.03 ppm at 90 minutes while the content of Mn was decreased to 0.01 ppm at the same time. The increase in pH (7.11 was achieved when applying 2.5 A current at 90 minutes process time. The results obtained from the electrocoagulation method was then proposed in the model of the Langmuir isotherm adsorption kinetics and Freundlich isotherm.

  12. Hydroxocobalamin as a Cyanide Antidote: Empirical use , Safety, Efficacy, and Considerations for Stockpiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyanide is a well-known toxic terrorism agent and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in smoke inhalation victims. Terrorist attacks could start enclosed-space fires with cyanide-poisoned victims, even if cyanide itself was not utilized. Cyanide poisoning cannot be emergent confirmed by laboratory analysis and treatment with safe and efficacious antidotes must be administered empirically. Hydroxocobalamin has been recently approved by the US FDA and is a safe and efficacious antidote. Its efficacy is comparable to that of other, more toxic, cyanide antidotes. Its mechanism of action involves both direct cyanide chelation (forming non-toxic cyanocobalamin which is excreted in the urine) and nitric oxide scavenging. Adverse effects are usually limited to transient dark red-brown discoloration of urine, skin, sclera, and mucous membranes. Antidotal doses have not caused allergic reactions in cyanide-poisoned patients and only minor and easily-treated allergic reactions occurred in 2 of 136 normal volunteers. Transient, asymptomatic hypertension and reflex bradycardia have occurred in some normal volunteers, but not in seriously ill smoke inhalation victims not having significant cyanide poisoning. Hydroxocobalamin is a safe and efficacious antidote and can be empirically administered in pre-hospital or emergency department settings. It is therefore suitable for inclusion in national or multinational medication stockpiles and is already included in some national programs in the European Union.(author)

  13. Verification of Chemical Weapons Destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Weapons Convention is the only multilateral treaty that bans completely an entire category of weapons of mass destruction under international verification arrangements. Possessor States, i.e. those that have chemical weapons stockpiles at the time of becoming party to the CWC, commit to destroying these. All States undertake never to acquire chemical weapons and not to help other States acquire such weapons. The CWC foresees time-bound chemical disarmament. The deadlines for destruction for early entrants to the CWC are provided in the treaty. For late entrants, the Conference of States Parties intervenes to set destruction deadlines. One of the unique features of the CWC is thus the regime for verifying destruction of chemical weapons. But how can you design a system for verification at military sites, while protecting military restricted information? What degree of assurance is considered sufficient in such circumstances? How do you divide the verification costs? How do you deal with production capability and initial declarations of existing stockpiles? The founders of the CWC had to address these and other challenges in designing the treaty. Further refinement of the verification system has followed since the treaty opened for signature in 1993 and since inspection work was initiated following entry-into-force of the treaty in 1997. Most of this work concerns destruction at the two large possessor States, Russia and the United States. Perhaps some of the lessons learned from the OPCW experience may be instructive in a future verification regime for nuclear weapons. (author)

  14. Volume Computation of a Stockpile - a Study Case Comparing GPS and Uav Measurements in AN Open Pit Quarry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeva, P. L.; Filipova, S. L.; Filipov, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    The following paper aims to test and evaluate the accuracy of UAV data for volumetric measurements to the conventional GNSS techniques. For this purpose, an appropriate open pit quarry has been chosen. Two sets of measurements were performed. Firstly, a stockpile was measured by GNSS technologies and later other terrestrial GNSS measurements for modelling the berms of the quarry were taken. Secondly, the area of the whole quarry including the stockpile site was mapped by a UAV flight. Having considered how dynamic our world is, new techniques and methods should be presented in numerous fields. For instance, the management of an open pit quarry requires gaining, processing and storing a large amount of information which is constantly changing with time. Fast and precise acquisition of measurements regarding the process taking place in a quarry is the key to an effective and stable maintenance. In other words, this means getting an objective evaluations of the processes, using up-to-date technologies and reliable accuracy of the results. Often legislations concerning mine engineering state that the volumetric calculations are to present ±3% accuracy of the whole amount. On one hand, extremely precise measurements could be performed by GNSS technologies, however, it could be really time consuming. On the other hand, UAV photogrammetry presents a fast, accurate method for mapping large areas and calculating stockpiles volumes. The study case was performed as a part of a master thesis.

  15. Electrochemical Disposal of Hydrazines in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseong; Gonzalez-Mar, Anuncia; Salinas, Carlos; Rutherford, Larris; Jeng, King-Tsai; Andrews, Craig; Yalamanchili, Ratlaya

    2007-01-01

    An electrochemical method of disposal of hydrazines dissolved in water has been devised. The method is applicable to hydrazine (N2H4), to monomethyl hydrazine [also denoted by MMH or by its chemical formula, (CH3)HNNH2], and to unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine [also denoted UDMH or by its chemical formula, (CH3)2NNH2]. The method involves a room-temperature process that converts the hydrazine to the harmless products N2, H2O, and, in some cases, CO2

  16. High level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    PUSCH, R; NAKANO, M

    2011-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW.The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly des

  17. Records of wells and chemical analyses of water from wells for the period June 13, 1984 to December 4, 1986 at the Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyverse, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Lithologic data are presented for 113 wells drilled at the Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Site for the period June 13, 1984 to December 4, 1986. Water levels, tritium concentrations, and specific conductance are also presented for wells yielding sufficient water for measuring and sampling. At least one sample was collected from most wells for the determination of gross alpha and beta activity. These activities and the results for gamma emitting radionuclides (Cobalt 60 and Cesium 137) are also presented. (USGS)

  18. Methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions from pigs housed on litter and from stockpiling of spent litter

    KAUST Repository

    Phillips, F. A.

    2016-05-05

    Mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions is a target area for the Australian Government and the pork industry. The present study measured methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) from a deep-litter piggery and litter stockpile over two trials in southern New South Wales, to compare emissions from housing pigs on deep litter with those of pigs from conventional housing with uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment ponds. Emissions were measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, in conjunction with a backward Lagrangian stochastic model. Manure excretion was determined by mass balance and emission factors (EFs) were developed to report emissions relative to volatile solids and nitrogen (N) input. Nitrous oxide emissions per animal unit (1 AU ≤ 500 kg liveweight) from deep-litter sheds were negligible in winter, and 8.4 g/AU.day in summer. Ammonia emissions were 39.1 in winter and 52.2 g/AU.day in summer, while CH4 emissions were 16.1 and 21.6 g/AU.day in winter and summer respectively. Emission factors averaged from summer and winter emissions showed a CH4 conversion factor of 3.6%, an NH3-N EF of 10% and a N2O-N EF of 0.01 kg N2O-N/kg N excreted. For the litter stockpile, the simple average of summer and winter showed an EF for NH3-N of 14%, and a N2O-N EF of 0.02 kg N2O-N/kg-N of spent litter added to the stockpile. We observed a 66% and 80% decrease in emissions from the manure excreted in litter-based housing with litter stockpiling or without litter stockpiling, compared with conventional housing with an uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment pond. This provides a sound basis for mitigation strategies that utilise litter-based housing as an alternative to conventional housing with uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment ponds. © CSIRO 2016.

  19. 77 FR 42271 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Comments on the Potential Market Impact of Proposed Supplement to the Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Materials... approved for disposal by Congress. The Committee is seeking public comments on the potential market impact... information on the potential market impact of the quantities associated with the two material research...

  20. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  1. HLW Disposal System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  2. HLW Disposal System Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm3. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability of HLW management

  3. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current disposal concept for radioactive waste in the FRG was discussed in the framework of this seminar. In addition to this concept for the treatment of radioactive waste also the volume of this waste is indicated. The present state of the two repositories 'Konrad' and 'Gorleben' is explained, as well as the requirements on waste packages for transportation, intermediate and ultimate storage. The final part discusses the conditioning of this radioactive waste and the control of the barrels as regards the observance of the requirements. (orig.)

  4. Low level radioactive waste disposal in the absence of a disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a six-step strategy to dispose of the large quantity and diverse waste types produced at Port Hope uranium conversion facility. The strategy provides a logical step-by-step process to first characterize a waste, then identify and access feasible options and select a preferred disposal or recycle route. Regulatory and financial approvals are obtained and, finally, implementation of the preferred route takes place. A total of 29 waste types have been identified at the facility. By employing the waste disposal strategy, some 16 wastes are now disposed of or routinely recycled. This represents about 3000 tons of waste material annually. The waste disposal strategy is currently being applied to another ten of the wastes: oils, non-usable drums, scrap metal, zirconium tetrafluoride (ZrF4), PCB liquids, PCB solids, magnesium fluoride, miscellaneous chemicals, waste solvents and calcium fluoride. The strategy is described for three of these: non-usable drums, scrap metal and ZrF4

  5. ACAM2000™: The new smallpox vaccine for United States Strategic National Stockpile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Nalca

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aysegul Nalca, Elizabeth E ZumbrunCenter for Aerobiological Sciences, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID, Fort Detrick, MD, USAAbstract: Smallpox was eradicated more than 30 years ago, but heightened concerns over bioterrorism have brought smallpox and smallpox vaccination back to the forefront. The previously licensed smallpox vaccine in the United States, Dryvax® (Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., was highly effective, but the supply was insufficient to vaccinate the entire current US population. Additionally, Dryvax® had a questionable safety profile since it consisted of a pool of vaccinia virus strains with varying degrees of virulence, and was grown on the skin of calves, an outdated technique that poses an unnecessary risk of contamination. The US government has therefore recently supported development of an improved live vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine. This initiative has resulted in the development of ACAM2000™ (Acambis, Inc.™, a single plaque-purified vaccinia virus derivative of Dryvax®, aseptically propagated in cell culture. Preclinical and clinical trials reported in 2008 demonstrated that ACAM2000™ has comparable immunogenicity to that of Dryvax®, and causes a similar frequency of adverse events. Furthermore, like Dryvax®, ACAM2000™ vaccination has been shown by careful cardiac screening to result in an unexpectedly high rate of myocarditis and pericarditis. ACAM2000™ received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval in August 2007, and replaced Dryvax® for all smallpox vaccinations in February 2008. Currently, over 200 million doses of ACAM2000™ have been produced for the US Strategic National Stockpile. This review of ACAM2000™ addresses the production, characterization, clinical trials, and adverse events associated with this new smallpox vaccine.Keywords: smallpox, vaccinia, variola, vaccine, efficacy, safety

  6. Building the strategic national stockpile through the NIAID Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Carmen I; Cassatt, David R; Dicarlo, Andrea L; Macchiarini, Francesca; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Norman, Mai-Kim; Maidment, Bert W

    2014-02-01

    The possibility of a public health radiological or nuclear emergency in the United States remains a concern. Media attention focused on lost radioactive sources and international nuclear threats, as well as the potential for accidents in nuclear power facilities (e.g., Windscale, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) highlight the need to address this critical national security issue. To date, no drugs have been licensed to mitigate/treat the acute and long-term radiation injuries that would result in the event of large-scale, radiation, or nuclear public health emergency. However, recent evaluation of several candidate radiation medical countermeasures (MCMs) has provided initial proof-of-concept of efficacy. The goal of the Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program (RNCP) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health) is to help ensure the government stockpiling of safe and efficacious MCMs to treat radiation injuries, including, but not limited to, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cutaneous, renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. In addition to supporting research in these areas, the RNCP continues to fund research and development of decorporation agents targeting internal radionuclide contamination, and biodosimetry platforms (e.g., biomarkers and devices) to assess the levels of an individual's radiation exposure, capabilities that would be critical in a mass casualty scenario. New areas of research within the program include a focus on special populations, especially pediatric and geriatric civilians, as well as combination studies, in which drugs are tested within the context of expected medical care management (e.g., antibiotics and growth factors). Moving forward, challenges facing the RNCP, as well as the entire radiation research field, include further advancement and qualification of animal models, dose conversion from animal models to humans, biomarker identification, and

  7. Geoenvironment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the activities planned by UNESCO in its Water and Earth Science programme, an interdisciplinary meeting on geology and environment was scheduled by this organization to be held by the beginning of 1983. At this meeting it was intended to consider geological processes in the light of their interaction and influence on the environment with special emphasis on the impact of various means of waste disposal on geological environment and on man-induced changes in the geological environment by mining, human settlements, etc. Considering the increasing interest shown by the IAEA in the field, through environmental studies, site studies, and impact studies for nuclear facilities and particularly nuclear waste disposal, UNESCO expressed the wish to organize the meeting jointly so as to take into account the experience gained by the Agency, and in order to avoid any duplication in the activities of the two organizations. This request was agreed to by the IAEA Secretariat and as a result, the meeting was organized by both organizations and held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 21-23 March 1983. The report of this meeting is herewith presented

  8. Canada's disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept for the safe and permanent disposal of nuclear fuel wastes from Canada's CANDU reactors has been developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL). The waste would be placed in an engineered disposal vault 500 to 1000 m below the surface in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The multiple barriers to retain the waste and retard the release of radioactivity would be the waste form, the containers, buffer and backfill, and the rock overlying the vault. Numerous research programmes have been carried out to develop the technology for the concept. These include work on materials corrosion and failure mechanisms to assess the performance of the used fuel containers. Predictive modelling has shown that more than 97% of ASTM Grade 2 titanium containers will retain their integrity, even under pessimistic assumptions, for 1200-6000 years after emplacement, and even longer times may be achieved with other grades of titanium or copper. Other research has been aimed at vault sealing, at site characterization for an underground research laboratory and at the development of a methodology for assessing radiological and environmental effects after closure of the facility. A review of the safety and environmental impacts of the concept is now being carried out by an independent panel appointed by the government. (2 figures, 3 references) (UK)

  9. ARTIST process. A novel chemical process for treatment of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachimori, Shoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-10-01

    A new chemical process, ARTIST process, is proposed for the treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The main concept of the ARTIST process is to recover and stock all actinides (Ans) as two groups, uranium (U) and a mixture of transuranics (TRU), to preserve their resource value and to dispose solely fission products (FPs). The process is composed of two main steps, an U exclusive isolation and a total recovery of TRU; which copes with the nuclear non-proliferation measures, and additionally of Pu separation process and soft N-donor process if requested, and optionally of processes for separation of long-lived FPs. These An products: U-product and TRU-product, are to be solidified by calcination and allowed to the interim stockpile for future utilization. These separations are achieved by use of amidic extractants in accord with the CHON principle. The technical feasibility of the ARTIST process was explained by the performance of both the branched alkyl monoamides in extracting U and suppressing the extraction of tetravalent Ans due to the steric effect and the diglycolic amide (TODGA) in thorough extraction of all TRU by tridentate fashion. When these TRU are requested to put into reactors, LWR or FBR, for power generation or the Accelerator - Driven System (ADS) for transmutation, Pu (Np) or Am-Cm (Np) are to be extracted from the TRU-product. (author)

  10. EFFECTS OF SLASH DISPOSAL METHODS ON THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL ON THE HARVESTED SITES IN NORTHEAST CHINA%森林采伐迹地清理方式对迹地土壤理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立海

    2002-01-01

    采伐剩余物迹地清理是森林作业的重要组成部分之一.本文通过在黑龙江省带岭林业局野外迹地取样和实验室分析,对森林采伐剩余物迹地清理方式对迹地土壤的影响进行了初步研究.结果表明,迹地清理方式对作业迹地土壤理化特性产生一定程度的影响,进而影响森林采伐后的迹地天然更新与苗木生长质量.研究结果还表明,火烧和堆积方法对迹地土壤物理特性影响不十分显著,但对土壤的化学特性影响十分显著,尤其是火烧迹地土壤养分流失程度差异比较显著.%Forest harvesting slash disposal is one of the important parts of forest operations. A field survey for investigating slash disposal was carried out in a forest sector in Heilongjiang Province, northeast China. Through the research, it is explicit that slash disposal has also affected on the physical and chemical properties of soil on the harvested sites. The presented results of this study show that both of piling method and burning method do not affect the physical properties of soil very much, but impact the chemical properties of soil quite significantly, and the burning method may cause soil erosion if handling poorly.

  11. Application of Generic Disposal System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2015 (FY2015) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code (Hammond et al., 2011) and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code (Adams et al., 2013). Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through the engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to a well location in an overlying or underlying aquifer. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  12. Bioactive contaminants leach from disposable laboratory plasticware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, G Reid; Hudson, Alan L; Dunn, Susan M J; You, Haitao; Baker, Glen B; Whittal, Randy M; Martin, Jonathan W; Jha, Amitabh; Edmondson, Dale E; Holt, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    Disposable plasticware such as test tubes, pipette tips, and multiwell assay or culture plates are used routinely in most biological research laboratories. Manufacturing of plastics requires the inclusion of numerous chemicals to enhance stability, durability, and performance. Some lubricating (slip) agents, exemplified by oleamide, also occur endogenously in humans and are biologically active, and cationic biocides are included to prevent bacterial colonization of the plastic surface. We demonstrate that these manufacturing agents leach from laboratory plasticware into a standard aqueous buffer, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methanol and can have profound effects on proteins and thus on results from bioassays of protein function. These findings have far-reaching implications for the use of disposable plasticware in biological research. PMID:18988846

  13. Disposal in continental geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste retrievability is the factor used to distinguish between waste storage and waste disposal alternatives. Disposal options assume no assured ability to retrieve wastes, while storage alternatives are predicted on a design allowing waste recovery for a specified period of time. The waste form, the emplacement method, and the time elapsed since emplacement are three factors that influence the degree of retrievability from a storage or disposal alternative. An overview of these and other factors and how they apply to various waste management storage and disposal alternatives is presented. The advantages, disadvantages and technical uncertainties associated with geologic waste disposal in very deep holes (greater than 10 km) are summarized. Deep well injection and hydrofracture disposal of selected liquid wastes are briefly reviewed. The geologic requirements for deep well injection and its applicability to tritiated water disposal are discussed. Hydrofracture has been used to dispose of intermediate level liquid wastes at ORNL, and the results to date of this disposal operation are presented. Three emplacement methods for radioactive waste storage and disposal on, in, or under ice sheets are described. Recent international comments on ice sheet disposal, reflecting concern about the lack of knowledge and predictability of long-term ice sheet stability, are presented. Four melting disposal alternatives are described. These techniques all use the thermal power density of high-level waste to bring the surrounding medium to its melting temperature range. The techniques primarily differ in emplacement geometry and the time to first melt and to final resolidification. The similarities and differences of these techniques are discussed

  14. The deep geological disposal concept as developed by ANDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    be deposited into transport casks in order to ensure the radiological protection of the staff, and finally laid down one behind the other in tunnel-like disposal cells. Before being transferred to underground installations, intermediate-level long-lived (IL/LL) waste packages will be deposited in concrete containers, which in turn will be inserted into transport casks. In the repository, they will be juxtaposed and stacked in dedicated disposal cells. The geological repository for HL and IL/LL waste, otherwise known as the Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal (Centre industriel de stockage geologique - Cigeo) will include surface installations for controlling and conditioning waste packages, as well as underground installations for waste disposal purposes and connecting infrastructures between surface and underground. Surface installations will be spread over two sites. The first site, with a footprint of the order of 20 ha, will be located directly above the underground installations. It will include the required industrial workshops for the construction of the repository, administrative buildings and a specific stockpile area for the muck removed during the gradual excavation of the facility. A second site, located a few kilometres away with a footprint of 100 extra hectares, will include mostly the nuclear installations where radioactive waste packages will be controlled and conditioned in containers, if required, before being transferred to the underground installations. The second site will also integrate a specific stockpile area for the muck resulting from the opening of the incline. Connecting infrastructures will ensure transfers between surface and underground installations, notably for conveying staff, transferring disposal containers and work site machinery, as well as ventilating underground installations. Underground installations will be progressively added as the operation progresses until they reach a total maximum area of about 15 km2, after

  15. Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of evaluating annual individual doses from a potential repository disposing of radioactive wastes from the operation of the prospective advanced nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Korea, the new safety assessment approaches are developed such as PID methods. The existing KAERI FEP list was reviewed. Based on these new reference and alternative scenarios are developed along with a new code based on the Goldsim. The code based on the compartment theory can be applied to assess both normal and what if scenarios. In addition detailed studies on THRC coupling is studied. The oriental biosphere study ends with great success over the completion of code V and V with JAEA. The further development of quality assurance, in the form of the CYPRUS+ enables handy use of it for information management

  16. Physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Man [State Key Lab of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Environmental Science Research Institute, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yuan, Songhu, E-mail: yuansonghu622@hotmail.com [State Key Lab of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCB contamination is still a serious environmental problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perspectives for most remediation technologies are proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pilot and large scale remediation and disposal are presented. - Abstract: Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is one of the 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in 'Stockholm Convention'. It is hydrophobic, toxic and persistent in the environment. Due to extensive use in the past, HCB contamination is still a serious environmental problem. Strong adsorption on solid particles makes the remediation difficult. This paper presents an overview of the physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal. The adsorption/desorption behavior of HCB is firstly described because it comprises the fundamental for most remediation technologies. Physiochemical technologies concerned mostly for HCB remediation and disposal, i.e., chemical enhanced washing, electrokinetic remediation, reductive dechlorination and thermal decomposition, are reviewed in terms of fundamentals, state of the art and perspectives. The other physiochemical technologies including chemical oxidation, radiation induced catalytic dechlorination, ultrasonic assisted treatment and mechanochemical dechlorination are also reviewed. The pilot and large scale tests on HCB remediation or disposal are summarized in the end. This review aims to provide useful information to researchers and practitioners regarding HCB remediation and disposal.

  17. Developments in management and technology of waste reduction and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushbrook, Philip

    2006-09-01

    Scandals and public dangers from the mismanagement and poor disposal of hazardous wastes during the 1960s and 1970s awakened the modern-day environmental movement. Influential publications such as "Silent Spring" and high-profile disposal failures, for example, Love Canal and Lekkerkerk, focused attention on the use of chemicals in everyday life and the potential dangers from inappropriate disposal. This attention has not abated and developments, invariably increasing expectations and tightening requirements, continue to be implemented. Waste, as a surrogate for environmental improvement, is a topic where elected representatives and administrations continually want to do more. This article will chart the recent changes in hazardous waste management emanating from the European Union legislation, now being implemented in Member States across the continent. These developments widen the range of discarded materials regarded as "hazardous," prohibit the use of specific chemicals, prohibit the use of waste management options, shift the emphasis from risk-based treatment and disposal to inclusive lists, and incorporate waste producers into more stringent regulatory regimes. The impact of the changes is also intended to provide renewed impetus for waste reduction. Under an environmental control system where only certainty is tolerated, the opportunities for innovation within the industry and the waste treatment and disposal sector will be explored. A challenging analysis will be offered on the impact of this regulation-led approach to the nature and sustainability of hazardous waste treatment and disposal in the future.

  18. Engineering analysis for disposal of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and evaluates options for disposing of depleted uranium in the chemical form of uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). Two depleted uranium inventories are considered. One results from the original U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) inventory of 560,000 metric tons (te) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6); the other inventory is the original DOE inventory augmented by 145,000 te of depleted UF6 from the United States Enrichment Corporation. Preconceptual designs are included for three disposal options: disposal in a vault, disposal in an engineered trench, and disposal in a deep mine cavity. The disposal container is taken to be either a 30-gallon drum or a 55-gallon drum. Descriptions of the facilities associated with the three disposal options are provided. Staffing estimates for the construction and operation of the facilities are also provided. Wastes and emissions from the facilities during construction, operation, and maintenance have been estimated. Parametric studies have also been performed on the basis of 25% and 50% of the original inventory

  19. Suppression of power-coal dust at an open stockpile of the Neryugrinsk surface mine using artificial snow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uskov, V.I.; Safonov, M.V.; Kupin, A.N.; Kruglova, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses complex dust suppression scheme at the open coal stockpile of the Neryungrinsk surface mine (winter temperature -50 C and lower) based on application of artificial snow and removal of dusty air for subsequent purification. The system consists of eight ejectors mounted at the top of the discharge structure with diffusers inclined at 60-80 degrees. Water consumption through type GEhF-200 hydroejector and type FKEh sprinkler is equal to 30-50 l/min at 10-20 MPa. Description of the equipment and mode of operation is given. States that up to 60% efficiency in dust suppression can be achieved. 5 refs.

  20. Grouting as a waste immobilization/disposal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many options are available today for the immobilization and disposal of wastes that contain environmentally harmful materials. The option chosen depends upon the type of waste, regulatory requirements, and economics of process. Some options are specific to a given waste type; others are more versatile. This presentation discusses a very versatile option for waste immobilization/disposal, i.e. grouting. Many types of grout are available, such as chemical, clays or other particulates, fly ash, cements, or a combination of these. Within the limited allowable time, this presentation discusses the application of a variety of cement-based grouting techniques available for disposal of environmentally harmful materials. Areas discussed are in situ grouting of pits, ponds and lagoons, grouting as remedial action, and fixation for disposal in burial trenches or vaults

  1. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  2. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met

  3. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  4. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  5. Basic research needs for management and disposal of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Research. It identifies and describes 87 basic research needs in support of advanced technology for management and disposal of Department of Energy radioactive, hazardous chemical, and mixed wastes. A team of scientists and engineers from several DOE laboratories and sites, from academia, and from industry identified and described the basic research needs called out in this report. Special efforts were made to ensure that basic research needs related to management and disposal of any hazardous chemical wastes generated at nonnuclear DOE sites and facilities were properly identified. It is hoped that scientists in both DOE and nongovernment laboratories and institutions will find this document useful when formulating research efforts relevant to waste management and disposal. For management and disposal of DOE radioactive and mixed wastes, basic research needs are identified in nine separate action areas. Basic research needs for management and disposal of DOE hazardous chemical wastes are identified in five action areas. Sufficient description and background information are provided in the report for each particular research need to enable qualified and imaginative scientists to conceive research efforts and programs that will meet the need. 28 refs., 7 tabs

  6. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  7. Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed NRC guidelines for the disposal of waste with the radionuclide content of SRP salt would permit shallow land burial. Federal and state rules require that potentially hazardous chemical wastes (mainly nitrate-nitrite salts in the saltcrete) be contained to the degree necessary to meet drinking water standards in the ground water beneath the landfill boundary. This paper describes the proposed saltcrete landfill and tests under way to ensure that the landfill meet these criteria. The work includes laboratory and field tests of the saltcrete itself, a field test of a one-tenth linear scale model of the entire landfill system, and a numerical model of the system

  8. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-05-27

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and

  9. Preparations for Mixed Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is preparing for the receipt and disposal of low-level mixed waste (MV) generated within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The NTS maintains and develops disposal locations to accommodate various waste forms, and is engaged in developing verification and handling processes to ensure proper acceptance and disposal. Operations at the RWMC are focused on ensuring future disposal needs can be accommodated with a maximum benefit to risk ratio. This paper addresses the programmatic developments implemented at the NTS to accommodate the receipt, verification, and disposal of MW. The Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP) has incorporated aspects of the Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) into the Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The verification program includes statistical sampling components that take into account waste form, program reliability, and other factors. The WAP allows for a conglomerate of verification techniques including visual examination, non-destructive examination, and chemical screening ensuring compliance with the NTSWAC. The WAP also provides for the acceptance of MW with most U.S. Environmental Protection Agency waste codes. The MW sent to the NTS for disposal must meet Land-Disposal Restriction standards. To support the verification processes outlined in the WAP, a Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) facility was constructed. Using a 450 keV, 5-mA tube-head system with a bridge and manipulator assembly, MW packages can undergo non-destructive examination (x-ray) at the RWMC. Prior to the NTS accepting the waste shipment, standard waste boxes, drums, and nominally sized bulk items can be manipulated on a cart and examined directly or skewed in real-time to ensure compliance with NTSWAC requirement s An existing MW disposal cell at the RWMC has been tailored to meet the requirements of a Category 2 non-reactor Nuclear Facility. In retrofitting an existing

  10. Chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 07 September 1982 - 30 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8300075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from September 7,...

  11. Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 22 September 1978 - 22 January 1979 (NODC Accession 7900212)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from September...

  12. Chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 17 February 1981 - 27 May 1982 (NODC Accession 8200183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from February 17,...

  13. Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 24 January 1980 - 22 June 1981 (NODC Accession 8100704)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  14. Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 21 November 1977 to 09 September 1981 (NODC Accession 8200008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  15. Chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 17 April 1980 - 17 July 1981 (NODC Accession 8100731)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  16. Current direction, benthic organisms, zooplankton, chemical, toxis substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 24 March 1981 - 19 February 1982 (NODC Accession 8200129)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, zooplankton, chemical, toxic substances, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments...

  17. Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 02 June 1978 - 02 June 1979 (NODC Accession 8000002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from June 2,...

  18. Chemical, benthic organisms, zooplankton, marine toxic substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 30 August 1979 - 21 September 1981 (NODC Accession 8200012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, marine toxic substances, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf...

  19. Current direction, chemical, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 13 December 1980 - 01 March 1982 (NODC Accession 8200097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from December 13, 1980 to...

  20. Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 15 September 1977 - 27 May 1981 (NODC Accession 8100657)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  1. Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 14 October 1977 - 24 August 1979 (NODC Accession 7900335)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and wind direction data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  2. Chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 12 February 1981 - 05 January 1982 (NODC Accession 8200064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, phytoplankton, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  3. Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 21 January 1981 - 27 July 1982 (NODC Accession 8200207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  4. Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 19 February 1982 - 23 March 1983 (NODC Accession 8300099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  5. Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 10 March 1980 - 29 July 1981 (NODC Accession 8100727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  6. Chemical data from moored current meter, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 23 June 1978 - 30 June 1978 (NODC Accession 7900006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical data were collected using moored current meter, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from June 18, 1978 to June 24, 1981. Data were...

  7. Current direction, chemical, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 09 September 1978 - 19 November 1979 (NODC Accession 8000043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and chemical data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  8. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  9. Engineered barrier durability: An issue for disposal near populated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the current national policy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States of America, each State is required to provide disposal capacity for the LLW generated within its borders. The formation of ''Compacts'' of several States is allowed if approved by Congress. Such forced regionalization of disposal facilities based on State boundaries results in some disposal facilities being sited near populated areas at locations with less than optimum site characteristics from a disposal standpoint. To compensate for this engineered barriers are included in the proposed designs. Portland cement based concrete (PCC), which is the dominant material for disposal vault designs, is degraded via many mechanisms, most of which are related to its permeability. The numerous uncertainties associated with the long-term performance of PCC has lead to many unsuccessful attempts to obtain public acceptance of proposed disposal facilities. These unsuccessful efforts have delayed establishing disposal capacity to the point that a crisis is looming on the horizon. This paper investigates the results of on-going research into the viability of commercially available, impermeable, mass-poured construction materials as an alternative to PCC in LLW disposal vaults. The results from testing and research on two such materials, concrete made from sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and ICOM (an epoxy based concrete) are reported. Material properties and test results include strength parameters, chemical resistance, porosity, permeability, deconability, radiation damage resistance, and biodegradation. The data indicates that with these alternative materials the uncertainties in predicting service life of an engineered barrier can be reduced

  10. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2002-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  11. Geological disposal system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected

  12. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  13. U.S. assistance in the destruction of Russia's chemical weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Mostoller, Eric Charles

    2000-01-01

    The thesis examines the present status of Russia's chemical weapons destruction program, which is to be implemented according to the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It assesses the magnitude of the challenges in destroying the world's largest chemical weapons stockpile, which is located at seven sites in western Russia. It also evaluates the environmental and international security concerns posed by the conditions at these sites and the disastrous implications of a failure of this che...

  14. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in surface soil of coal stockpile sites in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizwar, Andy; Priatmadi, Bambang Joko; Abdi, Chairul; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations, spatial distribution, and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in surface soils of three different coal stockpile, agricultural, and residential sites in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Total PAHs concentration ranged from 4.69 to 22.67 mg kg(-1)-dw. PAHs concentrations in soil of coal stockpile sites were higher than those in agricultural and residential soil. A complex of petrogenic origin and pyrolytic sources was found within the study area, as suggested by the isomeric ratios of PAHs. The results of principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions (PCA/MLR) showed that three sources contributed to the PAHs in the study area, including biomass and coal combustion (48.46%), raw coal (35.49%), and vehicular emission (16.05%). The high value of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (B[a]Peq) suggests that local residents are exposed to a high carcinogenic potential.

  15. Status report on the disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culler, F.L. Jr.; McLain, S. (comps.)

    1957-06-25

    A comprehensive survey of waste disposal techniques, requirements, costs, hazards, and long-range considerations is presented. The nature of high level wastes from reactors and chemical processes, in the form of fission product gases, waste solutions, solid wastes, and particulate solids in gas phase, is described. Growth predictions for nuclear reactor capacity and the associated fission product and transplutonic waste problem are made and discussed on the basis of present knowledge. Biological hazards from accumulated wastes and potential hazards from reactor accidents, ore and feed material processing, chemical reprocessing plants, and handling of fissionable and fertile material after irradiation and decontamination are surveyed. The waste transportation problem is considered from the standpoints of magnitude of the problem, present regulations, costs, and cooling periods. The possibilities for ultimate waste management and/or disposal are reviewed and discussed. The costs of disposal, evaporation, storage tanks, and drum-drying are considered.

  16. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... could erode or inundate waste disposal units. (7) The disposal site must provide sufficient depth to the... fluctuation of the water table. (8) The hydrogeologic unit used for disposal shall not discharge ground water... DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.50 Disposal......

  17. Disposable diapers: a hygienic alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Maithili; Malkani, Ram

    2003-11-01

    The use of disposable diapers has offered improved health care benefits. Urine and fecal matter leakage from the cloth nappies and the hand-to-mouth behavior in infants leads to many illnesses with a feco-oral mode of transmission. Also, the tender skin of the infant is more prone to nappy rash. The modern age disposable diapers, when compared to cloth nappy, have displayed a superior ability in containment of urine and feces, thereby reducing contamination and transmission of infection. Also disposable diapers contain Super Absorbent Material (SAM) that successfully reduces the incidence of nappy rash. PMID:14703226

  18. Avaliação das técnicas de precipitação química e encapsulamento no tratamento e destinação conjunta de resíduos líquidos contendo cromo e vidrarias de laboratório Evaluation of chemical precipitation and encapsulation techniques in the treatment and joint disposal of liquid wastes containing chromium and laboratory glassware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Graciela Giovannini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present procedures for the treatment and final disposal of residual solutions containing chromium, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical precipitation of the metal and the potential of the glass encapsulation technique, using broken laboratory glassware. The results demonstrated that pH-values convenient for chemical precipitation are between 10 - 11. With regard to Cr(OH3 encapsulation, the leaching and solubilization tests allowed to classify the waste as non-dangerous and non-inert. Finally, it is pointed out that the adoption of waste management practices in universities should be encouraged, helping to train professionals skilled in good laboratory practices.

  19. Coffee Stirrers and Drinking Straws as Disposable Spatulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turano, Morgan A.; Lobuono, Cinzia; Kirschenbaum, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Although metal spatulas are damaged through everyday use and become discolored and corroded by chemical exposure, plastic drinking straws are inexpensive, sterile, and disposable, reducing the risk of cross-contamination during laboratory procedures. Drinking straws are also useful because they come in a variety of sizes; narrow sample containers…

  20. 78 FR 8194 - Exemption of Material for Proposed Disposal Procedures for the Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Unit 1 at the HDP is Alternative 4: Removal, Treatment of Volatile Organic ] Compound Waste, and Off-site Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) and Non-Hazardous Treatment Residues. The no-action... chemically hazardous waste. This is the same facility that was evaluated as an alternative disposal site...

  1. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  2. Monitoring methods for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.B.; Barnard, J.W.; Bird, G.A. [and others

    1997-11-01

    This report examines a variety of monitoring activities that would likely be involved in a nuclear fuel waste disposal project, during the various stages of its implementation. These activities would include geosphere, environmental, vault performance, radiological, safeguards, security and community socioeconomic and health monitoring. Geosphere monitoring would begin in the siting stage and would continue at least until the closure stage. It would include monitoring of regional and local seismic activity, and monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater in rock and overburden around and in the vault. Environmental monitoring would also begin in the siting stage, focusing initially on baseline studies of plants, animals, soil and meteorology, and later concentrating on monitoring for changes from these benchmarks in subsequent stages. Sampling designs would be developed to detect changes in levels of contaminants in biota, water and air, soil and sediments at and around the disposal facility. Vault performance monitoring would include monitoring of stress and deformation in the rock hosting the disposal vault, with particular emphasis on fracture propagation and dilation in the zone of damaged rock surrounding excavations. A vault component test area would allow long-term observation of containers in an environment similar to the working vault, providing information on container corrosion mechanisms and rates, and the physical, chemical and thermal performance of the surrounding sealing materials and rock. During the operation stage, radiological monitoring would focus on protecting workers from radiation fields and loose contamination, which could be inhaled or ingested. Operational zones would be established to delineate specific hazards to workers, and movement of personnel and materials between zones would be monitored with radiation detectors. External exposures to radiation fields would be monitored with dosimeters worn by

  3. Monitoring methods for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines a variety of monitoring activities that would likely be involved in a nuclear fuel waste disposal project, during the various stages of its implementation. These activities would include geosphere, environmental, vault performance, radiological, safeguards, security and community socioeconomic and health monitoring. Geosphere monitoring would begin in the siting stage and would continue at least until the closure stage. It would include monitoring of regional and local seismic activity, and monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater in rock and overburden around and in the vault. Environmental monitoring would also begin in the siting stage, focusing initially on baseline studies of plants, animals, soil and meteorology, and later concentrating on monitoring for changes from these benchmarks in subsequent stages. Sampling designs would be developed to detect changes in levels of contaminants in biota, water and air, soil and sediments at and around the disposal facility. Vault performance monitoring would include monitoring of stress and deformation in the rock hosting the disposal vault, with particular emphasis on fracture propagation and dilation in the zone of damaged rock surrounding excavations. A vault component test area would allow long-term observation of containers in an environment similar to the working vault, providing information on container corrosion mechanisms and rates, and the physical, chemical and thermal performance of the surrounding sealing materials and rock. During the operation stage, radiological monitoring would focus on protecting workers from radiation fields and loose contamination, which could be inhaled or ingested. Operational zones would be established to delineate specific hazards to workers, and movement of personnel and materials between zones would be monitored with radiation detectors. External exposures to radiation fields would be monitored with dosimeters worn by

  4. Americium product solidification and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The americium product from the TRUEX processing plant needs to be converted into a form suitable for ultimate disposal. An evaluation of the disposal based on safety, number of process steps, demonstrated operability of the processes, production of low-level alpha waste streams, and simplicity of maintenance with low radiation exposures to personnel during maintenance, has been made. The best process is to load the americium on a cation exchange resin followed by calcination or oxidation of the resin after loading

  5. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  6. Near-surface land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Handbook provides a comprehensive, systematic treatment of nuclear waste management. Near-Surface Land Disposal, the first volume, is a primary and secondary reference for the technical community. To those unfamiliar with the field, it provides a bridge to a wealth of technical information, presenting the technology associated with the near-surface disposal of low or intermediate level wastes. Coverage ranges from incipient planning to site closure and subsequent monitoring. The book discusses the importance of a systems approach during the design of new disposal facilities so that performance objectives can be achieved; gives an overview of the radioactive wastes cosigned to near-surface disposal; addresses procedures for screening and selecting sites; and emphasizes the importance of characterizing sites and obtaining reliable geologic and hydrologic data. The planning essential to the development of particular sites (land acquisition, access, layout, surface water management, capital costs, etc.) is considered, and site operations (waste receiving, inspection, emplacement, closure, stabilization, etc.) are reviewed. In addition, the book presents concepts for improved confinement of waste, important aspects of establishing a monitoring program at the disposal facility, and corrective actions available after closure to minimize release. Two analytical techniques for evaluating alternative technologies are presented. Nontechnical issues surrounding disposal, including the difficulties of public acceptance are discussed. A glossary of technical terms is included

  7. Development of a model for geomorphological assessment at U.S. DOE chemical/radioactive waste disposal facilities in the central and eastern United States; Weldon spring site remedial action project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landform development and long-term geomorphic stability is the result of a complex interaction of a number of geomorphic processes. These processes may be highly variable in intensity and duration under different physiographic settings. This limitation has influenced the applicability of previous geomorphological stability assessments conducted in the arid or semi-arid western United States to site evaluations in more temperate and humid climates. The purpose of this study was to develop a model suitable for evaluating both long-term and short-term geomorphic processes which may impact landform stability and hence the stability of disposal facilities located in the central and eastern United States. The model developed for the geomorphological stability assessment at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) near St. Louis, Missouri, included an evaluation of existing landforms and consideration of the impact of both long-term and short-term geomorphic processes. These parameters were evaluated with respect to their impact and contribution to three assessment criteria considered most important with respect to the stability analysis; evaluation of landform age, evaluation of present geomorphic process activity and; determination of the impact of the completed facility on existing geomorphic processes. The geomorphological assessment at the Weldon Spring site indicated that the facility is located in an area of excellent geomorphic stability. The only geomorphic process determined to have a potential detrimental effect on long-term facility performance is an extension of the drainage network. A program of mitigating measures has been proposed to minimize the impact that future gully extension could have on the integrity of the facility

  8. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  9. Effect of protein supplementation and forage allowance on the growth and reproduction of beef heifers grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, S E; Shaeffer, A D; Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H; Poole, D H

    2016-04-01

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide adequate winter forage for beef cattle, although unsupplemented replacement heifers may display marginal performance before breeding. The objective of this study was to determine if protein supplementation and/or additional forage improves growth and reproductive performance of replacement heifers grazing stockpiled fescue. Cattle averaging 272 ± 1.59 kg were stratified by BW and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 plots within a pasture replication. Treatment combinations were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and included 1) a conservative forage allocation ("normal," targeting 85% forage use) and mineral supplement (normal forage allocation with mineral supplement [FM]), 2) normal forage allocation with protein tub (FT), 3) more liberal forage allocation ("extra," targeting 70% forage use) and mineral supplement (extra forage allocation with mineral supplement [EM]), and 4) "extra forage allocation with protein tub (ET). Treatments were administered for 8 wk from early November to early January. Heifers were fed fescue hay for 1 wk before breeding in late January. Heifers were synchronized with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release device protocol and inseminated in late January. Heifers were checked for pregnancy by ultrasonography at 35 and 90 d after AI. Main and interaction effects between the 2 treatments were determined. Total supplement intake was greater for protein tub than mineral supplement (0.36 vs. 0.11 kg·heifer·d, respectively; heifer·d for FM, FT, EM, and ET, respectively). There was an interaction effect of the 2 treatments on change in BCS ( 0.05). Overall, feeding a protein supplement or providing extra forage increased gain and interacted to increase BCS but did not have an effect on reproductive performance. Supplementing with protein and providing extra forage are strategies that can increase gain in heifers, which could aid heifers in reaching puberty before estrous synchronization

  10. Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan (7). Hydrological and chemical change of the groundwater in a pre-grouted crystalline rock after earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has conducted 'The project for Grouting Technology Development' under a contract study with the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). As a part of the study, the groundwater chemistry has been monitored for four years after pre-grouting the crystalline rock in the Mizunami underground research laboratory (URL). Measured groundwater pressures were temporarily changed by earthquakes of seismic intensity ≥ 3 and recovered within about one year. Changes to the chemical composition of the groundwater by the earthquakes were not detected and the injected grout material was not significantly damaged. (author)

  11. Characterization of stockpiled phosphogypsum in Brazil and evaluation of its environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.J.G.; Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Div. de Radiometria Ambiental, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Phosphogypsum, a waste by-product derived from the wet process production of phosphoric acid, represents a serious problem facing the phosphate industry in Brazil. This by-product (mainly calcium sulphate dihydrate) precipitates during the reaction of sulphuric acid with phosphate rock and is stored at a rate of about 2,500 ton per day on several stacks in Cubat, Brazil. Contents of natural radionuclides from thorium and uranium series were measured in Brazilian phosphogypsum samples from stacks, using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. As a complementary study, trace and microelements (Ba, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, U, and rare earths Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) were also determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This phosphogypsum stacks present a potential threat to the surrounding environment and to the individual occupationally exposed. The most critical pathway between phosphogypsum and the public is through water contamination. The aquatic environment near the disposal area was assessed by measuring natural radionuclides activity in groundwater, river water and sediment samples. As for the individual occupationally exposed, the pathways considered were internal exposure due to inhalation of radon emanated from phosphogypsum stacks and inhalation of dust particulates, and external gamma and beta exposures due to immersion in the radioactive plume. The results obtained in this study show that radionuclides, although present in relatively high concentrations in phosphogypsum, do not imply in significant doses for individuals occupationally exposed and for the general public. (author)

  12. Used Fuel Disposal in Crystalline Rocks. FY15 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media. Chapter headings are as follows: Fuel matrix degradation model and its integration with performance assessments, Investigation of thermal effects on the chemical behavior of clays, Investigation of uranium diffusion and retardation in bentonite, Long-term diffusion of U(VI) in bentonite: dependence on density, Sorption and desorption of plutonium by bentonite, Dissolution of plutonium intrinsic colloids in the presence of clay and as a function of temperature, Laboratory investigation of colloid-facilitated transport of cesium by bentonite colloids in a crystalline rock system, Development and demonstration of discrete fracture network model, Fracture continuum model and its comparison with discrete fracture network model.

  13. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH)

  14. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  15. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  16. Challenges in Disposing of Anthrax Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Stein, Steven L.; Upton, Jaki F.; Toomey, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Disasters often create large amounts of waste that must be managed as part of both immediate response and long-term recovery. While many federal, state, and local agencies have debris management plans, these plans often do not address chemical, biological, and radiological contamination. The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration’s (IBRD) purpose was to holistically assess all aspects of an anthrax incident and assist the development of a plan for long-term recovery. In the case of wide-area anthrax contamination and the follow-on response and recovery activities, a significant amount of material will require decontamination and disposal. Accordingly, IBRD facilitated the development of debris management plans to address contaminated waste through a series of interviews and workshops with local, state, and federal representatives. The outcome of these discussion was the identification of three primary topical areas that must be addressed: 1) Planning; 2) Unresolved research questions, and resolving regulatory issues.

  17. Contributions of Geology to the Problem of Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earth is the sphere of interest of the geologist, and it is the only place on or in which wastes can he dispersed or stored. In that sense, problems of radioactive waste disposal are primarily geological. Accumulated geologic knowledge and established principles have been applied widely in the United States to problems of disposal, and the unique nature of these problems has led to research and significant advances of knowledge in specialized aspects of geology. A common activity has been appraisal of sites for nuclear energy facilities. This includes analysis and evaluation of geologic, topographic, hydrologic, geochemical and seismic factors. Also, regional analyses are made of the gross characteristics of. major physical subdivisions of the United States and the relation of these characteristics to waste storage and disposal. Special problems include the actual and potential behaviour of ordinary wastes in specific geologic environments. Other studies concern possible use of structural basins, stratigraphic traps, and salt beds and salt domes for storage and containment of high-level waste. Much general and some detailed study has been made of background radiometry. Water is the critical factor in waste disposal; accordingly certain natural processes by which water may be purified or chemically altered have been investigated. Significant results have been achieved in studies of dispersion and diffusion processes in ground water and surface water ; the rate of travel of contaminants in streams; the mechanics of ground-water flow in granular materials ; ground-water flow in cavernous rocks ; and the behaviour of water and chemical solutions in the zone of aeration. Thermal and chemical-stability problems that would develop if high-level waste were injected in geologic formations also have been investigated. Geologic, petrologic and geophysical studies have been made of specific areas, and research in clay mineralogy, ion exchange and geochemistry has been

  18. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  19. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK)

  20. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-10-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK).

  1. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  2. Physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Man; Yuan, Songhu

    2012-08-30

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is one of the 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in "Stockholm Convention". It is hydrophobic, toxic and persistent in the environment. Due to extensive use in the past, HCB contamination is still a serious environmental problem. Strong adsorption on solid particles makes the remediation difficult. This paper presents an overview of the physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal. The adsorption/desorption behavior of HCB is firstly described because it comprises the fundamental for most remediation technologies. Physiochemical technologies concerned mostly for HCB remediation and disposal, i.e., chemical enhanced washing, electrokinetic remediation, reductive dechlorination and thermal decomposition, are reviewed in terms of fundamentals, state of the art and perspectives. The other physiochemical technologies including chemical oxidation, radiation induced catalytic dechlorination, ultrasonic assisted treatment and mechanochemical dechlorination are also reviewed. The pilot and large scale tests on HCB remediation or disposal are summarized in the end. This review aims to provide useful information to researchers and practitioners regarding HCB remediation and disposal. PMID:22709849

  3. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... above the waste disposal unit liner and above a secondary installed liner. This design is recommended... the sides and under the bottom of the waste disposal unit liner. This type of system works best when... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.75 Chemical waste landfills. This section applies to facilities used...

  4. Spent nuclear fuel management system in the Russian Federation, SNF stockpile and plans for reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategic policy of the development of nuclear industry in the Russian Federation is the closure of nuclear fuel cycle, which must result in a more efficient use of natural uranium recourses and artificial fissile materials generated in nuclear reactors (RepU, plutonium, etc.), ensuring minimization of waste from fuel reprocessing and the wastes for final disposal. The main idea is to provide the reprocessing service for the major part of irradiated fuel including legacy at the radiochemical facilities both existing and under construction. Relations in the field of spent fuel management and of radioactive waste management are regulated on the basis of the Constitution of the Russian Federation as the Basic Law having the supreme legal force and direct action, federal laws of the Russian Federation, legal acts by the President of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Russian Federation, federal norms and rules for the activity in the field of atomic energy use, regulations of the state regulatory authorities as well as relevant national standards. The basic laws which directly regulate relations in the field of safety include Federal Laws: 'On the Use of Atomic Energy', 'On the Radiation Safety of the Public', 'On the Environmental Protection', 'On the Sanitary and Epidemiologic Safety of the Public'. The efficient Spent Fuel Management in the Russian Federation is guided by the following criteria: Nuclear and radiological Safety; RadWastes Minimization; Economical use / disposition of the secondary nuclear materials taking into account quality of the materials; Compliance with the IAEA Convention; Cost optimization. This approach has been supported by the major events of 2006, among which: 1) 25 January 2006 - the Russian Federation President's Initiative with the offer to develop the Global Nuclear Infrastructure with International Centres for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Service. 2) 6 October 2006 - Approval by the Russian Government of the Federal Target

  5. 48 CFR 245.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 245.603 Section 245.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractor Inventory 245.603 Disposal methods....

  6. Earth Construction and Landfill Disposal Options for Slaker Grits

    OpenAIRE

    Risto Pöykiö; G. Watkins; H. Nurmesniemi and O. Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Slaker grits, an industrial residue originating from the chemical recovery process at sulfate (kraft) pulp mills, are typically disposed of to landfill in Finland. However, due to the relatively low total heavy metal and low leachable heavy metal, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, Dissolved O rganic Carbon (DOC) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) concentrations, the residue is a potential earth construction material. This paper gives an overview of the relevant Finnish legislation on the use of indu...

  7. Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J B

    1992-01-01

    Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were so...

  8. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffelaert, Pascale

    2007-09-01

    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This

  9. Stockpile stewardship and management programmatic environmental impact statement data for the no action and phase-out alternatives at the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternatives for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant are being considered under the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program (SSM). The three alternatives under consideration include: continuing the secondary manufacturing operations in a down-sized footprint; no action; and phasing out the secondary manufacturing operations at Y-12. This report provides specific environmental data requested for the Y-12 Plant alternatives of no action and phase out

  10. Framework for Optimal Global Vaccine Stockpile Design for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Application to Measles and Cholera Vaccines as Contrasting Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J

    2016-07-01

    Managing the dynamics of vaccine supply and demand represents a significant challenge with very high stakes. Insufficient vaccine supplies can necessitate rationing, lead to preventable adverse health outcomes, delay the achievements of elimination or eradication goals, and/or pose reputation risks for public health authorities and/or manufacturers. This article explores the dynamics of global vaccine supply and demand to consider the opportunities to develop and maintain optimal global vaccine stockpiles for universal vaccines, characterized by large global demand (for which we use measles vaccines as an example), and nonuniversal (including new and niche) vaccines (for which we use oral cholera vaccine as an example). We contrast our approach with other vaccine stockpile optimization frameworks previously developed for the United States pediatric vaccine stockpile to address disruptions in supply and global emergency response vaccine stockpiles to provide on-demand vaccines for use in outbreaks. For measles vaccine, we explore the complexity that arises due to different formulations and presentations of vaccines, consideration of rubella, and the context of regional elimination goals. We conclude that global health policy leaders and stakeholders should procure and maintain appropriate global vaccine rotating stocks for measles and rubella vaccine now to support current regional elimination goals, and should probably also do so for other vaccines to help prevent and control endemic or epidemic diseases. This work suggests the need to better model global vaccine supplies to improve efficiency in the vaccine supply chain, ensure adequate supplies to support elimination and eradication initiatives, and support progress toward the goals of the Global Vaccine Action Plan. PMID:25109229

  11. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plants as uranium (234U, 238U) contamination bioindicator near phosphogypsum stockpile

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine uranium concentrations in common nettle (Urtica dioica) plants and corresponding soils samples which were collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The uranium concentrations in roots depended on its concentrations in soils. Calculated BCF and TF values showed that soils characteristics and air deposition affect uranium absorption and that different uranium species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The...

  12. Chemicals from Cradle to Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Scope, 2005

    2005-01-01

    About two years ago, an urban school district had planned for the disposal of some hazardous chemicals. It contracted with a chemical recycling company that was considered to be reputable. The school district, along with several other companies, was charged and fined by the Environmental Protection Agency for improperly releasing hazardous…

  13. Environmental chemistry of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, J.R.; Williams, D.R.

    1986-09-01

    In this review the environmental chemistry problems associated with radioactive waste disposal are considered from the point of view of the threat to man of waste disposal, contamination pathways, the chemistry of waste containment, speciation of radio-isotopes, chemisorption, risk assessment and computerized simulation of waste disposal phenomena. A strategy for the future is discussed.

  14. 48 CFR 2845.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Disposal methods. 2845.603 Section 2845.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Contract Management GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 2845.603 Disposal...

  15. 48 CFR 945.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 945.603 Section 945.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 945.603 Disposal methods....

  16. Nuclear waste management: storage and disposal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term disposal of nuclear wastes must resolve difficulties arising chiefly from the potential for contamination of the environment and the risk of misuse. Alternatives available for storage and disposal of wastes are examined in this overview paper. Guidelines and criteria which may govern in the development of methods of disposal are discussed

  17. The disposal of mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the consequences of dam building with slime of high water content, and therefore low relative density, such as the tailings usually associated with the extraction of uranium. It shows how a low relative density reduces the practica maximum rate of rise, and hence the establishment cost, of slimes dams built by conventional means. Further hidden costs of such tailings dams are examined. It is concluded that dewatering of tailings before their disposal is the most cost-effective means of increasing the rate at which a particular dam can be constructed, or of reducing operating or stability problems on existing dams. In the longer term, underground disposal seems to be a feasible alternative. However, it is pointed out that there are factors that can compound the operating difficulties, and that these should be investigated before remedial steps are taken

  18. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  19. Shallow disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and evaluation of computer codes capable of simulating the various processes that are instrumental in determining the dose rate to individuals resulting from the shallow disposal of radioactive waste was conducted. Possible pathways of contamination, as well as the mechanisms controlling radionuclide movement along these pathways have been identified. Potential transport pathways include the unsaturated and saturated ground water systems, surface water bodies, atmospheric transport and movement (and accumulation) in the food chain. Contributions to dose may occur as a result of ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and immersion in contaminated air/water. Specific recommendations were developed regarding the selection and modification of a model to meet the needs associated with the prediction of dose rates to individuals as a consequence of shallow radioactive waste disposal. Specific technical requirements with regards to risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have been addressed

  20. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  1. Equity and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The article surveys some prima facie arguments for equity in the distribution of radwaste risks and then evaluates four objections that are based, respectively, on practicality, compensation for risks, scepticism about duties to future generations, and the uranium criterion. The conclusion is that, at least under existing regulations and policies, permanent waste disposal is highly questionable, in part, because it fails to distribute risk equitably or to compensate, in full, for this inequity

  2. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  3. Main orientations in ICRP recommendations on waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of chemically toxic or radioactive waste is a particularly thorny problem for the public, since waste is usually perceived as something completely negative and entirely independent of the beneficial practices which generated it. Radioactive waste disposal is a radiological protection problem, since the principal objective is the protection of current and future generations. There is no doubt that the Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) plays an essential role in this subject, due to its competence and to the fact that ICRP is a non governmental organisation independent from national regulatory authorities. However, until recently it should be recognised that its role regarding radioactive waste disposal has been limited, despite a specific publication on the subject more than a decade ago (ICRP 46 'Radiation Protection Principles for the Disposal of Solid Waste'). The purpose of this paper is to show the evolution of ICRP's position, since it considered as essential to clarify the way in which radiological protection principles and concepts are applied to radioactive waste (effluents or solid waste). It will show the importance of publication 77 ('Radiological Protection Policy for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste', 1997) and the main themes of an ongoing study on long lived solid waste ('Radiation Protection Recommendations as applied to the Disposal of Long Lived Solid Radioactive Waste'). Special attention will be given to the following issues: protection of future generations, definition of hypothetical group, optimisation in the context of potential exposure. A distinction should be made between the application of the criteria to exposure situations resulting from natural processes (gradual or disruptive) and human intrusion, technical and managerial principles, compliance with the radiological protection principles. The objective of the paper is to clarity the usefulness of these recommendations in the decision making process. (author)

  4. Regional gross disposable household income

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Presents estimates published in May 2008, an overview of methodology used and future plans for regional economic dataThis article looks at estimates for regional gross disposable household income (GDHI) at current basic prices, published in May 2008. These data are published using the European Union Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) regions. Data are published for the NUTS1, NUTS2 and NUTS3 levels for the period 1995 to 2006. There is an overview of the methodology used ...

  5. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  6. Safe disposal of prescribed medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Phillip J; Hussainy, Safeera Y; George, Johnson; Kong, David Cm; Kirkpatrick, Carl Mj

    2015-06-01

    The National Return and Disposal of Unwanted Medicines Program provides a free and safe method for the disposal of unwanted and expired medicines. This stops drugs being dumped in landfill and waterways. An audit showed that over 600 tonnes of medicines are returned through the program. A substantial proportion of these medicines were still within their expiry dates. Salbutamol, insulin and frusemide are the most commonly discarded medicines. More than $2 million of public money is wasted each year. Hoarding and non-adherence to treatment contribute to waste. Health professionals may be able to help minimise waste by informing patients about the importance of completing prescribed courses of treatment, and discouraging them from hoarding medicines after reaching the safety net threshold on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Prescribe no more than the required quantity of medicines. When starting a new therapy, prescribe a minimal quantity in case the drug is unsuitable for the patient. Advise patients to return all unwanted medicines to a pharmacy for disposal. PMID:26648628

  7. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  8. Hanford site grout disposal vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) completed processing and disposal of an initial 3,800 m3 of radioactive waste from the Hanford site's double-shell tanks (DSTs) on July 11, 1989. For the first time in the Hanford site's 46-yr history, tank wastes resulting from weapons-grade plutonium production were moved out of liquid storage and converted into a solid for environmentally safe disposal. In addition to the 3,800 m3 of nonhazardous, low-level waste processed in 1988 and 1989, ∼ 163,000 m3 of mixed waste will be treated for disposal between 1992 and 2013. These low-level wastes are radioactive, concentrated salt solutions classified as hazardous by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and dangerous by the Washington State Department of Ecology. As feed for the grouting process they contain ∼ 11% sodium nitrate, 6% sodium hydroxide, 5% sodium nitrite, 3% sodium aluminate, 1% sodium phosphate, 0.5% sodium chloride, and 73% water. Many radionuclides are present, although 137Cs contributes more than 99% of the 0.3 Ci/l activity. From a long-term performance assessment standpoint, nitrate, 99Tc, and 129I are the primary contaminants of concern

  9. Solid waste disposal: a long-standing public health problem comes of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wands, R.C.

    1977-05-01

    An important step in the waste disposal issue was the passage of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The chief aims of the Act are to encourage recycling of natural resources, to provide for the safe disposal of discarded materials, and to regulate the management of hazardous waste. Hazardous waste disposal can be controlled only if the public is informed of what wastes are hazardous and provided with an effective and convenient method for their disposal. By far the greatest source of hazardous waste, however, is industry, especially the metallurgical and chemical industries. Some pollution problems dscussed are those caused by polychlorinated biphenyls and kepone, sodium monofluoroacetate in sanitary landfills, leachate waters containing Pb, Se, Fe, and Hg, and shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. Several industries are trying to solve the problems of solid waste disposal, either voluntarily or in response to regulatory and judicial pressures.

  10. U.S. program assessing nuclear waste disposal in space - A 1981 status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Best, R. E.; Compton, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    Concepts, current studies, and technology and equipment requirements for using the STS for space disposal of selected nuclear wastes as a complement to geological storage are reviewed. An orbital transfer vehicle carried by the Shuttle would kick the waste cannister into a 0.85 AU heliocentric orbit. One flight per week is regarded as sufficient to dispose of all high level wastes chemically separated from reactor fuel rods from 200 GWe nuclear power capacity. Studies are proceeding for candidate wastes, the STS system suited to each waste, and the risk/benefits of a space disposal system. Risk assessments are being extended to total waste disposal risks for various disposal programs with and without a space segment, and including side waste streams produced as a result of separating substances for launch.

  11. The Design of Drainage System for External Floating Roof Tank in International Stockpile Project%浅谈国际储备库浮顶排水系统的设计选用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭可昕

    2012-01-01

    Large external floating roof storage tank is widely used in petroleum,chemical,civil construction,transportation,metallurgy,national defense and other important fields.Central drainage system is the main accessory for external floating roof tank,its analysis and comparison of structure and type are important for the tank design.The paper summarized the design of central drainage system for external floating roof tank in international stockpile project.%大型外浮顶储罐广泛应用于石油、化工、市政建设、交通、冶金、国防等领域。中央排水系统是外浮顶罐的主要附件,其结构类型的分析和比较是储罐设计中的重要问题。文章综述了在国内一国际储备库项目中,外浮顶罐中央排水系统的设计选用。

  12. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  13. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  14. The use and disposal of household pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Golding, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed.

  15. The use and disposal of household pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

  16. Geomechanical problems in study of radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for both low-intermediate level radioactive wastes disposal and high level radioactive waste disposal were introduced briefly. Geomechanical problems in radioactive wastes disposal were discussed. Some suggestions were proposed for the radioactive wastes disposal in China

  17. Development of CANDU Spent Fuel Disposal Concepts for the Improvement of Disposal Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two types of spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants, CANDU type and PWR type. PWR spent fuels which include a lot of reusable material can be considered to be recycled. CANDU spent fuels are considered to directly disposed in deep geological formation, since they have little reusable material. In this study, based on the Korean Reference spent fuel disposal System(KRS) which is to dispose both PWR and CANDU spent fuels, the more effective CANDU spent fuel disposal systems have been developed. To do this, the disposal canister has been modified to hold the storage basket which can load 60 spent fuel bundles. From these modified disposal canisters, the disposal systems to meet the thermal requirement for which the temperature of the buffer materials should not be over have been proposed. These new disposals have made it possible to introduce the concept of long term storage and retrievability and that of the two-layered disposal canister emplacement in one disposal hole. These disposal concepts have been compared and analyzed with the KRS CANDU spent fuel disposal system in terms of disposal effectiveness. New CANDU spent fuel disposal concepts obtained in this study seem to improve thermal effectiveness, U-density, disposal area, excavation volume, and closure material volume up to 30 - 40 %.

  18. Chemical munitions dumped at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  19. MAW and HTR fuel element test disposal in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kernforschungsanlage Juelich, KFA, (Nuclear Research Center Juelich) has been handling a project since 1983 on 'Further Development of the Borehole Technology for the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in Salt, with the Examples of Dissolver Sludge, Fuel Element Claddings, Fuel Hardware und HTR Fuel Elements'. The project is sponsored by the Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie, BMFT, (Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) under the identification number KWA 5302 3 and bears the short title 'MAW and HTR Fuel Element Test Disposal in Boreholes'. The major objective of the project is to develop a technique for the disposal of the above mentioned wastes in unlined boreholes in salt and to test this technique in the Asse salt mine. The Institut fuer Chemische Technologie der Nuklearen Entsorgung, ICT (Institute of Chemical Technology) at the KFA is responsible for the scientific and organizational management of the project. The Institut fuer Tieflagerung, IfT, (Institute for Underground Disposal) of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH, GSF, (Society for Radiological and Environmental Research) is responsible for the geomechanical and mining activities in the project. It supervises the in-situ experiments, and as the owner of the Asse salt mine, it submits applications for the experiments to the licensing authorities. Geomechanical calculations are being carried out by the Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, BGR, (Federal Institute for Geological Sciences and Natural Resources). (orig./RB)

  20. Greywater Disposal Practices in Northern Botswana--The Silent Spring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kathleen A; Godrej, Adil

    2015-11-01

    Disposal of greywater is a neglected challenge facing rapidly growing human populations. Here, we define greywater as wastewater that originates from household activities (e.g., washing dishes, bathing, and laundry) but excludes inputs from the toilet. Pollutants in greywater can include both chemical and biological contaminates that can significantly impact human, animal, and environmental health under certain conditions. We evaluate greywater disposal practices in nonsewered, low-income residential areas in Kasane (264 dwellings/ha), Kazungula (100 du/ha), and Lesoma (99 du/ha) villages in Northern Botswana through household surveys (n = 30 per village). Traditional pit latrines were the dominant form of sanitation (69%, n = 90, 95% CI, 59%-79%) while 14% of households did not have access to onsite sanitation (95% CI 0%-22%). While greywater disposal practices varied across villages, respondents in all sites reported dumping greywater into the pit latrine. Frequency varied significantly across villages with the highest level reported in Kasane, where residential density was greatest (p resources. Challenges in greywater disposal and pit latrines must be addressed with urgency as health behaviors directed at minimizing negative aspects may amplify the environmental impacts of both greywater and pit latrine excreta. PMID:26580640

  1. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  2. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  3. Using a Dynamic Model to Consider Optimal Antiviral Stockpile Size in the Face of Pandemic Influenza Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Amy L.; Schanzer, Dena

    2013-01-01

    Background The Canadian National Antiviral Stockpile (NAS) contains treatment for 17.5% of Canadians. This assumes no concurrent intervention strategies and no wastage due to non-influenza respiratory infections. A dynamic model can provide a mechanism to consider complex scenarios to support decisions regarding the optimal NAS size under uncertainty. Methods We developed a dynamic model for pandemic influenza in Canada that is structured by age and risk to calculate the demand for antivirals to treat persons with pandemic influenza under a wide-range of scenarios that incorporated transmission dynamics, disease severity, and intervention strategies. The anticipated per capita number of acute respiratory infections due to viruses other than influenza was estimated for the full pandemic period from surveys based on criteria to identify potential respiratory infections. Results Our results demonstrate that up to two thirds of the population could develop respiratory symptoms as a result of infection with a pandemic strain. In the case of perfect antiviral allocation, up to 39.8% of the population could request antiviral treatment. As transmission dynamics, severity and timing of the emergence of a novel influenza strain are unknown, the sensitivity analysis produced considerable variation in potential demand (median: 11%, IQR: 2–21%). If the next pandemic strain emerges in late spring or summer and a vaccine is available before the anticipated fall wave, the median prediction was reduced to 6% and IQR to 0.7–14%. Under the strategy of offering empirical treatment to all patients with influenza like symptoms who present for care, demand could increase to between 65 and 144%. Conclusions The demand for antivirals during a pandemic is uncertain. Unless an accurate, timely and cost-effective test is available to identify influenza cases, demand for antivirals from persons infected with other respiratory viruses will be substantial and have a significant impact on the

  4. Using a Dynamic Model to Consider Optimal Antiviral Stockpile Size in the Face of Pandemic Influenza Uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Greer

    Full Text Available The Canadian National Antiviral Stockpile (NAS contains treatment for 17.5% of Canadians. This assumes no concurrent intervention strategies and no wastage due to non-influenza respiratory infections. A dynamic model can provide a mechanism to consider complex scenarios to support decisions regarding the optimal NAS size under uncertainty.We developed a dynamic model for pandemic influenza in Canada that is structured by age and risk to calculate the demand for antivirals to treat persons with pandemic influenza under a wide-range of scenarios that incorporated transmission dynamics, disease severity, and intervention strategies. The anticipated per capita number of acute respiratory infections due to viruses other than influenza was estimated for the full pandemic period from surveys based on criteria to identify potential respiratory infections.Our results demonstrate that up to two thirds of the population could develop respiratory symptoms as a result of infection with a pandemic strain. In the case of perfect antiviral allocation, up to 39.8% of the population could request antiviral treatment. As transmission dynamics, severity and timing of the emergence of a novel influenza strain are unknown, the sensitivity analysis produced considerable variation in potential demand (median: 11%, IQR: 2-21%. If the next pandemic strain emerges in late spring or summer and a vaccine is available before the anticipated fall wave, the median prediction was reduced to 6% and IQR to 0.7-14%. Under the strategy of offering empirical treatment to all patients with influenza like symptoms who present for care, demand could increase to between 65 and 144%.The demand for antivirals during a pandemic is uncertain. Unless an accurate, timely and cost-effective test is available to identify influenza cases, demand for antivirals from persons infected with other respiratory viruses will be substantial and have a significant impact on the NAS.

  5. Radioactive wastes, disposal sites wanted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two towns that were selected by the French government to home a disposal site for low-level radioactive wastes, have withdrawn their bid. ANDRA (French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) attributes this withdrawal to the unbearable pressure made by the opponents on the city councils despite the public information meetings that were held in the 2 cities. The selection rules included the presence of clay layers with a thickness of at least 50 m, the absence of seismic activity and zones containing exploitable resources like petroleum or metal ores were barred in order to avoid future unexpected drilling. (A.C.)

  6. Chemical analysis of uranium-niobium alloys by wavelength dispersive spectroscopy at the sigma complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papin, Pallas A.

    2012-06-01

    Uranium-niobium alloys play an important role in the nation's nuclear stockpile. It is possible to chemically quantify this alloy at a micron scale by using a technique know as wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. This report documents how this technique was used and how it is possible to reproduce measurements of this type. Discussion regarding the accuracy and precision of the measurements, the development of standards, and the comparison of different ways to model the matrices are all presented.

  7. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-11-20

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  8. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-11-01

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  9. Management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes with regard to their chemical toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary overview is provided of management options for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) with regard to its chemical toxicity. In particular, the following issues are identified and described associated with the management and safe disposal of chemically toxic materials in LILW: the origin and characteristics; the regulatory approaches; the pre-disposal management; the disposal; the safety assessment. Also included are: regulatory framework for chemically toxic low level wastes in the USA; pre-disposal processing options for LILW containing chemically toxic components; example treatment technologies for LILW containing chemically toxic components and safety assessment case studies for Germany, Belgium, France and Sweden

  10. Shallow land disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of basic radiation protection concepts and objectives to the disposal of radioactive wastes requires the development of specific reference levels or criteria for the radiological acceptance of each type of waste in each disposal option. This report suggests a methodology for the establishment of acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing long-lived radionuclides in shallow land burial facilities

  11. Mechanical performance of disposable surgical needle holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, E H; Towler, M A; Moody, F P; McGregor, W; Himel, H N; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

    1992-01-01

    The mechanical performance of disposable Webster surgical needle holders supplied by three different surgical instrument companies was determined by recording the forces (clamping moment) applied by the different needle holder jaws to curved surgical needles. This investigation demonstrated that there was a large variability in the mechanical performance of the disposable needle holders supplied by each surgical instrument company. In addition, the mechanical performance of the disposable needle holder of each surgical instrument company was distinctly different.

  12. Recycling Engineering Of Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces conception of waste, generation of waste with generation and circulation of waste, waste generation amount, and classification of waste, management of waste, collection of waste on plan of collection, transportation and device of waste, waste management system such as extended producer responsibility, manifest system, exchange system of waste, volume-rate garbage disposal system, recycling of waste, including disposal technology for recycling waste, sanitary landfill, incineration, composting and human waste of disposal.

  13. Post-disposal safety assessment of toxic and radioactive waste: waste types, disposal practices, disposal criteria, assessment methods and post-disposal impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for safety assessments of waste disposal stems not only from the implementation of regulations requiring the assessment of environmental effects, but also from the more general need to justify decisions on protection requirements. As waste-disposal methods have become more technologically based, through the application of more highly engineered design concepts and through more rigorous and specific limitations on the types and quantities of the waste disposed, it follows that assessment procedures also must become more sophisticated. It is the overall aim of this study to improve the predictive modelling capacity for post-disposal safety assessments of land-based disposal facilities through the development and testing of a comprehensive, yet practicable, assessment framework. This report records all the work which has been undertaken during Phase 1 of the study. Waste types, disposal practices, disposal criteria and assessment methods for both toxic and radioactive waste are reviewed with the purpose of identifying those features relevant to assessment methodology development. Difference and similarities in waste types, disposal practices, criteria and assessment methods between countries, and between toxic and radioactive wastes are highlighted and discussed. Finally, an approach to identify post-disposal impacts, how they arise and their effects on humans and the environment is described

  14. Safe, permanent disposal of used CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL's assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is now well advanced. A comprehensive understanding has evolved of the chemical and physical processes controlling the containment of radionuclides in used fuel. The following conclusions have been reached: containers with outer shells of titanium and copper can be expected to isolate used fuel from contact with groundwater for at least 500 years, the period during which the hazard is greatest; uranium oxide fuel can be expected to dissolve at a rate less than 10-8 per day, resulting in uranium concentrations less that 1 μg/L, which is consistent with observations of uranium oxide deposits in the earth's crust; movement of dissolved radionuclides away from the containers can be delayed for thousands of years by placing a compacted bentonite-clay layer between the container and the rock mass; and, the granite plutons of interest consist of relatively large rock volumes of low permeability separated by relatively thin fracture zones, and the low permeability volumes are sufficiently large to accommodate a vault design that will ensure radionuclides do not reach the surface in unacceptable concentrations

  15. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base

  16. The cause and effect of exclusionary zoning within a jurisdiction, and, The stockpile of petroleum needed to contain OPEC's price shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, Marc H.

    In Part I, I model a jurisdiction where residents differ by income, and housing confers benefits on neighbors. By majority vote, residents choose minima on consumption of housing that differ by neighborhood, and they separate into neighborhoods by income. In practice, such laws take the form of minimum lot sizes, bans on multi-family units, building codes, and other restrictions. This policy maximizes a benefit-cost welfare criterion. Alternative policies include no minima and a uniform minimum citywide, based on libertarian and utilitarian welfare criteria, respectively. I compare the policies in terms of efficiency, implementability, and distributional consequences, and give numerical examples based on U.S. data. Willingness to pay for the benefit-cost optimum is convex in income. This helps to explain why neighborhood stratification by income has outpaced stratification of income itself in U.S metropolitan areas since 1970. In the examples, gains to a rich household are in the thousands and losses to the poor in the hundreds of dollars annually. In Part II, I estimate the stockpile of petroleum sufficient to contain a price shock perpetrated by the OPEC. I estimate world demand for petroleum such that the long run price elasticity exceeds that in the short run, and supply from non-OPEC producers with a similar kind of lagged response. Given this structure for elasticities, OPEC profits from sudden increases in price. I simulate interaction among consumers, non-OPEC producers, OPEC, and an International Energy Agency (IEA) that punishes OPEC by releasing oil onto the market. I endow the IEA with increasingly large stockpiles until they suffice to limit price shocks to specified levels. Every 5 reduction in the shock raises present-valued world GDP by about 650 billion. The IEA now has 1.4 billion barrels of petroleum, including 700 million in the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A 3 billion barrel stockpile would suffice to reduce a 35 price shock to 20, raising

  17. Advances and Challenges In Uncertainty Quantification with Application to Climate Prediction, ICF design and Science Stockpile Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R.; Woodward, C. S.; Johannesson, G.; Domyancic, D.; Covey, C. C.; Lucas, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is a critical field within 21st century simulation science that resides at the very center of the web of emerging predictive capabilities. The science of UQ holds the promise of giving much greater meaning to the results of complex large-scale simulations, allowing for quantifying and bounding uncertainties. This powerful capability will yield new insights into scientific predictions (e.g. Climate) of great impact on both national and international arenas, allow informed decisions on the design of critical experiments (e.g. ICF capsule design, MFE, NE) in many scientific fields, and assign confidence bounds to scientifically predictable outcomes (e.g. nuclear weapons design). In this talk I will discuss a major new strategic initiative (SI) we have developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to advance the science of Uncertainty Quantification at LLNL focusing in particular on (a) the research and development of new algorithms and methodologies of UQ as applied to multi-physics multi-scale codes, (b) incorporation of these advancements into a global UQ Pipeline (i.e. a computational superstructure) that will simplify user access to sophisticated tools for UQ studies as well as act as a self-guided, self-adapting UQ engine for UQ studies on extreme computing platforms and (c) use laboratory applications as a test bed for new algorithms and methodologies. The initial SI focus has been on applications for the quantification of uncertainty associated with Climate prediction, but the validated UQ methodologies we have developed are now being fed back into Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SSS) and ICF UQ efforts. To make advancements in several of these UQ grand challenges, I will focus in talk on the following three research areas in our Strategic Initiative: Error Estimation in multi-physics and multi-scale codes ; Tackling the "Curse of High Dimensionality"; and development of an advanced UQ Computational Pipeline to enable

  18. Stability of colistimethate sodium in a disposable elastomeric infusion device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Alan; van Leeuwen, Roelof W F; de Vries Schultink, Aurelia H M; Koch, Birgit C P

    2015-01-01

    Infections of the respiratory tract with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients are frequently treated with colistimethate sodium (CMS). For the intravenous administration of CMS a disposable elastomeric pump is a convenient option. To date, there are no data available on the chemical stability of CMS solutions stored in elastomeric pumps. We evaluated the chemical stability of 0.8 mg/mL solutions of CMS by measuring the degradation over a period of 7 days. Test samples were prepared by diluting CMS with saline solution (0.9%). The preparations were transferred to 100-mL elastomeric pumps and stored at 4 °C. The chemical stability was measured by a high-performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection. There was no degradation of CMS (elastomeric pump. PMID:25863116

  19. Expediting the commercial disposal option: Low-level radioactive waste shipments from the Mound Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, S.; Rothman, R.

    1995-12-31

    In April, Envirocare of Utah, Inc., successfully commenced operation of its mixed waste treatment operation. A mixed waste which was (a) radioactive, (b) listed as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and (c) prohibited from land disposal was treated using Envirocare`s full-scale Mixed Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment system involved application of chemical fixation/stabilization technologies to reduce the leachability of the waste to meet applicable concentration-based RCRA treatment standards. In 1988, Envirocare became the first licensed facility for the disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material. In 1990, Envirocare received a RCRA Part B permit for commercial mixed waste storage and disposal. In 1994, Envirocare was awarded a contract for the disposal of DOE mixed wastes. Envirocare`s RCRA Part B permit allows for the receipt, storage, treatment, and disposal of mixed wastes that do not meet the land-disposal treatment standards of 40 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) 268. Envirocare has successfully received, managed, and disposed of naturally occurring radioactive material, low-activity radioactive waste, and mixed waste from government and private generators.

  20. TECHNO – ECONOMIC ACCEPTABILITY ANALISYS OF WASTE DISPOSAL BY INJECTION INTO APPROPRIATE FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Brkić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During exploration and production of oil and natural gas, various types of waste must be disposed in a permanent and safe way. There is a range of methods for processing and disposal of waste, such as disposal into landfills, solidification, namely chemical stabilization, thermal processing, appropriate formation injections uncovered by a deep well, disposal into salt domes and bioremediation. The method of waste disposal into appropriate formations is a method where strict geological and technical criteria must be satisfied when applied. A fundamental scientific hypothesis has been formulated whereby economic acceptability of the waste injection method, as a main method for waste disposal, is to be shown by an economic evaluation. The results of this research are relevant since there has been an intention in Croatia and worldwide to abandon wells permanently due to oil and gas reservoirs depletion and therefore it is essential to estimate economic impacts of the waste injection method application. In that way, profitability of using existing wells for waste disposal in oil industry has been increased, leading to the improvement of petroleum company’s business activities (the paper is published in Croatian.

  1. Magnox fuel dry storage and direct disposal assessment of CEGB/SSEB reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the Boards' presented work in response to Recommendations 17 and 18 of the Environment Committee's First Report (Jan 86). The Boards have made an extensive study of the dry store design and also considered direct disposal. Their basic conclusion that the financial advantage is with continued reprocessing is accepted with the comment that their storage and disposal costs may be on the high side. The Boards statements on drying wet-stored fuel and on improvement of the fuel's chemical stability are accepted. The Boards coverage of fuel after disposal is considered to be too brief; the assessment expresses a more pessimistic view than the Boards' of the acceptability of direct disposal. (author)

  2. Preliminary Borehole Disposal In Medium Flow Hydrogeological Condition Using IAEA Screening Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A screening tool developed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been used to provide means of improving the capacity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in assessing the potential sites for Borehole Disposal for Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources. It allows the isolation provided by the capsule and disposal container to be evaluated. In addition, it has a conservative model of radionuclide transport with no retardation of radionuclide. Hence, rapid decisions can be made by providing an early indication of the potential suitability of sites based on their hydro-chemical characteristics. The objective of this paper is to identify and determine the types and radionuclide activities of inventory that can be disposed in the borehole. The results of the analysis show the volume of gas doses occur from the disposal and time taken for the cement to be corroded. (author)

  3. Modeling of low-level-waste disposal for environmental impact analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer model was developed to analyze environmental impacts resulting from disposal of both radioactive and chemical wastes. The model simulates a waste-disposal system and includes infiltration through disposal cell caps, source leach rates, and solute transport in geologic media. The solute transport model used is a modified version of an analytical code originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The solute transport code was modified based on the Group-Transfer Concentration concept developed by the author. The original model is applicable only to homogeneous media under saturated conditions, but the modified model extends applicability to nonhomogeneous media (layered soils and fractures) and partially saturated conditions. The modified model has broader applicability, e.g., it can be applied to both humid and arid waste-disposal sites, and it is also more practical for environmental impact analysis. 22 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  5. Hydrologic implications of solid-water disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William Joseph

    1970-01-01

    The disposal of more than 1,400 million pounds of solid wastes in the United States each day is a major problem. This disposal in turn often leads to serious health, esthetic, and environmental problems. Among these is the pollution of vital ground-water resources.

  6. Radioactive waste products - suitability for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    48 papers were read at the conference. Separate records are available for all of them. The main problem in radioactive waste disposal was the long-term sealing to prevent pollution of the biosphere. Problems of conditioning, acceptance, and safety measures were discussed. Final disposal models and repositories were presented. (PW)

  7. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  8. Probabilistic safety assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment codes are now widely used in radioactive waste disposal assessments. This report gives an overview of the current state of the field. The relationship between the codes and the regulations covering radioactive waste disposal is discussed and the characteristics of current codes is described. The problems of verification and validation are considered. (author)

  9. 7 CFR 2902.21 - Disposable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Guideline, 40 CFR 247.10. EPA provides recovered materials content recommendations for paper and paper... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposable containers. 2902.21 Section 2902.21... Items § 2902.21 Disposable containers. (a) Definition. Products designed to be used for...

  10. Tritium waste disposal technology in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references

  11. User's guide to the 'DISPOSALS' model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a User's Guide to the 'DISPOSALS' computer model and includes instructions on how to set up and run a specific problem together with details of the scope, theoretical basis, data requirements and capabilities of the model. The function of the 'DISPOSALS' model is to make assignments of nuclear waste material in an optimum manner to a number of disposal sites each subject to a number of constraints such as limits on the volume and activity. The user is able to vary the number of disposal sites, the range and limits of the constraints to be applied to each disposal site and the objective function for optimisation. The model is based on the Linear Programming technique and uses CAP Scientific's LAMPS and MAGIC packages. Currently the model has been implemented on CAP Scientific's VAX 11/750 minicomputer. (author)

  12. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the

  13. Transport and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author assesses both past and future of nuclear waste disposal in Germany. The failure of the disposal concept is, he believes, mainly the fault of the Federal Government. On the basis of the Nuclear Energy Act, the government is obliged to ensure that ultimate-storage sites are established and operated. Up to the present, however, the government has failed - apart from the episode in Asse and Morsleben and espite existing feasible proposals in Konrad and Gorleben - to achieve this objective. This negative development is particularly evident from the projects which have had to be prematurely abandoned. The costs of such 'investment follies' meanwhile amount to several billion DM. At least 92% of the capacity in the intermediate-storage sites are at present unused. Following the closure of the ultimate-storage site in Morsleben, action must be taken to change over to long-term intermediate-storage of operational waste. The government has extensive intermediate-storage capacity at the intermediate-storage site Nord in Greifswald. There, the wate originally planned for storage in Morsleben could be intermediately stored at ERAM-rates. Nuclear waste transportation, too, could long ago have been resumed, in the author's view. For the purpose of improving the transport organisation, a new company was founded which represents exclusively the interests of the reprocessing firms at the nuclear power stations. The author's conclusion: The EVU have done their homework properly and implemented all necessary measures in order to be able to resume transport of fuel elements as soon as possible. The generating station operators favour a solution based upon agreement with the Federal Government. The EVU have already declared their willingness - in the event of unanimous agreement - to set up intermediate-storage sites near the power stations. The ponds in the generating stations, however, are unsuitable for use as intermediate-storage areas. If intermediate-storage areas for

  14. Proceedings of the 1981 subseabed disposal program. Annual workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1981 Annual Workshop was the twelfth meeting of the principal investigators and program management personnel participating in the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP). The first workshop was held in June 1973, to address the development of a program (initially known as Ocean Basin Floors Program) to assess the deep sea disposal of nuclear wastes. Workshops were held semi-annually until late 1977. Since November 1977, the workshops have been conducted following the end of each fiscal year so that the program participants could review and critique the total scope of work. This volume contains a synopsis, as given by each Technical Program Coordinator, abstracts of each of the talks, and copies of the visual materials, as presented by each of the principal investigators, for each of the technical elements of the SDP for the fiscal year 1981. The talks were grouped under the following categories; general topics; site studies; thermal response studies; emplacement studies; systems analysis; chemical response studies; biological oceanography studies; physical oceanographic studies; instrumentation development; transportation studies; social environment; and international seabed disposal

  15. Proceedings of the 1981 subseabed disposal program. Annual workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The 1981 Annual Workshop was the twelfth meeting of the principal investigators and program management personnel participating in the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP). The first workshop was held in June 1973, to address the development of a program (initially known as Ocean Basin Floors Program) to assess the deep sea disposal of nuclear wastes. Workshops were held semi-annually until late 1977. Since November 1977, the workshops have been conducted following the end of each fiscal year so that the program participants could review and critique the total scope of work. This volume contains a synopsis, as given by each Technical Program Coordinator, abstracts of each of the talks, and copies of the visual materials, as presented by each of the principal investigators, for each of the technical elements of the SDP for the fiscal year 1981. The talks were grouped under the following categories; general topics; site studies; thermal response studies; emplacement studies; systems analysis; chemical response studies; biological oceanography studies; physical oceanographic studies; instrumentation development; transportation studies; social environment; and international seabed disposal.

  16. Retention Capability of Local Backfill Materials 1-Simulated Disposal Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Egypt, a shallow ground disposal facility was the chosen option for the disposal of low and and intermediate radioactive wastes. The impact of the waste disposal facility on the environment depends on the nature of the barriers, which intend to limit and control contaminant migration. Owing to their physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics. Local soil materials were studied to illustrate the role of the back fill as part of an optimized safety multi-barrier system, which can provide the required level of protection of the environment and meet economic and regulatory requirements. A theoretical model was proposed to calculate the transport phenomena through the backfill materials. The credibility and validity of the proposed model was checked by the experimental results obtained from a three-arms arrangement system. The obtained data for the distribution coefficient (Kd) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (Da) were in good agreement with those previously obtained in the literatures. Taking in consideration the prevailing initial conditions, the data calculated by the theoretical model applied show a reasonable agreement with the results obtained from experimental work. Prediction of radioactive cesium migration through the backfill materials using the proposed model was performed as a function of distance. The results obtained show that after 100 years, a fraction not exceeding 1E-9 of the original activity could be detected at 1m distance away from the waste material

  17. Selection of disposal contractor by multi criteria decision making methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenker Korkmazer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous waste is substance that threaten people and environment in case of improper storage, disposal and transport due to its concentration, physical and chemical properties. Companies producing hazardous waste as a result of several activities mostly do not have any own disposal facilities. In addition, they do not pay attention enough to determine the right contractor as a disposal facility. On the other hand, there are various qualitative and quantitative criteria affecting the selection of the contractor and conflicting with each other. The aim of the performed study is to assist one of these companies producing hazardous waste in the selection of the best contractor that eliminates hazardous waste economic and harmless way. In the study, contractor weights in percentage is calculated by using Analytic Network Process (ANP as one of the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM methods and widely used in the literature which considers both qualitative and quantitative criteria. In the next step, by the help of the mathematical model, contractors that will be given which type of hazardous waste are identified. This integrated approach can be used as a guide for similar firms.

  18. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination biomonitor in the area of phosphogypsum stockpile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test a possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as a biomonitor of polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination near phosphogypsum stacks by determining concentrations of these radionuclides in samples collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in roots depended on their concentrations in soils. Bioconcentration factor values from soil to root of the plant did not depend on (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in soils that leads to the conclusion that different polonium and lead species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The main sources of both analyzed radionuclides in green parts of plants are wet and dry air deposition and transportation from soil. The values of (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. (210)Po and (210)Pb concentration in U. dioica roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile. PMID:26645235

  19. 美国生物防御对策研究与国家战略储备药物分析%U.S. bioterrorism countermeasures and strategic national stockpile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇玮祎; 余云舟; 孙志伟; 黄培堂; 郑涛

    2012-01-01

    To address the increasingly severe bio-terrorism threats, the United States government issued a series of regulations and research plans. In this article, we discussed American national biological defense strategies and their derivative plans based on the core of Project BioShield, including Department of Health and Human Service ( DHHS)/Biomedical Advanced R&D Authority(BARDA) biological terrorist response plan and budget plan, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pathogens based top priority chemical, biological, rediological and nuclear (CBRN) threat countermeasures scheme and other important pathogenic organisms defense plans. Atter that, we also discussed the trend of research and development of the Strategical National Stockpile.%美国政府为应对日趋严峻的生物恐怖威胁,出台了一系列针对生化袭击的法规和研究计划.本文研究了以生物盾牌计划为核心的美国国家生物防御应对策略及其衍生计划,包括卫生与公众服务部( DHHS)/生物医学高级研究发展局(BARDA)生物恐怖应对计划及预算方案、以疾控中心(CDC)病原体清单为基础的顶级核化生威胁对策方案及其他重要病原体生物防御治疗研究计划等.分析了目前以上述研究为依托纳入国家战略储备体系的药物及研发趋势.

  20. Inspection of disposal canisters components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the inspection techniques of disposal canister components. Manufacturing methods and a description of the defects related to different manufacturing methods are described briefly. The defect types form a basis for the design of non-destructive testing because the defect types, which occur in the inspected components, affect to choice of inspection methods. The canister components are to nodular cast iron insert, steel lid, lid screw, metal gasket, copper tube with integrated or separate bottom, and copper lid. The inspection of copper material is challenging due to the anisotropic properties of the material and local changes in the grain size of the copper material. The cast iron insert has some acoustical material property variation (attenuation, velocity changes, scattering properties), which make the ultrasonic inspection demanding from calibration point of view. Mainly three different methods are used for inspection. Ultrasonic testing technique is used for inspection of volume, eddy current technique, for copper components only, and visual testing technique are used for inspection of the surface and near surface area

  1. Processing Irradiated Beryllium For Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. J. Tranter; R. D. Tillotson; N. R. Mann; G. R. Longhurst

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a process for decontaminating irradiated beryllium that will allow it to be disposed of through normal radwaste channels. Thus, the primary objectives of this ongoing study are to remove the transuranic (TRU) isotopes to less than 100 nCi/g and remove {sup 60}Co, and {sup 137}Cs, to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. One possible approach that appears to have the most promise is aqueous dissolution and separation of the isotopes by selected solvent extraction followed by precipitation, resulting in a granular form for the beryllium that may be fixed to prevent it from becoming respirable and therefore hazardous. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluorboric acids. Isotopes of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in tributyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each isotope with only three contact stages.

  2. Mine waste disposal and managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young Wook; Min, Jeong Sik; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Kim, Ok Hwan; Kim, In Kee; Song, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) is the product formed by the atmospheric oxidation of the relatively common pyrite and pyrrhotite. Waste rock dumps and tailings containing sulfide mineral have been reported at toxic materials producing ARD. Mining in sulphide bearing rock is one of activity which may lead to generation and release of ARD. ARD has had some major detrimental affects on mining areas. The purpose of this study was carried out to develop disposal method for preventing contamination of water and soil environment by waste rocks dump and tailings, which could discharge the acid drainage with high level of metals. Scope of this study was as following: environmental impacts by mine wastes, geochemical characteristics such as metal speciation, acid potential and paste pH of mine wastes, interpretation of occurrence of ARD underneath tailings impoundment, analysis of slope stability of tailings dam etc. The following procedures were used as part of ARD evaluation and prediction to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from mine wastes under natural precipitation: analysis of water and mine wastes, Acid-Base accounting, sequential extraction technique and measurement of lime requirement etc. In addition, computer modelling was applied for interpretation of slope stability od tailings dam. (author). 44 refs., 33 tabs., 86 figs.

  3. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE`s Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS.

  4. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Port Chester, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S. [Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Port Chester was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Tests and analyses were conducted on Port Chester sediment core samples. Because the Port Chester area is located on the border between New York and southeast Connecticut, its dredged material may also be considered for disposal at the Central Long Island Sound Disposal Site. The sediment evaluation consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and dredged material elutriate preparations, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Port Chester were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. In addition, sediment was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

  5. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  6. The Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final Report reviews the work on geologic disposal of radioactive waste performed in the Netherlands over the period 1 January 1978 to 31 December 1979. The attached four topical reports cover detailed subjects of this work. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations during the operational period was studied by the institute for Atomic Sciences in Agriculture (Italy). The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross-sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome, are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multi-layer disposal configurations were analysed and compared. A more detailed description is given of specific design and construction details of a waste repository such as the shaft sinking and construction, the disposal mine development, the mine ventilation and the different plugging and sealing procedures for both the disposal boreholes and the shafts. Thanks to the hospitality of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, an underground working area in the Asse mine became available for performing a dry drilling experiment, which resulted successfully in the drilling of a 300 m deep disposal borehole from a mine room at the -750 m level

  7. Spent nuclear fuel disposal liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis examines the social efficiency of nuclear power when the risks of accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides from a spent fuel disposal facility are considered. The analysis consists of two major parts. First, a theoretical economic model of the use of nuclear power including the risks associated with releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility is developed. Second, the costs of nuclear power, including the risks associated with a radionuclide release, are empirically compared to the costs of fossil fuel-fired generation of electricity. Under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the federally owned and operated spent nuclear fuel disposal facility is not required to maintain a reserve fund to cover damages from an accidental radionuclide release. Thus, the risks of a harmful radionuclide release are not included in the spent nuclear fuel disposal fee charged to the electric utilities. Since the electric utilities do not pay the full, social costs of spent fuel disposal, they use nuclear fuel in excess of the social optimum. An insurance mechanism is proposed to internalize the risks associated with spent fueled disposal. Under this proposal, the Federal government is required to insure the disposal facility against any liabilities arising from accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides

  8. Geological aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)

  9. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1957-09-01

    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  10. Disposal of medical waste: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Karen; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2013-09-03

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa provides that everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health and well-being. The illegal dumping of hazardous waste poses a danger to the environment when pollutants migrate into water sources and ultimately cause widespread infection or toxicity, endangering the health of humans who might become exposed to infection and toxins. To give effect to the Constitution, the safe disposal of hazardous waste is governed by legislation in South Africa. Reports of the illegal disposal of waste suggest a general lack of awareness and training in regard to the safe disposal of medical waste. 

  11. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: engineering for a disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents some general considerations for engineering a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, alternative disposal-vault concepts and arrangements, and a conceptual design of a used-fuel disposal centre that was used to assess the technical feasibility, costs and potential effects of disposal. The general considerations and alternative disposal-vault arrangements are presented to show that options are available to allow the design to be adapted to actual site conditions. The conceptual design for a used-fuel disposal centre includes descriptions of the two major components of the disposal facility, the Used-Fuel Packaging Plant and the disposal vault; the ancillary facilities and services needed to carry out the operations are also identified. The development of the disposal facility, its operation, its decommissioning, and the reclamation of the site are discussed. The costs, labour requirements and schedules used to assess socioeconomic effects and that may be used to assess the cost burden of waste disposal to the consumer of nuclear energy are estimated. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is funded jointly by AECL and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owners Group. (author)

  12. Spent fuel characteristics & disposal considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1996-06-01

    The fuel used in commercial nuclear power reactors is uranium, generally in the form of an oxide. The gas-cooled reactors developed in England use metallic uranium enclosed in a thin layer of Magnox. Since this fuel must be processed into a more stable form before disposal, we will not consider the characteristics of the Magnox spent fuel. The vast majority of the remaining power reactors in the world use uranium dioxide pellets in Zircaloy cladding as the fuel material. Reactors that are fueled with uranium dioxide generally use water as the moderator. If ordinary water is used, the reactors are called Light Water Reactors (LWR), while if water enriched in the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is used, the reactors are called Heavy Water reactors. The LWRs can be either pressurized reactors (PWR) or boiling water reactors (BWR). Both of these reactor types use uranium that has been enriched in the 235 isotope to about 3.5 to 4% total abundance. There may be minor differences in the details of the spent fuel characteristics for PWRs and BWRs, but for simplicity we will not consider these second-order effects. The Canadian designed reactor (CANDU) that is moderated by heavy water uses natural uranium without enrichment of the 235 isotope as the fuel. These reactors run at higher linear power density than LWRs and produce spent fuel with lower total burn-up than LWRs. Where these difference are important with respect to spent fuel management, we will discuss them. Otherwise, we will concentrate on spent fuel from LWRs.

  13. Toward Hazardless Waste: A Guide for Safe Use and Disposal of Hazardous Household Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toteff, Sally; Zehner, Cheri

    This guide is designed to help individuals make responsible decisions about safe use and disposal of household products. It consists of eight sections dealing with: (1) hazardous chemicals in the home, how hazaradous products become hazardous waste, and whether a hazardous waste problem exists in Puget Sound; (2) which household wastes are…

  14. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of keff for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes

  15. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  16. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  17. Design of the disposal facility 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent nuclear fuel accumulated from the nuclear power plants in Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and in Haestholmen in Loviisa will be disposed of in Olkiluoto. A facility complex will be constructed at Olkiluoto, and it will include two nuclear waste facilities according to Government Degree 736/2008. The nuclear waste facilities are an encapsulation plant, constructed to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel and a disposal facility consisting of an underground repository and other underground rooms and above ground service spaces. The repository is planned to be excavated to a depth of 400 - 450 meters. Access routes to the disposal facility are an inclined access tunnel and vertical shafts. The encapsulated fuel is transferred to the disposal facility in the canister lift. The canisters are transferred from the technical rooms to the disposal area via central tunnel and deposited in the deposition holes which are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels and are lined beforehand with compacted bentonite blocks. Two parallel central tunnels connect all the deposition tunnels and these central tunnels are inter-connected at regular intervals. The solution improves the fire safety of the underground rooms and allows flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages during the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level. ONKALO is designed and constructed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. The goal is that the first part of the disposal facility will be constructed under the building permit phase in the 2010's and operations will start in the 2020's. The fuel from 4 operating reactors as well the fuel from the fifth nuclear power plant under construction, has been taken into account in designing the disposal facility. According to the information from TVO and Fortum, the amount of the spent nuclear fuel is 5,440 tU. The disposal facility is being excavated

  18. Scenario analysis for the postclosure assessment of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL Research has developed and evaluated a concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involving deep underground disposal of the waste in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The postclosure assessment of this concept focusses on the effects on human health and the environment due to potential contaminant releases into the biosphere after the disposal vault is closed. Both radiotoxic and chemically toxic contaminants are considered. One of the steps in the postclosure assessment process is scenario analysis. Scenario analysis identifies factors that could affect the performance of the disposal system and groups these factors into scenarios that require detailed quantitative evaluation. This report documents a systematic procedure for scenario analysis that was developed for the postclosure assessment and then applied to the study of a hypothetical disposal system. The application leads to a comprehensive list of factors and a set of scenarios that require further quantitative study. The application also identifies a number of other factors and potential scenarios that would not contribute significantly to environmental and safety impacts for the hypothetical disposal system. (author). 46 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs., 2 appendices

  19. UNWANTED AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES: STATE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Centner, Terence J.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of pounds of unwanted pesticides have accumulated in barns throughout our country. The potential environmental and health risks posed by this situation has garnered public attention and governmental action. The federal government has revised its Universal Waste Rule so that it is easier to dispose of unwanted pesticides rather than simply banned pesticides. Nearly every state has initiated efforts to collect and dispose of accumulated pesticides in a safe manner. While the possession...

  20. Ecological Risk Assessment of Jarosite Waste Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Kerolli-Mustafa, Mihone; Ćurković, Lidija; Fajković, Hana; Rončević, Sanda

    2015-01-01

    Jarosite waste, originating from zinc extraction industry, is considered hazardous due to the presence and the mobility of toxic metals that it contains. Its worldwide disposal in many tailing damps has become a major ecological concern. Three different methods, namely modified Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP), three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI) Method were used to access the ecological risk of jarosite waste disposal in...

  1. Radioactive waste storage and disposal: the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solutions to waste management problems are available. After radium is removed, tailings from uranium ores can be disposed of safely in well-designed retention areas. Work is being done on the processing of non-fuel reactor wastes through incineration, reverse osmosis, and evaporation. Spent fuels have been stored safely for years in pools; dry storage in concrete cannisters is being investigated. Ultimate disposal of high-level wastes will be in deep, stable geologic formations. (LL)

  2. Hotel to Phase out Disposable Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several hotels in Changsha, Shanghai and Kunming have recently staged a Green Hotel campaign: hotels will not offer disposable toothbrushes, toothpaste, slippers, combs or bottled shampoo and body lotion to their guests unless requested. Meanwhile a Green Hotel Standard has been issued, proscribing "disposable articles, such as toothbrushes, soap, combs and slippers," and stipulating that "textiles, such as bathrobes, towels and pillowslips, in hotel rooms are to be changed strictly at the request of guests,

  3. US charts plans for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) passed in 1982 defines long-term federal programs to dispose of the leftovers from nuclear power generation. A succession of interacting multiple barriers, both natural and man-made, is to protect the public. Inside a mined underground repository will go waste packages. The geological formations surrounding the repository will be the final barrier. The article discussed site selections, salt sites, and subseabed disposal. (DP)

  4. Waste disposal technologies: designs and evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many states and compacts are presently in the throes of considering what technology to select for their low level waste disposal site. Both the technical and economic aspects of disposal technology are important considerations in these decisions. It is also important that they be considered in the context of the entire system. In the case of a nuclear power plant, that system encompasses the various individual waste streams that contain radioactivity, the processing equipment which reduces the volume and/or alters the form in which the radioisotopes are contained, the packaging of the processed wastes in shipment, and finally its disposal. One further part of this is the monitoring that takes place in all stages of this operation. This paper discusses the results of some research that has been sponsored by EPRI with the principal contractor being Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation. Included is a description of the distinguishing features found in disposal technologies developed in a generic framework, designs for a selected set of these disposal technologies and the costs which have been derived from these designs. In addition, a description of the early efforts towards defining the performance of these various disposal technologies is described. 5 figures, 1 table

  5. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 x 2 x 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs

  6. Radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the policy of the United Kingdom Government is that HLW should be stored in a suitable facility for at least fifty years before considering further storage or final disposal. This period allows many short-lived radionuclides, but more importantly, the associated radioactive decay heat, to diminish ahead of disposal. For intermediate-level solid wastes current policy is to develop, as soon as possible, a suitable deep geological facility for its permanent disposal. LLW constitutes the majority by volume of all radioactive waste. The waste arises not only from the nuclear industry, but also from all users of radioactive substances, such as hospitals, research establishments and industry. At present, it is mainly disposed of at a 300-acre site at Drigg in Cumbria, operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNEL). It is packed into containers and placed in concrete-lined trenches which are subsequently sealed. Drigg is expected to continue to take solid low-level wastes for many years. Original plans-term disposal route for LLW involved disposal in a new near-surface repository. However, in 1987, this proposal was abandoned, on cost-benefit arguments, and the Government agreed that a yet to be developed national deep repository should also be used for some LLW. Drigg is expected to continue to take solid low-level wastes for many years.

  7. Summary of Disposable Debris Shields (DDS) Analysis for Development of Solid Debris Collection at NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection of solid debris from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is being developed both as a diagnostic tool and as a means for measuring nuclear reaction cross sections relevant to the Stockpile Stewardship Program and nuclear astrophysics. The concept is straightforward; following a NIF shot, the debris that is produced as a result of the capsule and hohlraum explosion would be collected and subsequently extracted from the chamber. The number of nuclear activations that occurred in the capsule would then be measured through a combination of radiation detection and radiochemical processing followed by mass spectrometry. Development of the catcher is challenging due to the complex environment of the NIF target chamber. The collector surface is first exposed to a large photon flux, followed by the debris wind that is produced. The material used in the catcher must be mechanically strong in order to withstand the large amount of energy it is exposed to, as well as be chemically compatible with the form and composition of the debris. In addition, the location of the catcher is equally important. If it is positioned too close to the center of the target chamber, it will be significantly ablated, which could interfere with the ability of the debris to reach the surface and stick. If it is too far away, the fraction of the debris cloud collected will be too small to result in a statistically significant measurement. Material, geometric configuration, and location must all be tested in order to design the optimal debris collection system for NIF. One of the first ideas regarding solid debris collection at NIF was to use the disposable debris shields (DDS), which are fielded over the final optics assemblies (FOA) 7 m away from the center of the target chamber. The DDS are meant to be replaced after a certain number of shots, and if the shields could be subsequently analyzed after removal, it would serve as a mechanism for fielding a relatively large collection area

  8. University Research Program in Robotics - "Technologies for Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems in directed Stockpile Work (DSW) Radiation and Campaigns", Final Technical Annual Report, Project Period 9/1/06 - 8/31/07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James S. Tulenko; Carl D. Crane

    2007-12-13

    The University Research Program in Robotics (URPR) is an integrated group of universities performing fundamental research that addresses broad-based robotics and automation needs of the NNSA Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and Campaigns. The URPR mission is to provide improved capabilities in robotics science and engineering to meet the future needs of all weapon systems and other associated NNSA/DOE activities.

  9. Investigations of emergency destruction methods for recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions: Interim emergency destruction methods - evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M.R.; Cooper, P.W.; Kipp, M.E. [and others

    1995-07-01

    At the request of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Office, the Sandia Explosives Containment System Design Team investigated mature destruction systems for destroying recovered chemical warfare munitions (CWM). The goal of the investigations was to identify and examine available techniques for the destruction of recovered CWM. The result of this study is a recommendation for an interim solution, a solution for use on any munitions found while an optimal, long-term solution is developed. Sandia is also performing the long-term solution study to develop a system that destroys CWM, contains the blast and fragments, and destroys the chemical agent without insult to the environment.

  10. Impact of emerging antiviral drug resistance on influenza containment and spread: influence of subclinical infection and strategic use of a stockpile containing one or two drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M McCaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wide-scale use of antiviral agents in the event of an influenza pandemic is likely to promote the emergence of drug resistance, with potentially deleterious effects for outbreak control. We explored factors promoting resistance within a dynamic infection model, and considered ways in which one or two drugs might be distributed to delay the spread of resistant strains or mitigate their impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have previously developed a novel deterministic model of influenza transmission that simulates treatment and targeted contact prophylaxis, using a limited stockpile of antiviral agents. This model was extended to incorporate subclinical infections, and the emergence of resistant virus strains under the selective pressure imposed by various uses of one or two antiviral agents. For a fixed clinical attack rate, R(0 rises with the proportion of subclinical infections thus reducing the number of infections amenable to treatment or prophylaxis. In consequence, outbreak control is more difficult, but emergence of drug resistance is relatively uncommon. Where an epidemic may be constrained by use of a single antiviral agent, strategies that combine treatment and prophylaxis are most effective at controlling transmission, at the cost of facilitating the spread of resistant viruses. If two drugs are available, using one drug for treatment and the other for prophylaxis is more effective at preventing propagation of mutant strains than either random allocation or drug cycling strategies. Our model is relatively straightforward, and of necessity makes a number of simplifying assumptions. Our results are, however, consistent with the wider body of work in this area and are able to place related research in context while extending the analysis of resistance emergence and optimal drug use within the constraints of a finite drug stockpile. CONCLUSIONS: Combined treatment and prophylaxis represents optimal use of antiviral agents to

  11. Degradation Of Cementitious Materials Associated With Saltstone Disposal Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P; Smith, F. G. III

    2013-03-19

    The Saltstone facilities at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilize and dispose of low-level radioactive salt solution originating from liquid waste storage tanks at the site. The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives treated salt solution and mixes the aqueous waste with dry cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash to form a grout slurry which is mechanically pumped into concrete disposal cells that compose the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The solidified grout is termed “saltstone”. Cementitious materials play a prominent role in the design and long-term performance of the SDF. The saltstone grout exhibits low permeability and diffusivity, and thus represents a physical barrier to waste release. The waste form is also reducing, which creates a chemical barrier to waste release for certain key radionuclides, notably Tc-99. Similarly, the concrete shell of an SDF disposal unit (SDU) represents an additional physical and chemical barrier to radionuclide release to the environment. Together the waste form and the SDU compose a robust containment structure at the time of facility closure. However, the physical and chemical state of cementitious materials will evolve over time through a variety of phenomena, leading to degraded barrier performance over Performance Assessment (PA) timescales of thousands to tens of thousands of years. Previous studies of cementitious material degradation in the context of low-level waste disposal have identified sulfate attack, carbonation influenced steel corrosion, and decalcification (primary constituent leaching) as the primary chemical degradation phenomena of most relevance to SRS exposure conditions. In this study, degradation time scales for each of these three degradation phenomena are estimated for saltstone and concrete associated with each SDU type under conservative, nominal, and best estimate assumptions. The nominal value (NV) is an intermediate result that is more probable than the conservative

  12. Subseabed Disposal Program Plan. Volume I. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the scientific, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of processed and packaged high-level nuclear waste in geologic formations beneath the world's oceans. High-level waste (HLW) is considered the most difficult of radioactive wastes to dispose of in oceanic geologic formations because of its heat and radiation output. From a scientific standpoint, the understanding developed for the disposal of such HLW can be used for other nuclear wastes (e.g., transuranic - TRU - or low-level) and materials from decommissioned facilities, since any set of barriers competent to contain the heat and radiation outputs of high-level waste will also contain such outputs from low-level waste. If subseabed disposal is found to be feasible for HLW, then other factors such as cost will become more important in considering subseabed emplacement for other nuclear wastes. A secondary objective of the SDP is to develop and maintain a capability to assess and cooperate with the seabed nuclear waste disposal programs of other nations. There are, of course, a number of nations with nuclear programs, and not all of these nations have convenient access to land-based repositories for nuclear waste. Many are attempting to develop legislative and scientific programs that will avoid potential hazards to man, threats to other ocean uses, and marine pollution, and they work together to such purpose in meetings of the international NEA/Seabed Working Group. The US SDP, as the first and most highly developed R and D program in the area, strongly influences the development of subseabed-disposal-related policy in such nations

  13. Subseabed Disposal Program Plan. Volume I. Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The primary objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the scientific, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of processed and packaged high-level nuclear waste in geologic formations beneath the world's oceans. High-level waste (HLW) is considered the most difficult of radioactive wastes to dispose of in oceanic geologic formations because of its heat and radiation output. From a scientific standpoint, the understanding developed for the disposal of such HLW can be used for other nuclear wastes (e.g., transuranic - TRU - or low-level) and materials from decommissioned facilities, since any set of barriers competent to contain the heat and radiation outputs of high-level waste will also contain such outputs from low-level waste. If subseabed disposal is found to be feasible for HLW, then other factors such as cost will become more important in considering subseabed emplacement for other nuclear wastes. A secondary objective of the SDP is to develop and maintain a capability to assess and cooperate with the seabed nuclear waste disposal programs of other nations. There are, of course, a number of nations with nuclear programs, and not all of these nations have convenient access to land-based repositories for nuclear waste. Many are attempting to develop legislative and scientific programs that will avoid potential hazards to man, threats to other ocean uses, and marine pollution, and they work together to such purpose in meetings of the international NEA/Seabed Working Group. The US SDP, as the first and most highly developed R and D program in the area, strongly influences the development of subseabed-disposal-related policy in such nations.

  14. Passive in-situ chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Jonathan S.; Ripley, Edward B.

    2012-02-14

    A chemical sensor for assessing a chemical of interest. In typical embodiments the chemical sensor includes a first thermocouple and second thermocouple. A reactive component is typically disposed proximal to the second thermal couple, and is selected to react with the chemical of interest and generate a temperature variation that may be detected by a comparison of a temperature sensed by the second thermocouple compared with a concurrent temperature detected by the first thermocouple. Further disclosed is a method for assessing a chemical of interest and a method for identifying a reaction temperature for a chemical of interest in a system.

  15. 36 CFR 228.57 - Types of disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of disposal. 228.57... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.57 Types of disposal. Except as provided... qualified bidder after formal advertising and other appropriate public notice; (b) Sale by...

  16. History of geological disposal concept (3). Implementation phase of geological disposal (2000 upward)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important standards and concept about geological disposal have been arranged as an international common base and are being generalized. The authors overview the concept of geological disposal, and would like this paper to help arouse broad discussions for promoting the implementation plan of geological disposal projects in the future. In recent years, the scientific and technological rationality of geological disposal has been recognized internationally. With the addition of discussions from social viewpoints such as ethics, economy, etc., geological disposal projects are in the stage of starting after establishment of social consensus. As an international common base, the following consolidated and systematized items have been presented as indispensable elements in promoting business projects: (1) step-by-step approach, (2) safety case, (3) reversibility and recovery potential, and (4) trust building and communications. This paper outlines the contents of the following cases, where international common base was reflected on the geological disposal projects in Japan: (1) final disposal method and safety regulations, and (2) impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident on geological disposal plan. (A.O.)

  17. Chemical treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third manual of three commissioned by the IAEA on the three principal techniques used in concentrating radioactive liquid wastes, namely chemical precipitation, evaporation and ion exchange. The present manual deals with chemical precipitation by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation, commonly called ''chemical treatment'' of low-activity wastes. Topics discussed in the manual are: (i) principles of coagulation on flocculation and sedimentation and associated processes; (ii) process and equipment; (iii) conditioning and disposal of flocculation sludge; (iv) sampling and the equipment required for experiments; and (v) factors governing the selection of processes. 99 refs, 17 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Waste disposal aspects of actinide separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two recent NRPB reports are summarized (Camplin, W.C., Grimwood, P.D. and White, I.F., The effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of disposal of high-level radioactive waste on the ocean bed, Harwell, National Radiological Protection Board, NRPB-R94 (1980), London, HMSO; Hill, M.D., White, I.F. and Fleishman, A.B., The effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste. Harwell, National Radiological Protection Board, NRPB-R95 (1980), London, HMSO). They describe preliminary environmental assessments relevant to waste arising from the reprocessing of PWR fuel. Details are given of the modelling of transport of radionuclides to man, and of the methodology for calculating effective dose equivalents in man. Emphasis has been placed on the interaction between actinide separation and the disposal options rather than comparison of disposal options. The reports show that the effects of actinide separation do depend on the disposal method. Conditions are outlined where the required substantial further research and development work on actinide separation and recycle would be justified. Toxicity indices or 'toxic potentials' can be misleading and should not be used to guide research and development. (U.K.)

  19. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  20. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: engineered barriers alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves emplacing the waste in a vault excavated at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The solid waste would be isolated from the biosphere by a multibarrier system consisting of engineered barriers, including long-lived containers and clay and cement-based sealing materials, and the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation. The technical feasibility of this concept and its impact on the environment and human health are being documented in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), which will be submitted for review under the federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. This report, one of nine EIS primary references, describes the various alternative designs and materials for engineered barriers that have been considered during the development of the Canadian disposal concept and summarizes engineered barrier concepts being evaluated in other countries. The basis for the selection of a reference engineered barrier system for the EIS is presented. This reference system involves placing used CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) fuel bundles in titanium containers, which would then be emplaced in boreholes drilled in the floor of disposal rooms. Clay-based sealing materials would be used to fill both the space between the containers and the rock and the remaining excavations. In the section on waste forms, the properties of both used-fuel bundles and solidified high-level wastes, which would be produced by treating wastes resulting from the reprocessing of used fuel, are discussed. Methods of solidifying the wastes and the chemical durability of the solidified waste under disposal conditions are reviewed. Various alternative container designs are reviewed, ranging from preliminary conceptual designs to designs that have received extensive prototype testing. Results of structural performance, welding and inspection studies are also summarized. The corrosion of

  1. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: site screening and site evaluation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    carefully characterized to understand the groundwater flow conditions in the rock. This understanding would be used to situate the disposal vault in the rock so as to allow the flow and chemical characteristics of the groundwater to enhance the safety of the disposal system. The geoscience methods for characterizing the conditions within plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield have been developed and tested by AECL at geologic research areas on the Shield. This report presents examples of the site characterization methods which are drawn from the studies at these research areas. The geoscience work performed at the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) on the Shield in southeastern Manitoba comes closest to illustrating the spatial coverage of characterization that would be required for siting an actual nuclear fuel waste disposal vault in a candidate area of the Shield. The characterization work done at the site of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in the WRA demonstrates how to evaluate the geoscience conditions of the rock at a candidate disposal site, and illustrates how that information would be used to confirm the suitability of the site for disposal. This report presents evidence from case studies at the URL and the geologic research areas that the surface-based, borehole and underground site characterization methods developed by AECL are now sufficiently developed that they can be used to obtain the geoscience information needed for siting a disposal vault in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. We expect that these site characterization methods will continue to be improved and that new methods will be developed during the long time period required for implementation of the disposal project. Improvements and new developments are continuing through ongoing research at the site of the URL and at the other geologic research areas on the Shield. However the methods that are currently available are sufficiently well developed to allow siting to commence. (author)

  2. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  3. Pollutant flows from a phosphogypsum disposal area to an estuarine environment: An insight from geochemical signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Macías, Francisco; Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Sarmiento, Aguasanta Miguel; Pérez-Moreno, Silvia María

    2016-05-15

    Phosphogypsum wastes from phosphate fertilizer industries are stockpiled in stacks with high contamination potential. An assessment of the environmental impact, including the use of geochemical tracers such as rare earth elements (REE) and Cl/Br ratios, was carried out in the phosphogypsum stack located at the Estuary of Huelva (SW Spain). Inside the pile, highly polluted acid pore-waters flows up to the edge of the stack, emerging as small fluvial courses, known as edge outflows, which discharge directly into the estuary. The disposal area is divided into four zones; two unrestored zones with surface ponds of industrial process water and two a priori already-restored zones. However, an extensive sampling of edge outflows conducted in the perimeter of the four zones demonstrates the high potential of contamination of the whole stack, including those zones that were supposedly restored. These solutions are characterized by a pH of 1.9 and concentrations of 6100 mg/L for P, 1970 mg/L for S, 600 mg/L for F, 200mg/L for NH4(+), 100mg/L for Fe, 10-30 mg/L for Zn, As and U, and 1-10mg/L for Cr, Cu and Cd. Preliminary restoration actions and those planned for the future prioritize removal of ponded process water and cover of the phosphogypsum with artificial topsoil. These actions presuppose that the ponded process water percolates through the porous medium towards the edge up to reach the estuary. However, geochemical tracers rule out this connection and point to an estuarine origin for these leachates, suggesting a possible tidal-induced leaching of the waste pile in depth. These findings would explain the ineffectiveness of preliminary restoration measures and should be considered for the development of new action plans.

  4. Pollutant flows from a phosphogypsum disposal area to an estuarine environment: An insight from geochemical signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Macías, Francisco; Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Sarmiento, Aguasanta Miguel; Pérez-Moreno, Silvia María

    2016-05-15

    Phosphogypsum wastes from phosphate fertilizer industries are stockpiled in stacks with high contamination potential. An assessment of the environmental impact, including the use of geochemical tracers such as rare earth elements (REE) and Cl/Br ratios, was carried out in the phosphogypsum stack located at the Estuary of Huelva (SW Spain). Inside the pile, highly polluted acid pore-waters flows up to the edge of the stack, emerging as small fluvial courses, known as edge outflows, which discharge directly into the estuary. The disposal area is divided into four zones; two unrestored zones with surface ponds of industrial process water and two a priori already-restored zones. However, an extensive sampling of edge outflows conducted in the perimeter of the four zones demonstrates the high potential of contamination of the whole stack, including those zones that were supposedly restored. These solutions are characterized by a pH of 1.9 and concentrations of 6100 mg/L for P, 1970 mg/L for S, 600 mg/L for F, 200mg/L for NH4(+), 100mg/L for Fe, 10-30 mg/L for Zn, As and U, and 1-10mg/L for Cr, Cu and Cd. Preliminary restoration actions and those planned for the future prioritize removal of ponded process water and cover of the phosphogypsum with artificial topsoil. These actions presuppose that the ponded process water percolates through the porous medium towards the edge up to reach the estuary. However, geochemical tracers rule out this connection and point to an estuarine origin for these leachates, suggesting a possible tidal-induced leaching of the waste pile in depth. These findings would explain the ineffectiveness of preliminary restoration measures and should be considered for the development of new action plans. PMID:26901801

  5. Overview of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of a case study of the Sheffield, Illinois, waste disposal facility, and literature reviews on problems at waste disposal facilities are presented. The types of problems, causes of the problems, and approaches to mitigate the problems are evaluated. The problems identified were surface subsidence, surface erosion, leachate and gas. Leachate resulted from water entry into trenches where subsidence occurred. Subsidence was attributed to random placement of waste containers into trenches leaving voids. The poorly compacted cover soil initially bridged the voids and subsequently collapsed and siphoned into the voids. Surface potholes and slumps resulted. Extensive potholding occurred during and after precipitation when the Sheffield loess soil piped into the voids. Long-term soil consolidation also resulted in area settlement. Potholes and slumps along the tops of walls between trenches constructed of fill were attributed to collapse of the walls into voids. Long-term subsidence was predicted as waste containers degraded and collapsed causing further slumps and potholes over a 50-year period. Excessive surface erosion resulted from poor vegetation cover and inadequacy of drainage controls. Approaches evaluated to stabilize disposal site trenches by compaction included dynamic consolidation, pile driving, surface surcharging, and surface compaction. Stabilization and leachate control by solidification with compaction grouting and chemical grouting were deemed effective but expensive. Accelerated degradation of the wastes by aerobic decomposition of organics and in-situ incineration were found to be less effective. Impervious trench caps were analyzed as a final moisture infiltration and leachate control method after stabilization was achieved. Recommendations for long-term trench maintenance were developed

  6. Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Technologies Topics include: Introduction to Rad Chemistry, Summary of the Rad, Regulations Treatment Technology, and Disposal. The introductions cover atoms, ions, radium and uranium and the removal of radioac...

  7. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives descriptions of underlying chemistry, chemical conditioning, facilities, sterilization and special water treatment. It includes chemical combination and a chemical equation, molarity, normality, application of normality, chemical evaluation and law of mass action. It deals with chemical conditioning for design and management of waste water treatment.

  8. Environmental assistance for tailings disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J.E.S.; Sobkowicz, J.C. [Thurber Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Increasing solids content and reducing water content prior to deposition has become increasingly important in the development of tailings management. In the treatment of fine tailings, traditional dewatering methods such as thickening, flocculation and centrifugation employed to reduce water content and improve consolidation behaviour, have fallen short of final requirements. A new role has been found for the continued and optimal use of environmental methods especially in improving dewatering of tailings deposits. This paper described the salient environmental techniques and benefits in the management of tailings and discussed the quantification of the improvement required in target solids contents and shear strengths for certain oil sands tailings materials. Specifically, the paper discussed environmental methods of dewatering oil sands tailings, with particular reference to solar evaporation; evaporative desiccation; freeze thaw; and biological methods. A geotechnical perspective on dewatering tailings was also presented. Two issues were addressed from this perspective, notably the desirable end-points in terms of solids content and strength for various tailings products; and the improvements in strength that could be obtained by environmental effects during thin-lift deposition. It was concluded that in the medium term, electro-mechanical or chemical methods may prove successful in dewatering and consolidating oil sands tailings. However, in the longer term, environmental methods will continue to be pursued and employed, in the drive to reduce the cost of tailings placement and reclamation. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Cements in Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of cement and concrete to immobilise radioactive waste is complicated by the wide- ranging nature of inorganic cementing agents available as well as the range of service environments in which cement is used and the different functions expected of cement. For example, Portland cement based concretes are widely used as structural materials for construction of vaults and tunnels. These constructions may experience a long pre-closure performance lifetime during which they are required to protect against collapse and ingress of water: strength and impermeability are key desirable characteristics. On the other hand, cement and concrete may be used to form backfills, ranging in permeability. Permeable formulations allow gas readily to escape, while impermeable barriers retard radionuclide transport and reduce access of ground water to the waste. A key feature of cements is that, while fresh, they pass through a fluid phase and can be formed into any shape desired or used to infiltrate other materials thereby enclosing them into a sealed matrix. Thereafter, setting and hardening is automatic and irreversible. Where concrete is used to form structural elements, it is also natural to use cement in other applications as it minimises potential for materials incompatibility. Thus cement- mainly Portland cement- has been widely used as an encapsulant for storage, transport and as a radiation shield for active wastes. Also, to form and stabilise structures such as vaults and silos. Relative to other potential matrices, cement also has a chemical immobilisation potential, reacting with and binding with many radionuclides. The chemical potential of cements is essentially sacrificial, thus limiting their performance lifetime. However performance may also be required in the civil engineering sense, where strength is important, so many factors, including a geochemical description of service conditions, may require to be assessed in order to predict performance lifetime. The

  10. Public values associated with nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the major findings from a study designed to assess public attitudes and values associated with nuclear waste disposal. The first objective was to obtain from selected individuals and organizations value and attitude information which would be useful to decision-makers charged with deciding the ultimate disposal of radioactive waste materials. A second research objective was to obtain information that could be structured and quantified for integration with technical data in a computer-assisted decision model. The third general objective of this research was to test several attitude-value measurement procedures for their relevance and applicability to nuclear waste disposal. The results presented in this report are based on questionnaire responses from 465 study participants

  11. Design, Manufacturing, and Performance estimation of a Disposal Canister for the Ceramic Waste from Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    A pyroprocess is currently being developed by KAERI to cope with a highly accumulated spent nuclear fuel in Korea. The pyroprocess produces a certain amount of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), which is solidified by a ceramic binder. The produced ceramic waste will be confined in a secure disposal canister and then placed in a deep geologic formation so as not to contaminate human environment. In this paper, the development of a disposal canister was overviewed by discussing mainly its design premises, constitution, manufacturing methods, corrosion resistance in a deep geologic environment, radiation shielding, and structural stability. The disposal canister should be safe from thermal, chemical, mechanical, and biological invasions for a very long time so as not to release any kind of radionuclides.

  12. Design, Manufacturing, and Performance estimation of a Disposal Canister for the Ceramic Waste from Pyroprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pyroprocess is currently being developed by KAERI to cope with a highly accumulated spent nuclear fuel in Korea. The pyroprocess produces a certain amount of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), which is solidified by a ceramic binder. The produced ceramic waste will be confined in a secure disposal canister and then placed in a deep geologic formation so as not to contaminate human environment. In this paper, the development of a disposal canister was overviewed by discussing mainly its design premises, constitution, manufacturing methods, corrosion resistance in a deep geologic environment, radiation shielding, and structural stability. The disposal canister should be safe from thermal, chemical, mechanical, and biological invasions for a very long time so as not to release any kind of radionuclides.

  13. Challenges in spent nuclear fuel final disposal:conceptual design models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukhtar Ahmed RANA

    2008-01-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel is a long-standing issue in nuclear technology. Mainly, UO2 and metallic U are used as a fuel in nuclear reactors. Spent nuclear fuel contains fission products and transuranium elements, which would remain radioactive for 104 to 108 years. In this brief communication, essential concepts and engineering elements related to high-level nuclear waste disposal are described. Conceptual design models are described and discussed considering the long-time scale activity of spent nuclear fuel or high level waste. Notions of physical and chemical barriers to contain nuclear waste are highlightened. Concerns regarding integrity, self-irradiation induced decomposition and thermal effects of decay heat on the spent nuclear fuel are also discussed. The question of retrievability of spent nuclear fuel after disposal is considered.

  14. Potential for de-regulated disposal of very low level wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study discussed in this paper was to review the characteristics of low level waste streams generated in commercial nuclear power facilities to determine which may be suitable for disposal by methods other than transfer to a facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and to evaluate the benefits, risks, and costs of exempting such very low level wastes (VLW) from the disposal requirements of 10 CFR Part 61. Of course, wastes that no longer require regulation of their radiological properties are still subject to the regulatory controls - federal, state, or local - that affect non-radioactive wastes of similar chemical and physical properties and similar origins. This study addressed radiological aspects only, and assumed, in its evaluations, that the wastes can and will be disposed of in accordance with all other applicable requirements. 4 references, 1 figure, 6 tables

  15. Disposal of disused sealed sources in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not foreseen by the Belgian operator to dispose radioactive sealed sources in Near Surface Disposal Facility. The adaptation of the generic safety assessment in order to take in account the presence of sealed sources has been made. The level of concern in the context of the long term safety of a near surface disposal is assessed. On the base of the Belgium exemption level and the extrapolation for the disused sources the range of values above which sources could be considered as to have a significant radiological impact is determined. The number of significant medical sources after 300 years is estimated to be 294. For long term safety after 300 years it is obtained the reduction by a factor 10 of the number of sources, when only three radionuclides 241Am, 137Cs and 226Ra should be taken into account for the long term safety (only α and γemitters). The Belgian Near Surface Disposal Concept is presented. Long Term Safety Assessment including assumptions, generic concept, classification, scenarios (Human intrusion scenario) is presented. It is concluded that high actives of long-lived radionuclides sources should be avoided in a near surface disposal facility regarding the human intrusion scenario. If sources are still foreseen, activity limits should be specified together with requirements on their management. Specific limits could be derived from safety or security scenario. Attempts to distribute other sources in each module of the disposal and to set out the monoliths containing sources away from the intruder possible access could be made. Stylised human intrusion scenarios including sources should be developed by discussions with the safety authority. Scenario addressing the Operational phase should include the presence of sources

  16. AFCI Storage & Disposal FY-06 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W G; Wigeland, R; Dixon, B

    2006-09-27

    AFCI Storage and Disposal participants at LLNL, ANL and INL provide assessment of how AFCI technology can optimize the future evolution of the fuel cycle, including optimization of waste management. Evaluation of material storage and repository disposal technical issues provides feedback on criteria and metrics for AFCI, and evaluation of AFCI waste streams provides technical alternatives for future repository optimization. LLNL coordinates this effort that includes repository analysis at ANL and incorporation of repository impacts into AFCI criteria at INL. Cooperative evaluation with YMP staff is pursued to provide a mutually agreed technical base. Cooperation with select international programs is supported.

  17. Environmental restoration waste materials co-disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co-disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste is a highly efficient and cost-saving technology. The technology used for final treatment of soil-washing size fractionization operations is being demonstrated on simulated waste. Treated material (wasterock) is used to stabilize and isolate retired underground waste disposal structures or is used to construct landfills or equivalent surface or subsurface structures. Prototype equipment is under development as well as undergoing standardized testing protocols to prequalify treated waste materials. Polymer and hydraulic cement solidification agents are currently used for geotechnical demonstration activities

  18. Radioactive waste disposal into the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal into ground has sometimes proved to be an expedient and simple method. Where ground disposal has become an established practice, the sites have so far been limited to those remote from population centres; but in other respects, such as in climate and soil conditions, their characteristics vary widely. Experience gained at these sites has illustrated the variety of problems in radioactive waste migration and the resulting pollution and environmental radiation levels that may reasonably be anticipated at other sites, whether remote from population centres or otherwise.

  19. Radioactive metals disposal and recycling impact modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening life cycle assessment models developed to investigate hypothetical disposal and recycling options for the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor heat exchangers were used to generate more complex models addressing the main UK radioactive metals inventory. Both studies show there are significant environmental advantages in the metals recycling promoted by the current low level waste disposal policies, strategies and plans. Financial benefits from current metals treatment options are supported and offer even greater benefits when applied to the UK radioactive metals inventory as a whole. (authors)

  20. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  1. Treatment and disposal of refinery sludges: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, J K; Shekdar, A V

    2003-06-01

    Crude oil is a major source of energy and feedstock for petrochemicals. Oily sludge, bio-sludge and chemical sludge are the major sludges generated from the processes and effluent treatment plants of the refineries engaged in crude oil refining operations. Refineries in India generate about 28,220 tons of sludge per annum. Various types of pollutants like phenols, heavy metals, etc. are present in the sludges and they are treated as hazardous waste. Oily sludge, which is generated in much higher amount compared to other sludges, contains phenol (90-100 mg/kg), nickel (17-25 mg/kg), chromium (27-80 mg/kg), zinc (7-80 mg/kg), manganese (19-24 mg/kg), cadmium (0.8-2 mg/kg), copper (32-120 mg/kg) and lead (0.001-0.12 mg/ kg). Uncontrolled disposal practices of sludges in India cause degradation of environmental and depreciation of aesthetic quality. Environmental impact due to improper sludge management has also been identified. Salient features of various treatment and disposal practices have been discussed. Findings of a case study undertaken by the authors for Numaligarh Refinery in India have been presented. Various system alternatives have been identified for waste management in Numaligarh Refinery. A ranking exercise has been carried out to evaluate the alternatives and select the appropriate one. A detailed design of the selected waste management system has been presented. PMID:12870645

  2. The potential significance of microbial activity in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report is to assess the potential significance of microbial activity in radioactive waste disposal. It outlines the major factors which need to be considered in order to evaluate the importance of microbiological action. These include water and nutritional sources (particularly carbon) hostile conditions (particularly the effects of radiation and pH), the establishment of pH micro-environments and the degradative effect of microbial metabolic by-products on the disposed waste forms. Before an active microbial population can develop there are certain basic requirements for life. These are outlined and the possibility of colonisation occurring within the chemical, radiological and nutritional constraints of a repository are considered. Once colonisation is assumed, the effect of microbial activity is discussed under five headings, i.e. (i) direct attack, (ii) physical disruption (which includes consideration of fissuring processes and void formation), (iii) gas generation (which may be of particular importance), (iv) radionuclide uptake and finally (v) alteration of groundwater chemistry. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of environments becoming established both within the waste form itself (allowing microbes to attack from the inside of the repository outward) or attack on the encapsulant materials (microbes attacking from the outside inward). (author)

  3. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  4. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost every human activity creates some kind of waste. Whether it is harmful, inconvenient, neutral or even positively useful in some other activity depends largely on its nature, which can often be changed by some fairly simple chemical process so as to neutralize harmful wastes, render inconvenient wastes useful, and so on. Radioactive ''waste'' can be extremely harmful or useful, again depending on its form and the way it is handled; but its essential nature cannot be changed or destroyed by any means at present under the control of man. Furthermore, the harmful waste of today may well become the useful raw material of tomorrow. As more and more countries embark on programs of nuclear research and nuclear power, the quantities of radioactive material to be disposed of are rapidly increasing and the problems of safeguarding humanity on the one hand and of storing possibly useful material on the other are assuming great importance. It was for these reasons that the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization combined their forces in sponsoring and organizing, with the co-operation of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, a large scientific conference devoted to the subject of the disposal of radioactive wastes. The Conference was held from 16 to 21 November 1959 at the Oceanographic Museum in Monaco, in deference to the leading position of this institution in the field of oceanography, which is an extremely important discipline in relation to the disposal of wastes into the sea. A total of 283 scientists attended, representing 31 countries and 11 international organizations. It is with the consciousness of offering scientific information of great value to the future progress of an extremely important field of knowledge that I now commend these Proceedings to the earnest attention of all workers in that field

  6. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost every human activity creates some kind of waste. Whether it is harmful, inconvenient, neutral or even positively useful in some other activity depends largely on its nature, which can often be changed by some fairly simple chemical process so as to neutralize harmful wastes, render inconvenient wastes useful, and so on. Radioactive ''waste'' can be extremely harmful or useful, again depending on its form and the way it is handled; but its essential nature cannot be changed or destroyed by any means at present under the control of man. Furthermore, the harmful waste of today may well become the useful raw material of tomorrow. As more and more countries embark on programs of nuclear research and nuclear power, the quantities of radioactive material to be disposed of are rapidly increasing and the problems of safeguarding humanity on the one hand and of storing possibly useful material on the other are assuming great importance. It was for these reasons that the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization combined their forces in sponsoring and organizing, with the co-operation of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, a large scientific conference devoted to the subject of the disposal of radioactive wastes. The Conference was held from 16 to 21 November 1959 at the Oceanographic Museum in Monaco, in deference to the leading position of this institution in the field of oceanography, which is an extremely important discipline in relation to the disposal of wastes into the sea. A total of 283 scientists attended, representing 31 countries and 11 international organizations. It is with the consciousness of offering scientific information of great value to the future progress of an extremely important field of knowledge that I now commend these Proceedings to the earnest attention of all workers in that field

  7. CONTAINMENT OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AT THE DOE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, J.; Flach, G.

    2012-03-29

    As facilities look for permanent storage of toxic materials, they are forced to address the long-term impacts to the environment as well as any individuals living in affected area. As these materials are stored underground, modeling of the contaminant transport through the ground is an essential part of the evaluation. The contaminant transport model must address the long-term degradation of the containment system as well as any movement of the contaminant through the soil and into the groundwater. In order for disposal facilities to meet their performance objectives, engineered and natural barriers are relied upon. Engineered barriers include things like the design of the disposal unit, while natural barriers include things like the depth of soil between the disposal unit and the water table. The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina is an example of a waste disposal unit that must be evaluated over a timeframe of thousands of years. The engineered and natural barriers for the SDF allow it to meet its performance objective over the long time frame. Some waste disposal facilities are required to meet certain standards to ensure public safety. These type of facilities require an engineered containment system to ensure that these requirements are met. The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an example of this type of facility. The facility is evaluated based on a groundwater pathway analysis which considers long-term changes to material properties due to physical and chemical degradation processes. The facility is able to meet these performance objectives due to the multiple engineered and natural barriers to contaminant migration.

  8. Evaluation of the Acceptability of Potential Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Products at the Envirocare Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to review and document the capability of potential products of depleted UF6 conversion to meet the current waste acceptance criteria and other regulatory requirements for disposal at the facility in Clive, Utah, owned by Envirocare of Utah, Inc. The investigation was conducted by identifying issues potentially related to disposal of depleted uranium (DU) products at Envirocare and conducting an initial analysis of them. Discussions were then held with representatives of Envirocare, the state of Utah (which is a NRC Agreement State and, thus, is the cognizant regulatory authority for Envirocare), and DOE Oak Ridge Operations. Provisional issue resolution was then established based on the analysis and discussions and documented in a draft report. The draft report was then reviewed by those providing information and revisions were made, which resulted in this document. Issues that were examined for resolution were (1) license receipt limits for U isotopes; (2) DU product classification as Class A waste; (3) use of non-DOE disposal sites for disposal of DOE material; (4) historical NRC views; (5) definition of chemical reactivity; (6) presence of mobile radionuclides; and (7) National Environmental Policy Act coverage of disposal. The conclusion of this analysis is that an amendment to the Envirocare license issued on October 5, 2000, has reduced the uncertainties regarding disposal of the DU product at Envirocare to the point that they are now comparable with uncertainties associated with the disposal of the DU product at the Nevada Test Site that were discussed in an earlier report

  9. Evaluation of the Acceptability of Potential Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Products at the Envirocare Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.

    2001-01-11

    The purpose of this report is to review and document the capability of potential products of depleted UF{sub 6} conversion to meet the current waste acceptance criteria and other regulatory requirements for disposal at the facility in Clive, Utah, owned by Envirocare of Utah, Inc. The investigation was conducted by identifying issues potentially related to disposal of depleted uranium (DU) products at Envirocare and conducting an initial analysis of them. Discussions were then held with representatives of Envirocare, the state of Utah (which is a NRC Agreement State and, thus, is the cognizant regulatory authority for Envirocare), and DOE Oak Ridge Operations. Provisional issue resolution was then established based on the analysis and discussions and documented in a draft report. The draft report was then reviewed by those providing information and revisions were made, which resulted in this document. Issues that were examined for resolution were (1) license receipt limits for U isotopes; (2) DU product classification as Class A waste; (3) use of non-DOE disposal sites for disposal of DOE material; (4) historical NRC views; (5) definition of chemical reactivity; (6) presence of mobile radionuclides; and (7) National Environmental Policy Act coverage of disposal. The conclusion of this analysis is that an amendment to the Envirocare license issued on October 5, 2000, has reduced the uncertainties regarding disposal of the DU product at Envirocare to the point that they are now comparable with uncertainties associated with the disposal of the DU product at the Nevada Test Site that were discussed in an earlier report.

  10. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  11. Environmental impacts of options for disposal of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) evaluated options for managing its depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) inventory in the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (PEIS) of April 1999. Along with the impacts from other management options, the PEIS discussed the environmental impacts from the disposal of depleted uranium oxide, which could result from the chemical conversion of depleted UF6. It has been suggested that the depleted UF6 could also be converted to uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) and disposed of. This report considers the potential environmental impacts from the disposal of DOE's depleted UF6 inventory after its conversion to UF4. The impacts were evaluated for the same three disposal facility options that were considered in the PEIS for uranium oxide: shallow earthen structures, belowground vaults, and mines. They were evaluated for a dry environmental setting representative of the western United States. To facilitate comparisons and future decision making, the depleted UF4 disposal analyses performed and the results presented in this report are at the same level of detail as that in the PEIS

  12. Isotopic dilution of 233U with depleted uranium for criticality safety in processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of excess 233U as waste is being considered. Because 233U is a fissile material, a key requirement for processing 233U to a final waste form and disposing of it is the avoidance of nuclear criticality. For many processing and disposal options, isotopic dilution is the most feasible and preferred option to avoid nuclear criticality. Isotopic dilution is dilution of fissile 233U with nonfissile 238U. The use of isotopic dilution removes any need to control nuclear criticality in process or disposal facilities through geometry or chemical composition. Isotopic dilution allows the use of existing waste management facilities that are not designed for significant quantities of fissile materials to be used for processing and disposing of 233U. The amount of isotopic dilution required to reduce criticality concerns to reasonable levels was determined in this study to be approximately 0.53 wt % 233U. The numerical calculations used to define this limit consisted of a homogeneous system of silicon dioxide (SiO2), water (H2O), 233U and depleted uranium (DU) in which the ratio of each component was varied to learn the conditions of maximum nuclear reactivity. About 188 parts of DU (0.2 wt % 235U) are required to dilute 1 part of 233U to this limit in a water-moderated system with no SiO2 present. Thus for the U.S. inventory of 233U, several hundred metric tons of DU would be required for isotopic dilution

  13. DEVELOPMENT QUALIFICATION AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; EDGE JA; SWANBERG DJ; ROBBINS RA

    2011-01-13

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  14. DEVELOPMENT, QUALIFICATION, AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  15. The disposal of orphan wastes using the greater confinement disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, radioactive wastes are conventionally classified as high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, or low-level wastes. Each of these types of wastes, by law, has a ''home'' for their final disposal; i.e., high-level wastes are destined for disposal at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, transuranic waste for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and low-level waste for shallow-land disposal sites. However, there are some radioactive wastes within the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of either high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. The former are called ''special-case'' or ''orphan'' wastes. This paper describes an ongoing project sponsored by the DOE's Nevada Operations Office for the disposal of orphan wastes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site at Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site using the greater confinement disposal (GCD) concept. The objectives of the GCD project are to evaluate the safety of the site for disposal of orphan wastes by assessing compliance with pertinent regulations through performance assessment, and to examine the feasibility of this disposal concept as a cost-effective, safe alternative for management of orphan wastes within the DOE complex. Decisions on the use of GCD or other alternate disposal concepts for orphan wastes be expected to be addressed in a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement being prepared by DOE. The ultimate decision to use GCD will require a Record of Decision through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Management, treatment and final disposal of solid hazardous hospital wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical Waste is characterized by its high risk to human health and the environment. The main risk is biological, due to the large amount of biologically contaminated materials present in such waste. However, this does not mean that the chemical and radioactive wastes are less harmful just because they represent a smaller part of the total waste. Hazardous wastes from hospitals can be divided in 3 main categories: Solid Hazardous Hospital Wastes (S.H.H.W.), Liquid Hazardous Hospital Wastes (L.H.H.W.) and Gaseous Hazardous Hospital Wastes (G.H.H.W.) Most gaseous and liquid hazardous wastes are discharged to the environment without treatment. Since this inappropriate disposal practice, however, is not visible to society, there is no societal reaction to such problem. On the contrary, hazardous solid wastes (S.H.H.W.) are visible to society and create worries in the population. As a result, social and political pressures arise, asking for solutions to the disposal problems of such wastes. In response to such pressures and legislation approved by Costa Rica on waste handling and disposal, the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social developed a plan for the handling, treatment, and disposal of hazardous solid wastes at the hospitals and clinics of its system. The objective of the program is to reduce the risk to society of such wastes. In this thesis a cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted to determine the minimum cost at which it is possible to reach a maximum level of reduction in hazardous wastes, transferring to the environment the least possible volume of solid hazardous wastes, and therefore, reducing risk to a minimum. It was found that at the National Children's Hospital the internal handling of hazard solid wastes is conducted with a high level of effectiveness. However, once out of the hospital area, the handling is not effective, because hazardous and common wastes are all mixed together creating a larger amount of S.H.H.W. and reducing the final efficiency

  17. Deep underground disposal of radioactive wastes: Near field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the important near-field effects of the disposal of wastes in deep rock formations. The basic characteristics of waste form, container and package, buffer and backfill materials and potential host-rock types are discussed from the perspective of the performance requirements of the total repository system. Effects of waste emplacement on the separate system components and on the system as a whole are discussed. The effects include interactions between groundwater and brines and the other system components, thermal and thermo-mechanical effects, and chemical and geochemical reactions. Special consideration is given to the radiation field that exists in proximity to the waste containers and also to the coupled effects of different phenomena

  18. Earth Construction and Landfill Disposal Options for Slaker Grits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Pöykiö

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Slaker grits, an industrial residue originating from the chemical recovery process at sulfate (kraft pulp mills, are typically disposed of to landfill in Finland. However, due to the relatively low total heavy metal and low leachable heavy metal, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, Dissolved O rganic Carbon (DOC and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS concentrations, the residue is a potential earth construction material. This paper gives an overview of the relevant Finnish legislation on the use of industrial waste as an earth construction agent, the classification of waste into one of three classes: hazardous waste, non-hazardous waste and inert waste, as well as the broad waste policy goals under EU law that affects their management.

  19. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year

  20. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  1. Recycling disposable cups into paper plastic composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Vandeperre, Luc; Dvorak, Rob; Kosior, Ed; Tarverdi, Karnik; Cheeseman, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    The majority of disposable cups are made from paper plastic laminates (PPL) which consist of high quality cellulose fibre with a thin internal polyethylene coating. There are limited recycling options for PPLs and this has contributed to disposable cups becoming a high profile, problematic waste. In this work disposable cups have been shredded to form PPL flakes and these have been used to reinforce polypropylene to form novel paper plastic composites (PPCs). The PPL flakes and polypropylene were mixed, extruded, pelletised and injection moulded at low temperatures to prevent degradation of the cellulose fibres. The level of PPL flake addition and the use of a maleated polyolefin coupling agent to enhance interfacial adhesion have been investigated. Samples have been characterised using tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis. Use of a coupling agent allows composites containing 40 wt.% of PPL flakes to increase tensile strength of PP by 50% to 30 MPa. The Young modulus also increases from 1 to 2.5 GPa and the work to fracture increases by a factor of 5. The work demonstrates that PPL disposable cups have potential to be beneficially reused as reinforcement in novel polypropylene composites.

  2. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  3. Urban garbage disposal and management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper, probing into the present situation of urban domestic garbage by analyzing its growing trend, compositional change andregional difference, reveals the problems existing in its disposal and management in China. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was conducted in fivebig cities around China for surveying urban residents' attitudes towards garbage disposal and management policies and measures. Results showedthe output of urban domestic garbage in Chinese cities is ever increasing, and the recoverable materials and energy in garbage composition arealso increasing. The population growth, economic development, and increase of residents' expenditure level are the main factors influencing thegrowing output and changing composition of the garbage. Information acquired from the questionnaire showed that majority of the urban residentsare in favor of the garbage reduction policies and managerial measures and are willing to collaborate with municipal government in battlingagainst garbage.Based on the analysis and questionnaire, some polieymaking-oriented suggestions such as operating the garbage disposal from a socialwelfare service to a sector of profit-gaining enterprises, transferring the garbage management from passive end control to active source control,promoting the classified garbage collection in cities around China, and charging garbage fees for its cleanup and disposal, have also been putforward in the paper.

  4. Subseabed Disposal Program plan. Volume I. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the most stable geologic formations are underneath the deep oceans. Purpose of this program is to assess the technical, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of packaged high-level waste and/or repackaged spent reactor fuel in these formations

  5. Nuclear energy: the disposal situation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suitable interim storage sites and ultimate radwaste disposal sites are needed regardless of the future course of nuclear energy. Beside the radwaste due to return from reprocessing abroad, considerable amounts of radwaste are also produced outside the electricity economy (medicine, research). The proponents of a complete phase-out will probably find it hard surendering to the fact that the need for storage capacities (wastes from decommissioning, whole reactor cores) will become all the more urgent the sooner the phase-out of nuclear energy is to take place. The prospective costs of reprocessing forbid holding on to this option. Economically, it would be best to go over to direct ultimate disposal as fast as possible. However, the requirement to furnish proof of adequate provisions having been made for ultimate disposal may yet cause problems, as the dispute over the Gorleben site is still not settled. A viable solution may be to prolong interim storage. This is certainly sensible from the economic viewpoint. The most important advantage of this option is that it can offer some political breathing space. It would take away the pressure to make immediate decisious that might prove wrong in retrospect. The time thus gained could be used to soberly think over the future of nuclear energy and arrive at an overall concept. All options would be retained, e.g., the exploration of other possible ultimate disposal sites, a later return to reprocessing; and, most important of all, a more reflective assessment of nuclear energy. (orig.)

  6. Disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978, the governments of Canada and Ontario established the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program. As of the time of the conference, the research performed by AECL was jointly funded by AECL and Ontario Hydro through the CANDU owners' group. Ontario Hydro have also done some of the research on disposal containers and vault seals. From 1978 to 1992, AECL's research and development on disposal cost about C$413 million, of which C$305 was from funds provided to AECL by the federal government, and C$77 million was from Ontario Hydro. The concept involves the construction of a waste vault 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Used fuel (or possibly solidified reprocessing waste) would be sealed into containers (of copper, titanium or special steel) and emplaced (probably in boreholes) in the vault floor, surrounded by sealing material (buffer). Disposal rooms might be excavated on more than one level. Eventually all excavated openings in the rock would be backfilled and sealed. Research is organized under the following headings: disposal container, waste form, vault seals, geosphere, surface environment, total system, assessment of environmental effects. A federal Environmental Assessment Panel is assessing the concept (holding public hearings for the purpose) and will eventually make recommendations to assist the governments of Canada and Ontario in deciding whether to accept the concept, and how to manage nuclear fuel waste. 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  7. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  8. Ocean disposal of heat generating waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of options for the disposal of vitrified heat generating waste are being studied to ensure that safe methods are available when the time comes for disposal operations to commence. This study has considered the engineering and operational aspects of the Penetrator Option for ocean disposal to enable technical comparisons with other options to be made. In the Penetrator Option concept, waste would be loaded into carefully designed containers which would be launched at a suitable deep ocean site where they would fall freely through the water and would embed themselves completely within the seabed sediments. Radiological protection would be provided by a multi-barrier system including the vitrified waste form, the penetrator containment, the covering sediment and the ocean. Calculations and demonstration have shown that penetrators could easily achieve embedment depths in excess of 30m and preliminary radiological assessments indicate that 30m of intact sediment would be an effective barrier for radionuclide isolation. The study concludes that a 75mm thickness of low carbon steel appears to be sufficient to provide a containment life of 500 to 1000 years during which time the waste heat output would have decayed to an insignificant level. Disposal costs have been assessed. (author)

  9. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were evaluated both in absolute terms and also relative to a base case (current practice). Incremental costs of the standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, defined as the incremental cost per avoided health effect, was calculated for each alternative standard. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis. 15 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  10. Stabilization of a mixed waste sludge for land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solidification and stabilization technique was developed for a chemically complex mixed waste sludge containing nitrate processing wastes, sewage sludge and electroplating wastewaters, among other wastes. The sludge is originally from a solar evaporation pond and has high concentrations of nitrate salts; cadmium, chromium, and nickel concentrations of concern; and low levels of organic constituents and alpha and beta emitters. Sulfide reduction of nitrate and precipitation of metallic species, followed by evaporation to dryness and solidification of the dry sludge in recycled high density polyethylene with added lime was determined to be a satisfactory preparation for land disposal in a mixed waste repository. The application of post-consumer polyethylene has the added benefit of utilizing another problem-causing waste product. A modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure was used to determine required treatment chemical dosages and treatment effectiveness. The waste complexity prohibited use of standard chemical equilibrium methods for prediction of reaction products during treatment. Waste characterization followed by determination of thermodynamic feasibility of oxidation and reduction products. These calculations were shown to be accurate in laboratory testing. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells

  12. The borehole disposal of spent sources (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regional Training Course on 'The Management of Low-Level Radioactive Waste from Hospitals and Other Nuclear Applications' hosted by the Atomic Energy Corporation of SA Ltd. (AEC), now NECSA, during July/August 1995, the African delegates reviewed their national radioactive waste programmes. Among the issues raised, which are common to most African countries, were the lack of adequate storage facilities, lack of disposal solutions and a lack of equipment to implement widely used disposal concepts to dispose of their spent sources. As a result of this meeting, a Technical Co-operation (TC) project was launched to look at the technical feasibility and economic viability of such a concept. Phase I and II of the project have been completed and the results can be seen in three reports produced by NECSA. The Safety Assessment methodology used in the evaluation of the concept was that developed during the ISAM programme and detailed in Van Blerk's PhD thesis. This methodology is specifically developed for shallow land repositories, but was used in this case as the borehole need not be more than 100m deep and could fit into the definition of a shallow land disposal system. The studies found that the BOSS concept would be suitable for implementation in African countries as the borehole has a large capacity for sources and it is possible that an entire country's disused sources can be placed in a single borehole. The costs are a lot lower than for a shallow land trench, and the concept was evaluated using radium (226) sources as the most limiting inventory. The conclusion of the initial safety assessment was that the BOSS concept is robust, and provides a viable alternative for the disposal of radium needles. The concept is expected to provide good assurance of safety at real sites. The extension of the safety assessment to other types of spent sources is expected to be relatively straightforward. Disposal of radium needles

  13. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  14. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  15. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  16. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used

  17. Intercomparison of numerical simulation codes for geologic disposal of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten; Garcia, Julio; Kovscek, Tony; Oldenburg, Curt; Rutqvist, Jonny; Steefel, Carl; Xu, Tianfu

    2002-11-27

    Numerical simulation codes were exercised on a suite of eight test problems that address CO2 disposal into geologic storage reservoirs, including depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and brine aquifers. Processes investigated include single- and multi-phase flow, gas diffusion, partitioning of CO2 into aqueous and oil phases, chemical interactions of CO2 with aqueous fluids and rock minerals, and mechanical changes due to changes in fluid pressures. Representation of fluid properties was also examined. In most cases results obtained from different simulation codes were in satisfactory agreement, providing confidence in the ability of current numerical simulation approaches to handle the physical and chemical processes that would be induced by CO2 disposal in geologic reservoirs. Some discrepancies were also identified and can be traced to differences in fluid property correlations, and space and time discretization.

  18. Standard guide for characterization of spent nuclear fuel in support of geologic repository disposal

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidance for the types and extent of testing that would be involved in characterizing the physical and chemical nature of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in support of its interim storage, transport, and disposal in a geologic repository. This guide applies primarily to commercial light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and spent fuel from weapons production, although the individual tests/analyses may be used as applicable to other spent fuels such as those from research and test reactors. The testing is designed to provide information that supports the design, safety analysis, and performance assessment of a geologic repository for the ultimate disposal of the SNF. 1.2 The testing described includes characterization of such physical attributes as physical appearance, weight, density, shape/geometry, degree, and type of SNF cladding damage. The testing described also includes the measurement/examination of such chemical attributes as radionuclide content, microstructure, and corrosion product c...

  19. Microbial processes in radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Karsten [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology

    2000-04-15

    Independent scientific work has unambiguously demonstrated life to be present in most deep geological formations investigated, down to depths of several kilometres. Microbial processes have consequently become an integral part of the performance safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories. This report presents the research record from the last decade of the microbiology research programme of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) and gives current perspectives of microbial processes in HLW disposal. The goal of the microbiology programme is to understand how microbes may interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. First, for those who are not so familiar with microbes and their ways of living, the concept of 'microbe' is briefly defined. Then, the main characteristics of recognised microbial assemblage and microbial growth, activity and survival are given. The main part of the report summarises data collected during the research period of 1987-1999 and interpretations of these data. Short summaries introduce the research tasks, followed by reviews of the results and insight gained. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulphide and have commonly been observed in groundwater environments typical of Swedish HLW repositories. Consequently, the potential for sulphide corrosion of the copper canisters surrounding the HLW must be considered. The interface between the copper canister and the buffer is of special concern. Despite the fact that nowhere are the environmental constraints for life as strong as here, it has been suggested that SRB could survive and locally produce sulphide in concentrations large enough to cause damage to the canister. Experiments conducted thus far have indicated the opposite. Early studies in the research programme revealed previously unknown microbial ecosystems in igneous rock aquifers at depths exceeding 1000 m. This discovery triggered a thorough exploration of the

  20. Microbial processes in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Independent scientific work has unambiguously demonstrated life to be present in most deep geological formations investigated, down to depths of several kilometres. Microbial processes have consequently become an integral part of the performance safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories. This report presents the research record from the last decade of the microbiology research programme of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) and gives current perspectives of microbial processes in HLW disposal. The goal of the microbiology programme is to understand how microbes may interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. First, for those who are not so familiar with microbes and their ways of living, the concept of 'microbe' is briefly defined. Then, the main characteristics of recognised microbial assemblage and microbial growth, activity and survival are given. The main part of the report summarises data collected during the research period of 1987-1999 and interpretations of these data. Short summaries introduce the research tasks, followed by reviews of the results and insight gained. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulphide and have commonly been observed in groundwater environments typical of Swedish HLW repositories. Consequently, the potential for sulphide corrosion of the copper canisters surrounding the HLW must be considered. The interface between the copper canister and the buffer is of special concern. Despite the fact that nowhere are the environmental constraints for life as strong as here, it has been suggested that SRB could survive and locally produce sulphide in concentrations large enough to cause damage to the canister. Experiments conducted thus far have indicated the opposite. Early studies in the research programme revealed previously unknown microbial ecosystems in igneous rock aquifers at depths exceeding 1000 m. This discovery triggered a thorough exploration of the

  1. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: postclosure assessment of a reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is based on a vault located deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. We document in this report a method to assess the long-term impacts of a disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste. The assessment integrates relevant information from engineering design studies, site investigations, laboratory studies, expert judgment and detailed mathematical analyses to evaluate system performance in terms of safety criteria, guidelines and standards. The method includes the use of quantitative tools such as the Systems Variability Analysis computer Code (SYVAC) to deal with parameter uncertainty and the use of reasoned arguments based on well-established scientific principles. We also document the utility of the method by describing its application to a hypothetical implementation of the concept called the reference disposal system. The reference disposal system generally conforms to the overall characteristics of the concept, except we have made some specific site and design choices so that the assessment would be more realistic. To make the reference system more representative of a real system, we have used the geological observations of the AECL's Whiteshell Research Area located near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, to define the characteristics of the geosphere and the groundwater flow system. This research area has been subject to more than a decade of geological and hydrological studies. The analysis of the reference disposal system provides estimates of radiological and chemical toxicity impacts on members of a critical group and estimates of possible impacts on the environment. The latter impacts include estimates of radiation dose to nonhuman organisms. Other quantitative analyses examine the use of derived constraints to improve the margin of safety, the effectiveness of engineered and natural barriers, and the sensitivity of the results to influential features, events, and processes of the reference disposal

  2. Dredge spoil disposal off Kavaratti Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    Maintenance dredging has been carried out along the navigational channel at Kavaratii Island and dredge spoil is disposed in the open sea. This paper describes the movement of sediment plume while dredging and disposal. The study indicates...

  3. Grout Treatment Facility Land Disposal Restriction Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes management plans directed to result in the land disposal of grouted wastes at the Hanford Grout Facilities in compliance with Federal, State of Washington, and Department of Energy land disposal restrictions. 9 refs., 1 fig

  4. Discussion of the Influence of Flood to Dry Stockpiling Tailings Dam Seepage%洪水对干式堆存尾矿库坝体渗流的影响探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓民; 邹建伟

    2015-01-01

    浸润线是尾矿库坝体稳定分析的基础,干式堆存尾矿库正常运行时库内尾矿呈干燥或不饱和状态,对洪水状况下运行的坝体渗流状态具有较大影响。根据常见尾矿特性,采用土壤渗流基本原理计算分析,探讨了洪水对干式堆存尾矿库坝体渗流的影响程度。结果表明:干式堆存尾矿库的运行条件与湿排尾矿库有本质的区别,洪水对干式堆存尾矿库坝体的渗流影响可忽略不计。%Saturation line is the foundation of the stability analysis of tailing dam,the rolls tailings in dry and unsaturated state during the stockpiling tailings in normal operation,which affect the seepage state of the dam in running state seriously.According to the common characteristics of tailings,the basic principle of soil seepage is used to analyze the influence degree of flood to dry stockpiling tailings dam seepage.The results show that the difference of operation conditions between dry stockpiling tailings and wet exhaust tailings,the influence of flood to dry stockpiling tailings dam seepage can be neglected.

  5. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  6. 20 CFR 209.16 - Disposal of payroll records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposal of payroll records. 209.16 Section... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.16 Disposal of payroll records. Employers may dispose of payroll records for periods subsequent to 1936, provided that the payroll records are more...

  7. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  8. Designing open water disposal for dredged muddy sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, William H.; Adamec, Stephen A.

    1987-11-01

    Open water disposal of muddy sediments in the estuarine environment is practiced to minimize dredging costs and to preserve contained disposal site capacity. Open water sites are usually either dispersive or retentive. Dispersive sites are used in the expectation that disposed sediments will not remain there, but will be transported out of the site, leaving room for additional disposal. Retentive sites are designed to ensure that disposed sediments mostly remain within the site. Choice of one of these approaches depends on the site character, sediment character, and disposal quantities. Design of disposal management plans for both site types is accomplished by use of field observations, laboratory tests, and numerical modeling. Three disposal site studies illustrate the methods used. At the Alcatraz site in San Francisco Bay, a dispersive condition is maintained by use of constraints on dredged mud characteristics that were developed from laboratory tests on erosion rates and from numerical modeling of the dump process. Field experiments were designed to evaluate the management procedure. In Corpus Christi Bay a numerical model was used to determine how much disposed sediment returns to the navigation channel, and to devise a location for disposal that will minimize that return. In Puget Sound a model has been used to ensure that most of the disposed material remains in the site. New techniques, including a piped disposal through 60 m of water, were investigated.

  9. 48 CFR 45.606 - Disposal of scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of scrap. 45.606 Section 45.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.606 Disposal of scrap....

  10. 48 CFR 45.604-1 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 45.604-1 Section 45.604-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.604-1 Disposal methods. (a) Except as...

  11. 5 CFR 581.401 - Aggregate disposable earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aggregate disposable earnings. 581.401 Section 581.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... § 581.401 Aggregate disposable earnings. The “aggregate disposable earnings”, when used in reference...

  12. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  13. Design of near surface disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.W.; Bonne, A.A.; Tamborini, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objectives and essential features including technical requirements and processes for the design of near surface disposal facilities are discussed based on a technical document which has been prepared by the IAEA to provide Member States with technical guidance for developing such repositories. Emphasis is on the integrated aspect of the design requirements considering functions and characteristics of waste, engineered barriers and site, and taking into account disposal implementation activities including construction, operation, closure and post-closure control. Also the multi-staged iterative aspect of the design processes in conjunction with siting, waste characterization and performance assessment is explained. The designer may need to consider an overall waste management system, ensure that a clear definition of regulatory and operational requirements is given early in the process, and identify and take into account, as soon as practicably possible, all of the data/parameters required to achieve the final design.

  14. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operational and technical feasibility of the penetrator option for HGW disposal has been reviewed and the areas where research is required to confirm feasibility have been identified. The research requirements have been presented against the Department's ocean disposal programme timescale on a series of bar charts. The bar charts show the need for theoretical and experimental studies of the basic mechanisms governing hole closure and the development of suitable instrumentation to assess the actual behaviour of the remoulded sediment in deep ocean trials. Detailed planning of deep ocean trials in sufficient time to develop strategy, models and instrumentation, identification of site investigation requirements and thermal response studies of sediments are also required. (author)

  15. Radioactive waste containing vessel for underground disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A canister and an over packing vessel for containing the canister are assembled. Preceding to underground disposal, a sealing medium under a pressurized state is sealed to the space in the overpacking vessel. As the sealing medium, non-compressible medium of a liquid or a fluid such as a mineral oil, vegetable oil, cement mortar is used in an ordinary cases. Alternatively, gases such as of nitrogen or argon are applied for the purpose of increasing pressure of the space portion to more than the pressure of underground water and the like. In the state of the underground disposal, difference of pressure between the external pressure such as of underground water and a pressure of the sealed medium is applied to the wall of the over packing vessel. With such a constitution, since the wall of the over packing vessel can be reduced, the weight and the cost can be reduced. (I.N.)

  16. Nuclear fuel waste disposal. Canada's consultative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past two decades, society has increasingly demanded more public participation and public input into decision-making by governments. Development of the Canadian concept for deep geological disposal of used nuclear fuel has proceeded in a manner that has taken account of the requirements for social acceptability as well as technical excellence. As the agency responsible for development of the disposal concept, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has devoted considerable effort to consultation with the various publics that have an interest in the concept. This evolutionary interactive and consultative process, which has been underway for some 14 years, has attempted to keep the public informed of the technical development of the concept and to invite feedback. This paper describes the major elements of this evolutionary process, which will continue throughout the concept assessment and review process currently in progress. (author)

  17. Status of Swiss waste disposal projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For almost 10 years now, Swiss work on planning and implementing of radioactive waste disposal has been heavily influenced by political and legislative requirements. In the years 1978-1979, continued use of expansion of nuclear power was made dependent upon the provision of projects demonstrating the technical feasibility an the long-term safety of disposal of all types of radioactive waste in Switzerland. This led in January 1985 to the submission to the Swiss Government of the extensive documentation on Project Gewahr 1985, as has been summarized at an earlier Waste Management conference. (Since the english translation Guarantee of the word Gewahr does not convey the full meaning of the german word, the original project denomination is used in this paper)

  18. Improvement of BWR radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description is made here about the improvement of the disposal systems for liquid and solid radioactive waste in recent BWR plants. Regarding the improvement of liquid waste disposal systems in Toshiba, emphasis was laid on crud removal and laundry drain treatment; as a result, a crud removal system utilizing a centrifugal separation mechanism and an evaporative enriching system using anti-foaming agent have been practicalized. An important problem left for solution is the method of volume reduction of solid waste. A method attracting attention of late is the plastic solidification which is far superior to the conventional cement and bitumen solidification. In Toshiba, this method is promising to be practicalized, in which the waste is dried and then solidified with thermosetting resin. (author)

  19. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Yuji; Hakuta, Toshikatsu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, AIST, MITI, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Most countries in the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for their main energy at least for half a country, even in the confrontation with the threat of global warming. This indicates that the development of CO{sub 2} removal technologies such as recovering CO{sub 2} from flue gases and sequestering it of in the deep oceans or subterranean sites is necessary, at least until non-fossil fuel dependent society is developed. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal is one of the promising options for the sequestration of CO{sub 2} recovered from flue gases. Oceans have sufficient capacity to absorb all the CO{sub 2} emitted in the world. It is very significant to research and develop the technologies for ocean CO{sub 2} disposal.

  20. Technologies for immobilization and disposal of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was done within a program one of whose objectives was to know the state of the technology development for tritium separation in the moderator circuit at HWR and to define the possible technologies to be applied to the Argentine nuclear power plants. Within this framework the strategies adopted by each country and the available technologies for a safe disposal of tritium, not only in its gaseous state tritium but also as tritiated water were analyzed. It is considered that if the selected separation method is such that the tritium is in its gaseous state, the hydride formation for long periods of immobilization should be studied. whereas if it were triated water immobilization should be studied to choose the technology between cementation and drying agents, in both cases the final disposal site will have to be selected. (author). 8 refs

  1. Periglacial phenomena affecting nuclear waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niini, H.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Slow future changes in astronomic phenomena seem to make it likely that Finland nll suffer several cold periods during the next 100,000 years. The paper analyses the characteristics of the periglacial factors that are most likely to influence the long-term safety of high-level radioactive waste disposed of in bedrock. These factors and their influences have been divided into two categories, natural and human. It is concluded that the basically natural phenomena are theoretically better understood than the complicated phenomena caused by man. It is therefore important in future research into periglacial phenomena, as well as of the disposal problem, to emphasize not only the proper applications of the results of natural sciences, but especially the effects and control of mankind's own present and future activities.

  2. Overview of the Subseabed Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation addresses the rationale, history, strategy, and management techniques used in the development of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) for both high level waste and spent fuel. The three subsections will summarize first, the US Department of Energy (DOE) high level waste and spent fuel waste disposal strategy and the position that the SDP occupies within that strategy; second, the technical and administrative tools developed to support the long range research and engineering plans defined by the DOE, program management, and program participants and employed to facilitate the day-to-day operation of the SDP; and third, the current studies and plans for addressing the legal, political, and international uncertainties that must be addressed before the SDP reaches the final engineering phases

  3. Fuel corrosion processes under waste disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of the majority of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel under permanent disposal conditions will be controlled by the rate of dissolution of the UO2 fuel matrix. In this manuscript the mechanism of the coupled anodic (fuel dissolution) and cathodic (oxidant reduction) reactions which constitute the overall fuel corrosion process is reviewed, and the many published observations on fuel corrosion under disposal conditions discussed. The primary emphasis is on summarizing the overall mechanistic behaviour and establishing the primary factors likely to control fuel corrosion. Included are discussions on the influence of various oxidants including radiolytic ones, pH, temperature, groundwater composition, and the formation of corrosion product deposits. The relevance of the data recorded on unirradiated UO2 to the interpretation of spent fuel behaviour is included. Based on the review, the data used to develop fuel corrosion models under the conditions anticipated in Yucca Mountain (NV, USA) are evaluated

  4. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  5. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of safe ocean disposal options for heat-generating radioactive waste relies on the existence of suitable disposal sites. This review considers the status of the development of site selection criteria and the results of the study area investigations carried out under various national and international research programmes. In particular, the usefulness of the results obtained is related to the data needed for environmental and emplacement modelling. Preliminary investigations have identified fifteen potential deep ocean study areas in the North Atlantic. From these Great Meteor East (GME), Southern Nares Abyssal Plan (SNAP) and Kings Trough Flank (KTF) were selected for further investigation. The review includes appraisals of regional geology, geophysical studies, sedimentology, geotechnical studies, geochemical studies and oceanography. (author)

  6. Disposal modes for Mars transfer nuclear propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancati, Michael L.; Friedlander, Alan L.

    1991-01-01

    A managed disposal approach is proposed that would place the nuclear stage or vehicle in a highly stable orbit at modest cost to mission performance. The approach requires only a small increase in initial mass in LEO, but should be included in preliminary trajectory design and performance calculations. The mass penalty is expected to be larger for all-up flight profiles, or in cases of high-thrust propulsion systems for the cargo vehicle.

  7. Commercial radioactive waste disposal: marriage or divorce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the state (South Carolina) is doing a good job in regulating the South Carolina disposal facility of Chemo-Nuclear Inc., and that there is no need for the NRC to reassert Federal control. The efforts in developing a low-level site in New Mexico are described. The NRC Task Force report on Federal/state regulation of commercial low-level radioactive waste burial grounds is discussed

  8. Disposal of Hanford site tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1943 and 1986, 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) were built and used to store radioactive wastes generated during reprocessing of irradiated uranium metal fuel elements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. The 149 SSTs, located in 12 separate areas (tank farms) in the 200 East and 200 West areas, currently contain about 1.4 x 105 m3 of solid and liquid wastes. Wastes in the SSTs contain about 5.7 x 1018 Bq (170 MCi) of various radionuclides including 90Sr, 99Tc, 137Cs, and transuranium (TRU) elements. The 28 DSTs also located in the 200 East and West areas contain about 9 x 104 m3 of liquid (mainly) and solid wastes; approximately 4 x 1018Bq (90 MCi) of radionuclides are stored in the DSTs. Important characteristics and features of the various types of SST and DST wastes are described in this paper. However, the principal focus of this paper is on the evolving strategy for final disposal of both the SST and DST wastes. Also provided is a chronology which lists key events and dates in the development of strategies for disposal of Hanford Site tank wastes. One of these strategies involves pretreatment of retrieved tank wastes to separate them into a small volume of high-level radioactive waste requiring, after vitrification, disposal in a deep geologic repository and a large volume of low-level radioactive waste which can be safely disposed of in near-surface facilities at the Hanford Site. The last section of this paper lists and describes some of the pretreatment procedures and processes being considered for removal of important radionuclides from retrieved tank wastes

  9. The management and disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the origin and nature of high, intermediate and low-level radioactive wastes and discusses the NIREX proposals for the effective packaging, storage and disposal of these wastes. The transportation of packaged wastes from their source of origin to a repository and the possible radiation hazards to workers and the public are discussed. The importance of careful selection of repository sites based on local geology, population density and scenic interest are also discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Social impacts of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report an approach is developed for the assessment of socio-economic impacts from radioactive waste disposal. The approach provides recommendations on procedures to be used in identification and prediction of impacts. Two decision-aiding methods are also included. The first provides for the identification of key issues and the illustration of the trade-offs involved in the decision. Multi-attribute scoring and weighting techniques are then proposed for the illustration of impacts using quantitative measures. (author)

  11. Thermal loading effects on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint study on the thermal loading effects on geological disposal was carried out within the European Community Programme on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste by several laboratories in Belgium, France and the Federal Republic of Germany. The purpose of the work was to review the thermal effects induced by the geological disposal of high-level wastes and to assess their consequences on the 'admissible thermal loading' and on waste management in general. Three parallel studies dealt separately with the three geological media being considered for HLW disposal within the CEC programme: granite (leadership: Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA), France), salt (leadership: Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF), Federal Republic of Germany), and clay (leadership: Centre d'etude de l'energie nucleaire (CEN/SCK), Belgium). The studies were based on the following items: only vitrified high-level radioactive waste was considered; the multi-barrier confinement concept was assumed (waste glass, container (with or without overpack), buffer material, rock formation); the disposal was foreseen in a deep mined repository, in an 'in-land' geological formation; only normal situations and processes were covered, no 'accident' scenario being taken into account. Although reasonably representative of a wide variety of situations, the data collected and the results obtained are generic for granite, formation-specific for salt (i.e. related to the north German Zechstein salt formation), and site-specific for clay (i.e. concentrated on the Boom clay layer at the Mol site, Belgium). For each rock type, realistic temperature limits were set, taking into account heat propagation, thermo-mechanical effects inside the rock formations, induced or modified groundwater or brine movement, effects on the buffer material as well as effects on the waste glass and canister, and finally, nuclide transport

  12. Geological disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of the requirements and design features for containers to isolate vitrified heat generating radioactive waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The requirements for handling, storing and transporting containers have been identified following a study of disposal operations, and the pressures and temperatures which may possibly be experienced in clay, granite and salt formations have been estimated. A range of possible container designs have been proposed to satisfy the requirements of each of the disposal environments. Alternative design concepts in corrosion resistant or corrosion allowance material have been suggested. Potentially suitable container shell materials have been selected following a review of corrosion studies and although metals have not been specified in detail, titanium alloys and low carbon steels are thought to be appropriate for corrosion resistant and corrosion allowance designs respectively. Performance requirements for container filler materials have been identified and candidate materials assessed. A preliminary container stress analysis has shown the importance of thermal modelling and that if lead is used as a filler it dominates the stress response of the container. Possible methods of manufacturing disposal containers have been assessed and found to be generally feasible. (author)

  13. Maintenance of records for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of the radioactive waste disposal concepts does not rely on long term institutional arrangements. However, future generations may need information related to repositories and the wastes confined in them. The potentially needed information therefore has to be identified and collected. A suitable system for the preservation of that information needs to be created as a part of the disposal concept beginning with the planning phase. The IAEA has prepared this technical report to respond to the needs of Member States having repositories or involved in or considering the development of repositories. In many countries policies and systems for record keeping and maintenance of information related to disposal are the subjects of current interest. This report describes the requirements for presenting information about repositories for radioactive waste including long lived and transuranic waste and spent fuel if it is declared as a waste. The report discussed topics of identification, transfer and long term retention of high level information pertaining to the repository in a records management system (RMS) for retrieval if it becomes necessary in the future

  14. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures

  15. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS

  16. Management evaluations of waste disposal programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation will discuss one approach to performing a management evaluation of waste disposal programs by: describing how the Department of Energy environment, safety and health (ES and H) oversight activities evolved into a management evaluation program based on three guiding principles showing how these three guiding principles provide a programmatic approach to determine the effectiveness of environment (including waste management), safety and health programs; exploring a process that can be used to conduct a management evaluation of your waste disposal programs using these guiding principles; and describing how these guiding principles are used in performing Safety Management Evaluations at Department of Energy sites. These guiding principles: focusing on line management responsibilities, identification of requirements, and skills and knowledge of the work force; provide a management verses compliance approach to evaluating safety programs (including environmental programs). The Department of Energy approach, which addressed these three guiding principles for conducting Safety Management Evaluations, can serve as a frame work for other federal agencies, public organizations and private companies. Also, although this presentation will focus primarily on waste disposal programs, the approach works equally well in evaluating other environment, safety and health programs

  17. Security of geological disposal in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste with high radioactivity that cannot be reused in the reprocessing of uranium or plutonium is converted to vitrified waste with a stable form. The vitrified waste as high-level radioactive waste is planned to be stored on the ground for 30 to 50 years, and then delivered to the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO), which will store it at deep underground. For vitrified waste, measures are required not to give impact on the living environment of human for more than tens of thousands years. The overpack encapsulating vitrified waste completely cut off the vitrified waste from groundwater. The outside of the overpack is surrounded by bentonite hard to penetrate water. For geological disposal, a simulation has been obtained that even though an active fault directly attacks the vitrified waste 1000 years later and the radioactive materials contained in it reach the ground surface together with groundwater, exposure level would remain at about 10 μSv/year. The safety during operation and transport would meet the standards of IAEA and the Nuclear Regulation Authority. As for the disposal site, surveys to dig tunnels up to the disposal depth are scheduled to be carefully carried out in about 20 years. Even after the promising candidate sites have been disclosed, the reasons and site selection process that respects the wishes of the municipalities will be explained. (A.O.)

  18. Management and disposal of graphite waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technological and radiological assessment has been made of the management options for irradiated graphite wastes from the decommissioning of Magnox and Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors. The main contribution to the radionuclide inventory of irradiated graphite is from activation of the graphite and its stable impurities. Three different packaging methods for graphite have been described; each could be used for either sea or land disposal, and each is logistically feasible and could be achieved at reasonable cost. Leaching tests have been carried out on irradiated graphite, under a variety of conditions including those of the deep ocean bed; the different conditions had little effect on the observed leach rates of radiologically significant radionuclides. Radiological assessments were made of four generic options for disposal of packaged graphite: on the deep ocean bed, in deep geologic repositories at two different types of site, and by shallow land burial. Incineration of graphite was also considered, though this option presents logistical problems additional to those of direct disposal. With appropriate precautions during the lifetime of the 60Co content of the graphite, any of the options considered could give acceptably low doses to individuals, and all the options would merit further investigation in site-specific contexts. (author)

  19. Geological disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of options for the disposal of vitrified heat-generating radioactive waste are being studied to ensure that safe methods are available when the time comes for disposal operations to commence. This study has considered the feasibility of three designs for containers which would isolate the waste from the environment for a minimum period of 500 to 1000 years. The study was sub-divided into the following major sections: manufacturing feasibility; stress analysis; integrity in accidents; cost benefit review. The candidate container designs were taken from the results of a previous study by Ove Arup and Partners (1985) and were developed as the study progressed. Their major features can be summarised as follows: (A) a thin-walled corrosion-resistant metal shell filled with lead or cement grout. (B) an unfilled thick-walled carbon steel shell. (C) an unfilled carbon steel shell planted externally with corrosion-resistant metal. Reference repository conditions in clay, granite and salt, reference disposal operations and metals corrosion data have been taken from various European Community radioactive waste management research and engineering projects. The study concludes that design Types A and B are feasible in manufacturing terms but design Type C is not. It is recommended that model containers should be produced to demonstrate the proposed methods of manufacture and that they should be tested to validate the analytical techniques used. (author)

  20. International low level waste disposal practices and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe management of nuclear waste arising from nuclear activities is an issue of great importance for the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future. The primary goal of this report is to identify the current situation and practices being utilized across the globe to manage and store low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The countries included in this report were selected based on their nuclear power capabilities and involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report highlights the nuclear waste management laws and regulations, current disposal practices, and future plans for facilities of the selected international nuclear countries. For each country presented, background information and the history of nuclear facilities are also summarized to frame the country's nuclear activities and set stage for the management practices employed. The production of nuclear energy, including all the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle, results in the generation of radioactive waste. However, radioactive waste may also be generated by other activities such as medical, laboratory, research institution, or industrial use of radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources, defense and weapons programs, and processing (mostly large scale) of mineral ores or other materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides. Radioactive waste also arises from intervention activities, which are necessary after accidents or to remediate areas affected by past practices. The radioactive waste generated arises in a wide range of physical, chemical, and radiological forms. It may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Levels of activity concentration can vary from extremely high, such as levels associated with spent fuel and residues from fuel reprocessing, to very low, for instance those associated with radioisotope applications. Equally broad is the spectrum of half-lives of the radionuclides contained in the waste. These differences result in an equally wide variety of