WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical spill response

  1. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  2. Systems approach to chemical spill response information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnarouskis, M.C.; Flessner, M.F.; Potts, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) has been specifically designed to meet the emergency needs of US Coast Guard field personnel, currently providing them with information on 900 hazardous chemicals, with methods of predicting hazards resulting from accidental discharges, and with procedures for selecting and implementing response to accident discharges. The major components of CHRIS and the computerized hazard assessment models within the Hazard Assessment Computer System are described in detail.

  3. NOAA's Office of Response and Restoration: Historical Oil and Chemical Spill Incidents Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Incidents database contains reports and images from oil and chemical spills that occurred between 1968 and 2002. The database includes reports on...

  4. Simulation of emergency response operations for a static chemical spill within a building using an opportunistic resource utilization network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lilien, L.T.; Elbes, M.W.; Ben Othmane, L.; Salih, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate supporting emergency response operations with opportunistic resource utilization networks ("oppnets"), based on a network paradigm for inviting and integrating diverse devices and systems available in the environment. We simulate chemical spill on a single floor of a building and

  5. Oil spills - effects and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicks, B.M.; White, I.C.

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of oil spills from offshore industry operates on the United Kingdom continental shelf is reported for the period 1979 to 1988. The properties of North Sea crude oils which determine their fate and effects when spilled onto the surface of the sea are summarized. Examples of oil impacts on specific North Sea habitats and communities are used to illustrate the effect of oil spills and the economic impact on human activities such as recreation, industry and fishing are considered. Since most oil spills will dissipate through natural processes if they remain at sea long enough, the most appropriate response to a spill from a platform in the middle of the sea is often aerial surveillance to monitor the movement and dissipation of the oil. However, if an active response is required, containment and collection of the oil or chemical dispersion are the two main options. In coastal waters, it will be necessary to focus protection efforts on selected sensitive areas of coastline. Once the oil is ashore there are still occasions when the best course of actions is to do nothing as clean-up operations may do more harm than good. If oil removal is feasible and necessary, the methods which are most effective are usually straightforward and require no sophisticated technology. Contingency planning is an essential preparation for all operations to deal with oil spills. (UK)

  6. Oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    The plan outlined in this document specifies the actions that the Canadian Wildlife Service Atlantic Region is mandated to take in the event of an oil spill, or on discovering oiled migratory birds in terrestrial, fresh water, marine and inter-tidal habitats. In addition to describing the role and responsibilities of the Canadian Wildlife Service, the document also describes response plans of other agencies for dealing with all wildlife species affected by oil spills. Reporting paths, the lead agency concept, shared responsibilities with other Canadian Wildlife Service regional offices, provincial agencies, Heritage Canada, non-government wildlife response agencies, oil spill response organizations, and international organizations are outlined. An overview of the reporting and communications process is also provided

  7. Practical aids for freshwater spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, A.E.; Walker, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The current research program at API is focused on the environmental and human health effects from oil spills in freshwater habitats. Components of the program include lessons learned from spill response, development of decision-making protocols for the use of chemicals during initial response operations, preparation of a manual for spill response and contingency planning, and a review of the literature on environmental and human health effects from inland spills. API has reviewed past inland spill responses to identify lessons learned. A survey questionnaire has been developed to collect information from freshwater spill responders on their successes and difficulties in response operations. The questionnaire is tailored to focus on the impact to the operations from the absence of technical/scientific data on environmental effects or operation effectiveness/efficiency as well as to identify situations in which the use of particular response or cleanup options is likely to be effective. The questionnaires will be available at the Conference. Published case studies also will be examined for lessons-learned information. The results will be used to identify and prioritize API research needs in freshwater spill response. General concerns about the effectiveness of the toxicity associated with chemicals in spill response has prevented their use in fresh water. API has begun a detailed survey and interview process with state and federal regulatory personnel to identify their concerns and decision criteria to evaluate the use of chemicals in initial spill response. Ten classes of chemicals were identified for consideration: dispersants, shoreline cleaners, shoreline protection agents, herding agents, solidifiers, demulsifiers, emulsion inhibitors, foaming agents, oxidizing agents, and burning agents

  8. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  9. Spill response trade-offs in a very large spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the physical limitaions on spill encounter rate and how these limitaions affect the are that can be covered in spill response. Since mechanical recovery devices may not be able to cover the affected area in a large spill, in situ burning must be considered as a response option. Further, effective recovered oil logistics is essential to successful response operations and keeping skimmers operating. A successful spill response effort in a very large oil spill often depends on: Prompt response, Skimmer encounter rate, Making a decision for in situ burning, Recovered oil logistics

  10. Effective operational oil spill response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    An operational Contingency Plan is one of the single most important aspects of effective oil spill response operations. It is a spill control game plan. A thorough contingency plan provides a set of guidelines that can be used to help direct all phases of spill response activities. More than simple a compilation of lists and rosters, the contingency plan reflects strategic and philosophical elements of spill response that help to ensure a viable response to any spill incident. Facilities and oil carrying vessels should have well maintained contingency plans with these features. This paper describes the requirement for effective oil spill response pans and the training required to exercise them

  11. Managing an oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, W.F.; Gorell, F.R.

    1994-01-01

    In the oil spill response business everything starts with a plan. When planning is set at only middle and top management levels before being chiseled into corporate marble, the result is all too often a plan for failure. For any chance at success, the plan must make sense to, and solve the problems of, the people at the ''business'' end of the business. In the case of Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), that means highly trained responders are put at sea or along coastlines to remove oil from the water, or to deflect oil away from environmentally sensitive areas. They are fortunate in MSRC, and especially in the Gulf Coast Region, to have on their staff, some of the most knowledgeable and experienced oil spill responders in the world. The company relies on them to help build their plans, and to poke holes wherever their plans are inconsistent with getting the job done right

  12. North Slope mobile technology and its application to spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabile, N.J.; Helinski, R.

    1992-01-01

    At ARCO Alaska's Prudhoe Bay operation, improved preparedness for oil spill response has been achieved by applying mobile technology according to an innovative concept. To ensure safe and efficient deployment of resources during a spill response, a rapid deployment equipment delivery system was developed. This multi-functional, modularized system was based on a previously developed chemical delivery system consisting of a primary transport truck equipped with a Dempsey Dumpster Dinosaur skid. This same modularized concept was used for spill response with the substitution of function-specific spill response vans in place of chemical transport tanks. Within this concept, skid-mounted mission-specific vans are rapidly deployed to multiple sites in a fire brigade type of response. Skid-mounted units include land and water containment, recovery, boom deployment, command center, generator skid, restroom facility, and skimmer units. 4 figs

  13. Oil spill response issues in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempriere, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Washington State statutes and regulations applicable to oil transport and oil spills were described. Specific provisions of the statutes and regulations and other relevant matters were also discussed. Among these were: (1) Washington State oil spill prevention plans, (2) Washington State oil spill contingency plans, (3) best achievable protection, (4) Intertanko's lawsuit against Washington State, (5) oil spill removal organizations, (6) certificates of financial responsibility in Washington State, (7) extent of potential liability under Washington Law, (8) disposal of cleanup materials, and (9) definition of 'qualified individuals' on marine vessels having the authority to implement removal actions

  14. Results from oil spill response research - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent large oil spills from tankers have reaffirmed the need for continuing technology assessment and research to improve oil spill response capabilities. This paper discusses Minerals Management Service concerns, as reinforced by the acceleration of its research program in 1990. It briefly assesses current state-of-the-art technology for major aspects of spill response, including remote sensing, open-ocean containment and recovery, in-situ burning, use of chemical treating agents, beachline cleanup, and oil behavior. Specific research projects have begun to yield information that will improve detection and at-sea equipment performance; current projects include the development of an airborne laser-fluorosensor to determine whether apparent slicks contain oil. Additional projects involve the development of improved strategies for responding to oil in broken-ice conditions, for gaining an improved understanding of the fate and behavior of spilled oil as it affects response strategies, and for defining the capabilities of available dispersants and development of improved formulations. Recently, progress has been made on the development of safe and environmentally acceptable strategies to burn spilled oil in situ. The Ohmsett facility has been reopened and will be used to test prospective improvements in chemical treating agents and to develop standard procedures for testing and evaluating response equipment. Results of research published since the last Oil Spill Conference are discussed

  15. Oil spill response: Countdown to readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, a task force representing America's oil industry set about studying the existing resources across the nation for responding to catastrophic oil spills. In June 1989 the task force reported that the capability did not exist in either government or industry to respond to a spill the magnitude of the one in Alaska. As a result of task force recommendations, 20 companies began the process that led to the creation of both the Marine Preservation Association (MPA) and the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MS-RC). The latter is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with 5 regional response centers around the US. Under the direction of the US Coast Guard, each of MSRC's five regions will provide a best-effort response to cleaning up spill of persistent (crude) oils that are beyond the capabilities of local spill response organizations. MSRC will work closely with both cooperatives and independent, commercial responders to maximize spill response effectiveness. The MPA and its member companies have committed more than $400 million for the acquisition of capital equipment for MSRC, an unprecedented record in American business history. MSRC is also involved in research programs concerning remote sensing, in-situ burning, dispersants, handling of recovered material, and shoreline countermeasures

  16. Risk analysis in oil spill response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernoplekov, A.N.; Alexandrov, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tiered response is a basic approach to emergency plans, including oil spill response (OSR). This paper delineates a huge set of accidental scenarios within a certain tier of response generated by a computer during risk assessment. Parameters such as the amount of oil spilled, duration of discharge and types of losses should be provided in OSR scenarios. Examples of applications include offshore installations, sub sea or onshore pipelines, and localized onshore facilities. The paper demonstrates how to use risk analysis results for delineating all likely spills into groups that need a specific tier response. The best world practices and Russian regulatory approaches were outlined and compared. Corresponding algorithms were developed and their application in pipelines was presented. The algorithm combines expert's skills and spill trajectory modeling with the net environmental benefit analysis principle into the incident specific emergency response planning. 9 refs., 13 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs.

  18. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs

  19. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  20. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084587)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  1. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-19 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084583)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-19 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  2. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-09 to 2010-06-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-09 to 2010-06-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  3. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-21 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084584)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-21 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  4. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-05 to 2010-06-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084569)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-05 to 2010-06-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  5. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084581)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  6. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  7. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-24 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-24 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  8. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084576)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  9. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-18 to 2010-06-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084579)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-18 to 2010-06-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  10. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-27 to 2010-09-01 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084588)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-27 to 2010-09-01 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  11. Spill response : an exercise in teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    An offshore oil spill response exercise was conducted at Hibernia to demonstrate to the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board the emergency response capabilities that are in place in the event of large offshore spills. The Canadian Coast Guard, Eastern Canada Response Corporation Ltd., Hibernia, Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Jeanne d'Arc Basin Operators Group and the Terra Nova Project team participated in the exercise. The exercise was a success in that it demonstrated that the emergency response teams have the capability of containing and recovering large and small offshore oil spills. The two systems that were tested during the exercise were the large wide-swath boom system and a smaller side-sweep system. Two supply vessels worked in tandem. 11 figs

  12. Response to a spill of national significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.S.; Pond, R.; Johnson, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Responding to a spill of national significance (SONS), such as the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill, requires an augmenting organization to support the local response organization. The US Coast Guard has developed SONS protocol to be better prepared to respond to these infrequent catastrophic spills. A flag-level Coast Guard officer assumes the role of national incident commander (NIC) and federal on-scene coordinator (OSC), and is supported by a national incident task force (NITF). The major role of the NITF is to develop a national response strategy, acquire response resources and allocate them efficiently, and effectively deal with many peripheral national issues. Unified command concepts have been incorporated into the NITF and its primary organizational elements. In addition, frequent training and exercising is essential to keep the SONS protocol's preparedness at an acceptable level

  13. Method of cleaning oil slicks and chemical spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of cleaning a floating chemical spill on a body of water. It comprises: providing a quantity of popular bark-based pelleted or granular product, flotation means and a flexible net having openings generally smaller than the smallest whole pellet dimension of the pelleted product, spreading the net over a chemical spill on the body of water, connecting the floatation means to the net thereby supporting the net adjacent the surface of the body of water, placing the poplar bark-based product on the net, absorbing the floating chemical spill into the product, and removing the chemical soaked product from the body of water

  14. Spill response exercises and lessons learned : a response organization's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.; Green, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the past five years, Burrard Clean Operations (BCO) has demonstrated its' oil spill response capabilities through different types of exercises. Such exercises are necessary for certification of Response Organizations in Canada. The exercises can be performed through actual response to spills or through simulated situations. Both can provide an opportunity to practice different levels of response to a range of conditions in various settings. They also provide the opportunity to focus on specific themes that can be part of a response and to identify areas for improvement in response actions. They also make it possible to interface with government agencies, industry and others that participate in spill responses. The exercise program for BCO is aimed at maintaining certification and to assist the Canadian Coast Guard. The exercises broaden the lessons learned and set a course for future enhancement to spill readiness should a real incident occur. The goals of the exercise program are to provide real time drills that show the operational capability of a representative sample of BCO equipment, management and trained spill responders. The response functions of the BCO exercise program are: notification, response organization activation, contractor activation, situation analysis, strategy development for marine oil spill response, site safety, equipment deployment, containment, recovery, shoreline assessment, cleanup, communications, decontamination, logistics, and financial management. The BCO experience has led to the basic conclusions that there is a need to vary the exercise design and format and that there is a need to implement follow-up actions provided during exercise evaluations. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Sacrificial amphiphiles: Eco-friendly chemical herders as oil spill mitigation chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deeksha; Sarker, Bivas; Thadikaran, Keith; John, Vijay; Maldarelli, Charles; John, George

    2015-06-01

    Crude oil spills are a major threat to marine biota and the environment. When light crude oil spills on water, it forms a thin layer that is difficult to clean by any methods of oil spill response. Under these circumstances, a special type of amphiphile termed as "chemical herder" is sprayed onto the water surrounding the spilled oil. The amphiphile forms a monomolecular layer on the water surface, reducing the air-sea surface tension and causing the oil slick to retract into a thick mass that can be burnt in situ. The current best-known chemical herders are chemically stable and nonbiodegradable, and hence remain in the marine ecosystem for years. We architect an eco-friendly, sacrificial, and effective green herder derived from the plant-based small-molecule phytol, which is abundant in the marine environment, as an alternative to the current chemical herders. Phytol consists of a regularly branched chain of isoprene units that form the hydrophobe of the amphiphile; the chain is esterified to cationic groups to form the polar group. The ester linkage is proximal to an allyl bond in phytol, which facilitates the hydrolysis of the amphiphile after adsorption to the sea surface into the phytol hydrophobic tail, which along with the unhydrolyzed herder, remains on the surface to maintain herding action, and the cationic group, which dissolves into the water column. Eventual degradation of the phytol tail and dilution of the cation make these sacrificial amphiphiles eco-friendly. The herding behavior of phytol-based amphiphiles is evaluated as a function of time, temperature, and water salinity to examine their versatility under different conditions, ranging from ice-cold water to hot water. The green chemical herder retracted oil slicks by up to ~500, 700, and 2500% at 5°, 20°, and 35°C, respectively, during the first 10 min of the experiment, which is on a par with the current best chemical herders in practice.

  16. Cold weather oil spill response training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solsberg, L.B.; Owens, E.H.

    2001-01-01

    In April 2000, a three-day oil spill response training program was conducted on Alaska's North Slope. The unique hands-on program was specifically developed for Chevron Corporation's world-wide response team. It featured a combination of classroom and outdoor sessions that helped participants to learn and apply emergency measures in a series of field exercises performed in very cold weather conditions. Temperatures remained below minus 20 degrees C and sometimes reached minus 40 degrees C throughout the training. The classroom instructions introduced participants to the Emergency Prevention Preparedness and Response (EPPR) Working Group's Field Guide for Spill Response in Arctic Waters. This guide provides response strategies specific to the Arctic, including open water, ice and snow conditions. The sessions also reviewed the Alaska Clean Seas Tactics Manual which addresses spill containment and recovery, storage, tracking, burning and disposal. The issues that were emphasized throughout the training program were cold weather safety and survival. During the training sessions, participants were required to set up weather ports and drive snowmobiles and all terrain vehicles. Their mission was to detect oil with infra-red and hand-held devices. They were required to contain the oil by piling snow into snow banks, and by augering, trenching and slotting ice. Oil was removed by trimming operations on solid ice, snow melting, snow blowing, skimming and pumping. In-situ burning was also performed. Other sessions were also conducted develop skills in site characterization and treating oiled shorelines. The successfully conducted field sessions spanned all phases of a cleanup operation in cold weather. 5 refs., 7 figs

  17. Australia's tyranny of distance in oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipscombe, Ray

    2000-01-01

    In view of the quantity of oil spilled, smaller spills generally receive less attention than headline grabbing incidents such as the 'Amoco Cadiz', 'Exxon Valdez', 'Braer' and 'Sea Empress'. The latter incidents involve the loss of significant quantities of oil, the establishment of relatively complex spill response management structures and the involvement of significant numbers of personnel and equipment. As such, large spills from tankers have the potential to create problem areas, for example in establishing and maintaining effective communications, logistics and resource management systems. In general terms spill response personnel are well aware that large spills come complete with significant operational and administrative problems, however what may not be so well recognised is that smaller spills also have the potential to present response personnel with their own unique problems. One of the major problems to be overcome when responding to spills in Australia is the 'tyranny of distance'. In quite a few responses, Australian oil spill response managers have had to move personnel and equipment thousands of kilometres to provide an effective outcome. This paper outlines a range of problems that have been encountered by Australian personnel over the years. These include health and safety, communications, logistics and equipment issues. For the purpose of this paper a 'smaller' spill has been defined as one involving a discharge of less than 1000 tonnes of oil. (Author)

  18. Chemical spill responder's use of website data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turpin, R.; Betsinger, G.

    2001-01-01

    The Emergency Response Team (ERT) of the US Environmental Protection Agency provides technical assistance to state and local government agencies. It has also provided hazardous waste and emergency response assistance to countries in North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Africa and Asia. In order to address the increased level of involvement in multi-governmental response activities and counter terrorist incidents, ERT has developed a responder's technical assistance website. The site contains 6 links that can be divided into the following three information support areas: (1) generation information about ERT, (2) a response resources site which provides information regarding air sampling, monitoring plans, phytoremediation, and information related to oil spill incidents where physical and chemical properties of specific petroleum products are needed. The health and safety section of this site links to the Environment Canada Emergencies Science Division (ESD) website. The ESD site has a document entitled Properties of Crude Oils and Oil Products which provides information on Louisiana crude. This site also provides links to all Federal agency websites that have hazardous waste operations and emergency response requirements or guidelines, and (3) the Weather Information Program (WIP) and Response Operation and Validation Retriever (ROVR) service which provides interactive response pages for Federal on-scene coordinators, remedial project managers and the general public. This paper also described the next generation of ROVR and WIP interactive function involving real-time on-site air plume modeling

  19. Oil spill response in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerffer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The rapid economic development of many countries since World War II has caused a considerable increase in marine transportation of raw materials, especially of crude oils and in offshore activities. However, a significant amount of oil comes into the sea from operational discharges of ships (ballast and bilge water) as well as from incidents such as collisions, groundings and contacts, and offshore exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. These incidents have been the pivotal points in the approach of maritime nations to the protection of the marine environment through international legislation and implementation of rigorous requirements concerning the construction and exploitation of ships and offshore platforms, limiting the possibility and extent of oil spills. A new danger for marine environments has ensued recently though the increasing maritime transport of chemicals. The aim of this book is to introduce these problems, and reflect the level and trends of development in this field. (Author)

  20. PREDICTING EVAPORATION RATES AND TIMES FOR SPILLS OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreadsheet and short-cut methods have been developed for predicting evaporation rates and evaporation times for spills (and constrained baths) of chemical mixtures. Steady-state and time-varying predictions of evaporation rates can be made for six-component mixtures, includ...

  1. The Congressional response to oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumbles, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    March 24, 1989, ushered in a new era for oil spill reform legislation. Once the Exxon Valdez ran aground Bligh Reef and gusher over 11 million gallons of crude oil into pristine waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, Congressional debate on comprehensive federal legislation would never be the same. Stalemate and frustration marked much of the B.V. (Before Valdez) period. Oil spill bills typically died quiet deaths at the end of each Congress. A flurry of legislation and debate has marked the new A.V. (After Valdez) era, however. Spurred by public outrage, members championed far-reaching proposals. For the first time in almost twenty years, both houses passed similar comprehensive reform bills. Some bills even reached the President's desk to become public law. This paper describes previous Congressional responses as well as the 101st Congress's ongoing efforts and highlights specific provisions, issues and recurring themes in proposed comprehensive legislation (S.686 and H.R. 1465). The paper concludes with general observations on the legislation's prospects and impacts

  2. Enhancing spill prevention and response preparedness through quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.; Butts, R.L.; Pickering, T.H.; Lindsay, J.R.; McCully, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    The year 1990 saw passage of federal and state oil spill legislation directing the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to require on shore bulk petroleum storage facilities to improve their oil spill response and prevention capabilities. The Florida Power ampersand Light Company (FPL), to address concerns arising out of several recent significant spills which had occurred worldwide, and to examine its current situation with regard compliance with the new laws, formed a quality improvement interdepartmental task team in July 1989. Its mission was to reduce the potential for oil spills during waterborne transportation between FPL's fuel oil terminals and its power plants and during transfer and storage of oil at these facilities. Another objective of the team was to enhance the company's spill response preparedness. Using quality control tools and reliability techniques, the team conducted a detailed analysis of seven coastal power plants and five fuel oil terminal facilities. This analysis began with the development of cause-and-effect diagrams designed to identify the root causes of spills so that corrective and preventive actions could be taken. These diagram are constructed by listing possible causes of oil spills under various major categories of possible system breakdown, such as man, method, equipment, and materials. Next, potential root causes are identified and then verified. The team identified the occurrence of surface water oil spill and reduced spill response capability as primary concerns and accordingly constructed cause-and-effect diagrams for both components. Lack of proper procedures, failure of control equipment, and inadequate facility design were identified as potential root causes leading to surface water oil spills. Lack of proper procedures, an inconsistent training program, and response equipment limitations were identified as potential root causes affecting oil spill response capabilities

  3. Spills Action Centre summary report of 1992 spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    Environment Ontario's Spills Action Center (SAC) receives and initiates response to spills and other urgent environmental incidents on a 24 h per day basis. The center documented 14,588 occurrence reports in 1992. Two thirds of these involved a range of ministry notification requirements and environmental complaints, while one third involved spills. Information on spills reported in 1992 are summarized. The 5,014 spills reported to SAC in 1992 represent a 5% decrease from 1991. Fewer spills to air accounted for this decrease, while the number of spills to land and water remained unchanged. Oil and fuel spills accounted for 59% of spilled material. Chemical or chemical solutions accounted for ca 15%, wastes or wastewaters 18%, gaseous emissions 6% and unknown for the remainder. Around 20% of spills were less than 10 liters, 57% were less than 100 liters, and 86% were less than 1000 liters. About 28% of the spills had a confirmed environmental impact or adverse affect, two thirds involving soil contamination and around one fifth involving surface water contamination. Twenty-three spills resulted in human health and safety concerns. Around 45% of all spills were completely cleaned up, and an additional 22% were partially cleaned up. Industrial sectors with the largest proportion of reported spills were: transportation, 16%; petroleum, 13%; metallurgical, 6%; general manufacturing, 5%; and chemical, 5%. Public sector spills accounted for 18% of reported spills. Motor vehicles were the largest sources of spills accounting for over 28% of reported spills. 14 figs., 14 tabs

  4. Oil and chemical spill research and development in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU) falls within the UK Department of Transport's Marine Directorate and is the lead agency in the UK for the control of marine pollution. The MPCU assumes central government's responsibility for controlling two aspects of marine pollution: at sea response to oil and chemical spills from ships, and coordinating beach cleaning activities. All research funded by the MPCU is therefore directed at these two responsibilities. The MPCU was established in 1978 after a series of major tanker incidents in European waters (notably the AMOCO CADIZ, France) in recognition of the fact that it was not reasonable to expect the owners of tankers which operate on a world-wide basis to make arrangements for dealing with oil spills wherever they may occur. The UK Government therefore decided to set up a response unit, the MPCU, with specific responsibilities for dealing with oil and chemical spills from ships at sea. The responsibility for dealing with pollution once it comes ashore lies with the local authorities. However, to avoid expenditure by individual authorities on specialized equipment which will be rarely required, the government decided to set up stockpiles of such equipment in strategic locations to be drawn on by authorities as and when necessary. The government also provides training in the use of this equipment, offers scientific and technical advice and, for major spills, will coordinate beach cleaning activities

  5. British Columbia inland oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of the organization, procedures and duties of the provincial government in response to inland oil spills stemming from pipeline or tank-farm rupture, train derailment and vehicle accidents in British Columbia. Provincial response strategies were reviewed, along with their relationships to various policies and standards. Public, infrastructure and environmental protection were identified as key factors. Incident notification procedures were detailed, including outlines of roles, event criteria and call for incident management teams. Agreements and cost recovery issues were examined. The characteristics of site response were reviewed, including details of communications, tactical planning, and unified command among local and federal governments. The role of First Nations and responsible parties was also addressed. Details of shore cleanup, wildlife rescue, decontamination, and waste handling strategies were presented. The organization, missions and duties for an incident management team were outlined, along with a summary of operational guidelines and information on team positions and the establishment of joint information centres. The involvement of cooperating agencies was examined. An incident command system was also presented, including details of planning, operations, logistics, and organization. A checklist of individual duties was provided, with details of responsibilities, safety issues and general instructions for all team members. tabs., figs

  6. Potential Impacts of Spilled Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Chemicals on Water Resources: Types, volumes, and physical-chemical properties of chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid chemicals spilled on-site may impact drinking water resources. While chemicals generally make up <2% of the total injected fluid composition by mass, spills may have undiluted concentrations. HF fluids typically consist of a mixture of base flui...

  7. Remote sensing for oil spill detection and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of remote sensing for marine oil spill detection and response. The surveillance and monitoring of discharges, and the main elements of effective surveillance are discussed. Tactical emergency response and the requirements for selecting a suitable remote sensing approach, airborne remote sensing systems, and the integration of satellite and airborne imaging are examined. Specifications of satellite surveillance systems potentially usable for oil spill detection, and specifications of airborne remote sensing systems suitable for oil spill detection, monitoring and supplemental actions are tabulated, and a schema of integrated satellite-airborne remote sensing (ISARS) is presented. (UK)

  8. Solve your spill response problems with a cooperative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    An important role of a cooperative is to provide its member companies with the latest equipment and updated spill response know-how. Most companies have a primary focus other than spill response, so it is neither easy nor economical for individual companies to obtain or maintain a comprehensive spill response capability. Co-ops offer companies improved capability at lower overall cost. The co-op group can collectively share the cost of larger and more up-to-date equipment than companies can afford individually. Most spill equipment and materials either have a can more effectively provide the means to achieve state-of-the-art technology and keep its equipment and materials ready for use at any time. This paper reviews the benefits and drawbacks of cooperative in the oil and gas industry

  9. 1993 International oil spill conference: Prevention, preparedness, response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1993 International Oil Spill Conference which took place March 29 - April 1 in Tampa, Florida. It was jointly sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute, the US Coast Guard, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Topics discussed included all aspects of spill prevention and preparedness, including planning, training, and research and development. Response issues, including fate and effects of spilled oil, cleanup, bioremediation, and in situ burning were also discussed. Legal and economic issues were also analyzed in the form of case studies

  10. Oil spill models for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgins, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    The need for, and the nature of an oil spill model, were discussed. Modern oil spill models were shown to provide rapid and accurate input of information about a marine spill, as well as to provide powerful visualization methods for displaying output data. Marine oil spill models are designed to answer five questions: (1) where will the oil go in 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, (2) how fast will it move, (3) how big will the slick get, (4) how much will end up on shore and where, and (5) how do the oil properties change. The models are able to provide timely and accurate results by using reasonably complete algorithms for the physics and chemistry governing oil slick evolution that take advantage of computer visualization methods for displaying output data. These models have been made possible through new technologies which have increased access to environmental data on winds, currents and satellite imaging of slicks. Spill modelling is also evolving by taking advantage of the Internet for both acquisition of input data and dissemination of results. 5 figs

  11. Environmental aspects of contingency planning and spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1993-01-01

    Alyeska Pipeline Service Company has implemented an incident command system (ICS) for crisis management within the company for response to spills at all company facilities including the Valdez Marine Terminal. The system is also used by Alyeska acting as the initial response contractor for TAPS laden tankers within Prince William Sound. During the past three years, Alyeska has undertaken a complete review of the spill prevention and response plans for these areas. This poster session focuses on the environmental aspects of the response planning efforts. Information is available on contingency planning updates in the areas of dispersant use, burning as a response tool, bioremediation of marine oil spills, waste management, permitting, coastal resource and sensitive habitat data base, and wildlife protection and management. All of these subjects are addressed in the resource documents (RD) supplementing the contingency plans. The RD revisions have been a coordinated effort, involving operators, agencies, and the public through the citizen advisory group

  12. The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects database (CAFE), a tool that supports assessments of chemical spills in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Farr, James K; Jenne, Polly; Chu, Valerie; Hielscher, Al

    2016-06-01

    The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database is a centralized repository that allows for rapid and unrestricted access to data. Information in CAFE is integrated into a user-friendly tool with modules containing fate and effects data for 32 377 and 4498 chemicals, respectively. Toxicity data are summarized in the form of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) with associated 1st and 5th percentile hazard concentrations (HCs). An assessment of data availability relative to reported chemical incidents showed that CAFE had fate and toxicity data for 32 and 20 chemicals, respectively, of 55 chemicals reported in the US National Response Center database (2000-2014), and fate and toxicity data for 86 and 103, respectively, of 205 chemicals reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2003-2014). Modeled environmental concentrations of 2 hypothetical spills (acrylonitrile, 625 barrels; and denatured ethanol, 857 barrels) were used to demonstrate CAFE's practical application. Most species in the 24-h SSD could be potentially impacted by acrylonitrile and denatured ethanol during the first 35 min and 15 h post spill, respectively, with concentrations falling below their HC5s (17 mg/L and 2676 mg/L) at 45 min and 60 h post spill, respectively. Comparisons of CAFE-based versus published HC5 values for 100 chemicals showed that nearly half of values were within a 2-fold difference, with a relatively small number of comparisons exceeding a 10-fold difference. The development of CAFE facilitates access to relevant environmental information, with potential uses likely expanding beyond those related to assessment of spills in aquatic environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1576-1586. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  13. Calibration and testing of IKU's oil spill contingency and response (OSCAR) model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, M.; Aamo, O.M.; Downing, K.

    1996-01-01

    A computer modeling system entitled Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR), was calibrated and tested using a variety of field observations. The objective of the exercise was to establish model credibility and increase confidence in efforts to compare alternate oil spill response strategies, while maintaining a balance between response costs and environmental protection. The key components of the system are IKU's data-based oil weathering model, a three dimensional oil trajectory and chemical fates model, an oil spill combat model, and exposure models for fish, ichthyoplankton, birds, and marine mammals. Most modelled calculations were in good agreement with field observations. One discrepancy was found which could be attributed to an underestimation of wind drift in the current model. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 32 figs

  14. Typological review of environmental performance metrics (with illustrative examples for oil spill response).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Thomas P; Satterstrom, F Kyle; Linkov, Igor; Tuler, Seth P; Kay, Rebecca

    2007-07-01

    An intensification of interest in environmental assessment during the last 2 decades has driven corporate efforts to better document environmental goals, improve environmental management systems, and increase awareness of the environmental and ecological effects of business operations. This trend has been motivated partly by regulatory requirements (such as the Toxics Release Inventory in the United States) and partly by the inclination of some large manufacturing firms to embrace a broader social and environmental mission characterized as "sustainability" or "ecoefficiency." Moreover, the importance of measurable objectives in the US government has been recognized at least since the Government Performance Results Act of 1993, which was intended to both improve the efficiency of government and the confidence of the American public in government managers. However, in management of environmental crises - such as catastrophic oil or chemical spills - development of measurable performance standards has lagged. Consequently, government spill managers are unable to define success in terms that are easily communicated to public and other stakeholder groups, and they could be disadvantaged in their efforts to deploy response resources with maximum efficiency. In this paper, we present a typological review of environmental assessment measures and summarize some of the current practices and strategic goals among federal agencies with regard to oil and chemical spills. A general approach to organizing metrics for oil spill response, restoration, and recovery is also presented. The results could improve planning efforts and communication among different federal, state, and local agencies and public or stakeholder groups involved in spill management.

  15. Oil spill first principles. Prevention and best response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornitz, B.; Champ, M.

    2002-01-01

    Different international conventions, U.S. laws, and policy considerations are reviewed, regulatory strategies are discussed, and the book helps promote the use of better science, engineering, technology and policy and law in oil spill prevention and response. 'Oil Spill Response' has greatly improved over the last 30 years. On a global basis, billions have been spent in R and D in planning and response. However, a paradigm shift is in the works that is needed to more effectively use what has been learned in the last 30 years in both prevention and in clean up. The key terms that describe this paradigm shift are Best Science, Engineering and Technology produce Best Response and the Safety Culture prevents oil spills. Oil spills are no longer considered unavoidable 'accidents' of environmental conditions or functions of catastrophic events. More than 80% of all spills are the result of human error. The focus of the current legal, regulatory and convention framework affecting the transportation of oil by ship reflects a recent change in public attitude, an insistence upon protection of the world's marine environments, particularly coastal ecosystems. This public concern seeks to address the root cause of oil spills, including human error. The outcome of such national and international attention is the creation of significant legal and political motivators for a cultural shift by the oil shipping industry, from an 'evasion' culture to a 'safety culture'. The new 'safety culture' connotes continuous improvement in ship operations and a willingness to adopt the evolving safety culture concepts of communication at all levels within the company, better trained and qualified personnel on board ship, emphasis on safety from top down, and proactive institution of safety management systems at all levels of operation. Evasion or mere compliance with international and national law is no longer sufficient for future sustainable shipping

  16. Oil spill first principles. Prevention and best response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ornitz, B.; Champ, M. (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    Different international conventions, U.S. laws, and policy considerations are reviewed, regulatory strategies are discussed, and the book helps promote the use of better science, engineering, technology and policy and law in oil spill prevention and response. 'Oil Spill Response' has greatly improved over the last 30 years. On a global basis, billions have been spent in R and D in planning and response. However, a paradigm shift is in the works that is needed to more effectively use what has been learned in the last 30 years in both prevention and in clean up. The key terms that describe this paradigm shift are Best Science, Engineering and Technology produce Best Response and the Safety Culture prevents oil spills. Oil spills are no longer considered unavoidable 'accidents' of environmental conditions or functions of catastrophic events. More than 80% of all spills are the result of human error. The focus of the current legal, regulatory and convention framework affecting the transportation of oil by ship reflects a recent change in public attitude, an insistence upon protection of the world's marine environments, particularly coastal ecosystems. This public concern seeks to address the root cause of oil spills, including human error. The outcome of such national and international attention is the creation of significant legal and political motivators for a cultural shift by the oil shipping industry, from an 'evasion' culture to a 'safety culture'. The new 'safety culture' connotes continuous improvement in ship operations and a willingness to adopt the evolving safety culture concepts of communication at all levels within the company, better trained and qualified personnel on board ship, emphasis on safety from top down, and proactive institution of safety management systems at all levels of operation. Evasion or mere compliance with international and national law is no longer sufficient for future

  17. The contribution of air cushioned vehicles in oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, M.W.; McGrath, J.

    1993-01-01

    On July 22, 1991, the Tuo Hai, a 46,500 ton Chinese grain carrier, collided with the Tenyo Maru, a 4,800 ton Japanese fish processing ship, off the coast of Washington State. The Tenyo Maru sank, creating an oil spill that cost upwards of $4 million (US) to clean up. The incident initiated a joint response from the US and Canadian governments. As part of this response, the Canadian Coast Guard mobilized an SRN-6 hovercraft. This air cushioned vehicle (ACV) provided logistical support to responders on both sides of the international boundary. The response operation along the Pacific Coast was extensive. Dense fog and the remote location of the impacted area provided formidable challenges to the cleanup effort. It was the mission scenario of the Canadian SRN-6 hovercraft to provide logistical support-as an experiment in ACV utility-to the organizations responding to this incident. Based on this experience, it can be argued that the hovercraft offers great potential value in responding to marine oil spills. Appropriate application of ACV technology can enhance oil spill response work, spill waste management, and incident surveillance. This paper discusses the contribution of the SRN-6 hovercraft to the Tenyo Maru response, briefly examines the use of another, very different hovercraft, during a response in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and reviews a new hovercraft design and discusses its potential contributions

  18. Quantitative design of emergency monitoring network for river chemical spills based on discrete entropy theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bin; Jiang, Jiping; Sivakumar, Bellie; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Peng

    2018-05-01

    Field monitoring strategy is critical for disaster preparedness and watershed emergency environmental management. However, development of such is also highly challenging. Despite the efforts and progress thus far, no definitive guidelines or solutions are available worldwide for quantitatively designing a monitoring network in response to river chemical spill incidents, except general rules based on administrative divisions or arbitrary interpolation on routine monitoring sections. To address this gap, a novel framework for spatial-temporal network design was proposed in this study. The framework combines contaminant transport modelling with discrete entropy theory and spectral analysis. The water quality model was applied to forecast the spatio-temporal distribution of contaminant after spills and then corresponding information transfer indexes (ITIs) and Fourier approximation periodic functions were estimated as critical measures for setting sampling locations and times. The results indicate that the framework can produce scientific preparedness plans of emergency monitoring based on scenario analysis of spill risks as well as rapid design as soon as the incident happened but not prepared. The framework was applied to a hypothetical spill case based on tracer experiment and a real nitrobenzene spill incident case to demonstrate its suitability and effectiveness. The newly-designed temporal-spatial monitoring network captured major pollution information at relatively low costs. It showed obvious benefits for follow-up early-warning and treatment as well as for aftermath recovery and assessment. The underlying drivers of ITIs as well as the limitations and uncertainty of the approach were analyzed based on the case studies. Comparison with existing monitoring network design approaches, management implications, and generalized applicability were also discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mercury Spill Responses - Five States, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Ryan J; Hirsch, Anne E; Bush, Christina R; Schmitz, Stuart; Wenzel, Jeff

    2017-03-17

    Despite measures to educate the public about the dangers of elemental mercury, spills continue to occur in homes, schools, health care facilities, and other settings, endangering the public's health and requiring costly cleanup. Mercury is most efficiently absorbed by the lungs, and exposure to high levels of mercury vapor after a release can cause cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, and visual disturbances (1). Children and fetuses are most susceptible to the adverse effects of mercury vapor exposure. Because their organ systems are still developing, children have increased respiratory rates, and they are closer to the ground where mercury vapors are most highly concentrated (2). To summarize key features of recent mercury spills and lessons learned, five state health departments involved in the cleanup (Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, and Wisconsin) compiled data from various sources on nonthermometer mercury spills from 2012 to 2015. The most common sites of contamination were residences, schools and school buses, health care facilities, and commercial and industrial facilities. Children aged mercury exposure. To protect the public's health after a mercury spill, it is important that local, state, and federal agencies communicate and coordinate effectively to ensure a quick response, and to minimize the spread of contamination. To reduce the number of mercury spills that occur in the United States, public health officials should increase awareness about exchange programs for mercury-containing items and educate school and health care workers about sources of mercury and how to dispose of them properly.

  20. OSCAR2000 : a multi-component 3-dimensional oil spill contingency and response model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, M.; Daling, P.S.; Brakstad, O.G.; Singsaas, I.; Faksness, L.-G.; Hetland, B.; Ekrol, N.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers at SINTEF in Norway have studied the weathering of surface oil. They developed a realistic model to analyze alternative spill response strategies. The model represented the formation and composition of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of oil for both treated and untreated oil spills. As many as 25 components, pseudo-components, or metabolites were allowed for the specification of oil. Calculations effected using OSCAR were verified in great detail on numerous occasions. The model made it possible to determine rather realistically the dissolution, transformation, and toxicology of dispersed oil clouds, as well as evaporation, emulsification, and natural dispersion. OSCAR comprised a data-based oil weathering model, a three-dimensional oil trajectory and chemical fates model, an oil spill combat model, exposure models for birds, marine mammals, fish and ichthyoplankton. 17 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs

  1. Sensitivity mapping for oil spill response. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Making and updating sensitivity maps are key activities in the oil spill contingency planning process. These maps convey essential information to spill responders by showing where the different coastal resources are, and by indicating environmentally sensitive areas. The making of a map involves assembling information on resources and deciding on what guidelines for spill response should be included, through consultation with relevant organizations. This can be done regardless of whether or not the benefits of computerized Geographic Information Systems and databases are available. Uses of sensitivity maps range from planning practical site-specific shore protection and clean-up to strategic planning for large remote areas. This report provides information and guidelines on different map types, categories of information to be included, and symbols, with reference to the different users and their requirements. (UK)

  2. Oil spill response, prevention and impact: lesson from Tasman spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, I.A.; Doggar, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Nearly half of the world oil is transported is transported by sea. Due to high shipping density coastal water is at high risk. Oil spills in the coastal areas endanger public health, devastate natural resources, and disrupt local economy. The Pakistani coast was hit by the worst ever ecological disaster on 27th July 03, when The Greek vessel 'Tasman Spirit', carrying 67,000 tonnes of crude oil grounded at Karachi port. High concentration of oil vapours along the affected shoreline caused discomfort. The contamination and losses could further be limited by taking appropriate actions. There is a need bring in significant improvements in oil spill prevention and response planning. This paper described the risks associated with oils spill and contingency planning to meet this situation. (author)

  3. Maximum tech, minimum time. Response and cleanup of the Fidalgo Bay oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintler, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    A booster pump failure on a pipeline at Texaco's Anacortes refinery spilled more than 17,000 gallons of oil into Fidalgo Bay. A description is given of the spill control measures taken under Texaco's Spill Prevention and Control Countermeasures and facility contingency plans. The spill was addressed quickly, and containment booms were used to cordon off the spill. Vacuum trucks, rope mop machines and disk skimmers were used to collect the thickest concentrations of oil, and the oil and water collected was separated at the refinery's wastewater treatment centre. Nonwoven polypropylene sorbent pads, sweeps, booms and oil snares were used to clean up thinner concentrations of oil. Essential steps for a smooth spill response include the following: a comprehensive spill prevention and control countermeasures plan, training and regular drills and testing; immediate notification of appropriate regulatory agencies and company emergency response personnel; and the use of professional oil spill management contractors to assist in spill cleanup. 2 figs

  4. Oil spill response planning on the Columbia river estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopherson, S.K.; Slyman, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Columbia River Estuary lies along the Washington-Oregon state boundary on the west coast of the United States. The entire area is environmentally very sensitive with numerous large, shallow bays, exposed mud flats, wetland areas, and central channels having maximum currents of three to four knots. These features make the area very difficult to protect from an oil spill. Spill response is further complicated because of the many different state, federal, and local jurisdictions with mandated responsibilities in oil spill response and environmental protection. Under the leadership of the US Coast Guard Marine Safety Office in Portland, Oregon, a steering group was established to guide the development of a response plan for the Columbia River Estuary. A concerted effort was made to include representatives from response organizations, natural resource agencies, and resource users from federal, state, and local governments, and commercial sectors in the planning process. The first draft of an operational response plan was completed the summer of 1992 through a combination of technical workshops, field trips, and small working groups meeting with local communities. The Columbia River Estuary Response Plan prioritizes areas to protect; identifies specific response strategies for protecting these areas; and outlines the Iogistics needed to implement these strategies, including equipment needs, the location of staging areas, and the identification of pre-designed command posts. The local spill response cooperative and oil transportation industry are using the plan to coordinate the purchase of response equipment and the staging of this equipment at numerous locations along the river. The key to success is ensuring that all the groups responding to an event participate in the planning process together. This process has worked well and will serve as a model for response planning for other areas along the Columbia River and coastal areas of Washington and Oregon

  5. Low-cost wave characterization modules for oil spill response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Skinner

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine oil spills can be remediated by mechanical skimmers in calm waters, but performance degrades with increased wave height. We have developed and demonstrated a system that quantifies local wave characteristics with an uncertainty of four inches of heave. Our system is intended for the measurement of wave characteristics during oil spill recovery. It conveys this information to coordinators and responders in real time via WiFi and remote reporting through a satellite network. This information will allow for enhanced situational awareness during an oil spill response, assisting stakeholders and optimizing mechanical skimming operations. Our wave characterization module (WCM uses accelerometer outputs from a very small inertial measurement unit (IMU to generate wave statistics and calculate wave characteristics. It is configured such that a WCM can either be attached to a skimmer float or incorporated into a microbuoy. Wave height and period are transmitted via WiFi and/or a satellite-enabled mesh-grid network to a cloud-hosted geographic information system (GIS. Here, we discuss the bare-bones sensors-plus-algorithm approach we developed by using spring-mass systems to approximate the wave height and period regime of interest. We then describe open water tests carried out using that development system both mounted to a weir skimmer mockup and packaged in a microbuoy. Finally, we present controlled tests in the wave tank at Ohmsett, the National Oil Spill Response Test Facility in New Jersey, with the WCMs communicating the wave characteristics via WiFi to tankside laptops and via satellite to the cloud-based GIS. Snapshot determinations of wave height calculated using the scalar magnitude of the three-axis accelerometer in the IMU were within four inches of the benchmark wave measurement system at Ohmsett. Keywords: Oil spill, Wave characterization module, Inertial measurement unit, Microbuoy

  6. Alyeska/SERVS technological innovations for oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of technological innovations in spill response by Alyeska Pipeline Service Company/SERVS (ship escort response vessel system), was presented. The company has developed a number of spill response techniques which have needed new strategies and modified equipment for fulfillment of the Prince William Sound Tanker Oil Discharge Prevention and Contingency Plan. One of the strategies was the training of personnel to be ready to deploy massive quantities of equipment on short notice to potential spill sites over an 11,000 square mile water body with more than 3,200 miles of wilderness shoreline. Specific response equipment and decision-making tools have been developed in direct support of large scale programs. Along with oil slick tracking buoys and mini barges, SERVS has developed high capacity skimmers with recovery capacities approaching 2,000 to 3,000 barrels of liquid per hour and strategy boom-towing vessels which divert oil into a long U shaped containment boom. SERVS fishing vessel program, hatchery protection and remote response center equipment program, and wildlife treatment facilities were also described. 10 refs., 13 figs

  7. An integrated approach to shoreline mapping for spill response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; LeBlanc, S.R.; Percy, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    A desktop mapping package was introduced which has the capability to provide consistent and standardized application of mapping and data collection/generation techniques. Its application in oil spill cleanup was discussed. The data base can be updated easily as new information becomes available. This provides a response team with access to a wide range of information that would otherwise be difficult to obtain. Standard terms and definitions and shoreline segmentation procedures are part of the system to describe the shore-zone character and shore-zone oiling conditions. The program that is in place for Atlantic Canada involves the integration of (1) Environment Canada's SCAT methodology in pre-spill data generation, (2) shoreline segmentation, (3) response management by objectives, (4) Environment Canada's national sensitivity mapping program, and (5) Environment Canada's field guide for the protection and treatment of oiled shorelines. 7 refs., 6 figs

  8. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  9. Development of quantitative methods for spill response planning: a trajectory analysis planner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galt, J.A.; Payton, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    In planning for response to oil spills, a great deal of information must be assimilated. Typically, geophysical flow patterns, ocean turbulence, complex chemical processes, ecological setting, fisheries activities, economics of land use, and engineering constraints on response equipment all need to be considered. This presents a formidable analysis problem. It can be shown, however, that if an appropriate set of evaluation data is available, an objective function and appropriate constraints can be formulated. From these equations, the response problem can be cast in terms of game theory of decision analysis and an optimal solution can be obtained using common scarce-resource allocation methods. The optimal solution obtained by this procedure maximises the expected return over all possible implementations of a given set of response options. While considering the development of an optimal spill response, it is useful to consider whether (in the absence of complete data) implementing some subset of these methods is possible to provide relevant and useful information for the spill planning process, even though it may fall short of a statistically optimal solution. In this work we introduce a trajectory analysis planning (TAP) methodology that can provide a cohesive framework for integrating physical transport processes, environmental sensitivity of regional sites, and potential response options. This trajectory analysis planning methodology can be shown to implement a significant part of the game theory analysis and provide 'minimum regret' strategy advice, without actually carrying out the optimisation procedures. (Author)

  10. A concern-based method to prioritize spill response activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, A.; Bart, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) of the Emergencies Division of Environment Canada in the Ontario Region developed a computerized method to help rank segments of shoreline according to levels of concern in the event of an oil spill. The original SCAT approach was designed to allow survey teams to acquire information about the state of shoreline spills so that assessments of oilings would be comparable in time and space. The SCAT method, which allows several decision makers to obtain an unbiased evaluation of the oiling situation, has been recognized in both Canada and the United States as a method that ensures the consistency of data gathering and processing for prioritization purposes. The concern-based prioritization system was integrated within the computerized response tools used by the SCAT team using tools such as the Great Lakes Electronic Environmental Sensitivities Atlas (GLEESA), a geographic information system (GIS) of environmental data, and Shore Assess, a GIS based computerized system used to provide support during a response phase of a spill. It was noted that this method is considered to be a practical response tool designed around the principles of performance support and cybernetics to help decision makers set priorities. It is not designed for pre-impact assessment. Instead, it ensures that existing knowledge of the spill characteristics and environmental conditions are used in a consistent and logical method to prioritize contingency plans. The factors used to evaluate concern for oiling, shoreline type and land use were described. Factors for concern assessment of biological organisms include the status of organisms as being either endangered, threatened, vulnerable, special concern, or not at risk. Characteristics of the species, potential effect of the pollutant and potential effect from response activities are other factors for concern. The method evaluates the concern for every category using a simple algorithm which is

  11. Salt marsh recovery from a crude oil spill: Vegetation, oil weathering, and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, R.Z.; Shigenaka, G.; Henry, C.B. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    When a spill of Prudhoe Bay crude oil covered a fringing Salicornia virginica marsh in Fidalgo Bay, Washington (northern Puget Sound) in February 1991, response personnel used several low-impact techniques to remove oil from the marsh, and minimized access by cleanup workers. Following the response, a monitoring program was established to track marsh recovery, and to document the effectiveness of the response techniques used and their impacts on the marsh. Through monthly sampling over a 16-month period, vegetative growth was monitored and chemical degradation of remaining oil was tracked. Sampling was conducted along transects located in four areas affected in different ways by the spill, including an oiled, trampled section; an oiled, vacuumed section; and an oiled, washed, and vacuumed section. In addition, a control transect was established in an unoiled adjacent marsh. The study included both biological and chemical components. Biological measurements included percent cover of live vegetation (sampled monthly) and below-ground plant biomass (sampled at the beginning of each growing season in April 1991 and April 1992). Sediment samples included surface sediment (monthly) and core samples collected at the beginning and end of the growing seasons. Sediment samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, and indicator compounds were tracked to determine rates of oil degradation. Results from 16 months of post-spill monitoring show that foot trampling was most detrimental to marsh plants, while washing with vacuuming removed the most oil and minimized adverse impacts to vegetation. Dense clay substrate helped prevent oil from penetrating the sediment, thus minimizing acute toxic effects from oil exposure to marsh plant rootstock. By the second growing season post-spill, Salicornia and other marsh plants were growing in all areas except one heavily oiled patch

  12. New Learning Methods for Marine Oil Spill Response Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justiina Halonen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Finland the Regional Fire and Rescue Services (RFRS are responsible for near shore oil spill response and shoreline cleanup operations. In addition, they assist in other types of maritime incidents, such as search and rescue operations and fire-fighting on board. These statutory assignments require the RFRS to have capability to act both on land and at sea. As maritime incidents occur infrequently, little routine has been established. In order to improve their performance in maritime operations, the RFRS are participating in a new oil spill training programme to be launched by South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences. This training programme aims to utilize new educational methods; e-learning and simulator based training. In addition to fully exploiting the existing navigational bridge simulator, radio communication simulator and crisis management simulator, an entirely new simulator is developed. This simulator is designed to model the oil recovery process; recovery method, rate and volume in various conditions with different oil types. New simulator enables creation of a comprehensive training programme covering training tasks from a distress call to the completion of an oil spill response operation. Structure of the training programme, as well as the training objectives, are based on the findings from competence and education surveys conducted in spring 2016. In these results, a need for vessel maneuvering and navigation exercises together with actual response measures training were emphasized. Also additional training for maritime radio communication, GMDSS-emergency protocols and collaboration with maritime authorities were seemed important. This paper describes new approach to the maritime operations training designed for rescue authorities, a way of learning by doing, without mobilising the vessels at sea.

  13. Australia's tyranny of distance in oil spill response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscombe, Ray [Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Environment Protection Group, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    2000-08-01

    In view of the quantity of oil spilled, smaller spills generally receive less attention than headline grabbing incidents such as the 'Amoco Cadiz', 'Exxon Valdez', 'Braer' and 'Sea Empress'. The latter incidents involve the loss of significant quantities of oil, the establishment of relatively complex spill response management structures and the involvement of significant numbers of personnel and equipment. As such, large spills from tankers have the potential to create problem areas, for example in establishing and maintaining effective communications, logistics and resource management systems. In general terms spill response personnel are well aware that large spills come complete with significant operational and administrative problems, however what may not be so well recognised is that smaller spills also have the potential to present response personnel with their own unique problems. One of the major problems to be overcome when responding to spills in Australia is the 'tyranny of distance'. In quite a few responses, Australian oil spill response managers have had to move personnel and equipment thousands of kilometres to provide an effective outcome. This paper outlines a range of problems that have been encountered by Australian personnel over the years. These include health and safety, communications, logistics and equipment issues. For the purpose of this paper a 'smaller' spill has been defined as one involving a discharge of less than 1000 tonnes of oil. (Author)

  14. US Coast Guard national spill response resource inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraitis, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) mandated the establishment of a National Response Unit, now renamed the National Strike Force Coordination Center (NSFCC). Among the duties OPA 90 assigned to this new Coast Guard unit was to compile and maintain a comprehensive list of spill removal resources, personnel, and equipment that is available to Federal and State agencies and to the public. The Coast Guard's Research and Development Center has been developing this project, the Response Resource Inventory (RRI), for one year. The RRI is expected to be operational, with resource data from industry in the data base, by the time of the International Oil Spill Conference in March 1993. The RRI will contain data on skimmers, specialized oil recovery vessels, oil/water separators, dispersants and delivery systems, etc. Previous attempts to maintain a national data base of these response resources, including an earlier Coast Guard system called the Spill Cleanup Equipment Inventory System (SKIM), fell into disuse for a number of reasons. Inaccuracies caused by inadvertent double counting of equipment and outdated information coupled with difficulties in accessing the information were common shortfalls of early systems. During the development of the RRI, user-group meetings were held to determine system requirements and study the failures of previous systems. Methods of obtaining and entering data were a major concern during RRI development. A data collection system that supplies the resource holder with a DOS-formatted diskette containing a collection program will be used. The program will make extensive use of pick lists to minimize the data entry burden on the resource holder and maintain standard entries. When the program is completed, the diskette will be mailed to the NSFCC, where the data will be transferred quickly to the RRI data base. Easy access to the data for the public and industry will be afforded mainly through a computer bulletin board

  15. Occupational-health aspects of marine oil-spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.M.; Holliday, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper with 108 references examines the effect on oil spill cleanup workers of exposure to the crude oil via inhalation and dermal contact, and discusses exposure and the nature of crude oil, routes and magnitudes of exposure, and special cases such as the formation of aerosols, and the effect of in-situ burning of the oil on the chemical hazards associated with cleanup. The acute and chronic health effects of inhalation exposure, and the effect of exposure to oil mists and aerosols are considered. The acute and chronic health effects of dermal exposure are addressed, and some epidemiologic studies on petroleum refinery and petrochemical workers are listed with details of the methodology used and the study findings given. The chemical and physical properties of two crude oils are tabulated. (UK)

  16. The management of acute risks. Oil spill contingency planning and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monk, D.C.; Cormack, D.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that the risks of environmental damage can be best minimized by preventing oil spills from occurring at all. Since absolute prevention is unrealistic, however, early detection is essential and aerial surveillance techniques are of great value in this connection. If spills do occur, proper contingency planning and clean-up techniques can minimize impacts, but will rarely avoid them completely if the spilled oil reaches the coastline. It is evident that a main priority should be to prevent spilled oil reaching the coastline. The way in which oil spill response strategy is implemented is discussed in detail. It is based on four key elements: the allocation of responsibilities; contingency planning; training and exercises; regular audit of plans and response mechanisms. A case study of the oil spill strategy employed at the Sullom Voe oil terminal in Shetland is used as an illustration. (UK)

  17. ARKTOS amphibious oil spill response craft for mixed ice/water conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, Bruce H.J.W. [ARKTOS International S.A., Tavannes (Switzerland)], email: bruce.seligman@arktoscraft.com; Hall, T.A. [Hall Marine Design Ltd., Vancouver B.C. (Canada)], email: thallhmd@telus.net

    2010-07-01

    The oil spill which occurred recently in the Gulf of Mexico highlighted the lack of efficient oil spill clean-up equipment for an offshore environment. With the increase in industrial operations in the Arctic Seas it is of high importance to develop an efficient oil spill response as the absence of reliable oil spill contingency plans will not be tolerated in such environmentally sensitive areas. The aim of this paper is to present the use of the ARKTOS amphibious craft for cleaning up an oil spill in the Arctic. This craft is usually used for logistical services and evacuation purposes; its use for clean-up purposes has been under study since 2000. This study showed that the ARKTOS craft could be an efficient means for oil spill clean-up in the Arctic because of its proven ice capable amphibious platforms and its hydraulic power; however oil collection trials should be performed to validate it.

  18. ARKTOS amphibious oil spill response craft for mixed ice/water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seligman, Bruce H.J.W.; Hall, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    The oil spill which occurred recently in the Gulf of Mexico highlighted the lack of efficient oil spill clean-up equipment for an offshore environment. With the increase in industrial operations in the Arctic Seas it is of high importance to develop an efficient oil spill response as the absence of reliable oil spill contingency plans will not be tolerated in such environmentally sensitive areas. The aim of this paper is to present the use of the ARKTOS amphibious craft for cleaning up an oil spill in the Arctic. This craft is usually used for logistical services and evacuation purposes; its use for clean-up purposes has been under study since 2000. This study showed that the ARKTOS craft could be an efficient means for oil spill clean-up in the Arctic because of its proven ice capable amphibious platforms and its hydraulic power; however oil collection trials should be performed to validate it.

  19. Department of Defense support to spill response operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducey, D.L. Jr.; Walker, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD), operating through the Directorate of Military Support in the Department of the Army, supports state, local and other federal agency response operations in a wide range of natural and man-caused emergencies. Examples within the past six years include the Ashland Oil tank collapse in Floreffe, Pennsylvania, Exxon Valdez cleanup, Loma Prieta earthquake, hurricanes Hugo and Andrew, Mexico City earthquake, Armero (Columbia) volcanic eruption, and Puerto Rico floods and mud slides. From March 24 to September 27, 1989, the period of the Exxon Valdez initial cleanup operations, DOD provided military and civilian personnel, US Navy ships for housing response workers, cargo and medical evacuation aircraft (fixed wing and helicopters), skimmers, modified dredges, landing craft, Dracones, Zodiak boats, radios, computers, and other miscellaneous equipment. This was in addition to assets of the Alaska Army and Air National Guard, which were committed by the governor. Support was provided to the US Coast Guard on scene coordinator and supervised by the Alaska Oil Spill Joint Task Force. The General Accounting Office, in its January 1990 report, Federal Costs Resulting from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, estimated that DOD spent $62.8 million through September 30, 1989, the largest expenditure by any federal agency. Use of military resources is a realistic scenario in certain situations. Primary responders at the federal and state level should understand how to request and employ these assets. This paper provides a background on DOD support to disaster relief operations, and discusses the types of support available to agencies responding to natural or man-caused emergencies, request and approval mechanisms, the Department of Defence organization to provide support, and reimbursement of the department

  20. Oil spill response planning under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound on March 24, 1989 illustrated the need for more resources, better planning, and better command and control to efficiently and effectively respond to, contain and cleanup catastrophic oil spills. In response to public concern and industry initiatives to resolve existing oil spill response problems. Congress enacted the comprehensive Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90) on August 18, 1990. OPA-90 mandates comprehensive changes in vessel and facility response planning, envisioning a comprehensive and integrated oil spill response planning scheme, with revisions to reflect OPA-90's new requirements. Area Committees comprised of federal, state and local officials and others will prepare Area Contingency Plans for Coast Guard approval, which set forth the framework for responding to open-quotes worst case dischargesclose quotes. Owners and operators of tank vessels and onshore and offshore facilities must submit individual response plans for federal approval by February 18, 1993, identifying and ensuring availability of private personnel and equipment necessary to remove to the maximum extent practicable a open-quotes worst case discharge.close quotes The Coast Guard is considering rules to implement these requirements. Major challenges exist to meet the statutory requirements, including response times, skimming efficiencies, adverse weather and others that affect emergency response capability. This paper focuses on: (1) oil spill response problems identified and lessons learned from the Prince William Sound spill; (2) OPA-90's complex and technical oil spill response planning requirements and their effect on response planning for marine operations; (3) the federal regulatory program to implement OPA-90, defining spill response capability for a open-quotes worst case discharge,close quotes considering existing response resources and the new capabilities by the industry-supported Marine Spill Response Corporation

  1. Hospital Impact After a Chemical Spill That Compromised the Potable Water Supply: West Virginia, January 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Joy; Del Rosario, Maria C; Thomasson, Erica; Bixler, Danae; Haddy, Loretta; Duncan, Mary Anne

    2017-10-01

    In January 2014, a chemical spill of 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol and propylene glycol phenyl ethers contaminated the potable water supply of approximately 300,000 West Virginia residents. To understand the spill's impact on hospital operations, we surveyed representatives from 10 hospitals in the affected area during January 2014. We found that the spill-related loss of potable water affected many aspects of hospital patient care (eg, surgery, endoscopy, hemodialysis, and infection control of Clostridium difficile). Hospital emergency preparedness planning could be enhanced by specifying alternative sources of potable water sufficient for hemodialysis, C. difficile infection control, and hospital processing and cleaning needs (in addition to drinking water). (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:621-624).

  2. Report of the BC [British Columbia] Citizens Advisory Committee on Oil Spill Prevention and Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The British Columbia Citizens Advisory Committee on Oil Spill Prevention and Response was established in 1991 to advise the provincial government of public concerns over oil spill prevention, preparedness, and response. The Committee also monitors provincial and joint provincial/western USA initiatives in the area. The Committee notes that the volume of oil tanker traffic through navigationally risky passages along the British Columbia coast is large and that prevention is the most useful method in dealing with oil spills. Committee concerns are summarized in the areas of government committment, design and construction of oil tankers and barges, oil spill issues related to ports, the Low Point Terminal proposal, waste oil collection and disposal, spill response capability, the Strait of Georgia Oil Spill Response Information System, the use of volunteer auxiliaries and the Youth Corps in oil spill response, wildlife rescue and rehabilitation, coordination of response activities, and the future of the Committee. Recommendations to the government are made with respect to the aforementioned areas of concern

  3. Physical, chemical and biological observations and modeling of oil spills in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribotti, A.; De Dominicis, M.

    2016-11-01

    According to a definition of GESAMP, United Nations advisory body on scientific aspects of marine protection, a marine pollution is: "direct or indirect introduction by man of substances or energy into the marine environment … which results in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of water quality and reduction of marine attractions". The works presented in this Special Issue stem from the need to manage the problem of marine pollution. The categories of pollutants associated with the maritime traffic are mainly hydrocarbons and chemicals. Hydrocarbon is the oil in all its forms, including the crude oil, the fuel oil, the sludges, debris and other refined products (as defined by MARPOL 73/78 Annex I (MARPOL, 1978)). An oil spill is a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term often refers to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the open ocean or coastal waters. Oil spills include releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, and heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. Oil spills can have devastating effects on the marine environment and can jeopardize the functional integrity of the marine ecosystem (seabirds populations, fish communities, and marine mammals), as reported in Jackson et al. (1989), Piatt and Anderson (1996), Peterson et al. (2003). While being toxic to marine life, the hydrocarbons are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment. Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carries can pollute ports, waterways and oceans. In many instances vessels intentionally discharge illegal wastes despite foreign and domestic regulation prohibiting

  4. Oil spill prevention and response: How to comply with OPA and OSPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, L.

    1995-01-01

    When there is a man-made catastrophic event that adversely affects environment or the health and safety of the public, the government steps in to make and enforce laws to help prevent the reoccurrence of such events. This is the case with the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) which was signed into law by President Bush in August of 1990. According to the EPA, the federal government received 42,000 notifications of oil discharges during the years of 1988 through 1990. In 1989, 38 spills exceeded 100,000 gallons including the infamous Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound. The Federal government has not been alone in its interest with oil spill prevention and response. Many states have also enacted laws with the intent of protecting the environment from damage due to oil spills. The state of Texas enacted the Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act (OSPRA) of 1991 which compliments and expands on OPA. The most significant requirement of both of these laws is that of the Facility Response Plan (FRP). Both Federal and State agencies encourage the development of one plan for spill response and prevention. The use of one plan makes sense because this eliminates the opportunity for discrepancies land simplifies response during an actual spill. The purpose of this paper is to aid the petroleum industry in determining whether it is required to have a FRP, and if it is, how to develop a plan that will comply with both OPA and OSPRA

  5. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-26 to 2010-05-30 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-26 to 2010-05-30 in response to the...

  6. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-05 to 2010-08-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069111)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-05 to 2010-08-14 in response to the...

  7. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-15 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069126)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-15 in response to the...

  8. Chemical and laboratory analyses oceanographic data collected aboard the Wes Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074863)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and laboratory analyses oceanographic data were collected aboard the Wes Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in response to the...

  9. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069112)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-09-02 in response to the...

  10. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-21 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-21 to 2010-09-02 in response to the...

  11. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069113)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-17 in response to the...

  12. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the American Diver in the Gulf of Mexico on 2010-08-04 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the American Diver in the Gulf of Mexico on 2010-08-04 in response to the Deepwater Horizon...

  13. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-11 to 2010-07-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084582)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-11 to 2010-07-13 in response to the...

  14. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the PELICAN in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the PELICAN in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater...

  15. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-15 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-15 in response to the...

  16. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-31 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0070332)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-31 in response to...

  17. Chemical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-03 to 2010-07-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074854)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-03 to 2010-07-07 in response to the...

  18. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069120)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-08 in response to the...

  19. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the Arctic in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0068955)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the Arctic in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-14 in response to the Deepwater...

  20. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-15 to 2010-06-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069083)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-15 to 2010-06-28 in response to...

  1. Development of the oil spill response cost-effectiveness analytical tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; Welch, J.

    2005-01-01

    Decision-making during oil spill response operations or contingency planning requires balancing the need to remove as much oil as possible from the environment with the desire to minimize the impact of response operations on the environment they are intended to protect. This paper discussed the creation of a computer tool developed to help in planning and decision-making during response operations. The Oil Spill Response Cost-Effectiveness Analytical Tool (OSRCEAT) was developed to compare the costs of response with the benefits of response in both hypothetical and actual oil spills. The computer-based analytical tool can assist responders and contingency planners in decision-making processes as well as act as a basis of discussion in the evaluation of response options. Using inputs on spill parameters, location and response options, OSRCEAT can calculate response cost, costs of environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the oil spill and response impacts. Oil damages without any response are contrasted to oil damages with response, with expected improvements. Response damages are subtracted from the difference in damages with and without response in order to derive a more accurate response benefit. An OSRCEAT user can test various response options to compare potential benefits in order to maximize response benefit. OSRCEAT is best used to compare and contrast the relative benefits and costs of various response options. 50 refs., 19 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Accidental pollution in the ocean: besides crude oil, chemicals and other spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, M.

    2003-01-01

    Accidental pollution of the seas is usually illustrated by the shipwreck of tankers carrying crude oil. We must look beyond this image since such accidents spill substances other than petrochemicals. We need but mention the Levoli Sun's accident near the Cotentin peninsula, France, one year after the Erika went down. And what about spills of agricultural and food products? An accidental spill as apparently harmless as wheat might have serious effects on not just the environment but also human health. In all cases, two major series of questions crop up: 1) Is it necessary to intervene? If so, are we able to? And if we can, how to fight against spills? 2) What are the short- and long-term effects on the environment and on all human activities related to the sea (fishing, fish-farming, salt production, tourism, salt-water cures, etc.)? These two questions have a common denominator: the need to know how spilled products react. This knowledge conditions both the operational response for fighting against pollution and the assessment of the impact on the maritime environment. (author)

  3. Analysis of inland crude oil spill threats, vulnerabilities, and emergency response in the midwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Thomas M; Di Bianca, Paisly; Krysa, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Although coastal oil spills tend to be highly publicized, crude oil spills in the United States affect inland areas relatively often. Spills to inland areas often affect sensitive environments and can have greater impacts to health and welfare than spills to coastal areas. For these reasons, the authors investigated inland crude oil spill threats, vulnerabilities, and emergency response in the midwestern U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. These states work with the Region 5 Offices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Region 5's geospatial data in the Inland Sensitivity Atlas were turned into metrics indicating inland crude oil spill threats and vulnerabilities among the Region's sub-watersheds. These threats and vulnerabilities were weighted using data from the National Response Center and the Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration Priority System. The locations of the Region's emergency responders were geocoded in GIS. The GIS calculated the emergency response times to the Region's sub-watersheds. The resulting scatter plots are connected to the sub-watersheds in the map so stakeholders can (1) see the outlying sub-watersheds of concern and (2) better understand how reducing threats and better response time can reduce the risk of inland crude oil spills. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  4. Oil spill response engineering and planning. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, M.R.; Celikkol, B.; Goodwin, C.E.; Carrier, R.; McDonald, S.P.

    1991-12-01

    Tanker and barge traffic associated with the five petroleum product terminals along the NH side of the Piscataqua River represents a constant oil spill threat to the contiguous Great Bay System, NH, an estuarine reserve. Several serious accidents have in fact taken place in the 1970's and two small spills in 1990. A major factor is that the Piscataqua channel is subject to high velocity tidal currents. Should a spill occur, problems arise in knowing where the slick will move and how to control it using booms. In the project, these problems were addressed by developing procedures for using diversion booms in high speed current environments and in revising and implementing a previously developed Oil Spill Trajectory Model

  5. Significance of cytochrome P450 system responses and levels of bile fluorescent aromatic compounds in marine wildlife following oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.F.; Anderson, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships among cytochrome P450 induction in marine wildlife species, levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC) in their bile, the chemical composition of the inducing compounds, the significance of the exposure pathway, and any resulting injury, as a consequence of exposure to crude oil following a spill, are reviewed. Fish collected after oil spills often show increases in cytochrome P450 system activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and bile fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC), that are correlated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the oil. There is also some evidence for increases in bile FAC and induction of cytochrome P450 in marine birds and mammals after oil spills. However, when observed, increases in these exposure indicators are transitory and generally decrease to background levels within one year after the exposure. Laboratory studies have shown induction of cytochrome P450 systems occurs after exposure of fish to crude oil in water, sediment or food. Most of the PAH found in crude oil (dominantly 2- and 3-ring PAH) are not strong inducers of cytochrome P450. Exposure to the 4-ring chrysenes or the photooxidized products of the PAH may account for the cytochrome P450 responses in fish collected from oil-spill sites. The contribution of non-spill background PAH, particularly combustion-derived (pyrogenic) PAH, to bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses can be confounding and needs to be considered when evaluating oil spill effects. The ubiquity of pyrogenic PAH makes it important to fully characterize all sources of PAH, including PAH from natural resources, e.g. retene, in oil spill studies. In addition, such parameters as species, sex, age, ambient temperature and season need to be taken into account. While increases in fish bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses, can together, be sensitive general indicators of PAH exposure after an oil spill, there is little unequivocal evidence to suggest a linkage to

  6. Emergency material allocation with time-varying supply-demand based on dynamic optimization method for river chemical spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Guo, Liang; Jiang, Jiping; Jiang, Dexun; Wang, Peng

    2018-04-13

    Aiming to minimize the damage caused by river chemical spills, efficient emergency material allocation is critical for an actual emergency rescue decision-making in a quick response. In this study, an emergency material allocation framework based on time-varying supply-demand constraint is developed to allocate emergency material, minimize the emergency response time, and satisfy the dynamic emergency material requirements in post-accident phases dealing with river chemical spills. In this study, the theoretically critical emergency response time is firstly obtained for the emergency material allocation system to select a series of appropriate emergency material warehouses as potential supportive centers. Then, an enumeration method is applied to identify the practically critical emergency response time, the optimum emergency material allocation and replenishment scheme. Finally, the developed framework is applied to a computational experiment based on south-to-north water transfer project in China. The results illustrate that the proposed methodology is a simple and flexible tool for appropriately allocating emergency material to satisfy time-dynamic demands during emergency decision-making. Therefore, the decision-makers can identify an appropriate emergency material allocation scheme in a balance between time-effective and cost-effective objectives under the different emergency pollution conditions.

  7. Risk assessment of the upstream petroleum industry's oil spill response equipment capability in western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotherspoon, P.; Brown, L.; Sawyer, M.

    1993-01-01

    A key component in the development of an effective onshore oil spill response capability is the type, condition, and geographical placement of oil spill equipment. When spill response equipment is first being purchased for a particular operating area, a brief analysis should be conducted to ensure that the equipment would provide an adequate response capability for that area. This response capability may change over time with variations in oil field production capabilities, pipelines and markets, company ownerships, manpower availability, and other logistical changes. Equipment may also become inoperable or redundant. These problems may be effectively addressed if one operator or spill cooperative actively reviews their spill response capabilities on a regular (annual) basis. However, when multiple operators and cooperatives exist over an extensive geographical area, the responsibility for regularly review of the capabilities of spill equipment may become lost in the organizational structure and in other responsibilities. In addition, the responsibility to conduct a multiarea review of the surrounding area may never be identified

  8. Quebec region's shoreline segmentation in the St. Lawrence River : response tool for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laforest, S.; Martin, V.

    2004-01-01

    Environment Canada, the Canadian Coast Guard, and the Eastern Canada Response Corporation are developing and refining pre-spill databases containing information about physical shoreline characteristics. Automated links between these pre-spill shoreline characteristic databases and computerized shoreline assessment tools have also been created using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. The pre-spill databases can be used for planning shoreline cleanup operations. A training exercise, designed to evaluate a spill management system integrating the Quebec region pre-spill shoreline database and the ShoreAssess R shoreline assessment system was performed by Eastern Canada Response Corporation during an aerial survey where shoreline was segmented into digitized information. The cartography of segmentation covers the fluvial part of the St. Lawrence River. The oil spill-oriented database includes geomorphologic information from the supratidal to the lower intertidal zones. It also includes some statistical information and other requirements for cleanup operations. The computerized shoreline assessment tools made it possible to evaluate the length and type of shoreline that would potentially be impacted by oil. The tools also made it possible to assess the shoreline treatment methods most likely to be used, and evaluate the probable duration of the cleanup operation. The training exercise demonstrated that the integration of the databases is a valuable tool during the early phases of an oil spill response. 9 refs., 3 figs

  9. Treatment of oil spill fire hazards with chemical dispersants: a case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, S.

    1982-10-01

    Federal contingency plans include the use of chemical dispersants to ameliorate hazardous situations caused by spills of flammable or explosive petroleum products. The closing of the Williamsburg Bridge in New York City, when a gasoline tanker exploded and sank under it, was nearly overshadowed by the leakage of 7 750 000 L (2 000 000 gal) of gasoline from a storage facility in Boston. The threat to a densely populated neighborhood of six-family tenement houses and a large racetrack that stabled hundreds of Thoroughbred horses led to the use of a chemical dispersant to neutralize the fire hazard. Favorable results by fire departments in recent years, as a result of training, have established dispersants as the method of choice to handle nonburning spill incidents. Even though the teams that responded to several such emergencies of course held the protection of life and property as paramount, no toxicological environmental effects were noted during subsequent observations.

  10. Mutual aid in oil spill response: The Alaskan north slope model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, B.; Ingram, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Alaskan Arctic Region provides one of the world's most remote and challenging environments in which to mount an oil spill response. To facilitate the timeliness and appropriateness of the response, Alaska Clean Seas (ACS) and the operators of the North Slope oil fields have implemented a mutual aid concept for spill response. The concept is based upon each operator on the North Slope maintaining its own inventory of personnel [a spill response team (SRT)] and equipment that is available on short notice to respond to a spill. If the spill exceeds the responsible operator's resources, additional resources can be obtained from other operators and/or ACS through mutual aid. Individuals from diverse organizations are brought together in a mutual aid event. To allow different organizations to function effectively in a multi-organizational environment, a common management structure was required. The structure chosen for the North Slope was the incident command system (ICS). A key concern when discussing mutual aid is the provision of indemnification from liability for responders. For the North Slope, ACS and its member companies are indemnified when responding to a spill through provisions in the ACS charter and the ACS response action contract

  11. The U.S. Minerals Management Service - oil spill response research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullin, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    The Minerals Management Service (MMS), is the principal U.S. Government agency funding offshore oil spill response research. The MMS, a bureau of the Department of the lnterior, maintains a comprehensive Oil Spill Response Research program in support of oil spill prevention and response. Through funding provided by MMS, scientists and engineers from the public and private sectors worldwide are working to address outstanding gaps in information and technology concerning the cleanup of oil spills. A large portion of the program is executed through cooperation with major research centers to leverage funds and maximize sharing of research results. This paper outlines the program, its goals, results from recently funded projects and future research directions. (author)

  12. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  13. Analysis of soil chemical parameters of an uncleaned crude oil spill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of soil chemical parameters of an uncleaned crude oil spill site at Biara was carried out. Soil samples were collected at 0 -15 cm and 15 – 30 cm soil depths from both polluted and unpolluted sites for analysis. Significant increase in high total hydrocarbon content (1015±80.5 – 1150±90.1 mg/kg) in polluted site was ...

  14. A GIS-based generic real-time risk assessment framework and decision tools for chemical spills in the river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiping; Wang, Peng; Lung, Wu-seng; Guo, Liang; Li, Mei

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents a generic framework and decision tools of real-time risk assessment on Emergency Environmental Decision Support System for response to chemical spills in river basin. The generic "4-step-3-model" framework is able to delineate the warning area and the impact on vulnerable receptors considering four types of hazards referring to functional area, societal impact, and human health and ecology system. Decision tools including the stand-alone system and software components were implemented on GIS platform. A detailed case study on the Songhua River nitrobenzene spill illustrated the goodness of the framework and tool Spill first responders and decision makers of catchment management will benefit from the rich, visual and dynamic hazard information output from the software. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. NOAA Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill - Protecting Oceans, Coasts and Fisheries (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubchenco, J.

    2010-12-01

    As the nation’s leading scientific resource for oil spills, NOAA has been on the scene of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill from the start, providing coordinated scientific weather and biological response services to federal, state and local organizations. NOAA has mobilized experts from across the agency to help contain the spreading oil spill and protect the Gulf of Mexico’s many marine mammals, sea turtles, fish, shellfish and other endangered marine life. NOAA spill specialists advised the U.S. Coast Guard on cleanup options as well as advising all affected federal, state and local partners on sensitive marine resources at risk in this area of the Gulf of Mexico. As a major partner in the federal response to this incident, NOAA provided the necessary coastal and marine expertise required for sound, timely decision-making and helped protect the affected Gulf Coast communities and coastal marine environment and will continue to do so for ongoing restoration efforts.

  16. Oil spill problems and sustainable response strategies through new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivshina, Irena B; Kuyukina, Maria S; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V; Elkin, Andrey A; Makarov, Sergey O; Cunningham, Colin J; Peshkur, Tatyana A; Atlas, Ronald M; Philp, James C

    2015-07-01

    Crude oil and petroleum products are widespread water and soil pollutants resulting from marine and terrestrial spillages. International statistics of oil spill sizes for all incidents indicate that the majority of oil spills are small (less than 7 tonnes). The major accidents that happen in the oil industry contribute only a small fraction of the total oil which enters the environment. However, the nature of accidental releases is that they highly pollute small areas and have the potential to devastate the biota locally. There are several routes by which oil can get back to humans from accidental spills, e.g. through accumulation in fish and shellfish, through consumption of contaminated groundwater. Although advances have been made in the prevention of accidents, this does not apply in all countries, and by the random nature of oil spill events, total prevention is not feasible. Therefore, considerable world-wide effort has gone into strategies for minimising accidental spills and the design of new remedial technologies. This paper summarizes new knowledge as well as research and technology gaps essential for developing appropriate decision-making tools in actual spill scenarios. Since oil exploration is being driven into deeper waters and more remote, fragile environments, the risk of future accidents becomes much higher. The innovative safety and accident prevention approaches summarized in this paper are currently important for a range of stakeholders, including the oil industry, the scientific community and the public. Ultimately an integrated approach to prevention and remediation that accelerates an early warning protocol in the event of a spill would get the most appropriate technology selected and implemented as early as possible - the first few hours after a spill are crucial to the outcome of the remedial effort. A particular focus is made on bioremediation as environmentally harmless, cost-effective and relatively inexpensive technology. Greater

  17. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the F. G. Walton Smith in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-01 to 2010-06-06 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the F. G. Walton Smith in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-01 to 2010-06-06 in response to the...

  18. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-10 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-10 in response to...

  19. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0068954)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship HENRY B. BIGELOW in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22 in response to...

  20. Corporate Social Responsibility or Government Regulation? Evidence on Oil Spill Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedrzej G. Frynas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major oil spills normally occur from oil pipelines and oil tankers that are under operational control of companies, namely, oil companies and tanker owners. There are two generic responses for changing the behavior of companies with regard to oil spill prevention: mandatory government regulation or voluntary initiatives often pursued under the banner of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Here we investigate to what extent voluntary CSR initiatives can be effective in oil spill prevention. A global perspective on voluntary mechanisms is taken by looking at the progress of 20 oil and gas firms from around the world toward oil spill prevention, using the companies' 2010 sustainability reports for self-reported oil spill information. The analysis includes ten oil companies from OECD countries (including Exxon and Shell, among others and 10 oil companies from non-OECD countries (including Brazil's Petrobras and Indian Oil, among others. The study finds that oil spill prevention has generally improved over recent decades. Government regulation played a significant part in these improvements whereas it is less clear to what extent CSR played a significant part in these improvements. Some of CSR's key limitations are highlighted. It is not suggested that CSR should be abandoned; however, new hybrid forms of regulation that combine voluntary and mandatory elements are advocated.

  1. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 155 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 155, App. C Appendix C to Part 155—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the plan dealing with training is one of the key elements of a response plan. This concept is... included training as one of the sections required in a vessel or facility response plan. In reviewing...

  2. 75 FR 37712 - Temporary Suspension of Certain Oil Spill Response Time Requirements To Support Deepwater Horizon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Purpose A major feature of the National Response System under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act... relocate response resources from current locations to the Gulf of Mexico, this rule directly assists in the urgently needed immediate relocation of nationwide oil spill response resources to the Gulf of Mexico to...

  3. Systems for Arctic Spill Response. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    Microbial Degradation of Oil Pollutants, Center for Wetland Resources. Pub. No. LSU-SG-73-O1 , 1973, p. 153. 6. Atlas , R. and E. Schofield , •U petroleum... Atlas , R. and R. Bartha , “Degradation and Mineralization of Petroleum in in Sea Water: Limitation by Nitrogen and Phosphorus ,” Biotechnology, B...iNFORMATION SOURCES USED IN THE PREPARATION OF MAPS OF ECOLOGICAL SENSITIVITY A- i APPENDIX B - APPLICATION OF EXISTING AND PLANNED OIL SPILL

  4. Evaporation of multicomponent chemical spills: When is liquid phase resistance significant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, D.; Mackay, D.

    1993-01-01

    When chemicals are spilled on land or water, it is important to be able to estimate evaporation rates accurately. Conventional models used to predict evaporation rates of multicomponent spills assume that the entire resistance to evaporation lies in the vapor phase. Under certain conditions, an additional liquid phase resistance may be introduced, resulting in retarded evaporation rates. Existing models may thus fail to predict spill behavior accurately. A study is described whose objective is to elucidate the significance of the liquid phase resistance. Evaporation experiments were conducted in which a thin layer of synthetic oil (mineral oil enriched with compounds such as pentane, hexane, toluene, octane, and p-xylene) was exposed to prolonged evaporation in a metal tray at controlled wind speeds. Bulk samples of the spill layer were taken at specific time intervals and their composition was determined by gas chromatographic analysis. The results are compared to those from a theoretical model and to gas stripping experiments. The model is based on the evaporative flux equation incorporating Raoult's law; inputs are the air-oil partition coefficient for each component and the composition of the synthetic oil on a volume and mole fraction basis. The study has enabled the formation of vertical concentration profiles to be examined and liquid phase mass transfer coefficients to be estimated. The results imply that liquid-phase resistance effects are likely to be important for the most volatile components. Contaminated areas may thus continue to be hazardous, even though model predictions indicate otherwise. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Selecting protective gloves for oil spill response and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spill responders and cleanup workers must be provided with gloves that prevent skin contact while permitting them to do their job safely and efficiently. Glove selection is largely based on professional judgment, considering permeation, resistance to puncture and abrasion, and whether the material gets slick when coated with oil. This paper consolidates the most useful information from various studies and presents a selection rationale. In general, we found neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and nitrile to be the glove materials of choice for protection in oil spills. The skin toxicity potential for most petroleum materials encountered in a spill is low. Some fresh crudes may contain hydrocarbon molecules that may penetrate the skin and cause some systemic toxicity with high enough exposure. However, as crude weathers, the more volatile hydrocarbons evaporate rapidly, leaving behind the heavier fraction, which often contains polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds. Some PNAs have caused skin cancer in animals after prolonged and repeated contact. As a reference, most weathered crude is similar to used motor oil in skin toxicity; prolonged and repeated skin contact should be avoided, but there is no cause for concern if some gets on the skin. The typical skin problems from excessive skin contact are drying and cracking from the defatting action of the oil itself or from the soap or hand cleaners used to remove the oil, and pustules (similar to boils) if the oil plugs the sweat glands in the skin

  6. Oil spill emergency response: Fulfilling regulatory requirements on the Grand Banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Offshore well licensing under Canadian regulations requires the operator to conduct a practice exercise of oil spill countermeasures and emergency response procedures at least yearly, once the drilling program starts. The relevant parts of the Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Drilling Regulations are summarized and the objectives and benefits of the practice exercises are reviewed. In addition to ensuring regulatory compliance, the exercises also provide the opportunity to test operational procedures, to provide in-house training, and improve response efficiency by regular repetition of the exercise. Exercises in communications during a spill incident in the offshore and in deployment of offshore spill response equipment conducted by Petro-Canada in Newfoundland are described. Problems identified during the exercises are noted

  7. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groat, C.G.; Thorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities

  8. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 154 - Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Appendix D to Part 154—Training Elements for Oil Spill Response Plans 1. General 1.1The portion of the plan dealing with training is one of the key elements of a response plan. This concept is clearly expressed by... that the plans often do not provide sufficient information in the training section of the plan for...

  9. Workshop on managing seafood during the response phase of an oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mearns, A. J.; Yender, R.

    1997-01-01

    Issues related to managing seafood fisheries problems during the response phase of an oil spill were discussed. Fishery closure case histories, agency responsibilities, testing seafood for tainting and contamination, closure alternatives, and health risk assessment methods were reviewed. Areas requiring further research were identified. 14 refs.,

  10. Impacts of Storm Surge Mitigation Strategies on Aboveground Storage Tank Chemical Spill Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, C.; Bass, B. J.; Bernier, C.; Samii, A.; Dawson, C.; Bedient, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC), located in the hurricane-prone Houston-Galveston region of the upper Texas Coast, is one of the busiest waterways in the United States and is home to one of the largest petrochemical complexes in the world. Due to the proximity of the HSC to Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, chemical spills resulting from storm surge damage to aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) pose serious threats to the environment, residential communities, and national/international markets whose activities in the HSC generate billions of dollars annually. In an effort to develop a comprehensive storm surge mitigation strategy for Galveston Bay and its constituents, Rice University's Severe Storm Prediction, Education, and Evacuation from Disasters Center proposed two structural storm surge mitigation concepts, the Mid Bay Structure (MBS) and the Lower Bay Structure (LBS) as components of the Houston-Galveston Area Protection System (H-GAPS) project. The MBS consists of levees along the HSC and a navigational gate across the channel, and the LBS consists of a navigation gate and environmental gates across Bolivar Road. The impacts of these two barrier systems on the fate of AST chemical spills in the HSC have previously been unknown. This study applies the coupled 2D SWAN+ADCIRC model to simulate hurricane storm surge circulation within the Gulf of Mexico and Galveston Bay due to a synthetic storm which results in approximately 250-year surge levels in Galveston Bay. The SWAN+ADCIRC model is run using high-resolution computational meshes that incorporate the MBS and LBS scenarios, separately. The resulting wind and water velocities are then fed into a Lagrangian particle transport model to simulate the spill trajectories of the ASTs most likely to fail during the 250-year proxy storm. Results from this study illustrate how each storm surge mitigation strategy impacts the transport of chemical spills (modeled as Lagrangian particles) during storm surge as

  11. Canadian oil spill response capability - an investigation of the proposed fee regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, E.; Gratwick, J.; Yee, P.

    1996-08-01

    Canada's oil spill response capability and its fee structure was examined and assessed. The present regime consists of five industry-owned oil spill response organizations who provide response teams throughout Canadian waters, except the Arctic. These organizations are fully adequate to meet the standards set by the Canadian Coast Guard. However, the Canadian Coast Guard withdrew from active control of the fee regime, leaving it to each response team to determine its own fee structure. The expectation was that the market would be capable of controlling the fees to be charged. This did not happen, and the investigative panel came to the conclusion that the present regime was not workable. In view of the situation the Panel concluded that ensuring oil spill response capability in Canada must always be the sole responsibility of the Canadian Government. Eleven recommendations were detailed in this final report. The most important recommendation was that the Canadian Coast Guard should re-establish its principal role in the oil spill response area. It was also suggested that there should be a single, national fee structure applying to the whole country except the Arctic, and that the fee should be collected by an independent national agency

  12. Spatial variability of biochemical responses in resident fish after the M/V Hebei Spirit Oil Spill (Taean, Korea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Chae, Young Sun; Kim, Ha Na; Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Han, Gi Myung; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Eunsic; Shim, Won Joon

    2012-09-01

    This study describes the spatial variation and the duration of the impacts from the Hebei Spirit oil spill using specific biochemical indices in resident benthic fish. Enzymatic activities and biliary PAHs metabolites were higher at the site closer to the spill area in four months after spill incident. Regarding our results of detoxification response, markers of Phase I followed a similar trend in accordance with levels of biliary metabolites, while markers of phase II and GST appeared relatively unchanged.

  13. Experimental studies on the weathering of chemicals in a field trial to predict their behaviour in case of a spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamaca, E.; Merlin, F.X.; Le Floch, S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the world's production of vegetable oil is transported by sea. In 2001, nearly 850,000 tons of vegetable oil entered and left harbours in France. This trend increases the risk of accidental spills at sea. The physical state of vegetable oil changes when it is spilled at sea, turning this non-toxic product into a pollutant that damages the marine ecosystem. This study demonstrated how vegetable oil could react when spilled at sea. A series of field studies were conducted to obtain experimental data on the behaviour of vegetable oil both on the surface of water and in the water column. Castor oil, soybean oil, oleic acid and dioctylphtalate were released at sea and the dispersion of the oil in the water was monitored with a fluorimeter. Measurements were taken to a depth of 1 metre. Emulsification and viscosity kinetics were monitored. The study showed that the behaviour of the 4 products depends on the nature of the product and weather conditions such as wind and sea surface state. Vegetable oil spilled at sea behaves differently from spilled chemical products in terms of solubility. It was suggested that in the case of an accidental spill at sea, emergency responders should first pump the oil and then use dispersants. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  14. Discussion paper : proposed adjustments to the governance of Canada's marine oil spill preparedness and response regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    A series of changes have been proposed for Canada's current marine oil spill preparedness and response regimes which were established in August 1995 in an effort to develop a more integrated approach to managing oil spill preparedness and response. The proposed amendments aim to address the deficiencies of the regime through some regulatory change, a stronger accountability structure, and clear management guidelines. Some of the issues that should be addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the regime as a whole include: (1) transparency of response organization (RO) preparedness and response fees, (2) level of wildlife contingency planning, (3) payment of Canadian Coast Guard response costs, and (4) ensuring a strong national system of preparedness and response. In terms of governance, a stronger role is recommended for the Regional Advisory Councils. The establishment of a User Committee and of a National Advisory Council are also recommended. figs

  15. Modeling of response, socioeconomic, and natural resource damage costs for hypothetical oil spill scenarios in San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; French McCay, D.; Whittier, N.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Jennings, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of oil type, spill size, response strategy and location factors on oil spill response costs, with particular reference to the cost benefits of the use of dispersants. Modeling has been conducted for a hypothetical oil spill in San Francisco Bay to determine biological impacts, damages to natural resources and response costs. The SIMAP modeling software by the Applied Science Associates was used to model 3 spill sizes (20, 50 and 95 percentile by volume) and 4 types of oil (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). Response costs, natural resource damages and socioeconomic impact were determined based on spill trajectory and fate. Mechanical recovery-based operations carry higher response costs than dispersant-based operations. Response costs for diesel and gasoline spills make up 20 per cent of the total costs, compared to 43 per cent for crude and heavy fuel oil spills. Damages to natural resources are higher for spills of toxic lighter fuels such as gasoline and diesel because gasoline has a greater impact on the water column with less shoreline oiling, resulting in more damages to natural resources. Heavier oils have a greater impact on shorelines and higher response and socioeconomic costs. Although socioeconomic costs varied by location, they tend to be greater than response costs and natural resource damage costs. Proportions of the different costs were described with reference to various spill factors. Socioeconomic costs are 61, 76, 45 and 53 per cent respectively for gasoline, diesel, crude oil, and heavy fuel oil spills. 27 refs., 23 tabs., 5 figs

  16. Histopathologic and biochemical responses in Arctic marine bivalve molluscs exposed to experimentally spilled oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, J.M.; Hillman, R.E.; Carr, R.S.; Buhl, R.L.; Lahey, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Following two experimental spills of chemically dispersed and undispersed crude oil in shallow bays on the northwest coast of Baffin Island bivalve molluscs accumulated significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons in bay receiving dispersed oil and in those receiving crude oil alone. Specimens of Mya truncata and Macoma calcarea for histopathologic examination were collected immediately before, immediately after and one year after the experimental oil spills. Immediately after there was increased gill and digestive tract necrosis in Mya from the chemically dispersed oil. After one year a few clams had granulocytomas throughout the tissues. Three clams receiving oil alone collected one year after the spill had invasive neoplasias. There were few lesions in Macoma immediatelly after or one year after the spill; animals had a high incidence of vacuolization of the digestive tubule epithelium. The incidence of parasitism and hemocytic infiltration also was higher in Maccoma. Clams Mya truncata were collected for biochemical analysis before, after and two weeks after the simulated oil spills. Concentations in the clam tissues of glucose, glycogen, trehalose, total lipid, and free amino acids were measured; free amino acids in adductor muscles were the most useful indices of pollutant stress. The results of the biochemical analyses indicate that Mya were not severely stressed by either dispersed oil or oil alone. After two weeks, clams from the dispersed oil bays were nearly normal, while those from the bay receiving oil alone appeared stressed. These results seem to corroborate results that the acute effects of dispersed oil are greater than those of undispersed oil, but effects of undispersed oil on infaunal molluscs develop more slowly and persist longer than those from dispersed oil. 43 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Comparative Risk Assessment of spill response options for a deepwater oil well blowout: Part 1. Oil spill modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French-McCay, Deborah; Crowley, Deborah; Rowe, Jill J; Bock, Michael; Robinson, Hilary; Wenning, Richard; Walker, Ann Hayward; Joeckel, John; Nedwed, Tim J; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2018-05-31

    Oil spill model simulations of a deepwater blowout in the Gulf of Mexico De Soto Canyon, assuming no intervention and various response options (i.e., subsea dispersant injection SSDI, in addition to mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, and surface dispersant application) were compared. Predicted oil fate, amount and area of surfaced oil, and exposure concentrations in the water column above potential effects thresholds were used as inputs to a Comparative Risk Assessment to identify response strategies that minimize long-term impacts. SSDI reduced human and wildlife exposure to volatile organic compounds; dispersed oil into a large water volume at depth; enhanced biodegradation; and reduced surface water, nearshore and shoreline exposure to floating oil and entrained/dissolved oil in the upper water column. Tradeoffs included increased oil exposures at depth. However, since organisms are less abundant below 200 m, results indicate that overall exposure of valued ecosystem components was minimized by use of SSDI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New insights into microbial responses to oil spills from the Deepwater Horizon incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, O.U.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-06-15

    On April 20, 2010, a catastrophic eruption of methane caused the Deepwater Horizon exploratory drill rig drilling the Macondo Well in Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252) to explode. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was unprecendeted for several reasons: the volume of oil released; the spill duration; the well depth; the distance from the shore-line (77 km or about 50 miles); the type of oil (light crude); and the injection of dispersant directly at the wellhead. This study clearly demonstrated that there was a profound and significant response by certain members of the in situ microbial community in the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. In particular putative hydrocarbon degrading Bacteria appeared to bloom in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, even though the temperature at these depths is never >5 C. As the plume aged the shifts in the microbial community on a temporal scale suggested that different, yet metabolically important members of the community were able to respond to a myriad of plume constituents, e.g. shifting from propane/ethane to alkanes and finally to methane. Thus, the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the plume by Bacteria was a highly significant process in the natural attenuation of many compounds released during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

  19. Information to help reduce environmental impacts from freshwater oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, D.E.; Steen, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) has been working since 1990 to provide information to help the response community minimize the impact of spills to pared jointly with the US inland freshwater. Projects have included a manual, pre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), to give guidance on the cleanup techniques that will minimize environmental impacts on spills in freshwater habitats. Nearing completion are a literature review and annotated bibliography of the environmental and human health effects of oil spilled in freshwater habitats. The use of chemical treating agents for freshwater spill applications is being studied with input from other industry and government groups. A project has begun, with funding from API, the Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research and Development Program, NOAA, the Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), and the US Department of Energy, to evaluate in situ burning of oil spilled in marshes

  20. Marine (Brander-Smith report) and non-marine spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Current activities related to Canada's Green Plan are reviewed in the area of research on, and response to, marine and non-marine spills. The Emergency Response section of Environment Canada's Conservation and Protection Service has had a 130% increase in funding and 50% increase in personnel resources. Two thirds of these resources are assigned to regional operations where spill incidents occur and the rest to research. The section's first priority is to improve its spill prevention program. A national standard for emergency planning for industry has been prepared and thousands of copies have been sold. A Canada-USA joint inland pollution contingency plan will be established and training programs on response to oil and hazardous chemical spills has been implemented. Resources applied to spill response have also increased 150%; a computerized communications network has been provided for spill response personnel, with the aim to develop a single national spill reporting system. In terms of policy initiatives, amendments are being made to the Canada Shipping Act that will require on-board pollution emergency plans for ships operating in Canadian waters. A liability and compensation regime for chemical spills is being considered, as well as reimposition of a levy on petroleum products that resulted in creation of a ship-source oil pollution fund. Radar-based traffic control systems for heavily congested marine areas, electronic charting, and increased inspection of ships are among the spill prevention initiatives in progress. Research is being conducted on mapping environmentally sensitive shorelines and in oil spill cleanup methods

  1. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-07 to 2010-10-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069109)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-07 to 2010-10-16 in...

  2. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-25 to 2010-09-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074905)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  3. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-10-07 to 2010-10-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  4. Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-15 to 2010-06-25 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0070330)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-15 to 2010-06-25 in...

  5. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-30 to 2010-09-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069107)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-30 to 2010-09-03 in...

  6. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-19 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-19 to 2010-07-23 in...

  7. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-06 to 2010-08-10 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-06 to 2010-08-10 in...

  8. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069105)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in...

  9. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-25 to 2010-08-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069106)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-25 to 2010-08-29 in...

  10. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-19 to 2010-06-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-19 to 2010-06-23 in...

  11. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-02 to 2010-08-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0070333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, laboratory analysis and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-02...

  12. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-11 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-11 in...

  13. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-01 to 2010-06-05 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069093)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-01 to 2010-06-05 in...

  14. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-12 to 2010-08-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069104)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-12 to 2010-08-16 in...

  15. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-07 to 2010-07-11 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-07 to 2010-07-11 in...

  16. Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in...

  17. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-25 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-25 to 2010-06-29 in...

  18. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-26 to 2010-07-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-26 to 2010-07-29 in...

  19. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-29 to 2010-07-05 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-29 to 2010-07-05 in...

  20. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-31 to 2010-08-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069102)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-31 to 2010-08-03 in...

  1. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-11 to 2010-09-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069110)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-11 to 2010-09-13 in...

  2. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-13 to 2010-06-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069095)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-13 to 2010-06-17 in...

  3. Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the BUNNY BORDELON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069118)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the BUNNY BORDELON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23...

  4. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-03 to 2010-09-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069108)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-03 to 2010-09-07 in...

  5. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-15 to 2010-09-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-15 to 2010-09-22 in...

  6. Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-08 to 2010-07-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0070331)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-08 to 2010-07-16 in...

  7. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-03 to 2010-07-18 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, tows and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-03 to...

  8. Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-06 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-06 in...

  9. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-23 to 2010-07-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069128)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-23 to 2010-07-17 in...

  10. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-23 to 2010-09-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-23 to 2010-09-28 in...

  11. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-24 to 2010-09-10 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0070532)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, meteorological, navigational and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  12. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-19 to 2010-09-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074904)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  13. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-10-01 to 2010-10-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074906)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  14. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-10-07 to 2010-10-20 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069127)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the GYRE in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  15. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-15 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-15 to 2010-07-23 in...

  16. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-03 to 2010-08-11 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-03 to 2010-08-11 in...

  17. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-30 to 2010-08-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-30 to 2010-08-03 in...

  18. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069065)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-23 in...

  19. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-07 to 2010-08-27 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069066)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-07 to 2010-08-27 in...

  20. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-17 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-17 in...

  1. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-30 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ferrel in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-30 in...

  2. Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-27 to 2010-06-04 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069067)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-27 to 2010-06-04 in...

  3. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-25 to 2010-10-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0069114)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis, sediment analysis and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of...

  4. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-22 to 2010-10-24 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069615)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, imagery, laboratory analysis and sediment analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the OCEAN VERITAS in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  5. Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-12 to 2010-06-20 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, laboratory analyses, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-12 to 2010-06-20 in...

  6. Oil spill response planning, training and facilities for wildlife in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    The special provisions of the SERVS System of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company concerning the treatment of wildlife in the event of an oil spill, were described. The Company is prepared to mobilize a rapid response for protection and treatment of wildlife in the event of an oil spill anywhere along the trans-Alaska pipeline or in Prince William Sound. Equipment for hazing, capture, and treatment is pre-assembled and staged at facilities at the Valdez Marine Terminal. Veterinarians and wildlife treatment specialists are under contract for treating oiled birds. This complex of wildlife response capabilities meets or exceeds the guidelines and response planning standards set by wildlife agencies. 7 refs., 6 figs

  7. Louisiana's oil spill program : new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debusschere, K.; Tedford, R.; Brolin, J.; Lorentz, W.

    2000-01-01

    The Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office (LOSCO) was established to improve oil spill response, spill prevention and coordination. Louisiana is challenged with having the highest exposure of oil spills because a large portion of its economy is based on oil and gas exploration and production. LOSCO will find ways to minimize the risk of unauthorized oil spills and will address damage assessment and restoration efforts. The aging oil and gas infrastructure in Louisiana has also been recognized as a potential major source for oil spills. LOSCO locates potential spill locations and assesses the risks associated with the sites, some of which are 100 years old. LOSCO also initiated the following two programs: (1) the Abandoned Barge Program initiated in 1993 to remove abandoned barges that pose a high risk for oil discharge, and (2) the Abandoned Non-Hazardous Oil Waste (NOW) Pit and Facility Program initiated in 1992 to locate and remove structures, pits and wells that pose a risk for oil spills. About 25,000 facilities, pits, sumps and reservoirs have been inventoried and evaluated to determine if they pose a risk to human health or the environment. The Louisiana Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act (OSPRA) of 1991 allocates up to $2 million per year for the abatement of oil spills from abandoned facilities in Louisiana. The state legislature has also created the Applied and Educational Oil Spill Research and Development Program (OSRADP) to fund oil spill research. Since 1993, OSRADP has granted 68 awards in support of 42 projects, many of which focused on recovery and cleanup methods including in-situ burning, fate and effect of oil in Louisiana environments, bioremediation, phytoremediation, composting, chemical cleaners, dispersants, sorbents, and solidifiers. 3 refs., 1 tab

  8. The Prestige oil spill response in the French coastal waters : setting up a second-line response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerambrun, L.; Lavenant, M.; Cariou, G.; Poisson, H.; Goasguen, H.; Peltier, M.

    2005-01-01

    A heavy fuel oil spill from the Prestige oil tanker in early 2003 threatened the coastline of France, particularly the sensitive sandy dunes of the Aquitaine coast. The spill posed a long-term threat to two affected tourist islands that host a rich marine life, including the Marennes-Oleron oysters and juvenile eel fisheries. An oil spill response system was established by the French Maritime Affairs Department. The two-tiered response system was constructed with dynamic and static components and was adapted for strong tidal currents and muddy waters where fuel patches from the spill might not be visible. Local fishermen with knowledge of the waters used their trawlers and eel-fishing boats that were equipped with oil recovery trawls. A local netting device was also tested. The second response line for shallow waters consisted of small boats with net bags. The storage, transfer and treatment of the oily waste were controlled and available oil waste treatment procedures were assessed at local, regional and national levels for each type of oil waste fuel. 2 refs

  9. Constraining Influence Diagram Structure by Generative Planning: An Application to the Optimization of Oil Spill Response

    OpenAIRE

    Agosta, John Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper works through the optimization of a real world planning problem, with a combination of a generative planning tool and an influence diagram solver. The problem is taken from an existing application in the domain of oil spill emergency response. The planning agent manages constraints that order sets of feasible equipment employment actions. This is mapped at an intermediate level of abstraction onto an influence diagram. In addition, the planner can apply a surveillance operator that...

  10. Marine spill response planning for the non-persistent oil transportation industry in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.; Egland, L.

    1998-01-01

    The unique difficulties that face oil spill response planning for the oil transportation industry in Alaska were discussed. Three levels of response strategies and actions proposed by the Alaska Petroleum Distributors and Transporters (APD and T) member companies were reviewed. They were: (1) immediate response (on-board resources), (2) in-region response (caches in Subareas), and (3) out-of-region cascaded resources (from Anchorage and other sources). The strategies and levels of capability were proposed as emergency measures in addition to the more important prevention measures already instituted to prevent discharges of non-persistent oil. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  11. A program approach for site safety at oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, F.L.; Glenn, S.P.; Ocken, J.J.; Ott, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    When OSHA developed the hazardous waste operations (Hazwoper) regulations (29 CFR 1910.120) members of the response community envisioned a separation of oil and open-quotes hazmatclose quotes response operations. Organizations that deal with oil spills have had difficulty applying Hazwoper regulations to oil spill operations. This hinders meaningful implementation of the standard for their personnel. We should approach oil spills with the same degree of caution that is applied to hazmat response. Training frequently does not address the safety of oil spill response operations. Site-specific safety and health plans often are neglected or omitted. Certain oils expose workers to carcinogens, as well as chronic and acute hazards. Significant physical hazards are most important. In responding to oil spills, the hazards must be addressed. It is the authors' contention that a need exists for safety program at oil spill sites. Gone are the days of labor pool hires cleaning up spills in jeans and sneakers. The key to meaningful programs for oil spills requires application of controls focused on relevant safety risks rather than minimal chemical exposure hazards. Working with concerned reviewers from other agencies and organizations, the authors have developed a general safety and health program for oil spill response. It is intended to serve as the basis for organizations to customize their own written safety and health program (required by OSHA). It also provides a separate generic site safety plan for emergency phase oil spill operations (check-list) and long term post-emergency phase operations

  12. Potentially beneficial spill-related effects of chemicals routinely added to crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.; Maharaj, S.

    1993-01-01

    Amoco Trinidad Oil Company produces 60,000 bbl/d of oil from the Trinidadian offshore. The oil is pipelined ashore where it is processed and returned offshore to a buoy mooring for transport up Trinidad's east coast. Amoco Trinidad has developed comprehensive oil spill contingency plans, starting from computer models of spill scenarios. The models used initially assumed that the oils would emulsify quickly and the spills would become highly viscous and persistent, reaching the shoreline in 15-24 h. Such behavior would render ineffective the use of dispersants as a spill countermeasure. Studies showed a poor potential capability of physical recovery systems for spills off the Trinidad east coast due to high sea states, strong winds, and other factors. These results led to questioning of the spill model's assumptions, and laboratory tests were conducted to study the actual behavior of the crude oils. It was found that the oil was difficult to emulsify and highly prone to breakup and dispersion. These surprising results were explained by the presence of surfactants added during processing. A revised modelling exercise showed that if the surfactants stay with the oil, spills up to 100,000 bbl will dissipate in 15 h or less at average wind conditions. To guard against the possibility that the surfactants may not stay with the spilled oil, and to help accelerate dispersion of oil spills, Amoco Trinidad has developed a dispersant-use capacity for its spill contingency plan. It is suggested that additives normally added to crude oils during production and processing in other areas may also be providing spill cleanup benefits similar to those found in the Trinidad case. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  13. Implementation of distributed computing system for emergency response and contaminant spill monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, T.O.; Sterling, M.C.Jr.; Bonner, J.S.; Fuller, C.B.; Kelly, F.; Page, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The availability and use of real-time environmental data greatly enhances emergency response and spill monitoring in coastal and near shore environments. The data would include surface currents, wind speed, wind direction, and temperature. Model predictions (fate and transport) or forensics can also be included. In order to achieve an integrated system suitable for application in spill or emergency response situations, a link is required because this information exists on many different computing platforms. When real-time measurements are needed to monitor a spill, the use of a wide array of sensors and ship-based post-processing methods help reduce the latency in data transfer between field sampling stations and the Incident Command Centre. The common thread linking all these modules is the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and the result is an integrated distributed computing system (DCS). The in-situ sensors are linked to an onboard computer through the use of a ship-based local area network (LAN) using a submersible device server. The onboard computer serves as both the data post-processor and communications server. It links the field sampling station with other modules, and is responsible for transferring data to the Incident Command Centre. This link is facilitated by a wide area network (WAN) based on wireless broadband communications facilities. This paper described the implementation of the DCS. The test results for the communications link and system readiness were also included. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  14. Residential tap water contamination following the Freedom Industries chemical spill: perceptions, water quality, and health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Andrew J; McMillan, LaKia; Connell, Matt; Kelley, Keven M; Gill, Jeff P; White, Kevin D; Gupta, Rahul; Dey, Rajarshi; Novy, Caroline

    2015-01-20

    During January 2014, an industrial solvent contaminated West Virginia’s Elk River and 15% of the state population’s tap water. A rapid in-home survey and water testing was conducted 2 weeks following the spill to understand resident perceptions, tap water chemical levels, and premise plumbing flushing effectiveness. Water odors were detected in all 10 homes sampled before and after premise plumbing flushing. Survey and medical data indicated flushing caused adverse health impacts. Bench-scale experiments and physiochemical property predictions showed flushing promoted chemical volatilization, and contaminants did not appreciably sorb into cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe. Flushing reduced tap water 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (4-MCHM) concentrations within some but not all homes. 4-MCHM was detected at unflushed (waters contained less 4-MCHM than the 1000 μg/L Centers for Disease Control drinking water limit, but one home exceeded the 120 μg/L drinking water limit established by independent toxicologists. Nearly all households refused to resume water use activities after flushing because of water safety concerns. Science based flushing protocols should be developed to expedite recovery, minimize health impacts, and reduce concentrations in homes when future events occur.

  15. Deepwater Horizon Seafood Safety Response - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Seafood Safety Response

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood from the...

  16. A Real-Time Response to a Marine Oil Spill: an Intedisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garrido, Victor J.; Ramos, Antonio; Mancho, Ana M.; Coca, Josep; Wiggins, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    By combining tools from dynamical systems theory and remote sensing techniques, we achieve a remarkable representation of the events following the sinking of the Oleg Naydenov fishing ship, that took place close to the Canary Islands in April 2015 [1]. The emergency services acquired a precise knowledge of the evolution of the spill, occurred after the sinking, by means of a formidable, extremely time-consuming and expensive effort. In this presentation we show that remote sensing techniques [2] allowed a direct observation of the spill in extensive areas. The time evolution of the observed spills was pursued by dynamical systems tools that, based on COPERNICUS IBI velocity fields data, were able to predict the impact of the spill in the coast of Gran Canaria. A deep description of the dispersion processes produced by ocean currents is achieved by means of Lagrangian Descriptors [3,4,5] that highlight an invisible but real dynamical skeleton, governing the transport processes in the area. This research is supported by MINECO ICMAT Severo Ochoa project SEV-2011-0087 and SEV-2015-0554 and grants MTM2014-56392-R, UNLP-13-3E-2664 (2013-2015) and ONR grant No. N00014- 01-1-0769. [1] V. J. García-Garrido, A. Ramos, A. M. Mancho, J. Coca, S. Wiggins. Assemblage of Tools for a Real-Time Response to a Marine Oil Spill. Preprint (2015). [2] A. Pisano, F. Bignami, R. Santoleri, Oil spill detection in glint-contaminated near-infrared MODIS imagery, Remote Sens. 7 (1) (2015) 1112-1134. [3] C. Mendoza, A. M. Mancho. The hidden geometry of ocean flows. Physical Review Letters 105 (2010), 3, 038501-1-038501-4. [4] A. M. Mancho, S. Wiggins, J. Curbelo, C. Mendoza. Lagrangian Descriptors: A Method for Revealing Phase Space Structures of General Time Dependent Dynamical Systems. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation. 18 (2013) 3530-3557. [5] C. Lopesino, F. Balibrea, S. Wiggins, A.M. Mancho. Lagrangian Descriptors for Two Dimensional, Area Preserving

  17. Public health risks associated with oil and chemical spills in cold freshwater environments: a simulation exercise involving a phenol and diesel spill in the St. Lawrence River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaivre, D.; Jarry, V.; Guerrier, P.; Paul, M.; Colliou, M.

    1997-01-01

    The St. Lawrence River is the source of drinking water for some 45 per cent of the population in the Province of Quebec, hence contamination of the river by oil or chemical spills is a matter of great public health importance. Project SHORES was developed by the Quebec Environmental Health Committee through the St. Lawrence 'Vision 2000' Action Plan. As part of this project, a simulation exercise involving phenol and diesel fuel was carried out. The exercise included development of a computerized dispersion model which was then used to evaluate the migration of phenol in critical areas of the St. Lawrence River. Main public health risks to nearby populations, with emphasis on drinking water contamination, were assessed based on the simulation results. 18 refs., 2 tabs. 1 fig

  18. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provides the organizational structure and procedures to prepare for and respond to oil discharges. Nothing... structures, equipment, or device (other than a vessel) which is used for one or more of the following... plans and agreements, security regulations and responsibilities based on international agreements...

  19. Effects of oil spill responses on key Arctic zooplankton species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Kirstine Underbjerg; Hansen, Pil Hagenbøl; Köhler, Eva

    and hatching of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis. Eight mesocosms with open top and bottom were deployed in the sea ice in Van Mijenfjorden, Svalbard, in February 2015. Two replicates were used for all treatments. After application, surface ice was allowed to re-establish. Water was collected from the top...... 2 cm water column in March and just before sea ice break up in May, and was used in two 14-day incubation experiments with C. glacialis collected in Isfjorden. Copepods were fed during the experiment and eggs and pellets were quantified daily. Egg hatching was determined in the beginning and end....... As a part of a large joint industry initiative (www.arcticresponsetechnology.org) a first of its kind mesocosm experiment was executed in an Arctic fjord of the Island of Svalbard. Effects of natural attenuation of the oil, in-situ burning and chemical dispersion were studied on grazing, egg production...

  20. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, David; Howard, John

    2012-07-18

    The fire and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in an enormous oil spill that threatened large distances of coastline. The overall response was led by the United States Coast Guard and involved the oil company BP, federal agencies, and state and local governments of five states. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health focused extensive resources on ensuring that BP and its contractors provided safe working conditions for thousands of workers involved in the response. Federal personnel visited worksites daily, identifying hazards and means of abatement; assessed training programs to ensure that workers were adequately trained in languages they could understand; monitored chemical exposures and determined that the proper personal protective equipment was deployed; insisted on implementation of a heat mitigation program; rostered thousands of workers; and conducted extensive outreach in communities impacted by the spill. Advance planning, immediate deployment, and collaboration across agencies helped ensure that the response operations resulted in no worker fatalities, and relatively few injuries and illnesses. For future responses, improvements should be made in how safety and health information, as well as the process behind safety and health decisions, are communicated to the public. Michaels D, Howard J. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18.

  1. GAOCMAO and its oil spill response activities in the Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sada, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organisation (GAOCMAO), has taken active steps in cooperation with its member companies, national and regional environmental organisation (ROPME) in an attempt to protect the Gulf from various sources of pollution. Specific attention was given to oil pollution response in terms of stockpiling of adequate equipment, training of personal and coordination through the application of pre-prepared contingency plans. All these activities tell us that a lot has been done to protect the Gulf environment from pollution. GAOCMAO, after many years of successful development looks to the future with confidence and renewed vigor. It is the intention of this organisation to enhance its member companies capabilities to respond to major incidents and to work closely with the national governmental, regional and international environmental organisations throughout the world, in fields appropriate to the Gulf oil industry. (author)

  2. Geographic Response Information Network : a new tool to manage community information for oil spill contingency planning and response operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munger, M.; Bryant, T. [Cook Inlet Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Kenai, AK (United States); Haugstad, E.; Kwietniak, J. [Tesora Alaska Petroleum, Kenai, AK (United States); DeCola, E.; Robertson, T. [Nuka Research and Planning Group, Seldovia, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper described the Geographic Response Information Network (GRIN) project which was launched to address some of the logistical challenges that often complicate oil spill and emergency response operations. The objective of the project was to develop a computer-based tool for incident logistics to organize maps and data related to oil spills, safety, public relations and basic community resources. In addition to its use for oil spill response planning, the data available can be useful for all-hazards emergency response planning. Early prototypes of the GRIN used PowerPoint slides to organize basic information about coastal communities in Alaska. With time, hyper text markup language (html) was used as the programming format because it can be more readily hyper-linked. Currently, GRIN is organized as a web page with the following 5 categories of information: general, liaison, public information, logistics and safety. There are several sub-headings under each category, such as location, people, economy, subsistence and transportation. This general information allows incident management personnel to obtain a community profile to better understand the cultural, social and economic basis of the community. The GRIN prototype was developed for the Kodiak urban area, but it may be expanded in the future to include other coastal communities in Alaska. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Geographic Response Information Network : a new tool to manage community information for oil spill contingency planning and response operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munger, M.; Bryant, T.; Haugstad, E.; Kwietniak, J.; DeCola, E.; Robertson, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper described the Geographic Response Information Network (GRIN) project which was launched to address some of the logistical challenges that often complicate oil spill and emergency response operations. The objective of the project was to develop a computer-based tool for incident logistics to organize maps and data related to oil spills, safety, public relations and basic community resources. In addition to its use for oil spill response planning, the data available can be useful for all-hazards emergency response planning. Early prototypes of the GRIN used PowerPoint slides to organize basic information about coastal communities in Alaska. With time, hyper text markup language (html) was used as the programming format because it can be more readily hyper-linked. Currently, GRIN is organized as a web page with the following 5 categories of information: general, liaison, public information, logistics and safety. There are several sub-headings under each category, such as location, people, economy, subsistence and transportation. This general information allows incident management personnel to obtain a community profile to better understand the cultural, social and economic basis of the community. The GRIN prototype was developed for the Kodiak urban area, but it may be expanded in the future to include other coastal communities in Alaska. 3 refs., 6 figs

  4. Photoallergic responses to chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochievar, I E [Columbia Univ., New York (USA). Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons

    1979-10-01

    Photochemical and immunologic knowledge about photoallergy to chemicals is briefly summarized. Studies in in vitro systems have demonstrated that photoallergic compounds can covalently bond to proteins through a photochemical reaction. The immunologic nature of the photoallergic response is based mainly on clinical observations, induction of photoallergy in man and in guinea-pigs and on results of in vitro immunologic tests. Studies of the photoreactions of the photoallergic compound, 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA) with proteins are discussed. TSCA noncovalently bonds to human serum albumin prior to irradiation. Prior interaction is essential for formation of a photoaddition product indicating that a short-lived reactive species derived from TCSA is involved in the photoaddition and limiting the number of skin proteins which can participate in antigen formation. By fragmentation of the TCSA-albumin photoadduct with CNBr, it was determined that TCSA can bond to at least three sites on the albumin molecule. TCSA alone can sensitize the photooxidation of histidine in albumin.

  5. CMSMAP : oil, chemical, search and rescue, and marine emergency response crisis management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.L.; Howlett, E.; Galagan, C.; Giguere, T.; Wee, F.; Chong, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a newly developed Crisis Management System (CMS) which makes it possible to view oil and chemical spills on the seafloor. The CMS is designed to run in a network environment, so that multiple stations can be used cooperatively to respond to a spill incident. It was developed by the Maritime and Port Authority in Singapore and represents a singular integration of a ship's bridge simulator hardware and software. It incorporates numerical models and emergency response software. The CMS is installed in a specifically designed building at the Singapore Polytechnic University, and is integrated with two shipping bridge simulators. One user interface has access to models dealing with oil spills, chemical spills, search and rescues, marine emergencies, and nuclear disasters. The interface is linked to a response management system. The entire system is used to train response personnel to marine emergencies. The histories and costs of planned response activities are described and logged for reference purposes. Estimates of damages associated with spills can be obtained. Alternative response plans can also be determined. Further research in 2002 will focus on developing real time response. 3 refs., 6 figs

  6. Preparedness activities regarding the protection of public health in case of a major oil or chemical spill on the St-Lawrence River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrier, P.; Manon, P.

    1996-01-01

    A project was initiated to protect the health of people living in the St-Lawrence basin from contaminants associated with an oil or chemical spill. Between 1980 and 1990, more than 240 chemical spills and 300 oil spills were recorded in the region which has prompted concerns regarding the possible contamination of drinking water sources. 45% of Quebec's population relies on the St-Lawrence River as a source of drinking water. Thus far, the project has identified the major chemical and oil products transported on the St-Lawrence River, and the main health risks associated with these products. Computerized dispersion models which can determine the migration of the contaminants in water, are available. Simulation exercises have been carried out to train personnel in the event of an actual spill. 1 ref

  7. Introducing COSS: A new and unique oil spill research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, R. B.; Bonner, J. S.; Autenrieth, R. L.; Donnelly, K. C.; Ernest, A. N. S.

    1997-01-01

    A new oil spill research facility in Corpus Christi, Texas began operation in April 1997 to address the appropriate use, application and effectiveness of chemical, physical and biological oil spill response agents. The Coastal Oil Spill Simulation (COSS) facility consists of nine meso scale wave tanks and will offer to science and industry a unique opportunity to spill oil in a controlled environment and to study fate, transport and remediation of oil releases in simulated coastal, intertidal, lagunal, channel and porous media. 1 ref

  8. Combining pre-spill shoreline segmentation data and shoreline assessment tools to support early response management and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, A.; Owens, E.H.; Martin, V.; Laforest, S.

    2003-01-01

    Several organizations, such as Environment Canada and the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, are developing or refining pre-spill databases containing information about physical shoreline characteristics. Automated links between these pre-spill shoreline characteristic databases and computerized shoreline assessment tools were recently created by Environment Canada (Quebec and Ontario regions). The tools, which use Geographical Information System (GIS) technology, can be used for planning and documenting support needed for shoreline cleanup operations. A training exercise, designed to evaluate a spill management system integrating the Quebec region pre-spill shoreline database and the ShoreAssess R shoreline assessment system, was conducted at Vercheres, Quebec in October 2002 by Eastern Canada Response Corporation. The testing took place during the planning stage of the early phases of a spill, namely after the first over-flight. The computerized shoreline assessment tools made it possible to evaluate the length and type of shoreline that would potentially be impacted by oil. The tools also made it possible to assess the shoreline treatment methods most likely to be used, and evaluate the probable duration of the cleanup operation. The information would have to be available in time to be considered during the planning activities. The training exercise demonstrated that the integration of the databases is a valuable tool during the early phases of an oil spill response. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  9. The application of strict criminal liabilities to spillage of oil: the practical impact on effective spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 provides criminal penalties in oil spills that result from criminal activity, gross negligence or wilful misconduct on the part of the spiller. Nevertheless, the Department of Justice has seen fit to reach into unrelated legislation to potentially apply strict criminal liability to any oil spill regardless of intent. Strict criminalization of accidental oil spills is demonstrably counterproductive to effective protection of the environment from the effect of spills since it poses a serious impediment to cooperation and coordination by and between those charged by law to respond to them. This impediment is particularly dangerous since it threatens the proper functioning of the inherently sensitive ''troika'' Unified Command Structure that has evolved in spill response management in response to OPA-90 management requirements. Introduction of strict criminal liability for accidental spills is also particularly troublesome in that it must enlist unrelated law to influence an area that has been addressed specifically by legislation designed for that purpose; legislation that has worked well in the past 30 years to both regulate the target activities while successfully achieving the objective of protecting and improving environment quality. (author)

  10. Response Manual for Combating Spills of Floating Hazardous CHRIS chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    NICKEL AMMONIUM SULFATE NAS No NICKEL BROMIDE NBR No NICKEL CARBONYL NKC No 3 NICKEL CHLORIDE NCL No NICKEL CYANIDE NCN No NICKEL FLUOBORATE NFB No...Neoprene Good Poor Poor Fair Good Good Nitrile Rubber Fair Fair Fair Good Good Good *Sources: Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering, 2nd Edition...two types. The first type consists of a rubber ball with a toggle bolt arranged so that it can be tightened to expand the rubber ball to fit the hole

  11. Proceedings of the nineteenth arctic and marine oil spill program (AMOP) technical seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The technical seminar on arctic and marine oil spills introduced issues concerning oil spills at sea, in particular the critical first few hours of an oil spill. State-of-the-art technologies which assist the response team in tracking and predicting the behavior of oil spills, were described. The physical and chemical properties of spilled oil were studied, as well as those of oil spill treating agents, including testing their biological effects. New methods to contain and recover spilled oil were reviewed. Volume 2 presented results from field experiments in which in-situ burning was performed, and demonstrated modelling techniques for the detection, prediction and tracking of oil spills. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Support mechanisms for oil spill accident response in costal lagoon areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo R.; Silveira, Bruno; Alves, Fátima L.

    2014-10-01

    Oil spill accidents can be caused by several risk factors associated to maritime transport and port activities, which cannot always be predicted or controlled. Therefore, it is essential to support prevention and contingency plans, whose effectiveness is crucial to produce adequate responses and minimize resulting impacts. Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) is a wide coastal lagoon, within a densely populated area, representing a concentration of important biodiversity resources and several economic activities. This paper presents alternative methodologies to support the optimization of civil protection assets in the occurrence of oil spill events and the results of their application on a section area of the Aveiro Lagoon, using an established geographic information system database containing crucial data. The presented methodologies are based on the Environmental Sensitivity Index developed by the North American National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA) and the Global Vulnerability Index which were applied on the Bay of Biscay (Spain). However, during the development of this work, neither of these methodologies was considered to entirely assess the study area in its full extent, which led to the need to adapt and define a bespoke approach. The introduced changes include extra categories in shoreline classification, an adapted physical vulnerability index for coastal lagoons, differentiated aspects for highly protected status areas, qualitative assessment of socioeconomic features and an access and operability index created to support emergency operation response. The resulting maps are the subject of analysis, in which considerations regarding control and cleanup methods are introduced, together with guidelines for further integration in local risk management strategies.

  13. Comparative risk assessment of spill response options for a deepwater oil well blowout: Part III. Stakeholder engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ann Hayward; Scholz, Debra; McPeek, Melinda; French-McCay, Deborah; Rowe, Jill; Bock, Michael; Robinson, Hilary; Wenning, Richard

    2018-05-25

    This paper describes oil spill stakeholder engagement in a recent comparative risk assessment (CRA) project that examined the tradeoffs associated with a hypothetical offshore well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, with a specific focus on subsea dispersant injection (SSDI) at the wellhead. SSDI is a new technology deployed during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill response. Oil spill stakeholders include decision makers, who will consider whether to integrate SSDI into future tradeoff decisions. This CRA considered the tradeoffs associated with three sets of response strategies: (1) no intervention; (2) mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, and surface dispersants; and, (3) SSDI in addition to responses in (2). For context, the paper begins with a historical review of U.S. policy and engagement with oil spill stakeholders regarding dispersants. Stakeholder activities throughout the project involved decision-maker representatives and their advisors to inform the approach and consider CRA utility in future oil spill preparedness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The application of remote sensing techniques to create a Black Sea coastal response strategy for oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, R.; Hanlon, W.

    1998-01-01

    The application of remote satellite imaging, coupled with Geographic Information System (GIS) technology has been used to create coastal maps enhanced with environmental information. The use of such techniques for oil spill response requires the development of practical applications to assist responders with real-time decision making. In a joint effort with regional navies for Black Sea spill contingency planning, the US Navy has developed methods by which a quick, accurate, and economical application of existing technology can be used to produce data rich maps for a large area of interest. This combines various existing techniques to create practical applications and usable documents for oil spill planners and responders. Existing environmental data on a selected area of the Black Sea coastal zone was collected and this information was sorted, harmonized and transposed onto a rectified multispectral satellite image of the area in a GIS format. Multispectral analysis was performed on the image to locate environmentally distinct zones. The resulting multi-layered GIS map provides a useful representation of coastal environmental sensitivities, and in many ways surpasses conventional GIS systems. The satellite image provides an accurate and realtime map of the area while the multispectral data precisely locates common ecosystems, such as wetlands and forests. This allows for the rapid prioritization of coastal areas and the ability to pinpoint specific areas for protection. The resulting process provides emergency responders the ability to quickly and economically create a data rich GIS. This system will provide reliable, timely information for protection strategies, identifying environmental and public risks, and offer a basis by which to measure spill impacts and recovery techniques, especially in areas where environmental reference data is limited. (author)

  15. Spills Action Centre summary report of 1995 spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    A summary of spills reported to the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy during 1995 was presented. The Ministry's Spill Action Centre is on call 24-hours per day to receive and respond to reports of spills and other urgent environmental incidents. Some 5,000 spills were documented in 1995. Oils and fuels accounted for 59 per cent of the spilled materials, chemicals and chemical solutions for 17 per cent, wastes and waste waters for 16 per cent, and gaseous materials for 5 per cent. Unknown materials accounted for 3 per cent. Most of the spills involved small volumes. Equipment failure and operator error were the major reasons for spills. All occurrences reported are stored on a computerized database. The information is used to develop new pollution abatement programs and spill prevention initiatives as trends are identified. 14 tabs., 14 figs

  16. Review on the national and regional response to oil spill in the Arabian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhro, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decades, the oil industry has grown enormously, resulting in a considerable number of island's oil and gas fields being fully developed. Over 30% of all oil carried by ships is produced in this region. It is exported through a narrow bottle-neck passage, Straight of Hormuz creating a continuous heavy traffic that increases the daily risk potential for ships collision, grounding or explosion that threaten the marine environment and the economy of the coastal states, should a major oil spill occur anytime. The paper reviews some major spills in the area and the action taken by the responsible authorities. The high risk potential of pollution by oil or any other harmful substances in the Arabian Gulf always exists and the need for a competent national and regional bodies was felt necessary to co-ordinate efforts in combating or mitigating marine oil pollution. The paper reviews and discusses the status of such bodies and concludes with an emphasis on strengthening them

  17. Mental health indicators associated with oil spill response and clean-up: cross-sectional analysis of the GuLF STUDY cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Richard K; McGrath, John A; Lowe, Sarah R; Engel, Lawrence S; Jackson, W Braxton; Curry, Matthew D; Payne, Julianne; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P

    2017-12-01

    Adverse mental health effects have been reported following oil spills but few studies have identified specific responsible attributes of the clean-up experience. We aimed to analyse the effects of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (Gulf of Mexico) disaster on the mental health of individuals involved in oil spill response and clean-up. We used data from the Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study, a cohort of workers and volunteers involved in oil spill clean-up after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. We included 8968 workers (hired after completing training for oil spill response and clean-up) and 2225 non-workers (completed training but were not hired) who completed a Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and four-item Primary Care PTSD Screen to assess for probable depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicators. Participants were recruited between March 28, 2011, and March 29, 2013. The mental health indicators were assessed at home visits done between May 12, 2011, and May 15, 2013. We used regression models to analyse the effect of potentially stressful job experiences, job type, and total hydrocarbon exposure on mental health indicators. Oil spill response and clean-up work was associated with increased prevalence of depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1·22, 95% CI 1·08-1·37) and PTSD (PR 1·35, 95% CI 1·07-1·71). Among workers, individuals who reported smelling oil, dispersants, or cleaning chemicals had an elevated prevalence of depression (1·56, 1·37-1·78) and PTSD (2·25, 1·71-2·96). Stopping work because of the heat was also associated with depression (1·37, 1·23-1·53) and PTSD (1·41, 1·15-1·74), as was working as a commercial fisherman before the spill (1·38, 1·21-1·57; and 2·01, 1·58-2·55, respectively). An increase in exposure to total hydrocarbons appeared to be associated with depression and PTSD, but after taking into account oil spill job experiences, only the association between the highest amount of total hydrocarbons and PTSD

  18. Mental health indicators associated with oil spill response and clean-up: cross-sectional analysis of the GuLF STUDY cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Kwok, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Adverse mental health effects have been reported following oil spills but few studies have identified specific responsible attributes of the clean-up experience. We aimed to analyse the effects of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (Gulf of Mexico disaster on the mental health of individuals involved in oil spill response and clean-up. Methods: We used data from the Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study, a cohort of workers and volunteers involved in oil spill clean-up after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. We included 8968 workers (hired after completing training for oil spill response and clean-up and 2225 non-workers (completed training but were not hired who completed a Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and four-item Primary Care PTSD Screen to assess for probable depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD indicators. Participants were recruited between March 28, 2011, and March 29, 2013. The mental health indicators were assessed at home visits done between May 12, 2011, and May 15, 2013. We used regression models to analyse the effect of potentially stressful job experiences, job type, and total hydrocarbon exposure on mental health indicators. Findings: Oil spill response and clean-up work was associated with increased prevalence of depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1·22, 95% CI 1·08–1·37 and PTSD (PR 1·35, 95% CI 1·07–1·71. Among workers, individuals who reported smelling oil, dispersants, or cleaning chemicals had an elevated prevalence of depression (1·56, 1·37–1·78 and PTSD (2·25, 1·71–2·96. Stopping work because of the heat was also associated with depression (1·37, 1·23–1·53 and PTSD (1·41, 1·15–1·74, as was working as a commercial fisherman before the spill (1·38, 1·21–1·57; and 2·01, 1·58–2·55, respectively. An increase in exposure to total hydrocarbons appeared to be associated with depression and PTSD, but

  19. Strategic optimization model and area planning for oil spill response; Modelo de otimizacao estrategico e de planejamento de area para resposta a derramamentos de oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Luiz Rodolfo Tinoco Aboim; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia de Producao

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with strategic aspect of the oil spill response problem, that is, with the problem of deciding where to locate adequate capability to respond to potential oil spills. In addition to locational considerations, the strategic oil spill response problem generally calls for decisions concerning the proper levels and types of equipment to be stockpiled, as well as for policies regarding the allocation of such capability among points of high oil spill potential. The oil spill optimization models can contribute with contingency plans that are prepared by responsible parties . It is described one model that address current legal requirements, in particular, the time-phasing of response, and the use of this model as a decision support by responsible parties. (author)

  20. 75 FR 36773 - Pipeline Safety: Updating Facility Response Plans in Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... have been, or are subsequently relocated to the Gulf to respond to the Deepwater Horizon event should.... PHMSA-2010-0175] Pipeline Safety: Updating Facility Response Plans in Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil... 194. In light of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, which has resulted in the...

  1. Metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and single cell genomics reveal functional response of active Oceanospirillales to Gulf oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Hazen, Terry C.; Borglin, Sharon; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Dubinsky, Eric A.; Fortney, Julian L.; Han, James; Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Hultman, Jenni; Lamendella, Regina; Mackelprang, Rachel; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tom, Lauren M.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Woyke, Tanja; Zhou, Jizhong; Rubin, Edward M.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2012-06-12

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea.

  2. Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; De Dominicis, Michela; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Lardner, Robin; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Soloviev, Dmitry; Tintore, Joaquin; Sotillo, Marcos; Drago, Aldo; Stylianou, Stavros; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Alves, Tiago; Kokinou, Eleni

    2016-04-01

    Modeling oil spills in the Med-Sea as a mean of early response in cases of oil leakages G. Zodiatis1, M. De Dominicis2, L. Perivoliotis3, H. Radhakrishnan1, R. W. Lardner1, N. Pinardi2, G. Coppini4, D. Soloviev1, J. Tintore5, M. Sotillo6 A. Drago7, S. Stylianou1, A. Nikolaidis1, T. Alves8, E. Kokinou9 and MEDESS4MS partners 1Oceanography Centre, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus 2Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy 3Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Athens, Greece 4Centro Euro- Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Italy 5SOCIB, IMEDEA, Palma de Majorca, Spain 6Puertos del Estado, Madrid, Spain 7IOI, University of Malta, La Valetta, Malta 83D Seismic Lab, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom 9Dept. of Environmental and Natural Resources, Technological Educational Institute Crete, Chania, Greece The risk from oil spill pollution in the Mediterranean is high due to the heavy traffic of merchant vessels for transporting oil and to the increasing coastal and offshore platforms related to the hydrocarbon exploration. This is especially true in the Levantine Basin following the recent widening of the Suez canal and the increase of the offshore deep wells for the exploitation of oil and gas. In order to select the optimal response measurements to assist the response agencies, oil spill models are used to provide predictions of the drift and weathering of the oil slicks. The establishment of the operational ocean forecasting systems at regional level, within the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service and in association with the national downscaled ones, provided the background for the implementation of a multi model integrated oil spill prediction system for the entire Mediterranean to support the maritime safety in near real time. This implementation was carried out in the frame of the medess4ms.eu project, which is dedicated to the response agencies of the riparian countries and to

  3. Science supporting Gulf of Mexico oil-spill response, mitigation, and restoration activities-Assessment, monitoring, mapping, and coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindinger, Jack; Tihansky, Ann B.; Cimitile, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigates physical processes related to coastal and marine environments and societal implications related to natural hazards, resource sustainability, and environmental change. Immediately after the Deepwater Horizon event, the USGS began responding to data requests, directing response personnel, and providing coastal and shelf geophysical data to coastal-resource managers. The USGS provided oil-spill responders with up-to-date coastal bathymetry, geologic data, and maps characterizing vulnerability and levels of risk from potential spill impacts in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Baseline conditions prior to any spill impacts were documented through programs that included shoreline sampling and sediment coring from east Texas to the east coast of Florida and aerial photography of many environmentally sensitive Gulf coastal areas. The USGS responded to numerous verbal and written data requests from Federal, State, and local partners and academic institutions with USGS scientific staff participating in the Coast Guard Unified Commands (UC) and Operational Science Advisory Teams (OSAT). The USGS conducted technical review of reports and plans for many response activities. Oil-spill responders, managers, and personnel on the ground, including partners such as the National Park Service, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Chandeleur Islands Refuge, and State agencies, continue to rely on USGS products.

  4. Chemical fingerprinting and diagnostic ratios of Agbada-1 oil spill impacted sites in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Onojake

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed compositional analysis by gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC–FID was employed to elucidate an oil spill in the Niger delta by fingerprinting technique. Distribution patterns of normal alkanes and isoprenoids show nC8 to nC40 petroleum hydrocarbons. The diagnostic ratios such as Pr/Ph ranged from 1.52 to 2.17; Pr/nC17 ranged from 0.31 to 0.51; Ph/nC18 ranged from 0.14 to 0.99; nC25/nC18 ranged from 0.93 to 3.52; CPI ranged from 0.97 to 1.13; (Pr + nC17/(Ph + nC18 ranged from 1.10 to 2.25; Ph/anth ranged from 0.28 to 1.11; BaA/Ch ranged from 0.57 to 2.90; Fl/Py ranged from 1.24 to 2.90. The ratio Fl/Py which is greater than unity (>1 is an indication of the petrogenic source of PAHs. Statistical analyses such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were also applied as supporting tools. PCA loadings and scores plots carried out on selected parameters obtained from the analysis of the oil spill show that PC1 and PC2 together represented 95.4% (55.8% and 39.6% respectively of the variability. The high similarity level of the results obtained from the cluster analysis which is 98%, shows that the spilled oil originated from a common source.

  5. Alaska GRIN project : development of geospatial data management interface for oil spill and emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, S. [Cook Inlet Regional Citizens Advisory Council, Kenai, AK (United States); Robertson, T.L. [Nuka Research and Planning Group LLC, Seldovia, AK (United States); DeCola, E. [Nuka Research and Planning Group LLC, Plymouth, MA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    A geographic response network (GRIN) project was conducted in 2005 to develop a computer-based tool for organizing maps and data related to oil spill and emergency response logistics and community resources. Originally conceived as an html-based website where information was organized based on incident command system divisions of responsibility, open source mapping applications are also being added to crate an interactive map interface with geospatially referenced information. GRIN information is organized by community. A locator map is embedded in the lower right-hand corner of each map. GRIN includes categories of information related to emergency management, air logistics, law enforcement, marine logistics, and shore-side logistics. A project is now being conducted by the Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council to convert the html-based GRIN into a geospatial data management tool. A prototype has now been populated with data for several Cook Inlet communities. GRIN can also be accessed on only computer with an Internet browser. It was concluded that the use of open source programming will make GRIN an easy tool for planners and emergency responders. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of water quality following the exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, J.M.; Stubblefield, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive water-quality assessment program performed in Prince William Sound and the western Gulf of Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989, water samples were collected from 417 locations, most of them in areas through which the oil drifted, to assess the distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column. Over 5,000 water samples were analyzed for individual and total petroleum alkanes and for aromatic hydrocarbons by very sensitive gas chromatographic techniques. A total of 2,461 of these samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concurrent with some of these samples, an additional 123 water samples were collected in April 1989 (a week to a month after the spill) at 32 offshore locations and in June 1989 at 7 nearshore sites in Prince William Sound to determine the toxicity of the water to representative species of marine organisms. The toxicity of Prince William Sound water was assessed with standard Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and American Society for Testing and materials (ASTM) marine toxicity tests with representative species of three taxonomic groups: (1) Skeletonema costatum (a marine diatom), (2) Mysidopsis bahia (a crustacean), and (3) larval/juvenile Cyprinodon variegatus (a fish, the sheepshead minnow). 58 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Generation of shrimp waste-based dispersant for oil spill response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kedong; Zhang, Baiyu; Song, Xing; Liu, Bo; Jing, Liang; Chen, Bing

    2018-04-01

    In this study, shrimp waste was enzymatically hydrolyzed to generate a green dispersant and the product was tested for crude oil dispersion in seawater. The hydrolysis process was first optimized based on the dispersant effectiveness (DE) of the product. The functional properties of the product were identified including stability, critical micelle concentration, and emulsification activity. Water was confirmed as a good solvent for dispersant generation when compared with three chemical solvents. The effects of salinity, mixing energy, and temperature on the dispersion of the Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil were examined. Microtox acute toxicity test was also conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the produced dispersant. In addition, DE of the product on three different types of crude oil, including ANS crude oil, Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBC), and Arabian Light crude oil (ALC) was compared with that of the Corexit 9500, respectively. The research output could lead to a promising green solution to the oil spill problem and might result in many other environmental applications.

  8. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the BUNNY BORDELON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-31 to 2010-06-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069116)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the BUNNY BORDELON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-31 to 2010-06-02 in response to the...

  9. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-24 to 2010-08-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0068596)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-24 to 2010-08-02 in response to the...

  10. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the Wes Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-05 to 2010-09-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069085)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the Wes Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-05 to 2010-09-13 in response to the...

  11. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the BUNNY BORDELON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-05 to 2010-09-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069117)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the BUNNY BORDELON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-05 to 2010-09-13 in response to the...

  12. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the Wes Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069086)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the Wes Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-18 to 2010-08-22 in response to the...

  13. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the Rachel Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the Rachel Bordelon in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-13 in response to the...

  14. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-16 to 2010-07-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0068595)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-16 to 2010-07-22 in response to the...

  15. Chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 2013 Rayong oil spill-affected coastal areas of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, S; Hattayanone, M; Tipmanee, D; Suttinun, O; Khumsup, C; Kittikoon, I; Hirunyatrakul, P

    2018-02-01

    Among Southeast Asian countries, Thailand has gradually accustomed to extremely prompt urbanization, motorization, and industrialization. Chonburi and Rayong provinces are two provinces involved in "eastern seaboard" industrial zones, which is an emerging economic region that plays a key role in Thailand's economy. The 2013 Rayong oil spill did not only cause damages to the coastal and maritime environment, but also undermine trust in the overall safety system and negatively affect the investor confidence. In this study, 69 coastal soils collected around Koh Samed Island were chemically extracted and analyzed for 15 PAHs by using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra system comprising a high-speed performance system with ASSP function. In this study, numerous diagnostic binary ratios were applied to identify potential sources of PAHs. Advanced statistical techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis coupled with principal component analysis were also conducted for further investigations of source identifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  17. Contingency plans and successful response strategies for oil spills into rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Edward H. [Polaris Applied Sciences Inc., Bainbridge Island, WA (United States)]. E-mail: ehowens@polarisappliedsciences.com

    2003-07-01

    Oil spilled into a river enters a dynamic environment. An effective response can only succeed if the dynamics of the river system are understood and if the strategies and tactics are designed to match these conditions. Oil is transported downstream at the speed of the current, therefore, an estimate of the rate of movement is essential to identify effective intercept locations. Boom performance is affected by local surface water velocities as entrainment of oil typically begins when velocities exceed 0.4 m/s. However, boom configurations can be effective in current velocities as great as 2.5 m/s. Response operations can be successful if staging or control locations have been identified as part of contingency planning and if booms are deployed to take into account local surface current characteristics. Tracking and control of submerged or sunken oil is difficult and may not be practical. Recovery operations for sunken oil depend on the channel depth, current velocities, and on the distribution and concentration of the oil. (author)

  18. Modelling command and control for emergency response scenarios: A marine oil spills perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisman, R.

    1993-01-01

    Commanders in emergency response scenarios have to rapidly formulate viable plans of action in the face of uncertainty, and on the basis of incomplete information and a constantly changing situation. Automated intelligent decision support systems may be a means of helping the commander to elaborate a plan, producing the operations order, and monitoring the plan's execution. The latter aspect would permit the system to advise a commander when key assumptions upon which the plan is based are no longer valid. Any such system will invariably be complex. The first step is the development of a conceptual model which will provide a sound structure to contain all of the requisite knowledge and information. The subject model is relatively simple and includes a metric for evaluating plans, a practical means of handling uncertainty, and a constraint language to capture expert knowledge precisely. Aspects of the model are illustrated using practical examples from the domain of maritime oil spill response. Results from several computer-based implementations of parts of the model are also discussed. 13 refs., 17 figs

  19. Assessing the long-term implementation costs versus benefits associated with laser fluorosensor spill response technology. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tebeau, P.A.; Hansen, K.A.; Fant, J.W.; Terrien, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The laser fluorosensor (LF) is a developmental oil spill sensor capable of conclusively identifying oil in the marine environment, detecting the presence of oil on the surface of the water, even during darkness or reduced visibility conditions. LF can also detect oil below the surface of the water in typical marine environments. A study was conducted to determine the potential benefits and cost savings associated with the availability of an LF in supporting oil spill response operations, particularly heavy oil spills which are likely to sink below the surface of the water as it weathers with time. Since LF is expensive, the enhanced operational capabilities and associated cost-savings must be quantified and carefully weighed against the system acquisition and operation costs. The methodology used in this study to identify and quantify the benefits and cost savings was to conduct a scenario-based cost-benefit analysis in which significant spills that have occurred in the past were analyzed in detail to determine the costs incurred in responding to the spill with and without the availability of the LF technology. Four different implementation approaches were examined: installation on a United States Coast Guard (USCG) fixed-wing aircraft; installation on a USCG helicopter; installation on an aircraft-of-opportunity; and, contracting for the capability of another agency. The implementation costs considered in this study were system acquisition costs, system installation and integration costs, airborne platform costs, maintenance costs, personnel costs and training costs. It was determined that the annual implementation costs were approximately equal to the project annual cost savings. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  20. The Federal Oil Spill Team for Emergency Response Remote Sensing (FOSTERRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.; Leifer, I.; Lindsay, F. E.; Murray, J. J.; Ramirez, E. M.; Salemi, A.; Streett, D.

    2014-12-01

    Oil spills can cause enormous ecological and economic devastation, necessitating application of the best science and technology available, for which remote sensing plays a critical role in detection and monitoring of oil spills. The FOSTERRS interagency working group seeks to ensure that during an oil spill, remote sensing assets (satellite/aircraft) and analysis techniques are quickly, effectively and seamlessly available to oil spills responders. FOSTERRS enables cooperation between agencies with core environmental remote sensing assets and capabilities and academic and industry experts to act as an oil spill remote sensing information clearinghouse. The US government and its collaborators have a broad variety of aircraft and satellite sensors, imagery interrogation techniques and other technology that can provide indispensable remote sensing information to agencies, emergency responders and the public during an oil spill. Specifically, FOSTERRS will work to ensure that (1) suitable aircraft and satellite imagery and radar observations are quickly made available in a manner that can be integrated into oil spill detection and mitigation efforts, (2) existing imagery interrogation techniques are in the hands of those who will provide the 24 x 7 operational support and (3) efforts are made to develop new technology where the existing techniques do not provide oil spills responders with important information they need. The FOSTERRS mission goal places it in an ideal place for identification of critical technological needs, and identifying bottlenecks in technology acceptance. The core FOSTERRS team incorporates representation for operations and science for agencies with relevant instrumental and platform assets (NASA, NOAA, USGS, NRL). FOSTERRS membership will open to a wide range of end-user agencies and planned observer status from industry and academic experts, and eventually international partners. Through these collaborations, FOSTERRS facilitates interagency

  1. An internet-based information management system for oil spill response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.W.; Douligeris, C.; Tebeau, P. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the contents and capabilities of OSIMS - the Oil Spill Information Management System. OSIMS is an integrated information management tool providing a graphical interface to an object-oriented database of geographical and other spill-related data. OSIMS combines the utility of a Geographic Information System with the intelligence of a Decision Support System, and provides global access through the World-Wide Web.

  2. Response, remediation and risk management of a crude oil pipeline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.A.; Livingstone, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    A light crude oil spill occurred along a section of pipeline near the bank of a major river of a southern Alberta community in December of 1995. Crude oil was observed at ground surface over an area of 2,000 sq m at the top of the river slope. It had also migrated down slope through the subgrade soils and along the groundwater table toward the river. The initial emergency response measures included removing and disposing of oil-stained vegetation and snow, and the containment and recovery of free oil pooled on the ground surface. Other measures included the drilling of test holes and boreholes and the installation of groundwater monitoring and recovery wells. It was determined that phase-separated crude oil had accumulated at the water table within the flood plain sediments near the river. The water was remediated on-site to Canadian drinking water quality standards. The zone of impacted water was effectively captured, and ground water quality steadily improved

  3. Assessment of the TRANSREC-350 mechanical recovery capacity of the oil spill response equipment in Prince William Sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provant, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the compliance of oil spill response equipment in Prince William Sound, Alaska, to state standards. Data on the observed performance of the Framo TRANSREC skimmer, which represents a large portion of the initial response skimming capability of the Sound's equipment, were obtained from Norwegian experience. The results of the analysis are based on the level of performance expected from well-trained skimmer crews responding to a 300,000 bbl spill under the worst average weather conditions over a 72-h period. Certain assumptions are made about volumes of evaporation and decanting. Results indicate that the volume of oil expected to be recovered would be 188,900 bbl, which would expand via emulsion formation to 303,000 bbl. In addition, a volume of free water would be taken in with the emulsion, which would be reduced by decanting. The overall storage capacity needed would then be 382,300 bbl. With the present available configuration of skimmers and barges, the maximum available storage capacity is 370,000 bbl. Skimmer capability can be maximized by matching storage capacity to recovery capability or by developing and demonstrating a capability to offload the recovered oil effectively such that transfer operations do not materially affect recovery operations. Recommendations are made for spill response organizations to improve their operations. 4 refs., 9 figs

  4. Chemical Structure, Property and Potential Applications of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus subtilis in Petroleum Recovery and Spill Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Feng; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Lipopeptides produced by microorganisms are one of the five major classes of biosurfactants known and they have received much attention from scientific and industrial communities due to their powerful interfacial and biological activities as well as environmentally friendly characteristics. Microbially produced lipopeptides are a series of chemical structural analogues of different families and, among them, 26 families covering about 90 lipopeptide compounds have been reported in the last two decades. This paper reviews the chemical structural characteristics and molecular behaviors of surfactin, one of the representative lipopeptides of the 26 families. In particular, two novel surfactin molecules isolated from cell-free cultures of Bacillus subtilis HSO121 are presented. Surfactins exhibit strong self-assembly ability to form sphere-like micelles and larger aggregates at very low concentrations. The amphipathic and surface properties of surfactins are related to the existence of the minor polar and major hydrophobic domains in the three 3-D conformations. In addition, the application potential of surfactin in bioremediation of oil spills and oil contaminants, and microbial enhanced oil recovery are discussed. PMID:25741767

  5. Chemical Structure, Property and Potential Applications of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus subtilis in Petroleum Recovery and Spill Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipopeptides produced by microorganisms are one of the five major classes of biosurfactants known and they have received much attention from scientific and industrial communities due to their powerful interfacial and biological activities as well as environmentally friendly characteristics. Microbially produced lipopeptides are a series of chemical structural analogues of different families and, among them, 26 families covering about 90 lipopeptide compounds have been reported in the last two decades. This paper reviews the chemical structural characteristics and molecular behaviors of surfactin, one of the representative lipopeptides of the 26 families. In particular, two novel surfactin molecules isolated from cell-free cultures of Bacillus subtilis HSO121 are presented. Surfactins exhibit strong self-assembly ability to form sphere-like micelles and larger aggregates at very low concentrations. The amphipathic and surface properties of surfactins are related to the existence of the minor polar and major hydrophobic domains in the three 3-D conformations. In addition, the application potential of surfactin in bioremediation of oil spills and oil contaminants, and microbial enhanced oil recovery are discussed.

  6. Application of GRA method, dynamic analysis and fuzzy set theory in evaluation and selection of emergency treatment technology for large scale phenol spill incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjing; Yu, Lean; Li, Lian

    2017-05-01

    Select an appropriate technology in an emergency response is a very important issue with various kinds of chemical contingency spills frequently taking place. Due to the complexity, fuzziness and uncertainties of the chemical contingency spills, the theory of GRA method, dynamic analysis combined with fuzzy set theory will be appropriately applied to selection and evaluation of emergency treatment technology. Finally, a emergency phenol spill accidence occurred in highway is provided to illustrate the applicability and feasibility of the proposed methods.

  7. Chemical and microbiological characterization of mangrove sediments after a large oil-spill in Guanabara Bay - RJ - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel-Souza,Maria do Carmo; Macrae,Andrew; Volpon,Antonia Garcia Torres; Ferreira,Patrícia Silva; Mendonça-Hagler,Leda Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen months after a 1,3 million L oil spill into Guanabara Bay, analyses of mangrove sediments showed that the three sites closest to the spill remain highly polluted (>10 µg-g-1 polyaromatic hydrocarbons). A fourth site was less polluted, from which most hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated.

  8. Response to a fuel oil spill in the Albufera de Alcudia natural park on Mallorca Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Serra, F. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Baleares (Spain); Perez-Navarro, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Kantin, R. [IFREMER, la Tremblade (France); Diez, E. [Transportes Salas Simo S.L., Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    On June 12, 2001, a tanker spilled 14,500 liters of low sulphur fuel in a canal within an environmentally sensitive and ecologically rich, salt water lagoon of the Albufera de Alcudia Natural park on the island of Mallorca. Part of the contingency plan to minimize the impact of the spill included the use of a sorbent material on each side of the spill, followed by pumping the hydrocarbons out of the reed grasses, water, soil and sediments. The tanker was removed to avoid any further spill. The 428 tons of affected oil was moved by trucks to a temporary storage area in an adjacent lot where it was separated into 3 groups according to the treatment required. Polluted reed grass from a sugar cane plantation was mildly polluted. Another group was highly polluted, and the final group showed low level pollution. The fuel oil containing water, soil and sugar cane plantation material was analyzed to obtain average values of fuel oil per liter of water and fuel oil per kilogram of dry material. Material from the sugar cane plantation was burnt in an incinerator while the rest of the material was left to dry for 3 months before it was moved to an area for treatment in fenced containers designed with a slope for collecting leachates. Two 1.5 m deep wells were dug to accumulate the leachate. Analysis of the polluted reed grass samples one month after the spill indicated a concentration of 0.26 g of fuel oil per gram of dried reed grass which does not present any danger to flora and fauna. Observations made in September following the spill indicated a significant improvement in the state of reed grass and water within the affected area. The remediation effort was considered to be very efficient and total recovery of the affected area has been verified. 4 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  9. Response to a fuel oil spill in the Albufera de Alcudia natural park on Mallorca Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Serra, F.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Kantin, R.; Diez, E.

    2002-01-01

    On June 12, 2001, a tanker spilled 14,500 liters of low sulphur fuel in a canal within an environmentally sensitive and ecologically rich, salt water lagoon of the Albufera de Alcudia Natural park on the island of Mallorca. Part of the contingency plan to minimize the impact of the spill included the use of a sorbent material on each side of the spill, followed by pumping the hydrocarbons out of the reed grasses, water, soil and sediments. The tanker was removed to avoid any further spill. The 428 tons of affected oil was moved by trucks to a temporary storage area in an adjacent lot where it was separated into 3 groups according to the treatment required. Polluted reed grass from a sugar cane plantation was mildly polluted. Another group was highly polluted, and the final group showed low level pollution. The fuel oil containing water, soil and sugar cane plantation material was analyzed to obtain average values of fuel oil per liter of water and fuel oil per kilogram of dry material. Material from the sugar cane plantation was burnt in an incinerator while the rest of the material was left to dry for 3 months before it was moved to an area for treatment in fenced containers designed with a slope for collecting leachates. Two 1.5 m deep wells were dug to accumulate the leachate. Analysis of the polluted reed grass samples one month after the spill indicated a concentration of 0.26 g of fuel oil per gram of dried reed grass which does not present any danger to flora and fauna. Observations made in September following the spill indicated a significant improvement in the state of reed grass and water within the affected area. The remediation effort was considered to be very efficient and total recovery of the affected area has been verified. 4 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs

  10. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-26 to 2010-09-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-26 to 2010-09-03 in response to the Deepwater...

  11. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the Specialty Diver I in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-10 to 2010-09-15 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the Specialty Diver I in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-10 to 2010-09-15 in response to the...

  12. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-05-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-05-13 in response to the Deepwater...

  13. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-21 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069614)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-21 in response to the...

  14. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-31 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-31 in response to the Deepwater...

  15. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater...

  16. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-27 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069071)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-27 in response to the Deepwater...

  17. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-12 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-12 in response to the Deepwater...

  18. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the Meg L. Skansi in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the Meg L. Skansi in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-04 to 2010-09-13 in response to the...

  19. Oceanographic studies in Harrison Bay and the Colville River Delta, Alaska, to support the development of oil spill response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Taylor, E.; Hale, B.

    2003-01-01

    The risk of an oil spill resulting from the development of the Alpine oil field is considered to be low. The field is located on the North Slope of Alaska adjacent to the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and reaches coastal waters from the distributary channels of the Colville River Delta. The physical environmental (hydrodynamic) conditions that would affect the transport and fate of spilled oil was investigated to further reduce the risk. During the open-water season of 2001 in Harrison Bay, near shore current meters were deployed and data on weather and surface currents was analyzed. Ocean current and wind measurements were examined to evaluate the relationship between meteorology and water levels during the open-water season. The objective was to gain a better understanding of the near shore hydrodynamic processes at play in Harrison Bay, in order to plan the most appropriate spill response strategies. The results obtained indicate that surface currents within the bay adjacent to the Colville Delta are variable. They respond to wind forces as well as other possible mechanisms like estuarine circulation. The surface currents reach maximum speeds of 0.26 metre per second. For the late July-September deployment, the calculated net surface drift was a 0.02 metre per second current to the east southeast. In both Harrison Bay and Colville Delta, prevailing southwest and northeast winds, respectively, induced water level changes of more than 0.5 metre above and below the average. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  20. Developing AN Emergency Response Model for Offshore Oil Spill Disaster Management Using Spatial Decision Support System (sdss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Abdul-Lateef; Matori, Abdul-Nasir; Wong Toh Kiak, Kelvin

    2018-04-01

    Environmental resources face severe risks during offshore oil spill disasters and Geographic Information System (GIS) Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are increasingly being used as response tools to minimize the huge impacts of these spills. However, ESI maps are generally unable to independently harmonize the diverse preferences of the multiple stakeholders' involved in the response process, causing rancour and delay in response time. This paper's Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) utilizes the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model to perform tradeoffs in determining the most significant resources to be secured considering the limited resources and time available to perform the response operation. The AHP approach is used to aggregate the diverse preferences of the stakeholders and reach a consensus. These preferences, represented as priority weights, are incorporated in a GIS platform to generate Environmental sensitivity risk (ESR) maps. The ESR maps provide a common operational platform and consistent situational awareness for the multiple parties involved in the emergency response operation thereby minimizing discord among the response teams and saving the most valuable resources.

  1. Metagenomics reveals sediment microbial community response to Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Scott, Nicole M.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the spring of 2010 resulted in an input of similar to 4.1 million barrels of oil to the Gulf of Mexico; >22% of this oil is unaccounted for, with unknown environmental consequences. Here we investigated the impact of oil deposition on microbial communities...

  2. Public comment draft : the stakeholder workgroup review of planning and response capabilities for a marine oil spill on the U.S/Canadian transboundary areas of the Pacific coast project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This stakeholder review discussed the planning and response capabilities for marine oil spills on the United States and Canadian transboundary areas of the Pacific coast. An overview of the transboundary area was presented, as well as details of the area's climate, demographics, and economics. Historical and cultural features of the region were discussed, and the environmental impacts of actual and potential oil spills were evaluated. Risks related to increased marine traffic and development of new harbours and inland railways were discussed along with issues related to First Nations groups in the region. This document also reviewed spill notification procedures and presented oil spill response recommendations. It also outlined transboundary coordination procedures and incident investigation procedures. Issues related to fisheries were also discussed, with particular reference to oil spill response training procedures and available oil spill response software. Response funding regimes were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  4. Chemical Modification of Waste Cotton Linters for Oil Spill Cleanup Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Debapriya; Umrigar, Keval

    2017-12-01

    The possibility of use of waste cotton linters as oil sorbents by chemical modification such as acetylation and cyanoethylation was studied. The acetylation process was carried out in presence of acetic anhydride using either H2SO4 or HClO4 as catalyst. The acetylation treatment time was 30, 60 and 120 min and treatment temperature was room temperature, 50 and 70 °C. For cyanoethylation, the waste cotton linters were pre-treated with 2, 5 and 10% NaOH. The treatment temperature for cyanoethylation was room temperature, 50 and 70 °C and treatment time was 30, 60 and 120 min. Both the chemical modification processes were optimized on the basis of oil absorption capacity of the chemically modified cotton fibre with the help of MATLAB software. The modified samples were tested for its oleophilicity in terms of oil absorption capacity, oil retention capacity, oil recovery capacity, reusability of sample and water uptake and buoyancy as oil sorbent. Chemically modified fibres were characterized by Fourier transform infra red spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope and degree of substitutions.

  5. Methodology for environmental assessments of oil and hazardous substance spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W. P.; Scott, G. I.; Getter, C. D.; Hayes, M. O.; Gundlach, E. R.

    1980-03-01

    Scientific assessment of the complex environmental consequences of large spills of oil or other hazardous substances has stimulated development of improved strategies for rapid and valid collection and processing of ecological data. The combination of coastal processes and geological measurements developed by Hayes & Gundlach (1978), together with selected field biological and chemical observations/measurements, provide an ecosystem impact assessment approach which is termed “integrated zonal method of ecological impact assessment.” Ecological assessment of oil and hazardous material spills has been divided into three distinct phases: (1) first-order response studies — conducted at the time of the initial spill event, which gather data to document acute impacts and assist decision-makers in prioritization of cleanup efforts and protection of ecologically sensitive habitats, (2) second-order response studies — conducted two months to one year post-spill, which document any delayed mortality and attempt to identify potential sublethal impacts in sensitive species, and (3) third-order response studies — conducted one to three years post-spill, to document chronic impacts (both lethal and sublethal) to specific indicator species. Data collected during first-order response studies are gathered in a quantitative manner so that the initial assessment may become a baseline for later, more detailed, post-spill scientific efforts. First- and second-order response studies of the “Peck Slip” oil spill in Puerto Rico illustrate the usefulness of this method. The need for contingency planning before a spill has been discussed along with the use of the Vulnerability Index, a method in which coastal environments are classified on a scale of 1 10, based upon their potential susceptibility to oiling. A study of the lower Cook Inlet section of the Alaskan coast illustrates the practical application of this method.

  6. Oil Spill Incident Tracking [ds394

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) Incident Tracking Database is a statewide oil spill tracking information system. The data are collected by OSPR...

  7. Chemical oil-spill dispersants: evaluation of three laboratory procedures for estimating performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.R.; Marsden, P.

    1992-09-01

    The report presents data from studies designed to evaluate characteristics of selected bench-scale test methods for estimating performance of chemical agents for dispersing oil from surface slicks into an underlying water column. In order to mitigate the effect of surface slicks with chemical dispersant agents, however, an on-scene coordinator must have information and an understanding of performance characteristics for available dispersant agents. Performance of candidate dispersant agents can be estimated on the basis of laboratory testing procedures that are designed to evaluate performance of different agents. Data presented in the report assist in the evaluation of candidate test methods for estimating performance of candidate dispersant agents. Three test methods were selected for evaluating performance: the currently accepted Revised Standard EPA test, Environmental Canada's Swirling Flask test, and the IFP-Dilution test

  8. Comparison of Steady State Evaporation Models for Toxic Chemical Spills: Development of a New Evaporation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-29

    for diffusivity based on theory : DVab- 0.002e6 703/2 eS/s(bPM11 t/ ,cm/s (28) ab ab 1) where DV-b a molecular diffusion coefflcient of chemical a In...24 Ugt W m -K (48)S[(/hg) + (1/h)] m- K- where ha is the coefficient of heat conduction through the ground, and hl is the liquid heat transfer

  9. Natural resource damage assessments for oil spills: Status of rules and application to recent oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilliard, G.A.; Winfield, T.P.; Lebednik, P.A.; Markarian, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    The natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) process is based on the concept that all natural resources managed by government agencies or Indian tribes (trustees) are available to the public for its use and enjoyment. These resources have an economic value that can be affected by a spill of oil or other chemicals. The spiller or potentially responsible party (PRP) is responsible to the public, through the trustees, for paying damages and for restoration of the resource. The NRDA process should also determine the appropriate means of restoration, provide a cost for doing so and for conducting the NRDA, and should implement the appropriate restoration activities. The legal and regulatory authority behind NRDA in the USA is explained and reasons why PRPs should be concerned about NRDAs in the context of oil spills are presented. US Department of the Interior regulations describe two procedures for implementing a NRDA. A simplified procedure intended for small spills uses a computer model to generate a damage value. A more thorough and complicated procedure involves a number of phases and steps within the phases, and may include field sampling, data collection and analysis, and detailed evaluation of restoration alternatives. The NRDA experience in oil spills to date is reviewed and the future of NRDA is assessed. Examples cited include the 1988 Shell Oil spill from the Martinez Refinery, the Exxon Bayway pipeline leak of 1990, the Mega Borg spill in the Texas offshore, and the Exxon Valdez spill. It is speculated that trustees will focus on the NRDA process as a cooperative one that includes the trustees and PRPs, with the ultimate goal being restoration of the foregone services provided by natural resources. 5 refs., 1 fig

  10. Changes in the marine pollution management system in response to the Amorgos oil spill in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiau, Wen-Yen

    2005-01-01

    The Marine Pollution Control Act (MPCA) of Taiwan was promulgated on November 1, 2000, with the specific aim of controlling marine pollution, safeguarding public health, and promoting the sustainable use of marine resources. In addition to land-based pollution, oil spills are one of the most significant threats to the local marine environment largely on account of the some 30,000 tankers which pass through Taiwan's coastal waters each year. In January 2001, two months after the enactment of this newly-introduced law, a Greek merchant vessel, the Amorgos ran aground in the vicinity of a national park on the southern tip of Taiwan, causing a serious oil spill and leading to considerable changes with regard to the marine pollution management system. The incident brought to the forefront many serious problems, such as a lack of experience, expertise as well as equipment required to respond to such disasters, as well as the ambiguous, unclear jurisdiction among related agencies. Thus, this paper reviews the incident of the Amorgos spill, identifies the major issues and lessons learned, and proposes several recommendations in an effort for Taiwan to further improve its marine pollution management system.

  11. Determination of (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol isomers by heated purge-and-trap GC/MS in water samples from the 2014 Elk River, West Virginia, chemical spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, William T.; Rose, Donna L.; Chambers, Douglas B.; Crain, Angela S.; Murtagh, Lucinda K.; Thakellapalli, Haresh; Wang, Kung K.

    2015-01-01

    A heated purge-and-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was used to determine the cis- and trans-isomers of (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (4-MCHM), the reported major component of the Crude MCHM/Dowanol™ PPh glycol ether material spilled into the Elk River upriver from Charleston, West Virginia, on January 9, 2014. The trans-isomer eluted first and method detection limits were 0.16-μg L−1trans-, 0.28-μg L−1cis-, and 0.4-μg L−1 Total (total response of isomers) 4-MCHM. Estimated concentrations in the spill source material were 491-g L−1trans- and 277-g L−1cis-4-MCHM, the sum constituting 84% of the source material assuming its density equaled 4-MCHM. Elk River samples collected ⩽ 3.2 km downriver from the spill on January 15 had low (⩽2.9 μg L−1 Total) 4-MCHM concentrations, whereas the isomers were not detected in samples collected 2 d earlier at the same sites. Similar 4-MCHM concentrations (range 4.2–5.5 μg L−1 Total) occurred for samples of the Ohio River at Louisville, Kentucky, on January 17, ∼630 km downriver from the spill. Total 4-MCHM concentrations in Charleston, WV, office tap water decreased from 129 μg L−1 on January 27 to 2.2 μg L−1on February 3, but remained detectable in tap samples through final collection on February 25 indicating some persistence of 4-MCHM within the water distribution system. One isomer of methyl 4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate was detected in all Ohio River and tap water samples, and both isomers were detected in the source material spilled.

  12. Proceedings of the 32. AMOP technical seminar on environmental contamination and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The latest techniques and strategies used to mitigate and control Arctic and marine oil spills were highlighted at this conference hosted by Environment Canada's Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP). The conference was attended by researchers developing oil spill countermeasure technologies as well as regulators interested in managing oil spills. The presentations on leading-edge technologies used in marine oil spill response operations were presented in 13 sessions of the conference entitled: (1) physical and chemical properties of oil and behaviour of oil spills, (2) shoreline response (3) chemical, biological, radiological-nuclear and explosives (CBRNE) response, (4) contingency planning, preparation, and prevention of hazardous materials spills, (5) modeling of hazardous materials spills, (6) response technologies and countermeasures for oil spills, and (7) physical and chemical properties and behaviour of hazardous materials spills, (8) case histories and recent hazardous material spill experiences, (9) oil spill contingency planning, preparation and prevention, (10) oil spill modelling, (11) remediation, restoration and rehabilitation of oil spills, (12) detection, tracking and remote sensing of oil spills, and (13) case histories and recent oil experiences. The conference also included a poster session with papers. The conference featured 53 presentations, of which 43 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Spill reporting and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The actions that companies in British Columbia are required to take to comply with spill reporting requirements and with the waste management legislation of the B.C. Waste Management Act were discussed. A company's ability to respond effectively to hazardous materials spills depends on three factors: (1) understanding the regulatory requirements, (2) having an emergency response capability, and (3) having a staff trained to exercise those responsibilities. The steps involved in complying with the legislation were outlined . The types and quantities of spilled material that must be reported were listed, and advice was given on how a company can effectively incorporate emergency planning into its Environmental Health and Safety Management System. Responsibilities of the the individual designated as the on-scene commander were also spelled out. 3 tabs

  14. Spills of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals on Agricultural Topsoil: Biodegradation, Sorption, and Co-contaminant Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Molly C; Borch, Thomas; Blotevogel, Jens

    2016-06-07

    Hydraulic fracturing frequently occurs on agricultural land. Yet the extent of sorption, transformation, and interactions among the numerous organic frac fluid and oil and gas wastewater constituents upon environmental release is hardly known. Thus, this study aims to advance our current understanding of processes that control the environmental fate and toxicity of commonly used hydraulic fracturing chemicals. Poly(ethylene glycol) surfactants were completely biodegraded in agricultural topsoil within 42-71 days, but their transformation was impeded in the presence of the biocide glutaraldehyde and was completely inhibited by salt at concentrations typical for oil and gas wastewater. At the same time, aqueous glutaraldehyde concentrations decreased due to sorption to soil and were completely biodegraded within 33-57 days. While no aqueous removal of polyacrylamide friction reducer was observed over a period of 6 months, it cross-linked with glutaraldehyde, further lowering the biocide's aqueous concentration. These findings highlight the necessity to consider co-contaminant effects when we evaluate the risk of frac fluid additives and oil and gas wastewater constituents in agricultural soils in order to fully understand their human health impacts, likelihood for crop uptake, and potential for groundwater contamination.

  15. Management and legislative implications of recent oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehler, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents information on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's role in actions following oil spills. Topics include: NDAA's scientific support coordination during oil spill responses, NDAA's involvement in the Exxon Valdez spill; measures that may be taken for improved spill response; NOAA's environmental damage assessment and restoration planning activities

  16. Three-dimensional Virtual Simulation of Oil Spill of Yangtze River in Chongqing Area Based on Emergency Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuzhe; Huang, Liwen

    the river of Yangtze River in Chongqing area is continuous curved. Hydrology and channel situation is complex, and the transportation is busy. With the increasing of shipments of hazardous chemicals year by year, oil spill accident risk is rising. So establishment of three-dimensional virtual simulation of oil spill and its application in decision-making has become an urgent task. This paper detailed the process of three-dimensional virtual simulation of oil spill and established a system of three-dimensional virtual Simulation of oil spill of Yangtze River in Chongqing area by establishing an oil spill model of the Chongqing area based on oil particles model, and the system has been used in emergency decision to provide assistance for the oil spill response.

  17. A dynamical systems perspective for a real-time response to a marine oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garrido, V J; Ramos, A; Mancho, A M; Coca, J; Wiggins, S

    2016-11-15

    This paper discusses the combined use of tools from dynamical systems theory and remote sensing techniques and shows how they are effective instruments which may greatly contribute to the decision making protocols of the emergency services for the real-time management of oil spills. This work presents the successful interplay of these techniques for a recent situation, the sinking of the Oleg Naydenov fishing ship that took place in Spain, close to the Canary Islands, in April 2015. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Metabolic and spatio-taxonomic response of uncultivated seafloor bacteria following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, K. M.; Piceno, Y. M.; Hu, P.; Tom, L. M.; Mason, O. U.; Andersen, G. L.; Jansson, J. K.; Gilbert, J. A.

    2017-08-04

    The release of 700 million liters of oil into the Gulf of Mexico over a few months in 2010 produced dramatic changes in the microbial ecology of the water and sediment. Here, we reconstructed the genomes of 57 widespread uncultivated bacteria from post-spill deep-sea sediments, and recovered their gene expression pattern across the seafloor. These genomes comprised a common collection of bacteria that were enriched in heavily affected sediments around the wellhead. Although rare in distal sediments, some members were still detectable at sites up to 60 km away. Many of these genomes exhibited phylogenetic clustering indicative of common trait selection by the environment, and within half we identified 264 genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation. Alkane degradation ability was near ubiquitous among candidate hydrocarbon degraders, whereas just three harbored elaborate gene inventories for the degradation of alkanes and aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Differential gene expression profiles revealed a spill-promoted microbial sulfur cycle alongside gene upregulation associated with PAH degradation. Gene expression associated with alkane degradation was widespread, although active alkane degrader identities changed along the pollution gradient. Analyses suggest that a broad metabolic capacity to respond to oil inputs exists across a large array of usually rare indigenous deep-sea bacteria.

  19. Oil spill research program, U. S. Minerals Management Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBelle, R. P.; Mullin, J. V.; White, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    The oil spill prevention and response research program of the U.S. Minerals Management Service was described including its goals and objectives, some recently funded projects, and future research directions. As it is now the trend in most research organizations, a large part of the program is carried out in cooperation with other major research centers to leverage funds and to maximize study results. For example, joint research with Environment Canada focuses on the physical and chemical properties of dispersants, remote sensing and mapping oil slicks and shoreline cleanup strategies. Similarly, cooperative projects are underway with the National Institute of Standards and Technology in assessing the capabilities of in-situ burning as an oil spill response tool. Research capabilities of OHMSETT - The National Oil Spill Response Test Facility were also reviewed. A series of tables listed titles of research projects completed during 1995-1996. 5 tabs.,

  20. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site

  1. Contingency planning for oil spill response: A program of joint IMO/oil industry regional seminars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavister, R.; Wonham, J.

    1993-01-01

    Cooperative efforts between the oil industry and governments at the national and local levels have resulted in a series of reports for both technical and general audiences on subjects relating to oil spills, as well as an ongoing series of government/industry regional seminars for senior executives. The seminars emphasize the crucial importance of joint government/industry attention to contingency planning. These activities, which are continuing, are organized under the auspices of an International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association working group, and the International Maritime Organization. Feedback is solicited from seminar participants for use in planning further seminars and to give the IMO a clear picture of follow up activities that have resulted from the seminars

  2. Worldwide analysis of marine oil spill cleanup cost factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.

    2000-01-01

    The many factors that influence oil spill response costs were discussed with particular emphasis on how spill responses differ around the world because of differing cultural values, socio-economic factors and labor costs. This paper presented an analysis of marine oil spill cleanup costs based on the country, proximity to shoreline, spill size, oil type, degree of shoreline oiling and cleanup methodology. The objective was to determine how each factor impacts per-unit cleanup costs. Near-shore spills and in-port spills were found to be 4-5 times more expensive to clean than offshore spills. Responses to spills of heavy fuels also cost 10 times more than for lighter crudes and diesel. Spill responses for spills under 30 tonnes are 10 times more costly than on a per-unit basis, for spills of 300 tonnes. A newly developed modelling technique that can be used on different types of marine spills was described. It is based on updated cost data acquired from case studies of more than 300 spills in 40 countries. The model determines a per-unit cleanup cost estimation by taking into consideration oil type, location, spill size, cleanup methodology, and shoreline oiling. It was concluded that the actual spill costs are totally dependent on the actual circumstances of the spill. 13 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Wabamun : a major inland spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The 2 largest spills in Canada this century have been in freshwater environments. This paper evaluated remedial actions taken after a spill which occurred on the shore of Lake Wabamun, Alberta. A freight train derailed in the residential area, spilling 750 m 3 of oil into the lake. The initial response was inadequate as the spilled material was not immediately identified as oil. Some containment booms were deployed. By mid-morning, the oil slick had spread 12 km, and was driven by the wind onto the beaches of cottages. The limited amount of response equipment during the early stages of the spill caused anxiety among residents, which was further compounded by a lack of governmental involvement. The experience of Wabamun showed that the methods of operation and skill sets of environmental response organizations that routinely respond to small spills cannot readily be applied to larger spills. Plans by the railway for the Wabamun area were generic and did not focus on any particular response scenario. Limitations in the Transportation of Dangerous Good were noted, as the 2 substances which spilled were not identified as requiring labels. Various data gaps were identified concerning spills involving high density viscous oil; the dynamics of near neutral density oil; the flowing of hot product; interaction of fine sediments; and the cutting of reed beds. It was concluded that new detection technologies and response technologies are required concerning the detection of oil in water, the collection and removal of oil, and tar formation. The development of a new emergency response agency was recommended, as well as the establishment of a new research and technical information institute and incident command structure (ICS). 22 refs., 3 figs

  4. Efficiency of equipment to reduce the harmful effects of oil spills at sea - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeset, S.

    1993-08-01

    The annual discharge of petroleum hydrocarbons to the marine environment is about 3.2 million metric tonnes. About 15% of this discharge is caused by accidental spills at sea. The paper gives an overview of the commonly available oil spill response systems with emphasis on cold waters. In principle the oil spill combat systems at sea can be divided into mechanical containment and recovery, chemical dispersants and in-situ burning. The paper highlights the applicability and efficiency of these combat systems under various conditions (weathering state of the oil, sea state and wind, etc.). 25 refs., 10 figs

  5. CROSERF: Toward a standardization of oil spill cleanup agent ecological effects research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, M.; Tjeerdema, R.; Aurand, D.; Clark, J.; Sergy, G.

    1995-01-01

    The establishment in 1994 of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF) for the development of standardization of protocols used in ecological research of oil spills and remediation efforts was described. Background and the need for such an organization was discussed. Discussions at the two meetings of the forum to date (generation of scientific data for decision making in August 1994 at the University of California at Santa Cruz, and toxicity testing of the water-accommodated fraction of the oil in March 1995 at the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office in Baton Rouge) were summarized. A list of the organizations represented at the meetings was given. 5 refs

  6. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-06-30 to 2010-07-18 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, biological, laboratory analysis, meteorological, navigational, tows and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship...

  7. Mitigating oil spills in the water column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, Edward; Libera, Joseph A.; Mane, Anil University; Avila, Jason R.; DeVitis, David

    2017-01-01

    The scale and scope of uncontrolled oil spills can be devastating. Diverse marine environments and fragile ecologies are some of the most susceptible to the many ill effects, while the economic costs can be crippling. A notoriously difficult challenge with no known technological solution is the successful removal of oil dispersed in the water column. Here, we address this problem through cheap and reusable oil sorbents based on the chemical modification of polymer foams. Interfacial chemistry was optimized and subsequently tested in a simulated marine environment at the National Oil Spill Response Research & Renewable Energy Test Facility, Ohmsett. We find favorable performance for surface oil mitigation and, for the first time, demonstrate the advanced sorbent's efficiency and efficacy at pilot scale in extraction of crude oil and refined petroleum products dispersed in the water column. As a result, this is a potentially disruptive technology, opening a new field of environmental science focused on sub-surface pollutant sequestration.

  8. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation

  9. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  10. BP Spill in the Gulf of Mexico Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In response to the BP oil spill, EPA monitored sediment near the spill. While emergency response data collection has ended, results continue to be available on this...

  11. Use of questionnaires and an expert panel to judge the environmental consequences of chemical spills for the development of an environment-accident index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Asa Scott; Stjernström, Olof; Fängmark, Ingrid

    2005-05-01

    Assessing the environmental consequences of a chemical accident is a complex task. To date, the methods used to evaluate the environmental effects of an acute release of a chemical have often been based on measurements of chemical and physical variables deemed to be important, such as the concentration of the chemical. However, a broader strategy is needed to predict the environmental consequences of potential accidents during the planning process. An Environment-Accident Index (EAI), a simple tool based on such a strategy, has been developed to facilitate the consideration of a multitude of influential variables. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether questionnaire-based expert panel's judgements could provide useful data on the environmental consequences of chemical spills, and an effective basis for further development of the EAI. As expected, the judgements did not agree perfectly, but they do give rough indications of the environmental effects, and highlight consistent trends that should be useful inputs for planning, prevention and decontamination processes. The different accidents were also judged to have caused everything from minor to very major effects in the environment, implying that a wide range of accident scenarios were represented in the material and covered by the EAI. Therefore, questionnaires and expert panel judgements can be used to collect useful data for estimating the likely environmental consequences of chemical accidents and for further development of the EAI.

  12. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-04 to 2010-08-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0068597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-04 to...

  13. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-10 to 2010-07-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0068586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-10 to...

  14. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-18 to 2010-05-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069044)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, laboratory analysis, tows and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-18...

  15. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-09-16 to 2010-09-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0070533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, meteorological, navigational and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico and...

  16. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the F. G. Walton Smith in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-26 to 2010-06-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069084)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the F. G. Walton Smith in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-26 to...

  17. Trace elements in bivalves from the Rio Cruces, Chile, trace watershed evolution after a major earthquake and challenge a postulated chemical spill from a pulp plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, M.; Burchell, M.; Nairn, R.; Tubrett, M.; Forsterra, G.

    2009-05-01

    In May, 1960, the largest recorded earthquake in the history of the planet hit southern Chile, dropping part of the course of the Rio Cruces by 2m and creating an extensive wetland. The Brazilian Waterweed Egeria densa colonised the area, and became a primary food source for large populations of the Black-necked Swan, Cygnus melancoryphus. In 2004, a large pulp mill commenced operations upstream on the river. According to local reports, immediately after the opening of the plant, the weed died and the swans left. There was public outcry, and a search for a cause or a culprit. It was postulated that some sort of chemical spill from the plant caused the weed to die, resulting in departure of the swans. In 2008, we collected specimens of the bivalve Diplodon chilensis from several locations downstream from the Plant and towards the wetland to see if there was evidence of a chemical spill recorded in the shells. We prepared thin-sections of the shells to observe growth line development and patterns. Additionally, shell samples were analysed for stable oxygen isotopes and trace elements, using LA-ICP/MS. Based on annual growth lines, some of the bivalves were long-lived, with an age of more than 50 years. These individuals settled in the river shortly after the earthquake, and have lived there continuously ever since. Annual and sub-annual banding was clear, and the annual cyclicity of the major bands was verified with oxygen isotope analysis. There are no changes in growth corresponding to 2004. Trace element scans provided a wealth of information on the evolution of this earthquake-impacted wetland. Barium, Strontium and Manganese all showed strong annual cyclicity. From the analysis of older specimens, we interpret the high peaks of the Ba signal as reflecting soil erosion-Ba peaks are large immediately after the earthquake, then they diminish through time. Sr is likely a temperature signal, and Mn reflects runoff. Minor peaks in Cu, As and Pb probably reflect

  18. The management of radioactive materials spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Ebenhack, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The management and handling of a radioactive materials spill must be swift and effective to reduce or mitigate any adverse impacts on public health and safety. Spills within nuclear facilities generally pose less of a public health impact than spills in areas of public access. The essential elements of spill management include prior planning by agencies which may be required to respond to a spill. Any plan for the management of radioactive materials spills must be flexible enough to be applied in a variety of situations. The major elements of a radioactive materials spill plan, however, apply in every case. It is essential that communications be clear and effective, that the management of a spill be directed by a responsible party whose authority is recognized by everyone involved and that the actions, according to the principles discussed above, be taken to assure the safety of any injured personnel, containment and stabilization and clean up the spill and to verify through radiological surveys and sample analyses that the clean up is complete. Any spill of radioactive materials, minor or major, should be assessed so that similar spills or accidents can be prevented

  19. Cost accounting and oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, J.B.; Dufour, B.; Peck, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    Financial costs of an oil spill were considered. The control measures taken by Maritime Bureau Inc., in the San Juan oil spill were used as an example of how chaotic influences were minimized, how stability to the management team, structured under the Incident Command System (ICS) model, was provided, and how as a result of these actions, effective cost control was established. The importance of precise knowledge of operating costs was stressed as a basis for taking policy measures and for the evaluation of the short-term success of an oil spill clean-up operation. Staff responsibilities and management needs were described. Performance evaluation, as an important part of crisis cost accounting, was highlighted. Incident costs and response effectiveness comparisons were given for 13 oil spill incidents, including the EXXON VALDEZ affair. 4 tabs., 2 figs

  20. Four Years of Chemical Measurements from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Define the Deep Sea Sediment footprint and Subsequent Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, P.

    2016-02-01

    Chemical data acquired during and after the DWHOS showed that several mechanisms were responsible for transport of oil from the water column to the sediments in the deep sea off the continental shelf. Three primary pathways were identified:Sorption onto and sinking of drilling mud particles during "Top Kill" response activity, highly scattered deposition of residuesfrom in situ burns, and deposition of oil combined with microbial organic matter from diffuse oil plumes ("marine snow"). Data collected during 2010, 2011 and 2014 were used to define the oil footprint and estimate time to recovery. More than 1200 stations were sampled. Of these, 27 stations were visited all three years, providing a time series from which recovery rates were calculated using the loss of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) over time fit to first order kinetics. Results showed that the footprint of the oil was limited to the area around the wellhead and in patches to the southwest. Mostsamples had returned to background levels by 2015, with some exceptions close to the wellhead. Deposition to the northeast (DeSoto Canyon) was minor as evidenced by the absence of oil in sediments in that area. Samples with the longest recovery times were within 2 nautical miles of the wellhead, and often contained drilling mud, as shown by olefin signatures on the GC/FID chromatogram. Detailed chemistry data evaluation and chemical fingerprinting provided evidence that oil was being degraded in situ.

  1. OILMAP: A global approach to spill modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Howlett, E.; Anderson, E.; Jayko, K.

    1992-01-01

    OILMAP is an oil spill model system suitable for use in both rapid response mode and long-range contingency planning. It was developed for a personal computer and employs full-color graphics to enter data, set up spill scenarios, and view model predictions. The major components of OILMAP include environmental data entry and viewing capabilities, the oil spill models, and model prediction display capabilities. Graphic routines are provided for entering wind data, currents, and any type of geographically referenced data. Several modes of the spill model are available. The surface trajectory mode is intended for quick spill response. The weathering model includes the spreading, evaporation, entrainment, emulsification, and shoreline interaction of oil. The stochastic and receptor models simulate a large number of trajectories from a single site for generating probability statistics. Each model and the algorithms they use are described. Several additional capabilities are planned for OILMAP, including simulation of tactical spill response and subsurface oil transport. 8 refs

  2. Waste minimization concepts applied to oil spill response or (integrating the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferriere, D.V.

    1993-01-01

    As of July 23, 1993 the National Contingency Plan (NCP) for oil spills and hazardous substance releases (40CFR300) is being revised to comply with Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA '90) requirements. An important OPA '90 development is the creation of localized groups to write Area Contingency Plans (ACPs). During the ACP process many political, economical, and environmental issues will be addressed by representatives from several local, county, state, federal agencies and industry. Some of the difficulty decision makers must face is weighing environmental tradeoffs considering socio-economic aspects and determining what is the most effective ecologically sensible/environmental protection oil spill response strategy. Ideally, the NCP is designed as a democratic process providing a voice to all effected parties on how to best protect the environment, natural resources, and commercial resources. However, practice has shown successful emergency response is best handled when a single focal point of command, commonly referred to as incident command, has an agreed upon response agenda. The following will address the need for decision makers and contingency planners to at least address waste minimization principles, if not make it their primary focus, when developing and executing the oil spill response plan

  3. Consulting and Audit Canada report on the Canadian Coast Guard's stakeholder consultations respecting enhanced governance for Canada's Marine Oil Spill Preparedness and Response Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    In 1998 a discussion paper, entitled 'Proposed adjustments to the governance of Canada's marine oil spill preparedness and response regime' was developed and released in a effort to provide a basis for stakeholder discussions on longer term governance issues. Four key elements were discussed in the discussion paper: accountability of responding organizations; enhanced protection of wildlife; the subsidization of the polluter by the Canadian Coast Guard when it takes command of a spill; and maintaining a national system over time. Recipients were asked to respond by April 1999. Public meetings were held in each region to explain key issues and proposals. This report outlines the major themes raised by the different stakeholders in their responses, and provides the broad outlines of the steps that the Department of Fisheries and Oceans intends to take in reply. Detailed summaries of the responses and other relevant documentation are included in five appendices (not attached to this summary report). In general, the proposed governance structures were broadly supported by Canadian industry, with certain adjustments. Concerns were raised over the narrow focus of the existing Regime which does not address the questions of research and development. There was also concern about Canada's ability to manage an effective response to a large spill

  4. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-04 to 2010-06-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069047)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-04 to 2010-06-08 in...

  5. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-04 to 2010-07-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-04 to 2010-07-08 in...

  6. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-30 to 2010-06-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069046)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-30 to 2010-06-02 in...

  7. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-03 to 2010-08-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-03 to 2010-08-07 in...

  8. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-21 to 2010-08-25 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069090)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-21 to 2010-08-25 in...

  9. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-16 to 2010-07-20 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-16 to 2010-07-20 in...

  10. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-22 to 2010-06-26 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-22 to 2010-06-26 in...

  11. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-15 to 2010-08-19 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-15 to 2010-08-19 in...

  12. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-09 to 2010-08-12 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-09 to 2010-08-12 in...

  13. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-01 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-01 in...

  14. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-23 to 2010-05-25 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069045)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-23 to 2010-05-25 in...

  15. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-10 to 2010-06-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069048)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-10 to 2010-06-14 in...

  16. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-07 to 2010-09-11 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074853)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-07 to 2010-09-11 in...

  17. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-16 to 2010-06-20 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-16 to 2010-06-20 in...

  18. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-14 to 2010-05-18 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0074372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-14 to 2010-05-18 in...

  19. Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-10 to 2010-07-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069052)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile and laboratory analysis oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-10 to 2010-07-14 in...

  20. Chemical, physical, profile and other oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-07 to 2010-05-12 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084555)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, profile, tows and underway oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-07 to 2010-05-12 in...

  1. Assessment of treated vs untreated oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.P.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of studies conducted to determine the practicability and feasibility of using dispersants to mitigate the impact of an oil spill on the environment are described. The method of approach is holistic in that it combines the physical, chemical, microbial and macro-fauna response to a spill treated with dispersants and compares this with spills that are left untreated. The program integrates mathematical, laboratory, meso-scale (three 20 foot high by three feet in diameter tanks, in-situ experiments and analyses to determine if the use of dispersants is an effective oil spill control agent. In summary, it appears viable to use dispersants as determined on a case by case basis. The case for using dispersants has to be based on whether or not their use will mitigate the environmental impact of the spill. In the case of an open ocean spill that is being driven into a rich inter-tidal community, the use of dispersants could greatly reduce the environmental impact. Even in the highly productive George's Bank area at the height of the cod spawning season, the impact of the use of dispersants is well within the limits of natural variability when the threshold toxicity level is assumed to be as low as 100 ppB, a level which is often found in the open ocean. Thus, it appears that dispersants can and should be used when it is evident that their use will mitigate the impacts of the spill. Their use in areas where there is poor circulation and therefore little possibility of rapid dilution is more questionable and should be a subject of future studies.

  2. Images of Gorgonian Corals in the Gulf of Mexico taken from 2010-11-03 to 2010-12-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0084636)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images of Gorgonian Corals were taken during two cruises in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event. The first cruise was aboard NOAA...

  3. Collection of scribe databases compiled in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill incident in the Gulf of Mexico from 04/23/2010 to 11/08/2011 (NODC Accession 0086261)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scribe Database Collection includes 14 databases containing data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill Event Response Phase. These databases are the work of...

  4. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1991-01-01

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  5. PETRO-SAFE '94 conference papers: Book 2. Volume 5: Emergency response ampersand spill control; Volume 6: Remediation; Volume 7: Health ampersand safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth Annual Environmental, Safety and Health Conference and Exhibition for the oil, gas and petrochemical industries was held January 25--27, 1994 in Houston, Texas. The objective of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum dealing with state-of-the-art environmental and safety issues. This volume focuses on the following: emergency response and spill control; remediation; and health and safety issues. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  6. Synopsis of an oil spill modeling workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnigan, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The performance quality of various PC-based numerical spill models available on the market, were evaluated in a special spill modeling workshop. The models examined included OSSM/ADIOS, WOSM, OILMAP, SPILLSIM, and COZOIL. It was found that most oil spill trajectory models are based on the same basic trajectory and fates algorithms, but often provide different results. This anomaly was attributed to variations in how the algorithms are programmed and implemented. The lack of uniformity of predictions has contributed to a lack of faith in model results by local authorities, spill response operators and logistics groups. Some of the criticism levelled against the merits of the different spill models was considered unjustified by workshop participants. A list of 'best practices' for modeling/response strategies was compiled, and steps to be taken to minimize the variations in spill trajectory and weathering forecasts that would likely improve the usefulness of the models were identified. 15 refs., 4 figs

  7. Low-visibility and night-time oil spill response operations; Operacoes noturnas e com baixa visibilidade em resposta a vazamentos com oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyra, Geraldo Marcelo Barroso; Margem, Henrique da Cunha; Skrepnek, Clarissa Cavalheiro; Lyra, Ana Paula Lopes Coelho de Castro; Silva, Ana Claudia Andriolli Vieira da; Antoun, Augusto Resende [Hidroclean Protecao Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The expansion on E and P area and the raise on importation and exportation activities by sea, cause not only commercial benefits, but also expressive environmental risks. This fact is reaffirmed by the actions of Brazilian environmental agencies in order to control potential polluter activities. However, these agencies are against any activity related to oil spill incidents that operate at night-time or during low-visibility condition because of the elevated risk of accidents on this kind of operation. In the other hand, delays on start response operation can be expensive by reducing recovery rates and increasing environmental impacts. Thus, this paper objective is to analyze studies and reports of night-time and low-visibility oil spill response operations occurred in other countries, concluding that when the right equipment is used, it is possible to start or continue oil spill operation independent of weather. However, before choose to start an operation at night, an assessment should be make to know if the risks outweigh the benefits, remarking that safety is always the primary concern. (author)

  8. Effects of oil spill response technologies on the physiological performance of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Kirstine; Pančić, Marina; Eide, Helene O.

    2018-01-01

    the mesocosms in winter and spring was used in laboratory incubation experiments, where effects on fecal pellet production, egg production and hatching success were investigated over a period of 14 days. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) seawater concentrations were lowest in winter. Brine channel formation...... seawater concentrations. However, a higher mortality and deformity of nauplii was observed in the chemical dispersion treatment, highlighting the importance of considering secondary effects on next generation in future environmental risk assessment of OSR. This study shows that during the ice...

  9. Response to heavy, non-floating oil spilled in a Great Lakes river environment: a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach for submerged oil assessment and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollhopf, Ralph H.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Kimble, Jeffrey W.; Capone, Daniel M.; Graan, Thomas P.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Johnson, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The Enbridge Line 6B pipeline release of diluted bitumen into the Kalamazoo River downstream of Marshall, MI in July 2010 is one of the largest freshwater oil spills in North American history. The unprecedented scale of impact and massive quantity of oil released required the development and implementation of new approaches for detection and recovery. At the onset of cleanup, conventional recovery techniques were employed for the initially floating oil and were successful. However, volatilization of the lighter diluent, along with mixing of the oil with sediment during flooded, turbulent river conditions caused the oil to sink and collect in natural deposition areas in the river. For more than three years after the spill, recovery of submerged oil has remained the predominant operational focus of the response. The recovery complexities for submerged oil mixed with sediment in depositional areas and long-term oil sheening along approximately 38 miles of the Kalamazoo River led to the development of a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach comprising six major components: geomorphic mapping, field assessments of submerged oil (poling), systematic tracking and mapping of oil sheen, hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling, forensic oil chemistry, and net environmental benefit analysis. The Federal On-Scene Coordinator (FOSC) considered this information in determining the appropriate course of action for each impacted segment of the river. New sources of heavy crude oils like diluted bitumen and increasing transportation of those oils require changes in the way emergency personnel respond to oil spills in the Great Lakes and other freshwater ecosystems. Strategies to recover heavy oils must consider that the oils may suspend or sink in the water column, mix with fine-grained sediment, and accumulate in depositional areas. Early understanding of the potential fate and behavior of diluted bitumen spills when combined with timely, strong conventional recovery methods can

  10. Statistical forensic methodology for oil spill source identification using two-tailed student's t approach. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Landriault, M.

    2007-01-01

    A thorough chemical characterization of oil must be conducted following an oil spill in order to determine the source of the oil, to distinguish the spilled oil from background hydrocarbons and to quantitatively evaluate the extent of impact of the spill. Gas chromatography, flame ionization and mass spectrometry analysis was used in conjunction with statistical data analysis to determine the source of a spill that occurred in 2004 in a harbor in the Netherlands. Three oil samples were collected from the harbor spill, where a thick layer of oil was found between a bunker boat and the quay next to the bunker centre. The 3 samples were sent to different laboratories for a round robin test to defensively correlate the spilled oil to the suspected source candidates. The source characterization and identification was validated by quantitative evaluation of 5 petroleum-characteristic alkylated PAH homologous series (naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, fluorene and chrysene), pentacyclic biomarkers, bicyclic sesquiterpanes and diamondoid compounds. The use of biomarkers for identifying the source of spilled oils has also increased in recent years due to their specificity and high resistance to biodegradation. There was no strong difference among the 3 oil samples according to radar plots of diagnostic ratios of PAHs, isoprenoids, biomarkers, bicyclic sesquiterpanes and diamondoids. The two-tailed unpaired student's t-tests provided strong evidence for which ship was responsible for the oil spill incident. However, it was cautioned that although two-tailed unpaired student's t-tests along with oil fingerprinting successfully identified the spill source, the method has limitations. Experimental results showed that the spilled oil and two source candidates were quite similar in both chemical fingerprints and concentration profiles for determined target hydrocarbons. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Pesticides; resource recovery; hazardous substances and oil spill responses; waste disposal; biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In the category of pesticides this volume features close to sixty standard test method, practices, and guides for evaluating the properties and efficacy of pesticides and antimicrobial agents. Also covered are standards for hazardous substances, oil spell responses, waste disposal, and biological effects of these materials

  12. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The conversion of oil to environmentally benign chemicals such as water and carbon dioxide by 'hydrocarbon-eating' bacteria is described. The emphasis is on a new process to selectively increase the population of 'oil eating' bacteria, a development that became the foundation for the second-generation bioremediation accelerator, Inipol EAP-22. Second-generation bioremediation products focus on providing nitrogen and phosphorus, chemicals that are not present in crude oil in readily available form, but are essential for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids and the energy metabolism of the bacteria. Providing these chemicals in the proper amounts encourages the preferential growth of oil-degrading microbes already present in the local biomass, thus overcoming the major limiting factor for biodegradation. These second-generation bioremediation products also have strong oleophilic properties engineered into them, to assure that the nutrients essential for the bacteria are in contact with the oil. The first major test for second-generation bioremediation accelerators came with the clean-up of the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez, a disaster that contaminated more than 120 kilometres of Alaskan beaches along the shores of Prince William Sound. The Inipol EAP-22 successfully held the nutrients in contact with the oil for the duration of the treatment period, despite constant exposure to the washing action of the surf and occasional heavy rainstorms. Today, the accelerator is routinely used in cleaning up all types of ordinary spills including diesel fuel spills along railway right-of-ways, truck yards and refinery sludge. Conditions under which the application of the accelerator is likely to be most successful are described

  13. Response of microbial community and catabolic genes to simulated petroleum hydrocarbon spills in soils/sediments from different geographic locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Tang, J; Liu, X; Song, B; Zhen, M; Ashbolt, N J

    2017-10-01

    Study the response of microbial communities and selected petroleum hydrocarbon (PH)-degrading genes on simulated PH spills in soils/sediments from different geographic locations. A microcosm experiment was conducted by spiking mixtures of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) to soils/sediments collected from four different regions of China, including the Dagang Oilfield (DG), Sand of Bohai Sea (SS), Northeast China (NE) and Xiamen (XM). Changes in bacterial community and the abundance of PH-degrading genes (alkB, nah and phe) were analysed by denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) and qPCR, respectively. Degradation of alkanes and PAHs in SS and NE materials were greater (P < 0·05) than those in DG and XM. Clay content was negatively correlated with the degradation of total alkanes by 112 days and PAHs by 56 days, while total organic carbon content was negatively correlated with initial degradation of total alkanes as well as PAHs. Abundances of alkB, nah and phe genes increased 10- to 100-fold and varied by soil type over the incubation period. DGGE fingerprints identified the dominance of α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria (Gram -ve) and Actinobacteria (Gram +ve) bacteria associated with degradation of PHs in the materials studied. The geographic divergence resulting from the heterogeneity of physicochemical properties of soils/sediments appeared to influence the abundance of metabolic genes and community structure of microbes capable of degrading PHs. When developing practical in-situ bioremediation approaches for PHs contamination of soils/sediment, appropriate microbial community structures and the abundance of PH-degrading genes appear to be influenced by geographic location. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. 3d Operational Hydrodinamic Modelling System as a Support to Oil Spill Responses in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, T.; Quagliati, M.; Bertolotto, R.; Pedroncini, A.; Cusati, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accidental oil spills have a significant impact on marine ecosystems reminding us the importance of an efficiency emergency planning to ensure a quick and proper response. In this phase, the numerical modelling approach emerges as a useful tool in order to simulate the scenarios and addresses the issue of oil dispersion in the case of a spill. The 3D operational hydrodynamic modelling system of the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean) is used as a base to predict the possible oil trajectory and to track the path and fate of spilled oil under the prevailing hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The operative chain of the hydrodynamic model was developed by DHI Italia for the Regional Environment Protection Agency (ARPAL) operating in the Ligurian region (Italy) with the objective to preserve the environment, support the activities of the Civil Protection Department and promote a sustainable, healthy and safety management of the local resources. In this chain the MFS Mediterranean 3D model (operated within MyOcean EU Project - Copernicus Programme) was downscaled from 6.5 km to finer nearshore mesh (500 m). The increased spatial resolution allows the correct simulation of current developments in the vicinity of morphological discontinuities such as the promontory of Portofino on the Ligurian coast. The meteorological forcing is provided by MOLOCH, a LAM model operated by ARPAL together with fresh water discharges from the main rivers through hydrological modelling. Since the Ligurian Sea recently hosted the transfer of wreck Costa Concordia some real time simulations of hypothetical oil spill were performed to support the crisis unit of the Genoa Coast Guard. Simulations led to interesting results concerning the importance of updated weather conditions, which strongly influence current trends, focusing on the importance of the continuity of the modelling chain.

  15. Assessment of the use of dispersants on oil spills in California marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, K.; Ross, S.; Belore, R.; Buffington, S.; Ogawa, C.; Panzer, D.

    2002-01-01

    The technical issues regarding the use of dispersants to clean up oil spills from offshore production sources and transportation sources in California were assessed in this study which examined both operational and environmental issues. The operational issues included the dispersibility of produced and imported oils, along with the capabilities of California response resources to deal with typical spills and limiting environmental impacts to offshore environments. The environmental issues include the risks associated with typical spills and potential net environmental benefit of chemically dispersing oil spills. Most crude oils produced offshore California are heavy and border on the undispersable range, but the imported crudes are somewhat lighter. Modeling has shown that most produced oils and some imported oils emulsify quickly and weather more quickly to the point where they are no longer dispersible. There is a very narrow window of time for chemical dispersions to be used effectively. The net environmental benefit analysis demonstrates that the use of dispersants lessens the total environmental impact of spill scenarios. It was emphasized that it is necessary to act quickly if chemical dispersion is to be effective. Rapid response strategies are needed, including locally based vessel and helicopter spraying systems. 19 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Oil spills and their cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    1995-01-01

    Oil spills are an unfortunately common occurrence in the world's seas and can have extensive damaging environmental consequences. This article examines various methods of cleaning up oil spills, evaluates their effectiveness in various situations, and identifies areas where, current methods being inadequate, further research is needed. Containment, mechanical removal, shoreline cleanup, chemical treating agents, in situ burning, natural recovery and enhanced bioremediation are all assessed. The cleanup method must be selected to match environmental conditions. Results are good in quiet, sheltered waters, but need extensive development in open waters and high seas. (UK)

  17. New techniques on oil spill modelling applied in the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Kokinou, Eleni; Alves, Tiago; Lardner, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Small or large oil spills resulting from accidents on oil and gas platforms or due to the maritime traffic comprise a major environmental threat for all marine and coastal systems, and they are responsible for huge economic losses concerning the human infrastructures and the tourism. This work aims at presenting the integration of oil-spill model, bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, geomorphological and geological data to assess the impact of oil spills in maritime regions such as bays, as well as in the open sea, carried out in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea within the frame of NEREIDs, MEDESS-4MS and RAOP-Med EU projects. The MEDSLIK oil spill predictions are successfully combined with bathymetric analyses, the shoreline susceptibility and hazard mapping to predict the oil slick trajectories and the extend of the coastal areas affected. Based on MEDSLIK results, oil spill spreading and dispersion scenarios are produced both for non-mitigated and mitigated oil spills. MEDSLIK model considers three response combating methods of floating oil spills: a) mechanical recovery using skimmers or similar mechanisms; b) destruction by fire, c) use of dispersants or other bio-chemical means and deployment of booms. Shoreline susceptibility map can be compiled for the study areas based on the Environmental Susceptibility Index. The ESI classification considers a range of values between 1 and 9, with level 1 (ESI 1) representing areas of low susceptibility, impermeable to oil spilt during accidents, such as linear shorelines with rocky cliffs. In contrast, ESI 9 shores are highly vulnerable, and often coincide with natural reserves and special protected areas. Additionally, hazard maps of the maritime and coastal areas, possibly exposed to the danger on an oil spill, evaluate and categorize the hazard in levels from low to very high. This is important because a) Prior to an oil spill accident, hazard and shoreline susceptibility maps are made available to design

  18. Lack of physiological responses to hydrocarbon accumulation by Mytilus trossulus after 3-4 years chronic exposure to spilled Exxon Valdez crude oil in Prince William Sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.E.; Brodersen, C.; Carls, M.G.; Babcock, M.; Rice, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    Mussels, Mytilus trossulus, were sampled in 1992 and 1993 from beaches in Prince William Sound that had been oiled by the Exxon Valdez spill of March, 1989. At some of the oiled beaches, mussels were collected from beds overlying oiled sediments, and from bedrock adjacent to these beds. Mussels were also collected from beaches within the Sound that had not been impacted by the spill. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in mussel tissue, physiological responses (byssal thread production, condition index, clearance rate, and glycogen content), were determined for each group of mussels. Total PAH concentrations in mussel tissue ranged from 0 to 6 μg g -1 , and were significantly greater in mussels from oiled beds than those from reference beds. No significant differences were noted in byssal thread production, condition index, clearance rate, or glycogen content between oiled sample sites and reference sites. The lack of physiological response was surprising because mussels in this study were chronically exposed to PAH for 3-4 years, and none of the physiological responses measured appeared to be affected by that exposure. The lack of a physiological response suggests that chronically exposed mussels may develop a physiological tolerance to PAH, but we recognize that these measures may not have been sensitive enough to discriminate response from background noise. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, M.

    1992-01-01

    For some years now UK and European oil spill response agencies, together with oil companies having an exploration or production interest in the European area, have been developing interest in the possible use of bioremediation techniques in combatting oil spills. The interest has accelerated in the aftermath of Exxon Valdez but there is significant scepticism over the actual value of the technique. The promise of increased rates of oil degradation, using bacteria or nutrients, does not yet appear to have been properly validated and there is concern over possible knock-on environmental effects. In consequence the response agencies are reluctant to bring the technique into their current combat armory. Some of the questions raised are: What efficacious techniques are available and how were they proven? On what type of oils can they be used? What is the scope for their use (at sea, type of coastline, temperature limitations, etc.)? What are the short and long term effects? Does bioremediation really work and offer a potential tool for oil spill clean-up? How do cleaning rates compare with natural recovery? There are many others. The view of the European Commission is that there should be a coordinated effort to answer these questions, but that effort should be properly targeted. I concur strongly with this view. The tasks are too large and varied for piecemeal attention. The European Commission wishes to initiate appropriate coordinated work, directed at the needs of European nations but which will subsequently inform the international response community through the International Maritime Organization and its Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response Cooperation initiative

  20. Environmental surveillance: An integral part of the spill contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, J.; Bozzo, W.

    1993-01-01

    Typically, the initial response to spills is directed at containing, controlling, and stopping the flow of spilled materials. The primary goal of such a response is to limit the spread and further impact of spilled material, and to initiate timely cleanup and recovery of affected areas. Surveillance of actual spill impacts has often followed an after the fact approach, using only immediately available resources. Surveillance may occur quickly after a spill, but in most incidents its occurs as a follow-up action after initial response and containment have been achieved. Insufficient planning may produce spill surveillance that inadequately assesses impacts, fails to incorporate baseline data, and does not clearly identify a cleanup recovery and endpoint. The management and operations contractor for the US Dept. of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) conducts environmental surveillance activities in response to spill incidents when they occur at these facilities. These surveillance activities, when conducted as part of the response, are useful instruments in the initial assessment of spill incidents, management of spill response, containment, and cleanup activities, and for monitoring and documenting postspill impacts and recovery. An Environmental Surveillance Plan (ESP) incorporated in the SPR Spill Contingency Plan provides for initiation of environmental surveillance as part of the spill response. The ESP outlines, through alogic tree, conditions for activating the plan, key indicator parameters for evaluation, detailed methods for establishing surveillance stations, lists of key personnel, locations of equipment necessary to perform surveillance, and conditions for termination of environmental surveillance

  1. Classification of Floating Chris Chemicals for the Development of a Spill Response Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    PETROLATUM WAX : CARNAUBA WAX : PARAFFIN TABLE B-2. Non-Toxic, Highly Flammable ACETYLENE TABLE B-3. Slightly Toxic, Noncombustible I-TETRADZCENE ANYL...TURPENTINE 1-TETRADECENE TETRADECANOL n-UNDECYLBENZENE 1-U WDZCEN UNDECANOL VINYL TOLUENE VAX: CARNAUBA WAX : PARAFFIN m-XYLE o-XYLEM! p-XYLEM XYLENOL BLANK...VINYL IUTNYL KIN3 YIM RICKY? NOATILLY VINYL. uuu9CAMATt YP MD DATA Ut IMLY VINYL TOUWN a5 WSWMIT3LR N63ATLY WAX : CAEI.UBA YB MON . Vy TOXIC MU: PAFFIN YB

  2. Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, C.; Lager, H.; Fejes, J.

    2001-12-01

    IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea

  3. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foght, J.M.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ bioremediation of crude oil spills relies on either the indigenous microbes at the polluted site, whose degradative abilities are accelerated by adding such agents as fertilizers or dispersants, or on introducing pollutant-degrading microbes into the site (possibly accompanied by stimulatory chemicals). The bioremediation method to be used at a specific site must be selected to be suitable for that site and its environmental conditions. The basic components of bioremediation are outlined and the background information needed to understand the chemical and biological limitations of the technique are presented. Specifically, the microbial community, the crude oil substrate composition, and biological limiting factors are discussed. Generalized examples of bioremediation applications are illustrated. 10 refs

  4. Effectiveness of a chemical herder in association with in-situ burning of oil spills in ice-infested water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    The average herded slick thickness, surface distribution and burning efficiency of a light crude oil were studied in ice-infested water to determine the effectiveness of a chemical herder in facilitating the in-situ burning of oil. Experiments were performed in a small scale (1.0m2) and an interm......The average herded slick thickness, surface distribution and burning efficiency of a light crude oil were studied in ice-infested water to determine the effectiveness of a chemical herder in facilitating the in-situ burning of oil. Experiments were performed in a small scale (1.0m2...

  5. Computer based training for oil spill management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    1993-01-01

    Large oil spills are infrequent occurrences, which poses a particular problem for training oil spill response staff and for maintaining a high level of response readiness. Conventional training methods involve table-top simulations to develop tactical and strategic response skills and boom-deployment exercises to maintain operational readiness. Both forms of training are quite effective, but they are very time-consuming to organize, are expensive to conduct, and tend to become repetitious. To provide a variety of response experiences, a computer-based system of oil spill response training has been developed which can supplement a table-top training program. Using a graphic interface, a realistic and challenging computerized oil spill response simulation has been produced. Integral to the system is a program editing tool which allows the teacher to develop a custom training exercise for the area of interest to the student. 1 ref

  6. Chemical toxicity approach for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the event of an airborne release of chemical agent or toxic industrial chemical by accidental or intentional means, emergency responders must have a reasonable estimate of the location and size of the resulting hazard area. Emergency responders are responsible for warning persons downwind of the hazard to evacuate or shelter-in-place and must know where to look for casualties after the hazard has passed or dissipated. Given the same source characterization, modern hazard assessment models provide comparable concentration versus location and time estimates. Even urban hazard assessment models often provide similar predictions. There is a major shortcoming, though, in applying model output to estimating human toxicity effects. There exist a variety of toxicity values for non-lethal effects ranging from short-term to occupational to lifetime exposures. For health and safety purposes, these estimates are all safe-sided in converting animal data to human effects and in addressing the most sensitive subset of the population. In addition, these values are usually based on an assumed 1 hour exposure duration at constant concentration and do not reflect either a passing clouds concentration profile or duration. Emergency responders need expected value toxicity parameters rather than the existing safe-sided ones. This presentation will specify the types of toxicity values needed to provide appropriate chemical hazard estimates to emergency responders and will demonstrate how dramatically their use changes the hazard area.(author)

  7. Oil spill contingency planning in the Ivory coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, K.; Jensen, S.K.; Ostergaerd, J.; Nogbou, P.

    1993-01-01

    The administrative center in charge of handling oil spill pollution situations on the Ivory Coast, West Africa, is named Centre Ivoirien Antipollution (CIAPOL). Its organizational structure has been reshuffled recently. CIAPOL now has three divisions: a laboratory division, a division for cleaning up oil and chemical pollution at sea, and an administrative division. The risk for oil pollution is known: within the past ten years five spills have been reported. All of these have been connected to operations relating to the refinery in Abidjan. More than 2,000 ships call at the port of Abidjan every year. Minor oil slicks are found almost permanently in the harbor and the lagoons around the harbor. Lumps of tar are rather common on the beaches all along the country's coast. This paper focuses on the background investigation in sensitive areas and risk analysis that led to a revision of the oil spill contingency plan, Plan Pollumar, and the recent purchase of oil spill cleanup equipment. The creation of a regional oil pollution response center at CIAPOL for all of the countries in West Africa, is proposed

  8. CHEMICAL OIL SPILL DISPERSANTS: UPDATE STATE-OF-THE- ART ON MECHANISM OF ACTION AND LABORATORY TESTING FOR PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical dispersants are formulations designed to facilitate dispersion of an oil slick into small droplets that disperse to non-problematic concentrations in an underlying water column. This project had two primary objectives: (1) update information on mechanisms of action of ...

  9. Spill operation system decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.

    1992-01-01

    The MSRC Spill Operation System (SOS) is a tool for the support of decision-making at the time of a catastrophic oil spill. SOS provides MSRC decision-makers with access to information about the source of the spill, the spill environment, and the availability of spill response resources. This system is designed to meet the information needs of a Response Supervisor, an Environmental Advisor, Logistics/Maintenance Supervisor, Operations Supervisor, and the MSRC Regional General Manager. The SOS project Objectives are: (1) integrate currently available data, systems, and technologies; (2) develop an application that effectively supports mobilized operations and can be adapted to support normal operations; (3) ensure that the development of computer applications is driven by user needs and not by technology; and (4) coordinate with government and other industry organizations to avoid duplication of effort. Design Objectives for SOS are: (1) centralize management information storage while decentralizing decision making capabilities; (2) boost User confidence by providing a system that is easy to learn, easy to use, and is open-quotes Sailor Proofclose quotes; and (3) use visualization technology in providing spill related information. This approach includes the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology for maps and geographically associated resource; and support MSRC's concept of operation which includes - a swift notification of response personnel; fast mobilization of response resources; and accurate tracking of resources during a spill. MSRC is organized into five responsibility regions

  10. The Worldwide Oil Spill Model (WOSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.L.; Howlett, E.; Jayko, K.; Reed, M.; Spaulding, M.; Kolluru, V.

    1993-01-01

    The Worldwide Oil Spill Model (WOSM) is a standalone microcomputer-based state-of-the-art oil spill model system for use in oil spill response decision support, planning, research, training, and contingency planning. WOSM was developed under support provided by a consortium of oil companies and government agencies. WOSM represents the next generation of oil spill model beyond the OILMAP modelling system (Spaulding et al, 1992). WOSM is designed in a shell architecture in which the only parameters that change are those that describe the area in which the spill model is to be applied. A limited function geographic information system (GIS) is integrated within the model system, and the spill modelling shell has been extended to include interfaces to other GIS systems and digital data. WOSM contains all the databases, data manipulation and graphical display tools, and models to simulate any type of oil spill. The user has control over which weathering processes are to be modelled, and WOSM data input tools enable continual refinement of model predictions as more refined data is imported. Use of WOSM is described and illustrated, showing sample screens and applications. WOSM algorithms and file structure are also outlined. An example test case of a spill in the Juan de Fuca strait is included. 29 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  11. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy's liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility is a research and demonstration facility available on a user-fee basis to private and public sector test and training sponsors concerned with safety aspects of hazardous chemicals. Though initially designed to accommodate large liquefied natural gas releases, the Spill Test Facility (STF) can also accommodate hazardous materials training and safety-related testing of most chemicals in commercial use. The STF is located at DOE's Nevada Test Site near Mercury, Nevada, USA. Utilization of the Spill Test Facility provides a unique opportunity for industry and other users to conduct hazardous materials testing and training. The Spill Test Facility is the only facility of its kind for either large- or small-scale testing of hazardous and toxic fluids including wind tunnel testing under controlled conditions. It is ideally suited for test sponsors to develop verified data on prevention, mitigation, clean-up, and environmental effects of toxic and hazardous gaseous liquids. The facility site also supports structured training for hazardous spills, mitigation, and clean-up. Since 1986, the Spill Test Facility has been utilized for releases to evaluate the patterns of dispersion, mitigation techniques, and combustion characteristics of select materials. Use of the facility can also aid users in developing emergency planning under US P.L 99-499, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) and other regulations. The Spill Test Facility Program is managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy (FE) with the support and assistance of other divisions of US DOE and the US Government. DOE/FE serves as facilitator and business manager for the Spill Test Facility and site. This brief document is designed to acquaint a potential user of the Spill Test Facility with an outline of the procedures and policies associated with the use of the facility

  12. Tanker self-help spill recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, J B; Wainwright, J G; Ehman, T K

    1991-12-01

    An investigation was conducted of the circumstances in which oil spills occur from tankers at sea by analyzing available historical oil spill data. A data base of marine oil spills greater than 134 tonnes occurring from 1974 and June 1990, included in an appendix, was among the information analyzed. The analysis showed that marine oil spills of 5,000 tonnes and greater account for 39.4% of the accidents yet 94.7% of the total spilled quantity; 84% of those spills occur in vessels of 20,000 deadweight tonnes and larger. Of spills over 5,000 tonnes, 78.5% occur outside of harbor or pier areas where spill response equipment may not be readily available. Over 50% of spills are caused by groundings or collisions where the vessel crew might be able to respond in mitigating and controlling the outflow of oil. The review suggested that tanker self-help systems warrant serious consideration. Potential self-help systems are described, ranging from additives such as bioremediation, dispersants, and solidifiers to equipment such as portable pumps, booms, and skimmers. Candidate systems were examined in terms of their safety, ease of operation, practicability, and effectiveness. Their possible performance was then assessed for the case of major marine oil spills that have occurred in Canadian waters. Four systems are identified as potential candidates for further evaluation and possible implementation: internal oil transfer, hydrostatic loading, external oil lightering, and contingency planning. A system design is evaluated and its benefits and possible implementation are outlined, based on integration of the preferred attributes of the above four options. Recommendations for implementation are also provided. 28 refs., 6 figs., 33 tabs.

  13. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  14. Dual stimuli responsive self-reporting material for chemical reservoir coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Hee; Song, Young Kyu; Park, Sun Hee; Park, Young Il; Noh, Seung Man; Kim, Jin Chul

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we introduce a novel dual stimuli responsive self-reporting thiol-epoxy thermoset (DSRTET) coatings which can detect both crack occurrence and pH variation. For crack detection, microcapsule containing tetraphenylethylene (TPE) which exhibits aggregation induced emission (AIE) effect was prepared via multi-step emulsion polymerization and dispersed in DSRTET coatings. For pH variation detection, commercial thymol blue as a pH indicator was added into the polymer matrix. The effect of microcapsule contents in DSRTET on their curing behavior, material properties, and crack sensitivity was characterized using an oscillatory rheology, rigid body pendulum test (RPT), nano-indentation test (NST), universal test machine (UTM) and scratch tester. It was revealed that crack sensitivity of DSRTET coatings was greatly influenced by material properties as well as microcapsule content. The color transition of DSRTET coatings in response to acid or base solution were quantitatively investigated using a multi-angle spectrophotometer after simple acid and base solution drop tests. The color of DSRTET coatings changed from a pale green to red for acidic solution and to blue for basic solution. Finally, The DSRTET used in this study was applied to laboratory scale chemical reservoirs in order to verify the potential as a dual stimuli response self-reporting coating which can detect both crack in coating material and chemical spill caused by the leakage or breakage of the reservoir part.

  15. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: Field observations and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vethamony, P. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India)]. E-mail: mony@nio.org; Sudheesh, K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Babu, M.T. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Jayakumar, S. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Manimurali, R. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Saran, A.K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Sharma, L.H. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India); Rajan, B. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India); Srivastava, M. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India)

    2007-07-15

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of two vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly and reached the coast. However, in 2005 when this event occurred, relatively stronger winds prevailed, and these winds forced the spill to move away from the coast. The spill trajectory was dominated by winds rather than currents. The MIKE21 Spill Analysis model was used to simulate the spill trajectory. The observed spill trajectory and the slick area were in agreement with the model simulations. The present study illustrates the importance of having pre-validated trajectories of spill scenarios for selecting eco-sensitive regions for preparedness and planning suitable response strategies whenever spill episodes occur. - This is the first time model results have been compared with real oil spill observations along an Indian Coast.

  16. Comparing bee species responses to chemical mixtures: Common response patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Robinson

    Full Text Available Pollinators in agricultural landscapes can be exposed to mixtures of pesticides and environmental pollutants. Existing mixture toxicity modelling approaches, such as the models of concentration addition and independent action and the mechanistic DEBtox framework have been previously shown as valuable tools for understanding and ultimately predicting joint toxicity. Here we apply these mixture models to investigate the potential to interpret the effects of semi-chronic binary mixture exposure for three bee species: Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis within potentiation and mixture toxicity experiments. In the potentiation studies, the effect of the insecticide dimethoate with added propiconazole fungicide and neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin with added tau-fluvalinate pyrethroid acaricide showed no difference in toxicity compared to the single chemical alone. Clothianidin toxicity showed a small scale, but temporally conserved increase in exposure conducted in the presence of propiconazole, particularly for B. terrestris and O. bicornis, the latter showing a near three-fold increase in clothianidin toxicity in the presence of propiconazole. In the mixture toxicity studies, the dominant response patterns were of additivity, however, binary mixtures of clothianidin and dimethoate in A. mellifera, B. terrestris and male O. bicornis there was evidence of a predominant antagonistic interaction. Given the ubiquitous nature of exposures to multiple chemicals, there is an urgent need to consider mixture effects in pollinator risk assessments. Our analyses suggest that current models, particularly those that utilise time-series data, such as DEBtox, can be used to identify additivity as the dominant response pattern and also those examples of interactions, even when small-scale, that may need to be taken into account during risk assessment.

  17. Oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-15 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084593)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-15 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event on...

  18. Unknown oceanographic data collected aboard the Ridley Thomas in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084612)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Unknown oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ridley Thomas in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  19. Washington's marine oil spill compensation schedule - simplified resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geselbracht, L.; Logan, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Washington State Preassessment Screening and Oil Spill Compensation Schedule Rule (Chapter 173-183 Washington Administrative Code), which simplifies natural resource damage assessment for many oil spill cases, became effective in May 1992. The approach described in the rule incorporates a number of preconstructed rankings that rate environmental sensitivity and the propensity of spilled oil to cause environmental harm. The rule also provides guidance regarding how damages calculated under the schedule should be reduced to take into account actions taken by the responsible party that reduce environmental injury. To apply the compensation schedule to marine estuarine spills, the resource trustees need only collect a limited amount of information such as type of product spilled, number of gallons spilled, compensation schedule subregions the spill entered, season of greatest spill impact, percent coverage of habitats affected by the spill, and actions taken by the responsible party. The result of adding a simplified tool to the existing assortment of damage assessment approaches is that resource trustees will now be able to assess damages for most oil spill cases and shift more effort than was possible in the past to resource restoration

  20. Integration of Web-GIS and oil spill simulation applications for environmental management of near-shore spill accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, S.; Miyata, D.; Varlamov, S.M.; Kim, S.-W.

    2001-01-01

    In the event of a near-shore oil spill, the use of a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) can greatly improve emergency response management and oil recovery operations by providing real-time information support. This paper presented a Web-GIS that is used in combination with an oil spill simulation model. The structure and content of the system was defined after the Nakhodka vessel spilled oil in the Sea of Japan in January 1997, leaving serious environmental damage to the coastal area of the Ishikawa prefecture. The Web-GIS provides a wide range of environmental and oil spill related information, presented in a geographical form. The system also consolidates spill and environmental damage related information from different sources and provides links to the specialized environmental and socio-economical information of other GIS databases. The oil spill modeling subsystem is part of an application for protection planning and oil recovery operations. With this system, oil-drift simulation begins at the onset of any oil spill and then remote sensing data are used to estimate the position and state of the spilled oil. The spill information is then assimilated into the spill model and the observed simulated results are uploaded to the Web page for public information. The applicability of the Web-GIS is extended by support for information gathering from the public and the responsible agencies. The relative simplicity of the system interface is an added advantage. 9 refs., 4 figs

  1. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  2. Gas spill emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This video presentation was designed to explain the steps that should be taken in the event of a petroleum product spill on land, to keep damages and consequences to a minimum. The events that took place when an oil truck full of gasoline overturned and smashed into a house on a residential street were described to illustrate the principles involved. The following sequence of events and actions, based on general principles of bringing the situation under control during an emergency operation were depicted: (1) identification of spilled product, (2) assessment of the situation, (3) setting priorities and evacuating the endangered area, and (4) setting up a communication system. The fire fighters sprayed the area with foam because of the fire and explosion potential. Sand was used to contain the spill and to keep it out of the storm sewers. The spilled oil was recovered. Three other spill situations - a spill at a service station, a spill in a ditch, and a spill in a waterway - were also documented. It was emphasized that while it is not possible to establish a single set of rules and actions that would apply to all situations since no two accidents involving petroleum products are alike, the general principles are universal and can be applied in all situations. First priority to consider should always be human life, then property, then the environment

  3. Recent spill experiences: the North Cape spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.

    1996-01-01

    The events which surrounded the spill of some 825,000 gallons of heating oil into the sea off the Rhode Island coast in January 1996, were described. Birds and marine life (lobsters in particular) had been affected by the spill, with injured and dead animals appearing from first light. Wildlife handling procedures were established immediately. A significant amount of the spilled oil had entered into the water column and could not be seen or controlled, and was moving along the coast into coastal ponds. Considerable seafood contamination was inevitable. To avoid even greater problems, it was decided to close the south shore beaches to the public and 105 square miles of coastal area to fishing and shell fishing. 4 refs., 2 figs

  4. Recent spill experiences: the North Cape spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, M. [Rhode Island Univ., Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Ocean Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The events which surrounded the spill of some 825,000 gallons of heating oil into the sea off the Rhode Island coast in January 1996, were described. Birds and marine life (lobsters in particular) had been affected by the spill, with injured and dead animals appearing from first light. Wildlife handling procedures were established immediately. A significant amount of the spilled oil had entered into the water column and could not be seen or controlled, and was moving along the coast into coastal ponds. Considerable seafood contamination was inevitable. To avoid even greater problems, it was decided to close the south shore beaches to the public and 105 square miles of coastal area to fishing and shell fishing. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  6. Responding to the Sea Empress oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Law, R.J.; Kelly, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) is a government department which has responsibility in England and in Wales (acting on behalf of the Secretary of State for Wales) for controlling deposits in the sea, including approving the use of dispersants in oil spill response. MAFF also has responsibility in relation to the management of sustainable commercial fish and shellfish fisheries. Following the grounding of the tanker Sea Empress on 15 February 1996, over 72,000 tonnes of crude oil and bunker fuel was lost. This paper summarises the involvement of MAFF staff in the response phase, and in the subsequent assessment of the environmental impact of the oil spill and the associated clean up operations on commercial fisheries. After two and a half years of environmental monitoring and complementary research, it is concluded that the oil spill has had an insignificant impact on these fisheries beyond their closure during the incident response phase. Suggestions for further work are discussed. (author)

  7. Cost-effectiveness criteria for marine oil spill preventive measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanem, Erik; Endresen, Oyvind; Skjong, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Oil tanker accidents resulting in large quantities of oil spills and severe pollution have occurred in the past, leading to major public attention and an international focus on finding solutions for minimising the risks related to such events. This paper proposes a novel approach for evaluating measures for prevention and control of marine oil spills, based on considerations of oil spill risk and cost effectiveness. A cost model that incorporates all costs of a shipping accident has been established and oil tanker spill accidents have been further elaborated as a special case of such accidents. Utilising this model, novel implementation criteria, in terms of the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS), for risk control options aiming at mitigating the environmental risk of accidental oil spills, are proposed. The paper presents a review of previous studies on the costs associated with oil spills from shipping, which is a function of many factors such as location of spill, spill amount, type of oil, etc. However, ships are designed for global trade, transporting different oil qualities. Therefore, globally applicable criteria must average over most of these factors, and the spill amount is the remaining factor that will be used to measure cost effectiveness against. A weighted, global average cleanup cost of USD 16,000/tonne of oil spilt has been calculated, considering the distribution of oil tanker traffic densities. Finally, the criteria are compared with some existing regulations for oil spill prevention, response and compensation (OPA 90)

  8. United States Chemical Policy: Response Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-07

    nTcn aapplicable. entew induiy r~ epr dates (g.10~Saeet o ehia Jun 87.- 30 Jun 88). rot gDocuments. DOE See authorities Block 4. Title and $ubtitle...introduction of mustard gas and gas shells to the battlefield. Between World War I and the 1980’s, infrequent use of chemical warfare occurred. In 1935 and...The period just prior to World War II included at least two known cases of chemical warfare use. In 1935 -36, Italy used mustard gas against Abyssinia

  9. Modeling comprehensive chemical composition of weathered oil following a marine spill to predict ozone and potential secondary aerosol formation and constrain transport pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Greg T.; Worton, David R.; Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M.; Zhang, Haofei; Variano, Evan; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2015-11-01

    Releases of hydrocarbons from oil spills have large environmental impacts in both the ocean and atmosphere. Oil evaporation is not simply a mechanism of mass loss from the ocean, as it also causes production of atmospheric pollutants. Monitoring atmospheric emissions from oil spills must include a broad range of volatile organic compounds (VOC), including intermediate-volatile and semivolatile compounds (IVOC, SVOC), which cause secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and ozone production. The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster in the northern Gulf of Mexico during Spring/Summer of 2010 presented a unique opportunity to observe SOA production due to an oil spill. To better understand these observations, we conducted measurements and modeled oil evaporation utilizing unprecedented comprehensive composition measurements, achieved by gas chromatography with vacuum ultraviolet time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-VUV-HR-ToFMS). All hydrocarbons with 10-30 carbons were classified by degree of branching, number of cyclic rings, aromaticity, and molecular weight; these hydrocarbons comprise ˜70% of total oil mass. Such detailed and comprehensive characterization of DWH oil allowed bottom-up estimates of oil evaporation kinetics. We developed an evaporative model, using solely our composition measurements and thermodynamic data, that is in excellent agreement with published mass evaporation rates and our wind-tunnel measurements. Using this model, we determine surface slick samples are composed of oil with a distribution of evaporative ages and identify and characterize probable subsurface transport of oil.

  10. State of the Art Satellite and Airborne Marine Oil Spill Remote Sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    development and operationalization of new spill response remote sensing tools must precede the next major oil spill. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved...Environment 124 (2012) 185–209 sensing oil spill impacts, and 5) a final discussion. Each section presents background, available remote sensing tools , and...cialized DaVinci command-line software (Clark et al., 2003) then mapped oil slick volume (Clark et al., 2010) in each AVIRIS pixel by identifying the

  11. The responsibility of the agents responsible for environmental damage caused by oil spilling in Brazil; A responsabilidade dos agentes causadores de dano ambiental por derramamento de oleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This essay talks about the responsibility of the agents that cause damage to the environment, both civil liability, as well as criminal and administrative responsibility. It analyzes the most important brazilian juridical rules, emphasizing the National Environmental Politics Law, the Brazilian Federal Republic Constitution and the Environmental Crimes Law. Specially, due to the amount and importance of the oil and gas activities in Brazil, it talks about the environmental responsibility, in the above mentioned fields, related to damage resulting from the Oil and Gas Industry's activities. It focuses the rules that rule this subject in the brazilian juridical system, emphasizing the cases of environmental damage resulting from oil spills in Brazil and the probable juridical consequences to the agents responsible for this damage. (author)

  12. Summary of spill events in Canada : 1984 - 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The trends in hazardous material spill events in Canada were summarized for the 12-year period 1984 to 1995. Findings were presented on the number and quantity of spills. The report includes data on the seven major sectors that incur spills. These include the chemical, government, metallurgy, mining, petroleum, pulp and paper and service industry sectors. The causes and reasons for these spills, and any environmental impacts, are described. Case histories of four significant environmental incidents were reviewed in detail. These include a warehouse fire at Canning, Nova Scotia in 1986, a tire fire at Hagersville, Ontario in 1990, a train derailment in Hervey Junction, Quebec in 1995, and the Nestucca oil spill in Gray's Harbour near Vancouver Island, British Columbia in 1988. Equipment failure and human error were pinpointed as the most common cause of spills, followed by corrosion, material failure and storm or flood. Fifty-eight per cent of all reported spills involve oil and petroleum products. Wastes and effluents account for 89 per cent of the total quantity of reported spills. These findings make the report particularly well suited for use as a tool in developing appropriate spill prevention strategies. 15 refs., 26 tabs., 42 figs

  13. Pleural spill malign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho Duran, Fidel; Zamarriego, Roman; Gonzalez, Mauricio

    2002-01-01

    The pleural spills are developed because of an alteration in the mechanisms that usually move between 5 and 10 liters of liquid through the space pleural every 24 hours and this is reabsorbed, only leaving 5 to 20 ml present. The causes more common of spill pleural they are: congestive heart failure, bacterial pneumonia, malign neoplasia and pulmonary clot. The causes more common of pleural spill malign in general are: cancer of the lung, cancer of the breast and lymphomas. In the man, cancer of the lung, lymphomas and gastrointestinal cancer. In the woman, cancer of the breast, gynecological cancer and lung cancer. The paper, includes their characteristics, treatments and medicines

  14. Chemical Leasing business models and corporate social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Frank; Jakl, Thomas; Joas, Reihard; Dondi, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Chemical Leasing is a service-oriented business model that shifts the focus from increasing sales volume of chemicals towards a value-added approach. Recent pilot projects have shown the economic benefits of introducing Chemical Leasing business models in a broad range of sectors. A decade after its introduction, the promotion of Chemical Leasing is still predominantly done by the public sector and international organizations. We show in this paper that awareness-raising activities to disseminate information on this innovative business model mainly focus on the economic benefits. We argue that selling Chemical Leasing business models solely on the grounds of economic and ecological considerations falls short of branding it as a corporate social responsibility initiative, which, for this paper, is defined as a stakeholder-oriented concept that extends beyond the organization's boundaries and is driven by an ethical understanding of the organization's responsibility for the impact of its business activities. For the analysis of Chemical Leasing business models, we introduce two case studies from the water purification and metal degreasing fields, focusing on employees and local communities as two specific stakeholder groups of the company introducing Chemical Leasing. The paper seeks to demonstrate that Chemical Leasing business models can be branded as a corporate social responsibility initiative by outlining the vast potential of Chemical Leasing to improve occupational health and safety and to strengthen the ability of companies to protect the environment from the adverse effects of the chemicals they apply.

  15. Bohai and Yellow Sea Oil Spill Prediction System and Its Application to Huangdao ‘11.22’ Oil Spill Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Li, Yan; Li, Cheng; Li, Wenshan; Wang, Guosong; Zhang, Song

    2017-08-01

    Marine oil spill has deep negative effect on both marine ecosystem and human activities. In recent years, due to China’s high-speed economic development, the demand for crude oil is increasing year by year in China, and leading to the high risk of marine oil spill. Therefore, it is necessary that promoting emergency response on marine oil spill in China and improving oil spill prediction techniques. In this study, based on oil spill model and GIS platform, we have developed the Bohai and Yellow sea oil spill prediction system. Combining with high-resolution meteorological and oceanographic forecast results, the system was applied to predict the drift and diffusion process of Huangdao ‘11.22’ oil spill incident. Although the prediction can’t be validated by some SAR images due to the lack of satellite observations, it still provided effective and referable oil spill behavior information to Maritime Safety Administration.

  16. QAPP for Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) Surface Spills Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This QAPP provides information concerning the analysis of spills associated with hydraulic fracturing. This project is relevant to both the chemical mixing and flowback and produced water stages of the HF water cycle as found in the HF Study Plan.

  17. Responses of selected biota after biostimulation of a vegetable oil spill in the Con Joubert Bird Sanctuary wetland: a pilot study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Selala, MC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the effect of a vegetable oil spill was conducted on the biological diversity of the Con Joubert Bird Sanctuary wetland in South Africa before and after biostimulation with different concentrations of fertilizer during 2008...

  18. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Policy lessons from Exxon Valdez spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelso, D.D.; Brown, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The wreck of the Exxon Valdez in Prince william sound in Alaska leaves in its aftermath grave policy questions about how much risk the public should be asked to bear and how much industry should be required to do to prevent oil spills and to clean them up when they occur. But because of industry's inadequate response to the Exxon Valdez spill, this catastrophe will provide few solid answers say the authors. The results of the accident were clearly catastrophic: 1,200 miles of polluted shorelines, 260,000 to 580,000 dead birds, decreased biological productivity, and disruption of life and business in scores of seashore communities. As with any accident, prevention and preparedness are the twin concepts that underlie most post-accident policy analyses. Actions since the accident by both Congress and the state of Alaska to prevent such spills in the future are useful, kelso and Brown note. The lack of effective technology to clean up large oil spills was dramatically demonstrated in this incident, they add, making a national research and development undertaking essential. Public involvement in establishing standards for spill prevention, response preparedness, and cleanup is vital, Kelso and Brown emphasize, because in the final analysis, it is the public that is hurt if the prevention and response systems break down

  1. Ocean current data measured by the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) aboard the Discoverer Enterprise oil platform from May 23, 2010 to July 04, 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (NODC Accession 0083684)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean current data were collected by ADCP aboard the Discoverer Enterprise in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event on April 20,...

  2. Ocean current data measured by the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) aboard the Development Driller III from 2010-05-31 to 2010-07-04 in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (NODC Accession 0083634)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean current data were collected by ADCP aboard the Discoverer Enterprise in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event on April 20,...

  3. Oil spills and other issues in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita : an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina revealed weaknesses in the command, control, communications, and information dissemination functions within a variety of emergency response systems. This paper gave an outline of clean-up procedures involving hazardous materials. To date, clean-up crews have disposed of 8.0 million tonnes of an estimated 22.0 million tonnes of debris. The clean-up involved more than 1.3 million containerized hazardous materials; more than 230,000 damaged white goods; and nearly 43,000 damaged electronic goods. More than 3,400 samples of water, soil and air have been collected. Nearly 75 chemistry laboratories in schools have been inspected, and an additional 1500 emergency assessments of potential chemical releases were investigated. The floodwaters carried nearly 4.1 million litres of oil from a Chalmette refinery. Between September and the end of 2005, the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office logged in 81 spill events in southwest Louisiana involving 22,000 bbls of crude. Six major, 3 medium and 131 minor events have occurred in southeast Louisiana. More than 3000 offshore platforms were shut down or damaged during the 2005 hurricane season. At least 115 platforms were destroyed and 52 were damaged. Onshore spills of concern included incidents at Murphy Oil Refinery; Bass Enterprise Production Company; Chevron at Port Fourchon; Venice Energy Services Company; Shell Pipeline; and Sundown Energy. It was concluded work done by the spill community will result in the development of more effective response plans. 23 refs

  4. Spill management strategy for the Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, H.L.; Chapman, R.S.; Johnson, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is a unique cooperative effort between state and Federal agencies to restore the health and productivity of America's largest estuary. To assist in addressing specific management issues, a comprehensive three-dimensional, time-varying hydrodynamic and water quality model has ben developed. The Bay modeling strategy will serve as an excellent framework for including submodules to predict the movement, dispersion, and weathering of accidental spills, such as for petroleum products or other chemicals. This paper presents sample results from the Bay application to illustrate the success of the model system in simulating Bay processes. Also, a review of model requirements for successful spill modeling in Chesapeake Bay is presented. Recommendations are given for implementing appropriate spill modules with the Bay model framework and establishing a strategy for model use in addressing management issues

  5. Tunnel nitrogen spill experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageyev, A.I.; Alferov, V.N.; Mulholland, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Energy Saver Safety Analysis Report (SAR) found the tunnel oxygen deficiency considerations emphasized helium spills. These reports concluded the helium quickly warms and because of its low denisty, rises to the apex of the tunnel. The oxygen content below the apex and in all but the immediate vicinity of the helium spill is essentially unchanged and guarantees an undisturbed source of oxygen especially important to fallen personnel. In contrast nitrogen spills warm slower than helium due to the ratio of the enthalpy changes per unit volume spilled spread more uniformly across the tunnel cross-section when warmed because of the much smaller density difference with air, and generally provides a greater hazard than helium spills as a result. In particular there was concern that personnel that might fall to the floor for oxygen deficiency or other reasons might find less, and not more, oxygen with dire consequences. The SAR concluded tunnel nitrogen spills were under-investigated and led to this work

  6. Effects of oil spill related chemical pollution on helminth parasites in Mexican flounder Cyclopsetta chittendeni from the Campeche Sound, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno-Chalé, Oscar Arturo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-09-01

    During an environmental impact study of an accidental oil spill in the Campeche Sound in October 2007, we examined the helminth parasites of the benthic flatfish Cyclopsetta chittendeni as well as the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the sediment. The aim of this study was to determine the potential effects of these contaminants on the helminth communities of the flatfish. A total of 427 hosts were examined, and 16,895 helminths, representing 17 species, were obtained from two surveys (March and July, 2008). Statistically significant negative associations were observed between the hydrocarbons and helminth parasite abundances using multivariate methods. The results suggest that in October 2007, the oil spill had a strong negative effect on these helminth communities. However, after five months, the impacted stations were re-populated by both the flatfish and helminths. The most likely explanation for this rapid recovery is the rescue effect from non-impacted habitats to impacted stations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oil spill preparedness in the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorigne, E.M.; Wong, K.V.

    1993-01-01

    Over 15% of the world's consumption of crude oil and refined products is shipped through the Mediterranean Sea each year. The sea is one of the most polluted areas in the world and has areas of high risk for oil spills, notably those places where there is a very narrow passage between coasts or islands. The region also needs to modernize its ports by developing more deballasting facilities, since a large percentage of spill accidents happens during terminal operations. Release of oily wastes from ships is also significant. The World Bank Global Environment Facility trust fund is working on a project to help the southwest Mediterranean countries modernize reception facilities for ballast water, bilge water, and oily waste water. The Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Center (REMPEC) in Malta acts as the coordinating center for regional contingency planning for oil spill response. The cost of the port facilities modernization program and oil spill contingency plan implementation for the Mediterranean is estimated at US$444 million. An allocation of costs is suggested which will help those countries needing more financial aid to implement the proposed programs. In the long run, the cost of these programs will be much lower than that of a massive oil spill cleanup. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Spill sparks reform, leaves lasting scar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notthoff, A.

    1991-01-01

    Blackened shorelines, oil-soaked birds, and dying sea otters - images that riveted the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the public consciousness - also generated an outcry for action, Notthoff observes. No other spill caught the attention of the American public and prompted public-policy reform at the national, state, and local level like the Exxon Valdez, she says. Within two years of the accident, Congress had dusted off and passed oil-spill legislation that had been deadlocked for 10 years, and seven states had passed new oil-spill laws. The poor record of cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill is due to the limits of technology, the physical conditions at the time of the accident, and a chronic inability to mobilize people and equipment under the chaotic circumstances that surround a major emergency, Notthoff says. In addition, there also was a failure to enforce existing response plans. Prevention is the best cure, and some of the new laws address this issue, she notes. They also tighten up requirements for response planning and encourage research into improved clean-up technology. What they fail to do Notthoff emphasizes, is seek to reduce tanker traffic by encouraging improved energy efficiency, conservation, and alternative energy technologies

  9. Guide to oil spill exercise planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (OPRC Convention) foresees a future in which all at risk states have national oil spill preparedness and response plans. The Convention also encourages the idea that national plans be developed in cooperation with oil and shipping industries. The ultimate test of any contingency plan is measured by performance in a real emergency. It is vital, therefore, that any programme for developing a national contingency plan must include an ongoing programme to test the plan through realistic exercises. An exercise programme must progressively prepare the Oil Spill Energy Response Team to perform effectively in realistic representations of the risks that the contingency plan has been designed to meet. This report has been designed to guide all those in government or industry who are faced with the responsibility of developing and managing oil spill response exercises at all levels. It carries with it the authority that derives from peer review by many centres of oil spill response excellence around the world. It is well-illustrated with brief case histories of exercises that have been carried out by many IPIECA member companies. Each of those companies has indicated its preparedness to share more information by providing contact name and address details within this report. (author)

  10. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Responses of hadrons to the chemical potential at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, S.; Liu, Y.; Miyamura, O.; Forcrand, Ph. de; Garcia Perez, M.; Hioki, S.; Matsufuru, H.; Nakamura, A.; Stamatescu, I.-O.; Takaishi, T.; Umeda, T.

    2002-01-01

    We present a framework to compute the responses of hadron masses to the chemical potential in lattice QCD simulations. As a first trial, the screening mass of the pseudoscalar meson and its first and second responses are evaluated. We present results on a 16x8 2 x4 lattice with two flavors of staggered quarks below and above T c . The responses to both the isoscalar and isovector chemical potentials are obtained. They show different behavior in the low and the high temperature phases, which may be explained as a consequence of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration, respectively

  12. Fuel Conservation by the Application of Spill Prevention and Failsafe Engineering (A Guideline Manual)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodier, J. Leslie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Water and Land Resources Department, Office of Marine and Environmental Engineering; Siclari, Robert J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Water and Land Resources Department, Office of Marine and Environmental Engineering; Garrity, Phyllis A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Water and Land Resources Department, Office of Marine and Environmental Engineering

    1980-10-30

    From a series of nationwide plant surveys dedicated to spill prevention, containment and countermeasure evaluation, coupled with spill response action activities, a need was determined for a spill prevention guideline manual. From Federally accumulated statistics for oil and hazardous substance spills, the authors culled information on spills of hydrocarbon products. In 1978, a total of 1456 oil spills were reported compared to 1451 in 1979. The 1978 spills were more severe, however, since 7,289,163 gallons of oil were accidentally discharged. In 1979, the gallons spilled was reduced to 3,663,473. These figures are derived from reported spills; it is highly possible that an equal amount was spilled and not reported. Spills effectively contained within a plant property that do not enter a navigational waterway need not be reported. Needless to say, there is a tremendous annual loss of oil products due to accidental spillage during transportation, cargo transfer, bulk storage and processing. As an aid to plant engineers and managers, Federal workers, fire marshalls and fire and casualty insurance inspectors, the document is offered as a spill prevention guide. The manual defines state-of-the-art spill prevention practices and automation techniques that can reduce spills caused by human error. Whenever practical, the cost of implementation is provided to aid equipment acquisition and installation budgeting. To emphasize the need for spill prevention activities, historic spills are briefly described after which remedial action is defined in an appropriate section of the manual. The section on plant security goes into considerable depth since to date no Federal agency or trade association has provided industry with guidelines on this important phase of plant operation. The intent of the document is to provide finger-tip reference material that can be used by interested parties in a nationwide effort to reduce loss of oil from preventable spills.

  13. Comparing sediment quality in Spanish littoral areas affected by acute (Prestige, 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Caselles, C.; Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of sediments collected from two areas of the Spanish coast affected by different sources of contaminants has been compared in this study. The areas studied are the coast of Galicia affected by the oil spill from the tanker Prestige (November 2002) and the Gulf of Cadiz which suffers continuous inputs of contaminants from industries located in the area and from oil spills. Contamination by several chemicals (metals, PCBs and PAHs) that bind to sediments was analyzed, and two toxicity tests (Microtox[reg]) and amphipod 10-day bioassay) were conducted. PAHs were identified as the compounds responsible for the toxic effects. Results show differences between an acute impact related to the sinking of the tanker Prestige and the chronic impact associated with continuous oil spills associated with the maritime and industrial activities in the Bay of Algeciras, this being the most polluted part of the two coastal areas studied in this work. - Littoral sediments affected by low or moderated but continuous oil spills are more polluted than those affected by accidental oil spills such as the Prestige

  14. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  15. Japan FRI research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Introduction of research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire at FRI, Japan is done. FRI has a long history of studying oil tank and spilled oil fires. Many large oil fire tests were done. The purpose of these studies is different with research of response of oil spill, but the accumulation of this knowledge is useful for conducting elimination of spilled oil on the sea with burning. Therefore to do collaboration with fire science research groups, such as FRI is useful for future activities for response to oil spills

  16. Biomimetic catalysts responsive to specific chemical signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-03-04

    amphiphilic principles used in the foldamer catalysts were extended to a few other systems, particularly to interfacially cross-linked reverse micelles and micelles. These features enabled unusual catalytic features such as basic/nucleophilic catalysis under acidic conditions. We were able to create highly active metal nanoclusters catalysts whose local environment could be tuned by the organic framework. We were even able to create a “catalytic nanomachine” that grabs the substrate to the encapsulated Au clusters, which efficiently convert the substrate to the product that is rapidly ejected due to its different binding properties. Our research has important impacts on fundamental and applied energy-related sciences. On the fundamental level, it tests important biocatalytic principles on relatively simple synthetic systems and is expected to afford deeper understanding of biological catalysis. On the practical level, the research is anticipated to lead to “smart” catalysts and open up exiting applications in chemical analysis, reaction control, and materials synthesis. Part 2. Electrochemical Reduction of CO₂ The primary objective of our research involving the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide is to apply a multidisciplinary approach toward developing a greater understanding of the problem of efficiently converting CO₂ to hydrocarbons through electrochemical routes. Our goal is to provide a better understanding of the principles that underlie the electrocatalytic reduction of CO₂ at electrode surfaces and the molecular pathways that lead to desired compounds. This understanding is essential for the design and development of new catalytic materials for the selective production of renewable feedstocks. The electrochemical reduction of CO₂ involves the formation of various reaction products and adsorbed intermediates whose distribution depends upon the nature of the electrode material and the electrochemical conditions, including applied potential

  17. When oil spills emulsify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.; Fingas, M.; Tennyson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Cleanup operations of oil spills must take into account the numerous detrimental effects attributable to the emulsification of spilled oil into a stable water-in-oil mousse. The incorporation of water greatly increases the volume of the polluted material. The viscous nature of mousse impedes the efficient operation of most mechanical recovery equipment and results in a cohesive slick that resists dispersion, both natural and artificial. The rate at which spilled oil emulsifies determines the effective window of opportunity for specific countermeasures. Much has been learned from previous studies on petroleum emulsification, but is still remain a poorly understood phenomenon. Although most crude oils can be emulsified, not all spills result in the formation of stable mousse. The formation of mousse results from a complex series of processes. Whether an oil will form mousse or not, and if so, at what rate, depends on an array of different factors including the properties of the oil and the prevailing environmental conditions. We need a greater understanding of the emulsification process to better predict the emulsification behavior of oil spills and utilize the most appropriate countermeasures available. In this paper, the authors report on work to elucidate the role that physicochemical factors play in determining an oil's tendency to emulsify. The authors studied the emulsification behavior of oils of known composition to examine the importance of oil chemistry in the emulsification process

  18. Consensus Ecological Risk Assessment of Potential Transportation-related Bakken and Dilbit Crude Oil Spills in the Delaware Bay Watershed, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Hayward Walker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unconventionally-produced crude oils, i.e., Bakken oil and bitumen diluted for transport and known as dilbit, have become prominent components of the North American petroleum industry. Spills of these oils have occurred during transport from production areas to refineries via pipeline, rail, and barge. Some of their physical and chemical properties are distinct and present new challenges in mitigating spill impacts on people and the environment. This paper describes the adaptation of a qualitative risk assessment process to improve spill preparedness and response decisions for these oils when transported in an estuarine area. The application of this collaborative, interdisciplinary process drew upon a literature review, the local knowledge and experience of a broad set of decision makers, practitioners, and technical experts who developed consensus-based recommendations aimed at improving response to spills of these oils. Two emphasized components of this consensus ecological risk assessment (CERA concerned risks: (1 to human health and safety and (2 from spilled oil and the associated response actions on endangered species. Participants in the process defined levels of concern associated with Bakken and dilbit oils relative to a set of response actions in freshwater, brackish and saltwater habitats and on resources at risk.

  19. Low-Cost Chemical-Responsive Adhesive Sensing Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Weirui; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Wei

    2017-12-06

    Chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chip is a new low-cost analytical platform that uses adhesive tape loaded with indicator reagents to detect or quantify the target analytes by directly sticking the tape to the samples of interest. The chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chips can be used with paper to analyze aqueous samples; they can also be used to detect and quantify solid, particulate, and powder analytes. The colorimetric indicators become immediately visible as the contact between the functionalized adhesives and target samples is made. The chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chip expands the capability of paper-based analytical devices to analyze solid, particulate, or powder materials via one-step operation. It is also a simpler alternative way, to the covalent chemical modification of paper, to eliminate indicator leaching from the dipstick-style paper sensors. Chemical-responsive adhesive chips can display analytical results in the form of colorimetric dot patterns, symbols, and texts, enabling clear understanding of assay results by even nonprofessional users. In this work, we demonstrate the analyses of heavy metal salts in silica powder matrix, heavy metal ions in water, and bovine serum albumin in an aqueous solution. The detection is one-step, specific, sensitive, and easy-to-operate.

  20. Don't Cry over Spilled Water: Identifying Risks and Solutions for Produced Water Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shores, Amanda Rose

    Resource requirements and future energy generation requires careful evaluation, particularly due to climate change and water scarcity. This thesis discusses one aspect of energy generation linked to water; oil-and-gas extraction and the large volumes of waste water produced, otherwise known as "produced water". This research focuses on surface spills of produced water, their ramifications, safeguards against groundwater contamination at spill sites and potential remediation strategies. Produced water contains a variety of contaminants that include the group of known toxins, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), and high salt concentrations. A combination of factors such as large volumes of generated produced water, the need for storage and transportation across large distances and the toxic-and-mobile nature of produced water constituents creates risks for spills that can pollute groundwater. Spills occur regularly, particularly in Weld County, Colorado, where the demand for natural gas is high. To answer spill-related hypotheses, a multitude of methodology were employed: modeling, greenhouse experimentation, gas chromatography and summarization of spill reports and statistical analyses. Using publically available spill data, this research found that the frequency of oil-and-gas related spills and the average spilled volume has increased in Weld County from 2011-2015. Additionally, the number of spills that have resulted in groundwater contamination has increased in the area. By focusing on the oil-and-gas operators responsible for these spills, a linear relationship was found between the volumes of oil-and-gas produced compared to the volumes of produced-water generated. However, larger oil-and-gas producers did not show a linear relationship between oil-and-gas produced and produced-water generated, such that larger producers were more efficient and generated less water per unit of energy. So while scale-up efficiency seems to exist for produced

  1. Some recommendations for testing oil spill computer models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Martinez, R.

    1998-01-01

    According to a recent state-of-the-art review of modelling transport and fate of spills, more than 50 oil spill models have been developed in the last 30 years. Even though some of these models are used for spill response actions during accidents, environmental impact assessment, contingency planning and response training, there are no standard methodologies to evaluate their quality. This article presents some ideas that may contribute to design a set of standard benchmarks that would allow users and developers to assess models on a rational basis. (author)

  2. [Responsibilities of enterprises introducing new dangerous chemical substances and preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Jacek; Majka, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the responsibilities of producers, importers and distributors set in a new Act of January 2001 on chemical substances and preparations (Off. J. 2001, No. 11, item 84, with subsequent amendments). This Act together with executive provisions is aimed at harmonizing Polish legislation with EU requirements. The Act sets conditions, restriction and bans of production placing on the market and use of chemical substances and preparations in order to protect human health and environment against their harmful effects. The Act together with a number of executive provisions render those who introduce dangerous chemicals and chemical preparations, including distributors responsible for: classification and labelling of dangerous chemical substances and preparations; possessing, making available and up-dating safety data sheets; supplying packages containing certain dangerous substances with child-proof fastenings; notifying the Inspector for Chemical Substances and Preparations about placing a dangerous preparation on the market; notifying the Inspector about a new substance and conducting required studies; being properly qualified to handle dangerous substances. The Act strictly defines the term "placing a substance or a preparation on the market"--it means making a substance or a preparation available to third parties on the territory of The Republic of Poland, territories of the Member States of the European Union or the territory of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, unless the Act provides otherwise; it also means introduction of a substance or a preparation from outside of the territory referred to above on the customs territory of The Republic of Poland, or that of the member states of the European Union and other states listed above. In addition, some of the responsibilities defined by the provisions of the law on chemical substances and preparations are also applicable to handling of biocidals, which are classified as dangerous substances. The Act

  3. Oil spill recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.; Cooper, W.; Nee, V.; Nigim, H.

    1992-01-01

    Current deficiencies in oil spill cleanup processes have resulted in research and development of new cleanup technologies at the University of Notre Dame. Emphasis on reducing, reusing and recycling equipment and waste at a cleanup site has prompted advances in oil recovery technology as well as improvement in sorbent materials. (author)

  4. Screening of pollution control and clean-up materials for river chemical spills using the multiple case-based reasoning method with a difference-driven revision strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rentao; Jiang, Jiping; Guo, Liang; Shi, Bin; Liu, Jie; Du, Zhaolin; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-01

    In-depth filtering of emergency disposal technology (EDT) and materials has been required in the process of environmental pollution emergency disposal. However, an urgent problem that must be solved is how to quickly and accurately select the most appropriate materials for treating a pollution event from the existing spill control and clean-up materials (SCCM). To meet this need, the following objectives were addressed in this study. First, the material base and a case base for environment pollution emergency disposal were established to build a foundation and provide material for SCCM screening. Second, the multiple case-based reasoning model method with a difference-driven revision strategy (DDRS-MCBR) was applied to improve the original dual case-based reasoning model method system, and screening and decision-making was performed for SCCM using this model. Third, an actual environmental pollution accident from 2012 was used as a case study to verify the material base, case base, and screening model. The results demonstrated that the DDRS-MCBR method was fast, efficient, and practical. The DDRS-MCBR method changes the passive situation in which the choice of SCCM screening depends only on the subjective experience of the decision maker and offers a new approach to screening SCCM.

  5. The 1990 Arthur Kill oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astor, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    On January 1-2, 1990, Exxon discharged 567,000 gallons of No. 2 heating oil in the Arthur Kill, the strait separating Staten Island, New York from New Jersey. Lawsuits against Exxon were filed by the State of New Jersey, New York City, and the City of Elizabeth. They seek to force Exxon to reimburse the municipalities and the state for cleanup costs and to restore damaged wetlands and other natural resources. The three plaintiffs, joined by New York State and the federal government, initiated a three-tiered natural resource damage assessment study (Tier II), currently underway, includes sampling and chemical analysis of sediments and benthic invertebrates, mapping of impacted wetlands and measurement of direct impacts on water birds and their prey. The purposes of the study are to quantify the damages and determine the presence of Exxon's oil in the sediments. Since the Exxon spill, there have been two major spills and an intermediate-size spill. During the first size months of 1990, over one million gallons of petroleum products have been discharged into the Arthur Kill and nearby waters. This paper reports that a review of these incidents provides lessons for the prevention, investigation, and cleanup of spills in urban estuaries

  6. Characterization and identification of Detroit River mystery oil spill (2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Lambert, P.

    2003-01-01

    The authors described the mysterious oil spill which occurred in the Detroit River in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were conducted on spill samples collected by Environment Canada, Ontario Region, to determine the chemical composition of the oil and find out where it came from. The objective was to gather information concerning the nature, type, and components of the spill samples. The authors checked if the samples were identical to determine if they originated from the same source. They used a tiered analytical approach which facilitates the detailed compositional analysis by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and GC-flame ionization detection (FID). A wide range of diagnostic ratios of source-specific marker compounds for interpreting chemical data was determined and analyzed. The results proved that: (1) the spill samples were largely composed of lube oil mixed with a smaller portion of diesel fuel, (2) sample number 3 collected from N. Boblo Island was more weathered than samples 1 and 2, (3) the oil in three samples was the same and originated from the same source, as shown by fingerprinting results, (4) most PAH compounds were from the diesel portion in the spill samples, and the biomarker compounds were mostly from the lube oil, (5) the diesel in the samples had been weathered and degraded, and the lube oil in the spill samples was waste lube oil, and (6) input of pyrogenic PAHs to the spill samples was clearly proven. The spill likely came from a place where both combustion and motor lubrication processes occur. 46 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  7. Responding to oil spills in the open ocean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objectives in responding to any oil spill is to control the source of the spill, then, contain, collect, and recover the spilled product. Accomplishing those objectives is an immense challenge. It becomes much more difficult when attempted in the open ocean environment due to the more complex logistical and communications problems one encounters when operating miles from the nearest land. Often times, too, the response must be coordinated with either a salvage operation, a fire-fighting operation, a well control operation or a combination of any of these. There have been volumes of papers comparing the relative merits of mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, dispersant application, and bioremediation in responding to open ocean spills. Although each approach deserves special consideration in different circumstances, this presentation focuses on mechanical methods; the specialized equipment and operational tactics that are best utilized in responding to a major spill in the open ocean. This paper is divided into two sections. The first section, Equipment Used in Open Ocean Spills, addresses in general terms, the special equipment required in an offshore response operation. The second section, entitled Operational Tactics Used In Open Ocean Spills offers an overview of the tactics employed to achieve the general objectives of containment, collection, recovery, and temporary storage

  8. Spreading, retention and clean-up of oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jr, M P

    1976-05-01

    This study reviews and assesses the technology of oil spill spreading, retention and cleanup and proposes research needs in these areas. Sources of oil spills are analyzed and the difficulty of gathering meaningful statistics is discussed. Barrier technology is reviewed and problem areas analyzed. Natural and forced biodegradation and natural and chemical dispersion of oil spills are considered. Research recommendations are categorized under the following two headings (1) Preventive techniques and (2) Containment, Cleanup and Dispersion.

  9. The impact of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous on responses of microbial plankton to the Texas City "Y" oil spill in Galveston Bay, Texas (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alicia K; Bacosa, Hernando P; Quigg, Antonietta

    2017-08-15

    Ongoing bioremediation research seeks to promote naturally occurring microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation during and after oil spill events. However, complex relationships among functionally different microbial groups, nutrients and PAHs remain unconstrained. We conducted a surface water survey and corresponding nutrient amendment bioassays following the Texas City "Y" oil spill in Galveston Bay, Texas. Resident microbial groups, defined as either heterotrophic or autotrophic were enumerated by flow cytometry. Heterotrophic abundance was increased by oil regardless of nutrient concentrations. Contrastingly, autotrophic abundance was inhibited by oil, but this reaction was less severe when nutrient concentrations were higher. Several PAH compounds were reduced in nutrient amended treatments relative to controls suggesting nutrient enhanced microbial PAH processing. These findings provide a first-look at nutrient limitation during microbial oil processing in Galveston Bay, an important step in understanding if nutrient additions would be a useful bioremediation strategy in this and other estuarine systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Sensitivity mapping for oil spill response at the estuaries of the rivers Eider, Elbe, Weser and Ems; Sensitivitaetskartierung zur Oelbekaempfung an den Unterlaeufen von Eider, Elbe, Weser und Ems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernem, K.H. van; Krasemann, H. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung; Fleischmann, J.; Krueger, D.; Luebbe, T.P.

    2007-07-01

    During this project the estuaries of the rivers Eider, Elbe, Weser and Ems, meeting the North Sea, were evaluated with respect to their vulnerability against oil accidents. Thus a corresponding intention concerning the ''Wadden Sea'' at the German North Sea Coast could be proceeded and completed (GKSS 2007/2). The assessment of different watersides shall provide decision support for oil spill response. Only comparatively near-natural areas of river banks were incorporated, with the basic evaluation of their importance for nature conservation as well as their oil spill sensitivity. Socioeconomic characteristics have not been evaluated, but some important properties are depicted on charts by symbols. The data used for the evaluation process cover the types of biotopes, tidal flats, nesting/non-nesting birds, rare plants as well as fishes, morphological conditions of watersides and official area-categories (i.e. protected natural area). Riverine and intertidal areas are fundamentally differentiated. With respect to seasonal aspects, the evaluation was established for three different times of the year. The result of the evaluation process is the classification of the individual watersides into 4 classes of priority (for oil spill response) and 8 classes of sensitivity. The priorityclasses are depicted by colours and the sensitivity-classes by numbers on sea-charts as topographic background (scale 1:25.000). The evaluation results are delayed on printed as well as GIS-based maps, connected to a data base. The amount of very sensitive areas is higher in the estuaries of the rivers Elbe and Eider compared to Ems and Weser and shows the highest values at all rivers during spring. The evaluation procedure is automated to a large extend by use of linked tables and a decision tree of if/then-functions. The underlying structure provides for a reliable transformation of new data into the corresponding evaluation during updating processes. (orig.)

  11. Ecological effects research related to oil spills and oil spill countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurand, D.

    1992-01-01

    The Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC) was created specifically to provide an improved response option for large marine oil spills in U.S. waters. As part of that capability, MSRC is committed to an extensive research and development program designed to improve the state-of-the-art for oil spill response. Within the mission, the goals of the Environmental Health Program are to ensure that ecological and human health effects of both oil and oil cleanup counter measures are well understood and that this information is made widely available for appropriate consideration in planning and implementing oil spill response efforts. This an applied program, and is intended to directly support the MSRC response mission. It does not include studies directly related to damage assessment, which is outside of the mission of MSRC. This paper focuses on the issues MSRC sees as critical in the area of ecological effects research, and addresses four topics: Why do we need to do more? What is it we hope to accomplish? What needs to be done? What is being planned or implemented?

  12. Oil well spill trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigington, J.R. Sr.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process involving an oil well and rig having a casing, a platform on the rig extending around the casing. This patent describes improvement in pulling the tubing from the casing; disconnecting joints of tubing thereby; and spilling liquids from the casing, catching spilled liquids from the casing in a basin below the platform, draining the basin substantially simultaneously; connecting the drain hole to a tank, and reducing the pressure in the tank to less than atmospheric pressure. This paper also describes an oil well and rig having a casing; the rig having a platform extending around the casing. This patent describes improvement in a basin surrounding the casing and connected thereto, the basin below the platform, a drain connection in the lower part of the basin, a conduit connected to the drain, and means for applying a suction to the conduit

  13. At spille en krimi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2008-01-01

    væsentlige forskel at vi her ikke længere er læsere eller seere, men aktive medspillere i selve opklaringsarbejdet som ledere af eller deltagere i et efterforskningshold. Denne artikel ser nærmere på den interaktive krimi som performativ fortælling, dvs. en fortælling som bliver til i kraft af at den spilles...

  14. Dam spills and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.)

  15. The effects of spilled oil on coastal ecosystems: Lessons from the Exxon Valdez spill: Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel N.; Rice, Stanley D.; Matkin, Craig O.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Maslo, Brooke; Lockwood, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    Oil spilled from ships or other sources into the marine environment often occurs in close proximity to coastlines, and oil frequently accumulates in coastal habitats. As a consequence, a rich, albeit occasionally controversial, body of literature describes a broad range of effects of spilled oil across several habitats, communities, and species in coastal environments. This statement is not to imply that spilled oil has less of an effect in pelagic marine ecosystems, but rather that marine spills occurring offshore may be less likely to be detected, and associated effects are more difficult to monitor, evaluate, and quantify (Peterson et al., 2012). As a result, we have a much greater awareness of coastal pollution, which speaks to our need to improve our capacities in understanding the ecology of the open oceans. Conservation of coastal ecosystems and assessment of risks associated with oil spills can be facilitated through a better understanding of processes leading to direct and indirect responses of species and systems to oil exposure.It is also important to recognize that oil spilled from ships represents only ~9% of the nearly 700 000 barrels of petroleum that enter waters of North America annually from anthropogenic sources (NRC, 2003). The immediate effects of large spills can be defined as acute, due to the obvious and dramatic effects that are observed. In contrast, the remaining 625 000 barrels that are released each year can be thought of as chronic non-point pollution, resulting from oil entering the coastal ocean as runoff in a more consistent but much less conspicuous rate. In this chapter, we primarily address the effects of large oil spills that occur near coastlines and consider their potential for both acute and chronic effects on coastal communities. As described below, in some instances, the effects from chronic exposure may meet or exceed the more evident acute effects from large spills. Consequently, although quantifying chronic effects

  16. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Unspecified Toxic Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intro to the unspecified toxic chemicals module, when to list toxic chemicals as a candidate cause, ways to measure toxic chemicals, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for toxic chemicals, toxic chemicals module references and literature reviews.

  17. Pigouvian penalty for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The imposition of ex ante taxes on expected spilled oil, in addition to ex post payments for damages under tort liability, would foster economic efficiency. This paper begins the analysis of the joint approach with the case in which Pigouvian taxes are used exclusively. A model is developed in which the volume of spilled oil causing environmental damage is reduced, first by spill prevention expenditures by shippers and then by clean-up expenditures by the government. The efficient Pigouvian tax on expected spilled oil equals marginal environmental damage which equals the net marginal cost of prevention which equals marginal clean-up cost. (Author)

  18. Bacterial consortia for crude oil spill remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhatre, S.; Purohit, H.; Shanker, R.; Khanna, P.

    1996-01-01

    Oil spills generate enormous public concern and highlight the need for cost effective ad environmentally acceptable mitigation technologies. Physico-chemical methods are not completely effective after a spill. Hence, there is a need for improved and alternative technologies. Bioremediation is the most environmentally sound technology for clean up. This report intends to determine the potential of a bacterial consortium for degradation of Gulf and Bombay High crude oil. A four membered consortium was designed that could degrade 70% of the crude oil. A member of consortium produced a biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, that emulsified crude oil efficiently for effective degradation by the other members of consortium. The wide range of hydrocarbonoclastic capabilities of the selected members of bacterial consortium leads to the degradation of both aromatic and aliphatic fractions of crude oil in 72 hours. (Author)

  19. Where the oil from surface and subsurface plumes deposited during/after Deepwater Horizon oil spill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill released an estimated 4.9 million barrels (about 200 million gallons) of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico between April 20, 2010 and July 15, 2010. Though Valentine et al. has linked the elevated oil components in some sediments with the subsurface plume, the sites with fallout from the ocean surface plume has not been identified. This piece of information is critical not only for a comprehensive scientific understanding of the ecosystem response and fate of spill-related pollutants, but also for litigation purposes and future spill response and restoration planning. In this study we focus on testing the hypothesis that marine snow from the surface plume were deposited on the sea floor over a broad area. To do so, we use publicly available data generated as part of the ongoing Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process to assess the spatial distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column and deep-ocean sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. Sensitive hydrocarbon markers are used to differentiate hydrocarbons from surface plume, deep subsurface plume, and in-situ burning. Preliminary results suggest the overlapping but different falling sites of these plumes and the sedimentation process was controlled by various biological, chemical, and physical factors.

  20. Conceptual DFT: the chemical relevance of higher response functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerlings, P; De Proft, F

    2008-06-07

    In recent years conceptual density functional theory offered a perspective for the interpretation/prediction of experimental/theoretical reactivity data on the basis of a series of response functions to perturbations in the number of electrons and/or external potential. This approach has enabled the sharp definition and computation, from first principles, of a series of well-known but sometimes vaguely defined chemical concepts such as electronegativity and hardness. In this contribution, a short overview of the shortcomings of the simplest, first order response functions is illustrated leading to a description of chemical bonding in a covalent interaction in terms of interacting atoms or groups, governed by electrostatics with the tendency to polarize bonds on the basis of electronegativity differences. The second order approach, well known until now, introduces the hardness/softness and Fukui function concepts related to polarizability and frontier MO theory, respectively. The introduction of polarizability/softness is also considered in a historical perspective in which polarizability was, with some exceptions, mainly put forward in non covalent interactions. A particular series of response functions, arising when the changes in the external potential are solely provoked by changes in nuclear configurations (the "R-analogues") are also systematically considered. The main part of the contribution is devoted to third order response functions which, at first sight, may be expected not to yield chemically significant information, as turns out to be for the hyperhardness. A counterexample is the dual descriptor and its R analogue, the initial hardness response, which turns out to yield a firm basis to regain the Woodward-Hoffmann rules for pericyclic reactions based on a density-only basis, i.e. without involving the phase, sign, symmetry of the wavefunction. Even the second order nonlinear response functions are shown possibly to bear interesting information, e

  1. Methodology of intervention during a mystery spill: The example of the Baie-des-Sables case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, V.

    1993-01-01

    A mystery spill, or an oil spill of unknown origin, is one whose source cannot be identified at the time the environmental impact of the spill is noted. Unlike a known incident during which preventive action may be taken, mystery spills are often assessed based on the damages they have caused. In Canada, the coast guard regularly reports many spills with unidentified sources, and the most frequently reported sign of a spill is the presence of an oily film on the water surface. The smell of oil is also an important indication of a recent spill. The spill at Baie-des-Sables, Quebec, is presented as an illustrative example of a mystery spill. The size of the spill was estimated at 25 tons of bunker oil. The first indication of the spill was a number of contaminated ducks from the Rimouski region, reported by hunters to the appropriate government agency. Two days later, an oil slick was reported in the channel between Baie-Comeau and Rimouski; this provided sufficient information to trigger an alert. The next day an aerial inspection of the slick was carried out and a dispersion model was made. Contamination of seagulls and the south shore of the St. Lawrence River were noted. Over the next week response measures were organized and more inspections of shorelines were undertaken. Of the shoreline studied, 50 km were contaminated and 14 km were restored. Lack of precise early observations of the slick precluded identification of the vessel responsible for the spill. Recommendations are made for improving assessment of mystery spills and ensuring faster response times. 1 fig

  2. Bivariate Left-Censored Bayesian Model for Predicting Exposure: Preliminary Analysis of Worker Exposure during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Caroline; Banerjee, Sudipto; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Stenzel, Mark R; Sandler, Dale P; Blair, Aaron; Engel, Lawrence S; Kwok, Richard K; Stewart, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    In April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig caught fire and exploded, releasing almost 5 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico over the ensuing 3 months. Thousands of oil spill workers participated in the spill response and clean-up efforts. The GuLF STUDY being conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is an epidemiological study to investigate potential adverse health effects among these oil spill clean-up workers. Many volatile chemicals were released from the oil into the air, including total hydrocarbons (THC), which is a composite of the volatile components of oil including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and hexane (BTEXH). Our goal is to estimate exposure levels to these toxic chemicals for groups of oil spill workers in the study (hereafter called exposure groups, EGs) with likely comparable exposure distributions. A large number of air measurements were collected, but many EGs are characterized by datasets with a large percentage of censored measurements (below the analytic methods' limits of detection) and/or a limited number of measurements. We use THC for which there was less censoring to develop predictive linear models for specific BTEXH air exposures with higher degrees of censoring. We present a novel Bayesian hierarchical linear model that allows us to predict, for different EGs simultaneously, exposure levels of a second chemical while accounting for censoring in both THC and the chemical of interest. We illustrate the methodology by estimating exposure levels for several EGs on the Development Driller III, a rig vessel charged with drilling one of the relief wells. The model provided credible estimates in this example for geometric means, arithmetic means, variances, correlations, and regression coefficients for each group. This approach should be considered when estimating exposures in situations when multiple chemicals are correlated and have varying degrees of censoring. © The Author 2017

  3. Final report of the accident phenomenology and consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation. Spills Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brereton, S.; Shinn, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hesse, D [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (United States); Kaninich, D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Lazaro, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mubayi, V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Spills Working Group was one of six working groups established under the Accident Phenomenology and Consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation program. The objectives of APAC were to assess methodologies available in the accident phenomenology and consequence analysis area and to evaluate their adequacy for use in preparing DOE facility safety basis documentation, such as Basis for Interim Operation (BIO), Justification for Continued Operation (JCO), Hazard Analysis Documents, and Safety Analysis Reports (SARs). Additional objectives of APAC were to identify development needs and to define standard practices to be followed in the analyses supporting facility safety basis documentation. The Spills Working Group focused on methodologies for estimating four types of spill source terms: liquid chemical spills and evaporation, pressurized liquid/gas releases, solid spills and resuspension/sublimation, and resuspension of particulate matter from liquid spills.

  4. Modeling small-signal response of GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor gate stack in spill-over regime: Effect of barrier resistance and interface states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capriotti, M.; Fleury, C.; Oposich, M.; Bethge, O.; Strasser, G.; Pogany, D.; Lagger, P.; Ostermaier, C.

    2015-01-01

    We provide theoretical and simulation analysis of the small signal response of SiO 2 /AlGaN/GaN metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) capacitors from depletion to spill over region, where the AlGaN/SiO 2 interface is accumulated with free electrons. A lumped element model of the gate stack, including the response of traps at the III-N/dielectric interface, is proposed and represented in terms of equivalent parallel capacitance, C p , and conductance, G p . C p -voltage and G p -voltage dependences are modelled taking into account bias dependent AlGaN barrier dynamic resistance R br and the effective channel resistance. In particular, in the spill-over region, the drop of C p with the frequency increase can be explained even without taking into account the response of interface traps, solely by considering the intrinsic response of the gate stack (i.e., no trap effects) and the decrease of R br with the applied forward bias. Furthermore, we show the limitations of the conductance method for the evaluation of the density of interface traps, D it , from the G p /ω vs. angular frequency ω curves. A peak in G p /ω vs. ω occurs even without traps, merely due to the intrinsic frequency response of gate stack. Moreover, the amplitude of the G p /ω vs. ω peak saturates at high D it , which can lead to underestimation of D it . Understanding the complex interplay between the intrinsic gate stack response and the effect of interface traps is relevant for the development of normally on and normally off MIS high electron mobility transistors with stable threshold voltage

  5. Coping strategies, social support and responsibility in chemical intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Maria; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven

    2010-08-01

    To study coping strategies, social support and responsibility for improvement in chemical intolerance (CI). Limited knowledge of CI among health professionals and lay persons places demands on the chemically intolerant individual's coping strategies and perception of social support and ability to take responsibility for improvement. However, there is sparse literature on these issues in CI. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based, quasi-experimental study. Fifty-nine persons with mild, 92 with moderate and 31 with severe CI participated by rating (i) usage and effectiveness of six problem- and six emotion-focused coping strategies, (ii) emotional, instrumental and informative support provided by various sources and (iii) society's and the inflicted individual's responsibility for improvement. The participants reported that the most commonly used and effective coping strategies were avoiding odorous/pungent environments and asking persons to limit their use of odorous/pungent substances (problem-focused strategies) as well as accepting the situation and reprioritising (emotion-focused strategies). High intolerance severity was associated with problem-focused coping strategies and relatively low intolerance with emotion-focused strategies. More emotional than instrumental and informative support was perceived, predominantly from the partner and other family members. Responsibility attributed to society was also found to increase from mild to moderate/severe intolerance. Certain coping strategies are more commonly used and perceived as more effective than others in CI. However, intolerance severity plays a role regarding both coping strategies and responsibility. Emotional support appears to be the most available type of support. For improved care, certain coping strategies may be suggested by nurses, the healthcare system needs to provide better social support to these patients and the issue of responsibility for improvement may be discussed with the patient.

  6. Biological and chemical data of oil-derived elements being assimilated by oysters due to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill collected in Alabama and Mississippi coastal waters (NODC Accession 0118498)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in oyster shell, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill....

  7. Almost remediation of saltwater spills at E and P sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    At exploration and production (E and P) sites crude spills restricted to topsoil are often self-remediating, but salt spills rarely are. Most soils naturally biodegrade crude. Without appropriate human intervention, brine spills can result in decades of barren land and seriously degrade surface water and aquifers. Servicing the E and P industry are remediation practitioners with a limited array of often expensive remediation concepts and materials which they hope will work, and sometimes do. Unfortunately, many remediation practitioners are unfamiliar with, or disregard, the natural physical, chemical, and biotic complexity of the soil and aquatic media. All too often this results in exacerbating injury to an already damaged ecosystem. Likewise, important cultural factors such as public relations, environmental regulations, property rights, and water rights are also overlooked until after implementation of an ill-advised or illegal remediation design has been initiated. A major issue is determining what constitutes ''successful'' remediation of a brine spill. Environmental managers have long sought one or two universally applicable fast and cheap amendment/treatment protocols for all their diverse multi-state salt affected spill scenarios. This presentation describes aspects of common spill-affected ecosystems which must be considered to achieve ''successful'' remediation

  8. Perspective: Ecological recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory studies were designed to characterize the initial effects and subsequent rate of ecosystem recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. These studies were organized within an ecological risk assessment framework wherein measurements of residual spill hydrocarbons from specific environmental compartments were correlated with observed biological effects for resident species and communities. This allowed an assessment of the likelihood of spill-related effects vs. effects of natural ecosystem variability. Measurement of polycyclic automatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were made from throughout the spill-affected area for water column, intertidal shoreline sediments and deep subtidal sediments. Data document the expected high levels of PAH in 1989 with rapid PAH decreases in following years from all compartments reflecting natural assimilation and dissipation via chemical, physical and biological processes. Parallel investigations of risks to biological resources representing major trophic levels were conducted to quantify recovery rates of spill impacted habitats and resident species. Results are summarized documenting respective recovery rates for key trophic levels including intertidal flora and fauna, benthic invertebrates and infauna, herring and salmon, shorebirds and colonial seabirds and sea otters. Quantitative data developed for these species support the conclusion that the effects of oil spills are largely short-term acute events, and the Prince William Sound recovery was well advanced by 1991

  9. Cyber Physical Intelligence for Oil Spills (CPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lary, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences estimate 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into global waters every year. The effects of these spills include dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water. Deepwater horizon cost approximately $50 billion and severely challenged response capabilities. In such large spills optimizing a coordinated response is a particular challenge. This challenge can be met in a revolutionary new way by using an objectively optimized Cyber Physical Decision Making System (CPS) for rapid response products and a framework for objectively optimized decision-making in an uncertain environment. The CPS utilizes machine learning for the processing of the massive real-time streams of Big Data from comprehensive hyperspectral remote sensing acquired by a team of low-cost robotic aerial vehicles, providing a real-time aerial view and stream of hyperspectral imagery from the near UV to the thermal infrared, and a characterization of oil thickness, oil type and oil weathering. The objective decision making paradigm is modeled on the human brain and provides the optimal course trajectory for response vessels to achieve the most expeditious cleanup of oil spills using the available resources. In addition, oil spill cleanups often involve surface oil burns that can lead to air quality issues. The aerial vehicles comprehensively characterize air quality in real-time, streaming location, temperature, pressure, humidity, the abundance of 6 criterion pollutants (O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, and H2S) and the full size distribution of airborne particulates. This CPS can be readily applied to other systems in agriculture, water conversation, monitoring of stream quality, air quality, diagnosing risk of wild fires, etc..

  10. A case study of consensus modelling for tracking oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Brian; Brushett, Ben; Lemckert, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Metocean forecast datasets are essential for the timely response to marine incidents and pollutant spill mitigation at sea. To effectively model the likely drift pattern and the area of impact for a marine spill, both wind and ocean current forecast datasets are required. There are two ocean current forecast models and two wind forecast models currently used operationally in the Australia and Asia Pacific region. The availability of several different forecast models provides a unique opportunity to compare the outcome of a particular modelling exercise with the outcome of another using a different model and determining whether there is consensus in the results. Two recent modelling exercises, the oil spill resulting from the damaged Pacific Adventurer (in Queensland) and the oil spill from the Montara well blowout (in Western Australia) are presented as case studies to examine consensus modelling.

  11. Ottawa river nuclear spill contingency model development. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This manual describes the calibration and application of a series of spill model programs. The programs simulate the receiving water concentrations in rivers, resulting from discharges/spill which can vary in time as well as being intermittent. The programs incorporate computer graphic outputs of the spill distribution at given times after the beginning of the spill, and at given downstream distances as a function of time. The manual outlines the procedure to calibrate the models based on site specific data. Detailed technical discussions on various components of the models are also included. The programs have been set up in an interactive (inquiry-response) mode. The series of programs are written on Fortran 77 and run on all IBM PC and compatible computers

  12. Oil spill clean up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claxton, L.D.; Houk, V.S.; Williams, R.; Kremer, F.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the consideration of bioremediation for oil spills, it is important to understand the ecological and human health implications of bioremediation efforts. During biodegradation, the toxicity of the polluting material may actually increase upon the conversion of non-toxic constituents to toxic species. Also, toxic compounds refractory to biological degradation may compromise the effectiveness of the treatment technique. In the study, the Salmonella mutagenicity assay showed that both the Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its weathered counterpart collected from oil-impacted water were weakly mutagenic. Results also showed that the mutagenic components were depleted at a faster rate than the overall content of organic material

  13. Oil spills and other issues in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita : an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.W. [Lousiana Applied and Educational Research and Development Program, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina revealed weaknesses in the command, control, communications, and information dissemination functions within a variety of emergency response systems. This paper gave an outline of clean-up procedures involving hazardous materials. To date, clean-up crews have disposed of 8.0 million tonnes of an estimated 22.0 million tonnes of debris. The clean-up involved more than 1.3 million containerized hazardous materials; more than 230,000 damaged white goods; and nearly 43,000 damaged electronic goods. More than 3,400 samples of water, soil and air have been collected. Nearly 75 chemistry laboratories in schools have been inspected, and an additional 1500 emergency assessments of potential chemical releases were investigated. The floodwaters carried nearly 4.1 million litres of oil from a Chalmette refinery. Between September and the end of 2005, the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office logged in 81 spill events in southwest Louisiana involving 22,000 bbls of crude. Six major, 3 medium and 131 minor events have occurred in southeast Louisiana. More than 3000 offshore platforms were shut down or damaged during the 2005 hurricane season. At least 115 platforms were destroyed and 52 were damaged. Onshore spills of concern included incidents at Murphy Oil Refinery; Bass Enterprise Production Company; Chevron at Port Fourchon; Venice Energy Services Company; Shell Pipeline; and Sundown Energy. It was concluded work done by the spill community will result in the development of more effective response plans. 23 refs.

  14. Oil spill research : salt water and fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    2006-01-01

    The difference in oil spill response activities between marine and freshwater environments were reviewed. Although containment, recovery and in-situ burning remain the same in both environments, the fate of oil is different due to water density and salinity considerations. The lower energy of lakes and the lack of major currents changes the advection of the oil. Rivers have high currents, and wind speed and direction are highly influenced by topographic effects. Tidal action is not a consideration for the inland situation, but water levels in rivers can change due to sudden rain events or the action of control devices upstream from the spill. Typically, the volume of oil released in freshwater environments is lower than in marine tanker situations, but spills from pipelines or a major train derailment can exceed 1000 m 3 . Since the use of water for human consumption and irrigation is another important factor in inland spills, it is important to have a means of obtaining information on the dynamics of spills and a system for archiving the response activities, such as the shoreline cleanup assessment technique (SCAT)and resulting cleanup. It was suggested that research studies must be undertaken to improve response strategies for freshwater spills. These include the dynamics of oil in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes and sloughs; the role of oil-fine interactions in freshwater situations; the process involved in the formation of tar balls; and, the dynamics of oil in a freshwater situation. The response techniques that must be developed to improve the response to freshwater spills include techniques to remove oil from the bottom; techniques to filter and remove oil from the water column; and, development and testing of dispersants for freshwater environments

  15. Fate of dispersed marine fuel oil in sediment under pre-spill application strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Hua

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the movement of dispersed oil in marine sediment under two dispersant application scenarios, applied prior to and after oil being spilled overboard, was examined. The pre-spill application scenario caused much less oil to be retained in the top sediment than post-spill scenario. The difference in oil retention in the top sediment between pre- and post-spill application scenario increased with increase in fuel oil temperature. For fuel oil above 40 o C, the difference in the effect of pre-spill application strategy under various water temperatures was negligible. When soap water was used as replacement for chemical dispersant, almost one-half as much oil was retained in the top sediment as that when using chemical dispersant. The adsorption of dispersed oil to the top sediment was almost proportionally decreased with doubling of soap dosage. (Author)

  16. The North Cape oil spill assessment: PAHs in oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Boehm, P. D.; Hardestine, J. H.; Douglas, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    The North Cape oil spill in January 1996 resulted in the release of an estimated 827,000 gallons of No. 2 home heating oil into the nearshore turbulent waters of coastal Rhode Island. The oil was mixed into the water column and was transported on the surface as well as below the surface. Some of the spilled oil entered the coastal ponds behind the beaches. Sampling and chemical analysis for detailed suites of petroleum saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was undertaken as part of the assessment of the fate of the oil spill and of the exposure to the marine environment. The ponds were found to contain significant quantities of background petroleum hydrocarbons, including petrogenic PAHs and combustion PAHs. Initial assessment pointed (incorrectly as it turned out) to widespread contamination due only to the North Cape spill. Application of advanced chemical fingerprinting approaches, and geochemical biomarker data illustrated that many of the PAHs consisted of combustion-related 4- and 5-ringed PAHs, attributable to diesel fuel used routinely by boats in the area. The analysis demonstrated that the use of non-specific total PAH data and insufficient fingerprinting and allocation of petrogenic residues has the potential to overestimate contamination and hence injury to the environment in similar oil spill situations

  17. Unconventional oil and gas spills: Materials, volumes, and risks to surface waters in four states of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Patterson, Lauren A; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Entrekin, Sally A; Fargione, Joseph E; Kiesecker, Joseph M; Konschnik, Kate E; Ryan, Joseph N; Trainor, Anne M; Saiers, James E; Wiseman, Hannah J

    2017-03-01

    Extraction of oil and gas from unconventional sources, such as shale, has dramatically increased over the past ten years, raising the potential for spills or releases of chemicals, waste materials, and oil and gas. We analyzed spill data associated with unconventional wells from Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota and Pennsylvania from 2005 to 2014, where we defined unconventional wells as horizontally drilled into an unconventional formation. We identified materials spilled by state and for each material we summarized frequency, volumes and spill rates. We evaluated the environmental risk of spills by calculating distance to the nearest stream and compared these distances to existing setback regulations. Finally, we summarized relative importance to drinking water in watersheds where spills occurred. Across all four states, we identified 21,300 unconventional wells and 6622 reported spills. The number of horizontal well bores increased sharply beginning in the late 2000s; spill rates also increased for all states except PA where the rate initially increased, reached a maximum in 2009 and then decreased. Wastewater, crude oil, drilling waste, and hydraulic fracturing fluid were the materials most often spilled; spilled volumes of these materials largely ranged from 100 to 10,000L. Across all states, the average distance of spills to a stream was highest in New Mexico (1379m), followed by Colorado (747m), North Dakota (598m) and then Pennsylvania (268m), and 7.0, 13.3, and 20.4% of spills occurred within existing surface water setback regulations of 30.5, 61.0, and 91.4m, respectively. Pennsylvania spills occurred in watersheds with a higher relative importance to drinking water than the other three states. Results from this study can inform risk assessments by providing improved input parameters on volume and rates of materials spilled, and guide regulations and the management policy of spills. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The use of mesocosms in marine oil spill - ecological research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of mesocosms which are partly enclosed, bounded, outdoor experimental systems for simulating marine oil spill environments for use in examining the ecological impact of the spill response. System requirements for mesocosms in marine oil spill ecological research and development are discussed, and the question of scaling, and mesocosm tank features useful in coastal/nearshore ecological marine oil spill research are considered. Details are given of the MERL mesocosm facility at the University of Rhode Island, and the Coastal Oil-Spill Simulation System (COSS) multiple tank mesocosm facility in Texas, and recommendations for the design and use of marine mesocosms in oil spill ecological impact studies are presented. (UK)

  19. Oil spill sorbents: Testing protocol and certification listing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.; Gausemel, I.

    1993-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Engineering Division is spearheading a program in conjunction with the Canadian General Standards Board that would see the development of a certification and listing program in addition to a national standard for the testing of sorbent materials. Funding for this program is provided by Environment Canada (EC), Canadian Coast Guard (CCG), Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), US Coast Guard (USCG), and US Minerals Management Service (MMS). The test methods are based upon those defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials and previous test methods developed by Environment Canada for our series of reports entitled Selection Criteria and Laboratory Evaluation of Oil Spill Sorbents. This series, which was started in 1975, encompasses a number of commercially available oil spill sorbents tested with different petroleum products and hydrocarbon solvents. The testing program will categorize the sorbents according to their operating characteristics. The main categories are oil spills on water, oil spills on land, and industrial use. The characteristics to be evaluated with the new test protocols include initial and maximum sorption capacities, water pickup, buoyancy, reuse potential, retention profile, disintegration (material integrity), and ease of application and retrieval. In the near future are plans to incorporate changes to the test that would involve increasing the list of test liquids to encompass spills in an industrial setting, in addition to testing sorbent booms and addressing the disposal problem

  20. A local oil spill revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teal, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    In October 1969 George Hampson and Howard Sanders (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) described a 'Local Oil Spill' in Oceanus. The spill had occurred a month before when the barge Florida, loaded with no. 2 fuel oil, ran into some rocks in Buzzards Bay off West Falmouth, Massachusetts. In the summer of 1989, almost 20 years later, They visited the Wild Harbor marsh area that had suffered the greatest impact from the spill to see if any traces of the event in the marsh ecosystem could be found. During those 20 years, the site has been visited by graduate students in marine ecology, by reporters seeking information about current oil spills but also interested in seeing the effects of the Wild Harbor spill, and by visiting scientists curious about one of the world's best-studied oil spills. For more than a decade after the spill, an oil sheen appeared on the surface of the water when mud from the most heavily oiled parts of the marsh was disturbed. During the second decade, the marsh's appearance returned to normal

  1. In-situ burning of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of results from the Minerals Management Service's (MMS) funded research on in situ burning of spilled oil. The program began in 1983 to determine the limitations of this innovative response strategies. Specific physical variables evaluated were slick thickness, degree of weathering (sparging), sea state, wind velocities, air and water temperatures, degrees of emulsification and degree of ice-coverage. All of the oils tested burned with 50 to 95 percent removal ratios as long as emulsification had not occurred. Slick thickness of 3mm or thicker were required to sustain ignition and extinguishment occurred when the slick reached approximately 1mm thick. The next phase of the research involved quantitative analysis of the pollutants created by in situ burning including chemical composition of the parent oil, burn residue, and airborne constituents. These studies were conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with emphasis on particulate, and gaseous components created by the burning process. Research efforts over several years, and a variety of crude oils, yielded data which indicated that aldehydes ketones, dioxans, furans, and polyaromatic compounds (PAHS) were not formed in the burning process. The airborne pollutants reflected similar concentrations of these compounds that were present in the parent oil. Lighter molecular weight PAHs tended to be converted to higher molecular weight compounds. Heavier molecular weight compounds are considered less acutely toxic than lighter molecular weight PAHS. Predominant burn products released into the air were by weight: 75% carbon dioxide, 12% water vapor, 10% soot, 3% carbon monoxide and 0.2% other products including those listed above

  2. A Dynamic Remote Sensing Data-Driven Approach for Oil Spill Simulation in the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that oil spill remote sensing could only generate the oil slick information at a specific time and that traditional oil spill simulation models were not designed to deal with dynamic conditions, a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS was introduced. The DDDAS entails both the ability to incorporate additional data into an executing application and, in reverse, the ability of applications to dynamically steer the measurement process. Based on the DDDAS, combing a remote sensor system that detects oil spills with a numerical simulation, an integrated data processing, analysis, forecasting and emergency response system was established. Once an oil spill accident occurs, the DDDAS-based oil spill model receives information about the oil slick extracted from the dynamic remote sensor data in the simulation. Through comparison, information fusion and feedback updates, continuous and more precise oil spill simulation results can be obtained. Then, the simulation results can provide help for disaster control and clean-up. The Penglai, Xingang and Suizhong oil spill results showed our simulation model could increase the prediction accuracy and reduce the error caused by empirical parameters in existing simulation systems. Therefore, the DDDAS-based detection and simulation system can effectively improve oil spill simulation and diffusion forecasting, as well as provide decision-making information and technical support for emergency responses to oil spills.

  3. State-of-the-art risk-based approach to spill contingency planning and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt Etkin, Dagmar; Reilly, Timothy; French McCay, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes incorporating a comprehensive examination of spill risk into risk management and contingency planning, and applying state-of-the-art modeling tools to evaluate various alternatives for appropriate spill response measures and optimize protective responses. The approach allows spill contingency planners and decision-makers to determine the types of spill scenarios that may occur in a particular location or from a particular source and calculate the probability distribution of the various scenarios. The spill probability information is useful in assessing and putting into perspective the various costs options for spill control systems that will be recommended ultimately. Using advanced modeling tools helps in estimating the potential environmental and socioeconomic consequences of each spill scenario based on location-specific factors over a range of stochastic possibilities, simulating spill scenarios and determining optimal responses and protection strategies. The benefits and costs of various response alternatives and variations in response time can be calculated and modeling tools for training and risk allocation/transfer purposes used.

  4. Allocation of multiple, widely spread oil spills associated with one polluter : GC-MS fingerprinting and diagnostic ratios of spilled oil and oiled seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.B.; Avnskjold, J.

    2005-01-01

    In January 2005, a Cypriot cargo ship leaked about 5 tons of heavy fuel bunker oil in Kerteminde Bay in the Great Belt, Denmark. The ship was stopped to inspect and collect oil samples from its 2 damaged tanks for forensic oil spill identification by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Two weeks following the accident, a series of waterborne and stranded oil spills showed up in the Great Belt area, north and south of the vessel's route. Thousands of oiled seabirds on small islands and coastlines were affected. The Danish Coast Guard suspected that the vessel might be responsible for the observed spills. More than 50 oil samples were collected and sent for forensic analysis at the National Environmental Research Institute. Both waterborne and stranded spill samples showed an almost perfect match of diagnostic ratios and chromatograph with the potential responsible party (PRP) bunker. The spill samples therefore matched the reference oil and were allocated to the spill associated with the Cypriot cargo ship. One sample deviated significantly from the other samples and was not allocated to the ship's accidental spill. Oil samples collected from oiled seabirds showed larger variations between diagnostic ratios and the reference bunker oils. The variations can be attributed to weathering and biodegradation, but also to contamination by non-petrogenic material. It was concluded that the oiled seabirds represented non-match samples that cannot be allocated to the oil spill associated with the Cypriot cargo ship. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Containment of spills from ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engerer, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil escaping from a ship is contained within a limited area surrounding the ship by means of a flexible ring structure. The ring structure is stored in a collapsed state in a compartment extending around the ship. In response to an oil spill, the ring structure is dropped from the compartment and immediately surrounds the ship. A circular inflatable flotation section of the ring structure is charged with gas under pressure. The gas is supplied from a bottle cascade aboard the ship, through lines preconnected to the flotation section and paid out from free-wheeling reels. The flotation section supports a thin circumferential wall of predetermined height that submerges and assumes a vertical cylinder-like shape surrounding the escaping oil. The oil floats within the confines of the ring structure, and the ring structure is progressively expanded to a predetermined size selected to accommodate the total volume of oil carried by the ship. When the ring structure achieves its expanded state, pressure in the flotation section is raised to render the structure relatively rigid and resistant to collapse in response to wave action. Oil can be removed from the interior of the ring structure by recovery ships using suction lines or other conventional recovery methods. 12 figs

  6. The Exxon-Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, K.G.; Stringer, W.J.; Grove, J.E.; Ahlnas, K.; Royer, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that satellite images were used to investigate the Exxon Valdez oil spill after the tanker ran aground on Bligh Reef, Alaska 24 March 1989. Since that time, over 11 million gallons of crude oil have circulated through the western Prince William Sound region of Alaska, oiling many of its beaches. A good deal of this oil subsequently entered the Gulf of Alaska with some transported beyond Kodiak Island, 500 km to the southwest. Satellite imagery of the spill was recorded by the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, the Landsat Thematic Mapper, the SPOT Panchromatic Scanner and the SPOT Multispectral Scanner. Images from all four of these sources have been analyzed to help ascertain the extent of the spill and monitor its trajectory along the Alaskan coast. Digital image processing techniques have been utilized to emphasize spectral responses related to oil on the water surface and on teaches. Turbidity and sea surface temperature data have been enhanced to provide information on the circulation and distribution of surface water bodies. In addition to the satellite imagery, airborne visual observations with aerial photography, Side-Looking Airborne Radar, and other airborne sensors as well as shipboard sightings and samples were acquired

  7. The Newfoundland oil spill burn experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    1992-01-01

    A major offshore oil-spill combustion experiment is being planned for waters off Newfoundland. The experiment is designed to answer outstanding questions on the acceptability of in-situ oil spill burning. In the experiment, variables will be controlled to allow quantitative measurement of the scientific and operational parameters that will enhance understanding of in-situ combustion as an operational oil-spill response technique. The proposed full-scale tests follow six years of testing in laboratory tanks. Analyses have shown that the high temperatures reached during efficient in-situ combustion result in relatively complete destruction of the oil. Tests have shown that the most important factor in this regard is that the oil must be thickened sufficiently before effective burning will occur. Such thickening is potentially possible in the offshore, under suitable wind and sea conditions, using fireproof containment booms. The experiment will involve measurement of emissions to the air, levels of oil in water, and operational parameters of in-situ burning. Time and location of the experiment are chosen to minimize ecological damage and for operational reasons. When suitable conditions are present in early August 1993, two 45-m 3 batches of crude oil will be released into a containment boom and ignited. The burn residue will be recovered mechanically, and a secondary containment and recovery system will be towed behind the fireproof boom to pick up any fugitive oil or residue. 3 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Combustion: an oil spill mitigation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    The technical feasibility of using combustion as an oil spill mitigation tool was studied. Part I of the two-part report is a practical guide oriented toward the needs of potential users, while Part II is the research or resource document from which the practical guidance was drawn. The study included theoretical evaluations of combustion of petroleum pool fires under the effects of weathering and an oil classification system related to combustion potential. The theoretical analysis of combustion is balanced by practical experience of oil burning and case history information. Decision elements are provided which can be used as a guide for technical evaluations of a particular oil spill situation. The rationale for assessing technical feasibility is given in the context of other alternatives available for response to an oil spill. A series of research and technology development concepts are included for future research. The ethics of using oil burning are discussed as issues, concerns, and tradeoffs. A detailed annotated bibliography is appended along with a capsule review of a decade of oil burning studies and other support information.

  9. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  10. Assessment of proposals related to oil spill risk for the south coast of Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 to quantify the present and future risks of oil pollution in Canadian waters off the south coast of Newfoundland due to marine traffic transiting this area. The study methodology included as assessment of the key components of risk, such as the probability of an oil spill occurring and the consequences of the spill should it occur. Key elements that were identified were stakeholder consultation; oil spill frequency; environmental impact assessment; risk results; area specific factors; and future trends. One of the key findings was that the most probable area for a spill was in inner Placentia Bay. Local and regional interests in the area resulted in 25 proposals for spill prevention, response and research. This paper provided a background discussion for each proposal and where relevant, a description of the status quo, and a rationale for implementing, or not implementing the proposal. Proposals for spill prevention consisted of strategies for vessel traffic; vessel instrumentation; use of double hulls; aerial surveillance program; control enforcement; additional radar monitoring; pilotage for long harbours; and escort and rescue tugs. Proposals for spill response consisted of designating places of refuge; location of response equipment; additional response capability; response time standards; designating waste handling sites; bird rescue and rehabilitation; testing of equipment cascading; training of fishermen for first response; and first responder equipment. Oil spill research proposals consisted of research on ecosystem effects; research on response priorities; representative oil spill scenarios; and emergency management plans. General category proposals were also submitted, and dealt primarily with independent oversight committees; consultations with pilots; and occurrence of mystery spills and bilge dumps. 1 tab.

  11. Analysis of the servo-spill control for slow beam extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hikaru; Toyama, Takeshi; Marutsuka, Katsumi; Shirakata, Masashi.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes an analysis of servo-spill control system for the slow beam extraction from the KEK PS. Transfer function of extraction process is derived from measurement of the closed-loop characteristic using measured frequency response of each equipment. Result indicates the restriction of the present servo-spill control and give a guide line for the improvement. (author)

  12. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: implications for immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of major Federal and multi-stake holder research efforts in response to the DWH spill, including laboratory oil dispersant testing, estimation of oil release rates and oil fate calculations, subsea monitoring, and post-spill assessments. Impacts from shoreline oiling, wil...

  13. Respons of archaeal communities in beach sediments to spilled oil and bioremediation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roling, W.F.M.; Couo de Brito, I.R.; Swannell, R.P.J.; Head, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    While the contribution of Bacteria to bioremediation of oil-contaminated shorelines is well established, the response of Archaea to spilled oil and bioremediation treatments is unknown. The relationship between archaeal community structure and oil spill bioremediation was examined in laboratory

  14. Cellular adaptation as an important response during chemical carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, E.

    1992-01-01

    Since disease processes are largely expressions of how living organisms react and respond to perturbations in the external and internal environments, adaptive or protective responses and their modulations and mechanisms are of the greatest concern in fundamental studies of disease pathogenesis. Such considerations are also of the greatest relevance in toxicology, including how living organisms respond to low levels of single and multiple xenobiotics and radiations. As the steps and mechanisms during cancer development are studied in greater depth, phenomena become apparent that suggest that adaptive reactions and responses may play important or even critical roles in the process of carcinogenesis. The question becomes whether the process of carcinogenesis is fundamentally an adversarial one (i.e., an abnormal cell in a vulnerable host), or is it more in the nature of a physiological selection or differentiation, which has survival value for the host as an adaptive phenomena? The very early initial interactions of mutagenic chemical carcinogens, radiations and viruses with DNA prejudice most to consider the adversarial 'abnormal' view as the appropriate one. Yet, the unusually common nature of the earliest altered rare cells that appear during carcinogenesis, their unusually bland nature, and their spontaneous differentiation to normal-appearing adult liver should be carefully considered

  15. Sensitivity mapping of the German North Sea Coast II. Data update and development of an operational model for precaution measures of oil spill response; Sensititivaetsraster Deutsche Nordseekueste II. Aktualisierung und Erstellung eines operationellen Modells zur Vorsorgeplanung bei der Oelbekaempfung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernem, K.H. van; Doerffer, R.; Heymann, K.; Kleeberg, U.; Krasemann, H.; Schiller, H. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung; Grohnert, A.; Reichert, J. [IfaB - Institut fuer Angewandte Biologie Freiburg/Niederelbe (Germany); Reichert, M. [ARCADIS, Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Wadden Sea is an area of tidal flats and salt marshes extending between the North Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. It has enormous value as a cleansing site for North Sea water, as a nursery for young fish and as a feeding ground for many bird species. Due to the proximity of important shipping routes and harbours, this region is especially threatened by oil spills. Thus, for oil spill response and precaution measures, a sensitivity study of the entire intertidal area was badly needed in order to assess and minimize the potential ecological and economical damage. Based on comprehensive field surveys and in close cooperation with the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies, an automated expert-model for the german part of Wadden Sea areas was developed at the Institute for Coastal Research (GKSS-Research Centre). As an operational model it will serve as important instrument for decision making processes, precautionary measures and the further design of oil spill response strategies. Since it is not possible to protect the entire German North Sea coast equally at all levels, oil spill contingency planning requires a more detailed classification. For this reason, individual soft bottom habitats, communities and stocks of saltmarshes, macrofauna, waterfowl and estuarine biotop types were evaluated and classified according to their vulnerability to oil pollution. Hence, the fieldwork for habitat mapping during 2003-2006 was a central part of the study. For this part, the experiences and results obtained from the previous GKSS-project ''Thematic mapping and sensitivity study of Intertidal flats'' during the years 1987-1992 served as an valuable basis. For example, the documentation of changes during these periods of observation provides information on stability features of the ecosystems. During the first project nearly 5000 locations were processed and characterised using about 70 parameters for each site. The in-situ mapping

  16. Chemical ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasivirta, J.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses risk assessment, chemical cycles, structure-activity relations, organohalogens, oil residues, mercury, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals, and emissions from the forestry industry. Topics include: Cycles of chemicals in the environment. Rick assessment and management, strucuture and toxicity, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals in environment, interpretation of the environmental analysis results, mercury in the environment, organohalogen compounds in the environment, emissions from forestry industry, oil residues in the environment: oil spills in the marine environment

  17. Effectiveness and environmental considerations for non-dispersant chemical countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.H.; Kucklick, J.H.; Michel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical countermeasures for oil spill response have various effectiveness and operational limitations under certain spill situations. This has led to an interest in and use of alternative treatment methods. This chapter reviews the potential utility of one such group, nondispersant chemical countermeasures, in controlling the adverse impacts from marine oil spills. The types of nondispersant chemical countermeasures presented here include: herding agents, emulsion treating agents, solidifiers, elasticity modifiers, and shoreline cleaning agents. Each countermeasure group is discussed separately to provide a definition, mechanism of action, and effectiveness and environmental considerations for the group. Where ever possible, examples are given of countermeasure use during an actual spill. In addition to the groups mentioned above, a few other treating agents are briefly described under the section 'Miscellaneous Agents' to illustrate other, less prominent types of chemical countermeasures. Non-dispersant chemical countermeasures appear to have discrete response niches, i.e. situations where the countermeasures are well-suited and offer potential benefits. The key is matching conditions for optimal effectiveness with the appropriate incident-specific characteristics and window of opportunity. The practical aspects of logistics are not addressed because, if their potential utility can be demonstrated, the resolution of these issues would follow. (author)

  18. Environmental effects of acute oil spills. Marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, K.A.; Lystad, E.; Nesse, S.; Selvik, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Biological effects as result of acute oil spill pollution may be considered as a product of: the existing biophysical conditions; occurrence and appearance of organisms in time and space; the fate of the oil in time and space; the vulnerability of the various organisms for oil and oil derivatives in a three-dimensional perspective. In general, it seems as every individual oil spill has its own nature and dynamics, inter alia because the physical, chemical and biological conditions never are the same. This means that the properties of the recipients often are more important than the amount of oil that is spilled. This may be exemplified by two oil spills in recent time. Exxon Valdez (1989), where 35000 ton oil were released in a partly closed sea area, caused considerable effects. From Braer (1993) the double amount of oil was spilled, but in an open sea area and at a time where the presence of dense concentrations of environmental components was limited, and the physical conditions favorable with respect to evaporation and dilution. Preliminary results show that the environmental effects were very limited. 311 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Oil Spill Public Information Center: Its role in the flow of information on the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holba, C.; McGee, M.; Thompson, P.

    1993-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the supertanker Exxon Valdez struck a sub- merged rock pinnacle at Bligh Reef, puncturing eight of its storage tanks. Within hours, 11 million gallons of crude oil were dumped into the waters of Prince William Sound. The cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration activities undertaken for this environmentally complex area presented multifaceted challenges to public and private organizations and various professional disciplines. One of these challenges was obtaining and disseminating prespill, spill, and postspill information for both the private and public sector. The Oil Spill Public Information Center (OSPIC) was created for this purpose by the US Department of Justice on behalf of the federal trustees. Its management has since been assumed by the restoration team, an arm of the state-federal Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. On October 8, 1991, a settlement agreement was approved in United States District Court, which required Exxon to pay $1 billion in criminal restitution and civil damages to the United States and the state of Alaska. The settlement terms specify that the Trustee Council shall establish procedures providing for meaningful public participation in the injury assessment and restoration process. Consistent with that mandate, the OSPIC is responsible for providing a repository for all material related to the Exxon Valdez oil spill, The OSPIC is a specialized library open to the public. Its function is to collect, organize, and make accessible materials generated by state and federal agencies and the private sector as a result of the cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration activities of the spill. The OSPIC staff is also identifying and collecting baseline studies in the Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska areas, as well as materials on cold water marine spills. The OSPIC serves a variety of patrons, including industry, the oil spill response community, state and federal agencies, scientists, etc

  20. Oil spill contingency planning for offshore oil fields - a new concept established for the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singsaas, I.; Reed, M.; Nygaard, T.; Sundnes, G.Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a new concept for oil spill contingency planning to be used for offshore oil fields on the Norwegian continental shelf was discussed. The factors which are important in developing a good oil spill contingency plan include a good understanding of: (1) the fate, behaviour and weathering of the specific oil, (2) relevant oil spill scenarios, (3) drift and spreading of the oil, and (4) specific requirements for the effectiveness of the chosen response options. The oil spill contingency and response (OSCAR) model was used for quantitative comparison of alternative response options. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  1. Lessons learned from two very different large radioactive spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Hard lessons in radioactive spill response, including decontamination and confinement methods, priority setting, survey techniques, and release limit determination were learned (by trial and error) from two spills which occurred recently at the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The responsibilities of radiological control personnel, decontamination workers, and facility management were often redefined as decontamination progressed. While each spill involved ∼1 Ci, their essential characteristics and isotopic distributions were quite different requiring innovative and pragmatic solutions. The first spill was liquid waste with water soluble fission products mixed in an organic solution of actinides. Rain, snowmelt, fog, and darkness foiled initial confinement efforts and contributed to the spread of contamination over several hundred square meters of concrete, asphalt, and floor covering. Contaminated runoff escaped into the environment until effective preventative measures were developed and put in place. The second spill happened when 224 Cm and 241 Am were accidentally siphoned from an in-cell product holding tank onto the floor of the Limited Access Area at the REDC. Several decontamination techniques were tried before an effective one was developed

  2. Response of Nitrobacter to toxicity of drilling chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okpokwasili, Gideon C.; Odokuma, Lucky O.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of drilling chemicals on nitrate utilization and logarithmic rate of growth of Nitrobacter was investigated using varying concentrations of the chemicals. Results indicated that all the drilling chemicals tested were inhibitory to nitrate utilization and caused decrease in growth rate of Nitrobacter. An increase in nitrite utilization by Nitrobacter with increase in exposure time to the chemicals was observed. Nitrite utilization decreased with increase in concentration of the chemicals. Some concentrations of drilling chemicals stimulated the growth rate of Nitrobacter as exposure time increased. Inhibition of nitrite utilization was greatest with Carbotrol and least with Chaux (lime) and Huile-clean. These results showed that drilling chemicals inhibit an aspect of nitrification in the biosphere thereby negatively affecting soil and water fertility

  3. Optimizing oil spill cleanup efforts: A tactical approach and evaluation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubesic, Tony H; Wei, Ran; Nelson, Jake

    2017-12-15

    Although anthropogenic oil spills vary in size, duration and severity, their broad impacts on complex social, economic and ecological systems can be significant. Questions pertaining to the operational challenges associated with the tactical allocation of human resources, cleanup equipment and supplies to areas impacted by a large spill are particularly salient when developing mitigation strategies for extreme oiling events. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the application of advanced oil spill modeling techniques in combination with a developed mathematical model to spatially optimize the allocation of response crews and equipment for cleaning up an offshore oil spill. The results suggest that the detailed simulations and optimization model are a good first step in allowing both communities and emergency responders to proactively plan for extreme oiling events and develop response strategies that minimize the impacts of spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical compositions and glycemic responses to banana varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2011-06-01

    Chemical compositions and glycemic indices of four varieties of banana (Musa spp.) (kolikuttu-Silk AAB, embul-Mysore AAB, anamalu-Gros Michel AAA, seeni kesel-Pisang Awak ABB) were determined. Silk, Gros Michel, Pisang Awak and Mysore contained the highest percentages of starch (14%), sucrose (38%), free glucose (29%) and fructose (58%) as a percentage of the total available carbohydrate content respectively. Total dietary fiber contents of four varieties ranged from 2.7 to 5.3%. Glycemic indices of Silk, Mysore, Gros Michel and Pisang Awak were 61 ± 5, 61 ± 6, 67 ± 7, 69 ± 9 and can be categorized as low against white bread as the standard. A single banana of the four varieties elicited a low glycemic load. Thus, consumption of a banana from any of these varieties can be recommended as a snack for healthy or diabetic patients who are under dietary management or pharmacological drugs to regulate blood glucose responses in between meals.

  5. Using Numerical Models in the Development of Software Tools for Risk Management of Accidents with Oil and Inert Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R.; Leitão, P. C.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Galvão, P.; Neves, R.

    2012-04-01

    The increasing ship traffic and maritime transport of dangerous substances make it more difficult to significantly reduce the environmental, economic and social risks posed by potential spills, although the security rules are becoming more restrictive (ships with double hull, etc.) and the surveillance systems are becoming more developed (VTS, AIS). In fact, the problematic associated to spills is and will always be a main topic: spill events are continuously happening, most of them unknown for the general public because of their small scale impact, but with some of them (in a much smaller number) becoming authentic media phenomena in this information era, due to their large dimensions and environmental and social-economic impacts on ecosystems and local communities, and also due to some spectacular or shocking pictures generated. Hence, the adverse consequences posed by these type of accidents, increase the preoccupation of avoiding them in the future, or minimize their impacts, using not only surveillance and monitoring tools, but also increasing the capacity to predict the fate and behaviour of bodies, objects, or substances in the following hours after the accident - numerical models can have now a leading role in operational oceanography applied to safety and pollution response in the ocean because of their predictive potential. Search and rescue operation, oil, inert (ship debris, or floating containers), and HNS (hazardous and noxious substances) spills risk analysis are the main areas where models can be used. Model applications have been widely used in emergency or planning issues associated to pollution risks, and contingency and mitigation measures. Before a spill, in the planning stage, modelling simulations are used in environmental impact studies, or risk maps, using historical data, reference situations, and typical scenarios. After a spill, the use of fast and simple modelling applications allow to understand the fate and behaviour of the spilt

  6. Assessing Oil Spill Impacts to Cold-Water Corals of the Deep Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeo, D. M.; Lengyel, S. D.; Cordes, E. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster and subsequent cleanup efforts resulted in the release of an unprecedented amount of oil and chemical dispersants in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Over the years, numerous detrimental effects have been documented including impacts to cold-water coral ecosystems. Assessing and quantifying these effects is crucial to understanding the long-term consequences to affected coral populations as well as their resilience. We conducted live exposure experiments to investigate the toxicity of oil and dispersants on two deep-sea corals, Callogorgia delta and Paramuricea type B3. For both species, the treatments containing dispersants had a more pronounced effect than oil treatments alone. In addition, RNA from unexposed and DWH spill-impacted Paramuricea biscaya was extracted and sequenced using Illumina technology. A de novo reference transcriptome was produced and used to explore stress-induced variations in gene expression. Current findings show overexpression of genes coding for Cytochrome p450 (CYP1A1), Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs), Peroxidasin and additional genes involved in innate immunity and apoptotic pathways. CYP1A1 is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and has been previously used as a diagnostic tool for aquatic pollution. TRAFs are responsible for regulating pathways involved in immune and inflammatory responses and were likewise overexpressed in thermally stressed shallow-water corals. Ribosomal proteins were also significantly underexpressed. These genes among others found in our expression data serve as useful biomarker candidates for assessing and monitoring future spill impacts as resource extraction continues in the deep waters of the GoM. Our results also provide insights into the responses of deep-sea corals to toxin exposure, implications of applying dispersants to oil spills and a novel reference assembly for a relatively under-studied group of cold-water corals.

  7. Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last....../corrosive chemicals will remain serious risks also in future the development of plausible scenarios for potential emerging risks is also needed. This includes risks from new mixtures and chemicals (e.g. nanoparticles)....

  8. Oil spills into freshwater environments-literature review of fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.; Owens, E.; Craig, A.; Steen, A.; Fritz, D.

    1993-01-01

    A literature search (1984--1992) was performed to summarize the environmental and human health effects of inlands spills. Over 100 major spills that affected freshwater environments were reported through the Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) in 1991--1992 alone. Spills from pipelines outnumber all other sources combined. The oil types involved are about equally distributed between non-persistent oils and crude. Small rivers, streams, and creeks are the habitats into which most freshwater spills occur. Cleanup of stranded oil, rather than protection or recovery of floating oil, is the norm in most situations because stranding on river and lake banks often occurs before response is possible. The prediction of spill movement commonly is simpler for freshwater spills because freshwater bodies are relatively small and commonly have strong uni-directional flow; however, fast flow in rivers and streams and turnover in cooling lakes serve to distribute oil throughout the water column. Impacts to the environment, through food web structures or groundwater, may persist for months following a spill but seldom persist for years, unlike marine coastal impacts. Chronic impacts of oil spills into freshwater are rarely documented and these impacts are difficult to separate from effects of other hydrocarbons in the environment

  9. [Scientific basis of environmental health contingency planning for a coastal oil spill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Min; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Jong Hun; Ko, Kumsook; Ha, Mina

    2009-03-01

    This study presents a scientific basis for the establishment of an environmental health contingency plan for dealing with accidental coastal oil spills and suggests some strategies for use in an environmental health emergency. We reviewed the existing literature, and analyzed the various fundamental factors involved in response strategies for oil spill. Our analysis included data derived from Hebei Spirit oil spill and used air dispersion modeling. Spill amounts of more than 1,000 kl can affect the health of residents along the coast, especially those who belong to vulnerable groups. Almost 30% of South Korean population lives in the vicinity of the coast. The area that is at the highest risk for a spill and that has the greatest number of people at risk is the stretch of coastline from Busan to Tongyeong. The most prevalent types of oil spilt in Korean waters have been crude oil and bunker-C oil, both of which have relatively high specific gravity and contain volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals. In the case of a spill of more than 1,000 kl, it may be necessary to evacuate vulnerable and sensitive groups. The government should establish environmental health planning that considers the spill amount, the types of oil, and the distance between the spot of the accident and the coast, and should assemble a response team that includes environmental health specialists to prepare for the future oil spill.

  10. Laboratory tests, experimental oil spills, models, and reality: The Braer oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, M.; Daling, P.S.; Brandvik, P.J.; Singsaas, I.

    1993-01-01

    The IKU Petroleum Research organization in Norway has accumulated data on the weathering behavior of spilled oils and petroleum products, mainly pertaining to North Sea crudes. Recent weathering research at IKU has been carried out in an elliptical mesoscale flume and in field tests consisting of experimental releases of crude oil. Results of these tests provided information on oil spill dispersion, evaporation, and emulsification. When the tanker Braer grounded in the Shetland Islands in January 1993 in extreme environmental conditions, the imminent release of a load of 84,000 tonnes of North Sea oil confronted response personnel with a variety of issues including the use of dispersants as a response action. Relevant information on the expected behavior of the crude was obtained within a day of the grounding as a result of close relations between IKU and Warren Spring Laboratory. The question is raised whether such information, which could have been spread between several organizations around the world, will be rapidly accessible in the event of another major spill. It is proposed to establish an electronically accessible database on the behavior and fate of specific oils and petroleum products to address this problem. 9 refs., 4 figs

  11. Potential for photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, M.G.; Ka'aihue, L.

    2001-01-01

    Photoenhanced toxicity is the increase in the toxicity of a chemical in the presence of ultraviolet light (UV) compared to a standard laboratory test conducted with fluorescent lighting (minimal UV). Oil products, weathered oil, and specific polycyclic aromatic compounds present in oil are 2 to greater than 1000 times more toxic in the presence of UV. The photoenhanced toxicity of oil to fish and aquatic invertebrates appears to occur through a process of photosensitization, rather than photomodification of the aqueous phase oil. In photosensitization, the bioaccumulated chemical transfers light energy to other molecules causing toxicity through tissue damage rather than a narcosis mechanism. The available evidence indicates that phototoxic components of oil are specific 3-5 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocycles. Determinants of photoenhanced toxicity include the extent of oil bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms and the spectra and intensity of UV exposure. No studies have specifically investigated the photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Alaska waters. Although there are substantial uncertainties, the results of this evaluation indicate there is potential for photoenhanced toxicity of spilled oil in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. The potential hazard of photoenhanced toxicity may be greatest for embryo and larval stages of aquatic organisms that are relatively translucent to UV and inhabit the photic zone of the water column and intertidal areas. Photoenhanced toxicity should be considered in oil spill response because the spatial and temporal extent of injury to aquatic organisms may be underestimated if based on standard laboratory bioassays and existing toxicity databases. Additionally, the choice of counter measures and oil removal operations may influence the degree of photoenhanced toxicity. (author)

  12. Application of biosurfactant in oil spill management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juwarkar, A.; Babu, P.S.; Mishra, K.; Deshpande, M.

    1993-01-01

    Surfactants are surface active agents which reduce surface tension and interfacial tension between two immiscible phases and help in emulsification. Toxicity, nonbiodegradability, and limited structural types of chemical surfactants have initiated the need for effective substitutes. Biosurfactants, which are synthesized by specific microbial cultures, have surface active properties comparable to chemical surfactants. They are compounds that can help in oil spill cleanup operations without presenting the problem posed by chemical surfactants. Two bacterial cultures were isolated from oil-contaminated soil and were used for biosurfactant production. The biosurfactants produced by Bacillus licheniformis, BS1, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, BS2, in mineral media containing glucose as the carbon source belong to the class of lipoprotein and glycolipid, respectively. They were found to reduce the surface and interfacial tension of water and water-hexadecane system from 72 dynes/cm and 40 dynes/cm to 28 to 30 dynes/cm and 1 to 3 dynes/cm, respectively. These results were comparable with chemical surfactants with respect to surface tension reduction (Slic Gone 34 dynes/ cm and Castrol 30 dynes/cm). The low interfacial tension allows the formation of stable emulsion. The two cultures were grown on different substrates, namely, glucose, mannitol, glycerol, hexadecane, oily sludge, and crude oil. Emulsion formation of hexadecane in water was tested with the cell-free broth containing biosurfactant from the respective substrate broths. Emulsions of 56% stability to 100% stability were obtained from these biosurfactant-containing broths. Both biosurfactants were able to emulsify crude oil. A surfactant's ability to form a stable emulsion is the first step in oil spill cleanup. The emulsified oil can then be acted upon very easily by the microorganism under study

  13. Simulated flow and solute transport, and mitigation of a hypothetical soluble-contaminant spill for the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, to investigate the transport and factors affecting mitigation of a hypothetical spill of a soluble contaminant into the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. The study reach, 53 miles of the lower New River between Hinton and Fayette, is characterized as a pool-and-riffle stream that becomes narrower, steeper, and deeper in the downstream direction. A USGS unsteady-flow model, DAFLOW (Diffusion Analogy FLOW), and a USGS solute-transport model, BLTM (Branch Lagrangian Transport Model), were applied to the study reach. Increases in discharge caused decreases in peak concentration and traveltime of peak concentration. Decreases in discharge caused increases in peak concentration and traveltime of peak concentration. This study indicated that the effects of an accidental spill could be mitigated by regulating discharge from Bluestone Dam. Knowledge of the chemical characteristics of the spill, location and time of the spill, and discharge of the river can aid in determining a mitigation response.

  14. Evaluating technologies of oil spill surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hover, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Surveillance and monitoring of oil in the marine environment imposes a broad spectrum of remote sensing requirements. At the US Coast Guard Research ampersand Development Center, the environmental safety branch is sponsoring oil spill remote sensing research in four areas of technology: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Frequency-scanning microwave radiometry (FSR), Laser fluorosensing (LFS), and Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagers. SAR technology uses sophisticated signal processing to overcome prior limitations, providing images of higher and more uniform spatial acuity which may enable interpreters to more-readily distinguish petroleum slicks from others. The ability to determine the distribution of oil thickness within a slick is necessary when an estimate of oil volume is desired. Scientists at MIT have formulated a new approach to radiometric oil thickness measurement that takes advantage of recent advances in electronic component technology. The initial data collected with a prototype FSR instrument have validated the FSR concept and more work is ongoing. The Coast Guard is co-funding a program to demonstrate and evaluate the capabilities of an airborne laser fluorosensor to support oil spill response operations. During a controlled test, the instrument successfully demonstrated an ability to detect oil on water, ice, and various beach surfaces. Additional testing included different oil types and allowed for weathering. Data analysis is ongoing. Recent developments in infrared imager technology have produced a wide variety of off-the-shelf, portable cameras that could potentially provide a rapid-response spill assessment capability. The R ampersand D Center has been involved in the testing of many of these sensors

  15. Major oil spills, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bills, C.E.; Whiting, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The destruction caused by Hurricane Hugo resulted in two major oil spills on the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Roughly 10,000 barrels of oil were discharged from damaged storage tanks at the Hess Oil Virgin Island Corporation and 14,000 barrels of oil were discharged from the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority facility in Christiansted. Pollution responders overcame the lack of power, water, food lodging, communications and transportation to perform an effective cleanup of these spills. This paper presents details of the pollution response effort as coordinated by the Federal On Scene Coordinator

  16. Consequences of oil spills: a review and framework for informing planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Chang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As oil transportation worldwide continues to increase, many communities are at risk of oil spill disasters and must anticipate and prepare for them. Factors that influence oil spill consequences are myriad and range from the biophysical to the social. We provide a summary literature review and overview framework to help communities systematically consider the factors and linkages that would influence consequences of a potential oil spill. The focus is on spills from oil tanker accidents. Drawing primarily on empirical studies of previous oil spill disasters, we focused on several main domains of interest: the oil spill itself, disaster management, the physical marine environment, marine biology, human health, economy, and policy. Key variables that influence the severity of consequences are identified, and significant interactions between variables are delineated. The framework can be used to clarify the complexity of oil spill impacts, identify lessons that may be transferable from other oil spill disasters, develop scenarios for planning, and inform risk analysis and policy debates in localities that are seeking to understand and reduce their vulnerability to potential spill disasters. As a case study, the framework is used to consider potential oil spills and consequences in Vancouver, Canada. Major increases in oil tanker traffic are anticipated in this region, creating urgent new demands for risk information, disaster management planning, and policy responses. The case study identifies particular conditions that distinguish the Vancouver context from other historic events; in particular, proximity to a densely populated urban area, the type of oil being transported, financial compensation schemes, and local economic structure. Drawing lessons from other oil spill disasters is important but should be undertaken with recognition of these key differences. Some types of impacts that have been relatively inconsequential in previous events may be

  17. Technology needs for the later phases of an oil spill. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    2007-01-01

    The phases of an oil spill response can be classified as initial response, project phase, end phase and the monitoring phase. The initial on-water phase of the response or shoreline cleanup includes the development of contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and research into response equipment for removing oil on water. Lack of planning for a response can lead to an initial response that has less than satisfactory results. An initial assessment of the oil spill response begins at the moment the spill occurs and continues for days, depending on the quality of the initial response. This phase includes the use of booms, skimmers, dispersants and in-situ burning. It was emphasized that oil spill research should focus on gathering scientific information needed to make decisions during the project phase and beyond. Typically, this will involve the study of long-term impacts and should be undertaken in a research environment in order to apply new data to any spill scenario. This paper highlighted knowledge needs to support decisions in the cleanup phase. The Exxon Valdez incident provided information on the long-term impacts of a variety of cleanup techniques. This paper also addressed damage assessment and restoration issues along with the decision to terminate a response. Once a response has been terminated, long-term monitoring of the ecosystem begins in order to identify the spill impact. 9 refs., 6 figs

  18. Managing public support during oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuidinga, K.; Boston, N.; Robertson, I.

    1990-01-01

    Too often oil spill contingency plans ignore and responders overlook the problem of managing auxiliary support, that is volunteers. These may consists of Native Bands, environmental organizations, community groups and the public in general. The consequences of not managing or poorly managing public support for the response effort is an increasingly frustrated public which begins to coordinate their own response efforts, proceeding without training or supervision. such a response can pose a threat to individuals as well as to the clean-up effort in general. Preparation and effective communication, particularly with the news media are key elements in successfully managing public support. In this paper the issues to be addressed are: coordination (mobilization, assignments), safety and insurance, equipment and clothing, fatigue and stress, food and shelter, training, public information including information about potential hazards, and public expectations of response efficiency

  19. Design of a Low-cost Oil Spill Tracking Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Hu, X.; Yu, F.; Dong, S.; Chen, G.

    2017-12-01

    modeling validation and quick response to oil spill accidents.

  20. Oil spill trajectory analysis for the Calcasieu Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meselhe, E.A.; Barker, C.H.; Hodges, M.

    2001-01-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (H3D) was used to determine how oil spills might travel and spread within the Calcasieu River Estuary which has heavy oil traffic. The Calcasieu River is located in the southwest corner of the State of Louisiana and houses valuable wetlands that provide both commercial and recreational fishing and wildlife value to the area. These wetlands also filter water and protect Louisiana's coast areas from hurricane storm surges. An oil spill would damage areas of marshes that would have devastating effects on the entire ecological system within the estuary. A Trajectory Analysis Planner (TAP) H3D computer model is under development by the Hazardous Materials Response Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). TAP is a statistical planning tool that randomly samples historical hydrodynamic, hydrology and climatological data, to build up a database with biological and cleanup resource information. TAP can be used to predict which sites within the estuarine system will be most susceptible to oil spills of varying magnitudes, materials and locations. TAP can also estimate the time available for mitigation and remedial actions before the spill can impact the site. Hydrodynamics in the Calcasieu estuary is a combination of processes such as saltwater intrusion and response to water level fluctuations at an open boundary, as well as lake dynamics. H3D provides the three components of velocity, plus scalar quantities such as water levels, temperature and salinity distribution on a Cartesian three-dimensional grid. TAP was tested for spills of kerosene, non-weathering oil, crude oil, and gasoline and was able to perform reliable spill trajectory analysis. 12 refs., 9 figs

  1. 1991 Virginia oil spill reporting - national and state data base comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalcup, D.; O'Connor, L.; Kallen, E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to give an overview of federal and Virginia state statutes governing the reporting of oil spills through the analysis of oil spill data from a national source (the emergency response notification system, ERNS) and oil spill data from the state level (the Virginia Water Control Board, VWCB). Using data from calendar year 1991, an analysis of the 499 oil spill notifications made to ERNS and the 1,155 oil spill reports made to the VWCB was conducted. The requirements for reporting releases of oil are governed by both underground storage tank (UST) and water pollution control regulations. An analysis was carried out to determine if statutory reporting requirements are being met on the state and federal level. Although these requirements are promulgated on both levels, there is an apparent lack of knowledge in the regulated community

  2. Genes indicative of zoonotic and swine pathogens are persistent in stream water and sediment following a swine manure spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Johnson, Heather E.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Focazio, Michael J.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Foreman, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Manure spills to streams are relatively frequent, but no studies have characterized stream contamination with zoonotic and veterinary pathogens, or fecal chemicals, following a spill. We tested stream water and sediment over 25 days and downstream for 7.6 km for: fecal indicator bacteria (FIB); the fecal indicator chemicals cholesterol and coprostanol; 20 genes for zoonotic and swine-specific bacterial pathogens by presence/absence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viable cells; one swine-specific Escherichia coli toxin gene (STII) by quantitative PCR (qPCR); and nine human and animal viruses by qPCR, or reverse-transcriptase qPCR. Twelve days post-spill, and 4.2 km downstream, water concentrations of FIB, cholesterol, and coprostanol were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those detected before, or above, the spill, and genes indicating viable zoonotic or swine-infectious Escherichia coli, were detected in water or sediment. STII increased from undetectable before, or above the spill, to 105 copies/100 mL water 12 days post-spill. Thirteen of 14 water (8/9 sediment) samples had viable STII-carrying cells post-spill. Eighteen days post-spill porcine adenovirus and teschovirus were detected 5.6 km downstream. Sediment FIB concentrations (per gram wet weight) were greater than in water, and sediment was a continuous reservoir of genes and chemicals post-spill. Constituent concentrations were much lower, and detections less frequent, in a runoff event (200 days post-spill) following manure application, although the swine-associated STII and stx2e genes were detected. Manure spills are an underappreciated pathway for livestock-derived contaminants to enter streams, with persistent environmental outcomes, and the potential for human and veterinary health consequences.

  3. Analysis of BTEX groundwater concentrations from surface spills associated with hydraulic fracturing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Sherilyn A; Avens, Heather J; Banducci, Amber M; Sahmel, Jennifer; Panko, Julie M; Tvermoes, Brooke E

    2013-04-01

    Concerns have arisen among the public regarding the potentialfor drinking-water contamination from the migration of methane gas and hazardous chemicals associated with hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling. However, little attention has been paid to the potentialfor groundwater contamination resulting from surface spills from storage and production facilities at active well sites. We performed a search for publically available data regarding groundwater contamination from spills at ULS. drilling sites. The Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database was selected for further analysis because it was the most detailed. The majority ofspills were in Weld County, Colorado, which has the highest density of wells that used hydraulic fracturing for completion, many producing both methane gas and crude oil. We analyzed publically available data reported by operators to the COGCC regarding surface spills that impacted groundwater From July 2010 to July 2011, we noted 77 reported surface spills impacting the groundwater in Weld County, which resulted in surface spills associated with less than 0.5% of the active wells. The reported data included groundwater samples that were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, andxylene (BTEX) components of crude oil. For groundwater samples taken both within the spill excavation area and on the first reported date of sampling, the BTEX measurements exceeded National Drinking Water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) in 90, 30, 12, and 8% of the samples, respectively. However, actions taken to remediate the spills were effective at reducing BJTEX levels, with at least 84% of the spills reportedly achieving remediation as of May 2012. Our analysis demonstrates that surface spills are an important route of potential groundwater contamination from hydraulic fracturing activities and should be a focus of programs to protect groundwater While benzene can occur naturally in groundwater sources, spills and migration

  4. Oil spill risk assessment : relative impact indices by oil type and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French-McCay, D.; Beegle-Krause, C.J.; Rowe, J.; Rodriguez, W.; Schmidt Etkin, D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to inform policies related to resource allocation for oil spill prevention, preparedness and response activities in Washington State. Oil spill reports and impact modelling studies were evaluated in order to determine major risk consequence factors including spill volume, location, timing, toxicity, persistence, and expected frequency of spills by sector. The Washington Compensation Schedule pre-assessment screening and oil spill compensation schedule regulations (WCS) designed to consider the sensitivity of oiled areas as well as the relative density and seasonal distributions of sensitive biota. Spill incidents were assigned per-gallon impact scores based on geographic location, oil type, and season. The WCS qualitative rating system was used to assess the potential impacts of spills in different geographic systems. Geographic zones were based on geography, circulation of currents, climate, and the WCS sub-regions in estuarine and marine areas on the Pacific coast of Washington State. Oil types included crude, heavy, and light oils; gasoline; jet fuel; and non-petroleum oils. A habitat index was calculated to represent existing stream conditions. It was concluded that the relative impact risk model is a reliable method for characterizing impacts based on spill volume, oil effects, and vulnerability rankings. 25 refs., 20 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Chemical Weapons Improved Response Program. 2000 Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this summary report is to inform members of the first responder and emergency management communities about the on-going activities, initiatives, and lessons learned from the Chemical...

  6. Advertising as Insurance or Commitment? Evidence from the BP Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Lint Barrage; Eric Chyn; Justine Hastings

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how advertising impacts the consumer response to news about unobserved product quality. Specifically, we estimate how British Petroleum’s (BP) 2000-2008 “Beyond Petroleum” advertising campaign affected the impact of the 2010 BP oil spill. We find that BP station margins declined by 4.2 cents per gallon, and volumes declined by 3.6 percent after the spill. However, pre-spill advertising significantly dampened the price response in the short-run, and reduced the fraction of ...

  7. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  8. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms

  9. Seaweeds and the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stekoll, M.S.; Deysher, L.; Dean, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    A three-year study, initiated in 1989, has evaluated the response of subtidal and intertidal seaweed communities to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup activities. The project was part of the coastal habitat injury assessment research sanctioned under the natural resource damage assessment program. A stratified random design was used to select oiled sites for the study. Paired control (unoiled) sites were then matched to the oiled sites. The most consistent effect found in subtidal populations in Prince William Sound was the higher relative abundance of small-size classes of kelps at the oiled sites, indicating the prior disappearance of larger plants. This disappearance was possibly caused by activities associated with the cleanup operations. Intertidal populations of algae were affected by the spill and cleanup in all three major areas studied: Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet-Kenai, and Kodiak-Alaskan Peninsula. The most obvious effect was a significant removal of the dominant intertidal plant Fucus gardneri from the mid and upper intertidal zones. The limited dispersal of this plant combined with the relatively harsh conditions of the upper intertidal will cause a slow recovery of the upper intertidal zone in the affected areas. Effects of the spill extended to other algal species. Species such as Cladophora, Myelophycus, Odonthalia, Palmaria, and Polysiphonia showed decreases in their percent cover at oiled sites. Only Gloiopeltis populations appeared to increase in percent cover in oiled areas. In both the Cook Inlet-Kenai and the Kodiak-Alaskan Peninsula areas Fucus populations appeared to be enhanced in the lower intertidal zone - between 2 and 3 meters below the high-tide mark - in 1991

  10. Spatial data quality and coastal spill modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Brimicombe, A.J.; Ralphs, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Issues of spatial data quality are central to the whole oil spill modelling process. Both model and data quality performance issues should be considered as indispensable parts of a complete oil spill model specification and testing procedure. This paper presents initial results of research that will emphasise to modeler and manager alike the practical issues of spatial data quality for coastal oil spill modelling. It is centred around a case study of Jiao Zhou Bay in the People's Republic of China. The implications for coastal oil spill modelling are discussed and some strategies for managing the effects of spatial data quality in the outputs of oil spill modelling are explored. (author)

  11. Lecithins - promising oil spill cleaner?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A new, non-polluting method of cleaning up oil spills at sea as well as on land has been developed by researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Their technique is based on the use of lecithins, a byproduct of producing edible oils from plants. Lecithin molecules are hydrophyllic at one end and lipophilic at their tail ends. When they come into contact with water, they organize themselves into bilayers whose heads all face the water and whose tails are all directed towards each other. These bilayers form particles called liposomes that, when spread on water fouled by oil spills, change the properties of the oil thereby stopping the spreading and breaking it down into sticky droplets that continue to float on the surface and can be easily collected. The treatment is said to be effective in both fresh and salt water and is almost temperature and pH independent. Another beneficial effect is that the physical change generated by liposomes in the spilled oil improves the ability of oil-eating bacteria in the water to remove some of the spill by bioremediation

  12. Colonial pipeline Enoree River oil spill: A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    In December 1991, a pipeline ruptured near Fountain Inn, South Carolina, resulting in the release of approximately 13,000 barrels of No. 2 fuel oil to the inland surface water system. Final estimates provided by CPC for the amount of oil discharged from the pipeline rupture indicate that up to 13,100 barrels (over 555,000 gallons) of No. 2 fuel oil were released into the environment - of which approximately 12,600 barrels (530,000 gallons) were recovered. The recovery rate of greater than 95% of spilled product is considered to be well above average for a major discharge of oil in the inland zone. The primary factors influencing this rate of recovery were the ability to provide containment at the leak site within 12 hours of the release and to establish containment downstream of the spill in advance of the leading edge of the oil plume. A total of 23,320 barrels (almost a million gallons) of an oil/water mixture were collected within a five day period. Although the water systems in Clinton and Whitmire were affected by the spill, adequate backup systems provided alternate drinking water to these residents until the primary intakes could be opened. However, this spill caused significant environmental impacts. The South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department reports that 2,123 fish, representing 24 different species were killed along nine miles of Durbin Creek. From an overall standpoint, the response to this incident was sufficient to protect human health and minimize environmental damage. Contingency planning had prepared CPC for a spill of this magnitude and resources committed to the cleanup were adequate to accomplish the removal of the spilled product. The RRT concept proved to be of valuable assistance to the OSC from a resource perspective; and implementing the organizational components of the RRT provided the necessary mechanism for input and decision making for various parties affected by this incident

  13. The UN’s moral responsibility in the ‘spill-over’ of genocide from Rwanda to the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Kovras, I.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in how societies and states should address past wrongdoing. Despite attention to issues of responsibility and moral reparation, however, institutional (moral) responsibility remains relatively unstudied. To this end, the article critically evaluates the UN’s moral responsibility in the world’s deadliest conflict since World War II, namely the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). It argues that the UN Security Council should be hel...

  14. The INCOTUR model : estimation of losses in the tourism sector in Alcudia due to a hydrocarbon spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Santos, A.; Serr, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented a computer model that calculates the economic losses incurred by a hydrocarbon spill on a coastal area. In particular, it focused on the Balearic Islands in the Bay of Alcudia where the economy depends mainly on tourism. A large number of oil tankers carrying crude oil and petroleum products pass through the Balearic Sea. Any pollution resulting from a fuel spill can have a significant economic impact on both the tourism sector and the Balearic society in general. This study focused on the simulation of 18 spills of Jet A1 fuel oil, unleaded gasoline and Bunker C fuel oil. Simulations of the study area were produced with OILMAP, MIKE21, GNOME and ADIOS models which estimated the trajectories of various spills and the amount of oil washed ashore. The change in physical and chemical properties of the spilled hydrocarbons was also determined. The simulation models considered the trajectory followed by spills according to the type and amount of spill, weather conditions prevailing during the spill and the period immediately following the spill. The INCOTUR model was then used to calculate the economic losses resulting from an oil spill by considering the number of tonnes of oil washed ashore; number of days needed to organize cleanup; the percentage of tourism that will be maintained despite the effects of the spill; number of hotel beds; percentage of hotel occupancy by month; cost of package holidays; petty cash expenses; and, cost of advertising campaign for the affected area. With this data, the model can determine the number of days needed to clean and restore the coastline; monthly rate of recovery in tourism levels; and, losses in tourism sector. According to the INCOTUR model, the total losses incurred by a spill of 40,000 tonnes of Bunker C fuel, was estimated at 472 million Euros. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

  15. The INCOTUR model : estimation of losses in the tourism sector in Alcudia due to a hydrocarbon spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Santos, A.; Serr, F. [Iles Balears Univ., Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented a computer model that calculates the economic losses incurred by a hydrocarbon spill on a coastal area. In particular, it focused on the Balearic Islands in the Bay of Alcudia where the economy depends mainly on tourism. A large number of oil tankers carrying crude oil and petroleum products pass through the Balearic Sea. Any pollution resulting from a fuel spill can have a significant economic impact on both the tourism sector and the Balearic society in general. This study focused on the simulation of 18 spills of Jet A1 fuel oil, unleaded gasoline and Bunker C fuel oil. Simulations of the study area were produced with OILMAP, MIKE21, GNOME and ADIOS models which estimated the trajectories of various spills and the amount of oil washed ashore. The change in physical and chemical properties of the spilled hydrocarbons was also determined. The simulation models considered the trajectory followed by spills according to the type and amount of spill, weather conditions prevailing during the spill and the period immediately following the spill. The INCOTUR model was then used to calculate the economic losses resulting from an oil spill by considering the number of tonnes of oil washed ashore; number of days needed to organize cleanup; the percentage of tourism that will be maintained despite the effects of the spill; number of hotel beds; percentage of hotel occupancy by month; cost of package holidays; petty cash expenses; and, cost of advertising campaign for the affected area. With this data, the model can determine the number of days needed to clean and restore the coastline; monthly rate of recovery in tourism levels; and, losses in tourism sector. According to the INCOTUR model, the total losses incurred by a spill of 40,000 tonnes of Bunker C fuel, was estimated at 472 million Euros. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  16. Flow-Injection Responses of Diffusion Processes and Chemical Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2000-01-01

    tool of automated analytical chemistry. The need for an even lower consumption of chemicals and for computer analysis has motivated a study of the FIA peak itself, that is, a theoretical model was developed, that provides detailed knowledge of the FIA profile. It was shown that the flow in a FIA...... manifold may be characterised by a diffusion coefficient that depends on flow rate, denoted as the kinematic diffusion coefficient. The description was applied to systems involving species of chromium, both in the case of simple diffusion and in the case of chemical reactions. It is suggested that it may...... be used in the resolution of FIA profiles to obtain information about the content of interference’s, in the study of chemical reaction kinetics and to measure absolute concentrations within the FIA-detector cell....

  17. Measuring the Impact of the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Consumer Behavior: Evidence from a Natural Experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    O. Ashton Morgan; John C. Whitehead; William L. Huth; Gregory S. Martin; Richard Sjolander

    2013-01-01

    A natural experiment setting is exploited to develop a unique dataset of oyster consumer actual and anticipated behavior immediately prior to and following the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Using data from a repeat sample of oyster consumers, a pre and post-spill revealed and stated preference model allows both a short and longer-term response to the spill to be investigated. Findings indicate that, as expected, the BP spill had a negative impact on oyster demand in terms of short-run actua...

  18. Reversible chemical patterning on stimuli-responsive polymer film: Environment-responsive lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionov, Leonid; Minko, Sergiy; Stamm, Manfred; Gohy, Jean-Francois; Jerome, Robert; Scholl, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    We report on a novel type of chemical patterning based on thin stimuli-responsive polymer films. The basic concept is the permanent storage (writing) of a pattern, which is reversibly developed and erased upon exposure to appropriate environment, e.g., solvent, pH, and temperature. The smart surface is fabricated from the mixed brush of poly(2-vinylpyridine) and polyisoprene. The mixed brush demonstrates switching behavior upon exposure to different solvents. Cross-linking of polyisoprene via illumination through a photomask results in formation of patterns with suppressed switching. Due to the contrast in switching between illuminated and dark areas, exposure of the smart surface to different solvents causes either reversible formation or erasing of chemical contrast between the illuminated and dark areas. Thus, the pattern surface can very locally attract colloidal particles or can be wetted by water only upon exposure to the special solvent which introduces the contrast between the illuminated and dark areas. Appearance of the patterns indicates particular environment and can be used for local switching of adsorption

  19. Removing Spilled Oil With Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01

    Technique proposed to reduce more quickly, contain, clean up, and remove petroleum products and such other pollutants as raw sewage and chemicals without damage to humans, animals, plants, or the environment. Unique and primary aspect of new technique is use of cryogenic fluid to solidify spill so it can be carried away in solid chunks. Liquid nitrogen (LN2), with boiling point at -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C), offers probably best tradeoff among extreme cold, cost, availability, and lack of impact on environment among various cryogenic fluids available. Other applications include extinguishing fires at such locations as oil derricks or platforms and at tank farms containing such petroleum products as gasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene.

  20. Chemical response to groundwater extraction southeast of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizar-Alvarez, R.; Carrillo-Rivera, J. J.; Ángeles-Serrano, G.; Hergt, T.; Cardona, A.

    An alternative procedure of pumping test data interpretation is used through a joint analysis of the standard time-drawdown curve and simultaneous field measurements of total dissolved solids (TDS); additional support is also provided by the temperature of extracted groundwater and the chemical composition of extracted water. The overall information was applied to characterise the groundwater flow system and its sources, the hydraulic conditions of the aquifer and hydraulic response of extraction boreholes. The analysis of this information suggests the presence of: (i) a local flow system that circulates at shallow depth through basalt units interstratified with fine grained sediments and pyroclastics; these materials contain water with TDS of 127-600 mg/L and Na of 24-178 mg/L, and temperature of 18-19.5 °C (ii) intermediate flow in granular material under reducing conditions by the oxidation of organic matter in aquitard sediments; this water has TDS and Na values of 203-940 and 30-370 mg/L, respectively, and temperatures of about 20-22 °C (iii) regional flow through volcanic rocks and limestone, with TDS content of 300-700 mg/L, Na of 80-230 mg/L and temperature of 23.0-24.8 °C. The hydraulic response and the chemical composition of the water produced by some boreholes are affected by the seepage inflow from sewage effluents, the input from an overlying aquitard unit and the inducement of regional flow. The conception of the flow regime thus obtained allowed the recognition of hydraulic conditions which were more consistent with the hydrogeological setting, than if only a time vs. drawdown test analysis would have been carried out. L'interprétation simultanée de pompages d'essais, des données de température et résidu sec (RS) de L'eau souterraine pompée, mesurées simultanément sur le terrain et la composition chimique de L'eau pompée comme un aide additionnelle, est utilisée comme une différent procédure pour interpréter les pompages d'essais. La