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Sample records for chemical species related

  1. Chemical review and studies related to species from the genus Tynanthus (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Colombi Cansian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Species from the Bignoniaceae Family, including the genus Tynanthus, are very prevalent in the tropical Americas, with specimens found in a large part of the Brazilian territory. These plants are commonly used in traditional medicine for several purposes, and some studies have described their chemical structure, in addition to other reports related to some species from this genus. This review aimed to gather information from published works concerning species of the genus Tynanthus, as well as to detect flaws in research related to these plants, which may have great biological and pharmaceutical importance. Also, this review points out some common chemical characteristics of these species, providing information that may help new researchers to improve their knowledge about these plants.

  2. Bioaccessibility of selenium after human ingestion in relation to its chemical species and compartmentalization in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombo, Stéphane; Schreck, Eva; Dumat, Camille; Laplanche, Christophe; Pierart, Antoine; Longchamp, Mélanie; Besson, Philippe; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse

    2016-06-01

    Selenium is a micronutrient needed by all living organisms including humans, but often present in low concentration in food with possible deficiency. From another side, at higher concentrations in soils as observed in seleniferous regions of the world, and in function of its chemical species, Se can also induce (eco)toxicity. Root Se uptake was therefore studied in function of its initial form for maize (Zea mays L.), a plant widely cultivated for human and animal food over the world. Se phytotoxicity and compartmentalization were studied in different aerial plant tissues. For the first time, Se oral human bioaccessibility after ingestion was assessed for the main Se species (Se(IV) and Se(VI)) with the BARGE ex vivo test in maize seeds (consumed by humans), and in stems and leaves consumed by animals. Corn seedlings were cultivated in hydroponic conditions supplemented with 1 mg L(-1) of selenium (Se(IV), Se(VI), Control) for 4 months. Biomass, Se concentration, and bioaccessibility were measured on harvested plants. A reduction in plant biomass was observed under Se treatments compared to control, suggesting its phytotoxicity. This plant biomass reduction was higher for selenite species than selenate, and seed was the main affected compartment compared to control. Selenium compartmentalization study showed that for selenate species, a preferential accumulation was observed in leaves, whereas selenite translocation was very limited toward maize aerial parts, except in the seeds where selenite concentrations are generally high. Selenium oral bioaccessibility after ingestion fluctuated from 49 to 89 % according to the considered plant tissue and Se species. Whatever the tissue, selenate appeared as the most human bioaccessible form. A potential Se toxicity was highlighted for people living in seleniferous regions, this risk being enhanced by the high Se bioaccessibility. PMID:26387097

  3. [Chemical diversity of the biological active ingredients of salvia officinalis and some closely related species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Janicsák, Gábor; Nagy, Gábor; Dora, Rédei

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies on the volatile and non-volatile fractions of 6 species. i.e. Salvia officinalis, S. tomentosa, S. fruticosa, S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. lavandulifolia of the Section Salvia (Lamiaceae) have been carried out. Both fractions provide the chemical pattern matches to the chemotaxonomic character of Subfamily Nepetoideae in Erdtmanr two subfamiliar system. S. lavandulifolia had the highest essential oil content, followed by S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa, S. officinalis and S. candelabrum. S. ringens contains volatile oil only in traces. The neurotoxin thujone content was the highest in the S. officinalis oils and in that of S. fruticosa. No thujone was detected in S. lavandulifolia. The other species, e.g.: S. tomentosa contain this compound only in moderate concentrations (less than 10%). Among the non-volatile fractions of the plant ingredients the triterpene ursolic and oleanolic acids had the highest concentration in the leaves. Despite some rare cases, ursolic acid dominates the tritepene fraction. Rosmarinic and caffeic acids were measured in similar concentrations, in all species. As the case of S. officinalis shows, these compounds vary significantly in all organs during the vegetation period. Caffeic acid is also ubiquitous in the genus Salvia but as our data suggest it occurs in an order of magnitude lower concentration than rosmarinic acid. The isolation of phenylethanolid martynoside, though obtained in a rather small concentration, is of great chemotaxonomic significance, as this is the first phenylethanolid type glycoside isolated not only from the Salvia genus but also from the entire Subfamily Nepetoideae. As pheylethanolids are rather common and accumulate in significant concentrations in plants of the Subfamily Lamioideae, our opinion that the chemical differences between the two subfamilies are less qualititative than quantitative, is confirmed. This holds true of other chemical markers like monoterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic

  4. Biosynthesis, Chemical Structure, and Structure-Activity Relationship of Orfamide Lipopeptides Produced by Pseudomonas protegens and Related Species

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zongwang; Geudens, Niels; Kieu, Nam P.; Sinnaeve, Davy; Ongena, Marc; Martins, José C.; Höfte, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Orfamide type cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas and involved in lysis of oomycete zoospores, biocontrol of Rhizoctonia and insecticidal activity against aphids. In this study, we compared the biosynthesis, structural diversity, in vitro and in planta activities of orfamides produced by rhizosphere-derived Pseudomonas protegens and related Pseudornonas species. Genetic characterization together with chemical identification revealed that the main orfamide com...

  5. Evolution of 222 Rn and chemical species related with eruptive processes of the Popocatepetl volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the water quality for human consumption has always been great importance, considering the factors that can affect water quality as aquifers recharge and underground permeability. In this work, the behavior of three water springs related with the Popocatepetl volcano were studied within April 1997 and March 1998. The spring in Paso de Cortes in the municipality of Amecameca, State of Mexico, and the springs of Atlimeyaya and Axocopan in Atlixco, State of Puebla; the water of these last two springs is used for human consumption. The content of radon in water was determined by means of liquid scintillation, and a concentration of 1.22 Bq/l was found in the spring of Atlimeyaya, which represents 2 % of the maximum permissible level established by ICRP. A significant increase was observed in the Paso de Cortes spring in the month of July 1997. The content of radium, was determined by means of gamma spectrophotometry and small quantities of this element (2+ , Mg2+ , K+, Na+, H C O3- , Cl- , S O4-2 , Li, B, Sc, Ti, V, Rb, Sr and Ba, primarily, which did not show any significant variation with the change of seasons. No important variations in the concentration of radon, radium or for other volcanic activity related species were found in the entire study. (Author)

  6. Synthesis of Formamide and Related Organic Species in the Interstellar Medium via Chemical Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spezia, Riccardo; Jeanvoine, Yannick; Hase, William L.; Song, Kihyung; Largo, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    We show, by means of direct dynamics simulations, how it is possible to define possible reactants and mechanisms leading to the formation of formamide in the interstellar medium. In particular, different ion-molecule reactions in the gas phase were considered: NH3OH+, NH2OH{}2+, H2COH+, and NH4 + for the ions and NH2OH, H2CO, and NH3 for the partner neutrals. These calculations were combined with high level ab initio calculations to investigate possible further evolution of the products observed. In particular, for formamide, we propose that the NH2OH{}2+ + H2CO reaction can produce an isomer, NH2OCH{}2+, that, after dissociative recombination, can produce neutral formamide, which was observed in space. The direct dynamics do not pre-impose any reaction pathways and in other reactions, we did not observe the formation of formamide or any possible precursor. On the other hand, we obtained other interesting reactions, like the formation of NH2CH{}2+. Finally, some radiative association processes are proposed. All of the results obtained are discussed in light of the species observed in radioastronomy.

  7. Analysis of genetics and chemical contents relation compared to commonly used Cissus quadrangularis L. and barcode markers of some Thailand Cissus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmoon, Runglawan; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Tanee, Tawatchai

    2016-01-01

    Several Cissus species are commonly used as traditional and modified medicines, and their chemical constituents are major point for precise usage. However, C. quadrangularis is the only species for which the usages and the chemical composition have been reported. These data should be investigated for other species in the genus. Eight species namely C. assamica, C. carnosa, C. elongata, C. hastata, C. javana, C. pteroclada, C. quadrangular is and C. repens were evaluated for genetic relationships and chemical composition. Constructed dendrogram shows high-powered efficiency of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) data used which can clearly identify different and identical species. Genetic similarity (S) value of the identical species is 0.86, whereas for different species the value can vary from 0.53 to 0.75. Four highly related species (S=0.64-0.72), C. assamica, C. carnosa, C. hastata and C. repens were selected to undergo chemical study by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on the methanol crude extract. Only one compound, β-sitosterol, found in the four species is identical to the compound reported from C. quadrangular is, where there were five identical chemicals found in the selected species. Species-specific barcode with rbcL region was constructed. Nucleotide variation was evaluated indicating genetic distance value of 0.025 to 0.072. PMID:26826840

  8. Biosynthesis, Chemical Structure, and Structure-Activity Relationship of Orfamide Lipopeptides Produced by Pseudomonas protegens and Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zongwang; Geudens, Niels; Kieu, Nam P; Sinnaeve, Davy; Ongena, Marc; Martins, José C; Höfte, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Orfamide-type cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas and involved in lysis of oomycete zoospores, biocontrol of Rhizoctonia and insecticidal activity against aphids. In this study, we compared the biosynthesis, structural diversity, in vitro and in planta activities of orfamides produced by rhizosphere-derived Pseudomonas protegens and related Pseudomonas species. Genetic characterization together with chemical identification revealed that the main orfamide compound produced by the P. protegens group is orfamide A, while the related strains Pseudomonas sp. CMR5c and CMR12a produce orfamide B. Comparison of orfamide fingerprints led to the discovery of two new orfamide homologs (orfamide F and orfamide G) in Pseudomonas sp. CMR5c. The structures of these two CLPs were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Mutagenesis and complementation showed that orfamides determine the swarming motility of parental Pseudomonas sp. strain CMR5c and their production was regulated by luxR type regulators. Orfamide A and orfamide B differ only in the identity of a single amino acid, while orfamide B and orfamide G share the same amino acid sequence but differ in length of the fatty acid part. The biological activities of orfamide A, orfamide B, and orfamide G were compared in further bioassays. The three compounds were equally active against Magnaporthe oryzae on rice, against Rhizoctonia solani AG 4-HGI in in vitro assays, and caused zoospore lysis of Phytophthora and Pythium. Furthermore, we could show that orfamides decrease blast severity in rice plants by blocking appressorium formation in M. oryzae. Taken all together, our study shows that orfamides produced by P. protegens and related species have potential in biological control of a broad spectrum of fungal plant pathogens. PMID:27065956

  9. Biosynthesis, chemical structure and structure-activity relationship of orfamide lipopeptides produced by Pseudomonas protegens and related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongwang eMa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orfamide-type cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs are biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas and involved in lysis of oomycete zoospores, biocontrol of Rhizoctonia and insecticidal activity against aphids. In this study we compared the biosynthesis, structural diversity, in vitro and in planta activities of orfamides produced by rhizosphere-derived Pseudomonas protegens and related Pseudomonas species. Genetic characterization together with chemical identification revealed that the main orfamide compound produced by the P. protegens group is orfamide A, while the related strains Pseudomonas sp. CMR5c and CMR12a produce orfamide B. Comparison of orfamide fingerprints led to the discovery of two new orfamide homologues (orfamide F and orfamide G in Pseudomonas sp. CMR5c. The structures of these two CLPs were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectrometry (MS analysis. Mutagenesis and complementation showed that orfamides determine the swarming motility of parental Pseudomonas sp. strain CMR5c and their production was regulated by luxR type regulators. Orfamide A and orfamide B differ only in the identity of a single amino acid, while orfamide B and orfamide G share the same amino acid sequence but differ in length of the fatty acid part. The biological activities of orfamide A, orfamide B and orfamide G were compared in further bioassays. The three compounds were equally active against Magnaporthe oryzae on rice, against Rhizoctonia solani AG 4-HGI in in vitro assays, and caused zoospore lysis of Phytophthora and Pythium. Furthermore we could show that orfamides decrease blast severity in rice plants by blocking appressorium formation in M. oryzae. Taken all together, our study shows that orfamides produced by P. protegens and related species have potential in biological control of a broad spectrum of fungal plant pathogens.

  10. The major differences in chemical composition and antibacterial activity of two closely related Leonotis species (Lamiaceae may have taxonomic value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Eloff

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Leonotis species are used widely for medicinal purposes in Africa. There have been drastic changes in the taxonomic treatment of Leonotis species during the past decade. Two species, L. dysophylla and L. microphylla occurring in Pretoria have been considered as varieties of the same species and as different species by different authors. Because Leonotis species are used widely as medicinal plants inter alia against bacterial infections, we decided to compare the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of four plants from each of two populations of the species. The chemical composition of acetone extracts of finely ground leaves was determined by thin layer chromatography followed by spraying with vanillin-sulphuric acid. There were hardly any differences between plants from the same population. There were major differences between the two species in the composition of pigments separated by thin layer chromatography and for compounds visualized with the vanillin-sulphuric acid spray reagent. This supported the viewpoint that the two species should not be considered as varieties. The major differences found in chemical composition indicate that chemical parameters may play an important role in resolving taxonomic differences. Because such a small quantity of material is needed, it may be feasible to analyze one or two leaves obtained from herbarium sheets as an additional taxonomic parameter. The antibacterial activity of the acetone extracts was determined using a two-fold serial dilution microplate method with tetrazolium violet as indicator of growth. The specific strains of the four most important nosocomial bacterial pathogens suggested by the United States National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards were used: Staphylococcus aureus (American Type Culture Collection 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 21212. The minimum inhibitory activity of the

  11. How to link the relative abundances of gas species in coma of comets to their initial chemical composition ?

    CERN Document Server

    Marboeuf, Ulysse

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of comets is frequently assumed to be directly provided by the observations of the abundances of volatile molecules in the coma. The present work aims to determine the relationship between the chemical composition of the coma, the outgassing profile of volatile molecules and the internal chemical composition, and water ice structure of the nucleus, and physical assumptions on comets. To do this, we have developed a quasi 3D model of a cometary nucleus which takes into account all phase changes and water ice structures (amorphous, crystalline, clathrate, and a mixture of them); we have applied this model to the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the target of the Rosetta mission. We find that the outgassing profile of volatile molecules is a strong indicator of the physical and thermal properties (water ice structure, thermal inertia, abundances, distribution, physical differentiation) of the solid nucleus. Day/night variations of the rate of production of species helps to distinguish th...

  12. Chemical Diversity Investigation of Hepatotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Qianliguang (Senecio scandens) and Related Species by UHPLC-QTOF-MS1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhua; Na Li; Jian-Qing Ruan; Peter P. Fu; Zhong-Zhen Zhao; Ge Lina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Qianliguang (Senecio scandens) is a common Chinese medicinal herb. Qianliguang-containing herbal proprietary products are registered as over-the-counter remedies in China and exported to Western countries. The presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) has raised concerns about the safety of using Qianliguang and its products. The present study aims at investigation of different types of PAs present in Qianliguang collected from representative locations in China. Methods: In this study, a simple but specific UHPLC-QTOF-MS method for the determination of toxic PAs was developed, based on the characteristic fragment ions specific to different types of PAs. It was successfully applied for the identification and distinguishing of PAs present in Qianliguang and related Senecio species growing in different locations of China. Results: Significant diversity of the PA types and quantities were revealed among the samples tested. The estimated total amounts of toxic PAs in three of the samples exceed the toxic limits of PA intake restricted by WHO, demonstrating the timely and highly demand for regulating both types and quantities of PAs present in Qianliguang. Conclusions: This study provides the methodology for simultaneous identification and quantification of PAs present in herbs without requiring corresponding standards, which could be further used for more systematic investigations of the PA distribution in Qianliguang and other PA-containing herbs.

  13. Laser-Beam-Absorption Chemical-Species Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Michael; Goldstein, Neil; Lee, Jamine; Bien, Fritz; Richtsmeier, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus measures concentration of chemical species in fluid medium (e.g., gaseous industrial process stream). Directs laser beam through medium, and measures intensity of beam after passage through medium. Relative amount of beam power absorbed in medium indicative of concentration of chemical species; laser wavelength chosen to be one at which species of interest absorbs.

  14. Chemical species concentration measurement via wireless sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Jer; Beirne, Stephen; Kiernan, Breda M.; Slater, Conor; Lau, King-Tong; Diamond, Dermot

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes studies carried out to investigate the viability of using wireless cameras as a tool in monitoring changes in air quality. A camera is used to monitor the change in colour of a chemically responsive polymer within view of the camera as it is exposed to varying chemical species concentration levels. The camera captures this image and the colour change is analyzed by averaging the RGB values present. This novel chemical sensing approach is compared with an established chemi...

  15. Chemical cues mediate species recognition in field crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances eTyler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs are important in mate choice in many insects, and may be used for species recognition if CHC profiles differ between potentially hybridizing species. In the sibling field cricket species Gryllus campestris and G. bimaculatus, females of G. bimaculatus are tolerant towards G. campestris males and can mate with them. However, G. campestris females are highly aggressive towards heterospecific G. bimaculatus males, and matings between them never happen. We examined whether cricket females might use CHCs to determine the species identity of their potential mates. We firstly analyzed the cuticular chemical profile by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to assess the potential of CHCs to be used for species recognition in these crickets. We then manipulated females’ ability to detect chemical cues by carrying out chemical ablation of the antennae, and measured changes in aggressive responses to heterospecific males. We show that there are significant interspecies differences in CHC expression for both sexes, and that females with chemically ablated antennae reduce aggressive behavior towards heterospecific males. Our findings support the prediction that cuticular semiochemicals can play a key role in reproductive isolation between closely related insect species.

  16. Interstellar dust particles and chemical species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krelowski, Jacek

    Absorption spectra of translucent interstellar clouds contain known molecular bands: of CN, CH+, CH, OH, OH+, NH, C2 and C3. Moreover, one can observe more than 400 unidentified absorption features known as diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) commonly believed to be carried by some complex, carbon bearing molecules (chain species based on a carbon scheleton, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes). DIBs are optical features observed in absorption in starlight crossing tarnslucent interstellar clouds. Despite many laboratory based studies of possible DIB carriers, it has not been possible to unambiguously link these bands to specific species. This is unfortunate, as an identification of DIBs would substantially contribute to our understanding of chemical processes in the diffuse interstellar medium. The presence of substructures inside DIB profiles, discovered by Sarre et al. (1995) and Kerr et al. (1998), indicate that DIBs are likely molecular features of gas phase species. Sofar only three DIBs have been linked to specific molecules but none of these links was confirmed beyond a doubt. Extinction is likely caused by interstellar dust particles of various sizes and shapes. The recent surveys of the extinction law demonstrate a great variety of the observed curves which proves that grains differ from cloud to cloud. A majority of distant OB stars is observed through several clouds and thus we observe usually an ill-defined average which does not differ substantially from one distant object to another. The most popularly observed CH molecule does correlate with the extinction but it is a poor correlation. The abundance of CN molecule is completely uncorrelated with the colour excess. Seemingly an exceptionally high abundance of CN is observed together with high far-UV extinction and very low intensity of diffuse interstellar bands. Interstellar molecules can be formed either in the gas phase or on grain surfaces. Small grains, responsible for the far

  17. TransCom model simulations of CH4 and related species: linking transport, surface flux and chemical loss with CH4 variability in the troposphere and lower stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Prinn

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A transport model intercomparison experiment (TransCom-CH4 has been designed to investigate the roles of surface emissions, transport and chemical loss in simulating the global methane distribution. Model simulations were conducted using twelve models and four model variants and results were archived for the period of 1990–2007. The transport and removal of six CH4 tracers with different emission scenarios were simulated, with net global emissions of 513 ± 9 and 514 ± 14 Tg CH4 yr−1 for the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Additionally, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 was simulated to check the interhemispheric transport, radon (222Rn to check the subgrid scale transport, and methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3 to check the chemical removal by the tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH. The results are compared to monthly or annual mean time series of CH4, SF6 and CH3CCl3 measurements from 8 selected background sites, and to satellite observations of CH4 in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Most models adequately capture the vertical gradients in the stratosphere, the average long-term trends, seasonal cycles, interannual variations and interhemispheric gradients at the surface sites for SF6, CH3CCl3 and CH4. The vertical gradients of all tracers between the surface and the upper troposphere are consistent within the models, revealing vertical transport differences between models. We find that the interhemispheric exchange rate (1.39 ± 0.18 yr derived from SF6 is faster by about 11 % in the 2000s compared to the 1990s. Up to 60 % of the interannual variations in the forward CH4 simulations can be explained by accounting for the interannual variations in emissions from biomass burning and wetlands. We also show that the decadal average growth rate likely reached equilibrium in the early 2000s due to the flattening of anthropogenic emission growth since the late 1990s. The modeled CH4 budget is shown to depend strongly on the troposphere

  18. Model reduction for stochastic chemical systems with abundant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stephen; Cianci, Claudia; Grima, Ramon [School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH93JR, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-07

    Biochemical processes typically involve many chemical species, some in abundance and some in low molecule numbers. We first identify the rate constant limits under which the concentrations of a given set of species will tend to infinity (the abundant species) while the concentrations of all other species remains constant (the non-abundant species). Subsequently, we prove that, in this limit, the fluctuations in the molecule numbers of non-abundant species are accurately described by a hybrid stochastic description consisting of a chemical master equation coupled to deterministic rate equations. This is a reduced description when compared to the conventional chemical master equation which describes the fluctuations in both abundant and non-abundant species. We show that the reduced master equation can be solved exactly for a number of biochemical networks involving gene expression and enzyme catalysis, whose conventional chemical master equation description is analytically impenetrable. We use the linear noise approximation to obtain approximate expressions for the difference between the variance of fluctuations in the non-abundant species as predicted by the hybrid approach and by the conventional chemical master equation. Furthermore, we show that surprisingly, irrespective of any separation in the mean molecule numbers of various species, the conventional and hybrid master equations exactly agree for a class of chemical systems.

  19. Model reduction for stochastic chemical systems with abundant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen; Cianci, Claudia; Grima, Ramon

    2015-12-01

    Biochemical processes typically involve many chemical species, some in abundance and some in low molecule numbers. We first identify the rate constant limits under which the concentrations of a given set of species will tend to infinity (the abundant species) while the concentrations of all other species remains constant (the non-abundant species). Subsequently, we prove that, in this limit, the fluctuations in the molecule numbers of non-abundant species are accurately described by a hybrid stochastic description consisting of a chemical master equation coupled to deterministic rate equations. This is a reduced description when compared to the conventional chemical master equation which describes the fluctuations in both abundant and non-abundant species. We show that the reduced master equation can be solved exactly for a number of biochemical networks involving gene expression and enzyme catalysis, whose conventional chemical master equation description is analytically impenetrable. We use the linear noise approximation to obtain approximate expressions for the difference between the variance of fluctuations in the non-abundant species as predicted by the hybrid approach and by the conventional chemical master equation. Furthermore, we show that surprisingly, irrespective of any separation in the mean molecule numbers of various species, the conventional and hybrid master equations exactly agree for a class of chemical systems.

  20. Taxonomy of Penicillium citrinum and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.A.M.P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Penicillium citrinum and related species have been examined using a combination of partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data, extrolite patterns and phenotypic characters. It is concluded that seven species belong to the series Citrina. Penicillium sizovae and Penicillium steckii are...

  1. Taxonomy of Penicillium citrinum and related species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Penicillium citrinum and related species have been examined using a combination of partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data, extrolite patterns and phenotypic characters. It is concluded that seven species belong to the series Citrina. Penicillium sizovae and Penicillium steckii are re

  2. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  3. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  4. Evolution of {sup 222} Rn and chemical species related with eruptive processes of the Popocatepetl volcano; Evolucion de {sup 222} Rn y especies quimicas relacionadas con procesos eruptivos del volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda Z, P

    1998-10-01

    The study of the water quality for human consumption has always been great importance, considering the factors that can affect water quality as aquifers recharge and underground permeability. In this work, the behavior of three water springs related with the Popocatepetl volcano were studied within April 1997 and March 1998. The spring in Paso de Cortes in the municipality of Amecameca, State of Mexico, and the springs of Atlimeyaya and Axocopan in Atlixco, State of Puebla; the water of these last two springs is used for human consumption. The content of radon in water was determined by means of liquid scintillation, and a concentration of 1.22 Bq/l was found in the spring of Atlimeyaya, which represents 2 % of the maximum permissible level established by ICRP. A significant increase was observed in the Paso de Cortes spring in the month of July 1997. The content of radium, was determined by means of gamma spectrophotometry and small quantities of this element (<0.11 Bq/l) were found. Water chemical analysis also included usual physical-chemical parameters determination by means of conventional methods. The spring of Axocopan, was found to have the major level of minerals, followed by Atlimeyaya and finally the Paso de Cortes spring, which is supplied by recent infiltrated water. Fluoride level showed a peak high level in concentration during the months of October and November, time in which infiltration due to rain is low; concentration level found was above the maximum permissible level established by Mexican authorities for this compound. The other chemical species determined were: Ca{sup 2+} , Mg{sup 2+} , K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, H C O{sub 3} {sup -} , Cl{sup -} , S O{sub 4} {sup -} {sup 2} , Li, B, Sc, Ti, V, Rb, Sr and Ba, primarily, which did not show any significant variation with the change of seasons. No important variations in the concentration of radon, radium or for other volcanic activity related species were found in the entire study. (Author)

  5. Chemical composition of various Ephedra species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida Ibragic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal significance of Ephedra is based on the sympathomimetic properties of ephedrine (E alkaloids. Pharmacological effects depend on the phytocomposition of individual Ephedra species. The aim of this study was to measure the total alkaloids content (TAC, total phenolics content (TPC, and total flavonoids content (TFC and determine their relationship in dry herb of Ephedra major, Ephedra distachya subsp. helvetica, Ephedra monosperma, Ephedra fragilis, Ephedra foeminea, Ephedra alata, Ephedra altissima and Ephedra foliata. Nowadays, medicinal use of Ephedrae herba is limited, but the abuse of its psychostimulants is rising. In this study, TAC, TPC and TFC were determined using spectrophotometric methods. For the first time, ultra-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (UPLC-UV was used for separation and quantification of E-type alkaloids of various Ephedra species. The highest TPC and TFC were found in E. alata (53.3 ± 0.1 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight, 2.8 mg quercetin equivalents/g dry weight, respectively. The total content of E and pseudoephedrine determined by UPLC-UV varied between 20.8 mg/g dry weight (E. distachya subsp. helvetica and 34.7 mg/g dry weight (E. monosperma. The variable content and ratio between secondary metabolites determined in different Ephedra species reflects their metabolic activities. Utilization of UPLC-UV unveiled that this technique is sensitive, selective, and useful for separation and quantification of different alkaloids in complex biological matrixes. The limit of detection was 5 ng. Application of UPLC-UV can be recommended in quick analyses of E-type alkaloids in forensic medicine and quality control of pharmaceutical preparations. 

  6. Molecular Energy Relations From Chemical Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Finkel, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Since molecular energy transformations are responsible for chemical reaction rates at the most fundamental level, chemical kinetics should provide some information about molecular energies. This is the premise and objective of this note. We describe a Hamiltonian formulation for kinetic rate equations where the concentrations are the generalized coordinates and the conjugate momenta are simply related to individual average molecular energies. Simple examples are presented and the resulting en...

  7. Molecular Energy Relations From Chemical Kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Finkel, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Since molecular energy transformations are responsible for chemical reaction rates at the most fundamental level, chemical kinetics should provide some information about molecular energies. This is the premise and objective of this note. We describe a Hamiltonian formulation for kinetic rate equations where the concentrations are the generalized coordinates and the conjugate momenta are simply related to individual average molecular energies. Simple examples are presented and the resulting energy relations naturally include non-equilibrium reactions. An analysis predicts the reasonable outcome that thermal agitation of a composite molecule increases its rate of dissociation.

  8. Chemical Characteristics of Six Woody Species for Alley Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosango, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of six woody species (Leguminosae for alley cropping have been chemically analysed in order to evaluate their potentiality in the restoration of soil fertility. These species are : Acacia mangium, Cajanus cajan, Flemingia grahamiana, F. macrophylla, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nitrogen, carbon, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, active fraction and ash contents were determined as well as C/N and L/N ratios. AH these species appear to be rich in N and C. Fiber contents (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are globally low but variable from one species to another. C/N and L/N ratios are globally low. Among these species, Leucaena leucocephala and Senna spectabilis show the lowest C/N and LIN ratios. Such low values of C/N and L/N are normally found in species with rapid decomposition of organic matter.

  9. Quantification of the removal of chemical species by snow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwikowski, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Bruetsch, S.; Keil, R.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Poulida, O. [Frederick Research Center, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    1997-09-01

    In order to quantify the scavenging of chemical species in mixed phase clouds, in-cloud field experiments were conducted in October and November 1993 at the high-alpine research station Jungfraujoch. On the average, air to snow transfer fractions were rather low with the highest value of 0.5 for nitrate, thus, most of the air borne chemical mass remained in the air parcel after precipitation. (author) 1 fig., 4 refs.

  10. Structure and biological activity of chemically modified nisin A species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollema, Harry S.; Metzger, Jörg W.; Both, Paula; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Siezen, Roland J.

    1996-01-01

    Nisin, a 34-residue peptide bacteriocin, contains the less common amino acids lanthionine, β-methyllanthionine, dehydroalanine (Dha), and dehydrobutyrine (Dhb). Several chemically modified nisin A species were purified by reverse-phase HPLC and characterized by two-dimensional NMR and electrospray m

  11. Wood chemical composition in species of Cactaceae: the relationship between lignification and stem morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyes-Rivera

    Full Text Available In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this process with a chemical focus, emphasizing the role of wood lignification. We hypothesized that the degree of wood lignification in Cactaceae increases with height of the species and that its chemical composition varies with wood anatomy. To test this, we studied the chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content in 13 species (2 WBTs wood, 3 dimorphic, and 8 fibrous with contrasting growth forms. We also analyzed lignification in dimorphic and fibrous species to determine the chemical features of WBTs and fibers and their relationship with stem support. The lignin contents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 11 species have a higher percentage (>35% of lignin in their wood than other angiosperms or gymnosperms. The lignin chemical composition in fibrous species is similar to that of other dicots, but it is markedly heterogeneous in non-fibrous species where WBTs are abundant. The lignification in WBTs is associated with the resistance to high water pressure within cells rather than the contribution to mechanical support. Dimorphic wood species are usually richer in syringyl lignin, and tree-like species with lignified rays have more guaiacyl lignin. The results suggest that wood anatomy and lignin distribution play an important role in the chemical composition of wood, and further research is needed at the cellular level.

  12. Chemical properties of two-year-old deciduous species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, P.; Rolfe, G.L.; Lee, C.S.; White, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Contents of ash, hot-water extractives, 1% sodium hydroxide extractives, alcohol-benzene extractive, lignin, holocellulose, alpha-cellulose, and pentosan were determined on two-year-old, short-rotation trees of autumn olive, black alder, black locust, eastern cottonwood, royal paulownia, silver maple, and sycamore. These plantations were established in 1978 on marginal agricultural land that was not suitable for food production in Illinois. Six comparable species of commercial lumber were also analyzed. Test results indicated that all chemical properties did vary with species, above-ground tree portions, and ages of species. The two-year-old juvenile trees had higher average extractives, holocellulose, pentosan, and ash content than did the lumber of matured wood. Black locust possessed the highest values of holocellulose and alpha-cellulose, while the eastern cottonwood had the highest extractive contents. Silver maple had the highest lignin content. Both bark and branches which consisted of about 32% of the mass weight of young trees, had a higher average lignin, extractive and ash content than those of the stemwood. Based on chemical composition, these seven juvenile deciduous species could serve as a raw material for the paper and chemical industries, as well as for energy. 19 references, 8 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Acute toxicity of eight oil spill response chemicals to temperate, boreal, and Arctic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Bonaunet, Kristin; Overjordet, Ida Beathe

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity of selected shoreline washing agents (SWA) and dispersants, and (2) assess interspecies differences in sensitivity to the products. Eight shoreline washing agents (Hela saneringsvæske, Bios, Bioversal, Absorrep K212, and Corexit 9580) and chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500, Dasic NS, and Gamlen OD4000) were tested on five marine species, algae Skeletonema costatum, planktonic copepod species Acartia tonsa (temperate species), Calanus finmarchicus (boreal species) and Calanus glacialis (Arctic species), and benthic amphipod Corophium volutator. For most products, A. tonsa was the most sensitive species, whereas C. volutator was the least sensitive; however, these species were exposed through different media (water/sediment). In general, all copepod species displayed a relatively similar sensitivity to all products. However, A. tonsa was somewhat more sensitive than other copepods to most of the tested products. Thus, A. tonsa appears to be a candidate species for boreal and Arctic copepods for acute toxicity testing, and data generated on this species may be used as to provide conservative estimates. The benthic species (C. volutator) had a different sensitivity pattern relative to pelagic species, displaying higher sensitivity to solvent-based SWA than to water-based SWA. Comparing product toxicity, the dispersants were in general most toxic while the solvent-based SWA were least toxic to pelagic species. PMID:24754387

  14. High-Temperature Cooper pairing Between Different Chemical Species

    CERN Document Server

    Mackie, M; Piilo, J; Suominen, K A; Javanainen, J; Mackie, Matt; Dannenberg, Olavi; Piilo, Jyrki; Suominen, Kalle-Antti; Javanainen, Juha

    2003-01-01

    First introduced to explain superconductivity, anomalous quantum correlations between degenerate electrons with equal and opposite momentum, i.e., Cooper pairs, are due physically to an electron-electron attraction mediated by the exchange of lattice-vibration-generated phonons. Cooper-like pairing between different chemical species was immediately suggested to explain the larger excitation energy for nuclei with even-rather-than-odd numbers of nucleons, although unambiguous evidence for proton-neutron pairs never manifested. Here we report the prospect of Cooper pairing between different chemical species in a degenerate Fermi atom-molecule mixture submerged in a Bose condensate of atoms, a state enabled via two-color Raman photoassociation of a Bose-Fermi mixture of degenerate atoms. Condensate density fluctuations replace the vibrating ion lattice of the superconductor, and phonon exchange induces atom-molecule Cooper pairing at about a third of the Fermi temperature.

  15. Multiple species reactive chemical transport in groundwater: A verification exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two multiple-species reactive chemical transport models (FASTCHEM and DYNAMIX) were tested against each other to check for consistency of solutions. For the particular problem studied, FASTCHEM and DYNAMIX led to differences in aqueous concentrations and mineral assemblages primarily because FASTCHEM ignores redox reactions in the transport phase of the calculations. Also, the spatial concentration profiles generated by FASTCHEM tend to be sharper than those generated by DYNAMIX because FASTCHEM is particularly designed to handle advection-dominated transport systems

  16. Using phylogenetic information and chemical properties to predict species tolerances to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénard, Guillaume; Carsten von der Ohe, Peter; Carlisle Walker, Steven; Lek, Sovan; Legendre, Pierre

    2014-08-22

    Direct estimation of species' tolerance to pesticides and other toxic organic substances is a combinatorial problem, because of the large number of species-substance pairs. We propose a statistical modelling approach to predict tolerances associated with untested species-substance pairs, by using models fitted to tested pairs. This approach is based on the phylogeny of species and physico-chemical descriptors of pesticides, with both kinds of information combined in a bilinear model. This bilinear modelling approach predicts tolerance in untested species-compound pairs based on the facts that closely related species often respond similarly to toxic compounds and that chemically similar compounds often have similar toxic effects. The three tolerance models (median lethal concentration after 96 h) used up to 25 aquatic animal species and up to nine pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphates and carbamates). Phylogeny was estimated using DNA sequences, while the pesticides were described by their mode of toxic action and their octanol-water partition coefficients. The models explained 77-84% of the among-species variation in tolerance (log10 LC50). In cross-validation, 84-87% of the predicted tolerances for individual species were within a factor of 10 of the observed values. The approach can also be used to model other species response to multivariate stress factors.

  17. Quantum chemical investigation on structures and energetics of Tungsten Fluoride (WF$_{n}^{f}$) species ( = 0, ±1; < 6)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ambrish Kumar Srivastava; Anoop Kumar Pandey; Neeraj Misra

    2015-10-01

    The present work deals with a systematic study on WF species using ab initio density functional method. The geometrical features related to the equilibrium structures of WF species up to = 5 are highlighted and the effect of addition as well as removal of an electron is discussed. The chemical stability of these species is discussed by calculating their HOMO-LUMO energy gap and binding energy per atom. The frontier molecular orbital surfaces are also analyzed. The energy based electronic properties such as ionization potential, electron affinity, absolute electronegativity and chemical hardness are also evaluated which provide insights into chemical reactivity of these species.

  18. Astrochem: Abundances of chemical species in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Sébastien; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2015-07-01

    Astrochem computes the abundances of chemical species in the interstellar medium, as function of time. It studies the chemistry in a variety of astronomical objects, including diffuse clouds, dense clouds, photodissociation regions, prestellar cores, protostars, and protostellar disks. Astrochem reads a network of chemical reactions from a text file, builds up a system of kinetic rates equations, and solves it using a state-of-the-art stiff ordinary differential equation (ODE) solver. The Jacobian matrix of the system is computed implicitly, so the resolution of the system is extremely fast: large networks containing several thousands of reactions are usually solved in a few seconds. A variety of gas phase process are considered, as well as simple gas-grain interactions, such as the freeze-out and the desorption via several mechanisms (thermal desorption, cosmic-ray desorption and photo-desorption). The computed abundances are written in a HDF5 file, and can be plotted in different ways with the tools provided with Astrochem. Chemical reactions and their rates are written in a format which is meant to be easy to read and to edit. A tool to convert the chemical networks from the OSU and KIDA databases into this format is also provided. Astrochem is written in C, and its source code is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL).

  19. Stabilizing Chemical Reality: The Analytic-Synthetic Ideal of Chemical Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Gyung Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry is a science of analysis and synthesis. This simple statement characterizes chemistry as an art that breaks down the ‘nature out there’ and puts it back together in a form convenient to our use. It hides the fact that chemical substances are products of the analytic and synthetic methods invented at particular places and times in history. Objects of chemical inquiry are not a random collection of natural and artificial substances but are constituted by the stable laboratory procedures that shape chemical worlds. Recent concession to the historical contingency of chemical theories falls short of acknowledging this material contingency of chemical realities. To the latter end, this paper highlights how French chemists consolidated the analytic-synthetic ideal of chemical species by making their evolving analytic methods compatible to each other through a series of theoretical moments and thereby stabilized their objects of inquiry, theory domains (composition, affinity, and constitution and disciplinary terrain. Stabilizing chemical substances has always required normalizing the methods of identifying them and a comprehensive classification that naturalizes them.

  20. The relative sensitivity of macrophyte and algal species to herbicides and fungicides: an analysis using species sensitivity distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Jeffrey M; Arts, Gertie; Hommen, Udo

    2013-04-01

    Lemna spp. are the standard test species representing aquatic macrophytes in the current risk assessment schemes for herbicides and plant growth regulators in the European Union and North America. At a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) 2008 workshop on Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides (AMRAP), a Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) working group was formed to address uncertainties about the sensitivity of Lemna spp. relative to other aquatic macrophyte species. For 11 herbicides and 3 fungicides for which relevant and reliable data were found for at least 6 macrophyte species, SSDs were fitted using lognormal regression. The positions of L. gibba (the most commonly tested Lemna species) and Myriophyllum spicatum (for which standardized test methods are under development) in each SSD were determined where data were available. The sensitivity of standard algal test species required for pesticide registration in the United States under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) relative to the macrophytes in each SSD was also examined (algae were not included in the SSD). L. gibba was among the most sensitive macrophyte species for approximately 50% of the chemicals examined. M. spicatum was among the most sensitive macrophytes for approximately 25% of the chemicals. In most cases, the lowest FIFRA algal species endpoint was lower than the most sensitive macrophyte endpoint. Although no single species consistently represented the most sensitive aquatic plant species, for 12 of 14 chemicals L. gibba and the FIFRA algae included an endpoint near or below the 5th percentile of the macrophyte SSD. For the other compounds, M. spicatum was the most sensitive species of all aquatic plants considered. PMID:23229339

  1. Electrophoretic karyotypes of some related Mucor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Palagyi, Z; Vastag, M; Ferenczy, L; Vágvölgyi, C

    2000-07-01

    Contour clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis was used to obtain electrophoretic karyotypes from nine Mucor strains representing five different species (M. bainieri, M. circinelloides, M. mucedo, M. plumbeus and M. racemosus). The chromosomal banding patterns revealed high variability among the isolates. The sizes of the DNA in the Mucor chromosomes were estimated to be between 2.5 and 8.7 Mb. The total genome sizes were calculated to be between 30.0 and 44.7 Mb. The applicability of these electrophoretic karyotypes for the investigation of genome structure, for strain identification and for species delimitation is considered.

  2. Chemical compositions of two different Thymus species essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Jaberi; Mahmoodreza Moein; Azizolah Jafari; Forough Karami

    2015-01-01

    Thymus is one of the most important members of Lamiaceae family. Aerial parts of the plant have been widely used in medicine. It has been reported that most of these effects are related to phenolic compounds especially thymol and carvacrol in Thymus essential oil. In this study, aerial parts of Thymus daenensis and Thymus lancifolius were collected from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Iran. Essential oils of aerial parts of these plants were gained by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical...

  3. From chemical reactions to evolution: Emergence of species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletti, T.; Fanelli, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Chemoton model constitutes a minimalistic description of a protocell unit. The original formulation assumes three coupled chemical networks, representing a proto-metabolism, a template duplication and the membrane growth. An improved version is here proposed that explicitly incorporates the effects of the volume changes, due to the membrane growth. A stochastic mechanism is also introduced that mimics a stochastic source of error in the template duplication process. Numerical simulations are performed to monitor the time evolution of a family of protocells, under the chemoton hypothesis. An open-ended Darwinian evolution under the pressure of the environment is reproduced thus allowing to conclude that differentiation into species is an emergent property of the model.

  4. MICROMORPHOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF SOME LICHENIZED FUNGI SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÎNDARU DIANA-MIHAELA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, lichenized fungi are used in biomonitoring studies of air quality, being good receptors in the climate change. This paper aims to investigate surface micromorphology of Xanthoria parietina and Phaeophyscia orbicularis species (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota. The study also includes the investigation of selected chemical parameters as pH and conductivity of the lichenized fungi samples collected from various locations in the Iaşi County (Romania. Measurements of the pH provide information on the degree of pollution in the location of interest. Bark trees pH was also investigated in order to see if our matrix substrate influences the pH of the interest lichenized fungi samples.

  5. Chemical Species of Aluminum Lons in Acid Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XURENKOU; JIGUOLIANG

    1998-01-01

    Soil samples collected from several acid soils in Guangdong,Fujian,Zhejiang and Anhui provinces of the southern China were employded to characterize the chemical species of aluminum ions in the soils.The proportion or monoeric inorganic Al to total Al in soil solution was in the range of 19% to 70%,that of monomeric organlic Al (Al-OM) to total Al ranged from 7.7% to 69%,and that of the acid-soluble Al to total Al was generally smaller and was lower than 20% in most of the acid soils studied ,The Al-OM concentration in soil solution was postively correlated with the content of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and aslo affected by the concentration of Al3+,The complexes of aluminum with fluoride(Al-F) were the predominant forms of inorganic Al,and the proportion of Al-F compexes to total inorganic Al increased with pH.Under strongly acid ondition,Al3+ was also a mjaor form of inorganic Al,and the proportio of Al3+ to total inorganic Al decreased with increasing pH.The,proportions of Al-OH and Al-SO4 complexes to total inorganic Al were small and were not larger than 10% in the most acid soils.The concentration of inorganic Al in solution depended largely on pH and the concentration of total F in soil solution,The concentrations of Al-OM,Al3+,Al-F and Al-OH complexes in topsoil were higher than those in subsoil and decreased with the increase in soil depth,The chemical species of aluminum ions were influenced by pH,The concentrations of Al-OM, Al3+,Al-F complexes and Al-OH complexes decreased with the increase in pH.

  6. Chemical composition of some wild peanut species (Arachis L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, N R; Nepote, V; Guzmán, C A

    2000-03-01

    Oil, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents, iodine value, and fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis trinitensis, A. chiquitana, A. kempff-mercadoi, A. diogoi, A. benensis, A. appressipila, A. valida, A. kretschmeri, A. helodes, A. kuhlmannii, A. williamsii, A. sylvestris, A. matiensis, A. pintoi, A. hoehnei, A. villosa, and A. stenosperma. Oil content was greatest in A.stenosperma (mean value = 51.8%). The protein level was higher in A. sylvestris (30.1%) and A. villosa (29.5%). Mean value of oleic acid varied between 30.6% (A. matiensis) and 46.8% (Arachis villosa), and linoleic acid oscillated between 34.1% (A. villosa) and 47.4% (A. appressipila). The better oleic-to-linoleic (O/L) ratio was exhibited by A. villosa (1.38). Some species showed higher concentration of behenic acid. The greatest level of this fatty acid was found in A. matiensis (6.2%). Iodine value was lower in A. valida (99.2). The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of beta-sitosterol (mean values oscillated between 55.7 and 60.2%) followed by campesterol (12.4-16. 5%), stigmasterol (9.7-13.3%), and Delta(5)-avenasterol (9.7-13.4%). The chemical quality and stability of oils (iodine value and O/L ratio) from wild peanut studied in this work are not better than those of cultivated peanut. PMID:10725154

  7. Chemical and physical structures of proteinoids and related polyamino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Hajime; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Nomoto, Shinya

    Studies of polyamino acid formation pathways in the prebiotic condition are important for the study of the origins of life. Several pathways of prebiotic polyamino acid formation have been reported. Heating of monoammonium malate [1] and heating of amino acids in molten urea [2] are important pathways of the prebiotic peptide formation. The former case, globular structure called proteinoid microsphere is formed in aqueous conditions. The later case, polyamino acids are formed from unrestricted amino acid species. Heating of aqueous aspargine is also interesting pathway for the prebiotic polyamino acid formation, because polyamino acid formation proceeds in aqueous condition [3]. In this study, we analyzed the chemical structure of the proteinoids and related polyamino acids formed in the above three pathways using with mass spectrometer. In addition, their physical structures are analyzed by the electron and optical microscopes, in order to determine the self-organization abilities. We discuss the relation between the chemical and the physical structures for the origins of life. References [1] Harada, K., J. Org. Chem., 24, 1662 (1959), Fox, S. W., Harada, K., and Kendrick, J., Science, 129, 1221 (1959). [2] Terasaki, M., Nomoto, S., Mita, H., and Shimoyama, A., Chem. Lett., 480 (2002), Mita, H., Nomoto, S., Terasaki, M., Shimoyama, A., and Yamamoto, Y., Int. J. Astrobiol., 4, 145 (2005). [3] Kovacs, K and Nagy, H., Nature, 190, 531 (1961), Munegumi, T., Tanikawa, N., Mita, H. and Harada, K., Viva Origino, 22, 109 (1994).

  8. [Advances in studies on chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qian-Jun; Kang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qing-Di

    2013-12-01

    The chemical constituents isolated from Desmodium species (Leguminosae) included terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids compounds. Modem pharmacological studies have showed that the Desmodium species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic and choleretic activity. This article mainly has reviewed the research advances of chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species since 2003. PMID:24791478

  9. Chemical equilibrium. [maximizing entropy of gas system to derive relations between thermodynamic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The entropy of a gas system with the number of particles subject to external control is maximized to derive relations between the thermodynamic variables that obtain at equilibrium. These relations are described in terms of the chemical potential, defined as equivalent partial derivatives of entropy, energy, enthalpy, free energy, or free enthalpy. At equilibrium, the change in total chemical potential must vanish. This fact is used to derive the equilibrium constants for chemical reactions in terms of the partition functions of the species involved in the reaction. Thus the equilibrium constants can be determined accurately, just as other thermodynamic properties, from a knowledge of the energy levels and degeneracies for the gas species involved. These equilibrium constants permit one to calculate the equilibrium concentrations or partial pressures of chemically reacting species that occur in gas mixtures at any given condition of pressure and temperature or volume and temperature.

  10. Device for collecting chemical compounds and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Groenewold, Gary S.; Rae, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from the fixed surfaces so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  11. Tree species traits influence soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in high elevation forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ayres

    mites did not. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although some soil characteristics were unaffected by tree species identity, our results clearly demonstrate that these dominant tree species are associated with soils that differ in several physical, chemical, and biotic properties. Ongoing environmental changes in this region, e.g. changes in fire regime, frequency of insect outbreaks, changes in precipitation patterns and snowpack, and land-use change, may alter the relative abundance of these tree species over coming decades, which in turn will likely alter the soils.

  12. Chemical compositions of two different Thymus species essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Jaberi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thymus is one of the most important members of Lamiaceae family. Aerial parts of the plant have been widely used in medicine. It has been reported that most of these effects are related to phenolic compounds especially thymol and carvacrol in Thymus essential oil. In this study, aerial parts of Thymus daenensis and Thymus lancifolius were collected from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Iran. Essential oils of aerial parts of these plants were gained by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography/ Mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The major components of the essential oil of T. daenensis were thymol (39.91%, carvacrol (29.93%, linalool (5.55%, caryophyllene (3.5% and geraniol (3.09%, whereas the major components of the essential oil of T. lancifolius were: carvacrol (25.55%, thymol (20.79%, linalool (16.8%, α-terpineol (6.34%, borneol (4.00%, caryophyllene (3.98%, p-cymene (3.38% and cis-linalool oxide (3.21%. Linalool was reported as another major component in T. lancifolius

  13. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus fumigatus and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, S.B.; Go, S.J.; Shin, H.D.;

    2005-01-01

    The variability within Aspergillus fumigalus Fresenius and related species was examined using macro-, micro-morphology, growth temperature regimes and extrolite patterns. In addition, DNA analyses including partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and actin gene sequences were used. Detailed examination ...

  14. Varying importance of cuticular hydrocarbons and iridoids in the species-specific mate recognition pheromones of three closely related Leptopilina species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar eWeiss

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Finding a suitable mate for reproduction is one of the most important tasks for almost all animals. In insects this task is often facilitated by pheromone-mediated communication. While insect pheromones in general show enormous chemical diversity, closely related species often use structurally similar compounds in their pheromones. Despite this similarity, pheromones of congeneric species living in sympatry need to be species specific.We investigated the pheromone-mediated mate recognition by males of three closely related species of Leptopilina, a genus of parasitoid wasps that utilize the larvae of Drosophila as hosts. The study species, L. heterotoma, L. boulardi, and L. victoriae, occur sympatrically and have a similar ecology and life history. We have found that mate recognition is species specific in all three species. This species specificity is achieved by a differing importance of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs and iridoids in the female mate recognition pheromones. In L. heterotoma the iridoids are of major importance while CHCs play a negligible role. In L. boulardi, however, the CHCs are as important as the iridoids, while in L. victoriae, the CHCs alone elicit a full behavioral response of males.Our results provide novel insights into pheromone evolution in insects by showing that selection on two completely different classes of chemical compounds may generate conditions where compounds from both classes contribute to a varying degree to the chemical communication of closely related species and that this variation also generates the species specificity of the signals.

  15. Expanding the species and chemical diversity of Penicillium section Cinnamopurpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Stephen W; Jurjević, Željko; Frisvad, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    A set of isolates very similar to or potentially conspecific with an unidentified Penicillium isolate NRRL 735, was assembled using a BLAST search of ITS similarity among described (GenBank) and undescribed Penicillium isolates in our laboratories. DNA was amplified from six loci of the assembled isolates and sequenced. Two species in section Cinnamopurpurea are self-compatible sexual species, but the asexual species had polymorphic loci suggestive of sexual reproduction and variation in conidium size suggestive of ploidy level differences typical of heterothallism. Accordingly we use genealogical concordance analysis, a technique valid only in heterothallic organisms, for putatively asexual species. Seven new species were revealed in the analysis and are described here. Extrolite analysis showed that two of the new species, P. colei and P. monsserratidens produce the mycotoxin citreoviridin that has demonstrated pharmacological activity against human lung tumors. These isolates could provide leads in pharmaceutical research.

  16. Expanding the species and chemical diversity of Penicillium section Cinnamopurpurea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Peterson

    Full Text Available A set of isolates very similar to or potentially conspecific with an unidentified Penicillium isolate NRRL 735, was assembled using a BLAST search of ITS similarity among described (GenBank and undescribed Penicillium isolates in our laboratories. DNA was amplified from six loci of the assembled isolates and sequenced. Two species in section Cinnamopurpurea are self-compatible sexual species, but the asexual species had polymorphic loci suggestive of sexual reproduction and variation in conidium size suggestive of ploidy level differences typical of heterothallism. Accordingly we use genealogical concordance analysis, a technique valid only in heterothallic organisms, for putatively asexual species. Seven new species were revealed in the analysis and are described here. Extrolite analysis showed that two of the new species, P. colei and P. monsserratidens produce the mycotoxin citreoviridin that has demonstrated pharmacological activity against human lung tumors. These isolates could provide leads in pharmaceutical research.

  17. Expanding the species and chemical diversity of Penicillium section Cinnamopurpurea

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Stephen W.; Jurjević, Željko; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    A set of isolates very similar to or potentially conspecific with an unidentified Penicillium isolate NRRL 735, was assembled using a BLAST search of ITS similarity among described (GenBank) and undescribed Penicillium isolates in our laboratories. DNA was amplified from six loci of the assembled isolates and sequenced. Two species in section Cinnamopurpurea are self-compatible sexual species, but the asexual species had polymorphic loci suggestive of sexual reproduction and variation in coni...

  18. Closing in on chemical bonds by opening up relativity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Cynthia K

    2008-03-01

    This paper develops a connection between the phenomenology of chemical bonding and the theory of relativity. Empirical correlations between electron numbers in atoms and chemical bond stabilities in molecules are first reviewed and extended. Quantitative chemical bond strengths are then related to ionization potentials in elements. Striking patterns in ionization potentials are revealed when the data are viewed in an element-independent way, where element-specific details are removed via an appropriate scaling law. The scale factor involved is not explained by quantum mechanics; it is revealed only when one goes back further, to the development of Einstein's special relativity theory. PMID:19325749

  19. Closing in on chemical bonds by opening up relativity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Cynthia K

    2008-03-01

    This paper develops a connection between the phenomenology of chemical bonding and the theory of relativity. Empirical correlations between electron numbers in atoms and chemical bond stabilities in molecules are first reviewed and extended. Quantitative chemical bond strengths are then related to ionization potentials in elements. Striking patterns in ionization potentials are revealed when the data are viewed in an element-independent way, where element-specific details are removed via an appropriate scaling law. The scale factor involved is not explained by quantum mechanics; it is revealed only when one goes back further, to the development of Einstein's special relativity theory.

  20. Chemical Diversity as a Function of Temperature in Six Northern Diatom Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Huseby

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate how metabolic fingerprints are related to temperature. Six common northern temperate diatoms (Attheya longicornis, Chaetoceros socialis, Chaetoceros furcellatus, Porosira glacialis, Skeletonema marinoi, and Thalassiosira gravida were cultivated at two different temperatures, 0.5 and 8.5 °C. To exclude metabolic variations due to differences in growth rates, the growth rates were kept similar by performing the experiments under light limited conditions but in exponential growth phase. Growth rates and maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis were measured and interpreted as physiological variables, and metabolic fingerprints were acquired by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The chemical diversity varied substantially between the two temperatures for the tested species, ranging from 31% similarity for C. furcellatus and P. glacialis to 81% similarity for A. longicornis. The chemical diversity was generally highest at the lowest temperature.

  1. Evolution of {sup 222} Rn and chemical species related with eruptive processes of the Popocatepetl volcano; Evolucion de {sup 222} Rn y especies quimicas relacionadas con procesos eruptivos del volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Hernandez, A.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The {sup 222} Rn monitoring in the Popocatepetl volcano was initiated on 1993. At December 21, 1994 it is initiated an eruptive stage in the volcano with gas emission, ashes and the lava dome formation on the crater at middle 1996. During all this time it has been determined radon concentrations on soils with active and passive detectors. In this work the changes in radon contents are reported also the physicochemical parameters in spring water related with the volcanic building associated to the recent activity of the volcano. (Author)

  2. Woody species colonisation in relation to habitat productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R.; Olff, H.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyse the effect of habitat productivity on woody species colonisation. Three soil types were distinguished: a relatively poor sandy soil type (1), a somewhat richer sandy type (2) and a relatively rich sandy loamy type (3). Chronosequences were established on these three

  3. Climate-induced range overlap among closely related species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosby, Meade; Wilsey, Chad B.; McGuire, Jenny L.; Duggan, Jennifer M.; Nogeire, Theresa M.; Heinrichs, Julie A.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary climate change is causing large shifts in biotic distributions, which has the potential to bring previously isolated, closely related species into contact. This has led to concern that hybridization and competition could threaten species persistence. Here, we use bioclimatic models to show that future range overlap by the end of the century is predicted for only 6.4% of isolated, congeneric species pairs of New World birds, mammals and amphibians. Projected rates of climate-induced overlap are higher for birds (11.6%) than for mammals (4.4%) or amphibians (3.6%). As many species will have difficulty tracking shifting climates, actual rates of future overlap are likely to be far lower, suggesting that hybridization and competition impacts may be relatively modest.

  4. Molecular relationships between closely related strains and species of nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M. H.; Wall, S. M.; Luehrsen, K. R.; Fox, G. E.; Hecht, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrophoretic comparisons have been made for 24 enzymes in the Bergerac and Bristol strains of Caenorhabditis elegans and the related species, Caenorhabditis briggsae. No variation was detected between the two strains of C. elegans. In contrast, the two species, C. elegans and C. briggsae exhibited electrophoretic differences in 22 of 24 enzymes. A consensus 5S rRNA sequence was determined for C. elegans and found to be identical to that from C. briggsae. By analogy with other species with relatively well established fossil records it can be inferred that the time of divergence between the two nematode species is probably in the tens of millions of years. The limited anatomical evolution during a time period in which proteins undergo extensive changes supports the hypothesis that anatomical evolution is not dependent on overall protein changes.

  5. Relative influence of chemical and non-chemical stressors on invertebrate communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Brink, van den Paul J.; Leitner, Patrick; Graf, Wolfram; Focks, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals has been to evaluate the relative contribution of chemical pollution to the variability observed in biological communities, as well as to identify multiple stressor groups. In this study we evaluated the toxic pressure exerted by >

  6. Chemical equilibrium of ablation materials including condensed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, C. W.; Brinkley, K. L.

    1975-01-01

    Equilibrium is determined by finding chemical composition with minimum free energy. Method of steepest descent is applied to quadratic representation of free-energy surface. Solution is initiated by selecting arbitrary set of mole fractions, from which point on free-energy surface is computed.

  7. First Chemical Analysis and Characterization of the Male Species-Specific Cephalic Labial-Gland Secretions of South American Bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasero, Nicolas; Martinet, Baptiste; Urbanová, Klára; Valterová, Irena; Torres, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Rasmont, Pierre; Lecocq, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The evolution of signals and reproductive traits involved in the pre-mating recognition has been in focus of abundant research in several model species, such as bumblebees (genus Bombus). However, the most-studied bumblebee reproductive trait, the male cephalic labial gland secretions (CLGS), remains unknown among bumblebee species from South America. In this study, the CLGS of five South American bumblebees of the subgenera Thoracobombus (Bombus excellens and B. atratus) and Cullumanobombus (B. rubicundus, B. hortulanus, and B. melaleucus) were investigated, by comparing the chemical compositions of their secretions to those of closely related European species. The results showed an obvious interspecific differentiation in both subgenera. The interspecific differentiation among the species of the Thoracobombus subgenus involved different compounds present at high contents (main compounds), while those of the Cullumanobombus subgenus shared the same main components. This suggests that among the species of the Cullumanobombus subgenus, the differentiation in minor components could lead to species discrimination. PMID:26460558

  8. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF PSEUDOPTEROGORGIA SPECIES OF THE INDIAN OCEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MULABAGAL VANISREE; GOTTUMUKKALA V.SUBBARAJU; CH.BHEEMASANKARA RAO

    2001-01-01

    A new ceramide, (2S,3R,4E)-l,3-dihydroxy-2-[(hexadecanoyl)amino]-nonadeca-4-ene (1), chol est-5-en-3β,7β,19-triol (2), identified as its, peracetyl derivative (3), and batyl alcohol (4) were isolated from Pseudopterogorgia species. 1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  9. Predicting aquatic toxicities of chemical pesticides in multiple test species using nonlinear QSTR modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, Nikita; Gupta, Shikha; Singh, Kunwar P

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we established nonlinear quantitative-structure toxicity relationship (QSTR) models for predicting the toxicities of chemical pesticides in multiple aquatic test species following the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidelines. The decision tree forest (DTF) and decision tree boost (DTB) based QSTR models were constructed using a pesticides toxicity dataset in Selenastrum capricornutum and a set of six descriptors. Other six toxicity data sets were used for external validation of the constructed QSTRs. Global QSTR models were also constructed using the combined dataset of all the seven species. The diversity in chemical structures and nonlinearity in the data were evaluated. Model validation was performed deriving several statistical coefficients for the test data and the prediction and generalization abilities of the QSTRs were evaluated. Both the QSTR models identified WPSA1 (weighted charged partial positive surface area) as the most influential descriptor. The DTF and DTB QSTRs performed relatively better than the single decision tree (SDT) and support vector machines (SVM) models used as a benchmark here and yielded R(2) of 0.886 and 0.964 between the measured and predicted toxicity values in the complete dataset (S. capricornutum). The QSTR models applied to six other aquatic species toxicity data yielded R(2) of >0.92 (DTF) and >0.97 (DTB), respectively. The prediction accuracies of the global models were comparable with those of the S. capricornutum models. The results suggest for the appropriateness of the developed QSTR models to reliably predict the aquatic toxicity of chemicals and can be used for regulatory purpose.

  10. Chemically engineering ligand selectivity at the free fatty acid receptor 2 based on pharmacological variation between species orthologs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Brian D; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Tikhonova, Irina G;

    2012-01-01

    When it is difficult to develop selective ligands within a family of related G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), chemically engineered receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands (RASSLs) are useful alternatives for probing receptor function. In the present work, we explored whether a RASSL...... on this receptor and demonstrates that exploitation of pharmacological variation between species orthologs is a powerful method to generate novel chemically engineered GPCRs.-Hudson, B. D., Christiansen, E., Tikhonova, I. G., Grundmann, M., Kostenis, E., Adams, D. R., Ulven, T., Milligan, G. Chemically engineering...

  11. Woody species colonisation in relation to habitat productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, R; Olff, H.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyse the effect of habitat productivity on woody species colonisation. Three soil types were distinguished: a relatively poor sandy soil type (1), a somewhat richer sandy type (2) and a relatively rich sandy loamy type (3). Chronosequences were established on these three soil types of 38 (type 1), 20 (type 2) and 54 years (type 3) after abandonment. In total 117 vegetation relevées were used to analyse life form change and species responses during old field success...

  12. Environmental Issues Related to Chemical Fertilizer Use in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOZHIHONG

    1996-01-01

    The current status of chemical fertilizers production and consumption in China as well as their important roles in Chinese modern agriculture are discussed with special concerns to the environmental issues related to chemical fertilizer use.On the one hand.the total amount of chemical fertilizer produced is insufficient to meet the agricultural needs.On the other hand.the production and consumption of chemical fertilizers in China are obviously not balanced.In some areas over application of nitrogen fertilizers and loss of phosphate fertilizer due to soil erosion have resulted in some undesirable environmental problems such as increase of nitrate in water and eutrophication of water bodies.Maximum scientific uses of organic manures in combination with reasonable use of chemical fertilizers are part of good practices not only in increasuing soil productivity and keeping sustainable agriculture development but also in minimizing their detrimental effects on the environment.

  13. On the segregation of chemical species in a clear boundary layer over heterogeneous land surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Ouwersloot

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We have systematically studied the inability of boundary layer turbulence to efficiently mix reactive species. This creates regions where the species are accumulated in a correlated or anti-correlated way, thereby modifying the mean reactivity. Here, we quantify this modification by the intensity of segregation, IS, and analyse the driving mechanisms: heterogeneity of the surface moisture and heat fluxes, various background wind patterns and non-uniform isoprene emissions. For typical conditions in the Amazon rain forest, applying homogeneous surface forcings, the isoprene-OH reaction rate is altered by less than 10 %. This is substantially smaller than the previously assumed IS of 50 % in recent large-scale model analyses of tropical rain forest chemistry. Spatial heterogeneous surface emissions enhance the segregation of species, leading to alterations of the chemical reaction rates of up to 20 %. For these cases, spatial segregation is induced by heterogeneities of the surface properties: a cool and wet forested patch characterized by high isoprene emissions is alternated with a warm and dry patch that represents pasture with relatively low isoprene emissions. The intensities of segregation are enhanced when the background wind direction is parallel to the borders between the patches and reduced in case of a perpendicular wind direction. The effects of segregation on trace gas concentrations vary per species. For the highly reactive OH, the differences in concentration averaged over the boundary layer are less than 2 % compared to homogeneous surface conditions, while the isoprene concentration is increased by as much as 12 % due to the reduced chemical reaction rates. These processes take place at the sub-grid scale of chemistry transport models and therefore need to be parameterized.

  14. Diffusion/Dispersion Transport of Chemically Reacting Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helgeson, Harold; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-06-06

    The project characterized and quantified as a function of pressure, temperature and bulk composition the exergonic intra- and extracellular reactions catalyzed by thermo- and hyperthermophilic microbes at the oil-water interface in sedimentary basins. The reactions have been characterized and described quantitatively in terms of the chemical potentials of the components of the system in compositional hyperspace using thermodynamics, together with Gibbs free energy minimization and mass transfer computer experiments. A quantitative understanding of the biogeochemical processes responsible for the degradation of reservoired petroleum is fundamental to minimize the deleterious effects of microbial sulfidization and degradation processes.

  15. Closing in on Chemical Bonds by Opening up Relativity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Kolb Whitney

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a connection between the phenomenology of chemical bonding and the theory of relativity. Empirical correlations between electron numbers in atoms and chemical bond stabilities in molecules are first reviewed and extended. Quantitative chemical bond strengths are then related to ionization potentials in elements. Striking patterns in ionization potentials are revealed when the data are viewed in an element-independent way, where element-specific details are removed via an appropriate scaling law. The scale factor involved is not explained by quantum mechanics; it is revealed only when one goes back further, to the development of Einstein’s special relativity theory.

  16. Computing multi-species chemical equilibrium with an algorithm based on the reaction extents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model for the solution of a set of chemical equilibrium equations in a multi-species and multiphase chemical system is described. The computer-aid solution of model is achieved by means of a Newton-Raphson method enhanced with a line-search scheme, which deals with the non-negative......A mathematical model for the solution of a set of chemical equilibrium equations in a multi-species and multiphase chemical system is described. The computer-aid solution of model is achieved by means of a Newton-Raphson method enhanced with a line-search scheme, which deals with the non......-negative constrains. The residual function, representing the distance to the equilibrium, is defined from the chemical potential (or Gibbs energy) of the chemical system. Local minimums are potentially avoided by the prioritization of the aqueous reactions with respect to the heterogeneous reactions. The formation...

  17. Chemical espionage by parasitic wasps. How Trichogramma species exploit moth sex pheromone systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noldus, L.P.J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Interactions between insects are for a great deal mediated by semiochemicals. For instance, female moths release specific volatile chemicals in order to attract males of the same species. These substances are called sex pheromones. Egg parasitoids use various chemical cues in their search for hosts,

  18. Structural and chemical characterization of hardwood from tree species with applications as bioenergy feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkol, Özgül Persil; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Cheng, Gang; Lao, Jeemeng; George, Anthe; Hong, Kunlun; Henry, Robert; Simmons, Blake A; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Holmes, Bradley M

    2012-01-01

    Eucalypt species are a group of flowering trees widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key tree species. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of tree species for use as biorefinery feedstocks. PMID:23300786

  19. Structural and Chemical Characterization of Hardwood from Tree Species with Applications as Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çetinkol, Özgül Persil; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M.; Cheng, Gang; Lao, Jeemeng; George, Anthe; Hong, Kunlun; Henry, Robert; Simmons, Blake A.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Holmes, Bradley M.; Zabotina, Olga A.

    2012-12-28

    Eucalypt species are a group of flowering trees widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key tree species. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of tree species for use as biorefinery feedstocks.

  20. Relative species abundance of replicator dynamics with sparse interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Tokita, Kei

    2016-01-01

    A theory of relative species abundance on sparsely-connected networks is presented by investigating the replicator dynamics with symmetric interactions. Sparseness of a network involves difficulty in analyzing the fixed points of the equation, and we avoid this problem by treating large self interaction $u$, which allows us to construct a perturbative expansion. Based on this perturbation, we find that the nature of the interactions is directly connected to the abundance distribution, and some characteristic behaviors, such as multiple peaks in the abundance distribution and all species coexistence at moderate values of $u$, are discovered in a wide class of the distribution of the interactions. The all species coexistence collapses at a critical value of $u$, $u_c$, and this collapsing is regarded as a phase transition. To get more quantitative information, we also construct a non-perturbative theory on random graphs based on techniques of statistical mechanics. The result shows those characteristic behavior...

  1. Stabilizing Chemical Reality: The Analytic-Synthetic Ideal of Chemical Species

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Gyung Kim

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry is a science of analysis and synthesis. This simple statement characterizes chemistry as an art that breaks down the ‘nature out there’ and puts it back together in a form convenient to our use. It hides the fact that chemical substances are products of the analytic and synthetic methods invented at particular places and times in history. Objects of chemical inquiry are not a random collection of natural and artificial substances but are constituted by the stable laboratory procedur...

  2. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M.; Lucas, Kurt; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-09-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air.

  3. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Pascale S J; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M; Lucas, Kurt; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air. PMID:27605301

  4. Chemical exposure-response relationship between air pollutants and reactive oxygen species in the human respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Pascale S. J.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Arangio, Andrea M.; Lucas, Kurt; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases. Ambient ozone readily saturates the ELF and can enhance oxidative stress by depleting antioxidants and surfactants. Chemical exposure-response relations provide a quantitative basis for assessing the relative importance of specific air pollutants in different regions of the world, showing that aerosol-induced epithelial ROS levels in polluted megacity air can be several orders of magnitude higher than in pristine rainforest air. PMID:27605301

  5. Chemical and genetic characterization of Phlomis species and wild hybrids in Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Luciana; Stefanakis, Michalis K; Kokkini, Stella; Katerinopoulos, Haralambos E; Pirintsos, Stergios A

    2016-02-01

    The genus Phlomis is represented in the island of Crete (Greece, Eastern Mediterranean) by three species Phlomis cretica C. Presl., Phlomis fruticosa L., the island endemic Phlomis lanata Willd. and three hybrids Phlomis x cytherea Rech.f. (P. cretica x P. fruticosa), Phlomis x commixta Rech.f. (P. cretica x P. lanata) and Phlomis x sieberi Vierh. (P. fruticosa x P. lanata). This work describes (a) the profile of hybrids and parental species concerning their volatile compounds, (b) the suitability of ribosomal nuclear (ITS region), chloroplast (trnH-psbA), and AFLP markers to identify hybrids and (c) their competence to characterize the different chemotypes of both hybrids and their parental species. The cluster analysis and PCA constructed from chemical data (volatile oils) suggest that there are three groups of taxa. Group IA includes P. cretica and P. fruticosa, group IB includes P. x cytherea, whereas group II consists of P. x commixta, P. x sieberi and P. lanata. Volatile compounds detected only in the hybrids P. x sieberi and P. x commixta correspond to the 3% of the total compounds, value that is much higher in P. x cytherea (21%). Neighbor-joining, statistical parsimony analysis and the observations drawn from ribotypes spectrum of ITS markers divided Phlomis species in two groups, P. lanata and the complex P. cretica/P. fruticosa. In contrast to the ITS region, the plastid DNA marker follows a geographically related pattern. Neighbor-Net, PCA and Bayesian assignment analysis performed for AFLP markers separated the genotypes into three groups corresponding to populations of P. cretica, P. fruticosa, and P. lanata, respectively, while populations of P. x commixta, P. x cytherea, and P. x sieberi presented admixed ancestry. Most of the P. x cytherea samples were identified as F1 hybrids by Bayesian assignment test, while those of P. x commixta and P. x sieberi were identified as F2 hybrids. Overall, high chemical differentiation is revealed in one of the

  6. Some inconvenient truths about biosignatures involving two chemical species on Earth-like exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Rein, Hanno; Spiegel, David S

    2014-01-01

    The detection of strong thermochemical disequilibrium in the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet is thought to be a potential biosignature. In this article we present a new kind of false positive that can mimic a disequilibrium or any other biosignature that involves two chemical species. We consider a scenario where the exoplanet hosts a moon that has its own atmosphere and neither of the atmospheres is in chemical disequilibrium. Our results show that the integrated spectrum of the planet and the moon closely resembles that of a single object in strong chemical disequilibrium. We derive a firm limit on the maximum spectral resolution that can be obtained for both directly-imaged and transiting planets. The spectral resolution of even idealized space-based spectrographs that might be achievable in the next several decades is in general insufficient to break the degeneracy. Both chemical species can only be definitively confirmed in the same object if absorption features of both chemicals can be unambiguously ...

  7. Organics. [Nature and analysis of chemical species in water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWalle, F.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle); Lo, C.; Sung, J.; Kalman, D.; Chian, E.S.K.; Giabbai, M.; Ghosal, M.

    1982-01-01

    This literature review presents an overview of nonspecific methods, followed by group and compound specific methods used in the analysis of detergents, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and herbicides, and in process and industrially related compounds. Many studies are focused on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) because of their persistant character in nature even after a substantial decrease in usage. Their presence in sediments is correlated with organic matter and clay owing to their adsorption to these materials. They are also observed in effluents from combustion processes and in sludges from treatment units. Bacteria have been identified that degrade PCBs and give higher rates than the 1-year turnover rate observed in coastal waters. Industrially derived organics have been detected in surface and ground water, drinking water and waste water. Coal conversion processes can lead to releases of toxic nitrogen-containing compounds such as pyridines and sulfur heterocyclics. Included are 8 tables and 242 references. (JMT)

  8. Chemical composition in relation with biomass ash structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcik, Michal; Jandacka, Jozef

    2014-08-01

    Biomass combustion can be more complicated like combustion of fossil fuels because it is necessary to solve problems with lower ash melting temperature. It can cause a lot of problems during combustion process. Chemical composition of biomass ash has great impact on sinters and slags creation in ash because it affects structure of heated ash. In this paper was solved relation between chemical composition and structure of heated ash from three types of biomass (spruce wood, miscanthus giganteus and wheat straw). Amount of SiO2, CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and K2O was determined. Structure of heated ash was optically determined after heating to 1000 °C or 1200 °C. Results demonstrated that chemical composition has strong effect on structure and color of heated ash.

  9. Chemical composition fluctuations in roots of Plumbago scandens L. in relation to floral development

    OpenAIRE

    Selma R. de Paiva; Lucilene A. Lima; Maria Raquel Figueiredo; Maria Auxiliadora C. Kaplan

    2011-01-01

    Plumbago scandens L. is a Brazilian tropical/subtropical species that occurs along the coast. Chemically it is mainly represented by naphthoquinones, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids. The aim of the present work is to study quantitative changes in the root metabolic production of Plumbago scandens during different physiologic developmental stages relative to floration. The results indicated the presence of four substances in the extracts: plumbagin, epi-isoshinanolone, palmitic acid and si...

  10. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland); Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T. [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: > We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. > We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. > Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. > Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. > Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  11. Various chemical strategies to deceive ants in three Arhopala species (lepidoptera: Lycaenidae exploiting Macaranga myrmecophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Inui

    Full Text Available Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants. However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons showed that chemical congruency varied among Arhopala species; A. dajagaka matched well the host plant-ants, A. amphimuta did not match, and unexpectedly, A. zylda lacked hydrocarbons. Behaviorally, the larvae and dummies coated with cuticular chemicals of A. dajagaka were well attended by the plant-ants, especially by those of the host. A. amphimuta was often attacked by all plant-ants except for the host plant-ants toward the larvae, and those of A. zylda were ignored by all plant-ants. Our results suggested that conspicuous variations exist in the chemical strategies used by the myrmecophilous butterflies that allow them to avoid ant attack and be accepted by the plant-ant colonies.

  12. Retrotranspositions in orthologous regions of closely related grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swigoňová Zuzana

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are commonly occurring eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs. Among these, long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are the most abundant TEs and can comprise 50–90% of the genome in higher plants. By comparing the orthologous chromosomal regions of closely related species, the effects of TEs on the evolution of plant genomes can be studied in detail. Results Here, we compared the composition and organization of TEs within five orthologous chromosomal regions among three grass species: maize, sorghum, and rice. We identified a total of 132 full or fragmented LTR retrotransposons in these regions. As a percentage of the total cumulative sequence in each species, LTR retrotransposons occupy 45.1% of the maize, 21.1% of the rice, and 3.7% of the sorghum regions. The most common elements in the maize retrotransposon-rich regions are the copia-like retrotransposons with 39% and the gypsy-like retrotransposons with 37%. Using the contiguous sequence of the orthologous regions, we detected 108 retrotransposons with intact target duplication sites and both LTR termini. Here, we show that 74% of these elements inserted into their host genome less than 1 million years ago and that many retroelements expanded in size by the insertion of other sequences. These inserts were predominantly other retroelements, however, several of them were also fragmented genes. Unforeseen was the finding of intact genes embedded within LTR retrotransposons. Conclusion Although the abundance of retroelements between maize and rice is consistent with their different genome sizes of 2,364 and 389 Mb respectively, the content of retrotransposons in sorghum (790 Mb is surprisingly low. In all three species, retrotransposition is a very recent activity relative to their speciation. While it was known that genes re-insert into non-orthologous positions of plant genomes, they appear to re-insert also within retrotransposons, potentially

  13. Lactobacillus herbarum sp. nov., a species related to Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuejian; Chen, Meng; Horvath, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Strain TCF032-E4 was isolated from a traditional Chinese fermented radish. It shares >99% 16S rRNA sequence identity with L. plantarum, L. pentosus and L. paraplantarum. This strain can ferment ribose, galactose, glucose, fructose, mannose, mannitol, N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, arbutin, salicin, cellobiose, maltose, lactose, melibiose, trehalose and gentiobiose. It cannot ferment sucrose, which can be used by L. pentosus, L. paraplantarum, L. fabifermentans, L. xiangfangensis and L. mudanjiangensis, as well as most of the L. plantarum strains (88.7%). TCF032-E4 cannot grow at temperature above 32 °C. This strain shares 78.2-83.6% pheS (phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase alpha subunit) and 89.5-94.9% rpoA (RNA polymerase alpha subunit) sequence identity with L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. paraplantarum, L. fabifermentans, L. xiangfangensis and L. mudanjiangensis. These results indicate that TCF032-E4 represents a distinct species. This hypothesis was further confirmed by whole-genome sequencing and comparison with available genomes of related species. The draft genome size of TCF032-E4 is approximately 2.9 Mb, with a DNA G+C content of 43.5 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) between TCF032-E4 and related species ranges from 79.0 to 81.1%, the highest ANI value being observed with L. plantarum subsp. plantarum ATCC 14917T. A novel species, Lactobacillus herbarum sp. nov., is proposed with TCF032-E4T ( = CCTCC AB2015090T = DSM 100358T) as the type strain. PMID:26410554

  14. Meeting the challenges related to material issues in chemical industries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baldev Raj; U Kamachi Mudali; T Jayakumar; K V Kasiviswanathn; K Natarajan

    2000-12-01

    Reliable performance and profitability are two important requirements for any chemical industry. In order to achieve high level of reliability and excellent performance, several issues related to design, materials selection, fabrication, quality assurance, transport, storage, inputs from condition monitoring, failure analysis etc. have to be adequately addressed and implemented. Technology related to nondestructive testing and monitoring of the plant is also essential for precise identification of defect sites and to take appropriate remedial decision regarding repair, replacement or modification of process conditions. The interdisciplinary holistic approach enhances the life of critical engineering components in chemical plants. Further, understanding the failure modes of the components through the analysis of failed components throws light on the choice of appropriate preventive measures to be taken well in advance, to have a control over the overall health of the plant. The failure analysis also leads to better design modification and condition monitoring methodologies, for the next generation components and plants. At the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, a unique combination of the expertise in design, materials selection, fabrication, NDT development, condition monitoring, life prediction and failure analysis exists to obtain desired results for achieving high levels of reliability and performance assessment of critical engineering components in chemical industries. Case studies related to design, materials selection and fabrication aspects of critical components in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, NDT development and condition monitoring of various components of nuclear power plants, and important failure investigations on critical engineering components in chemical and allied industries are discussed in this paper. Future directions are identified and planned approaches are briefly described.

  15. Chemical Constituents and Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Two Aglaia Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Bin-Gui; LI,Xiao-Ming; PROKSCH,Peter

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the course of searching bioactive natural products from the plant genus Aglaia, we selected two species, A. cordata and A. testicularis, for further chemical study. Totally twenty natural compounds were obtained and structurally elucidated with which eleven of them were discovered for the first time. Among these compounds, lignans, rocaglamides,aglains and bisamides were the main constituents of the two plant species. The results from a bioactive screening indicated that some of the lignans possess potent antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  16. Study of Chemical Constituents and Medicinal Uses of Indicator Species of District Bannu

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman ullah khan; Saad Ullah khan; Sultan Mehmood; Ihsan ullah; Aziz Khan

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess record and report the chemical constituents and ethnobotanical knowledge of indicator species of District Bannu. Medicinal outlines of about 57 plants were recorded through interview local people i.e. farmers, herbalists, hakims and Medicinal plants user dealers. The present investigation comprises the indigenous uses of 57 species belonging to 36 families of Angiosperms based upon their utility. Out of this rich Medicinal germplasm, 66.15% plants a...

  17. Infestation of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore on Thirteen Eucalyptus Species and Their Relationship with the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycaspis brimblecombei is a pest insect that affects Eucalyptus genus and was firstly detected in Argentina in 2005. The main objective of this study is to determine the correlation between the level of infestation and chemical composition of essential oils extract. In an experimental plantation of 13 Eucalyptus species, the natural presence of the psyllid in the adaxial and abaxial faces of the leaves was determined and the mean number of individuals per species was calculated. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that 7 out of 13 species of Eucalyptus were not affected by G. brimblecombei: E. dunnii, E. globulus maidenii, E. globulus ssp. globulus, E. viminalis, E. cinerea, E. sideroxylon, and E. gunnii. The most affected Eucalyptus species were E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis whereas the infestation in E. grandis × E. tereticornis and E. grandis × E. camaldulensis was intermediate. E. saligna and E. grandis were the least affected species. The relative concentrations of the compounds 1,8-cineole and α- and β-phellandrene in the essential oils are highly correlated to the rate of infestation with G. brimblecombei.

  18. Systematic Approach to Calculate the Concentration of Chemical Species in Multi-Equilibrium Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Baeza, Juan Jose; Garcia-Alvarez-Coque, Maria Celia

    2011-01-01

    A general systematic approach is proposed for the numerical calculation of multi-equilibrium problems. The approach involves several steps: (i) the establishment of balances involving the chemical species in solution (e.g., mass balances, charge balance, and stoichiometric balance for the reaction products), (ii) the selection of the unknowns (the…

  19. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL CONTROL ON THE SANITY OF FOREST SPECIES SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianne Gomes da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different fungicide and sodium hypochlorite treatments in reducing the incidence of fungi on seeds of native species of the Atlantic rainforest. The experiment was done using the completely randomized design in a 5x5 factorial with five levels of factor A (forest species and five levels of factor B (chemical treatment and surface disinfection with sodium hypochlorite with four replications. The fungal genera Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium were identified. The species ‘Jacarandá-da-Bahia’ and ‘Ipê-roxo’ had lower fungal incidence, 1.0% and 1.3%, respectively. Except for ‘Angico Vermelho’, the fungicide pencycurom and sodium hypochlorite were not significantly different from the control in the species evaluated. Seed treatment with fungicides ‘Captan’ and ‘Tiram’ yielded satisfactory results in reducing the incidence of fungal contamination in forest species seeds.  

  20. 19-Fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift variability in trifluoroacetyl species

    OpenAIRE

    Sloop, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Joseph C SloopSchool of Science and Technology, Georgia Gwinnett College, Lawrenceville, GA, USAAbstract: This review examines the variability of chemical shifts observed in 19-fluorine (19F) nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for the trifluoroacetyl (TFA) functional group. The range of 19F chemical shifts reported spectra for the TFA group varies generally from −85 to −67 ppm relative to CFCl3. The literature revealed several factors that impact chemical shifts of the TFA...

  1. The Relations Among Threatened Species, Their Protection, and Taboos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN, and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos . Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ~ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ~ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species, but also of ecosystem processes and functions, such information is being lost rapidly.

  2. Application of a framework for extrapolating chemical effects across species in pathways controlled by estrogen receptor-á

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-species extrapolation of toxicity data from limited surrogate test organisms to all wildlife with potential of chemical exposure remains a key challenge in ecological risk assessment. A number of factors affect extrapolation, including the chemical exposure, pharmacokinetic...

  3. Specificity of psychiatric manifestations in relation to neurotoxic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, W D; Sholiton, M C

    1983-01-01

    Previous impressions of specificity of psychiatric manifestations in relation to particular chemical intoxications have been confirmed by comparisons of the symptoms and signs of two groups of individuals. Nine persons exposed to inorganic mercury had "erethism" and xenophobia in addition to non-specific features of central nervous system poisoning. Twelve men with heavy exposure to organotins, in contrast to ten men with light or no exposure, more frequently presented an unique alternation between outbursts of range and deep depression, the later lasting from a few hours to a few days. The more heavily exposed men also had a greater number of nonspecific symptoms from neurotoxins. PMID:6575580

  4. Size and chemical characterization of individual particles resulting from biomass burning of local southern California species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical composition and size of individual particles derived from combustion products of several species found in Southern California were obtained using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The major inorganic species observed in > 90% of all biomass burning particles is potassium, indicated by the atomic ion, as well as clusters containing chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions in the mass spectra. By obtaining positive and negative ion mass spectra it is possible to identify distinct chemical marker combinations in particles resulting from the burning of plant species, which in turn allows for differentiation from particles produced from other combustion sources such as vehicle emissions. Using these markers, particles derived from biomass burning were identified in ambient aerosol samples

  5. Competitive strategies differentiate closely related species of marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Nastassia V; Duncan, Katherine R; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Jensen, Paul R

    2016-02-01

    Although competition, niche partitioning, and spatial isolation have been used to describe the ecology and evolution of macro-organisms, it is less clear to what extent these principles account for the extraordinary levels of bacterial diversity observed in nature. Ecological interactions among bacteria are particularly challenging to address due to methodological limitations and uncertainties over how to recognize fundamental units of diversity and link them to the functional traits and evolutionary processes that led to their divergence. Here we show that two closely related marine actinomycete species can be differentiated based on competitive strategies. Using a direct challenge assay to investigate inhibitory interactions with members of the bacterial community, we observed a temporal difference in the onset of inhibition. The majority of inhibitory activity exhibited by Salinispora arenicola occurred early in its growth cycle and was linked to antibiotic production. In contrast, most inhibition by Salinispora tropica occurred later in the growth cycle and was more commonly linked to nutrient depletion or other sources. Comparative genomics support these differences, with S. arenicola containing nearly twice the number of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters as S. tropica, indicating a greater potential for secondary metabolite production. In contrast, S. tropica is enriched in gene clusters associated with the acquisition of growth-limiting nutrients such as iron. Coupled with differences in growth rates, the results reveal that S. arenicola uses interference competition at the expense of growth, whereas S. tropica preferentially employs a strategy of exploitation competition. The results support the ecological divergence of two co-occurring and closely related species of marine bacteria by providing evidence they have evolved fundamentally different strategies to compete in marine sediments.

  6. Evolutionary Position and Leaf Toughness Control Chemical Transformation of Litter, and Drought Reinforces This Control: Evidence from a Common Garden Experiment across 48 Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xu; Song, Yao-Bin; Jiang, Can; Liu, Guo-Fang; Ye, Xue-Hua; Xie, Xiu-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Cui, Lijuan; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Dong, Ming; Prinzing, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaf litter is an important source of soil chemicals that are essential for the ecosystem and changes in leaf litter chemical traits during decomposition will determine the availability of multiple chemical elements recycling in the ecosystem. However, it is unclear whether the changes in litter chemical traits during decomposition and their similarities across species can be predicted, respectively, using other leaf traits or using the phylogenetic relatedness of the litter species. Here we examined the fragmentation levels, mass losses, and the changes of 10 litter chemical traits during 1-yr decomposition under different environmental conditions (within/above surrounding litter layer) for 48 temperate tree species and related them to an important leaf functional trait, i.e. leaf toughness. Leaf toughness could predict the changes well in terms of amounts, but poorly in terms of concentrations. Changes of 7 out of 10 litter chemical traits during decomposition showed a significant phylogenetic signal notably when litter was exposed above surrounding litter. These phylogenetic signals in element dynamics were stronger than those of initial elementary composition. Overall, relatively hard-to-measure ecosystem processes like element dynamics during decomposition could be partly predicted simply from phylogenies and leaf toughness measures. We suggest that the strong phylogenetic signals in chemical ecosystem functioning of species may reflect the concerted control by multiple moderately conserved traits, notably if interacting biota suffer microclimatic stress and spatial isolation from ambient litter.

  7. Evolutionary Position and Leaf Toughness Control Chemical Transformation of Litter, and Drought Reinforces This Control: Evidence from a Common Garden Experiment across 48 Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Pan

    Full Text Available Plant leaf litter is an important source of soil chemicals that are essential for the ecosystem and changes in leaf litter chemical traits during decomposition will determine the availability of multiple chemical elements recycling in the ecosystem. However, it is unclear whether the changes in litter chemical traits during decomposition and their similarities across species can be predicted, respectively, using other leaf traits or using the phylogenetic relatedness of the litter species. Here we examined the fragmentation levels, mass losses, and the changes of 10 litter chemical traits during 1-yr decomposition under different environmental conditions (within/above surrounding litter layer for 48 temperate tree species and related them to an important leaf functional trait, i.e. leaf toughness. Leaf toughness could predict the changes well in terms of amounts, but poorly in terms of concentrations. Changes of 7 out of 10 litter chemical traits during decomposition showed a significant phylogenetic signal notably when litter was exposed above surrounding litter. These phylogenetic signals in element dynamics were stronger than those of initial elementary composition. Overall, relatively hard-to-measure ecosystem processes like element dynamics during decomposition could be partly predicted simply from phylogenies and leaf toughness measures. We suggest that the strong phylogenetic signals in chemical ecosystem functioning of species may reflect the concerted control by multiple moderately conserved traits, notably if interacting biota suffer microclimatic stress and spatial isolation from ambient litter.

  8. Impact of dust storm on chemical species of S, Cl and Ca in Shanghai atmosphere particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Dust storm originated from the northwest region of China brought dust particles for Shanghai every spring, which resulted in serious particulate pollution. However, the studies of the impact of dust storm on the Shanghai atmospheric aerosols were limited to the concentrations of ions and elements. It is considered that the chemical species of atmospheric aerosols were much more necessary for the evaluation of the impact of dust storm on the particulate pollution in Shanghai. Purpose: Based on the elements concentration variations, backward trajectories of air masses and chlorine, calcium, sulfur species in aerosols during the dust event, the impact of dust storm on the chemical species of aerosols in Shanghai was studied. Methods: Elements concentrations of the samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) based on synchrotron radiation. To identify the potential importance of different source regions on aerosol composition during dust events, the air mass trajectories were calculated by using the model HYSPLIT version 4 developed by NOAA/ARL. Chemical species of S, Cl, Ca were analyzed by synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Sulfur K-edge XANES is capable of distinguishing various sulfate species in a non-destructive way and we used linear combination fitting procedure to quantify the concentrations of sulfate species in PM. Results: Elements concentration variations during the dust storm period showed that crust elements (Si, Al, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Ti) in particles increased substantially during dust storm. However, pollution elements (S, Zn, Pb, Cu, V, Cr, As) from local region decreased by the clean effect of dust storm. Combined XANES of S, Cl, Ca in particulate samples with backward trajectories, the possible sources and reasons of their chemical species were studied. During dust storm, sulfur mainly existed as CaSO4·2H2O, Cl existed as organic chloride and Cl-, Ca existed as CaCO3. In the samples of other days

  9. Kaempferitrin from Uncaria guianensis (Rubiaceae) and its potential as a chemical marker for the species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Ligia M.M.; Liechocki, Sally; Barboza, Rodolfo S.; Paixao, Djavan da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: valente@iq.ufrj.br; Bizarri, Carlos H.B.; Almeida, M. Beatriz S.; Benevides, Paulo J.C.; Siani, Antonio C. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia em Farmacos; Magalhaes, Alvicler [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. and U. guianensis (Aubl.) Gmel., known as cat's claw, are large woody vines native to the Amazonian and Central American rain forests. The species contain, in different proportions, indole and oxindole alkaloids, triterpenoid glycosides, sterols and proanthocyanidins. U. tomentosa can be chemically identified by its oxindole alkaloid profile and content, whereas U. guianensis has no satisfactorily established chemical markers. This work describes, for the first time, the isolation of kaempferol-3,7-O-(a)-dirhamnoside (kaempferitrin) in Uncaria species. Screening for this compound in leaves, stems or bark of both species through TLC and HPLC-DAD-MS showed the presence of kaempferitrin only in the leaves and stems of U. guianensis, at a ratio almost thirty six times greater in the leaves than in the stems. These results reveal the selectivity of U. guianensis to produce this bioactive flavonoid glycoside, and suggest this compound as a potential chemical marker for the species.(author)

  10. USE OF AMAZONIAN SPECIES FOR AGING DISTILLED BEVERAGES: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL WOOD ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnys Paz Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of storing liquor in wooden barrels is a practice that aims to improve the sensory characteristics, such as color, aroma and flavor, of the beverage. The quality of the liquor stored in these barrels depends on wood characteristics such as density, permeability, chemical composition, anatomy, besides the wood heat treatment used to fabricate the barrels. Brazil has a great diversity of forests, mainly in the north, in the Amazon. This region is home to thousands of tree species, but is limited to the use of only a few native species to store liquors. The objective of this study was to determine some of the physical and chemical characteristics for four Amazon wood species. The results obtained in this study will be compared with others from woods that are traditionally used for liquor storage. The species studied were angelim-pedra (Hymenolobium petraeum Ducke cumarurana (Dipteryx polyphylla (Huber Ducke, jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L. and louro-vermelho (Nectandra rubra (Mez CK Allen. The trees were collected from Precious Woods Amazon Company forest management area, in Silves, Amazonas. Analyzes such as: concentration of extractives, lignin amount, percentage of minerals (ash and tannin content, density, elemental analysis (CHNS-O and thermal analysis were done. It was observed that the chemical composition (lignin, holocellulose and elemental analysis (percentage of C, H, N and O of the woods have significant differences. The jatobá wood presented higher tannin content, and in the thermal analysis, was that which had the lowest mass loss.

  11. Chemical composition of silage residues sustaining the larval development of the Culicoides obsoletus/Culicoides scoticus species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Beckers, Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2013-01-16

    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV). Bluetongue is a viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its recent emergence in northern Europe, this disease has caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industry. The biotopes, and more particularly the chemical characteristics which are suitable for larval development of the main vector species, are still relatively unknown. This study shows that the larvae of biting midges belonging to the species Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus are able to breed in different types of silage residue (maize, grass, sugar beet pulp and their combinations). The chemical composition of substrates strongly influences the presence of the immature stages of these biting midges. Higher lignin and insoluble fibre contents seem to favour their presence and could play the role of a physical support for semi-aquatic larvae. In contrast, higher concentrations of magnesium and calcium are negatively correlated with the presence of these two species. These data will help to locate and monitor the breeding sites of these species and could contribute to the control of these insects on farms.

  12. Chemical composition of silage residues sustaining the larval development of the Culicoides obsoletus/Culicoides scoticus species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Beckers, Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2013-01-16

    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV). Bluetongue is a viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its recent emergence in northern Europe, this disease has caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industry. The biotopes, and more particularly the chemical characteristics which are suitable for larval development of the main vector species, are still relatively unknown. This study shows that the larvae of biting midges belonging to the species Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus are able to breed in different types of silage residue (maize, grass, sugar beet pulp and their combinations). The chemical composition of substrates strongly influences the presence of the immature stages of these biting midges. Higher lignin and insoluble fibre contents seem to favour their presence and could play the role of a physical support for semi-aquatic larvae. In contrast, higher concentrations of magnesium and calcium are negatively correlated with the presence of these two species. These data will help to locate and monitor the breeding sites of these species and could contribute to the control of these insects on farms. PMID:22963713

  13. Isolated and synergistic effects of chemical and structural defenses of two species of Tethya (Porifera: Demospongiae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Suzi Meneses; Cassiano, Keila Mara; Cavalcanti, Diana Negrão; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Pereira, Renato Crespo

    2012-02-01

    Sponges are an important source of many interesting secondary metabolites with multiple ecological roles. Sponges can also use their spicules as a means of deterring consumers. The present study investigated the importance of chemicals and spicules as defensive strategies against predation for two congeneric sponge species from the Brazilian coast, Tethya rubra and Tethya maza. Crude extract and spicules differed somewhat in their effectiveness between these sponge species, with T. maza better defended than T. rubra against predation by the hermit crab Calcinus tibicen and synergistic effects stronger in T. rubra. These results show that defensive strategies may be similar between sponge species possessing monophyletic origin, and reveal the importance of research on congeneric species to understand the ecology and evolution of defensive strategies.

  14. Relating species abundance distributions to species-area curves in two Mediterranean-type shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Based on both theoretical and empirical studies there is evidence that different species abundance distributions underlie different species-area relationships. Here I show that Australian and Californian shrubland communities (at the scale from 1 to 1000 m2) exhibit different species-area relationships and different species abundance patterns. The species-area relationship in Australian heathlands best fits an exponential model and species abundance (based on both density and cover) follows a narrow log normal distribution. In contrast, the species-area relationship in Californian shrublands is best fit with the power model and, although species abundance appears to fit a log normal distribution, the distribution is much broader than in Australian heathlands. I hypothesize that the primary driver of these differences is the abundance of small-stature annual species in California and the lack of annuals in Australian heathlands. Species-area is best fit by an exponential model in Australian heathlands because the bulk of the species are common and thus the species-area curves initially rise rapidly between 1 and 100 m2. Annuals in Californian shrublands generate very broad species abundance distributions with many uncommon or rare species. The power function is a better model in these communities because richness increases slowly from 1 to 100 m2 but more rapidly between 100 and 1000 m2 due to the abundance of rare or uncommon species that are more likely to be encountered at coarser spatial scales. The implications of this study are that both the exponential and power function models are legitimate representations of species-area relationships in different plant communities. Also, structural differences in community organization, arising from different species abundance distributions, may lead to different species-area curves, and this may be tied to patterns of life form distribution.

  15. The influence of electrohydrodynamic flow on the distribution of chemical species in positive corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontiga, Francisco; Yanallah, Khelifa; Bouazza, R.; Chen, Junhong

    2015-09-01

    A numerical simulation of positive corona discharge in air, including the effect of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) motion of the gas, has been carried out. Air flow is assumed to be confined between two parallel plates, and corona discharge is produced around a thin wire, midway between the plates. Therefore, fluid dynamics equations, including electrical forces, have been solved together with the continuity equation of each neutral species. The plasma chemical model included 24 chemical reactions and ten neutral species, in addition to electrons and positive ions. The results of the simulation have shown that the influence of EHD flow on the spatial distributions of the species is quite different depending on the species. Hence, reactive species like atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen are confined to the vicinity of the wire, and they are weakly affected by the EHD gas motion. In contrast, nitrogen oxides and ozone are efficiently dragged outside the active region of the corona discharge by the EHD flow. This work was supported by the Spanish Government Agency ``Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación'' under Contract No. FIS2011-25161.

  16. Distribution of Xiphinema americanum and Related Species in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, R T

    1993-09-01

    All species of the Xiphinema americanum-group and their synonyms are listed. The North American species reported are listed by state or province. Among these species, X. rivesi has the most widely reported distribution. Six species (X. diffusum, X. floridae, X. laevistriatum, X. luci, X. shell, and X. tarjanense) have been reported from only Florida. The reports of X. pachtaicum, X. sheri, and X. luci did not include morphometrics and need to be confirmed; X. brevicolle from California was identified before Lamberti and Bleve-Zacheo described 15 new species in 1979 and similarly needs to be confirmed. Because of the proliferation of species in this group, reports of X. americanum (sensu stricto) before 1979 are questionable. Extraction techniques for longidorids are discussed.

  17. Alkaloid concentration of the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus in relation to geographic origin and herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Atlan, Anne; Tarayre, Michèle; Dugravot, Sébastien; Wink, Michael

    2012-11-01

    In the study of plant defense evolution, invasive plant species can be very insightful because they are often introduced without their enemies, and traits linked to defense can be released from selective pressures and evolve. Further, studying plant defense evolution in invasive species is important for biological control and use of these species. In this study, we investigated the evolution of the defensive chemicals quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in the invasive species gorse, Ulex europaeus. Using a common garden experiment, our goals were to characterize the role of QAs relative to specialist enemies of gorse and to investigate if QA concentration evolved in invaded regions, where gorse was introduced without these enemies. Our results showed that pod infestation rate by the seed predator Exapion ulicis and infestation by the rust pathogen Uromyces genistae-tinctoriae were negatively correlated to concentration of the QA lupanine. Quinolizidine alkaloid concentration was very variable between individuals, both within and among populations, but it was not different between native and invaded regions, suggesting that no evolution of decreased resistance occurred after gorse lost its enemies. Our study also suggests that QA concentrations are traits integrated into seed predation avoidance strategies of gorse, with plants that mass-fruit in spring but do not escape pod infestation in time being richer in QAs.

  18. Delimitation and characterisation of Talaromyces purpurogenus and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, N.; Houbraken, J.; Hoekstra, E. S.;

    2012-01-01

    Taxa of the Talaromyces purpurogenus complex were studied using a polyphasic approach. ITS barcodes were used to show relationships between species of the T. purpurogenus complex and other Talaromyces species. RPB1, RPB2, beta-tubulin and calmodulin sequences were used to delimit phylogenetic spe...

  19. Use of chemical elements of 1A family by tropical tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to evaluate the distribution of K, Rb and Cs in leaves of trees of the Atlantic Forest through studies of correlation between the chemical elements. For this, we used the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for the quantification of the chemical elements. The concentration ranges found were 6700-24000 mg / kg for K, 16 to 72mg / kg for Rb and 0.08 to 0,92mg / kg for Cs. As Rb has chemical similarity to K, is easily absorbed by plants, leading to a high value (0.9) of the Pearson correlation. For the correlation between K and Cs, no significant values were detected except for some species of the Myrtaceae family. However, average correlations (0.6 < r <0.8) between Rb-Cs were obtained for seven plant species of different families. The absence of a specific pattern using of K, Rb and Cs by plants showed great complexity in the distribution of chemical elements in the ecosystem

  20. Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R.A. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs.

  1. Interaction of chemical species with biological regulation of the metabolism of essential trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, W. [Center of Life and Food Sciences, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    Variations in the chemical speciation of dietary trace elements can result in the provision of different amounts of these micronutrients to the organism and might thus induce interactions with trace-element metabolism. The chemical species of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn can interact with other components of the diet even before reaching the site of absorption, e.g. by formation of poorly soluble complexes with phytic acid. This might considerably modify the amount of metabolically available trace elements; differences between absorptive capacity per se toward dietary species seems to be less important. Homeostasis usually limits the quantities of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn transported from the gut into the organism, and differences between dietary species are largely eliminated at this step. There is no homeostatic control of absorption of Se and I, and organisms seem to be passively exposed to influx of these micronutrients irrespective of dietary speciation. Inside the organism the trace elements are usually converted into a metabolically recognizable form, channeled into their biological functions, or submitted to homeostatically controlled excretion. Some dietary species can, however, be absorbed as intact compounds. As long as the respective quantities of trace elements are not released from their carriers, they are not recognized properly by trace element metabolism and might induce tissue accumulation, irrespective of homeostatic control. (orig.)

  2. Chemical constituents and biological activities of species of Justicia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geone M. Corrêa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Acanthaceae family is an important source of therapeutic drugs, and the ethnopharmacological knowledge of this family requires urgent documentation as several of its species are near extinction. Justicia is the largest genus of Acanthaceae, with approximately 600 species. The present work provides a review addressing the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus Justicia. In addition, the biological activities of compounds isolated from the genus are also covered. The chemical and pharmacological information in the present work may inspire new biomedical applications for the species of Justicia, considering atom economy, the synthesis of environmentally benign products without producing toxic by-products, the use of renewable sources of raw materials, and the search for processes with maximal efficiency of energy.

  3. The effect of elevated CO2 on the chemical composition and construction costs of leaves of 27 C3 species

    OpenAIRE

    POORTER, H.; Berkel, Y. van; Baxter, B; Hertog, J. den; Dijkstra, P.; Gifford, R.M.; K. L. Griffin; Roumet, C.; Roy, J; Wong, S. C.

    1997-01-01

    We determined the proximate chemical composition as well as the construction costs of leaves of 27 species, grown at ambient and at a twice-ambient partial pressure of atmospheric CO₂. These species comprised wild and agricultural herbaceous plants as well as tree seedlings. Both average responses across species and the range in response were considered. Expressed on a total dry weight basis, the main change in chemical composition due to CO₂ was the accumulation of total non-structural carbo...

  4. Chemical composition and digestibility of some browse plant species collected from Algerian arid rangelands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boufennara, S.; Lopez, S.; Boussebouna, H.; Bodas, R.; Bouazza, L.

    2012-11-01

    Many wild browse and bush species are undervalued mainly because of insufficient knowledge about their potential feeding value. The objective was to evaluate some nutritional attributes of various Algerian browse and shub species (Atriplex halimus, Artemisia campestris, Artemisia herba-alba, Astragalus gombiformis, Calobota saharae, Retama raetam, Stipagrostis pungens, Lygeum spartum and Stipa tenacissima). Chemical composition, phenols and tannins concentration, in vitro digestibility, in vitro gas production kinetics and in vitro bio-assay for assessment of tannins using buffered rumen fluid, and in situ disappearence of the edible parts of the plants (leaves, thin twigs and flowers) were determined. In general, protein content in dicotyledon species was always greater than in monocotyledon grasses, these showing higher neutral and acid detergent fibre and lower lignin contents than dicots. The tannin concentrations varied considerably between species, but in general the plants investigated in this study had low tannin contents (except for Artemisia spp. and S. tenacissima). Monocots showed lower in vitro and in situ digestibilities, fermentation rate, cumulative gas production and extent of degradation than dicot species. The plants were clustered by principal components analysis in two groups: poor-quality grasses and the most digestible dicot species. Chemical composition (neutral detergent fibre and protein) and digestibility were the main influential variables determining the ranking. In conclusion, A. halimus, A. campestris, A. herba-alba and A. gombiformis can be considered of greater nutritional value than the highly fibrous and low digestible grasses (S. pungens, L. spartum and S. tenacissima) that should be considered emergency roughages. (Author) 46 refs.

  5. Species Composition and Relative Abundance of Mosquitoes in Swat, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Ilahi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae was conducted in Swat Pakistan, from April to September during 2000. The survey involved the sampling of both, adult and immature stages of mosquitoes, and recovered a total of 21 species in five genera. Sampling of adult mosquitoes involved Pyrethrum spray collections, Man-biting collections, and Animal-biting collection. Immature stages of mosquitoes were collected from variety of habitats including springs, irrigation channels, rice fields, marshes, temporary pools, construction pools, agriculture pools, river margins, ditches, waste water drains, wells and tree holes. During the study most of the species built up their populations in June, July and August, while a few increased their populations in September. During the survey of immature stages, from a total of 138 samples taken, Cx. quinquefasciatus showed maximum frequency of occurrence (recovered from 48 samples followed by An. maculatus (17 samples, Cx. pseudovishnui (14 samples, An. annularis and An. stephensi (13 samples each, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus (11 samples, An. splendidus (5 samples and Cx. theileri (4 samples. The rest of the species occurred infrequently. The observations on habitat specificity of different species of mosquitoes showed the rice fields as the most favorable site for mosquito breeding (harboring 12 species followed by river margins (five species and temporary pools and springs (four species each. During this study Ae. aegypti was recovered from tyres in Mingora; it was not reported earlier from Swat.

  6. Alternative mechanisms of increased eggshell hardness of avian brood parasites relative to host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, Branislav; Braganza, Kim; Hyland, Margaret M; Silyn-Roberts, Heather; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Rutila, Jarkko; Moskát, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E

    2011-11-01

    Obligate brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in nests of other species and parasite eggs typically have evolved greater structural strength relative to host eggs. Increased mechanical strength of the parasite eggshell is an adaptation that can interfere with puncture ejection behaviours of discriminating hosts. We investigated whether hardness of eggshells is related to differences between physical and chemical traits from three different races of the parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and their respective hosts. Using tools developed for materials science, we discovered a novel correlate of increased strength of parasite eggs: the common cuckoo's egg exhibits a greater microhardness, especially in the inner region of the shell matrix, relative to its host and sympatric non-host species. We then tested predictions of four potential mechanisms of shell strength: (i) increased relative thickness overall, (ii) greater proportion of the structurally harder shell layers, (iii) higher concentration of inorganic components in the shell matrix, and (iv) elevated deposition of a high density compound, MgCO(3), in the shell matrix. We confirmed support only for hypothesis (i). Eggshell characteristics did not differ between parasite eggs sampled from different host nests in distant geographical sites, suggesting an evolutionarily shared microstructural mechanism of stronger parasite eggshells across diverse host-races of brood parasitic cuckoos. PMID:21561966

  7. Use of Wild Relatives and Closely Related Species to Adapt Common Bean to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Kelly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important legume crop worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stress limits bean yields to <600 kg ha−1 in low-income countries. Current low yields result in food insecurity, while demands for increased yields to match the rate of population growth combined with the threat of climate change are significant. Novel and significant advances in genetic improvement using untapped genetic diversity available in crop wild relatives and closely related species must be further explored. A meeting was organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust to consider strategies for common bean improvement. This review resulted from that meeting and considers our current understanding of the genetic resources available for common bean improvement and the progress that has been achieved thus far through introgression of genetic diversity from wild relatives of common bean, and from closely related species, including: P. acutifolius, P. coccineus, P. costaricensis and P. dumosus. Newly developed genomic tools and their potential applications are presented. A broad outline of research for use of these genetic resources for common bean improvement in a ten-year multi-disciplinary effort is presented.

  8. Tolerance of native and non-native fish species to chemical stress: a case study for the River Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Fedorenkova; J.A. Vonk; A.M. Breure; A.J. Hendriks; R.S.E.W. Leuven

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems can be impacted by invasive species. Non-native species can become invasive due to their high tolerance to environmental stressors (e.g., pollution and habitat modifications). Yet, tolerance of native and non-native fish species exposed simultaneously to multiple chemical stres

  9. Wood Chemical Composition in Species of Cactaceae: The Relationship between Lignification and Stem Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Reyes-Rivera; Gonzalo Canché-Escamilla; Marcos Soto-Hernández; Teresa Terrazas

    2015-01-01

    In Cactaceae, wood anatomy is related to stem morphology in terms of the conferred support. In species of cacti with dimorphic wood, a unique process occurs in which the cambium stops producing wide-band tracheids (WBTs) and produces fibers; this is associated with the aging of individuals and increases in size. Stem support and lignification have only been studied in fibrous tree-like species, and studies in species with WBTs or dimorphic wood are lacking. In this study, we approach this pro...

  10. Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Pentilla, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Ruohonen, Laura; Koivuranta, Kari; Roberg-Perez, Kevin

    2012-01-17

    Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

  11. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci developed for Passiflora edulis Sims. in related Passiflora Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Alvarenga Fachardo Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected 41 SSR markers developed for yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims. for their transferability to 11 different Passiflora species. Twenty-one SSR were successfully amplified in 10 wild species of passion fruit producing 101 bands. All the markers were amplifiable for at least one species. The mean transferability was 68,8%, ranging from 15,4% (primer PE11 to 100 % (PE13, PE18, PE37, PE41 and PE88. Transferability was higher for the species from the Passiflora subgenus than for those from the Decaloba and Dysosmia subgenus. The results indicated a high level of nucleotide sequence conservation of the primer regions in the species evaluated, and consequently, they could potentially be used for the establishment of molecular strategies for use in passion fruit breeding and genetics.

  12. Differential Sharing of Chemical Cues by Social Parasites Versus Social Mutualists in a Three-Species Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Virginia J; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2016-04-01

    Chemical recognition systems are crucial for maintaining the unity of social insect colonies. It has been proposed that colonies form a common chemical signature, called the gestalt odor, which is used to distinguish colony members and non-members. This chemical integration is achieved actively through social interactions such as trophallaxis and allogrooming, or passively such as through exposure to common nest material. When colonies are infiltrated by social parasites, the intruders often use some form of chemical mimicry. However, it is not always clear how this chemical mimicry is accomplished. Here, we used a three-species nesting symbiosis to test the differences in chemical integration of mutualistic (parabiotic) and parasitic ant species. We found that the parasite (Solenopsis picea) obtains chemical cues from both of the two parabiotic host ant species. However, the two parabiotic species (Crematogaster levior and Camponotus femoratus) maintain species-specific cues, and do not acquire compounds from the other species. Our findings suggest that there is a fundamental difference in how social mutualists and social parasites use chemicals to integrate themselves into colonies. PMID:27130488

  13. BIODETERIORATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN DRUG GMELINA ARBOREA LINN. UNDER STORAGE OF DIFFERENT RELATIVE HUMIDITIES DUE TO SPOILAGE OF FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rashidi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The roots of plant Gmelina arborea Linn. were selected for the present investigation. The roots were stored at different relative humidities 30, 50, 75, 96 and 100% RH for 90 days. Total 15 fungal species were isolated from these roots. Quantitative estimation of phenols, proteins, alkaloids, glycosides and sugars in relation to fungi were done. Maximum percentage incidence of storage fungi as well as deterioration of chemical constituents in the roots was showed at above 75% RH.

  14. Phytotoxic activity and chemical composition of aqueous volatile fractions from Eucalyptus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Zhang

    Full Text Available The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.. The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species.

  15. Acoustic wave detection of chemical species electrokinetically transported within a capillary tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Paul C H; Prasad, Ronald

    2003-06-01

    For the first time, we report the acoustic wave detection of chemical species being transported in a capillary tube to a region where acoustic coupling occurs. The measured parameter was a change in phase, which was originally only attributed to a change in solution density as the analyte passed by the detection region. Accordingly, we report the detection of change in phase as various chemical species (e.g. Cy5 dye, Cy5-derivatized glycine and underivatized glycine) were introduced into and migrated along a capillary tube through electrokinetic processes. To improve detection sensitivity, we modified various experimental parameters, such as run buffer concentration, capillary wall thickness and transducer frequency. Although acoustic wave detection was feasible, the peak width and detection limit were inadequate as compared to conventional detection methods for HPLC or CE. Nevertheless, the effects of various physical and chemical relaxation processes on acoustic wave absorption were discussed, and this has shed some light on explaining some observations, which cannot be explained by density differences alone. Accordingly, the acoustic wave method is suggested to investigate these processes, as studied in ultrasonic relaxation spectroscopy, in a flow system. PMID:12866892

  16. 21 CFR 1300.02 - Definitions relating to listed chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... international transaction in a listed chemical by— (i) Negotiating contracts; (ii) Serving as an agent or... chemical to or by a common or contract carrier for carriage in the lawful and usual course of the business... the Attorney General (28 CFR 0.100). (4) The terms broker and trader mean any individual,...

  17. Chemical Processes Related to Combustion in Fluidised Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Lindqvist, Oliver [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2002-12-01

    with evaluation of other biomass ash particles and, as an extension, the speciation of Cu and Zn will be studied as well. Ash fractions from combustion of MSW in a BFB boiler have been investigated regarding composition and leaching properties, i.e. environmental impact risks. The release of salts from the cyclone ash fraction can be minimised by the application of a simple washing process, thus securing that the leaching of soluble substances stays within the regulative limits. The MSW ash - water systems contain some interesting chemical issues, such as the interactions between Cr(VI) and reducing substances like Al-metal. The understanding of such chemical processes is important since it gives a possibility to predict effects of a change in ash composition. An even more detailed understanding of interactions between a solution containing ions and particle surfaces can be gained by theoretical modelling. In this project (and with additional unding from Aangpannefoereningens Forskningsstiftelse) a theoretical description of ion-ion interactions and the solid-liquid-interface has been developed. Some related issues are also included in this report. The publication of a paper on the reactions of ammonia in the presence of a calcining limestone surface is one of them. A review paper on the influence of combustion conditions on the properties of fly ash and its applicability as a cement replacement in concrete is another. The licentiate thesis describing the sampling and measurement of Cd in flue gas is also included since it was finalised during the present period. A co-operation project involving the Geology Dept. at Goeteborg Univ. and our group is briefly discussed. This project concerns the utilisation of granules produced from wood ash and dolomite as nutrient source for forest soil. Finally, the plans for our flue gas simulator facility are discussed.

  18. Identification of a new Irgarol-1051 related s-triazine species in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previously unknown s-triazine species present in commercially available Irgarol-1051, a booster biocide additive in copper-based antifouling paints for the replacement of organotin-based antifoulants, has been identified in the coastal aquatic environment. After careful isolation, purification and characterization by high resolution MS-MS and 1H NMR, the molecular structure of that unknown species is found to be N,N'-di-tert-butyl-6-methylthiol-s-triazine-2,4-diamine (designated as M3). Levels of Irgarol-1051, its major degradation product (M1) and the newly identified M3 in the coastal waters of Hong Kong, one of the world's busiest ports located in the southern coast of China, were monitored by SPME-GC-MS and SPME-GC-FID. Water samples from five locations within Hong Kong waters were analysed and the levels of Irgarol-1051, M1 and M3 were found to be 0.1-1.6 μg l-1, 36.8-259.0 μg l-1 and 0.03-0.39 μg l-1, respectively. Our results indicate that M3 is relatively stable against photo-and bio-degradation and may pose considerable risk to primary producer communities in the coastal marine environment. - An s-triazine species resists degradation and may be a chemical risk for marine coastal communities

  19. Glenea coomani Pic, 1926 and its related species of South China with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Glenea coomani Pic, 1926 distributed in Vietnam, Laos and China is redescribed, and its sibling species, G. neohumerosa sp. n. is described from China (Guangxi, Hainan and Fujian and North Vietnam. They are separated from each other by differences in genitalia, and apical teeth and maculae of elytra. Another four related species and one subspecies are illustrated with short notes and new localities, and the lectotype and paralectotype of Glenea tonkinea Aurivillius, 1925 are designated. A key to the related species is presented.

  20. Relative influence of chemical and non-chemical stressors on invertebrate communities: a case study in the Danube River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J; Leitner, Patrick; Graf, Wolfram; Focks, Andreas

    2016-11-15

    A key challenge for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals has been to evaluate the relative contribution of chemical pollution to the variability observed in biological communities, as well as to identify multiple stressor groups. In this study we evaluated the toxic pressure exerted by >200 contaminants to benthic macroinvertebrates in the Danube River using the Toxic Unit approach. Furthermore, we evaluated correlations between several stressors (chemical and non-chemical) and biological indices commonly used for the ecological status assessment of aquatic ecosystems. We also performed several variation partitioning analyses to evaluate the relative contribution of contaminants and other abiotic parameters (i.e. habitat characteristics, hydromorphological alterations, water quality parameters) to the structural and biological trait variation of the invertebrate community. The results of this study show that most biological indices significantly correlate to parameters related to habitat and physico-chemical conditions, but showed limited correlation with the calculated toxic pressure. The calculated toxic pressure, however, showed little variation between sampling sites, which complicates the identification of pollution-induced effects. The results of this study show that the variation in the structure and trait composition of the invertebrate community are mainly explained by habitat and water quality parameters, whereas hydromorphological alterations play a less important role. Among the water quality parameters, physico-chemical parameters such as suspended solids, nutrients or dissolved oxygen explained a larger part of the variation in the invertebrate community as compared to metals or organic contaminants. Significant correlations exist between some physico-chemical measurements (e.g. nutrients) and some chemical classes (i.e. pharmaceuticals, chemicals related to human presence) which constitute important multiple stressor groups. This study

  1. Chemical espionage on species-specific butterfly anti-aphrodisiacs by hitchhiking Trichogramma wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Woelke, J.B.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Smid, H.M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic wasps employ a wide range of chemical cues to find their hosts. Very recently, we discovered how 2 closely related egg parasitoids, Trichogramma brassicae and Trichogramma evanescens, exploit the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone benzyl cyanide of one of their hosts, the gregarious large cabbage

  2. Models to relate species to environment: a hierarchical statistical approac

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, T.

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, the interest of community ecologists in trait-based approaches has grown dramatically and these approaches have been increasingly applied to explain and predict response of species to environmental conditions. A variety of modelling techniques are available. The dominant tec

  3. Chemical composition and variability of the volatile components from inflorescences of Cirsium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyra, Małgorzata; Mardarowicz, Marek; Kochmańska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oils of inflorescences Cirsium spp. (Asteraceae) by GC/MS method. Essential oils were extracted from the inflorescences of Cirsium pannonicum (Link), Cirsium ligulare Boiss., Cirsium heterophyllum (L.) Hill., Cirsium acaule (L.) Scop., Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop., Cirsium dissectum (L.) Hill., Cirsium decussatum (Janka) and Cirsium eriophorum (L.) Scop., using the steam distillation method. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was employed for the analysis of essential oils. Our study shows the differences in chemical composition of volatile oils in the inflorescences of Cirsium spp. The main components of the essential oil were ketones and aldehydes with a long carbon side-chain. Volatile oils also contained small amounts of terpenes: thymol, β-linalool, eugenol, carvacrol and fatty acids with odd number of carbon atoms-waxes. The compounds in the essential oils obtained from inflorescences Cirsium L. species have been identified for the first time. PMID:25674834

  4. Entrainment in an electrochemical forced oscillator as a method of classification of chemical species-a new strategy to develop a chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, S.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kawakami, H.

    1992-10-01

    We propose a new sensing method of varios chemical species based on information on the mode of entrainment in an electrochemically forced oscillator. It is demonstrated that the presence of one of the four basic taste compounds (salty, sweet, bitter, and sour) changes the mode of entrainment in a unique way. Thus a characteristics change of the entrainment allows us to obtain information on the properties of the electrochemical system. The response of the mode of entrainment to the taste compounds is related to the nonlinear properties of the studied electrochemical system, i.e., its voltage dependent capacitance and conductance. The experimental results are compared with computer simulations of a model system in which the capacitance is a nonlinear function of the voltage.

  5. Comparison of the physico-chemical and phytochemical characteristics of the oil of two Plukenetia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Rosana; Pedreschi, Romina; Domínguez, Gilberto; Campos, David

    2015-04-15

    A physico-chemical and phytochemical characterisation of the oil of two rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and phytosterols is presented for two close species of Plukenetia, endemic to the Amazon Region of Peru. Plukenetia huayllabambana presented approximately 9% more oil yield than Plukenetia volubilis. Fatty acid profiles were pretty similar for both species but P. huayllabambana presented a significantly higher content of α-linolenic acid than P. volubilis (51.3 and 45.6 g/100 g oil, respectively). Important contents of γ- and δ-tocopherol were evidenced in both oils (127.6 and 84.0 and, 93.3 and 47.5 mg/100 g oil, for P. volubilis and P. huayllabambana, respectively). β-Sitosterol was the most important and representative phytosterol in both oils (∼127 mg/100 g oil). The results of this study indicate P. huayllabambana as an important dietary source of health promoting phytochemicals. PMID:25466144

  6. Comparison of the physico-chemical and phytochemical characteristics of the oil of two Plukenetia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Rosana; Pedreschi, Romina; Domínguez, Gilberto; Campos, David

    2015-04-15

    A physico-chemical and phytochemical characterisation of the oil of two rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and phytosterols is presented for two close species of Plukenetia, endemic to the Amazon Region of Peru. Plukenetia huayllabambana presented approximately 9% more oil yield than Plukenetia volubilis. Fatty acid profiles were pretty similar for both species but P. huayllabambana presented a significantly higher content of α-linolenic acid than P. volubilis (51.3 and 45.6 g/100 g oil, respectively). Important contents of γ- and δ-tocopherol were evidenced in both oils (127.6 and 84.0 and, 93.3 and 47.5 mg/100 g oil, for P. volubilis and P. huayllabambana, respectively). β-Sitosterol was the most important and representative phytosterol in both oils (∼127 mg/100 g oil). The results of this study indicate P. huayllabambana as an important dietary source of health promoting phytochemicals.

  7. Status of chemical elements in Atlantic Forest tree species near an industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental quality assessment studies have been conducted with tree species largely distributed in the Atlantic Forest. Leaf and soil samples were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) nearby the industrial complex of Cubatao, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and analyzed for chemical elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results were compared to background values obtained in the Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (PECB). The higher As, Fe, Hg and Zn mass fractions in the tree leaves of PESM indicated anthropogenic influence on this conservation unit. (author)

  8. Model analysis of the chemical conversion of exhaust species in the expanding plumes of subsonic aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellhoff, M.; Hendricks, J.; Lippert, E.; Petry, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie; Sausen, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    A box model and two different one-dimensional models are used to investigate the chemical conversion of exhaust species in the dispersing plume of a subsonic aircraft flying at cruise altitude. The effect of varying daytime of release as well as the impact of changing dispersion time is studied with special respect to the aircraft induced O{sub 3} production. Effective emission amounts for consideration in mesoscale and global models are calculated. Simulations with modified photolysis rates are performed to show the sensitivity of the photochemistry to the occurrence of cirrus clouds. (author) 8 refs.

  9. Chemical sanitizers to control biofilms formed by two Pseudomonas species on stainless steel surface

    OpenAIRE

    Danila Soares Caixeta; Thiago Henrique Scarpa; Danilo Florisvaldo Brugnera; Dieyckson Osvani Freire; Eduardo Alves; Luiz Ronaldo de Abreu; Roberta Hilsdorf Piccoli

    2012-01-01

    The biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens on AISI 304 stainless steel in the presence of reconstituted skim milk under different temperatures was conducted, and the potential of three chemical sanitizers in removing the mono-species biofilms formed was compared. Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultivated in skim milk at 28 °C presented better growth rate (10.4 log CFU.mL-1) when compared with 3.7 and 4.2 log CFU.mL-1 for P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens cultivated at ...

  10. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  11. [Chemical structure and immunobiological activities of peptidoglycan isolated from Capnocytophaga species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanagata, T

    1990-12-01

    The chemical structure and immunobiological activities of the cell wall peptidoglycan isolated from Capnocytophaga species was investigated. Peptidoglycan was isolated from Capnocytophaga species strain SE2-2 by boiling in 4% sodium dodecyl sulfate and by digestion with pronase, trypsin and alpha-amylase. Analysis of amino acids and amino sugars of the peptidoglycan revealed that glucosamine, muramic acid, D-glutamic acid, alanine, and diaminopimelic acid (A2pm) were the principal components. Serine and glycine were not found. Dinitrophenylation method revealed that about half of A2pm residue had a free amino group, and analysis by hydrazinolysis showed that a small part of alanine and A2pm located at the C-terminal. The above results indicate that one of the amino groups of A2pm residue at one strand of the stem peptide subunit cross-linked to the carboxyl group of alanine of the neighboring strand. It was thus revealed that the peptidoglycan of Capnocytophaga species belonged to the Al gamma type of the classification by Schleifer and Kandler. Peptidoglycan isolated from Capnocytophaga species strain SE2-2 was found to be definitely adjuvant-active in induction of delayed type hypersensitivity against ovalbumin when administered to guinea pigs as water-in-oil emulsion and in stimulation of increase serum antibody levels. Regarding mitogenicity on splenocytes of BALB/c and BALB/c nu/nu mice, peptidoglycan from Capnocytophaga species was markedly enhanced the uptake [3H] thymidine in dose of 10 micrograms/10(5) cells, however thymocytes were not reactive. Stimulation effects on peritoneal macrophages from a guinea pig to incorporation of 14C-glucosamin was exhibited by addition of 100 micrograms of this peptidoglycan. These findings indicate that peptidoglycan of Capnocytophaga species might eventually be responsible for destruction of periodontal tissue by host mediated activities.

  12. Comparison of the chemical compositions and nutritive values of various pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae) species and parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Young-Nam; Choi, Changsun

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkins have considerable variation in nutrient contents depending on the cultivation environment, species, or part. In this study, the general chemical compositions and some bioactive components, such as tocopherols, carotenoids, and β-sitosterol, were analyzed in three major species of pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae pepo, C. moschata, and C. maxima) grown in Korea and also in three parts (peel, flesh, and seed) of each pumpkin species. C. maxima had significantly more carbohydrate, protein, fat, and fiber than C. pepo or C. moschata (P < 0.05). The moisture content as well as the amino acid and arginine contents in all parts of the pumpkin was highest in C. pepo. The major fatty acids in the seeds were palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. C. pepo and C. moschata seeds had significantly more γ-tocopherol than C. maxima, whose seeds had the highest β-carotene content. C. pepo seeds had significantly more β-sitosterol than the others. Nutrient compositions differed considerably among the pumpkin species and parts. These results will be useful in updating the nutrient compositions of pumpkin in the Korean food composition database. Additional analyses of various pumpkins grown in different years and in different areas of Korea are needed. PMID:22413037

  13. Environmental Fate of Organophosphorus Compounds Related to Chemical Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L; Love, A H; Vance, A; Reynolds, J G

    2005-02-08

    chloride and hydroxyl (strong nucleophile) dominated experimental solutions. Because of its overwhelming abundance in solution relative to hydroxyl ion, bicarbonate likely effectively competes in nucleophilic attack on phosphorus. The addition of natural dissolved organic matter at 100 mg/L in pH 7 bicarbonate buffered solution slowed VX hydrolysis rates {approx}2 times relative to controls, suggesting hydrophobic interaction. Adsorption experiments derived isotherms from batch aqueous experiments on montmorillonite clay, iron-oxyhydroxide goethite, and on amorphous silica. VX had moderate affinity for montmorillonite and amorphous silica, and very low affinity toward goethite. The addition of dissolved organic matter into solution enhanced VX adsorption to goethite, consistent with its high affinity for hydrophobic organic matter (log K{sub oc} = 2.52). Diisopropylaminoethylthiol (DESH), a hydrolysis product of VX showed equivalent adsorption to montmorillonite, and poor affinity to goethite and silica. However, hydrolysis products O-Ethylmethylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and methylphosphonic acid (MPA) strongly adsorbed on goethite, but not on montmorillonite or silica, suggesting a ligand-exchange mechanism. VX degraded rapidly when completely dried onto goethite followed by rehydration, consistent with an irreversible chemical adsorption mechanism.

  14. Bryophyllum pinnatum and Related Species Used in Anthroposophic Medicine: Constituents, Pharmacological Activities, and Clinical Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürer, Karin; Simões-Wüst, Ana Paula; von Mandach, Ursula; Hamburger, Matthias; Potterat, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Bryophyllum pinnatum (syn. Kalanchoe pinnata) is a succulent perennial plant native to Madagascar that was introduced in anthroposophic medicine in the early 20th century. In recent years, we conducted a large collaborative project to provide reliable data on the chemical composition, pharmacological properties, and clinical efficacy of Bryophyllum. Here, we comprehensively review the phytochemistry, as well as the pharmacological and clinical data. As to the pharmacology, special emphasis is given to properties related to the use in anthroposophic medicine as a treatment for "hyperactivity diseases", such as preterm labor, restlessness, and sleep disorders. Studies suggesting that B. pinnatum may become a new treatment option for overactive bladder syndrome are also reviewed. Tolerability is addressed, and toxicological data are discussed in conjunction with the presence of potentially toxic bufadienolides in Bryophyllum species. The few data available on two related species with medicinal uses, Bryophyllum daigremontianum and Bryophyllum delagoense, have also been included. Taken together, current data support the use of B. pinnatum for the mentioned indications, but further studies are needed to fully understand the modes of action, and to identify the pharmacologically active constituents. PMID:27220081

  15. Reactive oxygen species: their relation to pneumoconiosis and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vallyathan, V; Shi, X.; Castranova, V.

    1998-01-01

    Occupational exposures to mineral particles cause pneumoconiosis and other diseases, including cancer. Recent studies have suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a key role in the mechanisms of disease initiation and progression following exposure to these particles. ROS-induced primary stimuli result in the increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and other mediators, promoting events that appear to be important in the progression of cell injury and pulmonary disease. ...

  16. Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

    2012-04-01

    India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata

  17. Effects of Pig Slurry Application and Crops on Phosphorus Content in Soil and the Chemical Species in Solution

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The application of pig slurry rates and plant cultivation can modify the soil phosphorus (P) content and distribution of chemical species in solution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total P, available P and P in solution, and the distribution of chemical P species in solution, in a soil under longstanding pig slurry applications and crop cultivation. The study was carried out in soil columns with undisturbed structure, collected in an experiment conducted for eight years in the...

  18. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Chemical Species in Silicon and Silicon-Rich Nitride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill O. Bugaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational properties of hydrogenated silicon-rich nitride (SiN:H of various stoichiometry (0.6≤≤1.3 and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H films were studied using Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furnace annealing during 5 hours in Ar ambient at 1130∘C and pulse laser annealing were applied to modify the structure of films. Surprisingly, after annealing with such high-thermal budget, according to the FTIR data, the nearly stoichiometric silicon nitride film contains hydrogen in the form of Si–H bonds. From analysis of the FTIR data of the Si–N bond vibrations, one can conclude that silicon nitride is partly crystallized. According to the Raman data a-Si:H films with hydrogen concentration 15% and lower contain mainly Si–H chemical species, and films with hydrogen concentration 30–35% contain mainly Si–H2 chemical species. Nanosecond pulse laser treatments lead to crystallization of the films and its dehydrogenization.

  19. Contribution of species-specific chemical signatures to soil organic matter in Kohala, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C. E.; Amatangelo, K.; Neff, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) inherits much of its chemical structure from the dominant vegetation, including phenolic (lignin-derived), aromatic, and aliphatic (cutin and wax-derived) compounds. The Hawaiian fern species Dicranopteris decomposes more slowly than the angiosperm, Cheirodendron due to high concentrations of recalcitrant C compounds. These aliphatic fern leaf waxes are well-preserved and may comprise a large portion of the recalcitrant organic matter in these soils. Our objective was to determine the chemical signature of fern and angiosperm vegetation types and trace the preservation or loss of those compounds into the soil. We collected live tissue, litter, roots, and soil (tannin-derivatives. There was a general decrease of lignin-derived phenolic compounds from live to litter to soils and an increase in more recalcitrant, aromatic and aliphatic C. Recalcitrant fern-derived cutin and leaf waxes (alkene and alkanes structures) were evident in the soils, but clear species differences were not observed. Although ferns contain distinct lipid and wax-derived compounds, soils developed under fern do not appear to accumulate these compounds in SOM.

  20. Chemical speciation of heavy metals in sandy soils in relation to availability and mobility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental risk of heavy metals which are present in soil at a certain total content is highly dependent on soil properties. Chemical speciation is a comprehensive term for the distribution of heavy metals over all possible chemical forms (species) in soil solution and in the solid phase. The

  1. Two new species of Dicranomyia Stephens, 1829, with notes on related species (Diptera, Limoniidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, Willy

    1985-01-01

    Dicranomyia (D.) lorettae sp.n. and Dicranomyia (D.) mattheyi sp.n. are described. Comments are given on the relationship of the new species and the chorea group sensu Lackschewitz & Pagast, 1941. The synonymy of Dicranomyia hygropetrica Vaillant, 1952, and Dicranomyia mitis (Meigen, 1830) is establ

  2. Study of Chemical Constituents and Medicinal Uses of Indicator Species of District Bannu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman ullah khan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess record and report the chemical constituents and ethnobotanical knowledge of indicator species of District Bannu. Medicinal outlines of about 57 plants were recorded through interview local people i.e. farmers, herbalists, hakims and Medicinal plants user dealers. The present investigation comprises the indigenous uses of 57 species belonging to 36 families of Angiosperms based upon their utility. Out of this rich Medicinal germplasm, 66.15% plants are wild while 44.18%, species were found to be cultivated, 26.74% species are both wild and cultivated of the total flora of this area. The most important medicinal families are Solanaceae (7 spp, 12.28%, Asteraceae (5 spp, 8.77%, Mimosaceae (3 spp, 5.26%, Moraceae (3 spp, 5.26%, Malvaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae, Plantaginaceae, and Rhamnaceae (2 spp, 3.51% While the remaining 25 families having 1 species each which is 1.75% of all families. The most common medicinal plants in the area are Abroma augusta (L. F., Acacia modesta wall., Achyranthes bidentata Blume , Albizia lebbeek L., Calotropis procera L., Capparis decidua Forsk Carthamus oxycantha M. B, Chenopodium album L., Citrus medica L., Citrullus colocynthis Schrad, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb, Cynodon dactylon L. Cyperus rotundrus L., Dodonia viscosa L., Eucalyptus globule L., Nerium oleander L., Papaver somniferum L., Trachy spermum ammi L. Typha orientallis J. Preslw., Vitex negundo L., Withania somnifera L., Xanthium strumarium L., Zizphus mauratiana Lam., Some plants have wild fruits i.e.., Solanum nigrum L., while Nerium oleander L. and Dodonaea viscosa (L. Jaeq are ornamental.

  3. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of CB8-:Towards Rational Design of Hypercoordinated Planar Chemical Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averkiev, Boris B.; Wang, Leiming; Huang, Wei; Wang, Lai S.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrated in our joint photoelectron spectroscopic and ab initio study that wheel-type structures with a boron ring are not appropriate for designing planar molecules with a hypercoordinate central carbon on the example of CB8, and CB8 clusters. According to our chemical bonding model, in the wheel type structures the central atom is involved in delocalized bonding, while peripheral atoms are involved in both delocalized bonding and 2c-2e -bonding. Since carbon is more electronegative than boron it favors peripheral positions where it can participate in 2c-2e -bonding. To design a chemical species with a central hypercoordinate carbon atom, one should consider electropositive ligands, which would have lone pairs instead of 2c-2e peripheral bonds. We presented a chemical bonding model capable of rationalizing and predicting structures either with a boron ring or a central planar carbon. This represents the first step toward rational design of nano- and subnano-structures with tailored properties.

  4. Species interactions and chemical stress combined effects of intraspecific and interspecific interactions and pyrene n Daphnia magna populations dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viaene, K.P.J.; Laender, de F.; Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.; Guardo, Di A.; Morselli, M.; Janssen, C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Species interactions are often suggested as an important factor when assessing the effects of chemicals on higher levels of biological organization. Nevertheless, the contribution of intraspecific and interspecific interactions to chemical effects on populations is often overlooked. In the present s

  5. [Chemical tests with Marrubium species. Official data on Marubii herba in Pharmacopoeia Hungarica VII].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telek, E; Tõth, L; Botz, L; Máthé, I

    1997-01-01

    About 40 species of the Marrubium genus (Lamiaceae) are known of which 2 species (M. vulgare L. and M. peregrinum L.) and one hybrid (M. x paniculatum Desr.) can be found as native plants in Hungary. The above-ground parts of M. vulgare L. are official in Hungarian Pharmacopoeia VII. Active substances in Marrubii herba are labdane-structured bitter materials. Although the presence of furanic labdane diterpenes in the plant is known, the pharmacopoeia gives only microscopic tests, qualitative tests (for other parts of the plant and foreign organic matter) for the bitter value of Marrubii herba. We have examined the main terpenoid substances isolated with column, gel and preparative layer chromatography. Structure elucidations were performed by means of UV, mass and NMR spectroscopy. We have compared the changes in terpenoid-type compounds (premarrubiin and marrubiin) in plants during the vegetation period; in different Marrubium species and in the different extractions of horehound by means of thin layer chromatography and densitometry. By reason of our results we propose qualitative and quantitative chemical tests for the paragraph of Marrubii herba in Pharmacopoeia Hungarica VII. PMID:9163258

  6. [Chemical tests with Marrubium species. Official data on Marubii herba in Pharmacopoeia Hungarica VII].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telek, E; Tõth, L; Botz, L; Máthé, I

    1997-01-01

    About 40 species of the Marrubium genus (Lamiaceae) are known of which 2 species (M. vulgare L. and M. peregrinum L.) and one hybrid (M. x paniculatum Desr.) can be found as native plants in Hungary. The above-ground parts of M. vulgare L. are official in Hungarian Pharmacopoeia VII. Active substances in Marrubii herba are labdane-structured bitter materials. Although the presence of furanic labdane diterpenes in the plant is known, the pharmacopoeia gives only microscopic tests, qualitative tests (for other parts of the plant and foreign organic matter) for the bitter value of Marrubii herba. We have examined the main terpenoid substances isolated with column, gel and preparative layer chromatography. Structure elucidations were performed by means of UV, mass and NMR spectroscopy. We have compared the changes in terpenoid-type compounds (premarrubiin and marrubiin) in plants during the vegetation period; in different Marrubium species and in the different extractions of horehound by means of thin layer chromatography and densitometry. By reason of our results we propose qualitative and quantitative chemical tests for the paragraph of Marrubii herba in Pharmacopoeia Hungarica VII.

  7. The effect of elevated CO2 on the chemical composition and construction costs of leaves of 27 C-3 species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, H; VanBerkel, Y; Baxter, R; DenHertog, J; Dijkstra, P; Gifford, RM; Griffin, KL; Roumet, C; Roy, J

    1997-01-01

    We determined the proximate chemical composition as well as the construction costs of leaves of 27 species, grown at ambient and at a twice-ambient partial pressure of atmospheric CO2, These species comprised wild and agricultural herbaceous plants as well as tree seedlings, Both average responses a

  8. The effect of elevated CO2 on the chemical composition and construction costs of leaves of 27 C3 species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, H.; Berkel, Y. van; Baxter, B.; Hertog, J. den; Dijkstra, P.; Gifford, R.M.; Griffin, K.L.; Roumet, C.; Roy, J.; Wong, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    We determined the proximate chemical composition as well as the construction costs of leaves of 27 species, grown at ambient and at a twice-ambient partial pressure of atmospheric CO₂. These species comprised wild and agricultural herbaceous plants as well as tree seedlings. Both average responses a

  9. An update review on Commiphora molmol and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkal, Abdulkader M D; Morsy, Tosson A

    2008-12-01

    The origins of myrrh and frankincense are traced to the Arabian Peninsula. According to Herodotus (5th century BC): "Arabia is the only country which produces frankincense, myrrh, cassia, and cinnamon.., the trees bearing the frankincense are guarded by winged serpents of small size and various colors." Diodorus Siculus wrote, in the second half of the first century BC, that "all of Arabia exudes a most delicate fragrance; even the seamen passing by Arabia can smell the strong fragrance that gives health and vigor." He also mentioned gold mines so pure that no smelting was necessary. The Magi, carrying myrrh, frankincense, and gold, came from the East: Arabia. The frankincense trade route, with transport by donkeys and later by camel caravans, reached Jerusalem and Egypt from the Dhofar region of what is today Oman, through Yemen, turning north to follow the Red Sea coast. It is likely that the same or similar species of the resin-bearing plants grew across the Red Sea in the area that is now Somalia and Ethiopia, while the collection of the gum resins was initiated in Arabia. Myrrh contributed much in the human welfare. Schistosomiasis was known in ancient Egypt since remote times. Haematuria with urinary bladder disturbances was mentioned in four Papyrus papers dated back to 1950-1900 BC, and Schistosoma ova was detected in a cirrhotic liver of a mummy from 1200 BC (Ruffer, 1910). Also, Fasciola eggs were detected in a mummy (Looss, 1896). Fascioliasis infected over 17 million people worldwide causing marked morbidity and mortality (Haseeb et al., 2002). Schistosomiasis affected over 200 million people in 74 countries and territories worldwide (WHO, 1999) causing several chronic complications. Both were incriminated to predispose or accompanied human hepatitis and predisposed to HCV (Wahib et al., 2006). Most zoonotic helminthes induced immune response (Nutman, 2001) characterized by producing of type 2 cytokines, Ig G1, IgG2, IgE antibodies and eosinophil and

  10. Co-occurrence patterns of Bornean vertebrates suggest competitive exclusion is strongest among distantly related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Struebig, Matthew J; Meijaard, Erik; van Balen, S; Husson, Simon; Marshall, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    Assessing the importance of deterministic processes in structuring ecological communities is a central focus of community ecology. Typically, community ecologists study a single taxonomic group, which precludes detection of potentially important biotic interactions between distantly related species, and inherently assumes competition is strongest between closely related species. We examined distribution patterns of vertebrate species across the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia to assess the extent to which inter-specific competition may have shaped ecological communities on the island and whether the intensity of inter-specific competition in present-day communities varies as a function of evolutionary relatedness. We investigated the relative extent of competition within and between species of primates, birds, bats and squirrels using species presence-absence and attribute data compiled for 21 forested sites across Borneo. We calculated for each species pair the checkerboard unit value (CU), a statistic that is often interpreted as indicating the importance of interspecific competition. The percentage of species pairs with significant CUs was lowest in within-taxon comparisons. Moreover, for invertebrate-eating species the percentage of significantly checkerboarded species pairs was highest in comparisons between primates and other taxa, particularly birds and squirrels. Our results are consistent with the interpretation that competitive interactions between distantly related species may have shaped the distribution of species and thus the composition of Bornean vertebrate communities. This research highlights the importance of taking into account the broad mammalian and avian communities in which species occur for understanding the factors that structure biodiversity. PMID:23736548

  11. An update review on Commiphora molmol and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkal, Abdulkader M D; Morsy, Tosson A

    2008-12-01

    The origins of myrrh and frankincense are traced to the Arabian Peninsula. According to Herodotus (5th century BC): "Arabia is the only country which produces frankincense, myrrh, cassia, and cinnamon.., the trees bearing the frankincense are guarded by winged serpents of small size and various colors." Diodorus Siculus wrote, in the second half of the first century BC, that "all of Arabia exudes a most delicate fragrance; even the seamen passing by Arabia can smell the strong fragrance that gives health and vigor." He also mentioned gold mines so pure that no smelting was necessary. The Magi, carrying myrrh, frankincense, and gold, came from the East: Arabia. The frankincense trade route, with transport by donkeys and later by camel caravans, reached Jerusalem and Egypt from the Dhofar region of what is today Oman, through Yemen, turning north to follow the Red Sea coast. It is likely that the same or similar species of the resin-bearing plants grew across the Red Sea in the area that is now Somalia and Ethiopia, while the collection of the gum resins was initiated in Arabia. Myrrh contributed much in the human welfare. Schistosomiasis was known in ancient Egypt since remote times. Haematuria with urinary bladder disturbances was mentioned in four Papyrus papers dated back to 1950-1900 BC, and Schistosoma ova was detected in a cirrhotic liver of a mummy from 1200 BC (Ruffer, 1910). Also, Fasciola eggs were detected in a mummy (Looss, 1896). Fascioliasis infected over 17 million people worldwide causing marked morbidity and mortality (Haseeb et al., 2002). Schistosomiasis affected over 200 million people in 74 countries and territories worldwide (WHO, 1999) causing several chronic complications. Both were incriminated to predispose or accompanied human hepatitis and predisposed to HCV (Wahib et al., 2006). Most zoonotic helminthes induced immune response (Nutman, 2001) characterized by producing of type 2 cytokines, Ig G1, IgG2, IgE antibodies and eosinophil and

  12. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Croton kimosorum, an endemic species to Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Ihandriharison, Harilala; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Benja, Rakotonirina; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, Suzanne; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Croton kimosorum Leandri is an endemic species to Madagascar. The chemical composition of aerial parts, leaf and stem oils is reported for the first time. Analysis was carried out by combination of chromatographic (CC, GC), spectroscopic and spectrometric (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 76 compounds have been identified. Essential oil isolated from aerial parts contained mainly linalool (21.6%), sabinene (10.4%), 1,8-cineole (6.3%), beta-pinene (6.2%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (5.9%), terpinen-4-ol (4.8%), geraniol (4,5%) and germacrene D (2.3%). In comparison with the first sample, the composition of leaf and stem oils varied slightly, while essential oil isolated by vapor distillation from a semi-industrial still exhibited similar composition. PMID:24660481

  13. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Croton kimosorum, an endemic species to Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Ihandriharison, Harilala; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Benja, Rakotonirina; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, Suzanne; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Croton kimosorum Leandri is an endemic species to Madagascar. The chemical composition of aerial parts, leaf and stem oils is reported for the first time. Analysis was carried out by combination of chromatographic (CC, GC), spectroscopic and spectrometric (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 76 compounds have been identified. Essential oil isolated from aerial parts contained mainly linalool (21.6%), sabinene (10.4%), 1,8-cineole (6.3%), beta-pinene (6.2%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (5.9%), terpinen-4-ol (4.8%), geraniol (4,5%) and germacrene D (2.3%). In comparison with the first sample, the composition of leaf and stem oils varied slightly, while essential oil isolated by vapor distillation from a semi-industrial still exhibited similar composition.

  14. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensah John Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers’, manufacturers’, retailers’ and consumers’ (end-users’ preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Methods Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Results Suppliers’, manufacturers’ and retailers’ preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users. But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. Conclusion This study contributes some practical suggestions

  15. Impact of environmentally based chemical hardness on uranium speciation and toxicity in six aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Richard R; Thompson, Patsy A; Serben, Kerrie C; Eickhoff, Curtis V

    2015-03-01

    Treated effluent discharge from uranium (U) mines and mills elevates the concentrations of U, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfate (SO4 (2-) ) above natural levels in receiving waters. Many investigations on the effect of hardness on U toxicity have been experiments on the combined effects of changes in hardness, pH, and alkalinity, which do not represent water chemistry downstream of U mines and mills. Therefore, more toxicity studies with water chemistry encountered downstream of U mines and mills are necessary to support predictive assessments of impacts of U discharge to the environment. Acute and chronic U toxicity laboratory bioassays were realized with 6 freshwater species in waters of low alkalinity, circumneutral pH, and a range of chemical hardness as found in field samples collected downstream of U mines and mills. In laboratory-tested waters, speciation calculations suggested that free uranyl ion concentrations remained constant despite increasing chemical hardness. When hardness increased while pH remained circumneutral and alkalinity low, U toxicity decreased only to Hyalella azteca and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Also, Ca and Mg did not compete with U for the same uptake sites. The present study confirms that the majority of studies concluding that hardness affected U toxicity were in fact studies in which alkalinity and pH were the stronger influence. The results thus confirm that studies predicting impacts of U downstream of mines and mills should not consider chemical hardness. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:562-574. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  16. Experimental and Quantum-Chemical Study of Electronically Excited States of Protolytic Isovanillin Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vusovich, O. V.; Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.; Vasil'eva, N. Yu.

    2014-05-01

    Methods of electronic spectroscopy and quantum chemistry are used to compare protolytic vanillin and isovanillin species. Three protolytic species: anion, cation, and neutral are distinguished in the ground state of the examined molecules. Vanillin and isovanillin in the ground state in water possess identical spectral characteristics: line positions and intensities in the absorption spectra coincide. Minima of the electrostatic potential demonstrate that the deepest isomer minimum is observed on the carbonyl oxygen atom. However, investigations of the fluorescence spectra show that the radiative properties of isomers differ. An analysis of results of quantum-chemical calculations demonstrate that the long-wavelength ππ* transition in the vanillin absorption spectra is formed due to electron charge transfer from the phenol part of the molecule to oxygen atoms of the methoxy and carbonyl groups, and in the isovanillin absorption spectra, it is formed only on the oxygen atom of the methoxy group. The presence of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups in the structure of the examined molecules leads to the fact that isovanillin in the ground S0 state, the same as vanillin, possesses acidic properties, whereas in the excited S1 state, they possess basic properties. A comparison of the рKа values of aqueous solutions demonstrates that vanillin possesses stronger acidic and basic properties in comparison with isovanillin.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Amorim

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o. and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Jorge Luis; Simas, Daniel Luiz Reis; Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Alviano, Celuta Sales; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2016-01-01

    Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response) and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

  19. Cladosporium species-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis in household environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shigeki; Okada, Shinji; Suzuki, Yasuko; Watanuki, Zenta; Mitsuishi, Yoichiro; Igusa, Ryotaro; Sekii, Takehiko; Uchiyama, Bine

    2009-01-01

    Home-related chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is sometimes difficult to discriminate because patients do not have an obvious history of antigen exposure. We report two HP cases which developed in an office area and in a home: a 47-year-old woman with acute-onset HP and a 72-year-old woman with chronic HP followed up as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis following isolation of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium herbarum, respectively. Lymphocyte stimulating activity and antibody titer to these fungi were increased in these patients. Since Cladosporium spp. and several other fungi are present ubiquitously in our living environment, it is difficult to eliminate the antigen from the patients' environment to control the disease. Cladosporium spp. can be key antigens in inducing chronic HP in the home environment.

  20. Relating species and functional diversity using stable isotope probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, J. I.; Rangel-Castro, J. I.; Mahmood, S.; Nicol, G.; Meharg, A. A.; Killham, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    Microbial communities play an essential role in biogeochemical cycles and analysis of laboratory cultures has provided much information on biochemical processes and physiological characteristics of functional groups of microorganisms responsible for these processes. However, the majority of microorganisms cannot be grown readily in laboratory culture and cultivation-independent molecular techniques are required for analysis of community structure and diversity. These techniques have demonstrated considerable microbial diversity in natural communities and have revealed the existence of abundant microorganisms belonging to novel, previously unsuspected microbial groups. Molecular analysis of natural communities typically provides little information on links between specific microorganisms and the biogeochemical processes that they carry out. We are therefore ignorant of the significance of microbial diversity for ecosystem processes and of the ecosystem function of uncultivated, but abundant microbial groups. Stable isotope probing enables identification of which members of a community are involved in the utilisation of specific substrates, particularly carbon substrates. It involves amendment of environmental samples, or field application with 13C-labelled carbon substrates and, after a period of exposure, extraction of nucleic acids and separation of 13C-labelled (heavy) and 12C-labelled (light) nucleic acid pools by density gradient centrifugation. The heavy nucleic acid pool will be derived only from organisms assimilating the labelled substrate.Molecular analysis of this pool provides information on identity and relative abundance of active members of the community. The technique therefore enables in situ functional analysis of microbial groups without the requirement for laboratory cultivation. Stable isotope probing has been used to determine which organisms are involved in the degradation of specific organic substrates, including recalcitrant compounds, and

  1. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Afifi, E.M. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Awwad, N.S. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: nsawwad20@yahoo.com; Hilal, M.A. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78 {+-} 2.8, 64.8 {+-} 4.1 and 76.4 {+-} 5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to {approx}91 {+-} 3.5, 87 {+-} 4.1 and 90 {+-} 6.2%, respectively.

  2. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Afifi, E M; Awwad, N S; Hilal, M A

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78+/-2.8, 64.8+/-4.1 and 76.4+/-5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to approximately 91+/-3.5, 87+/-4.1 and 90+/-6.2%, respectively.

  3. Significant divergence of sex-related non-coding RNA expression patterns among closely related species in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YongFei; LI Zheng; FAN QiChang; LONG ManYuan; ZHANG WenXia

    2007-01-01

    Whether or not non-coding RNA genes play a significant role in reproductive biology and evolution of sex determination systems is an important problem. We report identification of sex-related non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes and an analysis of ncRNAs expression patterns among Drosophila species. We detected 12 candidate ncRNAs that are expressed in the gonads of D. melanogaster by an integrative approach of RT-PCR and computational analysis of sequence conservation across species. We experimentally analyzed these ncRNA gene transcripts in head, ovary and testis of closely related species D. simulans, D. yakuba, D. pseudoobscura and D. virilis. We observed that the occurrence and extent of expression of most ncRNA fragments among closely related species show significant divergence.

  4. Formation of radical and active chemical species in electrical discharge plasma in the presence of liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, B.R.; Shih, K.Y.; Burlica, R. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the interactions of plasma with liquid water using a combination of emission spectroscopy of radical and atomic species and direct measurements of more stable chemical compounds. The study focused on electrical discharge plasma formed directly in liquid water and on discharges formed in the gas phase above liquid water, in bubbles in liquid water, and in the gas phase with water droplet spray that result in a variety of active chemical species that can be used for pollution control as well as other applications in biomedical and materials engineering. The purpose was to improve the design and operation of plasma reactors for a variety of applications. This presentation also reviewed the mechanisms for the formation of active chemical species such as hydroxyl and other radicals, hydrogen peroxide and molecular hydrogen, in electrical discharge plasma formed in the presence of water.

  5. Metal accumulation by stream bryophytes, related to chemical speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk; Vincent, C.D.; Lawlor, A.J.; Lofts, S. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Metal accumulation by aquatic bryophytes was investigated using data for headwater streams of differing chemistry. The Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) was applied to calculate chemical speciation, including competitive proton and metal interactions with external binding sites on the plants. The speciation modelling approach gives smaller deviations between observed and predicted bryophyte contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb than regressions based on total filtered metal concentrations. If all four metals, and Ni, are considered together, the WHAM predictions are superior at the 1% level. Optimised constants for bryophyte binding by the trace metals are similar to those for humic substances and simple carboxylate ligands. Bryophyte contents of Na, Mg and Ca are approximately explained by binding at external sites, while most of the K is intracellular. Oxide phases account for some of the Al, and most of the Mn, Fe and Co. - Speciation modelling can be used to interpret the accumulation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb by bryophytes, supporting its use to quantify trace metal bioavailability in the field.

  6. Wing pattern morphology of three closely related Melitaea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae species reveals highly inaccurate external morphology-based species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Jugovic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wing morphology of the three closely related species of Melitaea – M. athalia (Rottemburg, 1775, M. aurelia (Nickerl, 1850 and M. britomartis Assmann, 1847 – co-occurring in the Balkans (SE Europe was investigated in detail through visual inspection, morphometric analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results are compared to recent phylogenetic studies, searching for concordant patterns and discrepancies between the two approaches. The morphology of the genitalic structures is also compared with the results of the other two approaches. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 small albeit significant differences in wing morphology exist among the three species and (2 while the structure of male genitalia and phylogenetic position of the three species are concordant, they are (3 in discordance with the wing morphology. The present study represents another example where identification based on external morphology would lead to highly unreliable determinations, hence identification based on phylogenetic studies and/or genitalia is strongly recommended not only for the three studied species but also more broadly within the genus. Furthermore, we show that some of the characters generally used in the identification of these three Melitaea species should be avoided in future.

  7. Plant seed species identification from chemical fingerprints: a high-throughput application of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Ashton D; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Musah, Rabi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant species identification based on the morphological features of plant parts is a well-established science in botany. However, species identification from seeds has largely been unexplored, despite the fact that the seeds contain all of the genetic information that distinguishes one plant from another. Using seeds of genus Datura plants, we show here that the mass spectrum-derived chemical fingerprints for seeds of the same species are similar. On the other hand, seeds from different species within the same genus display distinct chemical signatures, even though they may contain similar characteristic biomarkers. The intraspecies chemical signature similarities on the one hand, and interspecies fingerprint differences on the other, can be processed by multivariate statistical analysis methods to enable rapid species-level identification and differentiation. The chemical fingerprints can be acquired rapidly and in a high-throughput manner by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) analysis of the seeds in their native form, without use of a solvent extract. Importantly, knowledge of the identity of the detected molecules is not required for species level identification. However, confirmation of the presence within the seeds of various characteristic tropane and other alkaloids, including atropine, scopolamine, scopoline, tropine, tropinone, and tyramine, was accomplished by comparison of the in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns of authentic standards, to the fragmentation patterns observed in the seeds when analyzed under similar in-source CID conditions. The advantages, applications, and implications of the chemometric processing of DART-MS derived seed chemical signatures for species level identification and differentiation are discussed.

  8. Review of chemical vapor deposition of graphene and related applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Luyao; Zhou, Chongwu

    2013-10-15

    Since its debut in 2004, graphene has attracted enormous interest because of its unique properties. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has emerged as an important method for the preparation and production of graphene for various applications since the method was first reported in 2008/2009. In this Account, we review graphene CVD on various metal substrates with an emphasis on Ni and Cu. In addition, we discuss important and representative applications of graphene formed by CVD, including as flexible transparent conductors for organic photovoltaic cells and in field effect transistors. Growth on polycrystalline Ni films leads to both monolayer and few-layer graphene with multiple layers because of the grain boundaries on Ni films. We can greatly increase the percentage of monolayer graphene by using single-crystalline Ni(111) substrates, which have smooth surface and no grain boundaries. Due to the extremely low solubility of carbon in Cu, Cu has emerged as an even better catalyst for the growth of monolayer graphene with a high percentage of single layers. The growth of graphene on Cu is a surface reaction. As a result, only one layer of graphene can form on a Cu surface, in contrast with Ni, where more than one layer can form through carbon segregation and precipitation. We also describe a method for transferring graphene sheets from the metal using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). CVD graphene has electronic properties that are potentially valuable in a number of applications. For example, few-layer graphene grown on Ni can function as flexible transparent conductive electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells. In addition, because we can synthesize large-grain graphene on Cu foil, such large-grain graphene has electronic properties suitable for use in field effect transistors. PMID:23480816

  9. Meta-analysis of the relative sensitivity of semi-natural vegetation species to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identified 83 species from existing publications suitable for inclusion in a database of sensitivity of species to ozone (OZOVEG database). An index, the relative sensitivity to ozone, was calculated for each species based on changes in biomass in order to test for species traits associated with ozone sensitivity. Meta-analysis of the ozone sensitivity data showed a wide inter-specific range in response to ozone. Some relationships in comparison to plant physiological and ecological characteristics were identified. Plants of the therophyte lifeform were particularly sensitive to ozone. Species with higher mature leaf N concentration were more sensitive to ozone than those with lower leaf N concentration. Some relationships between relative sensitivity to ozone and Ellenberg habitat requirements were also identified. In contrast, no relationships between relative sensitivity to ozone and mature leaf P concentration, Grime's CSR strategy, leaf longevity, flowering season, stomatal density and maximum altitude were found. The relative sensitivity of species and relationships with plant characteristics identified in this study could be used to predict sensitivity to ozone of untested species and communities. - Meta-analysis of the relative sensitivity of semi-natural vegetation species to ozone showed some relationships with physiological and ecological characteristics

  10. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-07-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  11. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-01-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  12. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oils of Two Endemic Soqotri Commiphora Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf Schultze

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The barks of two endemic Commiphora species namely, Commiphora ornifolia (Balf.f. Gillett and Commiphora parvifolia Engl., were collected from Soqotra Island in Yemen and their essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of both oils was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one yeast species by using a broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and for their antioxidant activity by measuring the DPPH radical scavenging activity. A total of 45 constituents of C. ornifolia (85.6% and 44 constituents of C. parvifolia (87.1% were identified. The oil of C. ornifolia was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (56.3%, of which camphor (27.3%, α-fenchol (15.5%, fenchone (4.4% and borneol (2.9% were identified as the main components. High contents of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (36.1% and aliphatic acids (22.8% were found in C. parvifolia oil, in which caryophyllene oxide (14.2%, β-eudesmol (7.7%, bulnesol (5.7%, T-cadinol (3.7% and hexadecanoic acid (18.4% predominated. The results of the antimicrobial assay showed that both oils exhibited moderate to high antibacterial activity especially against Gram-positive bacteria. C. ornifolia oil was the most active. In addition, the DPPH-radical scavenging assay exhibited only weak antioxidant activities for both oils at the high concentration tested.

  13. Species Richness in Relation to the Presence of Crop Plants in Families of Higher Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Hammer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop species richness and percentages of cultivated plants in 75 families comprisingmore than 220000 species were analyzed. Three major groups have been made. The first group is including the “big five” families with 10000 and more species in each. The second group comprises 50 families with more than thousand and up to 10000 species and finally the third group contains families with relatively high numbers of crop species. The percentage of cultivated species is various, from 0.16 to 7.25 in group 1, 0 to 7.24 in group 2 and 2.30 to 32.5 in group 3. The results show that there is a positive correlation (r = + 0.56 between number of crop plants and species diversity of the families.

  14. Long-Term Changes in Species Composition and Relative Abundances of Sharks at a Provisioning Site

    OpenAIRE

    Juerg M. Brunnschweiler; Abrantes, Kátya G.; Barnett, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today’s recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-...

  15. The organisation and evolution of a repeated DNA sequence family in related Allium species

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Ian Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    A large proportion of the genomes of species belonging to the genus Allium comprises repetitive sequence DNA, a component implicated as a cause of the large variation in C-values between even closely related species. The work presented here represents part of the first phase in the characterisation of some of these repetitive sequences in a number of Allium species. One repetitive DNA sequence family, BIOOO, isolated from the genome of A. sativum, has been characterised with respect to the...

  16. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of elite genes in wheat and its related species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jirui Wang; Pengfei Qi; Yuming Wei; Dengcai Liu; George Fedak; Youliang Zheng

    2010-12-01

    The tribe Triticeae includes major cereal crops (bread wheat, durum wheat, triticale, barley and rye), as well as abundant forage and lawn grasses. Wheat and its wild related species possess numerous favourable genes for yield improvement, grain quality enhancement, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, and constitute a giant gene pool for wheat improvement. In recent years, significant progress on molecular characterization and functional analysis of elite genes in wheat and its related species have been achieved. In this paper, we review the cloned functional genes correlated with grain quality, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosystem and nutrition utilization in wheat and its related species.

  17. Root discrimination of closely related crop and weed species using FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinen, Catharina; Rauber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Root discrimination of species is a pre-condition for studying belowground competition processes between crop and weed species. In this experiment, we tested Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT MIR)-attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to discriminate roots of closely related crop and weed species grown in the greenhouse: maize/barnyard grass, barley/wild oat, wheat/blackgrass (Poaceae), and sugar beet/common lambsquarters (Chenopodiaceae). Fresh (moist) and dried root segments as well as ground roots were analyzed by FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy. Root absorption spectra showed species specific peak distribution and peak height. A clear separation according to species was not possible with fresh root segments. Dried root segments (including root basis, middle section, and root tip) of maize/barnyard grass and sugar beet/common lambsquarters formed completely separated species clusters. Wheat and blackgrass separated in species specific clusters when root tips were removed from cluster analysis. A clear separation of dried root segments according to species was not possible in the case of barley and wild oat. Cluster analyses of ground roots revealed a 100% separation of all tested crop and weed species combinations. Spectra grouped in Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae clusters. Within the Poaceae cluster, C3 and C4 species differed significantly in heterogeneity. Thus, root spectra reflected the degree of kinship. To quantify species proportion in root mixtures, a two- and a three-species model for species quantification in root mixtures of maize, barnyard grass, and wild oat was calculated. The models showed low standard errors of prediction (RMSEP) and high residual predictive deviation values in an external test set validation. Hence, FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy seems to be a promising tool for root research even between closely related plant species. PMID:26483799

  18. Root discrimination of closely related crop and weed species using FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina eMeinen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Root discrimination of species is a pre-condition for studying belowground competition processes between crop and weed species. In this experiment, we tested Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT MIR-attenuated total reflection (ATR spectroscopy to discriminate roots of closely related crop and weed species grown in the greenhouse: maize/barnyard grass, barley/wild oat, wheat/blackgrass (Poaceae, and sugar beet/common lambsquarters (Chenopodiaceae. Fresh (moist and dried root segments as well as ground roots were analyzed by FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy. Root absorption spectra showed species specific peak distribution and peak height. A clear separation according to species was not possible with fresh root segments. Dried root segments (including root basis, middle section and root tip of maize/barnyard grass and sugar beet/common lambsquarters formed completely separated species clusters. Wheat and blackgrass separated in species specific clusters when root tips were removed from cluster analysis. A clear separation of dried root segments according to species was not possible in the case of barley and wild oat. Cluster analyses of ground roots revealed a 100 % separation of all tested crop and weed species combinations. Spectra grouped in Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae clusters. Within the Poaceae cluster, C3 and C4 species differed significantly in heterogeneity. Thus, root spectra reflected the degree of kinship. To quantify species proportion in root mixtures, a two- and a three-species model for species quantification in root mixtures of maize, barnyard grass, and wild oat was calculated. The models showed low standard errors of prediction (RMSEP and high residual predictive deviation (RPD values in an external test set validation. Hence, FT MIR-ATR spectroscopy seems to be a promising tool for root research even between closely related plant species.

  19. On the detectability of trace chemical species in the martian atmosphere using gas correlation filter radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Calcutt, S. B.; Wilson, E. L.

    2015-11-01

    The martian atmosphere is host to many trace gases including water (H2O) and its isotopologues, methane (CH4) and potentially sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and further organic compounds, which would serve as indirect tracers of geological, chemical and biological processes on Mars. With exception of the recent detection of CH4 by Curiosity, previous detections of these species have been unsuccessful or considered tentative due to the low concentrations of these species in the atmosphere (∼10-9 partial pressures), limited spectral resolving power and/or signal-to-noise and the challenge of discriminating between telluric and martian features when observing from the Earth. In this study, we present radiative transfer simulations of an alternative method for detection of trace gas species - the gas correlation radiometry method. Two potential observing scenarios were explored where a gas correlation filter radiometer (GCFR) instrument: (1) performs nadir and/or limb sounding of the martian atmosphere in the thermal infrared (200-2000 cm-1 from an orbiting spacecraft or (2) performs solar occultation measurements in the near-infrared (2000-5000 cm-1) from a lander on the martian surface. In both scenarios, simulations of a narrowband filter radiometer (without gas correlation) were also generated to serve as a comparison. From a spacecraft, we find that a gas correlation filter radiometer, in comparison to a filter radiometer (FR), offers a greater discrimination between temperature and dust, a greater discrimination between H2O and HDO, and would allow detection of N2O and CH3OH at concentrations of ∼10 ppbv and ∼2 ppbv, respectively, which are lower than previously-derived upper limits. However, the lowest retrievable concentration of SO2 (approximately 2 ppbv) is comparable with previous upper limits and CH4 is only detectable at concentrations of approximately 10 ppbv, which is an order of magnitude higher than the concentration recently measured

  20. Image optimization for chemical species tomography with an irregular and sparse beam array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-speed tomographic imaging of hostile engineering processes using absorption-based measurements presents a number of difficulties. In some cases, these challenges include severe limitations on the number of available measurement paths through the subject and the process of designing the geometrical arrangement of these paths for best imaging performance. This paper considers the case of a chemical species tomography system based on near-IR spectroscopic absorption measurements, intended for application to one cylinder of a multi-cylinder production engine. Some of the results, however, are also applicable to other hard-field tomographic modalities in applications where similar constraints may be encountered. A hitherto unreported design criterion is presented for optimal beam geometry for imaging performance, resulting in an irregular array with only 27 measurement paths through the subject for the engine application. Image reconstruction for this severely limited geometry is considered at length, using both simulated and experimental phantom data. Novel methods are presented for the practical generation of gaseous phantoms for calibration and testing of the system. The propane absorption coefficient at 1700 nm is measured. Quantitative imaging of propane plumes in air is demonstrated, showing good localization of circular plumes with diameter as small as 1/5 of the subject diameter and excellent imaging of multiple plumes

  1. Chemical sanitizers to control biofilms formed by two Pseudomonas species on stainless steel surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Soares Caixeta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens on AISI 304 stainless steel in the presence of reconstituted skim milk under different temperatures was conducted, and the potential of three chemical sanitizers in removing the mono-species biofilms formed was compared. Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultivated in skim milk at 28 °C presented better growth rate (10.4 log CFU.mL-1 when compared with 3.7 and 4.2 log CFU.mL-1 for P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens cultivated at 7 °C, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa formed biofilm when cultivated at 28 °C. However, only the adhesion of P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens was observed when incubated at 7 °C. The sodium dichloroisocyanurate was the most efficient sanitizer in the reduction of the adhered P. aeruginosa cells at 7 and 28 °C and those on the biofilm, respectively. The hydrogen peroxide was more effective in the reduction of adhered cells of P. fluorescens at 7 °C.

  2. Toxicological and chemical investigation of untreated municipal wastewater: Fraction- and species-specific toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Tubic, Aleksandra; Ivancev-Tumbas, Ivana; Kovacevic, Radmila; Samardzija, Dragana; Andric, Nebojsa; Kaisarevic, Sonja

    2016-05-01

    Absence of a municipal wastewater (WW) treatment plant results in the untreated WW discharge into the recipient. The present study investigated toxic effects and chemical composition of water extracts and fractions from untreated WW and recipient Danube River (DR). Samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction and silica gel fractionation and screened for EROD activity and cytotoxicity using aquatic models, comprising of fish liver cells (PLHC-1) and a model of the early development of zebrafish embryos, while rat (H4IIE) and human (HepG2) hepatoma cells served as mammalian models. Polar fraction caused cytotoxicity and increased the EROD activity in PLHC-1 cells, and increased mortality and developmental abnormalities in developing zebrafish embryos. In H4IIE, polar fraction induced inhibition of cell growth and increased EROD activity, whereas HepG2 exerted low or no response to the exposure. Non-polar and medium-polar fractions were ineffective. Tentative identification by GC/MS showed that WW is characterized by the hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, plasticizers, and a certain number of benzene derivatives and organic acids. In DR, smaller number of organic compounds was identified and toxicity was less pronounced than in WW treatments. The present study revealed the potent toxic effect of polar fraction of untreated WW, with biological responses varying in sensitivity across organisms. Obtained results confirmed that fraction- and species-specific toxicity should be considered when assessing health risk of environmental pollution. PMID:26829069

  3. MORPHO-CHEMICAL DESCRIPTION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT OCIMUM SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAKARAPARTHI PANDU SASTRY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Basil is a popular medicinal and culinary herb, and its essential oils have been used extensively for many years in food products, perfumery, dental and oral products. Basil essential oils and their principal constituents were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, and mould. The essential oils obtained from aerial parts of three different species of Ocimum comprising twenty one germplasm lines were investigated for their essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity during 2010. Essential oils from seventeen germplasm lines in Ocimum basilicum and two each in Ocimum tenuiflorum and Ocimum gratissimum were investigated for anti-microbial activity against four bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sps., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The morpho-chemotypes exhibited wide variability for morphological and chemical traits. Anti-bacterial activity was found to be high for Staphylococcus aureus, moderate for Escherichia coli, low for Bacillus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly resistant. The essential oils of Pale Green-Broad Leaves (O. basilicum and CIM Ayu (O. gratissimum exhibited significant antibacterial activity against both S. aureus and E. coli signifying them promising for anti-bacterial activity. No relationship was observed between chemotype specificity and anti-bacterial activity, indicating that apart from major components of essential oil, minor components and other factors may be responsible for anti-microbial activities.

  4. What are the active carbon species during graphene chemical vapor deposition growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Haibo; Tao, Xiao-Ming; Ding, Feng

    2015-02-01

    The dissociation of carbon feedstock is a crucial step for understanding the mechanism of graphene chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth. Using first-principles calculations, we performed a comprehensive theoretical study for the population of various active carbon species, including carbon monomers and various radicals, CHi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4), on four representative transition-metal surfaces, Cu(111), Ni(111), Ir(111) and Rh(111), under different experimental conditions. On the Cu surface, which is less active, the population of CH and C monomers at the subsurface is found to be very high and thus they are the most important precursors for graphene CVD growth. On the Ni surface, which is more active than Cu, C monomers at the subsurface dominate graphene CVD growth under most experimental conditions. In contrast, on the active Ir and Rh surfaces, C monomers on the surfaces are found to be very stable and thus are the main precursors for graphene growth. This study shows that the mechanism of graphene CVD growth depends on the activity of catalyst surfaces and the detailed graphene growth process at the atomic level can be controlled by varying the temperature or partial pressure of hydrogen.

  5. Reactive oxygen species-related activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haohao Wu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides are among the most widely used engineered and naturally occurring nanostructures, and the increasing incidence of biological exposure to these nanostructures has raised concerns about their biotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced oxidative stress is one of the most accepted toxic mechanisms and, in the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate the ROS-related activities of iron nanostructures. In this review, we summarize activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides in ROS-related redox processes, addressing in detail the known homogeneous and heterogeneous redox mechanisms involved in these processes, intrinsic ROS-related properties of iron nanostructures (chemical composition, particle size, and crystalline phase, and ROS-related bio-microenvironmental factors, including physiological pH and buffers, biogenic reducing agents, and other organic substances.

  6. Species from within the Phytophthora cryptogea complex and related species, P. erythroseptica and P. sansomeana, readily hybridize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaiefarahani, Banafsheh; Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa, Reza; Hardy, Giles E St J; Burgess, Treena I

    2016-08-01

    During a study on the phylogenetic relationships between species in the Phytophthora cryptogea complex and related species, Phytophthora erythroseptica and Phytophthora sansomeana, 19 hybrid isolates with multiple polymorphisms in the nuclear sequences were observed. Molecular characterization of hybrids was achieved by sequencing three nuclear (internal transcribed spacers, β-tubulin (TUB), heat shock protein 90) and two mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coxI), NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NADH)) gene regions and cloning of the single-copy nuclear gene, TUB. Based on the molecular studies the hybrid isolates belonged to six distinct groups between P. cryptogea, P. erythroseptica, Phytophthora pseudocryptogea, P. sansomeana, and Phytophthora sp. kelmania. In all cases, only a single coxI and NADH allele was detected and nuclear genes were biparentally inherited, suggesting that the hybrids arose from sexual recombination events. Colony morphology, growth rate, cardinal temperatures, breeding system, and morphology of sporangia, oogonia, oospores, and antheridia were also determined. Some morphological differences between the hybrids and the parental species were noted; however, they were not sufficient to reliably distinguish the taxa and DNA markers from nuclear and mitochondrial genes will to be necessary for their identification. The parental species are all important pathogens of agricultural fields that have been transported globally. With the apparent ease of hybridization within this group there is ample opportunity for virulent hybrids to form, perhaps with extended host ranges. PMID:27521629

  7. Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, S Sumangala

    2013-01-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and now added by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  8. Middle atmosphere heating by exothermic chemical reactions involving odd-hydrogen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Solomon, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The rate of heating which occurs in the middle atmosphere due to four exothermic reactions involving members of the odd-hydrogen family is calculated. The following reactions are considered: O + OH yields O2 + H; H + O2 + M yields HO2 + M; H + O3 yields OH + O2; and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. It is shown that the heating rates due to these reactions rival the oxygen-related heating rates conventionally considered in middle-atmosphere models. The conversion of chemical potential energy into molecular translational energy (heat) by these odd-hydrogen reactions is shown to be a significant energy source in the middle atmosphere that has not been previously considered.

  9. Volcanic monitoring for radon and chemical species in the soil and in spring water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N. E-mail: nurina@terra.com.mx; Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M.; Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.; Pena, P.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Reyes, A.V

    2003-06-01

    Soil radon has been monitored at two fixed stations in the northern flank of Popocatepetl Volcano, a high risk volcano located 60 km SE from Mexico City. Water samples from three springs were also studied for radon as well as major and trace elements. Radon in the soil was recorded using track detectors. Radon in the water samples was evaluated using the liquid scintillation method and an Alphaguard. The major elements were determined through conventional chemical methods and trace elements using an ICP-MS equipment. Soil radon levels were low, indicating a moderate diffuse degassing through the flanks of the volcano. Groundwater radon had almost no relation with the eruptive stages. Water chemistry was stable in the reported time (2000-2002)

  10. Physical and chemical characterization of biochars produced from coppiced wood of thirteen tree species for use in horticultural substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven-year-old coppiced shoots from thirteen species of native and non-native trees and shrubs were harvested, dried, and were pyrolyzed to produce biochars for potential use in horticultural substrates. Several chemical and physical characteristics of the biochars were determined. There were slight...

  11. SPECIES DIFFERENCES IN ANDROGEN AND ESTROGEN RECEPTOR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION AMONG VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES: INTERSPECIES EXTRAPOLATIONS REGARDING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species Differences in Androgen and Estrogen Receptor Structure and Function Among Vertebrates and Invertebrates: Interspecies Extrapolations regarding Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals VS Wilson1, GT Ankley2, M Gooding 1,3, PD Reynolds 1,4, NC Noriega 1, M Cardon 1, P Hartig1,...

  12. Combined Effects of Long-Living Chemical Species during Microbial Inactivation Using Atmospheric Plasma-Treated Water▿

    OpenAIRE

    Naïtali, Murielle; Kamgang-Youbi, Georges; Herry, Jean-Marie; Bellon-Fontaine, Marie-Noëlle; Brisset, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    Electrical discharges in humid air at atmospheric pressure (nonthermal quenched plasma) generate long-lived chemical species in water that are efficient for microbial decontamination. The major role of nitrites was evidenced together with a synergistic effect of nitrates and H2O2 and matching acidification. Other possible active compounds are considered, e.g., peroxynitrous acid.

  13. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard;

    2002-01-01

    . For the ratio between endemic and native species, modified area is also the major significant variable, but with a negative regression slope. Multiple regression models show that some isolation measures are significant contributors and may explain some of the residual variation, but their contribution to total...... explained variation is in general small. The results show that the species area relationships are different for native and endemic species. This is discussed in relation to classical island biogeographical models, and the concepts of radiative speciation.......By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log...

  14. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, K. K.;

    2002-01-01

    . For the ratio between endemic and native species, modified area is also the major significant variable, but with a negative regression slope. Multiple regression models show that some isolation measures are significant contributors and may explain some of the residual variation, but their contribution to total...... explained variation is in general small. The results show that the species area relationships are different for native and endemic species. This is discussed in relation to classical island biogeographical models, and the concepts of radiative speciation. Udgivelsesdato: 2002......By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log...

  15. Traits related to species persistence and dispersal explain changes in plant communities subjected to habitat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Lorenzo; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Heikkinen, Risto;

    2012-01-01

    in determining dynamics of species communities in fragmented landscapes is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to test how plant traits related to persistence and dispersal and their interactions modify plant species vulnerability to decreasing habitat area and increasing isolation. Location Five......Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal...... regions distributed over four countries in Central and Northern Europe. Methods Our dataset was composed of primary data from studies on the distribution of plant communities in 300 grassland fragments in five regions. The regional datasets were consolidated by standardizing nomenclature and species life...

  16. Discrimination and chemical phylogenetic study of seven species of Dendrobium using infrared spectroscopy combined with cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Congpei; He, Tao; Chun, Ze

    2013-04-01

    Dendrobium is a commonly used and precious herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The high biodiversity of Dendrobium and the therapeutic needs require tools for the correct and fast discrimination of different Dendrobium species. This study investigates Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by cluster analysis for discrimination and chemical phylogenetic study of seven Dendrobium species. Despite the general pattern of the IR spectra, different intensities, shapes, peak positions were found in the IR spectra of these samples, especially in the range of 1800-800 cm-1. The second derivative transformation and alcoholic extracting procedure obviously enlarged the tiny spectral differences among these samples. The results indicated each Dendrobium species had a characteristic IR spectra profile, which could be used to discriminate them. The similarity coefficients among the samples were analyzed based on their second derivative IR spectra, which ranged from 0.7632 to 0.9700, among the seven Dendrobium species, and from 0.5163 to 0.9615, among the ethanol extracts. A dendrogram was constructed based on cluster analysis the IR spectra for studying the chemical phylogenetic relationships among the samples. The results indicated that D. denneanum and D. crepidatum could be the alternative resources to substitute D. chrysotoxum, D. officinale and D. nobile which were officially recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In conclusion, with the advantages of high resolution, speediness and convenience, the experimental approach can successfully discriminate and construct the chemical phylogenetic relationships of the seven Dendrobium species.

  17. Capillary liquid chromatographic fingerprint used for discrimination of Zingiber montanum from related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Mohamad; Lim, Lee Wah; Takeuchi, Toyohide; Darusman, Latifah Kosim

    2013-08-01

    Fingerprint analysis using capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) has been developed for discrimination of Zingiber montanum (ZM) from related species, for example Z. americans (ZA) and Z. zerumbet (ZZ). By comparing the fingerprint chromatograms of ZM, ZA, and ZZ we could identify ZM samples and discriminate them from ZA and ZZ by using their marker peaks. We also combined CLC fingerprint with multivariate analysis, including principal-component analysis (PCA) and canonical variate analysis (CVA); all three species were discriminated successfully. This result indicates that CLC fingerprint analysis in combination with PCA and CVA can be used for discrimination of ZM samples from samples of related species. PMID:23760136

  18. Meta-analysis of the relative sensitivity of semi-natural vegetation species to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, F; Jones, M L M; Mills, G; Ashmore, M

    2007-04-01

    This study identified 83 species from existing publications suitable for inclusion in a database of sensitivity of species to ozone (OZOVEG database). An index, the relative sensitivity to ozone, was calculated for each species based on changes in biomass in order to test for species traits associated with ozone sensitivity. Meta-analysis of the ozone sensitivity data showed a wide inter-specific range in response to ozone. Some relationships in comparison to plant physiological and ecological characteristics were identified. Plants of the therophyte lifeform were particularly sensitive to ozone. Species with higher mature leaf N concentration were more sensitive to ozone than those with lower leaf N concentration. Some relationships between relative sensitivity to ozone and Ellenberg habitat requirements were also identified. In contrast, no relationships between relative sensitivity to ozone and mature leaf P concentration, Grime's CSR strategy, leaf longevity, flowering season, stomatal density and maximum altitude were found. The relative sensitivity of species and relationships with plant characteristics identified in this study could be used to predict sensitivity to ozone of untested species and communities. PMID:16899330

  19. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Abrantes, Kátya G; Barnett, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier) displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas) of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive exclusion among shark

  20. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg M Brunnschweiler

    Full Text Available Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive

  1. Chemical composition fluctuations in roots of Plumbago scandens L. in relation to floral development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma R. Paiva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plumbago scandens L. is a Brazilian tropical/subtropical species that occurs along the coast. Chemically it is mainly represented by naphthoquinones, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids. The aim of the present work is to study quantitative changes in the root metabolic production of Plumbago scandens during different physiologic developmental stages relative to floration. The results indicated the presence of four substances in the extracts: plumbagin, epi-isoshinanolone, palmitic acid and sitosterol, independent on developmental stage. The naphthoquinone plumbagin has always showed to be the major component of all extracts. Naphthoquinones exhibited their highest content during floration, while the content of the two others components decreased during this stage, revealing an inverse profile. The chemical composition changed depending on the plant requirements.Plumbago scandens L. é uma espécie brasileira tropical/subtropical que ocorre ao longo da costa. Quimicamente, é principalmente representada por naftoquinonas, flavonóides, terpenóides e esteróides. objetivo do presente trabalho é estudar mudanças quantitativas da produção metabólica nas raízes de Plumbago scandens durante diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento fisiológico, relativos à floração. Os resultados indicaram a presença de quatro substâncias nos extratos: plumbagina, epi-isoshinanolona, ácido palmítico e sitosterol, independente do estágio de desenvolvimento. A naftoquinona plumbagina tem sempre mostrado ser o componente majoritário de todos os extratos. Naftoquinonas exibiram seus maiores conteúdos durante a floração, enquanto o conteúdo dos dois outros componentes decresceu durante este estágio, revelando um perfil inverso. A composição química modificou dependendo das necessidades da planta.

  2. Natural background levels and threshold values of chemical species in three large-scale groundwater bodies in Northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, Antonio, E-mail: ant.molinari2002@libero.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Guadagnini, Laura [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Marcaccio, Marco [ARPA Emilia-Romagna, Direzione Tecnica, Largo Caduti del Lavoro, 6-40122 Bologna (Italy); Guadagnini, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica, Ambientale, Infrastrutture Viarie e Rilevamento, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    We analyze natural background levels (NBLs) and threshold values (TVs) of spatially distributed chemical species (NH{sub 4}, B and As) which may be a potential pressure and concern in three large scale alluvial and fluvio-deltaic aquifers at different depths of the Apennines and Po river plains in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy. Our results are based on statistical methodologies designed to separate the natural and anthropogenic contributions in monitored concentrations by modeling the empirical distribution of the detected concentration with a mixture of probability density functions. Available chemical observations are taken over a 20 years period and are associated with different depths and cover planar investigation scales of the order of hundreds of kilometers. High concentration values detected for NH{sub 4} and B appear to be related to high natural background levels. Due to interaction with the host rock in different geochemical environments we observed that concentration vary in time and space (including in depth) consistently with the hydrogeochemical features and the occurrence of natural attenuation mechanisms in the analyzed reservoirs. Conversely, estimated As NBLs are not consistent with the conceptual model of the hydrogeochemical behavior of the systems analyzed and experimental evidences of As content in aquifer cores. This is due to the inability of these techniques to incorporate the complex dynamics of the processes associated with the specific hydrogeochemical setting. Statistical analyses performed upon aggregating the concentration data according to different time observation windows allow identifying temporal dynamics of NBLs and TVs of target compounds within the observation time frame. Our results highlight the benefit of a dynamic monitoring process and analysis of well demarcated groundwater bodies to update the associated NBLs as a function of the temporal dependence of natural processes occurring in the subsurface. Monitoring

  3. Relating Students' Reasoning To the History of Science: The Case of Chemical Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Driel, Jan H.; De Vos, Wobbe; Verloop, Nico

    1998-01-01

    Relates the reasoning of students introduced to the concept of chemical equilibrium to the historical development of the concept. Concludes that the study of authentic historical sources may inspire the design of effective teaching activities. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  4. Chemical species of metallic elements in the aquatic environment of an ex-mining catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Akib, Shatirah; Balkhair, Khaled S; Abu Bakar, Nor Kartini

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical speciation of dissolved and particulate elements (lead, zinc, copper, chromium, arsenic, and tin) in the mining wastewater of a former tin-mining catchment. The speciation patterns of dissolved elements were estimated by an adsorptive stripping voltammeter (ASV), while particulate elements were analyzed by using a newly developed sequential-extraction leaching procedure. The procedure has been operationally defined among five host fractions, namely exchangeable, carbonate, reducible, organic bound, and residual fractions. A total of six elements (lead, zinc, copper, chromium, arsenic, and tin) were analyzed in thirty samples at ten locations (P1-P10), with three samples taken from each of the ten locations, to get the average value from the former tin-mining catchment. The results showed that the heavy metal pollutions in locations P4 and P8 were more severe than in other sampling sites, especially tin and lead pollution. In the water samples from locations P4 and P8, both the total contents and the most dangerous non-residual fractions of tin and lead were extremely high. More than 90% of the total concentrations of arsenic and chromium existed in the residual fraction. Concentrations of copper and zinc mainly occurred in the residual fraction (more than 60%), while lead and tin presented mostly in the non-residual fractions in surface water. For all of the six dissolved elements, the less-labile species formed the predominant fraction in their speciation patterns. The speciation patterns of particulate elements showed that most of the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium, and arsenic were found in the reducible fraction; whereas lead and tin were mainly associated with the organic fraction. PMID:25306787

  5. Calorific Value and Chemical Composition of Five Semi-Arid Mexican Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maginot Ngangyo-Heya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current global energy crisis has generated growing interest in looking for alternatives to traditional fossil fuels, presenting lignocellulosic materials as a promising resource for sustainable energy production. In this paper, the calorific values and chemical composition of the trunks, branches, twigs and leaves of five timber species of the semi-arid land of Mexico (Helietta parvifolia (Gray Benth., Ebenopsis ebano (Berl. Barneby, Acacia berlandieri (Benth., Havardia pallens (Benth. Britton & Rose and Acacia wrightii (Benth. were determined according to international standards. The results highlighted the calorific value ranges of 17.56 to 18.61 MJ kg−1 in trunks, 17.15 to 18.45 MJ kg−1 in branches, 17.29 to 17.92 MJ kg−1 in twigs, and 17.35to 19.36 MJ kg−1 in leaves. The pH presented an acidic trend (3.95–5.64. The content of mineral elements varied in trunks (1.09%–2.29%, branches (0.86%–2.75%, twigs (4.26%–6.76% and leaves (5.77%–11.79%, showing the higher proportion in Ca (57.03%–95.53%, followed by K (0.95%–19.21% and Mg (0.88%–13.47%. The highest amount of extractives was obtained in the methanolic solvent (3.96%–17.03%. The lignin recorded values of 28.78%–35.84% for trunks, 17.14%–31.39% for branches and 20.61%–29.92% for twigs. Lignin showed a moderately strong correlation (r = 0.66 with calorific value, but the best mathematical model was registered with the calorific value depending on the pH and lignin (R2 = 58.86%.

  6. Evaluation of morphological and chemical aspects of different wood species by spectroscopy and thermal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Lisa, Gabriela; Sakata, Yusaku

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find the most convenient procedure to make an easy differentiation between various kinds of wood. The wood samples used were: fir (Acer alba), poplar (Populus tremula), lime (Tillia cordata), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), walnut (Juglans regia), beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur). The methods of investigation used were FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. By FT-IR spectroscopy, was observed that the ratio values of lignin/carbohydrate IR bands for wood decreases with increasing the average wood density, showing a decrease in lignin content. Also, the calculated values of lignin percentage from the FT-IR spectra are in very good correlation with the values from literature. Following the deconvolution process of the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that the degree of crystallinity, the apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains and cellulose fraction tend to increase with increasing of the wood density. Thermal analysis is able to give information about degradation temperatures for the principal components of different wood samples. The shape of DTG curves depends on the wood species that cause the enlargement of the peaks or the maxima of the decomposition step varies at larger or smaller temperatures ranges. The temperatures and weight loss percentage are particular for each kind of wood. This study showed that analytical methods used have the potential to be important sources of information for a quick evaluation of the chemical composition of wood samples.

  7. Chemical species of metallic elements in the aquatic environment of an ex-mining catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Akib, Shatirah; Balkhair, Khaled S; Abu Bakar, Nor Kartini

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical speciation of dissolved and particulate elements (lead, zinc, copper, chromium, arsenic, and tin) in the mining wastewater of a former tin-mining catchment. The speciation patterns of dissolved elements were estimated by an adsorptive stripping voltammeter (ASV), while particulate elements were analyzed by using a newly developed sequential-extraction leaching procedure. The procedure has been operationally defined among five host fractions, namely exchangeable, carbonate, reducible, organic bound, and residual fractions. A total of six elements (lead, zinc, copper, chromium, arsenic, and tin) were analyzed in thirty samples at ten locations (P1-P10), with three samples taken from each of the ten locations, to get the average value from the former tin-mining catchment. The results showed that the heavy metal pollutions in locations P4 and P8 were more severe than in other sampling sites, especially tin and lead pollution. In the water samples from locations P4 and P8, both the total contents and the most dangerous non-residual fractions of tin and lead were extremely high. More than 90% of the total concentrations of arsenic and chromium existed in the residual fraction. Concentrations of copper and zinc mainly occurred in the residual fraction (more than 60%), while lead and tin presented mostly in the non-residual fractions in surface water. For all of the six dissolved elements, the less-labile species formed the predominant fraction in their speciation patterns. The speciation patterns of particulate elements showed that most of the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium, and arsenic were found in the reducible fraction; whereas lead and tin were mainly associated with the organic fraction.

  8. ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF AGARWOOD OIL FROM DIFFERENT SPECIES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY (GCMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun Hashim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Agarwood oil is a highly prized type of oil due to its unique aroma. The oil is extracted from the fragrant resin found in the agarwood tree (trunk.  The unique aroma and quality of agarwood resin and oil are contributed by the presence of certain chemical compounds. In this work, analysis and comparison of the chemical compounds of agarwood oil from A. malaccensis, A. sub-integra and a mixture of both were conducted.  The essential oils were diluted in hexane (5% prior to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS analysis performed using Agilent GCMS 7890A coupled with MSD quadrupole detector 5975 C.  Separation of analytes by gas chromatography was carried out using a Hewlett Packard HP-5MS silica capillary column (30 m X 0.25 mm X 0.25 mm. A total of 107 compounds were identified from the three samples of agarwood oils. Fifty-five (55 components were identified in A. malaccensis sample which contributes to the largest portion of the total compounds. About 20% of the compounds identified were aromatic and sesquiterpenes which have been revealed to be the main active compounds of agarwood oils which also give the aroma and pleasant odour of agarwood. Different compositions or profile of chemical components were found in agarwood oils from the two different species. Two compounds were commonly identified in all three samples namely 3-phenyl-2-butanone and alpha-cubebene.  Further studies are needed to refine the results which later can be used to assist detection and authentication of agarwood as well as its scientific-based grading. ABSTRAK: Minyak gaharu merupakan sejenis minyak beraroma unik yang mendapat permintaan tinggi dan mahal. Minyak ini diekstrak daripada resin beraroma yang terbentuk di dalam batang pokok gaharu. Keunikan aroma dan kualiti resin dan minyak gaharu ini bergantung kepada kehadiran bahan kimia tertentu. Penyelidikan ini menjurus kepada analisis dan perbandingan bahan-bahan kimia yang terdapat dalam minyak

  9. Natural background levels and threshold values of chemical species in three large-scale groundwater bodies in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Antonio; Guadagnini, Laura; Marcaccio, Marco; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2012-05-15

    We analyze natural background levels (NBLs) and threshold values (TVs) of spatially distributed chemical species (NH(4), B and As) which may be a potential pressure and concern in three large scale alluvial and fluvio-deltaic aquifers at different depths of the Apennines and Po river plains in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy. Our results are based on statistical methodologies designed to separate the natural and anthropogenic contributions in monitored concentrations by modeling the empirical distribution of the detected concentration with a mixture of probability density functions. Available chemical observations are taken over a 20 years period and are associated with different depths and cover planar investigation scales of the order of hundreds of kilometers. High concentration values detected for NH(4) and B appear to be related to high natural background levels. Due to interaction with the host rock in different geochemical environments we observed that concentration vary in time and space (including in depth) consistently with the hydrogeochemical features and the occurrence of natural attenuation mechanisms in the analyzed reservoirs. Conversely, estimated As NBLs are not consistent with the conceptual model of the hydrogeochemical behavior of the systems analyzed and experimental evidences of As content in aquifer cores. This is due to the inability of these techniques to incorporate the complex dynamics of the processes associated with the specific hydrogeochemical setting. Statistical analyses performed upon aggregating the concentration data according to different time observation windows allow identifying temporal dynamics of NBLs and TVs of target compounds within the observation time frame. Our results highlight the benefit of a dynamic monitoring process and analysis of well demarcated groundwater bodies to update the associated NBLs as a function of the temporal dependence of natural processes occurring in the subsurface. Monitoring protocols could

  10. The Rules of Aggression: How Genetic, Chemical and Spatial Factors Affect Intercolony Fights in a Dominant Species, the Mediterranean Acrobat Ant Crematogaster scutellaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Frizzi

    Full Text Available Nest-mate recognition plays a key role in the biology of ants. Although individuals coming from a foreign nest are, in most cases, promptly rejected, the degree of aggressiveness towards non nest-mates may be highly variable among species and relies on genetic, chemical and environmental factors. We analyzed intraspecific relationships among neighboring colonies of the dominant Mediterranean acrobat ant Crematogaster scutellaris integrating genetic, chemical and behavioral analyses. Colony structure, parental relationships between nests, cuticular hydrocarbons profiles (CHCs and aggressive behavior against non nest-mates were studied in 34 nests located in olive tree trunks. Bayesian clustering analysis of allelic variation at nine species-specific microsatellite DNA markers pooled nests into 14 distinct clusters, each representing a single colony, confirming a polydomous arrangement of nests in this species. A marked genetic separation among colonies was also detected, probably due to long distance dispersion of queens and males during nuptial flights. CHCs profiles varied significantly among colonies and between nests of the same colony. No relationship between CHCs profiles and genetic distances was detected. The level of aggressiveness between colonies was inversely related to chemical and spatial distance, suggesting a 'nasty neighbor' effect. Our findings also suggest that CHCs profiles in C. scutellaris may be linked to external environmental factors rather than genetic relationships.

  11. Species tree estimation for the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and close relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E Blair

    Full Text Available To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based "supergene" approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred.

  12. Tree Species Traits Influence Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties in High Elevation Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Ayres, Edward; Steltzer, Heidi; Berg, Sarah; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Simmons, Breana L.; Wall, Diana H

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North Amer...

  13. Comparative Toxicity of Eight Oil Dispersants, Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Aquatic Test Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach utilized consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispers...

  14. Chemical vapor generation of silver for atomic absorption spectrometry with the multiatomizer: Radiotracer efficiency study and characterization of silver species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatile Ag species were generated in flow injection arrangement from nitric acid environment in the presence of surfactants (Triton X-100 and Antifoam B) and permanent Pd deposits as the reaction modifiers. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with multiple microflame quartz tube atomizer heated to 900 deg. C was used for atomization; evidence was found for thermal mechanism of atomization. Relative and absolute limits of detection (3σ, 250 μl sample loop) measured under optimized conditions were: 1.4 μg l-1 and 0.35 ng, respectively. The efficiency of chemical vapor generation (CVG) as well as spatial distribution of residual analyte in the apparatus was studied by 111Ag radioactive indicator (half-life 7.45 days) of high specific activity. It was found out that 23% of analyte was released into the gaseous phase. However, only 8% was found on filters placed at the entrance to the atomizer due to transport losses. About 40% of analyte remained in waste liquid, whereas the rest was found deposited over the CVG system. Presented study follows the hypothesis that the 'volatile' Ag species are actually metallic nanoparticles formed upon reduction in liquid phase and then released with good efficiency to the gaseous phase. Number/charge size distributions of dry aerosol were determined by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. Ag was detected in 40-45 nm particles holding 10 times more charge if compared to Boltzmann equilibrium. At the same time, Ag was also present on 150 nm particles, the main size mode of the CVG generator. The increase of Ag in standards was reflected by proportional increase in particle number/charge for 40-45 nm size particles only. Transmission electron microscopy revealed particles of 8 ± 2 nm sampled from the gaseous phase, which were associated in isolated clusters of few to few tens of nanometres. Ag presence in those particles was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis.

  15. Physical and chemical nature of the scaling relations between adsorption energies of atoms on metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calle-Vallejo, F.; Martínez, J. I.; García Lastra, Juan Maria;

    2012-01-01

    Despite their importance in physics and chemistry, the origin and extent of the scaling relations between the energetics of adsorbed species on surfaces remain elusive. We demonstrate here that scalability is not exclusive to adsorbed atoms and their hydrogenated species but rather a general...

  16. ESC resistance of commercial grade polycarbonates during exposure to butter and related chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellander, Carina Koch; Nielsen, Tenna B; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin;

    2008-01-01

    Three commercial grades of polycarbonates (Lexan (R) 144, Lexan (R) 104 and Makrolon Rx1805) were studied with respect to resistance to environmental stress cracking (ESC) when exposed to butter and related chemicals. The polycarbonates (PCs) were extensively characterised to determine whether...... differences in ESC resistance could be related to their structural or chemical properties. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed that Makrolon Rx:1805 contains a low molar mass material characterised as poly(propylene glycol)p, which was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and H-1 NMR. Some "non-absorbing" chemicals...

  17. Population fluctuations and synchrony of grassland butterflies in relation to species traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Franzén

    Full Text Available Population fluctuations and synchrony influence population persistence; species with larger fluctuations and more synchronised population fluctuations face higher extinction risks. Here, we analyse the effect of diet specialisation, mobility, length of the flight period, and distance to the northern edge of the species' distribution in relation to between-year population fluctuations and synchrony of butterfly species. All butterfly species associated with grasslands were surveyed over five successive years at 19 grassland sites in a forest-dominated landscape (50 km(2 in southern Sweden. At both the local and regional level, we found larger population fluctuations in species with longer flight periods. Population fluctuations were more synchronous among localities in diet specialists. Species with a long flight period might move more to track nectar resources compared to species with shorter flight period, and if nectar sources vary widely between years and localities it may explain that population fluctuations increase with increasing flight length. Diet generalists can use different resources (in this case host plants at different localities and this can explain the lower synchrony in population fluctuations among generalist species. Higher degree of synchrony is one possible explanation for the higher extinction risks that have been observed for more specialised species. Therefore, diet specialists are more often threatened and require more conservation efforts than generalists.

  18. Glacier mass balance reconstruction by sublimation induced enrichment of chemical species on Cerro Tapado (Chilean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ginot

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 m long ice core down to bedrock from the Cerro Tapado glacier (5536 m a.s.l, 30°08' S, 69°55' W was analyzed to reconstruct past climatic conditions for Northern Chile. Because of the marked seasonality in the precipitation (short wet winter and extended dry summer periods in this region, major snow ablation and related post-depositional processes occur on the glacier surface during summer periods. They include predominantly sublimation and dry deposition. Assuming that, like measured during the field campaign, the enrichment of chloride was always related to sublimation, the chemical record along the ice core may be applied to reconstruct the history of such secondary processes linked to the past climatic conditions over northern Chile. For the time period 1962–1999, a mean annual net accumulation of 316 mm water equivalent (weq and 327 mm weq loss by sublimation was deduced by this method. This corresponds to an initial total annual accumulation of 539 mm weq. The annual variability of the accumulation and sublimation is related with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI: higher net-accumulation during El-Niño years and more sublimation during La Niña years. The deepest part of the ice record shows a time discontinuity; with an ice body deposited under different climatic conditions: 290 mm higher precipitation but with reduced seasonal distribution (+470 mm in winter and –180 mm in summer and –3°C lower mean annual temperature. Unfortunately, its age is unknown. The comparison with regional proxy data however let us conclude that the glacier buildup did most likely occur after the dry mid-Holocene.

  19. Chemical Species in the Vapor Phase of Hanford Double-Shell Tanks: Potential Impacts on Waste Tank Corrosion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Qafoku, Odeta; Arey, Bruce W.; Boomer, Kayle D.

    2010-09-22

    The presence of corrosive and inhibiting chemicals on the tank walls in the vapor space, arising from the waste supernatant, dictate the type and degree of corrosion that occurs there. An understanding of how waste chemicals are transported to the walls and the affect on vapor species from changing supernatant chemistry (e.g., pH, etc.), are basic to the evaluation of risks and impacts of waste changes on vapor space corrosion (VSC). In order to address these issues the expert panel workshop on double-shell tank (DST) vapor space corrosion testing (RPP-RPT-31129) participants made several recommendations on the future data and modeling needs in the area of DST corrosion. In particular, the drying of vapor phase condensates or supernatants can form salt or other deposits at the carbon steel interface resulting in a chemical composition at the near surface substantially different from that observed directly in the condensates or the supernatants. As a result, over the past three years chemical modeling and experimental studies have been performed on DST supernatants and condensates to predict the changes in chemical composition that might occur as condensates or supernatants equilibrate with the vapor space species and dry at the carbon steel surface. The experimental studies included research on both the chemical changes that occurred as the supernatants dried as well as research on how these chemical changes impact the corrosion of tank steels. The chemical modeling and associated experimental studies were performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the research on tank steel corrosion at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This report presents a summary of the research conducted at PNNL with special emphasis on the most recent studies conducted in FY10. An overall summary of the project results as well as their broader implications for vapor space corrosion of the DST’s is given at the end of this report.

  20. Transfer of complexed and dissociated ionic species at soft interfaces: a voltammetric study of chemical kinetic and diffusional effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Eduardo; Olmos, José Manuel; Molina, Ángela

    2016-04-21

    A new transfer mechanism is considered in which two different ionic species of the same charge can be transferred across a soft interface while they interconvert with each other in the original phase through a homogeneous chemical reaction: the aqueous complexation-dissociation coupled to transfer (ACDT) mechanism. This can correspond to a free ion in aqueous solution in the presence of a neutral ligand that complexes it leading to a species that can be more or less lipophilic than the free ion. As a result, the transfer to the organic phase can be facilitated or hindered by the aqueous-phase chemical reaction. Rigorous and approximate explicit analytical solutions are derived for the study of the above mechanism via normal pulse voltammetry, derivative voltammetry and chronoamperometry at macrointerfaces. The solutions enable us to examine the process whatever the species' lipophilicity and diffusivity in each medium and the kinetics and thermodynamics of the chemical reaction in solution. Moreover, when the chemical reaction is at equilibrium, explicit expressions for cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry are obtained. With this set of equations, the influence of different physicochemical phenomena on the voltammetric response is studied as well as the most suitable strategies to characterize them. PMID:27020610

  1. Reverse Pulse Voltammetry at Spherical and Disc Microelectrodes: Characterization of Homogeneous Chemical Equilibria and Their Impact on the Species Diffusivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of the electrochemical technique Reverse Pulse Voltammetry (RPV) for the characterization of chemical equilibria in solution is theoretically investigated. For this, the RPV response of the square scheme is studied at spherical and disc electrodes of any size assuming that the chemical reactions are at equilibrium. When the effective diffusion coefficients of the oxidized and reduced species are the same, analytical solutions are reported for both electrode geometries. Otherwise, a rigorous analytical solution is derived for spherical electrodes whereas the case of microdiscs is addressed by numerical simulations. The theory for the square scheme enables the study of the RPV response in very different situations, including the cases where the electrochemical and/or chemical transformations alter significantly the species diffusivity such as in electron transfer processes in room temperature ionic liquids or in the association of the electroactive species with (bio) macromolecules and nanoparticles. It is found that, when medium-size (disc or spherical) microelectrodes are employed, the RPV method enables the simultaneous determination of the effective diffusion coefficients of the oxidized and reduced species as well as the apparent formal potential. These magnitudes make it possible a sound physicochemical characterization of the system

  2. Effects of species and season on chemical composition and ruminal crude protein and organic matter degradability of some multi-purpose tree species by West African dwarf rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigbede, O M; Anele, U Y; Südekum, K-H; Hummel, J; Oni, A O; Olanite, J A; Isah, A O

    2012-04-01

    Seasonal chemical composition and ruminal organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) degradabilities were determined in four tropical multi-purpose tree species (MPTS) namely; Pterocarpus santalinoides, Grewia pubescens, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Leucaena leucocephala. Three West African dwarf (WAD) rams fitted with permanent rumen cannula were used for the degradability trials. Foliage samples were collected four times to represent seasonal variations as follows: January--mid dry; April--late dry; July--mid rainy and October--late rainy seasons. Leaf samples were randomly collected from the trees for estimation of dry matter (DM) and chemical composition. Ruminal in sacco OM and CP degradabilities were estimated from residues in nylon bags. All samples had high CP (161-259 g/kg DM) and moderate fibre concentrations [neutral detergent fibre (without residual ash], 300-501 g/kg DM; acid detergent fibre (without residual ash), 225-409 g/kg DM and acid detergent lignin, 87-179 g/kg DM across seasons. Interaction effects of species and season on chemical composition were highly significant (p = 0.001) except for trypsin inhibitor (p = 0.614). The MPTS recorded more than 60% OM and CP degradability at 24 h, which implied that they were all highly degradable in the rumen. Their incorporation into ruminant feeding systems as dry season forage supplements is therefore recommended.

  3. Genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, B N

    2005-05-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species, Drosophila bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana has been investigated by using backcross analysis methods. The role of Y chromosome, major hybrid sterility (MHS) genes (genetic factors) and cytoplasm (non-genetic factor) have been studied in the hybrids of these three species. In the species pair, bipectinata--parabipectinata, Y chromosome introgression of parabipectinata in the genomic background of bipectinata and the reciprocal Y chromosome introgression were unsuccessful as all males in second backcross generation were sterile. Neither MHS genes nor cytoplasm was found important for sterility. This suggests the involvement of X-Y, X-autosomes or polygenic interactions in hybrid male sterility. In bipectinata--malerkotliana and parabipectinata--malerkotliana species pairs, Y chromosome substitution in reciprocal crosses did not affect male fertility. Backcross analyses also show no involvement of MHS genes or cytoplasm in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. Therefore, X- autosome interaction or polygenic interaction is supposed to be involved in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. These findings also provide evidence that even in closely related species, genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility may vary.

  4. Fuelwood quality of promising tree species for alkaline soil sites in relation to tree age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, V.L.; Behl, H.M. [National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India). Biomass Research Center

    1996-06-01

    The fuelwood quality of five tree species suitable for afforestation of alkaline soil sites was investigated in relation to tree age for establishing harvest rotation cycles. Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica were found to be the most suitable species for short rotation fuel wood forestry programmes because of their high wood density, biomass yield, low ash and moisture content, and good heat of combustion at the juvenile stage. The performance of other species like Acacia auriculiformis, Terminalia arjuna and Sesbania formosa is discussed. (author)

  5. SEASONAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS OF TWOEugenia SPECIES AND THEIR ACARICIDAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. S. Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaf essential oils of Eugenia lutescens Cambess andEugenia langsdorffii O. Berg, collected in the rainy (RS and dry seasons (DS, were extracted by hydrodistillation and then characterized by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The potential acaricidal activity and oviposition deterrence of these oils were evaluated against Tetranychus urticae . The oil yields were higher in the RS for E. lutescens, while those forE. langsdorffii were higher in the DS. α-Pinene and β-pinene were determined to be the major constituents of the oils fromE. lutescens, while bicyclogermacrene, spathulenol, and β-caryophyllene predominated in E. langsdorffii . Seasonal variations in the oils were primarily related to chemical diversity, and E. lutescens was more affected than was E. langsdorffii . The E. langsdorffii oil collected in the DS was most toxic to the spider mite, while the oils of E. lutescens and E. langsdorffii collected in the RS drastically reduced its egg quantities. This study successfully determined the periods of greater oil production and acaricidal activity.

  6. Sensory development and its relation to habitat change in three species of sciaenids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, K R; Fuiman, L A

    1998-01-01

    Visual and mechanosensory development of three sciaenid species was investigated to examine possible correlations between sensory morphology and patterns of habitat use. Although the three species have different migration patterns as early larvae, few differences in sensory morphology occurred between species until late in the larval period. Atlantic croaker, Micropogonias undulatus, were distinguished by enhancements of visual morphology (large eyes, abundant photoreceptors, and best summation of the three species). Croaker arrive inshore later in the larval period and, after settlement, appear to use deeper water habitats than do the other two species. Spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, had the fewest enhancements of visual morphology but had more free neuromasts than the other two species late in the larval period. After settlement, seatrout are primarily associated with seagrass habitats. Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, did not have pronounced specialization of one sensory system, as did the other two species. For part of the larval period, neuromast numbers were higher in red drum than in the other two species. Later, enhancements of visual morphology did occur, but only eye and lens size were the same as those of Atlantic croaker. Red drum larvae appear to use a wider variety of habitats than do the other two species. In none of the species examined did sensory changes correlate with offshore to inshore movements, and only initial rod formation occurred prior to settlement. Distinct sensory changes did not occur concurrent with habitat changes, probably due to constructional and phylogenetic constraints. Rather, sensory differences are related to the environmental conditions in the predominant inshore habitat occupied by each species after settlement, when morphological limitations are less severe. PMID:9807012

  7. Do plant traits predict the competitive abilities of closely related species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lauren M; Gibson, David J; Young, Bryan G

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species are a threat to every ecosystem. There is a strong incentive to predict which species will become invasive before they become too widespread and unmanageable. Different approaches have been advocated to assess invasive species potential. These include examining plant functional traits, quantifying competitive ability and phylogenetic comparison. In this study, we conducted experiments based on the above approaches in a multi-year, temporally replicated, set of experiments to compare these assessment methods to determine the invasive potential of Japanese chaff flower (Achyranthes japonica). We compared plant traits and competitive ability of Japanese chaff flower with two agricultural invasive species, Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), and one endangered plant species, bloodleaf (Iresine rhizomatosa), in the Amaranthaceae. Additionally, we assessed the invasive potential based on each of these approaches and determined the degree of agreement between them. A relatively conservative assessment integrating all three approaches would be that the competitive ability of closely related individuals with similar functional traits would share invasive potential. In a greenhouse experiment, each of the study species and soya beans were grown as monocultures and were evaluated to assess the drawdown of an aboveground (light) and a belowground (nitrogen) resource. In a field experiment, each study species was grown at varying densities per 15-cm-diameter pot with or without one or two soya bean plants, to simulate relative densities for soya beans grown in 38- and 76-cm-wide row spacing, respectively. In addition, Japanese chaff flower seedlings were planted either as un-manipulated seedlings or as a seedling cut back to the soil surface at the four-node stage (cut Japanese chaff flower) at which point seedlings have reached a perennial growth stage. The greenhouse experiment showed that each species drew down

  8. Do plant traits predict the competitive abilities of closely related species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lauren M; Gibson, David J; Young, Bryan G

    2015-12-31

    Invasive species are a threat to every ecosystem. There is a strong incentive to predict which species will become invasive before they become too widespread and unmanageable. Different approaches have been advocated to assess invasive species potential. These include examining plant functional traits, quantifying competitive ability and phylogenetic comparison. In this study, we conducted experiments based on the above approaches in a multi-year, temporally replicated, set of experiments to compare these assessment methods to determine the invasive potential of Japanese chaff flower (Achyranthes japonica). We compared plant traits and competitive ability of Japanese chaff flower with two agricultural invasive species, Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), and one endangered plant species, bloodleaf (Iresine rhizomatosa), in the Amaranthaceae. Additionally, we assessed the invasive potential based on each of these approaches and determined the degree of agreement between them. A relatively conservative assessment integrating all three approaches would be that the competitive ability of closely related individuals with similar functional traits would share invasive potential. In a greenhouse experiment, each of the study species and soya beans were grown as monocultures and were evaluated to assess the drawdown of an aboveground (light) and a belowground (nitrogen) resource. In a field experiment, each study species was grown at varying densities per 15-cm-diameter pot with or without one or two soya bean plants, to simulate relative densities for soya beans grown in 38- and 76-cm-wide row spacing, respectively. In addition, Japanese chaff flower seedlings were planted either as un-manipulated seedlings or as a seedling cut back to the soil surface at the four-node stage (cut Japanese chaff flower) at which point seedlings have reached a perennial growth stage. The greenhouse experiment showed that each species drew down

  9. Significant differences in alkaloid content of Coptis chinensis (Huanglian, from its related American species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skeels Matthew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing popularity of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States has prompted large-scale import of raw herbs from Asia. Many of the Asian herbs have phylogenetically related North American species. We compared three phylogenetically related species, namely Coptis chinensis (Huanglian, Hydrastis canadensis and Coptis trifolia to show whether they can be substituted by one another in terms of alkaloid content. Methods We used microwave assisted extraction to obtain alkaloids berberine, coptisine, palmatine and hydrastine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to quantify each alkaloid. Results Hydrastis canadensis has the most berberine, whereas Coptis trifolia has the most coptisine. Hydrastine and palmatine were unique to Hydrastis canadensis and Coptis chinensis respectively. Conclusion Neither Hydrastis canadensis nor Coptis trifolia contains all the alkaloids found in Coptis chinensis used in Chinese medicine. Substitutes of this Chinese species by its American relatives are not recommended.

  10. Influence of cold hardening on water relations of three Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, R; Mugnozza, G S; Giordano, E; Kuzminsky, E

    1990-03-01

    Water relations of three Eucalyptus species (E. x trabutii Wilm., E. viminalis Labill., E. dalrympleana Maid.), widely planted in the Mediterranean basin, were analyzed throughout an entire year in relation to natural cold hardening. Osmotic potential, both at saturation and at the turgor loss point, showed a greater reduction during hardening in the more frost-resistant E. viminalis and E. dalrympleana than in the more frost-sensitive E. x trabutii. The hardening capabilities of all species were analyzed in relation to the freezing dehydration index, FDI, a parameter derived from pressure-volume analysis which represents the water lost when cells, initially at the turgor loss point, attain thermodynamic equilibrium with extraplasmatic ice. The FDI at the killing temperature showed little variation either between frost-sensitive and frost-resistant species, or between hardened and non-hardened plants. The index may, therefore, be useful for evaluating a plant's potential for injury by freeze-induced desiccation. PMID:14972956

  11. PCR amplification of repetitive sequences as a possible approach in relative species quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballin, Nicolai Zederkopff; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Karlsson, Anders H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Both relative and absolute quantifications are possible in species quantification when single copy genomic DNA is used. However, amplification of single copy genomic DNA does not allow a limit of detection as low as one obtained from amplification of repetitive sequences. Amplification...... of repetitive sequences is therefore frequently used in absolute quantification but problems occur in relative quantification as the number of repetitive sequences is unknown. A promising approach was developed where data from amplification of repetitive sequences were used in relative quantification of species...... in binary mixtures. PCR LUX primers were designed that amplify repetitive and single copy sequences to establish the species dependent number (constants) (SDC) of amplified repetitive sequences per genome. The SDCs and data from amplification of repetitive sequences were tested for their applicability...

  12. Patterns of tree species diversity in relation to climatic factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Silva-Flores

    Full Text Available Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole, 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9-14%, 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50% and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally

  13. History Matters: Relating Land-Use Change to Butterfly Species Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütolf, Michael; Guisan, Antoine; Kienast, Felix

    2009-03-01

    Western European landscapes have drastically changed since the 1950s, with agricultural intensifications and the spread of urban settlements considered the most important drivers of this land-use/land-cover change. Losses of habitat for fauna and flora have been a direct consequence of this development. In the present study, we relate butterfly occurrence to land-use/land-cover changes over five decades between 1951 and 2000. The study area covers the entire Swiss territory. The 10 explanatory variables originate from agricultural statistics and censuses. Both state as well as rate was used as explanatory variables. Species distribution data were obtained from natural history collections. We selected eight butterfly species: four species occur on wetlands and four occur on dry grasslands. We used cluster analysis to track land-use/land-cover changes and to group communes based on similar trajectories of change. Generalized linear models were applied to identify factors that were significantly correlated with the persistence or disappearance of butterfly species. Results showed that decreasing agricultural areas and densities of farms with more than 10 ha of cultivated land are significantly related with wetland species decline, and increasing densities of livestock seem to have favored disappearance of dry grassland species. Moreover, we show that species declines are not only dependent on land-use/land-cover states but also on the rates of change; that is, the higher the transformation rate from small to large farms, the higher the loss of dry grassland species. We suggest that more attention should be paid to the rates of landscape change as feasible drivers of species change and derive some management suggestions.

  14. Species transport and chemical reaction in a MOCVD reactor and their influence on the GaN growth uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Fang, Haisheng; Yao, Qingxia; Yan, Han; Gan, Zhiyin

    2016-11-01

    Fluid flow, heat transfer, and species transport with chemical reactions have been investigated for gallium nitride (GaN) growth in a commercial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor. Both the growth rate and the growth uniformity are investigated zone by zone, as the wafers are divided into three zones/groups according to their distances to the susceptor center. The results show that species transport in the reactor is affected by the inlet conditions, i.e., the premixed or non-premixed inlet, the inlet temperature, the total gas flow rate, and the V/III component ratio, and reveal that the premixed inlet condition is preferred for uniform growth. Especially, a large total flow rate or a low V/III ratio results in both increase of the growth rate and improvement of the growth uniformity.

  15. Different Ultimate Factors Define Timing of Breeding in Two Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakanen, Veli-Matti; Orell, Markku; Vatka, Emma; Rytkönen, Seppo; Broggi, Juli

    2016-01-01

    Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species' responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony). Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis) can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or predation. We studied the effects of two ultimate factors on the timing of breeding, synchrony and other time-dependent factors (time-dependence), in sympatric populations of two related forest-dwelling passerine species, the great tit (Parus major) and the willow tit (Poecile montanus) by modelling recruitment with long-term capture-recapture data. We hypothesized that these two factors have different relevance for fitness in these species. We found that local recruitment in both species showed quadratic relationships with both time-dependence and synchrony. However, the importance of these factors was markedly different between the studied species. Caterpillar food played a predominant role in predicting the timing of breeding of the great tit. In contrast, for the willow tit time-dependence modelled as timing in relation to conspecifics was more important for local recruitment than synchrony. High caterpillar biomass experienced during the pre- and post-fledging periods increased local recruitment of both species. These contrasting results confirm that these species experience different selective pressures upon the timing of breeding, and hence responses to climate change may differ. Detailed information about life-history strategies is required to understand the effects of climate change, even in closely related taxa. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis should be extended to consider subsequent

  16. Different Ultimate Factors Define Timing of Breeding in Two Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakanen, Veli-Matti; Orell, Markku; Vatka, Emma; Rytkönen, Seppo; Broggi, Juli

    2016-01-01

    Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species' responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony). Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis) can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or predation. We studied the effects of two ultimate factors on the timing of breeding, synchrony and other time-dependent factors (time-dependence), in sympatric populations of two related forest-dwelling passerine species, the great tit (Parus major) and the willow tit (Poecile montanus) by modelling recruitment with long-term capture-recapture data. We hypothesized that these two factors have different relevance for fitness in these species. We found that local recruitment in both species showed quadratic relationships with both time-dependence and synchrony. However, the importance of these factors was markedly different between the studied species. Caterpillar food played a predominant role in predicting the timing of breeding of the great tit. In contrast, for the willow tit time-dependence modelled as timing in relation to conspecifics was more important for local recruitment than synchrony. High caterpillar biomass experienced during the pre- and post-fledging periods increased local recruitment of both species. These contrasting results confirm that these species experience different selective pressures upon the timing of breeding, and hence responses to climate change may differ. Detailed information about life-history strategies is required to understand the effects of climate change, even in closely related taxa. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis should be extended to consider subsequent

  17. Integrative taxonomy: Combining morphological, molecular and chemical data for species delineation in the parthenogenetic Trhypochthonius tectorum complex (Acari, Oribatida, Trhypochthoniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigmann Gerd

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a long-standing controversial about how parthenogenetic species can be defined in absence of a generally accepted species concept for this reproductive mode. An integrative approach was suggested, combining molecular and morphological data to identify distinct monophyletic entities. Using this approach, speciation of parthenogenetic lineages was recently demonstrated for groups of bdelloid rotifers and oribatid mites. Trhypochthonius tectorum, an oribatid mite from the entirely parthenogenetic desmonomatan family Trhypochthoniidae, is traditionally treated as a single species in Central Europe. However, two new morphological lineages were recently proposed for some Austrian populations of T. tectorum, and were described as novel subspecies (T. silvestris europaeus or form (T. japonicus forma occidentalis. We used the morphological and morphometrical data which led to this separation, and added mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences and the chemical composition of complex exocrine oil gland secretions to test this taxonomical hypothesis. This is the first attempt to combine these three types of data for integrative taxonomical investigations of oribatid mites. Results We show that the previous European species T. tectorum represents a species complex consisting of three distinct lineages in Austria (T.tectorum, T. silvestris europaeus and T. japonicus forma occidentalis, each clearly separated by morphology, oil gland secretion profiles and mitochondrial cox1 sequences. This diversification happened in the last ten million years. In contrast to these results, no variation among the lineages was found in the nuclear 18S rDNA. Conclusions Our approach combined morphological, molecular and chemical data to investigate diversity and species delineation in a parthenogenetic oribatid mite species complex. To date, hypotheses of a general oribatid mite phylogeny are manifold, and mostly based on single-method approaches

  18. Effects of polyhalogenated hydrocarbons and related contaminants on common tern reproduction: Integration of (bio)chemical and ecological responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murk, A.J. [Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands); Boudewijn, T.J.; Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands); Bosveld, A.T.C. [Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands); Rossaert, G.; Ysebaert, T.; Meire, P. [Inst. for Nature Management, Hasselt (Belgium); Meininger, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    An integrated ecotoxicological study was made to establish the possible effects of polyhalogenated hydrocarbons (PHAHs) on common tern (Stema hirundo) reproduction. In eight Dutch or Belgian colonies, breeding biology and food choice were determined. In all colonies 15 second eggs from three-egg clutches were collected for artificial incubation and (bio)chemical analysis. Results from these analyses were combined with biological data from the remaining eggs of the clutches. A relationship was found between yolksac mono-ortho PCB levels and main food species (fish or insects) of the adult terns before egg-laying. Colony average breeding data differed only slightly, and were difficult to relate to PHAH levels. When the colonies were grouped after yolksac PHAH-patterns and main food species, significant differences in average egg laying date, egg laying period, incubation period, egg volume and chick weight could be related to differences in yolksac PHAH and retinoid levels, and hepatic EROD activity. The data from all colonies also were used as one dataset and correlated with the (bio)chemical parameters. In summary there were significant correlations or clear trends between yolksac PHAHs or hepatic EROD-activity and prolonged egg laying and incubation period, and smaller eggs and chicks. Lower yolksac retinoid and plasma thyroid hormone levels, and a higher ratio of plasma retinol over yolksac retinoids correlated with longer egg laying and incubation periods, and smaller chicks and eggs (only with thyroid hormone).

  19. Soil chemical properties related to acidity under successive pig slurry application

    OpenAIRE

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi; Carlos Alberto Ceretta; Leandro Souza da Silva; Gustavo Trentin; Eduardo Girotto; Felipe Lorensini; Tadeu Luis Tiecher; Gustavo Brunetto

    2011-01-01

    Pig slurry application as soil manure can alter the chemical properties of the soil and affect its acidity, modifying the environment for crop growth and development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical properties related to soil acidity subjected to successive applications of pig slurry. The experiment was conducted in May 2000, in an experimental area of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM) under no-tillage and lasted until January 2008. Nineteen surface applica...

  20. Asymmetric Mating Interference between Two Related Mosquito Species: Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus and Aedes (Stegomyia cretinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Giatropoulos

    Full Text Available Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus (Skuse and Aedes (Stegomyia cretinus Edwards are closely related mosquito species with common morphological features and bio-ecological similarities. Recent mosquito surveillance in Athens, Greece, showed that they are sympatric mosquito species, with Ae. albopictus [corrected] developing quite higher population densities than Ae. cretinus [corrected] . The potential of mating interference between these species was investigated by reciprocal and homologous mating experiments in cages under laboratory conditions. In non-choice interspecific crosses (groups of males and females females of both species produced sterile eggs. Insemination rate was 58% for Ae. cretinus females and only 1% for Ae. albopictus [corrected] females. Aedes albopictus males were sexually aggressive and inseminated Ae. cretinus females (31% in choice experiments, where males of one species had access to mate with females of both species. Whereas, interspecific mating of Ae. albopictus [corrected] females with Ae. cretinus males in the co-occurrence of Ae. cretinus females was weaker (4%. Aedes cretinus females from non-choice crossing with Ae. albopictus [corrected] or Ae. cretinus males were paired individually with conspecific males. The percentage of fertile Ae. cretinus females was 17.5% when had encaged before with Ae. albopictus [corrected] males, compared to 100% when Ae. cretinus [corrected] females were encaged with conspecific males only. Probable ecological consequences of asymmetric mating between these ecologically homologous species in nature are discussed.

  1. Synchrotron radiation study of the uranium chemical species electrodeposited for alpha spectrometry sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burciaga V, D. C.; Mendez, C. G.; Esparza P, H.; Fuentes C, L.; Fuentes M, L.; Montero C, M. E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Beesley, A. M. [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Crespo, M. T., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.m [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Alpha spectrometry (As) with semiconductor detectors has applications in nuclear decay data measurements, environmental, geological and nuclear wastes studies and other works requiring determination of actinide and other alpha emitter contents. In order to obtain accurate measurements by producing good resolution alpha spectra, As sources must be thin and uniform. As sources produced by electrodeposition consist of a radioactive deposit onto a metallic substrate (cathode of the electrolytic cell). Natural U sources prepared by the Hallstadius method have co-deposited Pt, originated from the dissolution of the anode during the electrodeposition. A recent work published else-where has reported a study on the morphology and spatial distribution of the U/Pt deposits with the related chemical speciation of U, using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure. The purpose of this work is to explain the structure of the Pt/U deposits. We have obtained new spectra of the U L III edge X-ray absorption fine structure by total electron yield at Stanford Synchrotron radiation light source, Bl 2-3. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (Gi-XRD) patterns were obtained at Stanford Synchrotron radiation light source, Bl 11-3. Gi-XRD patterns show a bimodal distribution of grain sizes of Pt, with dimensions {approx} 5 and 20 nm; schoepite diffraction signals suggest grain dimensions of {approx} 5 nm, i.e. with low crystallization. X-ray absorption fine structure spectra were fitted assuming two different structures: uranyl hydroxide and schoepite, and results were compared. U-U path shows low intensity that also may be a result of low crystallization. (Author)

  2. Effects of body size on sex-related migration vary between two closely related gull species with similar size dimorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Bosman, D.S.; Vercruijsse, H. J. P.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Vincx, M.; L. Neve; Lens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of migration have revealed multiple trade-offs with other life-history traits that may underlie observed variation in migratory properties among ages and sexes. To assess whether, and to what extent, body size and/or sex-specific differences in competition for resources (e.g. breeding territories or winter food) may shape variation in migration distance and timing of arrival in ecologically and phylogenetically related species, we combined over 30 000 sightings of individually marked,...

  3. Aspects of Biology and Development of Xiphinema americanum and Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbrendt, J M; Brown, D J

    1993-09-01

    Identification of Xiphinema americanum-group nematodes is based on relatively subtle morphological and morphometric differences, many of which overlap. The significance and importance of these separations cannot be assessed without a basic understanding of the biological differences between species. Currently, information is accumulating on Xiphinema biology, development, and genetics that will help to confirm or refute the current systematics of species in this group. Recently, it was demonstrated that Xiphinema species pass through either three or four juvenile stages before becoming adults. This new and fundamental information divides the genus and the X. americanum group into subgroups based on their developmental evolution and provides new insight into the taxonomy and systematic positions of the species.

  4. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bao eZhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae, we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA, leaf thickness (LT, epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70. However, vein density (Dvein, stomatal density (SD, and photosynthetic capacity (Amax did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI. Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats.

  5. DNA barcoding of recently diverged species: relative performance of matching methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin van Velzen

    Full Text Available Recently diverged species are challenging for identification, yet they are frequently of special interest scientifically as well as from a regulatory perspective. DNA barcoding has proven instrumental in species identification, especially in insects and vertebrates, but for the identification of recently diverged species it has been reported to be problematic in some cases. Problems are mostly due to incomplete lineage sorting or simply lack of a 'barcode gap' and probably related to large effective population size and/or low mutation rate. Our objective was to compare six methods in their ability to correctly identify recently diverged species with DNA barcodes: neighbor joining and parsimony (both tree-based, nearest neighbor and BLAST (similarity-based, and the diagnostic methods DNA-BAR, and BLOG. We analyzed simulated data assuming three different effective population sizes as well as three selected empirical data sets from published studies. Results show, as expected, that success rates are significantly lower for recently diverged species (∼75% than for older species (∼97% (P<0.00001. Similarity-based and diagnostic methods significantly outperform tree-based methods, when applied to simulated DNA barcode data (P<0.00001. The diagnostic method BLOG had highest correct query identification rate based on simulated (86.2% as well as empirical data (93.1%, indicating that it is a consistently better method overall. Another advantage of BLOG is that it offers species-level information that can be used outside the realm of DNA barcoding, for instance in species description or molecular detection assays. Even though we can confirm that identification success based on DNA barcoding is generally high in our data, recently diverged species remain difficult to identify. Nevertheless, our results contribute to improved solutions for their accurate identification.

  6. Temporal-spatial dynamics in orthoptera in relation to nutrient availability and plant species richness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob J J Hendriks

    Full Text Available Nutrient availability in ecosystems has increased dramatically over the last century. Excess reactive nitrogen deposition is known to negatively impact plant communities, e.g. by changing species composition, biomass and vegetation structure. In contrast, little is known on how such impacts propagate to higher trophic levels. To evaluate how nitrogen deposition affects plants and herbivore communities through time, we used extensive databases of spatially explicit historical records of Dutch plant species and Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets, a group of animals that are particularly susceptible to changes in the C:N ratio of their resources. We use robust methods that deal with the unstandardized nature of historical databases to test whether nitrogen deposition levels and plant richness changes influence the patterns of richness change of Orthoptera, taking into account Orthoptera species functional traits. Our findings show that effects indeed also propagate to higher trophic levels. Differences in functional traits affected the temporal-spatial dynamics of assemblages of Orthoptera. While nitrogen deposition affected plant diversity, contrary to our expectations, we could not find a strong significant effect of food related traits. However we found that species with low habitat specificity, limited dispersal capacity and egg deposition in the soil were more negativly affected by nitrogen deposition levels. Despite the lack of significant effect of plant richness or food related traits on Orthoptera, the negative effects of nitrogen detected within certain trait groups (e.g. groups with limited disperse ability could be related to subtle changes in plant abundance and plant quality. Our results, however, suggest that the changes in soil conditions (where many Orthoptera species lay their eggs or other habitat changes driven by nitrogen have a stronger influence than food related traits. To fully evaluate the negative effects of nitrogen

  7. A chemical probe technique for the determination of reactive halogen species in aqueous solution: Part 2 – chloride solutions and mixed bromide/chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Anastasio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Although reactive halogen species (X*=X●, ●X2−, X2 and HOX, where X=Br, Cl, or I are important environmental oxidants, relatively little is known about their kinetics in condensed phases such as seawater and sea-salt particles. Here we describe a new technique to determine reactive chlorine and bromine species in aqueous solutions by using allyl alcohol (CH2=CHCH2OH as a chemical probe. This probe is combined with competition kinetics in order to determine steady state concentrations of X*(aq. In some cases the technique also can be used to determine the rates of formation and lifetimes of X* in aqueous solution. In a companion paper we reported the results of our method development for aqueous solutions containing only bromide (Br−. In this paper, we discuss method development for solutions containing chloride (Cl− alone, and for solutions containing both bromide and chloride.

  8. The Relation between Biological Consequences and Temperature on Some Non-Mammalian Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of reports on the effects of temperature is still increasing because of the temperature is one of the most encountered stressful factors in the environment, thus it deemed important to survey the literatures for effects of temperature on the biological consequences. The objective of this review was to establish the thermoregulatory response and adaptation of some non-mammalian species during temperature. Although, there was relative scarcity of information on the relation between oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes during temperature, this review great interest to elicit this relation in non-mammalian species. Here, this review suggests that, the increase in the oxidative stress due to temperature may be a reason for such decrease and exhaustion of antioxidant enzymes and a sequence of cellular injury or death, because of increased endogenous production of the free radicals. However, there was exception in this hypothesis because this argument is still ambiguous because of the difficulties of the direct observation of the active oxygen species in the biological systems due to their short lifetime. Taken together, because of one of the most important functions of heat shock protein is to protect the organisms from the deleterious effects of temperature, thus, it can be hypothesized that the formation of heat shock protein and antioxidant enzymes may be related to the changes in the levels of free radicals in non-mammalian species during temperature.

  9. QTL mapping of pomological traits in peach and related species breeding germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresnedo-Ramírez, J.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Weg, van de W.E.; Famula, T.R.; Crisosto, C.H.; Frett, T.; Gasic, K.; Peace, C.P.; Gradziel, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Peach is an economically important fruit tree crop that exhibits high phenotypic variability yet suffers from diversity-limited gene pool. Genetic introgression of novel alleles from related species is being pursued to expand genetic diversity. This process is, however, challenging and requires the

  10. Relative growth rate variation of evergreen and deciduous savanna tree species is driven by different traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomlinson, K.W.; Poorter, L.; Bongers, F.; Borghetti, F.; Jacobs, L.; Langevelde, van F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant relative growth rate (RGR) depends on biomass allocation to leaves (leaf mass fraction, LMF), efficient construction of leaf surface area (specific leaf area, SLA) and biomass growth per unit leaf area (net assimilation rate, NAR). Functional groups of species may differ in

  11. Differences in memory dynamics between two closely related parasitoid wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.; Smid, H.M.; Steidle, J.L.M.; Kruidhof, H.M.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The two closely related parasitoids Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) coexist in The Netherlands where they occupy slightly different niches. When searching for their caterpillar hosts, they use host plant odours that are released upon feeding by the caterpillars. The speci

  12. Comparative study of closely related \\kur{Asteraceae} species with different invasive status

    OpenAIRE

    ŠAFARČÍKOVÁ, Simona

    2008-01-01

    Complex of 4 closely related Asteraceae species with different invasive status (native Bidens tripartita, casual aliens Cosmos bipinnatus, Coreopis tinctoria and invasive alien Bidens frondosa) was studied to clarify the invasive success of Bidens frondosa and to assess the invasive potential of both unsuccessful aliens. Among studied characteristics were included: reproductive traits (germination in different regimes, seed viability and seed production), growth characteristics (relative grow...

  13. Life table parameters of three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris species (Hemiptera: Miridae under contrasted relative humidity regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH. Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80% were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm, the net reproductive rate (R0 and the finite rate of increase (λ for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests.

  14. Pollinators visit related plant species across 29 plant-pollinator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamosi, Jana C; Moray, Clea M; Garcha, Navdeep K; Chamberlain, Scott A; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the evolution of specialization in host plant use by pollinators is often complicated by variability in the ecological context of specialization. Flowering communities offer their pollinators varying numbers and proportions of floral resources, and the uniformity observed in these floral resources is, to some degree, due to shared ancestry. Here, we find that pollinators visit related plant species more so than expected by chance throughout 29 plant-pollinator networks of varying sizes, with "clade specialization" increasing with community size. As predicted, less versatile pollinators showed more clade specialization overall. We then asked whether this clade specialization varied with the ratio of pollinator species to plant species such that pollinators were changing their behavior when there was increased competition (and presumably a forced narrowing of the realized niche) by examining pollinators that were present in at least three of the networks. Surprisingly, we found little evidence that variation in clade specialization is caused by pollinator species changing their behavior in different community contexts, suggesting that clade specialization is observed when pollinators are either restricted in their floral choices due to morphological constraints or innate preferences. The resulting pollinator sharing between closely related plant species could result in selection for greater pollinator specialization.

  15. Relationships between Duck and Grassland Bird Relative Abundance and Species Richness in Southern Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P. Skinner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital map products that integrate long-term duck population and land-use data are currently being used to guide conservation program delivery on the Canadian Prairies. However, understanding the inter-relationships between ducks and other grassland bird species would greatly enhance program planning and delivery. We hypothesized that ducks, and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta in particular, may function as an umbrella guild for the overall breeding habitat quality for other grassland bird species. We compared grassland bird species richness and relative abundance among areas of low, moderate, and high predicted waterfowl breeding densities (i.e., duck density strata in the southern Missouri Coteau, Saskatchewan. We conducted roadside point counts and delineated habitats within a 400 m radius of each point. The duck high-density stratum supported greater avian species richness and abundance than did the duck low-density stratum. Overall, duck and other grassland bird species richness and abundance were moderately correlated, with all r between 0.37 and 0.69 (all P < 0.05. Although the habitat requirements of Northern Pintail may overlap with those of other grassland endemics, priority grassland bird species richness was only moderately correlated with total pintail abundance in both years, and the abundances of pintail and grassland songbirds listed by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada were not correlated. No differences in the mean number of priority grassland species were detected among the strata. Adequate critical habitat for several priority species may not be protected if conservation is focused only in areas of moderate to high wetland density because large tracts of contiguous, dry grassland habitat (e.g., pasture occur infrequently in high-quality duck habitat.

  16. ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF AGARWOOD OIL FROM DIFFERENT SPECIES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY (GCMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun Hashim; Nur Izzah Ismail; Phirdaous Abbas

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Agarwood oil is a highly prized type of oil due to its unique aroma. The oil is extracted from the fragrant resin found in the agarwood tree (trunk).  The unique aroma and quality of agarwood resin and oil are contributed by the presence of certain chemical compounds. In this work, analysis and comparison of the chemical compounds of agarwood oil from A. malaccensis, A. sub-integra and a mixture of both were conducted.  The essential oils were diluted in hexane (5%) prior to gas chr...

  17. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Four Nepeta Species and Hybrids against Aedes aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of four ornamental species and hybrids of Nepeta: N. racemosa Lam. hybrid ‘Select’, N. sibirica L., N. subsessilis Maxim, and N.×faassenii Bergmans ex Stearn ‘Dropmore were studied for their chemical composition, larvicidal and biting deterrent activity. Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Nepeta species were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Nepeta racemosa hybrid ‘Select’ and N. ×faassenii ‘Dropmore’ essential oils were rich in 1,8-cineole whereas N. sibirica and N. subsessilis essential oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenes: (Z- b -farnesene, b -bisabolene, d -cadinene or b -caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide. Many Nepeta species essential oils are reported to be rich in nepetalactone isomers, but essential oils from these species contained either very low or no nepetalactone content. In biting deterrent bioassays, essential oils of these Nepeta species and hybrids at 100 µg/cm 2 showed activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm 2 against Aedes aegypti, whereas this activity at the concentration of 10 µg/cm 2 was lower than DEET. All the essential oils showed weak larvicidal activity and mortalities were observed only at highest dose of 125 ppm against Ae. aegypti.

  18. Chemical composition of hydroethanolic extracts from five species of the Passiflora genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marna E Sakalem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversified genus Passiflora is well distributed all over Brazil, and many species have been long used as medicinal plants, mainly against anxiety disturbances. This effect has been attributed to its rich flavonoid composition. Flavonoids’ main class, flavonoid glycosides, has presented central action, particularly as sedative-hypnotic, anxiolytic and analgesic. The objective of the present study was to make a phytochemical screening of five little studied Passiflora species, in order to evaluate their phenolic composition. For this aim, HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS was used. After the preparation of the hydroalcoholic extracts, each species was evaluated by direct injection electrospray ionization (ESI and tandem mass spectrometry. Although belonging to the same genus, the composition of each species presented particularities; this justifies the importance of studies aiming for the phenolic composition of different Passiflora species. Flavones C-glycosides were detected in all extracts, and are found as the main constituents in P. vitifolia, P. coccinea, P. bahiensis and P. sidifolia. In this last one, flavone-6,8-di-C-glycoside, apigenin-6-C-rhamnosyl-8-C-arabinoside are present in high content. Cyclopassiflosides were found in high content together with cyanogenic glycosides in P. quadrangularis, while in P. coccinea, besides flavones-C-glycosides were also found procyanidins.

  19. Growth response and ionic relation in two brassica species under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glasshouse study of Brassica campestris and Brassica juncea showed that the growth and the ionic parameters of both the species were significantly (p < 0.0 I) affected due to water stress. Shoot length of both the species decreased consistently with decrease in solute potential (PSI) in the root medium. Relative growth rate and dry mass was higher in B. juncea than B. campestris but leaf area was less. Concentrations of K Ca/sup 2/ P and S generally decreased with gradual increase in water stress B. campestris was more susceptible to water stress than B juncea. (author)

  20. Alterations in the energy budget of Arctic benthic species exposed to oil-related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway) and Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: gho@akvaplan.niva.noph; Sva, Eirin [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Carroll, JoLynn [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Camus, Lionel [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); De Coen, Wim [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (UA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Smolders, Roel [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (UA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Environmental Toxicology, VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Overaas, Helene [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), CIENS, Gaustadalleen, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Multiconsult AS, Hoffsveien 1, N-0275 Oslo (Norway); Hylland, Ketil [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), CIENS, Gaustadalleen, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2007-06-15

    We studied cellular energy allocation (CEA) in three Arctic benthic species (Gammarus setosus (Amphipoda), Onisimus litoralis (Amphipoda), and Liocyma fluctuosa (Bivalvia)) exposed to oil-related compounds. The CEA biomarker measures the energy budget of organisms by biochemically assessing changes in energy available (carbohydrates, protein and lipid content) and the integrated energy consumption (electron transport system activity (ETS) as the cellular aspect of respiration). Energy budget was measured in organisms subjected to water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil and drill cuttings (DC) to evaluate whether these compounds affect the energy metabolism of the test species. We observed significantly lower CEA values and higher ETS activity in G. setosus subjected to WAF treatment compared to controls (p {<=} 0.03). Higher CEA value and lower cellular respiration were observed in O. litoralis exposed to DC compared to controls (p = 0.02). No difference in the energy budget of L. fluctuosa was observed between the treatments (p {>=} 0.19). Different responses to oil-related compounds between the three test species are likely the result of differences in feeding and burrowing behavior and species-specific sensitivity to petroleum-related compounds.

  1. Studies on the origin and transformation of selenium and its chemical species along the process of petroleum refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivanin de Almeida, Cibele M.; Ribeiro, Anderson S.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.; Miekeley, Norbert

    2009-06-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry (ICPMS), the latter hyphenated to flow injection hydride generation, electrothermal vaporization or ion chromatography, have been applied to the chemical characterization of crude oil, aqueous process stream samples and wastewaters from a petroleum refinery, in order to get information on the behavior of selenium and its chemical species along effluent generation and treatment. Multielemental characterization of these effluents by ICPMS revealed a complex composition of most of them, with high salinity and potential spectral and non-spectral interferents present. For this reason, a critical re-assessment of the analytical techniques for the determination of total selenium and its species was performed. Methane was employed as gas in dynamic reaction cell ICPMS and cell parameters were optimized for a simulated brine matrix and for diluted aqueous solutions to match the expected process and treated wastewaters samples. The signal-to-background ratios for 78Se and 80Se were used as criteria in optimization, the first isotope resulting in better detection limits for the simulated brine matrix ( 78Se: 0.07 μg L - 1 , 80Se: 0.31 μg L - 1 ). A large variability in the concentration of selenium (from crude oil samples in the refinery here investigated, which may explain the pronounced concentrations changes of this element measured in aqueous process stream and wastewater samples. Highest concentrations of total selenium were analyzed in samples from the hydrotreater (up to about 1800 μg L - 1 ). The predominance of selenocyanate (SeCN -) was observed in most of the wastewaters so far investigated, but also other species were detected with retention times different from Se(IV), Se(VI) and SeCN -. Colloidal selenium (Se 0) was the only Se-species observed in samples from the atmospheric distillation unit, but was also identified in other samples, most probably formed by the decomposition of

  2. Effects of Pig Slurry Application and Crops on Phosphorus Content in Soil and the Chemical Species in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandro De Conti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry rates and plant cultivation can modify the soil phosphorus (P content and distribution of chemical species in solution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total P, available P and P in solution, and the distribution of chemical P species in solution, in a soil under longstanding pig slurry applications and crop cultivation. The study was carried out in soil columns with undisturbed structure, collected in an experiment conducted for eight years in the experimental unit of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, Santa Maria (RS. The soil was an Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico (Typic Hapludalf, subjected to applications of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m3 ha-1 pig slurry. Soil samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-60 cm, before and after black oat and maize grown in a greenhouse, for the determination of available P, total P and P in the soil solution. In the solution, the concentration of the major cations, anions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and pH were determined. The distribution of chemical P species was determined by software Visual Minteq. The 21 pig slurry applications increased the total P content in the soil to a depth of 40 cm, and the P extracted by Mehlich-1 and from the solution to a depth of 30 cm. Successive applications of pig slurry changed the balance between the solid and liquid phases in the surface soil layers, increasing the proportion of the total amount of P present in the soil solution, aside from changing the chemical species in the solution, reducing the percentage complexed with Al and increasing the one complexed with Ca and Mg in the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm. Black oat and maize cultivation increased pH in the solution, thereby increasing the proportion of HPO42- and reducing H2PO4- species.

  3. Toward systems metabolic engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia species for the production of chemicals and biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    such as random mutagenesis to a systems level which decreases the time and efforts on design and implementation. Here, the authors review the recent trends in systems biology of Aspergillus and Pichia species, highlighting the relevance of developments for systems metabolic engineering of these organisms......Recently genome sequence data have become available for Aspergillus and Pichia species of industrial interest. This has stimulated the use of systems biology approaches for large-scale analysis of the molecular and metabolic responses of Aspergillus and Pichia under defined conditions, which has...... of knowledge on the fundamental biology of Aspergillus and Pichia species. Furthermore, with the availability of these models, the engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia is moving from traditional approaches, such as random mutagenesis, to a systems metabolic engineering approach. Here we review the recent...

  4. Evaluation of the chemical reactions from two electrogenerated species in picoliter volumes by scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Rodríguez-López, Joaquín; Bard, Allen J

    2010-09-10

    The volume created by the positioning of two scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) probes (tip and substrate) at a micrometric distance defines a "picoliter beaker" where homogeneous electron-transfer reactions are studied. The SECM is used to concurrently electrogenerate in situ two reactive species and to evaluate the possibility of detecting their reactivity. Two reaction cases are studied: the first, called the "reversible case", occurs when the electrochemically generated species at the substrate electrode can also react at the tip to yield the same product as the reaction in the gap. The second case, named the "irreversible case", occurs when the electrochemically generated species at the substrate are not able to react at the tip. Digital simulations are performed and compared to experimental studies. These show that an unusual compensation between collection and feedback effects render the analysis inapplicable in the "reversible case". The "irreversible case" is shown experimentally. PMID:20687152

  5. Including chemical-related impact categories in LCA on printed matter does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Existing product Life Cycle Assessments (LCA¡¦s) on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating contributor to the impacts from the life-cycle of this category of products. This dominating role of paper is primarily founded in the energy-related impact categories...... global warming, acidification and nutrification. The studies focus on energy consumption including the emissions and impact categories related to energy. The chemical-related impact categories comprising ecotoxicity and human toxicity are not included at all or only to a limited degree. In this paper we...... include these chemical-related impact categories by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used during the production of offset printed matter. This paper is based...

  6. Available IMARES generated ecotoxicological data with relevance to petroleum related chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de P.; Klok, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides an overview of ecotoxicological tests of oil and oil-related chemicals performed by Imares. This meta-data overview was generated for the potential use of its underlying data in the ecotoxicological models in the SYMBIOSES model system.

  7. Compilation of Physicochemical and Toxicological Information About Hydraulic Fracturing-Related Chemicals (Draft Database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this product is to make accessible the information about the 1,173 hydraulic fracturing-related chemicals that were listed in the external review draft of the Hydraulic Fracturing Drinking Water Assessment that was released recently. The product consists of a serie...

  8. Closely related freshwater macrophyte species, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum, differ in temperature response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    in the short term, inhibited photosynthesis in the long term and resulted in lower growth rates of C. submersum, both compared to C. demersum and to growth rates at intermediate temperatures (18 and 25 °C). 3. The long-term acclimation strategy differed between the two species. Ceratophyllum demersum achieved...... optimum. Hence, this study highlights key issues that need to be examined carefully to improve models predicting future temperature responses of aquatic plants.......1. The importance of temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration in determining species distributions was compared in two closely related freshwater macrophytes, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum. The two species differed significantly in response to temperature in the short...

  9. Habitat filtering and niche differentiation jointly explain species relative abundance within grassland communities along fertility and disturbance gradients.

    OpenAIRE

    Maire, Vincent; Gross, Nicolas; BORGER, Luca; Proulx, Raphaël; Wirth, Christian; Da Silveira Pontes, Laise; Soussana, Jean-François; Louault, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    Deterministic niche-based processes have been proposed to explain species relative abundance within communities but lead to different predictions: habitat filtering (HF) predicts dominant species to exhibit similar traits while niche differentiation (ND) requires that species have dissimilar traits to coexist. Using a multiple trait-based approach, we evaluated the relative roles of HF and ND in determining species abundances in productive grasslands. Four dimensions of the functional niche o...

  10. Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part I: discrimination from related Salvia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2012-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic herb that is internationally regulated. In this study, salvinorin A, the active compound in S. divinorum, was extracted from S. divinorum plant leaves using a 5-min extraction with dichloromethane. Four additional Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia guaranitica, Salvia splendens, and Salvia nemorosa) were extracted using this procedure, and all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differentiation of S. divinorum from other Salvia species was successful based on visual assessment of the resulting chromatograms. To provide a more objective comparison, the total ion chromatograms (TICs) were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Prior to PCA, the TICs were subjected to a series of data pretreatment procedures to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. Successful discrimination of S. divinorum from the other four Salvia species was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot. To provide a numerical assessment of the discrimination, a series of statistical procedures such as Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores. The statistical procedures were then compared to determine the advantages and disadvantages for forensic applications.

  11. The study and applications of photochemical-dynamical gravity wave model Ⅱ-- The effects of stable gravity wave on chemical species distribution in mesosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Jiyao(徐寄遥); MA; Ruiping(马瑞平); A.K.Smith

    2002-01-01

    A nonlinear, compressible, non-isothermal gravity wave model that involves photochemistry is used to study the effects of gravity wave on atmospheric chemical species distributions in this paper. The changes in the distributions of oxygen compound and hydrogen compound density induced by gravity wave propagation are simulated. The results indicate that when a gravity wave propagates through a mesopause region, even if it does not break, it can influence the background distributions of chemical species. The effect of gravity wave on chemical species at night is larger than in daytime.

  12. Evaluating chemical exposure and effect models for aquatic species with a focus on crude oil constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop, L. de

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this PhD thesis is to evaluate a suite of exposure and effect models on their applicability in ecological risk assessment for aquatic species and ecosystems. The focus is on oil constituents, as it is largely unknown whether current ecological models are applicable to crude oil and its co

  13. Chemical characterisation of three haemolytic compounds from the microalgal species Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, M.; Koulman, A; van Rijssel, M; Lutzen, A.; de Boer, M.K.; Tyl, M.R.; Liebezeit, G.

    2004-01-01

    The molecular Structures of the three main haemolytic compounds (Fj1, Fj2 and Fj3) isolated from the ichthyotoxic microalgal species Fibrocapsa japonica have been investigated by NMR, LC-ESI-MS, ESI-MS-MS, IR, GC-MS and GC-HRMS methods. They are polyunsaturated fatty acids which we identified as: 6,

  14. Mycorrhizal associations and reproductive isolation in three closely related Orchis species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; Honnay, Olivier; Lievens, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The maintenance of species boundaries in sympatric populations of closely related species requires some kind of reproductive isolation that limits gene flow among species and/or prevents the production of viable progeny. Because in orchids mycorrhizal fungi are needed for seed germination and subsequent seedling establishment, orchid–mycorrhizal associations may be involved in acting as a post-mating barrier. Methods We investigated the strength of post-mating barriers up to the seed germination stage acting between three closely related Orchis species (Orchis anthropophora, O. militaris and O. purpurea) and studied the role of mycorrhizal fungi in hybridization by burying seed packets of pure and hybrid seeds. After retrieval and assessment of seed germination, the fungi associating with protocorms originating from hybrid and pure seeds were determined and compared with those associating with adult individuals using DNA array technology. Results Whereas pre-zygotic post-mating barriers were rather weak in most crosses, post-zygotic post-mating barriers were stronger, particularly when O. purpurea was crossed with O. anthropophora. Germination trials in the field showed that seed germination percentages of hybrid seeds were in most cases lower than those originating from pure crosses. In all species pair combinations, total post-mating reproductive isolation was asymmetric. Protocorms associated with a smaller range of fungal symbionts than adult plants, but there was considerable overlap in mycorrhizal associations between protocorms and their respective parents. Conclusions Our results suggest that mycorrhizal associations contribute little to reproductive isolation. Pre-mating barriers are probably the main factors determining hybridization rates between the investigated species. PMID:21186239

  15. On the relation between chemical composition and optical properties of detonation nanodiamonds

    KAUST Repository

    Kirmani, Ahmad R.

    2015-06-23

    The morphology and presence of impurities strongly influence mechanical, optical, electrical, and thermal properties of detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs). Here we report insights on the chemical composition and its effect on the optical properties of the DNDs obtained by rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation. Herein, for the first time, a detailed valence band structure of as-prepared and oxidized DNDs is reported. Photoemission spectroscopy (PES) measurements demonstrate that the defects, originating from fullerene-like C bonding in the sp2 shells of the DNDs, are governing the literature-reported loss of the emission spectral features arising from the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center excitations. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal that nitrogen is present in the DNDs in the form of N–O bonded species located at the surface region/sp2 shells, while in core of the DND it is in the form of N–C/N=C species.

  16. A new species of moray eel (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae) from Taiwan, with comments on related elongate unpatterned species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kar-Hoe; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Ho, Hsuan-Ching; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chen, Hong-Ming

    2015-12-24

    The following nine elongate unpatterned muraenid species of the subfamily Muraeninae, including one new species, are recognized from Taiwan and adjacent waters: Gymnothorax albimarginatus (Temminck & Schlegel), G. dorsalis Seale, G. melanosomatus Loh, Shao & Chen, G. phasmatodes (Smith), G. prolatus Sasaki & Amaoka, G. sagmacephalus Böhlke, Pseudechidna brummeri (Bleeker), Strophidon sathete (Hamilton) and G. pseudomelanosomatus new species, described from two specimens. This new moray eel is distinguished from its similar species, G. melanosomatus, by the following features: grey brown body (vs. black), snout length 20.5% (vs. 17.8%) of head length, smaller eye diameter 8.2% (vs. 10.0%) of head length; preanal length 49.5% (vs. 58.5%) total length, and preanal vertebrae 89-89 (vs. 105-109). Phylogenetic relationships of the nine species were examined using nucleotide sequence data from partial sequences of mitochondrial ND5 gene (600 bp), and seven species form COI (600 bp). The genetic analyses suggest that G. pseudomelanosomatus is distinct from G. melanosomatus and the other six species of Gymnothorax. Morphological features and mitogenetic affinities strongly suggest that "G." dorsalis should be placed in Strophidon rather than in Gymnothorax. The results also suggest that employment of ND5 and COI gene sequences are rather useful for identification of species and for obtaining reasonable insights into the phylogeny of the muraenid species.

  17. Influence of the mineralogical composition of cement in the diffusion of chemical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal is the final stage of radioactive waste management. This is essentially placing them in a facility with a reasonable assurance of safety. In this last stage, the ultimate goal is the confinement and isolation of radioactive waste from the human environment for a time period and under conditions such that the release of radionuclides not put in radiation risk to people and the environment. In relation to the storage of radioactive waste of low and medium activity, the final repositories for radioactive waste, based in cement materials are already operating in many countries. The isolation is performed by applying natural or artificial barriers between radioactive waste and man so as to prevent the release of radionuclides to the environment, until they have decreased their toxicity. The cement-based materials are involved in the different stages of the radioactive waste management since they are used for immobilization of waste in the container, container manufacturing and filling the spaces between the containers and vaults container and also as a barrier engineering and construction material in civil engineering. The concrete (cement mix + water + sand + gravel) it is one of the materials used to produce the engineered barrier system and produce containers for radioactive waste. In addition to their mechanical properties (product processing into hydraulic binder after being hydrated), their composition and solubility allow cushion the contact groundwater to ph higher (12.0 - 13.5) during considerable time scales (1014 - 1015 years) and it has an active role with the radionuclides confinement present in the radiological inventory of radioactive waste. The study of the microstructures of cement is a constant challenge for specialists working in this area, mainly due to the complex and heterogeneous mineralogical composition. Cement consists of many different phases in order to achieve specific properties such as reactivity properties, setting time

  18. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  19. Comparison of rumen microbial inhibition resulting from various essential oils isolated from relatively unpalatable plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H K; Jones, M B; Longhurst, W M

    1968-01-01

    Essential oils were isolated from eight plant species which were relatively unpalatable to sheep and deer. The inhibitory potency of these essential oils upon sheep and deer rumen microorganisms was compared, in terms of total gas and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, by use of an anaerobic manometric technique. Inhibitory effects of oils from the eight plant species may be placed in four groups: (i) essential oils from vinegar weed (Trichostema lanceoletum) and California bay (Umbellularia californica) inhibited rumen microbial activity most; (ii) lesser inhibition was exhibited by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and California mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana) oils, followed by (iii) blue-gum eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) oils; and (iv) oils from Douglas fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii) and Jerusalem oak (chenopodium botrys) resulted in the least inhibition, when 0.3 ml of each oil was used. A highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.98(**)) between total gas and VFA production indicated the validity of either method to measure the activity of rumen microorganisms. Our results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that the selectivity and voluntary consumption of ruminants are related to the characteristic odor and antibacterial action of essential oils isolated from relatively unpalatable plant species. PMID:5636470

  20. Species distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-related mycobacterial infections: implications for selection of initial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, V; Phillips, P; Montaner, J; Haley, L; Craib, K; Bessuille, E; Black, W

    1996-06-01

    Management of mycobacterial infection is species specific; however, treatment is prompted by positive smears or cultures, often several weeks before species identification. The objective of this study was to determine the species distribution of mycobacterial isolates from various body sites in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All mycobacterial isolates recovered at St. Paul's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) from April 1989 to March 1993 were reviewed. Among 357 HIV-positive patients with mycobacterial infections, 64% (96) of the sputum isolates were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), 18% were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 17% were Mycobacterium kansasii. Lymph node involvement (25 patients) was due to either MAC (72%) or M. tuberculosis (24%). Two hundred ninety-eight episodes of mycobacteremia were due to MAC (98%), M. tuberculosis (1%), and M. kansasii (1%). Similarly, cultures of 84 bone marrow biopsy specimens (99%), 19 intestinal biopsy specimens (100%), and 30 stool specimens (97%) yielded predominantly MAC. These results have implications for initial therapy, particularly in areas where rapid methods for species identification are not readily available. Because of considerable geographic variation, development of guidelines for selection of initial therapy depends on regional determination of species distribution in HIV-related mycobacterial infections. PMID:8783698

  1. Archaeorhizomyces borealis sp. nov. and a sequence-based classification of related soil fungal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkis, Audrius; Urbina, Hector; James, Timothy Y; Rosling, Anna

    2014-12-01

    The class Archaeorhizomycetes (Taphrinomycotina, Ascomycota) was introduced to accommodate an ancient lineage of soil-inhabiting fungi found in association with plant roots. Based on environmental sequencing data Archaeorhizomycetes may comprise a significant proportion of the total fungal community in soils. Yet the only species described and cultivated in this class is Archaeorhizomyces finlayi. In this paper, we describe a second species from a pure culture, Archaeorhizomyces borealis NS99-600(T) (=CBS138755(ExT)) based on morphological, physiological, and multi-locus molecular characterization. Archaeorhizomyces borealis was isolated from a root tip of a Pinus sylvestris seedling grown in a forest nursery in Lithuania. Analysis of Archaeorhizomycete species from environmental samples shows that it has a Eurasian distribution and is the most commonly observed species. Archaeorhizomyces borealis shows slow growth in culture and forms yellowish creamy colonies, characteristics that distinguish A. borealis from its closest relative A. finlayi. Here we also propose a sequence-based taxonomic classification of Archaeorhizomycetes and predict that approximately 500 species in this class remain to be isolated and described. PMID:25457942

  2. Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis, a new mould species closely related to A. fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Jos; Weig, Michael; Groß, Uwe; Meijer, Martin; Bader, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Two isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Fumigati were recovered from German soil on itraconazole containing agar media. Phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic characterization of both isolates show that they represent a novel species named Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis (holotype CBS H-22119(HT), ex-type CBS 139183(T) = IBT 33878 = DTO 316-A3). The species is phylogenetically related to A. fischeri and A. fumigatus. Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis can be differentiated from A. fischeri by its higher growth rate at 50°C. Furthermore, A. oerlinghausenensis is protoheterothallic as only the MAT1-1 idiomorph was detected, while A. fischeri is homothallic. The species differs from A. fumigatus by a weak sporulation on malt extract agar at 25°C, a floccose colony texture on Czapek yeast extract agar and malt extract agar and subglobose instead of subclavate vesicles. The cyp51A promoter region of A. oerlinghausenensis deviates from the previously reported cyp51A promoter regions in A. fumigatus and potentially presents a novel azole resistance conferring modification. Due to the close relationship of A. oerlinghausenensis with A. fischeri and A. fumigatus, this species is placed in a good position for comparative studies involving these species.

  3. Changes in the Relative Abundance of Two Saccharomyces Species from Oak Forests to Wine Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashko, Sofia; Liu, Ping; Volk, Helena; Butinar, Lorena; Piškur, Jure; Fay, Justin C.

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its sibling species Saccharomyces paradoxus are known to inhabit temperate arboreal habitats across the globe. Despite their sympatric distribution in the wild, S. cerevisiae is predominantly associated with human fermentations. The apparent ecological differentiation of these species is particularly striking in Europe where S. paradoxus is abundant in forests and S. cerevisiae is abundant in vineyards. However, ecological differences may be confounded with geographic differences in species abundance. To compare the distribution and abundance of these two species we isolated Saccharomyces strains from over 1200 samples taken from vineyard and forest habitats in Slovenia. We isolated numerous strains of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus, as well as a small number of Saccharomyces kudriavzevii strains, from both vineyard and forest environments. We find S. cerevisiae less abundant than S. paradoxus on oak trees both within and outside the vineyard, but more abundant on grapevines and associated substrates. Analysis of the uncultured microbiome shows, that both S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus are rare species in soil and bark samples, but can be much more common in grape must. In contrast to S. paradoxus, European strains of S. cerevisiae have acquired multiple traits thought to be important for life in the vineyard and dominance of wine fermentations. We conclude, that S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus currently share both vineyard and non-vineyard habitats in Slovenia and we discuss factors relevant to their global distribution and relative abundance. PMID:26941733

  4. Changes in the Relative Abundance of Two Saccharomyces Species from Oak Forests to Wine Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashko, Sofia; Liu, Ping; Volk, Helena; Butinar, Lorena; Piškur, Jure; Fay, Justin C

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its sibling species Saccharomyces paradoxus are known to inhabit temperate arboreal habitats across the globe. Despite their sympatric distribution in the wild, S. cerevisiae is predominantly associated with human fermentations. The apparent ecological differentiation of these species is particularly striking in Europe where S. paradoxus is abundant in forests and S. cerevisiae is abundant in vineyards. However, ecological differences may be confounded with geographic differences in species abundance. To compare the distribution and abundance of these two species we isolated Saccharomyces strains from over 1200 samples taken from vineyard and forest habitats in Slovenia. We isolated numerous strains of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus, as well as a small number of Saccharomyces kudriavzevii strains, from both vineyard and forest environments. We find S. cerevisiae less abundant than S. paradoxus on oak trees both within and outside the vineyard, but more abundant on grapevines and associated substrates. Analysis of the uncultured microbiome shows, that both S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus are rare species in soil and bark samples, but can be much more common in grape must. In contrast to S. paradoxus, European strains of S. cerevisiae have acquired multiple traits thought to be important for life in the vineyard and dominance of wine fermentations. We conclude, that S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus currently share both vineyard and non-vineyard habitats in Slovenia and we discuss factors relevant to their global distribution and relative abundance. PMID:26941733

  5. Changes in the relative abundance of two Saccharomyces species from oak forests to wine fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia eDashko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its sibling species S. paradoxus are known to inhabit temperate arboreal habitats across the globe. Despite their sympatric distribution in the wild, S. cerevisiae is predominantly associated with human fermentations. The apparent ecological differentiation of these species is particularly striking in Europe where S. paradoxus is abundant in forests and S. cerevisiae is abundant in vineyards. However, ecological differences may be confounded with geographic differences in species abundance. To compare the distribution and abundance of these two species we isolated Saccharomyces strains from over 1,200 samples taken from vineyard and forest habitats in Slovenia. We isolated numerous strains of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus as well as small number of S. kudriavzevii strains from both vineyard and forest environments. We find S. cerevisiae less abundant than S. paradoxus on oak trees both within and outside the vineyard, but more abundant on grapevines and associated substrates. Analysis of the uncultured microbiome shows that both S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus are rare species in soil and bark samples, but can be much more common in grape must. In contrast to S. paradoxus, European strains of S. cerevisiae have acquired multiple traits thought to be important for life in the vineyard and dominance of wine fermentations. We conclude that S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus currently share both vineyard and non-vineyard habitats in Slovenia and we discuss factors relevant to their global distribution and relative abundance.

  6. Strategies and chemical design approaches to reduce the potential for formation of reactive metabolic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argikar, Upendra A; Mangold, James B; Harriman, Shawn P

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic activation of new chemical entities to reactive intermediates is routinely monitored in drug discovery and development. Reactive intermediates may bind to cellular macromolecules such as proteins, DNA and may eventually lead to cell death via necrosis, apoptosis or oxidative stress. The evidence that the ultimate outcome of metabolic activation is an adverse drug reaction manifested as in vivo toxicity, is at best circumstantial. However, understanding the process of bioactivation of structural alerts by trapping the reactive intermediates is critical to guide medicinal chemistry efforts in quest for safer and potent molecules. This commentary provides a brief introduction to adverse drug reactions and mechanisms of reactive intermediate formation for various functional groups, followed by a review of chemical design approaches, examples of such strategies, possible isosteric replacements for structural alerts and rationalization of laboratory approaches to determine reactive intermediates, as a guide to today's medicinal chemist. PMID:21320068

  7. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Two Species of Lamiaceae against Phytopathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormez, Arzu; Bozari, Sedat; Yanmis, Derya; Gulluce, Medine; Sahin, Fikrettin; Agar, Guleray

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine chemical composition and antibacterial activities of Satureja hortensis and Calamintha nepeta against to 20 phytopathogenic bacteria causing serious crop loss. The essential oils of S. hortensis and C. nepeta were isolated by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The antibacterial properties of the essential oils were evaluated against 20 phytopathogenic bacteria through Disc diffusion assay and micro dilution assay. The results revealed that the essential oils of S. hortensis and C. nepeta have significant antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the findings of the study are valuable for future investigations focusing on the alternative natural compounds to control plant diseases. PMID:26373171

  8. Effects of Dispersal-Related Factors on Species Distribution Model Accuracy for Boreal Lake Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Hallstan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution modeling is used in applied ecology; for example in predicting the consequences of global change. However, questions still remain about the robustness of model predictions. Here we estimate effects of landscape spatial configuration and organism flight ability—factors related to dispersal—on the accuracy of species distribution models. Distribution models were developed for 129 phytoplankton taxa, 164 littoral invertebrate taxa and 44 profundal invertebrate taxa sampled in 105 Swedish lakes, using six different modeling techniques (generalized linear models (GLM, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, classification tree analysis (CTA, mixture discriminant analysis (MDA, generalized boosting models (GBM and random forests (RF. Model accuracy was not affected by dispersal ability (i.e., invertebrate flight ability, but the accuracy of phytoplankton assemblage predictions and, to a lesser extent, littoral invertebrate assemblages were related to ecosystem size and connectivity. Although no general pattern across species or spatial configuration was evident from our study, we recommend that dispersal and spatial configuration of ecosystems should be considered when developing species distribution models.

  9. Development and characterization of simple sequence repeats for Bipolaris sorokiniana and cross transferability to related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajolu, Oluseyi L; Wadl, Phillip A; Vu, Andrea L; Gwinn, Kimberly D; Scheffler, Brian E; Trigiano, Robert N; Ownley, Bonnie H

    2013-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were developed from a small insert genomic library for Bipolaris sorokiniana, a mitosporic fungal pathogen that causes spot blotch and root rot in switchgrass. About 59% of sequenced clones (n = 384) harbored SSR motifs. After eliminating redundant sequences, 196 SSR loci were identified, of which 84.7% were dinucleotide repeats and 9.7% and 5.6% were tri- and tetra-nucleotide repeats, respectively. Primer pairs were designed for 105 loci and 85 successfully amplified loci. Sixteen polymorphic loci were characterized with 15 B. sorokiniana isolates obtained from infected switchgrass plant materials collected from five states in USA. These loci successfully cross-amplified isolates from at least one related species, including Bipolaris oryzae, Bipolaris spicifera and Bipolaris victoriae, that causes leaf spot on switchgrass. Haploid gene diversity per locus across all isolates studied varied 0.633-0.861. Principal component analysis of SSR data clustered isolates according to their respective species. These SSR markers will be a valuable tool for genetic variability and population studies of B. sorokiniana and related species that are pathogenic on switchgrass and other host plants. In addition, these markers are potential diagnostic tools for species in the genus Bipolaris.

  10. Characterization of Conserved Toxicogenomic Responses in Chemically Exposed Hepatocytes across Species and Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hachem, Nehme; Grossmann, Patrick; Blanchet-Cohen, Alexis; Bateman, Alain R.; Bouchard, Nicolas; Archambault, Jacques; Hugo J.W.L. Aerts; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genome-wide expression profiling is increasingly being used to identify transcriptional changes induced by drugs and environmental stressors. In this context, the Toxicogenomics Project–Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation system (TG-GATEs) project generated transcriptional profiles from rat liver samples and human/rat cultured primary hepatocytes exposed to more than 100 different chemicals. Objectives: To assess the capacity of the cell culture models to recapitulate pathways i...

  11. CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITY DIFFERENT YEAST SPECIES ON IDENTICAL SUBSTRATE IN WINE PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimír Vietoris; Hana Balková,Tatiana Bojňanská; Ľubomír Bennár; Peter Czako

    2013-01-01

    Rizling vlašský is the second most important variety in Slovakia. The science of wine production includes a summary of knowledge and experience in the field of grape growing and wine making, or the production of different types of wines using specific methods of production. Wine quality is the result of the interaction between yeast, bacteria and microscopic funguses. In this research, we studied the effects of active dry wine yeasts on chemical, physical and sensory parameters in wine produc...

  12. Study of the chemical species of fluorine 18 produced by neutron irradiation of lithium aluminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the chemical form of fluorine-18 obtained by means of the neutron irradiated lithium aluminate was studied, in order to know its chemical behavior and to observe if it volatilizes and adheres to the walls of a tritium distillation system; for this matter paper chromatography and high voltage electrophoresis techniques were used. Lithium aluminate was synthetized, being characterized as LiAlO2 which was irradiated with neutrons in order to produce fluorine-18. Lithium aluminate is a non-soluble solid, therefore fluorine produced may not be extracted, unless it is dissolved or extracted through the solid. So as not affect in a drastic way the chemical form, it was submitted to extraction processes, agitating the irradiated samples with different acids and basic solutions in order to analyze fluorine-18. The best extraction agent was found to be HCl, where two forms of fluorine-18 were found, one at the point of application, probably as a complex hexafluoride-aluminate and the other as a characteristic Rf of the fluorine ion. In the tritium distillation with helium as a carrier of a sample irradiated and heated up to 220-250oC, no volatile types of fluorine-18 were found, thus it can be considered that in commercial production of tritium by means of neutron irradiation of lithium aluminate, fluorine-18 is not a damaging pollutant of the equipment pipe system. (Author)

  13. Efficient conversion of lignin into single chemical species by solvothermal reaction in water p-cresol solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kazuhide; Man, Xin; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Takami, Seiichi; Adschiri, Tadafumi

    2004-04-01

    Lignin was selectively converted into single chemical species in water-p-cresol mixtures at 673 K. Complete depression of char formation was realized in a mixture of 1.8 g of water and 2.5 g of p-cresol. The frame structure of lignin was efficiently decomposed within a reaction time of 4 min. The species obtained had a molecular weight of 214 (M+) assigned by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and was identified as hydroxylphenyl-(hydroxyltolyl)-methane (HPHTM) by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. Its yield approached the maximum of 80% C at {\\sim } 30 min of reaction time. HPHTM was presumably produced by the addition of p-cresol at the most active C agr position of the hydroxyphenylpropane derivative that was formed by the hydrolysis of lignin.

  14. Efficient conversion of lignin into single chemical species by solvothermal reaction in water-p-cresol solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignin was selectively converted into single chemical species in water-p-cresol mixtures at 673 K. Complete depression of char formation was realized in a mixture of 1.8 g of water and 2.5 g of p-cresol. The frame structure of lignin was efficiently decomposed within a reaction time of 4 min. The species obtained had a molecular weight of 214 (M+) assigned by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and was identified as hydroxylphenyl-(hydroxyltolyl)-methane (HPHTM) by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. Its yield approached the maximum of 80% C at ∼ 30 min of reaction time. HPHTM was presumably produced by the addition of p-cresol at the most active C α position of the hydroxyphenylpropane derivative that was formed by the hydrolysis of lignin

  15. Chemical constituents of essential oils from the leaves and stem barks of four Vietnamese species of Fissistigma (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Tran D; Luu, Hoang V; Dung, Vo C; Tuan, Nguyen N; Hung, Nguyen H; Dai, Do N; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical profiles of essential oils from four Fissistigma species: Fissistigma bracteolatum Chatt., Fissistigma villosissimum Merr., Fissistigma latifolium (Dunal) Merr. and Fissistigma glaucescens (Hance) Merr. were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fissistigma essential oils consist mainly of sesquiterpenes (48.7-83.8%), monoterpenes (3.2-30.9%) and fatty acids (0.5-33.4%). Data on the essential oil composition of F. villosissimum, F. latifolium and F. glaucescens are reported for the first time.

  16. Clinical and forensic signs related to chemical burns: a mechanistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Carvalho, Félix; Moreira, Roxana; Proença, Jorge Brandão; Santos, Agostinho; Duarte, José Alberto; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Magalhães, Teresa

    2015-06-01

    This manuscript highlights and critically analyses clinical and forensic signs related to chemical burns. Signs that may lead to suspicion of a particular chemical are thoroughly discussed regarding its underlying mechanisms. Burns due to sulfuric, hydrofluoric, nitric, hydrochloric (muriatic) and acetic (including derivatives) acids, hydrogen sulphide, sodium (caustic soda) and calcium (cement) hydroxides, paraquat, burns after inflation and rupture of airbags, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine/alcohol (in preterm infants), laxatives, and vesicants (warfare agents), will be reviewed since these are the most common agents found in daily practice, for which relevant and timed information may be helpful in formulating an emergency treatment protocols and toxicological analysis.

  17. Assessing the impact of non-native freshwater fishes on native species using relative weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannetto D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test relative weight (Wr, a condition index which allows evaluation of fish well-being, as a tool to investigate the impact of the presence of non native species (NNS on the condition of the key native species (NS of the Tiber River basin (Italy: Barbustyberinus Bonaparte, Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, Leuciscus lucumonis Bianco, Rutilus rubilio (Bonaparte and Telestes muticellus (Bonaparte. By means of Canonical Correlation Analysis, data from 130 sampling sites, distributed throughout Tiber River basin, were examined. Wr of NS was related to densities of NNS and to environmental variables. Moreover, the correlation between Wr of NS and density of NNS was investigated through linear regression analysis and covariance analysis. Preliminary results encourage the use of Wr as a tool to assess the relationship between NS and ecological factors (such as the presence of NNS and to explain the changes that occur along the longitudinal gradient of a river.

  18. Chemical Constituents of Two Endemic Sideritis Species from Turkey with Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülaçtı Topçu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two Sideritis species, endemic to Turkey, S. niveotomentosa Huber – Morathii, S.brevidens P.H. Davis have been studied for their diterpenic compounds and the antioxidant properties. Eight known diterpenoids, which have ent-kaurene skeleton, were isolated from acetone and methanol extracts of these species. The structures of the isolated diterpenes were determined by using the NMR ( 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC spectroscopy. The analysis of the phenolic compounds of the extracts was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Also the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was investigated namely by two methods; free radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching activities.

  19. Genetic divergence within the Drosophila mayaguana subcluster, a closely related triad of Caribbean species in the repleta species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, P M; Durando, C M; Heed, W B; Wasserman, M; Etges, W; Desalle, R

    2002-01-01

    The mayaguana triad of the Drosophila repleta species group includes D. mayaguana, D. straubae, and D. parisiena, the latter two of which are very similar when examined morphologically. Many morphological characters used to define these taxa are quantitative and overlap substantially among some forms--it is only through suites of such characters that species can be identified. We apply Population Aggregation Analysis and tree building methods to five rapidly evolving gene regions--the mitochondrial AT rich region and the nuclear acetylcholinesterase, hunchback, mastermind, and vestigial loci to test the morphological species delineations within the morphocryptic mayaguana triad. We find that D. mayaguana is diagnosable using DNA sequences, but the other two species form a non-diagnosable paraphyletic assemblage. A single ecological factor, oviposition substrate, is an important diagnostic character distinguishing D. straubae from D. parisiena, highlighting the importance of examining a diverse array of data (morphological, molecular, ecological, and behavioral) when defining species limits. PMID:12471672

  20. MORPHO-CHEMICAL DESCRIPTION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT OCIMUM SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    KAKARAPARTHI PANDU SASTRY; RAMACHANDRAN RAMESH KUMAR; ARIGARI NIRANJAN KUMAR; GOGTE SNEHA; MARGARET ELIZABETH

    2012-01-01

    Basil is a popular medicinal and culinary herb, and its essential oils have been used extensively for many years in food products, perfumery, dental and oral products. Basil essential oils and their principal constituents were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, and mould. The essential oils obtained from aerial parts of three different species of Ocimum comprising twenty one germplasm lines were investigated for the...

  1. Chemical Variation in a Dominant Tree Species: Population Divergence, Selection and Genetic Stability across Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Julianne M O'Reilly-Wapstra; Miller, Alison M.; Hamilton, Matthew G.; Dean Williams; Naomi Glancy-Dean; Potts, Brad M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding among and within population genetic variation of ecologically important plant traits provides insight into the potential evolutionary processes affecting those traits. The strength and consistency of selection driving variability in traits would be affected by plasticity in differences among genotypes across environments (G×E). We investigated population divergence, selection and environmental plasticity of foliar plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in a dominant tree species, Eu...

  2. Portuguese Thymbra and Thymus species volatiles: chemical composition and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, A C; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G; Salgueiro, L; Miguel, M G; Faleiro, M L

    2008-01-01

    Thymbra capitata and Thymus species are commonly known in Portugal as thyme and they are currently used as culinary herbs, as well as for ornamental, aromatizing and traditional medicinal purposes. The present work reports on the state of the art on the information available on the taxonomy, ethnobotany, cell and molecular biology of the Portuguese representatives of these genera and on the chemotaxonomy and antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of their essential oils and other volatile-containing extracts. PMID:19075695

  3. Genetic diversity among Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and related species inferred from nrDNA ITS sequences

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Li; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Fan, Xing; WANG, Meng; Ding, Chun-Bang; Yang, Rui-Wu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Salvia miltiorrhiza and related species, we analyzed the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for 7 accessions of Salvia miltiorrhiza and another 23 samples from other taxa within the genus Salvia by maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses. There were 257 variation sites amounting to 40.8% of the total base pairs. All of the data revealed abundant genetic diversity in the genus Salvia. T...

  4. Anatomy of Subterranean Organs of Medicinally Used Cardueae and Related Species and its Value for Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Elisabeth; Saukel, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Numerous species of the Asteraceae, the composites, are famous for their use in both traditional and conventional medicine. Reliable anatomical descriptions of these plants and of possible adulterations provide a basis for fast identification and cheap purity controls of respective medicinal drugs by means of light microscopy. Nevertheless, detailed comparative studies on root and rhizome anatomy of valuable as well as related inconsiderable composite plants are largely missing yet. The prese...

  5. Microbial Environment Affects Innate Immunity in Two Closely Related Earthworm Species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Dvořák; Veronika Mančíková; Václav Pižl; Dana Elhottová; Marcela Silerová; Radka Roubalová; František Skanta; Petra Procházková; Martin Bilej

    2013-01-01

    Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of b...

  6. Redescription of Neocamallanus singhi (Nematoda: Camallanidae) with a note on related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, N C; Majumdar, G

    1984-01-01

    The present paper deals with the redescription of the nematode Neocamallanus singhi Ali, 1957 based on specimens collected from the fish, Channa striata from Burdwan, West Bengal, India. Comparative study of this species with other related forms described from freshwater fishes of India and Pakistan indicates that Neocamallanus bengalensis Soota et Chaturvedi, 1971 and N. ophicephali Rehana et Bilquees, 1972 are synonyms of N. singhi. PMID:6745795

  7. Macroalgae in a spring stream in Shanxi Province: composition and relation to physical and chemical variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen stream segments were investigated throughout the Xin'an Spring in Shanxi Province, China in 2004. The variation ranges in stream size, current velocity, discharge, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance were large. Twenty-two macroalgae species were found in the stream.Major divisions in terms of species numbers were Chlorophyta (59.1%), Cyanophyta (22.8%),Xanthophyta (9.1%), Rhodophyta (4.5%) and Charophyta (4.5%). The most widespread species,Cladophora rivularis (50.0%), also Oedogonium sp. (42.9%) and Spirogyra sp. (42.9%) were well represented throughout the stream, whereas another 10 species were found in only one sampling site.Total percentage cover varied from <1% to 90%. Red algae Batrachospermum acuatum and the charophytes Chara vulgaris have the highest percentage cover. Among the parameters analyzed, the stream width, specific conductance and dissolved oxygen were the ones that more closely related to the species number and percentage cover of macroalgal communities. The species number of each site was negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen content. The total percentage cover of the macroalgae was negatively correlated with the stream width and the specific conductance.

  8. Climate-Related Variation in Body Dimensions within Four Lacertid Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Volynchik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A close relationship between habitat and external morphology is widespread among many animals, including reptiles. Here, I studied the relationship between abiotic environmental conditions and body size of four lacertid species (Phoenicolacerta laevis, Ophisops elegans, Acanthodactylus boskianus, and Mesalina guttulata occurring in Israel. I examined the effect of average annual temperature and average annual precipitation on body and limb dimensions, using linear statistical models. Temperature- and precipitation-related geographic clines in body size showed the same trend among all species. Females displayed stronger phenotypic response to temperature gradient than conspecific males, suggesting a sex-specific effect of natural selection. Snout-vent length (SVL was negatively correlated with temperature, supporting Bergmann’s rule in O. elegans and in female P. laevis and A. boskianus, but not in M. guttulata. Precipitation was positively related to SVL in O. elegans and M. guttulata, and in female P. laevis and A. boskianus. The relative extremity lengths, especially hind limb segments, generally increase towards hot and dry locations, following Allen’s rule. Among the Mediterranean region species (P. laevis, O. elegans the morphological-environmental link with temperature was stronger than in desert dwellers (A. boskianus, M. guttulata, for which precipitation was the major determinant of spatial variation.

  9. Determination of Nutritional Value and Digestibility and Degradability of Twigs in Four Tree Species through Chemical and in situ (Nylon Bags Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yosefifar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted in order to determine nutritional value and digestibility and degradability of twigs in four tree species including Zelkova carpinifolia, Gleditchia caspica, Populus deltoids and Quercus castanaefolia through chemical and in situ techniques using 3 fistulated sheep in National Research Institute for Animal Science, IRAN. The experiment conducted based on Randomized Complete Block Design and obtained data were analyzed by software SAS and Neway. Chemical compounds (crude protein (CP, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF, Ether Extract (EE, Ash, Crude Fiber (CF, NFC(Non Fiber Carbohydrate, Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE and organic material (OM and degradation (dry matter and protein were determined. Amount of crude protein for 4 species are as follow Z. carpinifolia (11%, G. caspica (15.4%, P. deltoids (10.3% and Q. castanaefolia (9.5%, also amount of crude fiber in these trees are respectively 32.7, 18.6, 13.9 and 22.9%. Survey conducted on species’ degradation and on amounts of dry matter and protein which disappear after 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Results of degradation in dry matter and protein showed that extent of degradation has been an uptrend over time of incubation and it follows a similar trend at all times. The most degradation of dry matter (80.6% and protein (91.6% are related to G. caspica and the least degradation of dry matter (36% and protein (38.4% are related to Q. castanaefolia. Results showed that as a replacement or a complementary for alfalfa, the four considered tree species can provide some parts of food requirements by livestock through a correct programming.

  10. Description and evaluation of the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Emmons

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4 is an offline global chemical transport model particularly suited for studies of the troposphere. The updates of the model from its previous version MOZART-2 are described, including an expansion of the chemical mechanism to include more detailed hydrocarbon chemistry and bulk aerosols. Online calculations of a number of processes, such as dry deposition, emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes and photolysis frequencies, are now included. Results from an eight-year simulation (2000–2007 are presented and evaluated. The MOZART-4 source code and standard input files are available for download from the NCAR Community Data Portal (http://cdp.ucar.edu.

  11. Chemical Composition and Antigerminative Activity of the Essential Oils from Five Salvia Species

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo De Feo; Enrica De Falco; Emilia Mancini; Graziana Roscigno; Laura De Martino

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Salvia africana L., Salvia elegans Vahl, Salvia greggii A. Gray, Salvia mellifera Green and Salvia munzii Epling, cultivated in Eboli (Salerno, Southern Italy), was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analyses. In all, 88 compounds were identified, 54 for S. africana, accounting for 95.4% of the total oil, 55 for S. elegans (92.9%), 50 for S. greggii (96.9%), 54 for S. mellifera (90.4%) and 47 for S. munzii (97.5%), respectively. In S. africana,t...

  12. [Relativity of commercial specification of Menthae Herba based on chemical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dan; Zhao, Ming; Shao, Yang; Ouyang, Zhen; Peng, Hua-sheng; Han Bang-xing; Zhang, Wei-wan-qi; Gu, Xue-mei

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare the differences of 35 Menthae Herba samples collected on the market and at producing areas, the contents of six total terpenoids, the essential oil and chromatographic fingerprints were analyzed, which provided evidences for drawing up the commodity specifications and grading criteria of Menthae Herba. GC-MS method was used to analyze the chemical constituents of 35 different samples. The chromatographic fingerprints obtained by using GC were then evaluated by similarity analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The relativity between the content of six terpenoids and the essential oil were studied. In this study, the chemical profiles of 35 samples from different producing areas had significant disparity. All samples collected in the report could be categorized into four chemical types, L-menthol, pulegone, carvone and L-menthone, but the chemical profiles had no relationship with the areas. The chromatographic fingerprints of the samples from different types were dissimilar, while the different producing areas were difficult to be separated. It was indicated that the content of volatile oil was positively correlated with the content of L-menthol and the sum of six total terpenoids. The content of the essential oil, L-menthol and the sum of six total terpenoids of Menthae Herba were considered as one of the commercial specifications and grading criteria. These results in the research could be helpful to draw up the commercial specification and grading criteria of Menthae Herba from a view of chemical information.

  13. Differential water mite parasitism, phenoloxidase activity, and resistance to mites are unrelated across pairs of related damselfly species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia J Mlynarek

    Full Text Available Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five "species pairs", or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity. Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species' relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity.

  14. Chemical Response of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi Against Grazing by Three Species of Zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Lin-Xi; Li, Yue; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Wei-Dong; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the toxicity of Karenia mikimotoi toward three model grazers, the cladoceran Moina mongolica, the copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei, and the crustacean Artemia salina, and explored its chemical response upon zooplankton grazing. An induction experiment, where K. mikimotoi was exposed to grazers or waterborne cues from the mixed cultures revealed that K. mikimotoi might be toxic or nutritionally inadequate toward the three grazers. In general, direct exposure to the three grazers induced the production of hemolytic toxins and the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Both EPA and the hemolytic toxins from K. mikimotoi decreased the survival rate of the three grazers. In addition, the survival rates of M. mongolica, P. annandalei, and A. salina in the presence of induced K. mikimotoi that had previously been exposed to a certain grazer were lower than their counterparts caused by fresh K. mikimotoi, suggesting that exposure to some grazers might increase the toxicity of K. mikimotoi. The chemical response and associated increased resistance to further grazing suggested that K. mikimotoi could produce deterrents to protect against grazing by zooplankton and that the substances responsible might be hemolytic toxins and EPA. PMID:25523905

  15. Chemical composition of essential oil of Senecio coincyi, an endemic species of the Central Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal, Carlos; Martínez García, Felipe; Paz Arraiza, María; Guerrero García, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil has been studied of leaves of Senecio coincyi Rouy, an endemic species of Spain restricted to a very small area of the Central Iberian Peninsula. Samples from five locations were obtained by hydrodistillation and extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compound was 1-tridecene (28.1 +/- 8.5%). The presence of unsaturated hydrocarbons (1-undecene, 1-dodecene and 1-tridecene) seems to indicate a chemotaxonomic relationship between Senecio coincyi and S. congestus. PMID:21366061

  16. The relations between Cs-137, unsupported Pb-210 and chemical properties in forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to research the relations between the activities of radionuclides and soil chemical properties, we measured Cs-137, unsupported Pb-210 activities and some soil chemical properties, and compared. The study site, Otyouzu basin, is mainly covered with Hinoki (Japanese cypress) stands. The 16 samples was sampled at 10m intervals with a core sampler. The concentration of Cs-137, unsupported Pb-210 in soils, and other chemical properties of soil are measured and compared each other. As chemical properties of soil, ECEC, Carbon contents (C), Fed, Feo, Fet, clay contents (clay), pH(H2O), P-t, P-org, P-ava were measured. And, from these datum, Feo/Fed, (Fed-Feo)/Fet, P-ava/P-t, C/P-org were calculated. The Correlation Coefficients (C.C.) between both radionuclide and carbon contents is relatively high. Although there were no correlations between contents of each from of phosphorus, C.C. between both radionuclide activities and C/P-org, P-ava/P-t were relatively high. It may be dew to the uneven distributions of some elements or nutrients in forest soil. So it may suggest that the concentration of Cs-137 and unsupported Pb-210 cannot be used as the indices that directly indicate the contents of some elements or nutrients except carbon contents. However, the concentration of two radionuclides may be used as indirect indices such as P-ava/P-t, C/P-org, (Fed-Feo)/Fet. These indices can give the information about chemical reactions occur in soils. (author)

  17. Mimicking brain tissues by doping scatterers into gelatin tissue phantoms and determination of chemical species responsible for NMPPAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Sudhir; Cullum, Brian M.

    2012-06-01

    It has been shown that non-resonant multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy (NMPPAS) has a great potential to be used as a high resolution surgical guidance technique during brain tumor surgery due to its ability of non-invasive or minimally invasive tumor differentiation. However, for experimental purposes associated with method validation, the use of real tissues is not always ideal because of issues such as availability, safety, storage, chemical doping, necessary control of size and shape, etc. To overcome these issues, tissue phantoms made from animal tissues and/or biochemical constituents, are often employed for such analyses. This work demonstrates the ability to develop and characterize gelatin based tissue phantoms with comparable optical and acoustic properties to real tissues by doping the phantoms with a scattering substance, 0.3 μm diameter Al2O3 particles. Using these phantoms, light scattering coefficients (μs) of 39 cm-1 have been generated, which are comparable to real brain tissue, thus making them a great alternative to real tissue for validation studies. In addition, this work also investigates the non-fluorescent species NAD+ found in the tissues, to evaluate its potential for being detected by NMPPAS. NMPPAS spectra of NAD+ shows a very promising beginning to determine other chemical species such as flavins, collagen, tryptophan, etc responsible for NMPPAS spectral signatures, associated with tumorogenesis.

  18. Distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jingliang; Wang Renmin; Huang Bin; Lin Chan; Wang Yu [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Pan Xuejun, E-mail: xjpan@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were studied in various tissues of wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China. In muscle tissue, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-cumylphenol, 4-nonlyphenol and bisphenol A were detected in fish from each sampling site, with maximal concentrations of 4.6, 4.4, 18.9 and 83.5 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. Steroids (estrone, 17{beta}-estradiol 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol and estriol) were found at lower levels (<11.3 ng/g dw) and less frequently in muscle samples. The highest concentrations of steroids and phenols were found in liver, followed by those in gill and the lowest concentration was found in muscle. The field bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of phenols were calculated in fish species ranged from 18 to 97. Moreover, the measured tissue concentrations were utilized in order to estimate water concentration of steroids (4.4-18.0 ng/L). These results showed that steroidal and phenolic EDCs were likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Highlights: > We assess the occurrence of EDCs in wild fish from Dianchi Lake, China. > We investigate the distribution of steroidal and phenolic EDCs in fish tissues. > We estimate the bioaccumulation of wild fish to steroidal and phenolic EDCs. > Steroidal and phenolic EDCs are likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Contaminants of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish.

  19. Federal agencies active in chemical industry-related research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.

  20. Accumulation of radium in relation to some chemical analogues in Dicranopteris linearis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, J.H., E-mail: jhchao@mx.nthu.edu.t [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chuang, C.Y. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-15

    This study elucidates the uptake and accumulation of radium in the field-growing fern Dicranopteris linearis by relating the radium concentration to some potential chemical analogues, including alkaline earth metals, rare earth elements, and some important heavy metals. Time-dependent accumulation of radium and these chemical analogues for D. linearis were described by the {sup 228}Th/{sup 228}Ra activity ratio, an index for inferring plant age. The correlation between radium and these elements was assessed by statistical analysis and used as a reference to elucidate the uptake and accumulation of radium in relation to the chemical analogues. Analytical and statistical results showed that the concentrations of alkaline earth metals (except for Mg) rare earth elements and some heavy metals in D. linearis increased linearly with plant age. These elements, exhibiting a similar accumulation pattern to radium and significant correlation coefficients with radium, were considered as the chemical analogues to radium. Additionally, the plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for radium and most of these analogues in D. linearis exceeded 1, consistent with the definition of hyper-accumulator plants.

  1. Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Jiří; Mančíková, Veronika; Pižl, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Silerová, Marcela; Roubalová, Radka; Skanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Bilej, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs) in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

  2. Binding site turnover produces pervasive quantitative changes in transcription factor binding between closely related Drosophila species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K Bradley

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in gene expression play an important role in evolution, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying regulatory evolution are poorly understood. Here we compare genome-wide binding of the six transcription factors that initiate segmentation along the anterior-posterior axis in embryos of two closely related species: Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila yakuba. Where we observe binding by a factor in one species, we almost always observe binding by that factor to the orthologous sequence in the other species. Levels of binding, however, vary considerably. The magnitude and direction of the interspecies differences in binding levels of all six factors are strongly correlated, suggesting a role for chromatin or other factor-independent forces in mediating the divergence of transcription factor binding. Nonetheless, factor-specific quantitative variation in binding is common, and we show that it is driven to a large extent by the gain and loss of cognate recognition sequences for the given factor. We find only a weak correlation between binding variation and regulatory function. These data provide the first genome-wide picture of how modest levels of sequence divergence between highly morphologically similar species affect a system of coordinately acting transcription factors during animal development, and highlight the dominant role of quantitative variation in transcription factor binding over short evolutionary distances.

  3. Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Jiří; Mančíková, Veronika; Pižl, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Silerová, Marcela; Roubalová, Radka; Skanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Bilej, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs) in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins. PMID:24223917

  4. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  5. Comparative genomic analysis reveals evidence of two novel Vibrio species closely related to V. cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brettin Thomas S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years genome sequencing has been used to characterize new bacterial species, a method of analysis available as a result of improved methodology and reduced cost. Included in a constantly expanding list of Vibrio species are several that have been reclassified as novel members of the Vibrionaceae. The description of two putative new Vibrio species, Vibrio sp. RC341 and Vibrio sp. RC586 for which we propose the names V. metecus and V. parilis, respectively, previously characterized as non-toxigenic environmental variants of V. cholerae is presented in this study. Results Based on results of whole-genome average nucleotide identity (ANI, average amino acid identity (AAI, rpoB similarity, MLSA, and phylogenetic analysis, the new species are concluded to be phylogenetically closely related to V. cholerae and V. mimicus. Vibrio sp. RC341 and Vibrio sp. RC586 demonstrate features characteristic of V. cholerae and V. mimicus, respectively, on differential and selective media, but their genomes show a 12 to 15% divergence (88 to 85% ANI and 92 to 91% AAI compared to the sequences of V. cholerae and V. mimicus genomes (ANI Vibrio sp. RC341 and Vibrio sp. RC586 share 2104 ORFs (59% and 2058 ORFs (56% with the published core genome of V. cholerae and 2956 (82% and 3048 ORFs (84% with V. mimicus MB-451, respectively. The novel species share 2926 ORFs with each other (81% Vibrio sp. RC341 and 81% Vibrio sp. RC586. Virulence-associated factors and genomic islands of V. cholerae and V. mimicus, including VSP-I and II, were found in these environmental Vibrio spp. Conclusions Results of this analysis demonstrate these two environmental vibrios, previously characterized as variant V. cholerae strains, are new species which have evolved from ancestral lineages of the V. cholerae and V. mimicus clade. The presence of conserved integration loci for genomic islands as well as evidence of horizontal gene transfer between these two new

  6. Arabidopsis transcriptional responses differentiating closely related chemicals (herbicides) and cross-species extrapolation to Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using whole genome Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChips we characterized the transcriptional response of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia 24 hours after treatment with five different herbicides. Four of them (chloransulam, imazapyr, primisulfuron, sulfometuron) inhibit acetolactate synthase (A...

  7. Natural Chemical Composition of Commercial Fish Species: Characterisation of Pangasius, Wild and Farmed Turbot and Barramundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Manthey-Karl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To comply with the relevant legal requirements and correct labelling, it is necessary for business operators and inspection authorities to know the natural characteristics of the raw material. This study gives a comprehensive overview of muscle flesh composition of farmed and wild Atlantic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus and barramundi (Lates calcarifer and of farmed pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. The proximate composition, di- and triphosphates and citric acid values are presented in order to evaluate possible indicators for a hidden treatment during processing to fillets. All moisture contents were ≤80%. Even for pangasius, protein values for deep skinned fillets of ≥18% were determined. Only small quantities of naturally occurring citric acid (up to 0.03 g·kg−1 were detectable. The lipid content was the most varying main component within the different species, ranging between 1.2% to 2.0% and 0.3% to 3.0% for farmed turbot and barramundi, respectively. Pangasius flesh had a mean lipid content of 7.8%. Trimming and separation of the red layer reduced the lipid content of the commercially sold white-flesh fillets to 2.7% to 3.5%. Fatty acids profiles, free amino acids, and minerals were analysed to show the nutritional quality of the aquaculture fish species and compared to wild turbot and barramundi. Despite some natural variation, these components can be considered as comparable.

  8. Chemical composition of particles from traditional burning of Pakistani wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Total particulate matter (TPM) emitted during burning of three types of Pakistani wood (eucalyptus camaldulensis, local name Safeeda; acacia nilotica, local name Kikar, Babul; dalbergia sissoo, Shisham, Tali) in a traditional brick stove were collected and analyzed for anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, trace metals, soluble ions and carbonaceous species. This is a first study reporting anhydrosugars in wood smoke particles emitted during traditional burning of common wood types in Pakistan. Carbonaceous species showed the highest contribution to the particulate matter. Although the total carbon (TC) contribution was similar for all burnings (64.8-70.2%), the EC/OC ratio varied significantly, from 0.2 to 0.3 for Accacia and Dalbergia to 0.7-0.8 for Eucalyptus and Wood-mix. Among inorganic constituents potassium chloride and silicon were found at levels higher than 1%. The levoglucosan concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 6.6% (average 5.6%) with the highest value for Accacia and lowest value for the wood-mix. The high levoglucosan/mannosan ratios of 20-28 were typical for hardwood. The ratio between levoglucosan and galactosan varied stronger and was found to be around 13-20 for Accacia, Eucalyptus and Wood mix, and 43 for Dalbergia. The determined levoglucosan concentrations allowed assessing the conversion factor for calculation of biomass smoke contribution to ambient particulate matter levels in Pakistan.

  9. Chemical and Biological Analyses of the Essential Oils and Main Constituents of Piper Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Laura Leon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained from leaves of Piper duckei and Piper demeraranum by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main constituents found in P. demeraranum oil were limonene (19.3% and β-elemene (33.1% and in P. duckei oil the major components found were germacrene D (14.7% and trans-caryophyllene (27.1%. P. demeraranum and P. duckei oils exhibited biological activity, with IC50 values between 15 to 76 μg mL−1 against two Leishmania species, P. duckei oil being the most active. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils on mice peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant, compared with the toxicity of pentamidine. The main mono- and sesquiterpene, limonene (IC50 = 278 μM and caryophyllene (IC50 = 96 μM, were tested against the strains of Leishmania amazonensis, and the IC50 values of these compounds were lower than those found for the essential oils of the Piper species. The HET-CAM test was used to evaluate the irritation potential of these oils as topical products, showing that these oils can be used as auxiliary medication in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with less side effects and lower costs.

  10. Pyrite oxidation by hexavalent chromium: investigation of the chemical processes by monitoring of aqueous metal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoisson, Frédéric; Mullet, Martine; Humbert, Bernard

    2005-11-15

    Pyrite, an iron sulfide, occurs in many soils and sediments, making it an important natural reductant of toxic metal pollutants. This study investigated the processes leading to aqueous Cr(VI) reduction by pyrite in a closed thermostated (25 +/- 0.1 degrees C) system and under an argon atmosphere. Synthetic pyrite suspensions were reacted with a range of Cr(VI) solutions from 0 to 7 x 10(-4) M and at pH 2-8. Metal species concentrations were continuously monitored during a period lasting approximately 20 h. Preliminary experiments carried out in acidic media without Cr(VI) have shown that some pyrite dissolution occurred. Then, metal species concentration changes with time during pyrite oxidation by Cr(VI) solutions exhibited two distinct trends depending on the complete or incomplete Cr(VI) removal. As long as chromate existed in solution, the Cr-(Ill) to Fe(lIl) ratio was found to be an effective parameter to investigate the pyrite reaction stoichiometry with Cr(VI). Experimental values close to 2 suggest that sulfur compounds with oxidation states between 0 and 2 should be formed during pyrite oxidation by Cr(VI). If Cr(VI) was completely reduced from solution, then the pyrite oxidation by Fe(lll) ions took place to generate ferrous ions. PMID:16323772

  11. Aerosol-halogen interaction: Change of physico-chemical properties of SOA by naturally released halogen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner, J.; Balzer, N.; Buxmann, J.; Grothe, H.; Krüger, H.; Platt, U.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Zetzsch, C.

    2011-12-01

    Reactive halogen species are released by various sources like photo-activated sea-salt aerosol or salt pans and salt lakes. These heterogeneous release mechanisms have been overlooked so far, although their potential of interaction with organic aerosols like Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA), Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA) or Atmospheric Humic LIke Substances (HULIS) is completely unknown. Such reactions can constitute sources of gaseous organo-halogen compounds or halogenated organic particles in the atmospheric boundary layer. To study the interaction of organic aerosols with reactive halogen species (RHS), SOA was produced from α-pinene, catechol and guaiacol using an aerosol smog-chamber. The model SOAs were characterized in detail using a variety of physico-chemical methods (Ofner et al., 2011). Those aerosols were exposed to molecular halogens in the presence of UV/VIS irradiation and to halogens, released from simulated natural halogen sources like salt pans, in order to study the complex aerosol-halogen interaction. The heterogeneous reaction of RHS with those model aerosols leads to different gaseous species like CO2, CO and small reactive/toxic molecules like phosgene (COCl2). Hydrogen containing groups on the aerosol particles are destroyed to form HCl or HBr, and a significant formation of C-Br bonds could be verified in the particle phase. Carbonyl containing functional groups of the aerosol are strongly affected by the halogenation process. While changes of functional groups and gaseous species were visible using FTIR spectroscopy, optical properties were studied using Diffuse Reflectance UV/VIS spectroscopy. Overall, the optical properties of the processed organic aerosols are significantly changed. While chlorine causes a "bleaching" of the aerosol particles, bromine shifts the maximum of UV/VIS absorption to the red end of the UV/VIS spectrum. Further physico-chemical changes were recognized according to the aerosol size-distributions or the

  12. Chromatographic speciation of Cr(III)-species, inter-species equilibrium isotope fractionation and improved chemical purification strategies for high-precision isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K K; Wielandt, D; Schiller, M; Bizzarro, M

    2016-04-22

    Chromatographic purification of chromium (Cr), which is required for high-precision isotope analysis, is complicated by the presence of multiple Cr-species with different effective charges in the acid digested sample aliquots. The differing ion exchange selectivity and sluggish reaction rates of these species can result in incomplete Cr recovery during chromatographic purification. Because of large mass-dependent inter-species isotope fractionation, incomplete recovery can affect the accuracy of high-precision Cr isotope analysis. Here, we demonstrate widely differing cation distribution coefficients of Cr(III)-species (Cr(3+), CrCl(2+) and CrCl2(+)) with equilibrium mass-dependent isotope fractionation spanning a range of ∼1‰/amu and consistent with theory. The heaviest isotopes partition into Cr(3+), intermediates in CrCl(2+) and the lightest in CrCl2(+)/CrCl3°. Thus, for a typical reported loss of ∼25% Cr (in the form of Cr(3+)) through chromatographic purification, this translates into 185 ppm/amu offset in the stable Cr isotope ratio of the residual sample. Depending on the validity of the mass-bias correction during isotope analysis, this further results in artificial mass-independent effects in the mass-bias corrected (53)Cr/(52)Cr (μ(53)Cr* of 5.2 ppm) and (54)Cr/(52)Cr (μ(54)Cr* of 13.5 ppm) components used to infer chronometric and nucleosynthetic information in meteorites. To mitigate these fractionation effects, we developed strategic chemical sample pre-treatment procedures that ensure high and reproducible Cr recovery. This is achieved either through 1) effective promotion of Cr(3+) by >5 days exposure to HNO3H2O2 solutions at room temperature, resulting in >∼98% Cr recovery for most types of sample matrices tested using a cationic chromatographic retention strategy, or 2) formation of Cr(III)-Cl complexes through exposure to concentrated HCl at high temperature (>120 °C) for several hours, resulting in >97.5% Cr recovery using a

  13. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswari, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2012-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Mentha spicata, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. In the present study, the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil (EO) and their major chemical constituents from Mentha spicata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The chemical composition of the leaf EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the EO of M. spicata contained 18 compounds. The major chemical components identified were carvone (48.60%), cis-carveol (21.30%), and limonene (11.30%). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi with LC(50) values of 62.62, 56.08, and 49.71 ppm and LC(90) values of 118.70, 110.28, and 100.99 ppm, respectively. The three major pure constituents extracted from the M. spicata leaf EO were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC(50) values of carvone, cis-carveol, and limonene appeared to be most effective against A. stephensi (LC(50) 19.33, 28.50, and 8.83 ppm) followed by A. aegypti (LC(50) 23.69, 32.88, and 12.01 ppm), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) 25.47, 35.20, and 14.07 ppm). The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A

  14. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswari, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2012-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Mentha spicata, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. In the present study, the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil (EO) and their major chemical constituents from Mentha spicata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The chemical composition of the leaf EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the EO of M. spicata contained 18 compounds. The major chemical components identified were carvone (48.60%), cis-carveol (21.30%), and limonene (11.30%). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi with LC(50) values of 62.62, 56.08, and 49.71 ppm and LC(90) values of 118.70, 110.28, and 100.99 ppm, respectively. The three major pure constituents extracted from the M. spicata leaf EO were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC(50) values of carvone, cis-carveol, and limonene appeared to be most effective against A. stephensi (LC(50) 19.33, 28.50, and 8.83 ppm) followed by A. aegypti (LC(50) 23.69, 32.88, and 12.01 ppm), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) 25.47, 35.20, and 14.07 ppm). The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A

  15. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico. PMID:22049037

  16. Transient analysis of diffusive chemical reactive species for couple stress fluid flow over vertical cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. P. RANI; G. J. REDDY; C. N. KIM

    2013-01-01

    The unsteady natural convective couple stress fluid flow over a semi-infinite vertical cylinder is analyzed for the homogeneous first-order chemical reaction effect. The couple stress fluid flow model introduces the length dependent effect based on the material constant and dynamic viscosity. Also, it introduces the biharmonic operator in the Navier-Stokes equations, which is absent in the case of Newtonian fluids. The solution to the time-dependent non-linear and coupled governing equations is carried out with an unconditionally stable Crank-Nicolson type of numerical schemes. Numerical results for the transient flow variables, the average wall shear stress, the Nusselt number, and the Sherwood number are shown graphically for both generative and destructive reactions. The time to reach the temporal maximum increases as the reaction constant K increases. The average values of the wall shear stress and the heat transfer rate decrease as K increases, while increase with the increase in the Sherwood number.

  17. Chemical composition and antifungal properties of essential oils of three Pistacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, M E; Cakir, A; Kordali, S; Zengin, H; Harmandar, M; Izumi, S; Hirata, T

    2003-02-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils obtained from the leaves of Pistacia vera, Pistacia terebinthus, Pistacia lentiscus and the resin of Pistacia lentiscus were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. alpha-Pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol were found to be the major components. The antifungal activities of the above oils and P. lentiscus resin (total, acidic and neutral fractions) against the growth of three agricultural pathogens, Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium sambucinum were evaluated. Some doses of P. terebinthus, P. vera and P. lentiscus leaf oils and total and neutral fraction of P. lentiscus resin significantly inhibited the growth of R. solani. However, all samples did not show antifungal activity against P. ultimum and F. sambucinum, but increased the growth of F. sambucinum. PMID:12628418

  18. Predicting work-related flow in the chemical industry / Erika Maree

    OpenAIRE

    Maree, Erika

    2008-01-01

    In a new world of work characterised by competitiveness, benchmarking, technological innovation and efficiency, the South African chemical industry needs to function at an optimal level to meet the demands of its stakeholders and employees. The industry needs leadership of the highest standard and an efficient, productive workforce. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between leader empowering behaviour, self-efficacy, job resources and work-related flow for empl...

  19. The chemical control of Sorghum halepense species in sunflower culture, in the Danube meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poienaru, S; Sarpe, N; Sarpe, I

    2005-01-01

    In the latest years, sunflower was cultivated in Romania on an area of 800-900 thousand hectares. On 100 or 150 thousand hectares we find it cultivated also in agricultural farms in the Danube Meadow, because sunflower has favorable conditions on these soils, productions exceeding sometimes over 4000 kg/ha, of course, in irrigation conditions. In the Danube Meadow, the first experiments on Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass) species were performed by Fane Popa and colleagues (1986), at the agricultural station of Braila, using the herbicide Fusilade. In our experiments, the herbicide fusillade was compared with different more recently synthesized herbicides: Super, Pantera, Agil, Select, with the specific purpose of identifying the most favorable dose.

  20. Multilocus phylogeny and MALDI-TOF analysis of the plant pathogenic species Alternaria dauci and relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Sophie; Madrid, Hugo; Gerrits Van Den Ende, Bert;

    2013-01-01

    The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species-complexes...... of morphologically similar taxa. This study aimed to assess if strains of four closely-related plant pathogens, i.e., accurately Alternaria dauci (ten strains), Alternaria porri (six), Alternaria solani (ten), and Alternaria tomatophila (ten) could be identified using multilocus phylogenetic analysis and Matrix......-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) profiling of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on three loci, i.e., the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rRNA, and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) and Alternaria major antigen (Alt a 1) genes. Phylogenetic...

  1. Development of Microsatellite Markers for Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae and Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to analyze genetic diversity within Lagerstroemia cultivars and related species. Methods and Results: Using simple sequence repeat (SSR-enriched libraries, 11 species-specific polymorphic genomic SSRs were developed from L. indica ‘Hong Die Fei Wu’. All primers were tested on 48 L. indica individuals from China, the United States, and France. The primers amplified four to 12 alleles per locus, including di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1875 to 0.7609 and 0.2836 to 0.8385, respectively. The primers were also highly cross-transferrable to L. subcostata, L. limii, L. fauriei, L. caudata, and L. speciosa. Conclusions: The new primers will enlarge the bank of SSRs available to genetic research of Lagerstroemia. These SSR markers will facilitate population genetics and molecular marker-assisted selection of L. indica.

  2. Chemical Constituents and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharides from Four Typical Bamboo Species Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Zhang Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to find bamboo leaves with high contents of bioactive polysaccharides, 32 samples were chosen to analyze their polysaccharide content by GC and sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetric assays. Purified polysaccharides (BLPS were separated from the four varieties P. nigra (Lodd. Munro (PN, P. vivax McClure (PV, Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Fenzi Makino (CQ, and P. bambussoides cv. Tanakae (PB by ultrasound extraction, solution precipitation, ion exchange resin, DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. BLPS structural characterization was accomplished by HPLC-GPC, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and NaIO4-HIO4 oxidation reactions. The results showed that the total polysaccharides of the bamboo leaves in samples 1–32 ranged between 1.4% and 5.4%, Samples No. 29–No. 32 (PN, PV, CQ, and PB contained 2–3 fold more polysaccharides than No. 1~No. 28 among the 32 different species, particularly the content of galactose was in a range of 21.5%–34.1% for these four typical bamboo species leaves, which was also more than 2–3 fold higher than in No. 1–No. 28. Sugar analysis indicated that PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, CQ-PBLPS-1 and PB-PBLPS-1 from the four varieties were homogeneous polysaccharides with molecular weights of 2.04 × 104, 1.15 × 104, 8.75 × 104 and 1.48 × 104 Da, respectively. PB-PBLPS-1 was a mixture of α-galactopyranose and β-d-glucopyranose linkages with α-(1→6 or β-(1→6glycosidic bonds, while PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, and CQ-PBLPS-1 had α galactopyranose linkages with α-(1→6 glycosidic bonds.

  3. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Salmonella species Isolated from Beef and its Related Samples in Techiman Municipality of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Adzitey; Joseph Kwame Nsoah; Gabriel Ayum Teye

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella species are important foodborne pathogens that have been implicated in a number of foodborne outbreaks. A total of 240 beef and its related samples obtained from the Techiman Municipality of Ghana were screened using the conventional method in the Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM)-USA. The overall prevalence of Salmonella species was 57.08%. The prevalence of Salmonella species ranged from 33.30% to 75.00% in the meat and its related samples (...

  4. Modeling of photolysis rates over Europe: impact on chemical gaseous species and aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Real

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of photolysis rate calculation on European air composition and air quality monitoring. In particular, the impact of cloud parametrisation and the impact of aerosols on photolysis rates are analysed. Photolysis rates are simulated using the Fast-JX photolysis scheme and gas and aerosol concentrations over Europe are simulated with the regional model Polair3D of the Polyphemus platform. The photolysis scheme is first use to update the clear sky tabulation used in the previous Polair3D version. Important differences in photolysis rates are simulated, mainly due to updated cross-sections in the Fast-JX scheme. In the previous Polair3D version, clouds were taken into account by multiplying the clear-sky photolysis rates using a correction factor. In a second stage, the impact of clouds is taken into account more accurately by simulating them directly in the photolysis scheme. Differences in photolysis rates inside clouds are as high as differences between simulations with and without clouds. Outside clouds, the differences are small. The largest difference in gas concentrations is simulated for OH with a mean increase of its tropospheric burden of 4 to 5%.

    To take into account the impact of aerosols on photolysis rates, Polair3D and Fast-JX are coupled. Photolysis rates are updated every hour. Large impact on photolysis rates is observed at the ground, decreasing with altitude. The aerosol species that impact the most photolysis rates is dust especially in South Europe. Strong impact is also observed over anthropogenic emission regions (Paris, The Po and the Ruhr Valley where mainly nitrate and sulphate reduced the incoming radiation. Differences in photolysis rates lead to changes in gas concentrations, with the largest impact simulated for OH and NO concentrations. At the ground, monthly mean concentrations of both species are reduced over Europe by around 10 to 14% and their tropospheric burden by around 10

  5. Species richness and relative abundance of breeding birds in forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, C.O.; Twedt, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the Vicksburg Field Research Station of the National Wetlands Research Center initiated research on the ecology of migratory birds within forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). The MAV was historically a nearly contiguous bottomland hardwood forest, however, only remnants remain. These remnants are fragmented and often influenced by drainage projects, silviculture, agriculture, and urban development. Our objectives are to assess species richness and relative abundance, and to relate these to the size, quality, and composition of forest stands. Species richness and relative abundance were estimated for 53 randomly selected forest sites using 1 to 8 point counts per site, depending on the size of the forest fragment. However, statistical comparisons among sites will be restricted to an equal number ofpoint counts within the sites being compared. Point counts, lasting five minutes, were conducted from 11 May to 29 June 1992, foltowing Ralph, Sauer, and Droege (Point Count Standards; memo dated 9 March 1992). Vegetation was measured at the first three points on each site using a modification of the methods employed by Martin and Roper (Condor 90: 5 1-57; 1988). During 252 counts, 7 1 species were encountered, but only 62 species were encountered within a 50-m radius of point center. The mean number of species encountered within 50 m of a point, was 7.3 (s.d. = 2.7) and the mean number of individuals was 11.2 (s.d. = 4.2). The mean number of species detected at any distance was 9.6 (s.d, = 2.8) and the mean number of individuals was 15.6 (s.d. = 7.9). The most frequently encountered warblers in the MAV were Prothonotary Warbler and Northern Parula. Rarely encountered warblers were American Redstart and Worm-eating Warbler. The genera, Quercus, Ulmus, Carya, and Celtis were each encountered at 80 or more of the 152 points at which vegetation was sampled. Species most frequentlyencountered were: sugarberry (Celtis laevagata), water hickory (Caqa

  6. Chemical Species, Micromorphology, and XRD Fingerprint Analysis of Tibetan Medicine Zuotai Containing Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cen; Yang, Hongxia; Xiao, Yuancan; Zhandui; Sanglao; Wang, Zhang; Ladan, Duojie; Bi, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    Zuotai (gTso thal) is one of the famous drugs containing mercury in Tibetan medicine. However, little is known about the chemical substance basis of its pharmacodynamics and the intrinsic link of different samples sources so far. Given this, energy dispersive spectrometry of X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to assay the elements, micromorphology, and phase composition of nine Zuotai samples from different regions, respectively; the XRD fingerprint features of Zuotai were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis. EDX result shows that Zuotai contains Hg, S, O, Fe, Al, Cu, and other elements. SEM and AFM observations suggest that Zuotai is a kind of ancient nanodrug. Its particles are mainly in the range of 100–800 nm, which commonly further aggregate into 1–30 μm loosely amorphous particles. XRD test shows that β-HgS, S8, and α-HgS are its main phase compositions. XRD fingerprint analysis indicates that the similarity degrees of nine samples are very high, and the results of multivariate statistical analysis are broadly consistent with sample sources. The present research has revealed the physicochemical characteristics of Zuotai, and it would play a positive role in interpreting this mysterious Tibetan drug. PMID:27738409

  7. Chemical Species, Micromorphology, and XRD Fingerprint Analysis of Tibetan Medicine Zuotai Containing Mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cen Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zuotai (gTso thal is one of the famous drugs containing mercury in Tibetan medicine. However, little is known about the chemical substance basis of its pharmacodynamics and the intrinsic link of different samples sources so far. Given this, energy dispersive spectrometry of X-ray (EDX, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to assay the elements, micromorphology, and phase composition of nine Zuotai samples from different regions, respectively; the XRD fingerprint features of Zuotai were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis. EDX result shows that Zuotai contains Hg, S, O, Fe, Al, Cu, and other elements. SEM and AFM observations suggest that Zuotai is a kind of ancient nanodrug. Its particles are mainly in the range of 100–800 nm, which commonly further aggregate into 1–30 μm loosely amorphous particles. XRD test shows that β-HgS, S8, and α-HgS are its main phase compositions. XRD fingerprint analysis indicates that the similarity degrees of nine samples are very high, and the results of multivariate statistical analysis are broadly consistent with sample sources. The present research has revealed the physicochemical characteristics of Zuotai, and it would play a positive role in interpreting this mysterious Tibetan drug.

  8. CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITY DIFFERENT YEAST SPECIES ON IDENTICAL SUBSTRATE IN WINE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rizling vlašský is the second most important variety in Slovakia. The science of wine production includes a summary of knowledge and experience in the field of grape growing and wine making, or the production of different types of wines using specific methods of production. Wine quality is the result of the interaction between yeast, bacteria and microscopic funguses. In this research, we studied the effects of active dry wine yeasts on chemical, physical and sensory parameters in wine production. We have applied five kinds of yeasts (FERMIVIN, FERMIVIN PDV, FERMICRU AR2, FERMIFLOR and FERMICRU VB1. It can be concluded that the application of active dry wine yeasts is beneficial for the production of rizling vlašský. The best showing were yeasts FERMIFLOR and FERMIVIN PDM. In the last sample where they were left the original yeasts the varietal aroma was preserved. It can be noted that the wine was right technologically produced and all wines were harmonious with a pleasant fresh taste.

  9. [Studying the influence of some reactive oxygen species on physical and chemical parameters of blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martusevich, A K; Martusevich, A A; Solov'eva, A G; Peretyagin, S P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the dynamics of blood physical and chemical parameters when blood specimens were processed by singlet oxygen in vitro. Our experiments were executed with whole blood specimens of healthy people (n=10). Each specimen was divided into five separate portions of 5 ml. The first portion was a control (without any exposures). The second one was processed by an oxygen-ozone mixture (at ozone concentration of 500 mcg/l, the third portion--by oxygen, and the fourth and fifth ones were processed by a gas mixture with singlet oxygen (50 and 100% of generator power). In blood samples after processing we studied the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase, erythrocyte and plasma levels of glucose and lactate, acid-base balance and the partial pressure of gases in blood. It was found out, that blood processing by singlet oxygen leads to optimization of energy, detoxication and antioxidant enzymes functioning with changes in plasma and erythrocyte level of glucose and lactate, normalization of blood gases level and acid-base balance. Our results show, that the effect of singlet oxygen on enzyme activity is more pronounced than exposure to an oxygen-ozone gas mixture. PMID:25702489

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from four Ruta species growing in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddouchi, Farah; Chaouche, Tarik Mohammed; Zaouali, Yosr; Ksouri, Riadh; Attou, Amina; Benmansour, Abdelhafid

    2013-11-01

    Antimicrobial properties of plants essential oils have been investigated in order to suggest them as potential tools to overcome the microbial drug resistance and the increasing incidence of food borne diseases problems. The aim of this research is to study the antibacterial and antifungal effects of four traditional plants essential oils, Ruta angustifolia, Ruta chalepensis, Ruta graveolens and Ruta tuberculata, against standard bacterial and fungal strains. The chemical compounds of the oils were examined by GC/MS. Results revealed a powerful antifungal activity against filamentous fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium herbarum are the most sensitive strains to these oils with MIC values less than 3.5 μg ml(-1) for certain oils, reaching 7.8 μg ml(-1) for other. GC/MS essay exhibited ketones as the most abundant constituent of these oils except for R. tuberculata essential oil which has a completely different composition, monoterpenes alcohols being the most abundant. These compositions explain their potential antifungal activity.

  11. Chemical Composition, Larvicidal and Cytotoxic Activities of the Essential Oils from two Bauhinia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leôncio M. de Sousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils obtained by hydrodistilation from leaves of Bauhinia pulchella Benth. and Bauhinia ungulata L. were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components of B. pulchella essential oil were identified as a -pinene (23.9%, caryophyllene oxide (22.4% and b -pinene (12.2%, while in the B. ungulata essential oil were caryophyllene oxide (23.0%, (E-caryophyllene (14.5% and a -copaene (7.2%. The essential oils were subsequently evaluated for their larvicidal and cytotoxic activities. Larval bioassay against Aedes aegypti of B. pulchella and B. ungulata essential oils showed LC 50 values of 105.9 ± 1.5 and 75.1 ± 2.8 m g/mL, respectively. The essential oils were evaluated against four human cancer cells lines: HL-60 (pro-myelocytic leukemia, MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma, NCI-H292 (lung carcinoma and HEP-2 ( cervical adenocarcinoma, showing IC 50 values in the range of 9.9 to 53.1 m g/mL. This is the first report on chemical composition of essential from leaves of B. pulchella and on larvicidal and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils.

  12. Relative mutagenic effects of ionizing radiations and alkylating chemicals in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken on the relative mutagenic effects of three ionizing radiations (X-rays, gamma rays, fast neutrons) and five alkylating chemicals (DES, EMS, MMS, NMH, MNNG) in rice. Observations on seed germination, seedling survival, seedling height, seed fertility and chlorophyll deficient chimeras were made in the M1 generation. The M2 generation was grown as M1 ear progenies. Chlorophyll mutation frequency, segregation percentage and mutant spectrum were estimated. The mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency were also worked out. Radiations were more effective than chemical mutagens. Mutagenic effectiveness decreased with increase in doses of mutagens. This was due to the failure of mutation frequency to increase proportionately with increase in mutagen doses. Mutagenic efficiency was higher for radiations when estimated on the basis of lethality and injury whereas, based on sterility, chemical mutagens were more efficient. Mutagenic efficiency also decreased with increase in doses of mutagens. The most effective as well as efficient radiation was fast neutrons. Among chemical mutagens the most effective was NMH whereas the most efficient was EMS. (author)

  13. MLPA diagnostics of complex microbial communities: relative quantification of bacterial species in oral biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefework, Zewdu; Pham, Chi L; Prosperi, Anja C; Entius, Mark M; Errami, Abdellatif; van Spanning, Rob J M; Zaura, Egija; Ten Cate, Jacob M; Crielaard, Wim

    2008-12-01

    A multitude of molecular methods are currently used for identification and characterization of oral biofilms or for community profiling. However, multiplex PCR techniques that are able to routinely identify several species in a single assay are not available. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) identifies up to 45 unique fragments in a single tube PCR. Here we report a novel use of MLPA in the relative quantification of targeted microorganisms in a community of oral microbiota. We designed 9 species specific probes for: Actinomyces gerencseriae, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Rothia dentocariosa, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Veillonella parvula; and genus specific probes for selected oral Streptococci and Lactobacilli based on their 16S rDNA sequences. MLPA analysis of DNA pooled from the strains showed the expected specific MLPA products. Relative quantification of a serial dilution of equimolar DNA showed that as little as 10 pg templates can be detected with clearly discernible signals. Moreover, a 2 to 7% divergence in relative signal ratio of amplified probes observed from normalized peak area values suggests MLPA can be a cheaper alternative to using qPCR for quantification. We observed 2 to 6 fold fluctuations in signal intensities of MLPA products in DNAs isolated from multispecies biofilms grown in various media for various culture times. Furthermore, MLPA analyses of DNA isolated from saliva obtained from different donors gave a varying number and intensity of signals. This clearly shows the usefulness of MLPA in a quantitative description of microbial shifts.

  14. Chemical composition and biological activity of four salvia essential oils and individual compounds against two species of mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Blythe, Eugene K; Ali, Zulfiqar; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-21

    The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four species of genus Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds identified from Salvia species essential oils were as follows: 1,8-cineole (71.7%), α-pinene (5.1%), camphor (4.4%), and β-pinene (3.8%) in Salvia apiana; borneol (17.4%), β-eudesmol (10.4%), bornyl acetate (5%), and guaiol (4.8%) in Salvia elegans; bornyl acetate (11.4%), β-caryophyllene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (13.5%), and spathulenol (7.0%) in Salvia leucantha; α-thujene (25.8%), viridiflorol (20.4%), β-thujene (5.7%), and camphor (6.4%) in Salvia officinalis. In biting-deterrent bioassays, essential oils of S. leucantha and S. elegans at 10 μg/cm(2) showed activity similar to that of DEET (97%, N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) in two species of mosquitoes, whereas the activities of S. officinalis and S. apiana essential oils were lower than those of the other oils or DEET. Pure compounds β-eudesmol and guaiol showed biting-deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2), whereas the activity of 13-epi-manool, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, bornyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene was significantly lower than that of β-eudesmol, guaiol, or DEET. All essential oils showed larvicidal activity except that of S. apiana, which was inactive at the highest dose of 125 ppm against both mosquito species. On the basis of 95% CIs, all of the essential oils showed higher toxicity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus than in Aedes aegypti. The essential oil of S. leucantha with an LC50 value of 6.2 ppm showed highest toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus.

  15. Chemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Leaf Essential Oils of Six Species of Annonaceae from Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Palazzo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaf essential oils of six members of the Annonaceae from Monteverde, Costa Rica (Desmopsis bibracteata, Desmopsis microcarpa, Guatteria costaricensis, Guatteria diospyroides, Guatteria oliviformis, and Unonopsis costaricensis have been obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS in order to compare and contrast the volatile chemical compositions of these species. The essential oils were screened for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 and Hs 578T human breast tumor cells, and antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The principal components of D. bibracteata were germacrene D (29.9%, (E-caryophyllene (11.5%, and δ-cadinene (9.2%. D. microcarpa was dominated by bicyclogermacrene (45.5% and germacrene D (28.3%. G. costaricensis was rich in α- and β-pinenes (36.3% and 48.2%, respectively. The leaf oil of G. diospyroides was composed largely of germacrene D (46.4%, (Z-β-ocimene (17.4%, (E-β-ocimene (12.0%, and (E-caryophyllene (10.3%. Germacrene D dominated the leaf oil of G. oliviformis (73.3% as well as U. costaricensis (62.9%. The leaf essential oils of D. bibracteata, G. diospyroides, G. oliviformis, and U. costaricensis, showed notable cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 cells ( ³ 99% kill at 100 m g/mL but only D. bibracteata leaf oil was cytotoxic to Hs 578T. D. bibracteata, G. diospyroides, G. oliviformis, and U. costaricensis leaf oils showed marginal antibacterial activity against B. cereus (MIC = 156 m g/mL. A cluster analysis of Guatteria species, based on the abundant essential oil components, has revealed a spathulenol-rich cluster (Brazilian species and a germacrene D cluster (Costa Rican species.

  16. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Achillea moschata Wulfen, an Endemic Species from the Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Vitalini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerial parts of Achillea moschata Wulfen (Asteraceae growing wild in the Italian Rhaetian Alps were investigated to describe, for the first time, their phenolic content, as well as to characterize the essential oil. Inspection of the metabolic profile combining HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS data showed that the methanol extract contained glycosylated flavonoids with luteolin and apigenin as the main aglycones. Among them, the major compound was 7-O-glucosyl apigenin. Caffeoyl derivates were other phenolics identified. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation and investigated by GC/FID and GC/MS showed camphor, 1,8-cineole, and bornylacetate as the main constituents. The antioxidant capacity of three different extracts with increasing polarity and of the essential oil was evaluated by employing ABTS·+ and DPPH· radical scavenging assays. The methanolic extract was the only significantly effective sample against both synthetic radicals. All samples were also tested against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial species using the disk diffusion assay. The non-polar extracts (dichloromethane and petroleum ether and the essential oil possessed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity expressed according to inhibition zone diameter (8–24 mm.

  17. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Achillea moschata Wulfen, an Endemic Species from the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalini, Sara; Madeo, Moira; Tava, Aldo; Iriti, Marcello; Vallone, Lisa; Avato, Pinarosa; Cocuzza, Clementina Elvezia; Simonetti, Paolo; Argentieri, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Aerial parts of Achillea moschata Wulfen (Asteraceae) growing wild in the Italian Rhaetian Alps were investigated to describe, for the first time, their phenolic content, as well as to characterize the essential oil. Inspection of the metabolic profile combining HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS data showed that the methanol extract contained glycosylated flavonoids with luteolin and apigenin as the main aglycones. Among them, the major compound was 7-O-glucosyl apigenin. Caffeoyl derivates were other phenolics identified. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation and investigated by GC/FID and GC/MS showed camphor, 1,8-cineole, and bornylacetate as the main constituents. The antioxidant capacity of three different extracts with increasing polarity and of the essential oil was evaluated by employing ABTS·+ and DPPH· radical scavenging assays. The methanolic extract was the only significantly effective sample against both synthetic radicals. All samples were also tested against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial species using the disk diffusion assay. The non-polar extracts (dichloromethane and petroleum ether) and the essential oil possessed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity expressed according to inhibition zone diameter (8-24 mm). PMID:27347915

  18. The relative sensitivity of macrophyte and algal species to herbicides and fungicides: An analysis using species sensitivity distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giddings, J.; Arts, G.H.P.; Hommen, U.

    2013-01-01

    Lemna spp. are the standard test species representing aquatic macrophytes in the current risk assessment schemes for herbicides and plant growth regulators in the European Union and North America. At a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) 2008 workshop on Aquatic Macrophyte Risk

  19. Secondary metabolites characteristic of Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium steckii and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrom, J.; Christophersen, C.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2000-01-01

    Two new carboxylic acids, tanzawaic acid E (1) and F (2) in addition to the unknown benzopyran 3,7-dimethyl-1,8-dihydroxy6-methoxy-isochroman (3), and the known mycotoxin 3,7-dimethyl-8-hydroxy-6-methoxyisochroman (4) were produced by a marine-derived strain of Penicillium steckii isolated from...... an unidentified tunicate. The carboxylic acids and the benzopyran were identified on the basis of mass spectrometry, and one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques. The structures 1 and 2 resemble tanzawaic acid A-D, previously isolated from Penicillium citrinum. Screening of isolates of species related...

  20. Assessment of Candida species colonization and denture-related stomatitis in complete denture wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Haghighi, Neda Nejabat; Rajaee, Naeem; Pakshir, Keyvan; Tarazooie, Bita; Vojdani, Mahroo; Sedaghat, Farzaneh; Vosoghi, Mehrdad

    2011-02-01

    Candida species are considered the primary causative agents of denture stomatitis, but their role in colonization and disease in denture wearers remains undefined. In this study, we investigated risk factors associated with progression to Candida-related denture stomatitis in patients using complete dentures, and we genetically identified Candida isolates associated with disease and colonization. We recruited 114 retirement home residents for this study, from whom oral mucosa samples were collected and cultured following oral cavity exams. Morphologic analysis was used to identify potential yeast-positive cultures, which were then characterized further by RFLP analysis. C. albicans was the most frequently recovered species (61; 41.5%), followed by C. glabrata (27; 18.4%), and C. tropicalis (19; 12.9%). In addition, 16 isolates (10.9%) of C. dubliniensis were recovered, which was the first identification of this species in clinical samples from Iran. This study demonstrated a significant association between the duration of denture wear and oral candidiasis. Furthermore, we noted a high prevalence of C. dubliniensis in complete denture wearers.

  1. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Webster

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals’ lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the “lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity”. However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  2. Testing DNA barcodes in closely related species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) from Myanmar and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Zhao, Jietang; Erickson, David L; Xia, Nianhe; Kress, W John

    2015-03-01

    The genus Curcuma L. is commonly used as spices, medicines, dyes and ornamentals. Owing to its economic significance and lack of clear-cut morphological differences between species, this genus is an ideal case for developing DNA barcodes. In this study, four chloroplast DNA regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS2) were generated for 44 Curcuma species and five species from closely related genera, represented by 96 samples. PCR amplification success rate, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance variation and the correct identification percentage were taken into account to assess candidate barcode regions. PCR and sequence success rate were high in matK (89.7%), rbcL (100%), trnH-psbA (100%), trnL-F (95.7%) and ITS2 (82.6%) regions. The results further showed that four candidate chloroplast barcoding regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) yield no barcode gaps, indicating that the genus Curcuma represents a challenging group for DNA barcoding. The ITS2 region presented large interspecific variation and provided the highest correct identification rates (46.7%) based on BLASTClust method among the five regions. However, the ITS2 only provided 7.9% based on NJ tree method. An increase in discriminatory power needs the development of more variable markers.

  3. Genetic Differentiations among the Populations of Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and Its Related Species

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    SUDARMONO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and genetic variations within Salvia japonica (Lamiaceae and its related species in Japan were analyzed for clarifying their taxonomic significance. The genetic variations were explored through chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences and allozyme polymorphisms. Since chromosome numbers characterized the genus of Salvia, we also examined whether the karyotypes were different. We examined 58 populations of S. japonica and 14 populations of others species of Salvia. Among the populations of S. japonica represented four forms (f. japonica, f. longipes, f. lanuginosa and f. albiflora. The size of chromosomes were various among Salvia spp. Based on the allozyme as well as the DNA sequence, the populations of S. japonica separated from the others Salvia species. The populations of S. japonica exhibited four combinations of the morphological characters. However, these combinations did not correlate to the four forms of S. japonica. In addition, the morphological variations did not correlate to the allozyme and DNA sequences. It is suggested that the four morphological variations as well as the four form of S. japonica should not considered to be a taxonomic unit; accordingly, S. japonica were considered to be still at the early stage of speciation process.

  4. Stream salamander species richness and abundance in relation to environmental factors in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E.H.C.; Jung, R.E.; Rice, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    Stream salamanders are sensitive to acid mine drainage and may be sensitive to acidification and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of a watershed. Streams in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, are subject to episodic acidification from precipitation events. We surveyed 25 m by 2 m transects located on the stream bank adjacent to the water channel in Shenandoah National Park for salamanders using a stratified random sampling design based on elevation, aspect and bedrock geology. We investigated the relationships of four species (Eurycea bislineata, Desmognathus fuscus, D. monticola and Gyrinophilus porphyriticus) to habitat and water quality variables. We did not find overwhelming evidence that stream salamanders are affected by the acid-base status of streams in Shenandoah National Park. Desmognathus fuscus and D. monticola abundance was greater both in streams that had a higher potential to neutralize acidification, and in higher elevation (>700 m) streams. Neither abundance of E. bislineata nor species richness were related to any of the habitat variables. Our sampling method preferentially detected the adult age class of the study species and did not allow us to estimate population sizes. We suggest that continued monitoring of stream salamander populations in SNP will determine the effects of stream acidification on these taxa.

  5. Molecular characterization of various trichomonad species isolated from humans and related mammals in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mudyawati; Tokoro, Masaharu; Rahman, Md Moshiur; Arayama, Shunsuke; Hidayati, Anggi P N; Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji B S; Yoshikawa, Hisao; Kawahara, Ei

    2014-10-01

    Trichomonad species inhabit a variety of vertebrate hosts; however, their potential zoonotic transmission has not been clearly addressed, especially with regard to human infection. Twenty-one strains of trichomonads isolated from humans (5 isolates), pigs (6 isolates), rodents (6 isolates), a water buffalo (1 isolate), a cow (1 isolate), a goat (1 isolate), and a dog (1 isolate) were collected in Indonesia and molecularly characterized. The DNA sequences of the partial 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene or 5.8S rRNA gene locus with its flanking regions (internal transcribed spacer region, ITS1 and ITS2) were identified in various trichomonads; Simplicimonas sp., Hexamastix mitis, and Hypotrichomonas sp. from rodents, and Tetratrichomonas sp. and Trichomonas sp. from pigs. All of these species were not detected in humans, whereas Pentatrichomonas hominis was identified in humans, pigs, the dog, the water buffalo, the cow, and the goat. Even when using the high-resolution gene locus of the ITS regions, all P. hominis strains were genetically identical; thus zoonotic transmission between humans and these closely related mammals may be occurring in the area investigated. The detection of Simplicimonas sp. in rodents (Rattus exulans) and P. hominis in water buffalo in this study revealed newly recognized host adaptations and suggested the existence of remaining unrevealed ranges of hosts in the trichomonad species. PMID:25352694

  6. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

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    Hatzoglou Chrissi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more

  7. Gustatory sensitivity and food acceptance in two phylogenetically closely related papilionid species: Papilio hospiton and Papilio machaon.

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    Giorgia Sollai

    Full Text Available In herbivorous insects, food selection depends on sensitivity to specific chemical stimuli from host-plants as well as to secondary metabolites (bitter and to sugars (phagostimulatory. Bitter compounds are noxious, unpalatable or both and evoke an aversive feeding response. Instead, sugars and sugar alcohols play a critical role in determining and enhancing the palatability of foods. We assumed that peripheral taste sensitivity may be related to the width of the host selection. Our model consists of two closely phylogenetically related Papilionid species exhibiting a difference in host plant choice: Papilio hospiton and Papilio machaon. The spike activity of the lateral and medial maxillary styloconic taste sensilla was recorded following stimulation with several carbohydrates, nicotine and NaCl, with the aim of characterizing their gustatory receptor neurons and of comparing their response patterns in the light of their different acceptability in feeding behaviour. The results show that: a each sensillum houses phagostimulant and phagodeterrent cells; b the spike activity of the gustatory neurons in response to different taste stimuli is higher in P. hospiton than in P. machaon; c sugar solutions inhibit the spike activity of the deterrent and salt cells, and the suppression is higher in P. machaon than in P. hospiton. In conclusion, we propose that the different balance between the phagostimulant and phagodeterrent inputs from GRNs of maxillary sensilla may contribute in determining the difference in food choice and host range.

  8. Synthesis of one-dimensional boron-related nanostructures by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li

    Motivated by the extensive research on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), boron and its related nano-structures have attracted increasing interest for potential applications in nanodevices and nanotechnologies, due to their extraordinary properties. In this work, different types of B-related nanostructures were successfully grown on oxidized Si substrates with or without transition metal catalysts in CVD processes. The gas chemistry was monitored by in-situ mass-spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy. These helped to identify the gas reactive species during the deposition, creating thereby a controllable, optimum synthesis process and helping in identifying the growth mechanism. The boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were successfully synthesized at the low substrate temperatures of 600-800°C by a microwave plasma CVD process, using diborane and ammonia as the gas precursors. The optimum growth conditions of BNNTs were investigated by varying the experimental parameters, such as catalyst film thickness, substrate temperature, diborane flow rate, and growth time. The dense and crystalline BNNT deposits were obtained on 1nm nickel (Ni) or cobalt (Co) thin film coated oxidized Si (111) at a temperature of 800°C, a pressure of 15 torr, microwave power of 800 W, diborane flow rate (5 vol.% in hydrogen) of 5 sccm, ammonia flow rate of 27.5 sccm, hydrogen flow rate of 10sccm, and a deposition time of 1 hour. These nanotubes were either self-assembled in bundles or as a single tube with a diameter less than 10 nm. Raman spectra together with electron diffraction pattern indicated a hexagonal crystalline structure for these BN nanostructures. A growth mechanism of BNNTs involving dissolution-supersaturation-precipitation of BN in the metal catalysts was proposed. It was shown that the growth of BN nanostructures strongly depended on the catalyst and its film thickness, which resulted in the selective growth of BNNTs on the patterned catalyst islands. Ni dots with the diameters

  9. Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

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    Jiří Dvořák

    Full Text Available Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

  10. Correlation of the five test methods to assess chemical toxicity and relation to physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Y.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

    1986-08-01

    Biological tests using Orizias latipes (LC50 and oxygen uptake test), Moina macrocopa (LC50), and Dugesia japonica (head regeneration test and LC50) were carried out in order to clarify the mutual relationship of these test methods. The oxygen uptake rate of O. latipes was not effective to assess chemical toxicity. Adding the results of the growth inhibition test of Tetrahymena pyriformis (Yoshioka, Y., Ose, Y., and Sato, T. (1985). Sci. Total Environ. 43, 149-157), the correlation coefficients between each two test methods were calculated. The test results except EC50 and LC50 of D. japonica showed a good relation to each other. We determined the solubility and the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (P) of some chemicals used in the test. Log P interpreted the toxicity in mol/liter unit but not in mg/liter. Solubility was not a useful descripter neither in mol/liter nor in mg/liter unit.

  11. Physico-chemical Parameters and Their Variations in Relation to Fish Production in Zhob River Balochistan

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    Ghulam Dastagir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of physico-chemical parameters of Zhob River was carried from January- December 2011 and correlated with fish production. The samples of fish were procured from, Zhob River Balochistan with the help of local fishermen. Total 557 (342 Schizothorax progestus, 105 Caratus auratus, 60 Tor tor and 50 Glypothorax sp. were procured from January to December. Noticeable difference in the values of temperature, pH, transparency and DO were not observed throughout the year and as per standards for aquatic biota. The length- weight relationship values indicated positive allometric and regression co-efficients (b are 2.67, 2.50, 2.17 and 2.65 termed as satisfactory growth in C. auratus, S. progestus, Tor tor and Glypothorax sp., respectively. The values of condition factor (Kn = 1.0, 1.01, 0.97 and 1.31 in case of C. auratus, S. progestus, Tor tor and Glypothorax sp.respectively from Zhob River, Balochistan. Condition factor values show fluctuations in all size groups in different fish species. It is concluded that the physico-chemical parameters of Zhob river Balochistan were found to be within the suitable ranges of fish culture.

  12. A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziad Jaber, Lama; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical reactions, and (3) to characterize students' conceptual profiles regarding their understanding of chemical reactions in terms of macro, micro, symbolic levels and the relations among them, at the end of the teaching sequence. Forty six 10th graders from two sections participated in the study. A student-centered approach was followed in both sections based on constructivist pedagogy. Hence the teacher played the role of a facilitator who guided students in a meaning making inductive learning process, through questioning, monitoring, validating, and clarifying ideas. Instruction in the experimental group was characterized by macro-micro-symbolic teaching that focuses on the interplay between the levels, integrates various representations, and engages students in an epistemic discourse about the nature of knowing in chemistry. Data sources for the study included a pre-test and two post-intervention tasks: a post-test and a concept map task, in addition to interviews with selected students from both sections. Findings indicated that macro-micro-symbolic teaching enhanced students' conceptual understanding and relational learning of chemical reactions. Besides, four assertions related to students' conceptual and epistemological thinking in response to the different teaching approaches are presented. Implications for instruction and for teacher education programs, as well as recommendations for further research, are discussed in light of these findings.

  13. Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity of the Volatiles of Five Artemisia Species from Far East Russia

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    Gulmira Özek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia argyi , A. feddei, A. gmelinii, A. manshurica, and A. olgensis (Asteraceae were collected in Far East Russia. Oils were hydrodistilled and simultaneously analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Main constituents were found as follows in Artemisia oils: selin-11-en-4 a -ol (18.0%, 1,8-cineole (14.2.0%, artemisia alcohol (12.9%, borneol (9.7% in A. argyi; camphor (31.2%, 1,8-cineole (17.6%, a -thujone (5.7% in A. feddei; longiverbenone (12.0%, isopinocamphone (8.9%, 1,8-cineole (6.7%, camphor (5.8%, trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (5.3% in A. gmelinii; germacrene D (11.2%, rosifoliol (10.1%, caryophyllene oxide (6.8%, eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (5.6% in A. manshurica; eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (6.9%, caryophyllene oxide (5.6%, guaia-6,10(14-dien-4 b -ol (5.1% and hexadecanoic acid (5.0% in A. olgensis. Oils were subsequently submitted for antifungal and antimosquito evaluations. Artemisia species oils showed biting deterrent effects in Aedes aegypti and Artemisia gmelinii oil with the most active biting deterrence index values of 0.82 ± 0.1 at 10 m g/mL. Larval bioassay of A. gmelinii and A. olgensis oils showed higher larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti larvae with LD50 values of 83.8 (72.6 – 95.7 ppm and 91.0 (73.8 – 114.5 ppm, respectively. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using direct overlay bioautography assay and all showed non-selective weak antifungal activity. Antioxidant evaluations of the oils were performed by using b -carotene bleaching, Trolox equivalent and DPPH tests. The tested Artemisia oils demonstrated moderate antioxidant activity.

  14. Protection of neuronal cells against reactive oxygen species by carnosine and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyrev, Alexander; Bulygina, Elena; Leinsoo, Toomas; Petrushanko, Irina; Tsubone, Shiori; Abe, Hiroki

    2004-01-01

    Carnosine and related compounds were compared in terms of their abilities to decrease the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in suspensions of isolated neurons activated by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) using both stationary fluorescence measurements and flow cytometry. Carnosine was found to suppress the fluorescent signal induced by ROS production and decreased the proportion of highly fluorescent neurons, while histidine showed opposite effects. N-Acetylated derivatives of both carnosine and histidine demonstrated weak (statistically indistinguishable) suppressive effects on the ROS signal. N-Methylated derivatives of carnosine suppressed intracellular ROS generation to the same extent as carnosine. This rank of effectiveness is distinct from that previously obtained for the anti-radical ability of CRCs (anserine>carnosine>ophidine). These differences suggest that the similar ability of carnosine and its N-methylated derivatives to protect neuronal cells against the excitotoxic effect of NMDA is not solely related to the antioxidant properties of these compounds. PMID:14698913

  15. Cross-species comparison of genes related to nutrient sensing mechanisms expressed along the intestine.

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    Nikkie van der Wielen

    Full Text Available Intestinal chemosensory receptors and transporters are able to detect food-derived molecules and are involved in the modulation of gut hormone release. Gut hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and the control of gastrointestinal functioning. This mechanism is often referred to as "nutrient sensing". Knowledge of the distribution of chemosensors along the intestinal tract is important to gain insight in nutrient detection and sensing, both pivotal processes for the regulation of food intake. However, most knowledge is derived from rodents, whereas studies in man and pig are limited, and cross-species comparisons are lacking.To characterize and compare intestinal expression patterns of genes related to nutrient sensing in mice, pigs and humans.Mucosal biopsy samples taken at six locations in human intestine (n = 40 were analyzed by qPCR. Intestinal scrapings from 14 locations in pigs (n = 6 and from 10 locations in mice (n = 4 were analyzed by qPCR and microarray, respectively. The gene expression of glucagon, cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, taste receptor T1R3, sodium/glucose cotransporter, peptide transporter-1, GPR120, taste receptor T1R1, GPR119 and GPR93 was investigated. Partial least squares (PLS modeling was used to compare the intestinal expression pattern between the three species.The studied genes were found to display specific expression patterns along the intestinal tract. PLS analysis showed a high similarity between human, pig and mouse in the expression of genes related to nutrient sensing in the distal ileum, and between human and pig in the colon. The gene expression pattern was most deviating between the species in the proximal intestine. Our results give new insights in interspecies similarities and provide new leads for translational research and models aiming to modulate food intake processes in man.

  16. Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. turanicus (Acari:Ixodidae): closely related species with different biological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioffe-Uspensky, I; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Uspensky, I; Galun, R

    1997-01-01

    Life cycle parameters of 2 closely related tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille and R. turanicus Pomerantsev, were studied under laboratory conditions. Both Rhipicephalus, which have small adults, demonstrated the same adaptations as large tick species inhabiting deserts and semideserts: high reproductive rate, decrease in egg size, and an increase in interstage growth to compensate for the smaller size at birth. Pronounced quantitative differences between both species were discerned in relation to these adaptations. Female R. turanicus produced twice as many eggs as R. sanguineus which was facilitated by the greater amount of blood engorged by females and by the smaller egg weight in R. turanicus as compared with R. sanguineus. In all developmental stages, the weight increase from unfed to fed ticks was greater in R. turanicus than in R. sanguineus (23% higher in larvae, 118% in nymphs, and 26% in females). The increase in weight in R. turanicus from the unfed larva (0.013 mg) to the unfed female (3.31 mg) was 254-fold, and in R. sanguineus it was 127-fold (from 0.021 to 2.54 mg). In nymphal R. turanicus, the higher density and the greater height of the dorsal epicuticular folds, as well as procuticular indentations found inside the folds allow this tick to stretch its alloscutum during blood engorgement to a greater extent than R. sanguineus. The rates of blood ingestion (for nymphs and females), egg maturation, and metamorphosis were 1.1-1.7 times greater in R. turanicus than in R. sanguineus. A life cycle strategy with both a higher reproductive rate and faster development in R turanicus may be explained by its greater dependence on environmental factors than that in R. sanguineus. PMID:9086715

  17. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal and Repellent Effect of Essential Oils of Two Premna Species against Sitotroga cerealella

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    Elvis Adjalian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study for the first time the chemical composition and evaluate insecticidal and repellent effects of essential oils of Premna angolensis and Premna quadrifolia leaves, against Sitotroga cerealella, an insect pest of rice stocks as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The GC-MS analysis showed that essential oil of P. angolensis contains 29 compounds representing 96.1% of the oil and 42 compounds corresponding to 91% for the essential oil of P. quadrifolia. The main constituents regardless of the species were β-caryophyllene (13.1%, (E-β-caryophyllene (13.5%, octen-3-ol (3.2%–28%, phytol (3.7%–4.9%, β-elemene (1.4%–21%, globulol (11.2%, germacrene-D (8.9%, α-humulene (2.9%–6.4%, α-pinene (5%, sabinene (3.7%, δ-cadinene (0.4%–3.3%, and linalool (3.3%. The results of laboratory tests showed that both essential oils have insecticidal and repellent effects on S. cerealella. Presenting the results, the damage caused by the adults and larvae of S. cerealella was evaluated by calculating the percentage of grains attacked and weight loss thereof. The results suggest that volatile extracts of P. angolensis and P. quadrifolia can be used as alternatives to synthetic chemicals in paddy protection against S. cerealella.

  18. [DNA and chemical analyses of commercial fly agaric-related products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawahara, Nobuo; Fukiharu, Toshimitsu; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Makino, Yukiko; Goda, Yukihiro

    2005-04-01

    Since June 6, 2002, psilocin and psilocybin-containing fungi (commonly called "magic mushrooms") have been regulated by the Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law in Japan. However, various fly agaric-related products are now entering the Japanese market via the internet. In this study, fly agaric-related products available in this way were investigated for raw materials by DNA analysis and for additives by chemical analysis. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 12S rDNA region suggested that these fly agaric-related products originate from A. muscaria or A. muscaria var. persicina. Furthermore, they were classified into three strains based on the ITS2-LSU nucleotide sequence. Harmine derivatives and/or tryptamine derivatives were detected in some of these products by LC/MS analysis. In accordance with this, the matK gene of Peganum harmala was found in all of the harmine derivative-containing samples. PMID:16018591

  19. Species richness and relative abundance of birds in natural and anthropogenic fragments of Brazilian Atlantic forest

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    Luiz dos Anjos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird communities were studied in two types of fragmented habitat of Atlantic forest in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil; one consisted of forest fragments that were created as a result of human activities (forest remnants, the other consisted of a set of naturally occurring forest fragments (forest patches. Using quantitative data obtained by the point counts method in 3 forest patches and 3 forest remnants during one year, species richness and relative abundance were compared in those habitats, considering species groups according to their general feeding habits. Insectivores, omnivores, and frugivores presented similar general tendencies in both habitats (decrease of species number with decreasing size and increasing isolation of forest fragment. However, these tendencies were different, when considering the relative abundance data: the trunk insectivores presented the highest value in the smallest patch while the lowest relative abundance was in the smallest remnant. In the naturally fragmented landscape, time permitted that the loss of some species of trunk insectivores be compensated for the increase in abundance of other species. In contrast, the remnants essentially represented newly formed islands that are not yet at equilibrium and where future species losses would make them similar to the patches.Comunidades de aves foram estudadas em duas regiões fragmentadas de floresta Atlântica no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil; uma região é constituída de fragmentos florestais que foram criados como resultado de atividades humanas (remanescentes florestais e a outra de um conjunto de fragmentos florestais naturais (manchas de floresta. Usando dados quantitativos (o método de contagens pontuais previamente obtidos em 3 manchas de floresta e em 3 remanescentes florestais durante um ano, a riqueza e a abundância relativa de aves foram comparadas naqueles habitats considerando as espécies pelos seus hábitos alimentares. Inset

  20. Auto-digital gain balancing: a new detection scheme for high-speed chemical species tomography of minor constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many dynamic gas-phase reaction processes, there is great interest to measure the distribution of minor constituents, i.e. −3 by volume (1000 ppm). One such case is the after-treatment of automotive gasoline engine exhaust by catalytic conversion, where a characteristic challenge is to image the distribution of 10 ppm (average) of carbon monoxide (CO) at 1000 frames per second across a 50 mm diameter exhaust pipe; this particular problem has been pursued as a case study. In this paper, we present a novel electronic scheme that achieves the required measurement of around 10−3 absorption with 10−4 precision at kHz bandwidth. This was not previously achievable with any known technology. We call the new scheme Auto-Digital Gain Balancing. It is amenable to replication for many simultaneous measurement channels, and it permits simultaneous measurement of multiple species, in some circumstances. Experimental demonstrations are presented in the near-infrared. In single scans of a tunable diode laser, measurements of both CO and CO2 have been made with 20 dB signal-to-noise ratio at peak absorption. This work paves the way for chemical species tomography of minor constituents in many dynamic gas-phase systems

  1. Analysis of wax ester molecular species by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Urbanová, Klára; Cvacka, Josef

    2010-06-18

    High chromatographic resolution of wax esters (WEs) was achieved by non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a Nova-Pak C18 column by optimising the acetonitrile/ethyl acetate mobile phase gradient. The retention behaviour of WEs was studied in this chromatographic system. The WEs eluted according to their equivalent carbon number (ECN) values; within the group of WEs with the identical ECN, the most unsaturated species tended to elute first. The isobaric WEs with different positions of the ester moiety were separated from each other whenever the lengths of the chains were sufficiently different. The methyl-branched esters eluted at shorter retention times than the straight-chained analogues, and the resolution among methyl-branched WEs depended on the position of the branching. The analytes were detected by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) using data-dependent scanning. WEs provided simple full-scan spectra with abundant protonated molecules and low-intensity fragments. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) promoted identification of the WE molecular species. The responses of WEs were found to be dependent on the number of double bonds and on the alkyl-chain length; the limits of the detection ranged from 20micromol/L to 200nmol/L. The HPLC/APCI-MS was applied for the analysis of the WEs isolated from honeycomb beeswax, jojoba oil and human hair. Good agreement between reported results and the literature data was achieved, with several novel polyunsaturated WEs also being found.

  2. Auto-digital gain balancing: a new detection scheme for high-speed chemical species tomography of minor constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sandip; McCann, Hugh

    2011-11-01

    In many dynamic gas-phase reaction processes, there is great interest to measure the distribution of minor constituents, i.e. automotive gasoline engine exhaust by catalytic conversion, where a characteristic challenge is to image the distribution of 10 ppm (average) of carbon monoxide (CO) at 1000 frames per second across a 50 mm diameter exhaust pipe; this particular problem has been pursued as a case study. In this paper, we present a novel electronic scheme that achieves the required measurement of around 10-3 absorption with 10-4 precision at kHz bandwidth. This was not previously achievable with any known technology. We call the new scheme Auto-Digital Gain Balancing. It is amenable to replication for many simultaneous measurement channels, and it permits simultaneous measurement of multiple species, in some circumstances. Experimental demonstrations are presented in the near-infrared. In single scans of a tunable diode laser, measurements of both CO and CO2 have been made with 20 dB signal-to-noise ratio at peak absorption. This work paves the way for chemical species tomography of minor constituents in many dynamic gas-phase systems.

  3. Determination of thephysico-chemical 131I species in the exhausts and stack effluent of a PWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To quantify the credit that can be granted in the assessment of the 131I ingestion doses and the improvement that can be achieved in the ventilation systems if differences of the physico-chemical 131I species with respect to the environmental impact are taken into account, the fractions of the 131I species were determined in the stack effluent and in various exhausts of a 1300 MW/sub e/ PWR power plant during a period of 3 months. Based on these measurements, calculations for different cases of filtration of the main exhausts for iodine were carried out. The average fractions of elemental and organic 131I were about 70 and 30% respectively in the stack effluent during the time indicated. Elem. 131I orginated mainly from the hoods in which samples of the primary coolant are taken and processed. Org. 131I was mainly contributed by the equipment compartments. If the hood exhaust had been filtered, as was the case with the equipment compartment exhaust, the fractions of elem. and org. 131I would have been on the order of 50% each and the calculated 131I ingestion doses would have been a factor of 3 lower

  4. Mercury from combustion sources: a review of the chemical species emitted and their transport in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different species of mercury have different physical/chemical properties and thus behave quite differentially in air pollution control equipment and in the atmosphere. In general, emission of mercury from coal combustion sources are approximately 20-50% elemental mercury (Hg0) and 50-80% divalent mercury (Hg(II)), which may be predominantly HgCl2. Emissions of mercury from waste incinerators are approximately 10-20% Hg0 and 75-85% Hg(II). The partitioning of mercury in flue gas between the elemental and divalent forms may be dependent on the concentration of particulate carbon, HCl and other pollutants in the stack emissions. The emission of mercury from combustion facilities depends on the species in the exhaust stream and the type of air pollution control equipment used at the source. Air pollution control equipment for mercury removal at combustion facilities includes activated carbon injection, sodium sulfide injection and wet lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization. White Hg(II) is water-soluble and may be removed form the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition close to the combustion sources, the combination of a high vapor pressure and low water-solubility facilitate the long-range transport of Hg0 in the atmosphere. Background mercury in the atmosphere is predominantly Hg0. Elemental mercury is eventually removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition onto surfaces and by wet deposition after oxidation to water-soluble, divalent mercury. 62 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Evolution of H2O related species in the neutral coma of 67P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, A. M.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H. R.; Bar-Nun, A.; Berthelier, J. J.; Bochsler, P. A.; Briois, C.; Calmonte, U.; Combi, M. R.; De Keyser, J.; van Dishoeck, E.; Fiethe, B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gasc, S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Hässig, M.; Jäckel, A.; Kopp, E.; Korth, A.; Le Roy, L.; Mall, U.; Maggiolo, R.; Marty, B.; Mousis, O.; Owen, T. C.; Reme, H.; Rubin, M.; Sémon, T.; Tzou, C. Y.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Walsh, C.; Wurz, P.

    2015-12-01

    The ROSINA-DFMS mass spectrometer has been probing the coma of 67Psince the spacecraft arrived at the comet in August 2014.The acquired data set covers a large range of viewing geometries forthe ever changing conditions of 67P along its journey to pericenter. With the high temporal resolutionof ROSINA-DFMS we are able to examine diurnal and seasonal changesof different species in the gaseous coma.Large scale heterogeneities in the coma have been reported since the very first measurements of the neutral inventory at 67P.Many of the minor species are seen to follow one of the major compounds,H2O, CO or CO2.In this paper we will present the latest results on H2O related species.We will discuss the possible trapping/building mechanisms responsible for these species and why it is different from other species such asCO, N2 or CO2. Acknowledgements:Work at the University of Michigan was funded by NASA contract JPL-1266313.Work at UoB was funded by the State of Bern, the Swiss National Science Foundationand the European Space Agency PRODEX Program. Work at MPS was funded by the Max-Planck Society and BMWI contract 50QP1302. Work at Southwest Research institute was supported by subcontract #1496541 from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Work at BIRA-IASB was supported by the Belgian Science Policy Office via PRODEX/ROSINA PEA 90020. This work has been carried out thanks to the support of the A*MIDEX project (n° ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the « Investissements d'Avenir » French Government program, managed by the French National Research Agency (ANR). This work was supported by CNES grants at IRAP, LATMOS, LPC2E, UTINAM, CRPG, and by the European Research Council (grant no. 267255 to B. Marty). A. Bar-Nun thanks the Ministry of Science and the Israel Space agency. Work by JHW at Southwest Research Institute was funded by the NASA JPL subcontract NAS703001TONMO710889. EvD and CW are supported by A-ERC grant 291141 CHEMPLAN and an NWO Veni award. We acknowledge herewith the

  6. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil of Atalantia guillauminii against Three Species Stored Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Lei, Ning; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Ma, Ping; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The toxic and repellent activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Atalantia guillauminii Swingle were evaluated against three stored product insects, red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum), cigarette beetles (Lasioderma serricorne) and booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila). The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil were β-thujene (27.18%), elemicin (15.03%), eudesma-3, 7(11)-diene (9.64%), followed by (-)-4-terpeniol (6.70%) and spathulenol (5.25%). The crude oil showed remarkable contact toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne adults and L. bostrychophila with LD50 values of 17.11, 24.07 µg/adult and 55.83 µg/cm(2) respectively and it also displayed strong fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne adults with LC50 values of 17.60 and 12.06 mg/L respectively, while weak fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila with a LC50 value of 16.75 mg/L. Moreover, the essential oil also exhibited the same level repellency against the three stored product insects, relative to the positive control, DEET. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne. Thus, the essential oil of A. guillauminii may be potential to be developed as a new natural fumigant/repellent in the control of stored product insects. PMID:26369599

  7. Hygroscopic properties of the Paris urban aerosol in relation to its chemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    K. A. Kamilli; L. Poulain; A. Held; Nowak, A.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol hygroscopic growth factors and chemical properties were measured as part of the MEGAPOLI "Megacities Plume Case Study" at the urban site Laboratoire d'Hygiène de la Ville de Paris (LHVP) in the city center of Paris from June to August 2009, and from January to February 2010. Descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DGF) were derived in the diameter range from 25 to 350 nm at relative humidities of 30, 55, 75, and 90% by applying the summation method on humidified and ...

  8. Recent developments in methods of chemical analysis in investigations of firearm-related events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, Arie

    2003-08-01

    A review of recent (approximately the last ten years) developments in the methods used for chemical analysis in investigations of firearm-related events is provided. This review discusses:examination of gunshot (primer) residues (GSR) and gunpowder (propellant) residues on suspects and their clothing;detection of firearm imprints on the hands of suspects;identification of the bullet entry holes and estimation of shooting distance;linking weapons and/or fired ammunition to the gunshot entries, and estimation of the time since discharge. PMID:12811451

  9. Species sorting and patch dynamics in harlequin metacommunities affect the relative importance of environment and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibold, Mathew A; Loeuille, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Metacommunity theory indicates that variation in local community structure can be partitioned into components including those related to local environmental conditions vs. spatial effects and that these can be quantified using statistical methods based on variation partitioning. It has been hypothesized that joint associations of community composition with environment and space could be due to patch dynamics involving colonization-extinction processes in environmentally heterogeneous landscapes but this has yet to be theoretically shown. We develop a two-patch, type-two, species competition model in such a "harlequin" landscape (where different patches have different environments) to evaluate how composition is related to environmental and spatial effects as a function of background extinction rate. Using spatially implicit analytical models, we find that the environmental association of community composition declines with extinction rate as expected. Using spatially explicit simulation models, we further find that there is an increase in the spatial structure with extinction due to spatial patterning into clusters that are not related to environmental conditions but that this increase is limited. Natural metacommunities often show both environment and spatial determination even under conditions of relatively high isolation and these could be more easily explained by our model than alternative metacommunity models.

  10. Application of high resolution Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-ToFMS to study SOA composition: focus on formation of oxygenated species via aqueous phase processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aljawhary

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the capabilities of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA composition with a high resolution (HR time-of-flight mass analyzer (aerosol-CI-ToFMS. In particular, by studying aqueous oxidation of Water Soluble Organic Compounds (WSOC extracted from α-pinene ozonolysis SOA, we assess the capabilities of three common CIMS reagent ions: (a protonated water clusters (H2OnH+, (b acetate CH3C(OO− and (c iodide water clusters I(H2On− to monitor SOA composition. As well, we report the relative sensitivity of these reagent ions to a wide range of common organic aerosol constituents. We find that (H2OnH+ is more selective to the detection of less oxidized species, so that the range of O/C and OSC (carbon oxidation state in the SOA spectra is considerably lower than those measured using CH3C(OO− and I(H2On−. Specifically, (H2OnH+ ionizes organic compounds with OSC ≤ 1.3, whereas CH3C(OO− and I(H2On− both ionize highly oxygenated organics with OSC up to 4 with I(H2On− being more selective towards multi-functional organic compounds. In the bulk O/C and H/C space, i.e. in a Van Krevelen plot, there is a remarkable agreement in both absolute magnitude and oxidation trajectory between CI-ToFMS data and those from a high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS. This indicates that the CI-ToFMS data captures much of the chemical change occurring in the particle and that gas phase species, which are not detected by the HR-AMS, do not dominate the overall ion signal. Finally, the data illustrate the capability of aerosol-CI-ToFMS to monitor specific chemical change, including the fragmentation and functionalization reactions that occur during organic oxidation, and the oxidative conversion of dimeric SOA species into monomers. Overall, aerosol-CI-ToFMS is a valuable, selective complement to some common SOA characterization methods, such as AMS and spectroscopic techniques. Both

  11. Tissue distribution, gender- and genotype-dependent expression of autophagy-related genes in avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Piekarski

    Full Text Available As a result of the genetic selection of broiler (meat-type breeders chickens for enhanced growth rate and lower feed conversion ratio, it has become necessary to restrict feed intake. When broilers are fed ad libitum, they would become obese and suffer from several health-related problems. A vital adaptation to starvation is autophagy, a self-eating mechanism for recycling cellular constituents. The autophagy pathway has witnessed dramatic growth in the last few years and extensively studied in yeast and mammals however, there is a paucity of information in avian (non-mammalian species. Here we characterized several genes involved in autophagosome initiation and elongation in Red Jungle fowl (Gallus gallus and Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix Japonica. Both complexes are ubiquitously expressed in chicken and quail tissues (liver, leg and breast muscle, brain, gizzard, intestine, heart, lung, kidney, adipose tissue, ovary and testis. Alignment analysis showed high similarity (50.7 to 91.5% between chicken autophagy-related genes and their mammalian orthologs. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the evolutionary relationship between autophagy genes is consistent with the consensus view of vertebrate evolution. Interestingly, the expression of autophagy-related genes is tissue- and gender-dependent. Furthermore, using two experimental male quail lines divergently selected over 40 generations for low (resistant, R or high (sensitive, S stress response, we found that the expression of most studied genes are higher in R compared to S line. Together our results indicate that the autophagy pathway is a key molecular signature exhibited gender specific differences and likely plays an important role in response to stress in avian species.

  12. Detection of Vibrio splendidus and related species in Chamelea gallina sampled in the Adriatic along the Abruzzi coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresi, Marina; Acciari, Vicdalia A; Piano, Annamaria; Serratore, Patrizia; Prencipe, Vincenza; Migliorati, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio species are an important and widespread component of marine microbial communities. Some Vibrio strains are potentially pathogenic to marine vertebrates and invertebrates. The aim of this study was to identify vibrios, in particular Vibrio splendidus and related species, isolated from clams (Chamelea gallina) collected along the coasts of the Abruzzi region from May to October 2007. The isolates obtained were phenotyped and classified as belonging to the genus Vibrio. The strains underwent biochemical testing in accordance with Alsina's scheme for V. splendidus identification. Molecular analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic space region and recA gene was used to identify V. splendidus and related species. All the samples examined were found to contain halophylic Vibrio species, with V. alginolyticus, V. splendidus-related species and V. mediterranei most commonly found. A polymerase chain reaction of the 16S-23S intergenic space region and sequencing of the recA gene from isolates confirmed that phenotyping of Vibrio species is not sufficient to distinguish between different species. Differentiation of the highly related species among V. splendidus-related clusters remains an important issue. In this regard, our data suggests sequencing the recA genes was far more discriminatory than sequencing 16S rDNA for this purpose.

  13. Population dynamics of earthworms in relation to soil physico-chemical parameters in agroforestry systems of Mizoram, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthanzara, H; Ramanujam, S N; Jha, L K

    2011-09-01

    Earthworm population dynamics was studied in two agroforestry systems in the tropical hilly terrain of Mizoram, north-east India, over a period of 24 months, from July 2002 to June 2004. Two sites of agroforestry situated at Sakawrtuichhun (SKT) and Pachhunga University College (PUC) campus, Aizawl, having pineapple as the main crop, were selected for detail studies on population dynamics. Five of the total twelve species of earthworm reported from the state were recorded in the study sites. The density of earthworm ranged from 6 to 243 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 3.2 - 677.64 g.m(-2) in SKT. Comparatively the density and biomass in PUC, which is at relatively higher altitude were lowerwith a range of 0 to 176 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 0 - 391.36 g.m(-2) respectively. Population dynamics of earthworm was significantly correlated with rainfall and physical characters of the soil. Earthworm biomass was significantly affected by rainfall and moisture content of the soil. The influence of chemical factors was relatively less.

  14. Fruit composition diversity in land races and modern pepino (Solanum muricatum) varieties and wild related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz, Franscisco J; Raigón, María D; Vilanova, Santiago; García-Martínez, María D; Gramazio, Pietro; Plazas, Mariola; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Prohens, Jaime

    2016-07-15

    Pepino (Solanum muricatum) fruits from 15 accessions of cultivated pepino as well as six accessions from wild relatives were evaluated for contents in dry matter, protein, β-carotene, chlorophylls and seven minerals. Several-fold differences among accessions were found for most traits. Average values obtained were similar to those of melon and cucumber, but the phenolic contents were much higher. Wild species had significantly higher average contents for all traits vs. the cultivated pepino accessions. And, the comparisons among the cultivated pepino varieties showed that the modern varieties were more uniform in composition, and they possessed significantly lower concentrations of protein, P, K, and Zn than local land races. Most of the significant correlations among composition traits were positive. Our studies show that regular consumption of pepino fruits could make a significant contribution to the recommended daily intake of P, K, Fe and Cu as well as to the average daily intake of phenolics. Furthermore, the higher values for most nutrients measured in the wild species and in the local land races indicate that new pepino varieties with improved fruit contents in nutrient and bioactive compounds can be developed.

  15. Mycoplasma species and related organisms isolated from ruminants in Britain between 1990 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayling, R D; Bashiruddin, S E; Nicholas, R A J

    2004-10-01

    Between 1990 and 2000, more than 1600 mycoplasmas and the related acholeplasmas were identified from ruminant animals by the Mycoplasma Group at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency--Weybridge. Mycoplasma bovis was the most commonly identified pathogen, mostly from pneumonic calves but occasionally from cattle with mastitis and arthritis. Mycoplasma canis was first isolated in Britain in 1995 from pneumonic calves and the number of isolates increased to 18 per cent of the total mycoplasmas isolated from cattle in 1999. The ELISA for antibodies to M. bovis detected 1971 positive samples (22 per cent) among 8959 serum samples, mainly from pneumonic cattle. Other mycoplasmas identified included Mycoplasma dispar from the lungs of cattle with respiratory disease, and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium from the reproductive tract of cows with vulvovaginitis and infertility. Mycoplasma bovirhinis and Acholeplasma species were found commonly but are thought to be more opportunistic than pathogenic. In sheep and goats, the majority of Mycoplasma species isolated were identified as Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae from pneumonic sheep, Mycoplasma conjunctivae from sheep with keratoconjunctivitis, and the ubiquitous Mycoplasma arginini.

  16. Trace Elements in Dominant Species of the Fenghe River, China: Their Relations to Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhou, Zhengchao; Bai, Yanying; Jiao, Wentao; Chen, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of trace elements (TEs) in water, sediment, riparian soil and dominant plants was investigated in the Fenghe River, Northwestern China. The Fenghe River ecosystem was polluted with Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb. There was a high pollution risk in the midstream and downstream regions and the risk level for Cd was much higher than that of the other elements. The average values of bioconcentration coefficient for Cd and Zn were 2.21 and 1.75, respectively, indicating a large accumulation of Cd and Zn in the studied species. With broad ecological amplitudes, L. Levl. et Vant. Trin., and L. had the greatest TE concentrations in aboveground and belowground biomass of the studied species and were potential biomonitors or phytoremediators for the study area. Multivariate techniques including cluster analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and canonical correspondence analysis were used to analyze the relations between TE concentrations in plants and various environmental factors. The soil element concentration is the main factor determining the accumulation of TEs in plants. The co-release behavior of common pollutants and TEs drove the accumulation of Hg, Cd, and As in the studied plants. Significant enrichment of some elements in the Fenghe River has led to a decline in the biodiversity of plants. PMID:27380073

  17. Fruit composition diversity in land races and modern pepino (Solanum muricatum) varieties and wild related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz, Franscisco J; Raigón, María D; Vilanova, Santiago; García-Martínez, María D; Gramazio, Pietro; Plazas, Mariola; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Prohens, Jaime

    2016-07-15

    Pepino (Solanum muricatum) fruits from 15 accessions of cultivated pepino as well as six accessions from wild relatives were evaluated for contents in dry matter, protein, β-carotene, chlorophylls and seven minerals. Several-fold differences among accessions were found for most traits. Average values obtained were similar to those of melon and cucumber, but the phenolic contents were much higher. Wild species had significantly higher average contents for all traits vs. the cultivated pepino accessions. And, the comparisons among the cultivated pepino varieties showed that the modern varieties were more uniform in composition, and they possessed significantly lower concentrations of protein, P, K, and Zn than local land races. Most of the significant correlations among composition traits were positive. Our studies show that regular consumption of pepino fruits could make a significant contribution to the recommended daily intake of P, K, Fe and Cu as well as to the average daily intake of phenolics. Furthermore, the higher values for most nutrients measured in the wild species and in the local land races indicate that new pepino varieties with improved fruit contents in nutrient and bioactive compounds can be developed. PMID:26948588

  18. Dynamics of leaf water relations components in co-occurring iso- and anisohydric conifer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Frederick C; Woodruff, David R; Marias, Danielle E; McCulloh, Katherine A; Sevanto, Sanna

    2014-11-01

    Because iso- and anisohydric species differ in stomatal regulation of the rate and magnitude of fluctuations in shoot water potential, they may be expected to show differences in the plasticity of their shoot water relations components, but explicit comparisons of this nature have rarely been made. We subjected excised shoots of co-occurring anisohydric Juniperus monosperma and isohydric Pinus edulis to pressure-volume analysis with and without prior artificial rehydration. In J. monosperma, the shoot water potential at turgor loss (Ψ(TLP)) ranged from -3.4 MPa in artificially rehydrated shoots to -6.6 MPa in shoots with an initial Ψ of -5.5 MPa, whereas in P. edulis mean Ψ(TLP) remained at ∼ -3.0 MPa over a range of initial Ψ from -0.1 to -2.3 MPa. The shoot osmotic potential at full turgor and the bulk modulus of elasticity also declined sharply with shoot Ψ in J. monosperma, but not in P. edulis. The contrasting behaviour of J. monosperma and P. edulis reflects differences in their capacity for homeostatic regulation of turgor that may be representative of aniso- and isohydric species in general, and may also be associated with the greater capacity of J. monosperma to withstand severe drought.

  19. Recognition of greater diversity of Bacillus species and related bacteria in human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyles, Lesley; Honda, Harue; Logan, Niall A; Halket, Gillian; La Ragione, Roberto M; McCartney, Anne L

    2012-01-01

    In a study looking at culturable aerobic Actinobacteria associated with the human gastrointestinal tract, the vast majority of isolates obtained from dried human faeces belonged to the genus Bacillus and related bacteria. A total of 124 isolates were recovered from the faeces of 10 healthy adult donors. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed the majority belonged to the families Bacillaceae (n=81) and Paenibacillaceae (n=3), with Bacillus species isolated from all donors. Isolates tentatively identified as Bacillus clausii (n=32) and Bacillus licheniformis (n=28) were recovered most frequently, with the genera Lysinibacillus, Ureibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Ornithinibacillus and Virgibacillus represented in some donors. Phenotypic data confirmed the identities of isolates belonging to well-characterized species. Representatives of the phylum Actinobacteria were recovered in much lower numbers (n=11). Many of the bacilli exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more strains of Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, with some (n=12) found to have no detectable cytopathic effect on HEp-2 cells. This study has revealed greater diversity within gut-associated aerobic spore-formers than previous studies, and suggests that bacilli with potential as probiotics could be isolated from the human gut. PMID:22041546

  20. Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.S

    1982-01-01

    The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination with the species, also showed a significant effect on both the chemical and the physical properties of wood. All of the results indicated that both chemical and physical properties did vary with species, among the portions of the wood, and according to the ages of the wood. From the portion standpoint, the bark had higher gross heat content, sulphur content, ash content and lignin content, and it was also higher in all three kinds of extractives contents. The wood portion was found to be rich in holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and pentosan. In considering the chemical and physical properties of juvenile wood among the species, eastern cottonwood was found to have the highest value for ash content and all of the three kinds of extractives content. Paulownia had the highest value for sulphur content. Black locust had highest gross heat content, holocellulose and alpha-cellulose contents. Silver maple had highest lignin content. Results from this study showed that these seven juvenile hardwood species can produce high biomass yields of fibre and energy when grown under intensive care in central and southern Illinois sites. The best species of these seven tested woods seem to be black locust, which could also serve as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, as well as for a fuel for energy generation. However, further economic and energy efficiency analyses are needed before judging the feasibility of these short-rotation juvenile hardwood species.

  1. Sr isotope evolution during chemical weathering of granites -- impact of relative weathering rates of minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Sr isotopic systematics in the weathering profiles of biotite granite and granite porphyry in southern Jiangxi Province were investigated. The results showed that during the chemical weathering of granites, remarked fractionation occurred between Rb and Sr. During the early stages of chemical weathering of granites, the released Sr/Si and Sr/Ca ratios are larger than those of the parent rocks, and the leaching rate of Sr is higher than those of Si, Ca, K, Rb, etc. Dynamic variations in relative weathering rates of the main Sr-contributing minerals led to fluctuation with time in 87Sr/86Sr ratios of inherent and released Sr in the weathering crust of granite. Successive weathering of biotite, plagioclase and K-feldspar made 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the weathering residues show such a fluctuation trend as to decrease first, increase, and then decrease again till they maintain stable. This work further indicates that when Sr isotopes are used to trace biogeochemical processes on both the catchment and global scales, one must seriously take account of the prefer-ential release of Sr from dissolving solid phase and the fluctuation of 87Sr/86Sr ratios caused by the variations of relative weathering rates of Sr-contributing minerals.

  2. Hygroscopic properties of the Paris urban aerosol in relation to its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Kamilli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol hygroscopic growth factors and chemical properties were measured as part of the MEGAPOLI "Megacities Plume Case Study" at the urban site LHVP in the city center of Paris from June to August 2009, and from January to February 2010. Descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DGF were derived in the diameter range from 25 to 350 nm at relative humidities of 30, 55, 75, and 90% by applying the summation method on humidified and dry aerosol size distributions measured simultaneously with a humidified differential mobility particle sizer (HDMPS and a twin differential mobility particle sizer (TDMPS. For 90% relative humidity, the DGF varied from 1.06 to 1.46 in summer, and from 1.06 to 1.66 in winter. Temporal variations in the observed mean DGF could be well explained with a simple growth model based on the aerosol chemical composition measured by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS and black carbon photometry (MAAP. In particular, good agreement was observed when sulfate was the predominant inorganic factor. A clear overestimation of the predicted growth factor was found when the nitrate mass concentration exceeded values of 10 μg m3, e.g. during winter.

  3. Hygroscopic properties of the Paris urban aerosol in relation to its chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilli, K. A.; Poulain, L.; Held, A.; Nowak, A.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol hygroscopic growth factors and chemical properties were measured as part of the MEGAPOLI "Megacities Plume Case Study" at the urban site Laboratoire d'Hygiène de la Ville de Paris (LHVP) in the city center of Paris from June to August 2009, and from January to February 2010. Descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DGF) were derived in the diameter range from 25 to 350 nm at relative humidities of 30, 55, 75, and 90% by applying the summation method on humidified and dry aerosol size distributions measured simultaneously with a humidified differential mobility particle sizer (HDMPS) and a twin differential mobility particle sizer (TDMPS). For 90% relative humidity, the DGF varied from 1.06 to 1.46 in summer, and from 1.06 to 1.66 in winter. Temporal variations in the observed mean DGF could be well explained with a simple growth model based on the aerosol chemical composition measured by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) and black carbon photometry (MAAP). In particular, good agreement was observed when sulfate was the predominant inorganic factor. A clear overestimation of the predicted growth factor was found when the nitrate mass concentration exceeded values of 10 μg m-3, e.g., during winter.

  4. Light-related variation in sapling architecture of three shade-tolerant tree species of the Mexican rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Sanchez, J.L.; Meave, J.; Bongers, F.

    2008-01-01

    The crown architecture of three shade-tolerant tree species (two subcanopy and one mid-canopy) was analyzed in relation to the light regime of the forest understorey. The aim was to examine to which extent shade-tolerant species variate in their crown architecture. Tree saplings (265) between 50 and

  5. Saprolegnia bulbosa sp. nov. isolated from an Argentine stream: taxonomy and comparison with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steciow, Mónica Mirta; Paul, Alan; Bala, Kanak

    2007-03-01

    Saprolegnia bulbosa sp. nov. was isolated from floating and decaying twigs and leaves in El Gato stream, Partido de La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The distinctive characteristics of S. bulbosa are the product of smooth oogonia and predominantly contorted monoclinous, androgynous and diclinous antheridia. The oogonial stalks are usually bent, curved or once coiled; oospores are subcentric, (1) 2-15 (45) per oogonium and are variable in size. Taxonomical description of this new species, its comparison with related oomycetes of the genus and the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed region (spacers ITS1, ITS2 and the gene 5.8S) of its rRNA gene are given here. PMID:17328749

  6. A soluble class I molecule analogous to mouse Q10 in the horse and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, A M; Valas, R B; Maloy, W L; Coligan, J E

    1986-01-01

    Horse serum is shown to contain a soluble class I molecule analogous to the secreted Q10 molecule in the mouse. This molecule has several similarities to the recently described mouse Q10 molecule: it is smaller than membrane-bound equine class I molecules; it occurs in a high molecular mass complex of 200-300 kd in serum; and the serum levels of the equine molecule are similar to that of the Q10 molecule (about 30 micrograms/ml). A soluble molecule is also detected in the sera of species related to the horse; it has in fact been found in all the wild members of the order Perissodactyla so far tested. However, it was not detected in the serum of members of the orders Carnivora, Sirenia, Proboscidea, Artiodactyla, and Primates that were tested, nor in the serum of members of the order Rodentia other than in that of the genus Mus. PMID:3519445

  7. Leaf water relations and stomatal behavior of four allopatric Eucalyptus species planted in Mediterranean southwestern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Don A.; Turner, Neil C.; Galbraith, Jeffrey H.

    2000-11-01

    In 1986, four allopatric Eucalyptus species (E. camaldulensis Dehnh, E. saligna Smith, E. leucoxylon F. Muell and E. platypus Hook.) were planted together in a 480-mm rainfall zone, in 8-m wide contour belts as part of a plan to minimize waterlogging and secondary salinization. Throughout 1997, 1998 and 1999, there was significant inter-specific variation in predawn leaf water potential (Psi(pd)); however, maximum stomatal conductance (g(sm)) only differed significantly between species in mid to late summer. Relationships between g(sm) and Psi(pd) were significant and showed that stomata of E. camaldulensis were significantly more sensitive to Psi(pd), and presumably soil water potential, than stomata of E. leucoxylon or E. platypus. When applied to the Psi(pd) data, these relationships predicted that g(sm), and by inference transpiration, varied much less between species than Psi(pd). Diurnal measurements throughout the season confirmed this prediction, and showed that E. camaldulensis and E. saligna avoided drought by gaining access to deeper water, whereas E. leucoxylon and E. platypus maintained greater g(sm) at a given water stress than E. camaldulensis or E. saligna. Osmotic potentials measured after rehydration and water release curves of the leaves indicated that different mechanisms accounted for the apparent drought tolerance of E. leucoxylon and E. platypus. In summer, E. leucoxylon reduced osmotic potential at full and zero turgor by similar amounts compared with winter. In summer, E. platypus had a significantly lower bulk elastic modulus and relative water content at turgor loss point than E. camaldulensis, E. saligna or E. leucoxylon. This elastic adjustment resulted in a larger difference between osmotic potential at full and zero turgor in summer than in winter. The inherently low osmotic potential in E. leucoxylon and elastic adjustment in E. platypus resulted in turgor loss at a similar and significantly lower water potential than in E

  8. Variation in stem anatomical characteristics of Campanuloideae species in relation to evolutionary history and ecological preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Hans Schweingruber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The detailed knowledge of plant anatomical characters and their variation among closely related taxa is key to understanding their evolution and function. We examined anatomical variation in 46 herbaceous taxa from the subfamily Campanuloideae (Campanulaceae to link this information with their phylogeny, ecology and comparative material of 56 woody tropical taxa from the subfamily Lobelioideae. The species studied covered major environmental gradients from Mediterranean to Arctic zones, allowing us to test hypotheses on the evolution of anatomical structure in relation to plant competitive ability and ecological preferences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the evolution of anatomical diversity, we reconstructed the phylogeny of studied species from nucleotide sequences and examined the distribution of anatomical characters on the resulting phylogenetic tree. Redundancy analysis, with phylogenetic corrections, was used to separate the evolutionary inertia from the adaptation to the environment. A large anatomical diversity exists within the Campanuloideae. Traits connected with the quality of fibres were the most congruent with phylogeny, and the Rapunculus 2 ("phyteumoid" clade was especially distinguished by a number of characters (absence of fibres, pervasive parenchyma, type of rays from two other clades (Campanula s. str. and Rapunculus 1 characterized by the dominance of fibres and the absence of parenchyma. Septate fibres are an exclusive trait in the Lobelioideae, separating it clearly from the Campanuloideae where annual rings, pervasive parenchyma and crystals in the phellem are characteristic features. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite clear phylogenetic inertia in the anatomical features studied, the ecological attributes and plant height had a significant effect on anatomical divergence. From all three evolutionary clades, the taller species converged towards similar anatomical structure, characterized by a

  9. Relation between combustion heat and chemical wood composition during white and brown rot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobry, J.; Dziurzynski, A.; Rypacek, V.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of beech and spruce wood were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus tigrinus and the brown rot fungi Fomitopsis pinicola and Serpula lacrymans (S. lacrimans) for four months. Decomposition (expressed as percent weight loss) and amounts of holocellulose, lignin, humic acids (HU), hymatomelanic acids (HY) and fulvo acids (FU) were determined and expressed in weight percent. Combustion heat of holocellulose and lignin was determined in healthy wood and in specimens where decomposition was greater than 50%. During white rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged even at high decomposition and the relative amounts of holocellulose and lignin remained the same. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased during the initial stages and stabilized at 20%. The content of HU plus HY was negligible even at the highest degree of decomposition. During brown rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged only in the initial stages, it increased continously with increasing rot. Lignin content was unchanged in the initial stages and increased after 30% weight loss. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased continuously, reaching higher values than in white rot decomposition; there were differences between the two species. Biosynthesis of HU plus HY began when weight loss reached 30%; there were differences in absolute and relative amounts between species. 24 references.

  10. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  11. Ability of structurally diverse natural products and synthetic chemicals to induce gene expression mediated by estrogen receptors from various species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J B; Fertuck, K C; Celius, T; Huang, Y-W; Fong, C J; Zacharewski, T R

    2002-10-01

    The ability of 14 structurally diverse estrogenic compounds to induce reporter gene expression mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs) from different species was examined. MCF-7 cells were transiently transfected with a Gal4-regulated luciferase reporter gene (17m5-G-Luc) and Gal4-ER chimeric receptors containing the D, E and F domains of the human alpha (Gal4-hERalphadef), mouse alpha (Gal4-mERalphadef), mouse beta (Gal4-mERbetadef), chicken (Gal4-cERalphadef), green anole (Gal4-aERalphadef), Xenopus (Gal4-xERdef) or rainbow trout alpha ERs (Gal4-rtERalphadef). The efficacy of 17beta-estradiol (E2) in inducing reporter gene expression was similar among the different constructs overall, with EC(50) values ranging from 0.05 to 0.7nM. However, Gal4-rtERalphadef had an EC(50) value at 37 degrees C of 28nM, though at 20 degrees C an EC(50) value of 1nM was observed. Despite a similar response to E2 treatment among the ERs, many differences were observed in the magnitude of the response to other structurally diverse chemicals. For example, coumestrol induced Gal4-mERbetadef- and Gal4-aERdef-mediated reporter gene expression 164- and 8-fold greater, respectively, than mediated with the other Gal4-ERs. As well, in contrast to results with other Gal4-ERs, alpha-zearalenol consistently induced Gal4-rtERalphadef-mediated reporter gene activity at lower concentrations than did E2. Overall, the results demonstrate that selected estrogenic compounds exhibit a differential ability to induce reporter gene activity mediated by ERs from different vertebrate species. These data also highlight the importance of incubation temperature when examining rtERalpha-mediated activity. PMID:12477484

  12. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to soil chemical properties and heavy metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, Mehdi [Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, University of Shiraz, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hempel, Stefan, E-mail: hempel.stefan@googlemail.co [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Biologie, Okologie der Pflanzen, Altensteinstrasse 6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wubet, Tesfaye; Schaefer, Tina [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Savaghebi, Gholamreza [Department of Soil Science Engineering, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam [Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), P.O. Box 31535-1897, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Buscot, Francois [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with dominant plant species were studied along a transect from highly lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) polluted to non-polluted soil at the Anguran open pit mine in Iran. Using an established primer set for AMF in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, nine different AMF sequence types were distinguished after phylogenetic analyses, showing remarkable differences in their distribution patterns along the transect. With decreasing Pb and Zn concentration, the number of AMF sequence types increased, however one sequence type was only found in the highly contaminated area. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that further factors than HM soil concentration affect the AMF community at contaminated sites. Specifically, the soils' calcium carbonate equivalent and available P proved to be of importance, which illustrates that field studies on AMF distribution should also consider important environmental factors and their possible interactions. - The molecular diversity of AMF was found to be influenced by a combination of soil heavy metal and other soil chemical parameters.

  13. Jupiter's composition: sign of a (relatively) late formation in a chemically evolved protosolar disk

    CERN Document Server

    Guillot, T; Guillot, Tristan; Hueso, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    It has been proposed that the enrichment in noble gases found by Galileo in Jupiter's atmosphere can be explained by their delivery inside cold planetesimals. We propose instead that this is a sign that the planet formed in a chemically evolved disk and that noble gases were acquired mostly in gaseous form during the planet's envelope capture phase. We show that the combined settling of grains to the disk midplane in the cold outer layers, the condensation of noble gases onto these grains at temperatures below 20-30K, and the evaporation from high disk altitudes effectively lead to a progressive, moderate enrichment of the disk. The fact that noble gases are vaporized from the grains in the hot inner disk regions (e.g. Jupiter formation region) is not a concern because a negative temperature gradient prevents convection from carrying the species into the evaporating region. We show that the ~2 times solar enrichment of Ar, Kr, Xe in Jupiter is hence naturally explained by a continuous growth of the planet gov...

  14. Sequencing wild and cultivated cassava and related species reveals extensive interspecific hybridization and genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeson, Jessen V; Lyons, Jessica B; Prochnik, Simon E; Wu, G Albert; Ha, Cindy M; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rabbi, Ismail Y; Egesi, Chiedozie; Nauluvula, Poasa; Lebot, Vincent; Ndunguru, Joseph; Mkamilo, Geoffrey; Bart, Rebecca S; Setter, Tim L; Gleadow, Roslyn M; Kulakow, Peter; Ferguson, Morag E; Rounsley, Steve; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2016-05-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) provides calories and nutrition for more than half a billion people. It was domesticated by native Amazonian peoples through cultivation of the wild progenitor M. esculenta ssp. flabellifolia and is now grown in tropical regions worldwide. Here we provide a high-quality genome assembly for cassava with improved contiguity, linkage, and completeness; almost 97% of genes are anchored to chromosomes. We find that paleotetraploidy in cassava is shared with the related rubber tree Hevea, providing a resource for comparative studies. We also sequence a global collection of 58 Manihot accessions, including cultivated and wild cassava accessions and related species such as Ceará or India rubber (M. glaziovii), and genotype 268 African cassava varieties. We find widespread interspecific admixture, and detect the genetic signature of past cassava breeding programs. As a clonally propagated crop, cassava is especially vulnerable to pathogens and abiotic stresses. This genomic resource will inform future genome-enabled breeding efforts to improve this staple crop. PMID:27088722

  15. Chaparral Shrub Hydraulic Traits, Size, and Life History Types Relate to Species Mortality during California's Historic Drought of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturas, Martin D; MacKinnon, Evan D; Dario, Hannah L; Jacobsen, Anna L; Pratt, R Brandon; Davis, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Chaparral is the most abundant vegetation type in California and current climate change models predict more frequent and severe droughts that could impact plant community structure. Understanding the factors related to species-specific drought mortality is essential to predict such changes. We predicted that life history type, hydraulic traits, and plant size would be related to the ability of species to survive drought. We evaluated the impact of these factors in a mature chaparral stand during the drought of 2014, which has been reported as the most severe in California in the last 1,200 years. We measured tissue water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, leaf specific conductivity, percentage loss in conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence for 11 species in February 2014, which was exceptionally dry following protracted drought. Mortality among the 11 dominant species ranged from 0 to 93%. Total stand density was reduced 63.4% and relative dominance of species shifted after the drought. Mortality was negatively correlated with water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence, but not with percent loss in hydraulic conductivity and leaf specific conductivity. The model that best explained mortality included species and plant size as main factors and indicated that larger plants had greater survival for 2 of the species. In general, species with greater resistance to water-stress induced cavitation showed greater mortality levels. Despite adult resprouters typically being more vulnerable to cavitation, results suggest that their more extensive root systems enable them to better access soil moisture and avoid harmful levels of dehydration. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that short-term high intensity droughts have the strongest effect on mature plants of shallow-rooted dehydration tolerant species, whereas deep-rooted dehydration avoiding species fare better in the short-term. Severe droughts can drive

  16. Explaining local-scale species distributions: relative contributions of spatial autocorrelation and landscape heterogeneity for an avian assemblage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady J Mattsson

    Full Text Available Understanding interactions between mobile species distributions and landcover characteristics remains an outstanding challenge in ecology. Multiple factors could explain species distributions including endogenous evolutionary traits leading to conspecific clustering and endogenous habitat features that support life history requirements. Birds are a useful taxon for examining hypotheses about the relative importance of these factors among species in a community. We developed a hierarchical Bayes approach to model the relationships between bird species occupancy and local landcover variables accounting for spatial autocorrelation, species similarities, and partial observability. We fit alternative occupancy models to detections of 90 bird species observed during repeat visits to 316 point-counts forming a 400-m grid throughout the Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge in Maryland, USA. Models with landcover variables performed significantly better than our autologistic and null models, supporting the hypothesis that local landcover heterogeneity is important as an exogenous driver for species distributions. Conspecific clustering alone was a comparatively poor descriptor of local community composition, but there was evidence for spatial autocorrelation in all species. Considerable uncertainty remains whether landcover combined with spatial autocorrelation is most parsimonious for describing bird species distributions at a local scale. Spatial structuring may be weaker at intermediate scales within which dispersal is less frequent, information flows are localized, and landcover types become spatially diversified and therefore exhibit little aggregation. Examining such hypotheses across species assemblages contributes to our understanding of community-level associations with conspecifics and landscape composition.

  17. Chemical Structure-Related Drug-Like Criteria of Global Approved Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fei; Ni, Wei; Xu, Xiang; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jing; Ji, Min; Li, Jian

    2016-01-12

    The chemical structure of a drug determines its physicochemical properties, further determines its ADME/Tox properties, and ultimately affects its pharmacological activity. Medicinal chemists can regulate the pharmacological activity of drug molecules by modifying their structure. Ring systems and functional groups are important components of a drug. The proportion of non-hydrocarbon atoms among non-hydrogen atoms reflects the heavy atoms proportion of a drug. The three factors have considerable potential for the assessment of the drug-like properties of organic molecules. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies to systematically analyze the simultaneous effects of the number of aromatic and non-aromatic rings, the number of some special functional groups and the proportion of heavy atoms on the drug-like properties of an organic molecule. To this end, the numbers of aromatic and non-aromatic rings, the numbers of some special functional groups and the heavy atoms proportion of 6891 global approved small drugs have been comprehensively analyzed. We first uncovered three important structure-related criteria closely related to drug-likeness, namely: (1) the best numbers of aromatic and non-aromatic rings are 2 and 1, respectively; (2) the best functional groups of candidate drugs are usually -OH, -COOR and -COOH in turn, but not -CONHOH, -SH, -CHO and -SO3H. In addition, the -F functional group is beneficial to CNS drugs, and -NH2 functional group is beneficial to anti-infective drugs and anti-cancer drugs; (3) the best R value intervals of candidate drugs are in the range of 0.05-0.50 (preferably 0.10-0.35), and R value of the candidate CNS drugs should be as small as possible in this interval. We envision that the three chemical structure-related criteria may be applicable in a prospective manner for the identification of novel candidate drugs and will provide a theoretical foundation for designing new chemical entities with good drug

  18. Simple sequence repeat markers useful for sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi and related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odvody Gary N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent outbreak of sorghum downy mildew in Texas has led to the discovery of both metalaxyl resistance and a new pathotype in the causal organism, Peronosclerospora sorghi. These observations and the difficulty in resolving among phylogenetically related downy mildew pathogens dramatically point out the need for simply scored markers in order to differentiate among isolates and species, and to study the population structure within these obligate oomycetes. Here we present the initial results from the use of a biotin capture method to discover, clone and develop PCR primers that permit the use of simple sequence repeats (microsatellites to detect differences at the DNA level. Results Among the 55 primers pairs designed from clones from pathotype 3 of P. sorghi, 36 flanked microsatellite loci containing simple repeats, including 28 (55% with dinucleotide repeats and 6 (11% with trinucleotide repeats. A total of 22 microsatellites with CA/AC or GT/TG repeats were the most abundant (40% and GA/AG or CT/TC types contribute 15% in our collection. When used to amplify DNA from 19 isolates from P. sorghi, as well as from 5 related species that cause downy mildew on other hosts, the number of different bands detected for each SSR primer pair using a LI-COR- DNA Analyzer ranged from two to eight. Successful cross-amplification for 12 primer pairs studied in detail using DNA from downy mildews that attack maize (P. maydis & P. philippinensis, sugar cane (P. sacchari, pearl millet (Sclerospora graminicola and rose (Peronospora sparsa indicate that the flanking regions are conserved in all these species. A total of 15 SSR amplicons unique to P. philippinensis (one of the potential threats to US maize production were detected, and these have potential for development of diagnostic tests. A total of 260 alleles were obtained using 54 microsatellites primer combinations, with an average of 4.8 polymorphic markers per SSR across 34

  19. Chemical composition of 8 eucalyptus species' essential oils and the evaluation of their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaissi Ameur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1957, Tunisia introduced 117 species of Eucalyptus; they have been used as fire wood, for the production of mine wood and to fight erosion. Actually, Eucalyptus essential oil is traditionally used to treat respiratory tract disorders such as pharyngitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis. A few investigations were reported on the biological activities of Eucalyptus oils worldwide. In Tunisia, our previous works conducted in 2010 and 2011 had been the first reports to study the antibacterial activities against reference strains. At that time it was not possible to evaluate their antimicrobial activities against clinical bacterial strains and other pathogens such as virus and fungi. Methods The essential oils of eight Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman, Korbous (North East Tunisia and Souinet arboreta (North of Tunisia were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and microbroth dilution methods against seven bacterial isolates: Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. In addition, the bactericidal, fungicidal and the antiviral activities of the tested oils were carried out. Results Twenty five components were identified by GC/FID and GC/MS. These components were used to correlate with the biological activities of the tested oils. The chemical principal component analysis identified three groups, each of them constituted a chemotype. According to the values of zone diameter and percentage of the inhibition (zdi, % I, respectively, four groups and subgroups of bacterial strains and three groups of fungal strains were characterized by their sensitivity levels to Eucalyptus oils. The cytotoxic effect and the antiviral activity varied significantly within Eucalyptus species oils. Conclusions E. odorata showed the strongest activity against S. aureus, H. influenzae

  20. Molecular evolution of the E8 promoter in tomato and some of its relative wild species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lingxia Zhao; Liya Lu; Lida Zhang; Aoxue Wang; Ning Wang; Zhuobin Liang; Xiaowen Lu; Kexuan Tang

    2009-03-01

    The E8 gene is related to ethylene biosynthesis in plants. To explore the effect of the expression pattern of the E8 gene on different E8 promoters, the molecular evolution of E8 promoters was investigated. A total of 16 E8 promoters were cloned from 16 accessions of seven tomato species, and were further analysed. The results from 19 E8 promoters including three previously cloned E8 promoters (X13437, DQ317599 and AF515784) showed that the size of the E8 promoters varied from 2101 bp (LA2150) to 2256 bp (LA2192); their sequences shared 69.9% homology and the average A/T content was 74.9%. Slide-window analysis divided E8 promoters into three regions – A, B and C – and the sequence identity in these regions was 72.5%, 41.2% and 70.8%, respectively. By searching the cis-elements of E8 promoters in the PLACE database, mutant nucleotides were found in some functional elements, and deletions or insertions were also found in regions responsible for ethylene biosysnthesis (–1702 to –1274) and the negative effect region (–1253 to –936). Our results indicate that the size of the functional region for ethylene biosynthesis in the E8 promoter could be shortened from 429 bp to 113 bp (–1612 to –1500). The results of molecular evolution analysis showed that the 19 E8 promoters could be classified into four clade groups, which is basically consistent with evolution of the tomato genome. Southern blot analysis results showed that the copy number of E8 promoters in tomato and some other wild species changed from 1 to 4. Taken together, our study provides important information for further elucidating the E8 gene expression pattern in tomato, analysing functional elements in the E8 promoter and reconstructing the potent E8 promoter.

  1. Different responses of two Mosla species to potassium limitation in relation to acid rain deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng WANG; Bao-jing GU; Ying GE; Zhen LIU; De-an JIANG; Scott X. CHANG; Jie CHANG

    2009-01-01

    The increasingly serious problem of acid rain is leading to increased potassium (K) loss from soils, and in our field investigation, we found that even congenerically relative Mosla species show different tolerance to K-deficiency. A hydroponic study was conducted on the growth of two Mosla species and their morphological, physiological and stoichiometric traits in response to limited (0.35 mmol K/L), normal (3.25 mmol K/L) and excessive (6.50 mmol K/L) K concentrations. Mosla hang-chowensis is an endangered plant, whereas Mosla dianthera a widespread weed. In the case of M. hangchowensis, in comparison with normal K concentration, K-limitation induced a significant reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn), soluble protein content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. However, leaf mass ratio (LMR) and root mass ratio (RMR) were changed little by K-limitation. In contrast, for M. dianthera, K-limitation had little effect on Pn, soluble protein content, SOD activity, and MDA concentration, but increased LMR and RMR. Critical values of N (nitrogen):K and K:P (phosphorus) ratios in the shoots indicated that limitation in acquiring K occurred under K-limited conditions for M. hangchowensis but not for M. dianthera. We found that low K content in natural habitats was a restrictive factor in the growth and distribution of M. hangchowensis, and soil K-deficiency caused by acid rain worsened the situation of M. hangchowensis, while M. dianthera could well acclimate to the increasing K-deficiency. We suggest that controlling the acid rain and applying K fertilizers may be an effective way to rescue the endangered M. hangchowensis.

  2. Schima superba outperforms other tree species by changing foliar chemical composition and shortening construction payback time when facilitated by shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Guo, Qinfeng; Ren, Hai; Sun, Zhongyu

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year field experiment was conducted in a subtropical degraded shrubland to assess how a nurse plant, the native shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, affects the growth of the target trees Pinus elliottii, Schima superba, Castanopsis fissa, and Michelia macclurei, and to probe the intrinsic mechanisms from leaf chemical composition, construction cost (CC), and payback time aspects. We compared tree seedlings grown nearby shrub canopy (canopy subplots, CS) and in open space (open subplots, OS). S. superba in CS showed greater growth, while P. elliottii and M. macclurei were lower when compared to the plants grown in the OS. The reduced levels of high-cost compounds (proteins) and increased levels of low-cost compounds (organic acids) caused reduced CC values for P. elliottii growing in CS. While, the levels of both low-cost minerals and high-cost proteins increased in CS such that CC values of S. superba were similar in OS and CS. Based on maximum photosynthetic rates, P. elliottii required a longer payback time to construct required carbon in canopy than in OS, but the opposite was true for S. superba. The information from this study can be used to evaluate the potential of different tree species in the reforestation of subtropical degraded shrublands. PMID:26814426

  3. The relative impacts of climate and land-use change on conterminous United States bird species from 2001 to 2075

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models often use climate data to assess contemporary and/or future ranges for animal or plant species. Land use and land cover (LULC) data are important predictor variables for determining species range, yet are rarely used when modeling future distributions. In this study, maximum entropy modeling was used to construct species distribution maps for 50 North American bird species to determine relative contributions of climate and LULC for contemporary (2001) and future (2075) time periods. Species presence data were used as a dependent variable, while climate, LULC, and topographic data were used as predictor variables. Results varied by species, but in general, measures of model fit for 2001 indicated significantly poorer fit when either climate or LULC data were excluded from model simulations. Climate covariates provided a higher contribution to 2001 model results than did LULC variables, although both categories of variables strongly contributed. The area deemed to be "suitable" for 2001 species presence was strongly affected by the choice of model covariates, with significantly larger ranges predicted when LULC was excluded as a covariate. Changes in species ranges for 2075 indicate much larger overall range changes due to projected climate change than due to projected LULC change. However, the choice of study area impacted results for both current and projected model applications, with truncation of actual species ranges resulting in lower model fit scores and increased difficulty in interpreting covariate impacts on species range. Results indicate species-specific response to climate and LULC variables; however, both climate and LULC variables clearly are important for modeling both contemporary and potential future species ranges.

  4. Protein Content and Amino Acid Composition in Grains of Wheat-Related Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-ling; TIAN Ji-chun; HAO Zhi; ZHANG Wei-dong

    2008-01-01

    The protein content and amino acid composition for 17 wheat-related species(WRS)and three common wheats(control) were determined and analyzed,and the essential amino acids(EAAs)in WRS were evaluated according to FAO/WHO amino acid recommendations.The results showed that the mean protein content for WRS was 16.67%,which was 23.21% higher than that for the control.The mean contents(g 100 g-1 protein)of most amino acids for WRS were lysine 2.74%,threonine 2.83%,phenylalanine 4.17%,isoleucine 3.42%,valine 3.90%,histidine 2.81%,glutamic acid 29.96%,proline 9.12%,glycine 3.59%,alanine 3.37%,and cysteine 1.57%,which were higher than those for the control.The contents of the other 6 amino acids for WRS were lower than those for the control.The materials(Triticum monococcum L.,Triticum carthlicum Nevski,and Triticum turgidum L.)contained relatively high concentration of the most deficient EAAs(lysine, threonine,and methionine).Comparing with FAO/WHO amino acid recommendations,the amino acid scores(AAS)of lysine(49.8%),threonine(70.7%),and sulfur-containing amino acids(74.8%)were the lowest,which were considered as the main limiting amino acids in WRS.It was observed that the materials with Triticum urartu Tum.(AA)and Aegilops speltoides Tausch.(SS)genomes had relatively high contents of protein and EAA.The contents of protein(16.91%), phenylalanine(4.78%),isoleucine(3.53%),leucine(6.16%),and valine(4.09%)for the diploid materials were higher than those for the other materials.These results will provide some information for selecting parents in breeding about nutrient quality and utilization of fine gene in wheat.

  5. Nanolithography and nanochemistry: probe-related patterning techniques and chemical modification for nanometer-sized devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Daan; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2004-05-01

    The size regime for devices produced by photolithographic techniques is limited. Therefore, other patterning techniques have been intensively studied to create smaller structures. Scanning-probe-based patterning techniques, such as dip-pen lithography, local force-induced patterning, and local-probe oxidation-based techniques are highly promising because of their relative ease and widespread availability. The latter of these is especially interesting because of the possibility of producing nanopatterns for a broad range of chemical and physical modification and functionalization processes; both the production of nanometer-sized electronic devices and the formation of devices involving (bio)molecular recognition and sensor applications is possible. This Review highlights the development of various scanning probe systems and the possibilities of local oxidation methods, as well as giving an overview of state-of-the-art nanometer-sized devices, and a view of future development.

  6. Gene expression responses of HeLa cells to chemical species generated by an atmospheric plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Mayo, E-mail: yokoyama@plasma.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Johkura, Kohei, E-mail: kohei@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Department of Histology and Embryology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sato, Takehiko, E-mail: sato@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Response of HeLa cells to a plasma-irradiated medium was revealed by DNA microarray. • Gene expression pattern was basically different from that in a H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-added medium. • Prominently up-/down-regulated genes were partly shared by the two media. • Gene ontology analysis showed both similar and different responses in the two media. • Candidate genes involved in response to ROS were detected in each medium. - Abstract: Plasma irradiation generates many factors able to affect the cellular condition, and this feature has been studied for its application in the field of medicine. We previously reported that hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was the major cause of HeLa cell death among the chemical species generated by high level irradiation of a culture medium by atmospheric plasma. To assess the effect of plasma-induced factors on the response of live cells, HeLa cells were exposed to a medium irradiated by a non-lethal plasma flow level, and their gene expression was broadly analyzed by DNA microarray in comparison with that in a corresponding concentration of 51 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. As a result, though the cell viability was sufficiently maintained at more than 90% in both cases, the plasma-medium had a greater impact on it than the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed fundamentally different cellular responses between these two media. A larger population of genes was upregulated in the plasma-medium, whereas genes were downregulated in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium. However, a part of the genes that showed prominent differential expression was shared by them, including an immediate early gene ID2. In gene ontology analysis of upregulated genes, the plasma-medium showed more diverse ontologies than the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium, whereas ontologies such as “response to stimulus” were common, and several genes corresponded to “response to reactive oxygen species.” Genes of AP-1 proteins, e.g., JUN

  7. Automated procedure to determine the thermodynamic stability of a material and the range of chemical potentials necessary for its formation relative to competing phases and compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, J.; Scanlon, D. O.; Walsh, A.; Catlow, C. R. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple and fast algorithm to test the thermodynamic stability and determine the necessary chemical environment for the production of a multiternary material, relative to competing phases and compounds formed from the constituent elements. If the material is found to be stable, the region of stability, in terms of the constituent elemental chemical potentials, is determined from the intersection points of hypersurfaces in an (n-1)-dimensional chemical potential space, where n is the number of atomic species in the material. The input required is the free energy of formation of the material itself, and that of all competing phases. Output consists of the result of the test of stability, the intersection points in the chemical potential space and the competing phase to which they relate, and, for two- and three-dimensional spaces, a file which may be used for visualization of the stability region. We specify the use of the program by applying it both to a ternary system and to a quaternary system. The algorithm automates essential analysis of the thermodynamic stability of a material. This analysis consists of a process which is lengthy for ternary materials, and becomes much more complicated when studying materials of four or more constituent elements, which have become of increased interest in recent years for technological applications such as energy harvesting and optoelectronics. The algorithm will therefore be of great benefit to the theoretical and computational study of such materials.

  8. The γ-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum and its closely related species

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    Chen Qing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isolated from common wheat and its closely related species, among which 138 sequences are putatively functional. The ORF lengths of these sequences range from 678 to 1089 bp, and the repetitive region is mainly responsible for the size heterogeneity of γ-gliadins. The repeat motif P(Q/L/S/T/I/V/R/AF(S/Y/V/Q/I/C/LP(R/L/S/T/H/C/YQ1–2(P(S/L/T/A/F/HQQ1–2is repeated from 7 to 22 times. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses show that γ-gliadins are highly diverse. Phylogenic analyses indicate that there is no obvious discrimination between Sitopsis and Ae. tauschii at the Gli-1 loci, compared with diploid wheat. According to the number and placement of cysteine residues, we defined nine cysteine patterns and 17 subgroups. Alternatively, we classified γ-gliadins into two types based on the length of repetitive domain. Amino acid composition analyses indicate that there is a wide range of essential amino acids in γ-gliadins, and those γ-gliadins from subgroup SG-10 and SG-12 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional. A screening of toxic epitopes shows that γ-gliadins with a pattern of C9 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain almost lack any epitopes. Conclusion γ-Gliadin sequences in wheat and closely related Aegilops species are diverse. Each group/subgroup contributes differently to nutritional quality and epitope content. It is suggested that the genes with a short repetitive domain are more

  9. DNA barcoding in closely related species: A case study of Primula L.sect.Proliferae Pax (Primulaceae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Fei YAN; Gang HAO; Chi-Ming HU; Xue-Jun GE

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a method of identifying species by analyzing one or a few short standardized DNA sequences. There are particular challenges in barcoding plants, especially for distinguishing closely related species. Hence, there is an urgent need to evaluate the performance of candidate loci for distinguishing between species, especially closely related species, to complement the rbcL + matK combination suggested as the core barcode for land plants. We sampled 48 individuals representing 12 species in Primula sect. Proliferae Pax in China to evaluate the performance of eight leading candidate barcode loci (matK, rbcL, rpoB, rpoCl, trnH-psbA, psbK-psbI, atpFatpH, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)). The core combination rbcL + matK gave only 50% species resolution in sect. Proliferae. In terms of intraspecies and interspecies divergence, degree of monophyly, and sequence similarity, ITS, trnH-psbA, and psbK-psbI showed good performance as single-locus barcodes. Internal transcribed spacer displayed the highest genetic divergence and best discriminatory power, both alone and in combination with rbcL +matK (83.3% species resolution). We recommend evaluating the use of ITS for barcoding in other species. Low or single copy nuclear regions would provide more sophisticated barcoding tools in the long term, even though further research is required to find suitable loci.

  10. Daily Temperature Fluctuations Alter Interactions between Closely Related Species of Marine Nematodes.

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    Nele De Meester

    Full Text Available In addition to an increase in mean temperature, climate change models predict decreasing amplitudes of daily temperature fluctuations. In temperate regions, where daily and seasonal fluctuations are prominent, such decreases in daily temperature fluctuations can have a pronounced effect on the fitness of species and on the outcome of species interactions. In this study, the effect of a temperature regime with daily fluctuations versus a constant temperature on the fitness and interspecific interactions of three cryptic species of the marine nematode species complex of Litoditis marina (Pm I, Pm III and Pm IV were investigated. In a lab experiment, different combinations of species (monospecific treatment: Pm I and Pm IV and Pm III alone; two-species treatment: Pm I + Pm IV; three-species treatment: Pm I + Pm IV + Pm III were subjected to two different temperature regimes: one constant and one fluctuating temperature. Our results showed that fluctuating temperature had minor or no effects on the population fitness of the three species in monocultures. In contrast, interspecific interactions clearly influenced the fitness of all three species, both positively and negatively. Temperature regime did have a substantial effect on the interactions between the species. In the two-species treatment, temperature regime altered the interaction from a sort of mutualism to commensalism. In addition, the strength of the interspecific interactions changed depending on the temperature regime in the three-species treatment. This experiment confirms that interactions between the species can change depending on the abiotic environment; these results show that it is important to incorporate the effect of fluctuations on interspecific interactions to predict the effect of climate change on biodiversity.

  11. Relationship between reproductive allocation and relative abundance among 32 species of a Tibetan alpine meadow: effects of fertilization and grazing.

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    Kechang Niu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship between species traits and species abundance is an important goal in ecology and biodiversity science. Although theoretical studies predict that traits related to performance (e.g. reproductive allocation are most directly linked to species abundance within a community, empirical investigations have rarely been done. It also remains unclear how environmental factors such as grazing or fertilizer application affect the predicted relationship. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a 3-year field experiment in a Tibetan alpine meadow to assess the relationship between plant reproductive allocation (RA and species relative abundance (SRA on control, grazed and fertilized plots. Overall, the studied plant community contained 32 common species. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the treatment level, (i RA was negatively correlated with SRA on control plots and during the first year on fertilized plots. (ii No negative RA-SRA correlations were observed on grazed plots and during the second and third year on fertilized plots. (iii Seed size was positively correlated with SRA on control plots. At the plot level, the correlation between SRA and RA were not affected by treatment, year or species composition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows that the performance-related trait RA can negatively affect SRA within communities, which is possibly due to the tradeoffs between clonal growth (for space occupancy and sexual reproduction. We propose that if different species occupy different positions along these tradeoffs it will contribute to biodiversity maintenance in local communities or even at lager scale.

  12. Estimating number of species and relative abundances in stream-fish communities: effects of sampling effort and discontinuous spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Smogor, Roy A.

    1995-01-01

    We sampled fishes and measured microhabitat in series of contiguous habitat units (riffles, runs, pools) in three Virginia streams. We used Monte Carlo simulations to construct hypothetical series of habitat units, then examined how number of species, similarity in relative abundances, and number of microhabitats accumulated with increasing number of habitat units (i.e., sampling effort). Proportions of all species and microhabitats represented were relatively low and variable at low sampling effort, but increased asymptotically and became less variable with greater sampling effort. To facilitate comparisons among streams, we fitted simulation results to negative exponential curves. The curves indicated that 90% of the species present were usually found by sampling 5 to 14 habitat units (stream length of 22–67 stream widths). Estimates of species relative abundances required less sampling effort for a given accuracy than estimates of number of species. Rates of species accumulation (with effort) varied among streams and reflected discontinuity in species distributions among habitat units. Most discontinuity seemed to be due to low population density rather than to habitat selectivity. Results from an Illinois stream corroborated our findings from Virginia, and suggested that greater sampling effort is needed to characterize fish community structure in more homogeneous stream reaches.

  13. Identification of a putatively multixenobiotic resistance related Abcb1 transporter in amphipod species endemic to the highly pristine Lake Baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlichenko, Vasiliy V; Protopopova, Marina V; Timofeyev, Maxim; Luckenbach, Till

    2015-04-01

    The fauna of Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia, the largest freshwater body on Earth, is characterized by high degrees of biodiversity and endemism. Amphipods, a prominent taxon within the indigenous fauna, occur in an exceptionally high number of endemic species. Considering the specific water chemistry of Lake Baikal with extremely low levels of potentially toxic natural organic compounds, it seems conceivable that certain adaptions to adverse environmental factors are missing in endemic species, such as cellular defense mechanisms mitigating toxic effects of chemicals. The degree to which the endemic fauna is affected by the recently occurring anthropogenic water pollution of Lake Baikal may depend on the existence of such cellular defense mechanisms in those species. We here show that endemic amphipods express transcripts for Abcb1, a major component of the cellular multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) defense against toxic chemicals. Based on a partial abcb1 cDNA sequence from Gammarus lacustris, an amphipod species common across Northern Eurasia but only rarely found in Lake Baikal, respective homologous sequences were cloned from five amphipods endemic to Lake Baikal, Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, E. vittatus, E. cyaneus, E. marituji, and Gmelinoides fasciatus, confirming that abcb1 is transcribed in those species. The effects of thermal (25 °C) and chemical stress (1-2 mg L(-1) phenanthrene) in short-term exposures (up to 24 h) on transcript levels of abcb1 and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), used as a proxy for cellular stress in the experiments, were exemplarily examined in E. verrucosus, E. cyaneus, and Gammarus lacustris. Whereas increases of abcb1 transcripts upon treatments occurred only in the Baikalian species E. verrucosus and E. cyaneus but not in Gammarus lacustris, changes of hsp70 transcript levels were seen in all three species. At least for species endemic to Lake Baikal, the data thus indicate that regulation of the identified amphipod abcb1 is

  14. A new species of Furculanurida (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Ivory Coast, with comments on related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zon, Serge Demeango; Tano, Yao; Deharveng, Louis

    2014-10-29

    A new species of Pseudachorutinae, Furculanurida emucronata sp. nov., is described from Lamto in the Ivory Coast. It differs from all known Pseudachorutinae species by the presence of a strong lateral tooth on the claw of leg I, and from other species of the genus Furculanurida by the absence of a mucro. It is provisionally assigned to the genus Furculanurida which is redefined accordingly. The heterogeneity of the genus is stressed, and its relationships with Arlesiella, Kenyura, Pseudachorutes and Stachorutes are discussed.

  15. Transposons play an important role in the evolution and diversification of centromeres among closely related species

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    Scott eJackson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Centromeres are important chromosomal regions necessary for eukaryotic cell segregation and replication. Due to high amounts of tandem repeats and transposons, centromeres have been difficult to sequence in most multicellular organisms, thus their sequence structure and evolution are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed transposons in the centromere 8 (Cen8 from the African cultivated rice (O. glaberrima and two subspecies of the Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa, indica and japonica. We detected much higher transposon contents (>69% in centromere regions than in the whole genomes of O. sativa ssp japonica and O. glaberrima (~35%. We compared the three Cen8s and identified numerous recent insertions of transposons that were frequently organized into multiple-layer nested blocks, similar to nested transposons in maize. Except for the Hopi retrotransposon, all LTR retrotransposons were shared but exhibit different abundances amongst the three Cen8s. Even though a majority of the transposons were located in intergenic regions, some gene-related transposons were found and may be involved in gene diversification. Chromatin immunoprecipitated (ChIP data analysis revealed that 165 families from both Class I and Class II transposons were found in CENH3-associated chromatin sequences. These results indicate essential roles for transposons in centromeres and that the rapid divergence of the Cen8 sequences between the two cultivated rice species was primarily caused by recent transposon insertions.

  16. Concerted evolution of duplicated mitochondrial control regions in three related seabird species

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    Birt Tim P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many population genetic and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA assume that mitochondrial genomes do not undergo recombination. Recently, concerted evolution of duplicated mitochondrial control regions has been documented in a range of taxa. Although the molecular mechanism that facilitates concerted evolution is unknown, all proposed mechanisms involve mtDNA recombination. Results Here, we document a duplication of a large region (cytochrome b, tRNAThr, tRNAPro, ND6, tRNAGlu and the control region in the mitochondrial genome of three related seabird species. To investigate the evolution of duplicate control regions, we sequenced both control region copies (CR1 and CR2 from 21 brown (Sula leucogaster, 21 red-footed (S. sula and 21 blue-footed boobies (S. nebouxii. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the duplicated control regions are predominantly evolving in concert; however, approximately 51 base pairs at the 5' end of CR1 and CR2 exhibited a discordant phylogenetic signal and appeared to be evolving independently. Conclusions Both the structure of the duplicated region and the conflicting phylogenetic signals are remarkably similar to a pattern found in Thalassarche albatrosses, which are united with boobies in a large clade that includes all procellariiform and most pelecaniform seabirds. Therefore we suggest that concerted evolution of duplicated control regions either is taxonomically widespread within seabirds, or that it has evolved many times.

  17. Product Variability of the ‘Cineole Cassette'Monoterpene Synthases of Related Nicotiana Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anke F(a)hnrich; Katrin Krause; Birgit Piechulla

    2011-01-01

    Nicotiana species of the section Alatae characteristically emit the floral scent compounds of the ‘cineole cassere' comprising 1,8-cineole,limonene,myrcene,α-pinene,β-pinene,sabinene,and α-terpineol.We successfully isolated genes of Nicotiana alata and Nicotiana langsdorfii that encoded enzymes,which produced the characteristic monoterpenes of this ‘cineole cassette' with α-terpineol being most abundant in the volatile spectra.The amino acid sequences of both terpineol synthases were 99% identical.The enzymes cluster in a monophyletic branch together with the closely related cineole synthase of Nicotiana suaveolens and monoterpene synthase 1 of Solanum lycopersicum.The cyclization reactions (α-terpineol to 1,8-cineole) of the terpineol synthases of N.alata and N.langsdorfii were less efficient compared to the ‘cineole cassette′ monoterpene synthases of Arabidopsis thaliana,N.suaveolens,Salvia fruticosa,Salvia officinalis,and Citrus unshiu.The terpineol synthases of N.alata and N.langsdorfii were localized in pistils and in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the petals.The enzyme activities reached their maxima at the second day after anthesis when flowers were fully opened and the enzyme activity in N.alata was highest at the transition from day to night (diurnal rhythm).

  18. Haemagglutination, haemolysin production and serum resistance of proteus and related species isolated from clinical sources

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    Mishra M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 148 strains of Proteus and related species comprising of Proteus mirabilis (116, Proteus vulgaris (24, Providentia rettgeri (4, Providentia alcalifaciens (2, Providentia stuarti (1 and Morganella morganii (1, isolated from various sources, were examined for haemagglutination (HA, haemolysin production (HL and serum resistance (SR. Maximum isolates were obtained from urine (47.30% and pus (40.54% and they were multidrug resistant. The sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin was 78.38%, Gentamicin: 62.84%, Cefotaxime: 29.73%, Norfloxacin: 22.97%, Tetracycline: 20.95% and Ampicillin: 6.76%. There were four commonest resistance patterns shown by 58.62% of Proteus mirabilis and 66.67% of Proteus vulgaris strains. Haemagglutination was shown by 91 (61.49% strains, HL production in 126 (85.14% strains and SR by 124 (83.78% isolates. All the three i.e. HA, HL and SR were simultaneously present in 77 (52.27% strains, any two were present in 40 (27.03% strains and any one was positive in 30 (20.03% strains. Thus in as many as 147 (98.32% isolates, any one or more virulence factors were present. The virulence in commensal pathogen like Proteus is basically a multifactorial phenomenon. The presence of more virulence factors in one strain may increase its pathogenic ability. The evaluation of multiple virulence factors instead of one single parameter will be of greater help in assessing its pathogenic potential.

  19. Spatial and seasonal changes of arsenic species in Lake Taihu in relation to eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Changzhou; Che, Feifei; Zeng, Liqing; Wang, Zaosheng; Du, Miaomiao; Wei, Qunshan; Wang, Zhenhong; Wang, Dapeng; Zhen, Zhuo

    2016-09-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of arsenic species in Lake Taihu (including Zhushan Bay, Meiliang Bay, Gonghu Bay, and Southern Taihu) were investigated. Relatively high levels of total arsenic (TAs) and arsenate (As(V)) were observed in hyper-eutrophic regions during summer and autumn, which is attributed to exogenous contamination and seasonal endogenous release from sediments. The distributions of TAs and As(V) were significantly affected by total phosphorus, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon. Arsenite (As(III)) and methylarsenicals (the sum of monomethylarsenic acid (MMA(V)) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA(V))), mainly from biotransformation of As(V), were affected by temperature-controlled microalgae activities and local water quality parameters, exhibiting significantly higher concentrations and proportions in hyper-eutrophic and middle eutrophic regions during summer compared to mesotrophic region. The eutrophic environment, which induces changes in the main water quality parameters such as phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon, can favor the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in the aquatic systems. PMID:27152991

  20. Intron Derived Size Polymorphism in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Closely Related Chrysoporthe Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzi, Aquillah Mumo; Wingfield, Brenda Diana; Steenkamp, Emma Theodora; Naidoo, Sanushka; van der Merwe, Nicolaas Albertus

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Chrysoporthe austroafricana (190,834 bp), C. cubensis (89,084 bp) and C. deuterocubensis (124,412 bp) were determined. Additionally, the mitochondrial genome of another member of the Cryphonectriaceae, namely Cryphonectria parasitica (158,902 bp), was retrieved and annotated for comparative purposes. These genomes showed high levels of synteny, especially in regions including genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and electron transfer, unique open reading frames (uORFs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and transfer RNAs (tRNAs), as well as intron positions. Comparative analyses revealed signatures of duplication events, intron number and length variation, and varying intronic ORFs which highlighted the genetic diversity of mt genomes among the Cryphonectriaceae. These mt genomes showed remarkable size polymorphism. The size polymorphism in the mt genomes of these closely related Chrysoporthe species was attributed to the varying number and length of introns, coding sequences and to a lesser extent, intergenic sequences. Compared to publicly available fungal mt genomes, the C. austroafricana mt genome is the second largest in the Ascomycetes thus far.

  1. Leaf water relations of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus and E. nitens: seasonal, drought and species effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D A; Beadle, C L; Worledge, D

    1996-05-01

    In August 1990, a 2-ha plantation was established in an area where rainfall (about 515 mm year(-1)) was insufficient to meet evaporative demand. On nine occasions between September 1991 and April 1993, pressure-volume curves were constructed for irrigated and rainfed Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus Labill. and E. nitens (Deane and Maiden) Maiden trees. During the experiment, rainfed trees experienced six periods when predawn water potential was significantly lower than that of irrigated trees. In early spring of 1991 and 1992, osmotic potentials at full turgor and turgor loss point in the irrigated E. nitens were significantly lower than at other times of the year, probably because of winter hardening. Water stress reduced osmotic potential and increased bulk elastic modulus in E. nitens, whereas the reverse occurred in E. globulus. However, treatment differences with respect to changes in osmotic and elastic properties were commonly overshadowed by interspecific differences. These were most apparent at the end of the sixth period of water stress when osmotic potentials at full and zero turgor were significantly higher and bulk elastic modulus and relative water content at turgor loss point were significantly lower in E. globulus than in E. nitens. We conclude that the drought-tolerance responses of E. globulus make it a more suitable species than E. nitens for establishment on sites where moderate water stress is experienced.

  2. Enzymatic degradation of polygalacturonic acid by Yersinia and Klebsiella species in relation to clinical laboratory procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, M P; Chatterjee, A K; Starr, P B; Buchanan, G E

    1977-10-01

    As scored by several specified plating procedures, clinical and environmental strains of Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae "Oxytocum" showed detectable, albeit generally weak, ability to digest polygalacturonic (pectic) acid. None of these bacterial strains had the vigorous and rapid pectolytic activity on these polygalacturonic acid-containing media that is typical of soft-rot Erwinia species, although some of the Oxytocum strains came fairly close. Analyses of the pectolytic enzyme contents of the cells and culture supernatants of the Yersinia and Klebsiella species revealed that readily detectable quantities of cell-bound polygalacturonic acid trans-eliminase and hydrolytic polygalacturonase were formed by the Yersinia and Klebsiella species; however, the total units of enzyme activity produced by these bacteria were, in general, lower than were produced by soft-rot Erwinia species. Furthermore, unlike the situation in soft-rot Erwinia cultures, these pectolytic enzymes of Yersinia and Klebsiella species were not excreted rapidly and massively into the growth medium. Cultures of other enterobacteria (Citrobacter species, Enterobacter species, Erwinia amylovora, Erwinia herbicola, Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Salmonella typhimurium, and Serratia marcescens) showed no pectolytic ability whatsoever by any of the plating procedures used and (to the extent they were so examined) produced no pectolytic enzymes detectable either in their cells or culture supernatants. This slow or weak release of pectolytic enzymes by Yersinia and Klebsiella species has a bearing on clinical laboratory procedures suitable for detecting their pectolytic activity; methods adequate for this purpose are detailed.

  3. Compatibility Relations Between the Edible Carrot Daucus Carota and D. Pusillus, a Related Wild Species from the Argentinian Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish the feasibility of hybridization between the wild carrot species Daucus pusillus Michx. (2n = 2x = 22; 2n = 2x = 22 and 20), collected in the pampas grasslands of Argentina, and the edible carrot, Daucus carota L. (2n = 2x = 18), controlled pollinations were attempted on the plant. Due ...

  4. Effects of shading on relative competitive advantage of three species of Sphagnum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Z. Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (1 Sphagnum is an important genus of bryophytes holding 10–15 % of the terrestrial carbon stock. With climate change a drier surface may increase the abundance of vascular plants on peatlands, so shading of Sphagnum may increase. Here we describe growth cabinet experiments to reveal the effects of shading on interactions among mixtures of three species: S. capillifolium, S. palustre (hummock species, and S. fallax (a hollow species. We measured the six traits: growth in length, growth as increase in dry mass, side-shoot production, nitrogen and carbon proportion of the capitulum dry mass, and C:N ratio in the capitulum. (2 Shading had no effect on biomass production or side-shoot production but increased height increment in all three species. It also increased the C and N proportions of total dry mass but decreased C:N ratio in the capitula. (3 Neighbours of a different species reduced biomass and side-shoot production in the two hummock species but had no effect on the hollow species. (4 All three species showed interaction between shading and neighbour in two or more plant traits. S. fallax showed competitive advantage over S. palustre in no-shading treatments and over S. capillifolium in moderate shading treatments. In addition, under deep shading, S. fallax showed a competitive advantage over both hummock species. A clear competitive hierarchy S. fallax>S. capillifolium>S. palustre emerged which was consistent with the hierarchy of side-shoot production. (5 The results suggest that all the species appear to tolerate deep shade (for a few months at least. In a shaded environment, especially under deeply shaded conditions, S. fallax retains its dominance in hollow habitats (if water availability is guaranteed by virtue of its advantage in side-shoot production. (6 If shading increases then the abundance of different Sphagnum species is likely to change.

  5. Genetic relatedness versus biological compatibility between Aspergillus fumigatus and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugui, Janyce A; Peterson, Stephen W; Figat, Abigail; Hansen, Bryan; Samson, Robert A; Mellado, Emilia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J

    2014-10-01

    Aspergillus section Fumigati contains 12 clinically relevant species. Among these Aspergillus species, A. fumigatus is the most frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis, followed by A. lentulus and A. viridinutans. Genealogical concordance and mating experiments were performed to examine the relationship between phylogenetic distance and mating success in these three heterothallic species. Analyses of 19 isolates from section Fumigati revealed the presence of three previously unrecognized species within the broadly circumscribed species A. viridinutans. A single mating type was found in the new species Aspergillus pseudofelis and Aspergillus pseudoviridinutans, but in Aspergillus parafelis, both mating types were present. Reciprocal interspecific pairings of all species in the study showed that the only successful crosses occurred with the MAT1-2 isolates of both A. parafelis and A. pseudofelis. The MAT1-2 isolate of A. parafelis was fertile when paired with the MAT1-1 isolates of A. fumigatus, A. viridinutans, A. felis, A. pseudoviridinutans, and A. wyomingensis but was not fertile with the MAT1-1 isolate of A. lentulus. The MAT1-2 isolates of A. pseudofelis were fertile when paired with the MAT1-1 isolate of A. felis but not with any of the other species. The general infertility in the interspecies crossings suggests that genetically unrelated species are also biologically incompatible, with the MAT1-2 isolates of A. parafelis and A. pseudofelis being the exception. Our findings underscore the importance of genealogical concordance analysis for species circumscription, as well as for accurate species identification, since misidentification of morphologically similar pathogens with differences in innate drug resistance may be of grave consequences for disease management.

  6. Demographic shifts related to mycoheterotrophy and their fitness impacts in two Cephalanthera species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefferson, Richard P; Roy, Mélanie; Püttsepp, Ülle; Selosse, Marc-André

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary losses of photosynthesis in terrestrial plants all originate in photosynthetic ancestors. The adaptive context under which this transition happens has remained elusive because of the rarity of plants in which both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic forms exist as a polymorphism. Here, we report on demographic patterns in photosynthetic ("green") and nonphotosynthetic ("albino") individuals within populations of two such species, Cephalanthera damasonium and C. longifolia, which also acquire nutrition from their mycorrhizal hosts (partial mycoheterotrophy). We hypothesized that demographic shifts in albinos relative to greens would include compensatory patterns with respect to fitness, such that maladaptive changes to survival or reproduction would be adaptively countered by changes to other parameters, such as growth probabilities. We tracked individuals in two populations of C. damasonium for 3 yr, and in one population of C. longifolia for 14 yr. We then analyzed vital rates for both phenotypes using general linear mixed models (GLMMs) and multi-state capture mark-recapture models (CMR), and used these models to develop size-classified, function-based population projection matrices. We estimated fitness as the deterministic population growth rate (λ) for each phenotype, and explored the impact of shifts in demographic patterns to albinism via life table response experiments (LTREs). Mortality differed between greens and albinos, but not similarly across species. Albinos generally sprouted less than greens, and flowered more when small but less at other times. Albinos typically had a higher probability of fruiting, although their lower flower numbers yielded lower numbers of fruits overall. Fitness did not differ significantly among phenotypes. Thus, we did not find significant evidence that albinism is adaptive or maladaptive; however, if in fact it is the latter, then we did find evidence of incomplete compensation for declines in survival and

  7. Student performance study: the outcomes of metabolic, molecular and physical-chemical characterization of intestinal tract microbiome on a four mammalian species model

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    Nataša CIBER

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many environmental factors influence the structure of microbial communities, their activity and properties of the environment of the digestive tract. Contrary to constant disturbances, the system provides the basis for energy conversion and thus the long-term stable coexistence of different hosts and their specific intestinal microbiota over geological timescales. Since the methodological approaches proved to be the largest source of systematic errors in comparisons of microbial communities among different organisms of the same species or between different species, we tested a number of methods on samples from different species of mammals in order to verify the feasibility of this approach for future routine analysis of microbiomes:(i analyses of physical-chemical parameters;(iithe metabolic properties of attached, planktonic fractions in comparison to the total;(iiistructure of microbial communities of bacteria and archaea; (ivdata analysis. We used a model of intestinal samples from four species of mammals, encompassing the differences between the various types of intestinal tracts: ruminants and rodents (such as pre- and post- peptic fermentors, omnivores and carnivores. The second purpose of the study was to(iassess the extent of spread of data due to the cooperation of the various operators on the data obtained, and(ii to evaluate the skills of the students to carry out industry-oriented investigations and measurements in 1st year of MSc study Microbiology; and(iii to promote awareness of the importance of routine laboratory work day and the corresponding duties. The results suggest(ithat the operators independently organized and shared tasks;(iisuccessfully completed all methods;(iiiobtain relevant information;(ivcritically evaluated and interpreted within the extent of their knowledge;(v that relative standard deviation(RSD typically could be compared to those of the automated analytical procedures(<10 % and therefore represented the

  8. Controlling wildlife reproduction : reversible suppression of reproductive function or sex-related behaviour in wildlife species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertschinger, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fertility control represents a proactive approach to population management for various mammalian wildlife species. In large predators, deslorelin implants have proven to be useful contraceptives in species such as lions, tigers and cheetahs. Although female lions and tigers responded well to various

  9. Molecular identification of two closely related species of mealybugs of the genus Planococcus (Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological identification of the mealybug species Planococcus citri (Risso) and P. minor (Maskell), two serious agricultural pests, is often complicated by the existence of intermediate forms and a lack of knowledge of the intraspecific variation that occurs in each species. In this paper, we hav...

  10. Chemical Analysis and Biological Activity of the Essential Oils of Two Valerianaceous Species from China: Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis

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    Jianglin Zhao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate essential oils with biological activity from local wild plants, two valerianaceous species, Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis, were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The essential oils were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of the two plants by hydro-distillation, and were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Calarene (25.31%, aristolone (13.35%, α-selinene (7.32% and β-maaliene (6.70% were the major compounds of the 23 identified components which accounted for 92.76% of the total oil of N. chinensis. Patchoulol (16.75%, α-pinene (14.81%, and β-humulene (8.19% were the major compounds among the 20 identified components, which accounted for 88.11% of the total oil of V. officinalis. Both oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as well as their oxygenated derivatives. Essential oils were shown to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity with MIC values that ranged from 62.5 μg/mL to 400 μg/mL, and IC50 values from 36.93 μg/mL to 374.72 μg/mL. The oils were also shown to have moderate antifungal activity to Candida albicans growth as well as inhibition of spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Two essential oils were assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and ferrozine-ferrous ions assays, respectively, to show moderate antioxidant activity. Results suggest that the isolated essential oils could be used for future development of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  11. Effects of cultivation conditions on the uptake of arsenite and arsenic chemical species accumulated by Pteris vittata in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Masayoshi; Sato, Takahiko; Shinoda, Kozo; Inoue, Chihiro

    2011-03-01

    The physiological responses of the arsenic-hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata, such as arsenic uptake and chemical transformation in the fern, have been investigated. However, a few questions remain regarding arsenic treatment in hydroponics. Incubation conditions such as aeration, arsenic concentration, and incubation period might affect those responses of P. vittata in hydroponics. Arsenite uptake was low under anaerobic conditions, as previously reported. However, in an arsenite uptake experiment, phosphorous (P) starvation-dependent uptake of arsenate was observed under aerobic conditions. Time course-dependent analysis of arsenite oxidation showed that arsenite was gradually oxidized to arsenate during incubation. Arsenite oxidation was not observed in any of the control conditions, such as exposure to a nutrient solution or to culture medium only, or with the use of dried root; arsenite oxidation was only observed when live root was used. This result suggests that sufficient aeration allows the rhizosphere system to oxidize arsenite and enables the fern to efficiently take up arsenite as arsenate. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses showed that long-duration exposure to arsenic using a hydroponic system led to the accumulation of arsenate as the dominant species in the root tips, but not in the whole roots, partly because up-regulation of arsenate uptake by P starvation of the fern was caused and retained by long-time incubation. Analysis of concentration-dependent arsenate uptake by P. vittata showed that the uptake switched from a high-affinity transport system to a low-affinity system at high arsenate concentrations, which partially explains the increased arsenate abundance in the whole root.

  12. Bolivian Rhinotragini VIII: new genera and species related to Pseudophygopoda Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2007 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

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    Robin O.S. Clarke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudophygopoda Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2007 is redescribed. Four new, closely related genera are described. Panamapoda gen. nov., with P. panamensis (Giesbert, 1996; Paraphygopoda gen nov., with Paraphygopoda nappae sp. nov., P. albitarsis (Klug, 1825, P. viridimicans (Fisher, 1952, and, provisionally, P. longipennis (Zajciw, 1963; Para melitta gen. nov., with Paramelitta wappesi sp. nov., and P. aglaia (Newman, 1840; and Phygomelitta gen. nov., with one species, P. triangularis (Fuchs, 1961. All the species are illustrated (including genitalia; and keys to the genera, and their species, are provided.

  13. Phylogenetic reconstruction and DNA barcoding for closely related pine moth species (Dendrolimus in China with multiple gene markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Yan Dai

    Full Text Available Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS genes (ITS1 and ITS2. Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML/Neighbor-joining (NJ, "best close match" (BCM, Minimum distance (MD, and BP-based method (BP, representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10-97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70-81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In

  14. Phylogenetic reconstruction and DNA barcoding for closely related pine moth species (Dendrolimus) in China with multiple gene markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qing-Yan; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Chesters, Douglas; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes (ITS1 and ITS2). Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML)/Neighbor-joining (NJ), "best close match" (BCM), Minimum distance (MD), and BP-based method (BP)), representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based) in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10-97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70-81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In addition, our

  15. Frequent cytoplasmic exchanges between oak species that are not closely related: Quercus suber and Q. ilex in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belahbib, N; Pemonge, M H; Ouassou, A; Sbay, H; Kremer, A; Petit, R J

    2001-08-01

    Chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation were studied in 97 populations of cork oak (Quercus suber) in Morocco; in 31 of these populations, holm oak (Quercus ilex), a clearly distinct species, also occurred and was compared with Q. suber. Three cpDNA and one mtDNA primer pairs were used in the survey, each in combination with one restriction enzyme. Six haplotypes belonging to two very divergent lineages were detected; one lineage predominates in each species, and is probably ancestral, as inferred from comparisons with other oak species. In the mixed-species populations, cytoplasmic genomes were frequently shared across species, as indicated by an introgression ratio of 0.63. This index is a new measure of the propensity of species to share locally genetic markers, varying from zero (complete differentiation) to one (no differentiation). By contrast, more closely related deciduous oak species (Q. robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens) have introgression ratios varying from 0.82 to 0.97. The introgression events appear to have been more frequent in the direction Q. ilex (female) x Q. suber (male), a finding which seems attributable to the flowering phenology of these two species. This asymmetry may have favoured immigration of Q. suber beyond its main range, in regions already colonized by Q. ilex. There, rare hybridization and further introgression through long distance pollen flow have established populations that are morphologically indistinguishable from Q. suber but that have cytoplasmic genomes originating from the local Q. ilex populations.

  16. Chemical response of Picea glehnii seed-epiphytic Penicillium species to Pythium vexans under in vitro competitive conditions for mycelial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Keiko; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Tahara, Satoshi

    2005-04-01

    The potential protection of Picea glehnii seedlings from damping-off by seed-epiphytic Penicillium species was investigated. We studied the chemical response of seed-epiphytic Penicillium species (Pen. cyaneum, Pen. damascenum, and Pen. implicatum) to Pythium vexans, a damping-off fungus, in vitro. Penicillium species were cultured singly or cocultured with Pyt. vexans for 14 or 18 d, and mycelial growth, pH of culture filtrate, antifungal activity of the culture filtrate against Pyt. vexans, and the amount of antifungal compound produced by each Penicillium species, were examined. The filtrate of both the single culture of Penicillium and the coculture of Penicillium and Pyt. vexans showed antifungal activity against Pyt. vexans. In a coculture with Pyt. vexans, Pen. cyaneum produced an antifungal compound (patulin) as in the single culture. Pen. damascenum cocultured with Pyt. vexans produced an antifungal compound (citrinin), as it did in the single culture and in larger amounts on day 10. Pen. implicatum produced two antifungal compounds, frequentin and palitantin, and the ratio of frequentin (with higher antifungal activity than palitantin) to palitantin was higher in the coculture with Pyt. vexans than in the single culture. Our results indicate that these Penicillium species have the ability to produce antifungal compounds and to keep anti-fungal activity under competitive condition with Pyt. vexans. The chemical response of these Penicillium species to Pyt. vexans may contribute to protect P. glehnii seedlings from damage by Pyt. vexans. PMID:16124252

  17. The effect of crop sequences on soil microbial, chemical and physical indicators and its relationship with soybean sudden death syndrome (complex of Fusarium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Perez-Brandan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of crop sequences on soil quality indicators and its relationship with sudden death syndrome (SDS, a complex of Fusarium species was evaluated by physical, chemical, biochemical and molecular techniques. Regarding physical aspects, soybean/maize and maize monoculture exhibited the highest stable aggregate level, with values 41% and 43% higher than in soybean monoculture, respectively, and 133% higher than in bean monoculture. Bulk density (BD was higher in soybean monoculture, being 4% higher than in bean monoculture. The chemical parameters organic matter, total N, P, K, Mg, Ca, and water holding capacity also indicated that soybean/maize and maize monoculture improved soil quality. Fungal and bacterial community fingerprints generated using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis of intergenic transcribed spacer regions of rRNA genes and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated a clear separation between the rotations. Fatty acid profiles evaluated by FAME showed that bean monoculture had higher biomass of Gram (+ bacteria and stress indicators than maize monoculture, while the soybean/maize system showed a significant increase in total microbial biomass (total FAMEs content in comparison with soybean and bean monoculture. The incidence of SDS (Fusarium crassistipitatum was markedly higher (15% under soybean monoculture than when soybean was grown in rotation with maize. In the present work, soil microbial properties were improved under soybean/maize relative to continuous soybean. The improvement of soil health was one of the main causes for the reduction of disease pressure and crop yield improvement due to the benefits that crop rotation produces for soil quality.

  18. The effect of crop sequences on soil microbial, chemical and physical indicators and its relationship with soybean sudden death syndrome (complex of Fusarium species)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Brandan, C.; Arzeno, J. L.; Huidobro, J.; Conforto, C.; Grumberg, B.; Hilton, S.; Bending, G. D.; Meriles, J. M.; Vargas-Gil, S.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of crop sequences on soil quality indicators and its relationship with sudden death syndrome (SDS, a complex of Fusarium species) was evaluated by physical, chemical, biochemical and molecular techniques. Regarding physical aspects, soybean/maize and maize mono culture exhibited the highest stable aggregate level, with values 41% and 43% higher than in soybean mono culture, respectively, and 133% higher than in bean mono culture. Bulk density (BD) was higher in soybean monoculture, being 4% higher than in bean monoculture. The chemical parameters organic matter, total N, P, K, Mg, Ca, and water holding capacity also indicated that soybean/maize and maize monoculture improved soil quality. Fungal and bacterial community fingerprints generated using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis of intergenic transcribed spacer regions of rRNA genes and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated a clear separation between the rotations. Fatty acid profiles evaluated by FAME showed that bean monoculture had higher biomass of Gram (+) bacteria and stress indicators than maize monoculture, while the soybean/maize system showed a significant increase in total microbial biomass (total FAMEs content) in comparison with soybean and bean monoculture. The incidence of SDS (Fusarium crassistipitatum) was markedly higher (15%) under soybean monoculture than when soybean was grown in rotation with maize. In the present work, soil microbial properties were improved under soybean/maize relative to continuous soybean. The improvement of soil health was one of the main causes for the reduction of disease pressure and crop yield improvement due to the benefits that crop rotation produces for soil quality. (Author)

  19. Influence of tree species on the herbaceous understory and soil chemical characteristics in a silvopastoral system in semi-arid northeastern Brazil

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    R. S. C. Menezes

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies from some semi-arid regions of the world have shown the beneficial effect of trees in silvopastoral systems, by promoting the formation of resource islands and increasing the sustainability of the system. No data are available in this respect for tree species of common occurrence in semi-arid Northeastern Brazil. In the present study, conducted in the summer of 1996, three tree species (Zyziphus joazeiro, Spondias tuberosa and Prosopis juliflora: found within Cenchrus ciliaris pastures were selected to evaluate differences on herbaceous understory and soil chemical characteristics between samples taken under the tree canopy and in open grass areas. Transects extending from the tree trunk to open grass areas were established, and soil (0-15 cm and herbaceous understory (standing live biomass in 1 m² plots samples were taken at 0, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200% of the average canopy radius (average radius was 6.6 ± 0.5, 4.5 ± 0.5, and 5.3 ± 0.8 m for Z. joazeiro, P. juliflora, and S. tuberosa , respectively. Higher levels of soil C, N, P, Ca, Mg, K, and Na were found under the canopies of Z. joazeiro and P. juliflora: trees, as compared to open grass areas. Only soil Mg organic P were higher under the canopies of S. tuberosa trees, as compared to open grass areas. Herbaceous understory biomass was significantly lower under the canopy of S. tuberosa and P. juliflora trees (107 and 96 g m-2, respectively relatively to open grass areas (145 and 194 g m-2. No herbaceous biomass differences were found between Z. joazeiro canopies and open grass areas (107 and 87 g m-2, respectively. Among the three tree species studied, Z. joazeiro was the one that presented the greatest potential for use in a silvopastoral system at the study site, since it had a larger nutrient stock in the soil without negatively affecting herbaceous understory biomass, relatively to open grass areas.

  20. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Salmonella species Isolated from Beef and its Related Samples in Techiman Municipality of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Adzitey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella species are important foodborne pathogens that have been implicated in a number of foodborne outbreaks. A total of 240 beef and its related samples obtained from the Techiman Municipality of Ghana were screened using the conventional method in the Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM-USA. The overall prevalence of Salmonella species was 57.08%. The prevalence of Salmonella species ranged from 33.30% to 75.00% in the meat and its related samples (table, knife and apron, and 6.30% to 93.80% at the various meat sale points (locations where meat is sold. Prevalence of Salmonella species was significantly higher in meat (75.00%, table (60.00% and knife (60.00%, than apron (33.33%. The most contaminated meat sale point was Kenten and Main markets (93.75% and the least contaminated sale point was Sansema junction (6.25%. All the Salmonella species were susceptible to ciprofloxacin but resistant to vancomycin. Intermediate resistances occur for all the antibiotics except ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. The Salmonella species also exhibited 23 antibiotic resistant patterns with the pattern EVa (erythromycin and vancomycin being the commonest (exhibited by nine different isolates. Multiple antibiotic index (MAR index ranged from 0.11 to 0.67. This study revealed that beef and its related samples in Techiman markets are contaminated with Salmonella.

  1. Cyanoacetylene and its /sup 13/C species: Evidence against relative isotope fractionation and improved /sup 12/C//sup 13/C abundance ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannier, P.G.; Linke, R.A.

    1978-12-15

    We use the J=9..-->..8 transitions of HCCCN and its /sup 13/C substituted species to obtain several results in Sgr B2 and Ori A. In Sgr B2 we test for relative isotope fractionation among the three carbon sites in HCCCN and find none to a level of +- 5%. We verify that HCCCN has low opacity in both sources and derive /sup 12/C//sup 13/C isotope ratios of 50 (Ori A) and 22 (Sgr B2), an indication of galactic evolution of this important ratio. That the Orion ''plateau'' feature is especially prominent in HCCCN indicates a surprisingly large polyatomic molecule abundance for this energetic source. Our spectra also yield information about other chemical species, including a new transition of NH/sub 2/CN, an improved frequency of U81505, and a new unidentified line U79220. In addition, sensitive upper limits for NH/sub 2/CN, CH/sub 2/CO, and HNO in the Orion ''spike'' source imply that this cloud is relatively deficient in these species.

  2. Circadian rhythms differ between sexes and closely related species of Nasonia wasps.

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    Rinaldo C Bertossa

    Full Text Available Activity rhythms in 24 h light-dark cycles, constant darkness, and constant light conditions were analyzed in four different Nasonia species for each sex separately. Besides similarities, clear differences are evident among and within Nasonia species as well as between sexes. In all species, activity in a light-dark cycle is concentrated in the photophase, typical for diurnal organisms. Contrary to most diurnal insect species so far studied, Nasonia follows Aschoff's rule by displaying long (>24 h internal rhythms in constant darkness but short (<24 h in constant light. In constant light, N. vitripennis males display robust circadian activity rhythms, whereas females are usually arrhythmic. In contrast to other Nasonia species, N. longicornis males display anticipatory activity, i.e. activity shortly before light-on in a light-dark cycle. As expected, N. oneida shows activity patterns similar to those of N. giraulti but with important differences in key circadian parameters. Differences in circadian activity patterns and parameters between species may reflect synchronization of specific life-history traits to environmental conditions. Scheduling mating or dispersion to a specific time of the day could be a strategy to avoid interspecific hybridization in Nasonia species that live in sympatry.

  3. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo.

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    Joseph Saragusty

    Full Text Available Lion (Panthera leo populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512 and captive (N = 63 origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH, FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm. There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm and captive (18.56±1.64 mm tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2% had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm, this was evident in 40.4% (23/57 of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  4. 羊肉膻味组成及脱膻技术研究进展%Study on the Species-related Flavors and the Ways to Improve the Acceptability of Mutton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪梅

    2009-01-01

    The compounds that are responsible for the species-related characterizing flavors of mutton were reviewed, and the article also introduced some usual methods used now to reduce the odor of mutton. Short branched-chain fatty acids such as 4-methyloctanoic acid; 4-methylnonanoic acid and so on were considered the main compounds that were responsible for the species-related flavors of mutton. The methods that were used to improve the flavors include Chinese traditional ways, the physical and chemical ways and microbiological ways, but, there was not an effective method to industrialized produce at present.

  5. Sr isotope evolution during chemical weathering of granites -- impact of relative weathering rates of minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Yingjun

    2001-01-01

    [1]Ma, Y. J., Liu, C. Q., Geochemistry of strontium isotopes in the crust weathering system, Acta Mineralogica Sinica (in Chinese), 1998, 18(3): 350.[2]Ma, Y. J., Liu, C. Q., Using strontium isotopes to trace nutrient element circulation and hydrochemical evolution within an ecosystem, Advance in Earth Sciences (in Chinese), 1999, 14 (4): 377.[3]Brantley, S. L., Chesley, J. T., Stillings, L. L., Isotopic ratios and release rates of strontium from weathering feldspars, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1998, 62(9): 1493.[4]Blum, J. D., Erel, Y., A silicate weathering mechanism linking increases in marine 87Sr/86Sr with global glaciation, Nature, 1995, 373: 415.[5]Blum, J. D., Erel, Y., Rb-Sr isotope systematics of granitic soil chronosequence: The importance of biotite weathering, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1997, 61(15): 3193.[6]Bullen, T., Krabbenhoft, D., Kendall, C., Kinetic and mineralogic controls on the evolution of groundwater chemistry and 87Sr/86Sr in a sandy silicate aquifer, northern Wisconsin, USA, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1996, 60: 1807.[7]Bullen, T., White, A., Blum, A. et al., Chemical weathering of a soil chronosequence on granitoid alluvium: Ⅱminer-alogic and isotopic constraints on the behavior of strontium, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1997, 61: 291.[8]Blum, J. D., Erel, Y., Brown, K., 87Sr/86Sr ratios of Sierra Nevada stream waters: Implications for relative mineral weath-ering rates, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1993, 57: 5019.[9]Ma Yingjun, Trace element and strontium isotope geochemistry during chemical weathering, Ph. D. Dissertation, 1999, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.[10]Nesbitt, H. W., Markovics, G., Price, R. C., Chemical processes affecting alkalis and alkaline earths during continental weathering, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1980, 44: 1659.[11]Clauer, N., Strontium and argon isotopes in naturally weathered biotites, muscovites and feldspars, Chem. Geol., 1981, 31: 325.[12

  6. Relations between Environmentally Disturbing Establishments and three Invertebrate Indicator Species in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Joelsson, Anna-Emilia

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the knowledge about polluted areas in Sweden, Naturvårdsverket has compiled a list of all establishments and other anthropological activities, so called MIFOobjects, which emit harmful chemicals. Those activities which are placed on land might, depending on factors such as closeness to the sea, water solubility, degradability and toxicity of the chemicals have an impact on the biota in the Baltic Sea. In this study, spatial and statistical methods were used to explore pote...

  7. Genetic islands in pome fruit pathogenic and nonpathogenic Erwinia species and related plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eLlop

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available New pathogenic bacteria species belonging to the genus Erwinia associated with pome fruit trees (Erwinia pyrifoliae, E. piriflorinigrans, E. uzenensis have been increasingly described in the last years, and comparative analyses have found that all these species share several genetic characteristics. Studies at different level (whole genome comparison, virulence genes, plasmid content, etc. show a high intraspecies homogeneity (i.e. among E. amylovora strains and also abundant similarities appear between the different Erwinia species: presence of plasmids of similar size in the pathogenic species; high similarity in several genes associated with exopolysaccharide production and hence, with virulence, as well as in some other genes, in the chromosomes. Many genetic similarities have been observed also among some of the plasmids (and genomes from the pathogenic species and E. tasmaniensis or E. billingiae, two epiphytic species on the same hosts. The amount of genetic material shared in this genus varies from individual genes to clusters, genomic islands and genetic material that even may constitute a whole plasmid. Recent research on evolution of erwinias point out the horizontal transfer acquisition of some genomic islands that were subsequently lost in some species and several pathogenic traits that are still present. How this common material has been obtained and is efficiently maintained in different species belonging to the same genus sharing a common ecological niche provides an idea of the origin and evolution of the pathogenic Erwinia and the interaction with nonpathogenic species present in the same niche, and the role of the genes that are conserved in all of them.

  8. Seedling growth and biomass allocation in relation to leaf habit and shade tolerance among 10 temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzyński, Jerzy; Chmura, Daniel J; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Initial growth of germinated seeds is an important life history stage, critical for establishment and succession in forests. Important questions remain regarding the differences among species in early growth potential arising from shade tolerance. In addition, the role of leaf habit in shaping relationships underlying shade tolerance-related differences in seedling growth remains unresolved. In this study we examined variation in morphological and physiological traits among seedlings of 10 forest tree species of the European temperate zone varying in shade tolerance and leaf habit (broadleaved winter-deciduous species vs needle-leaved conifers) during a 10-week period. Seeds were germinated and grown in a controlled environment simulating an intermediate forest understory light environment to resolve species differences in initial growth and biomass allocation. In the high-resource experimental conditions during the study, seedlings increased biomass allocation to roots at the cost of leaf biomass independent of shade tolerance and leaf habit. Strong correlations between relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) indicate that physiology and biomass allocation were equally important determinants of RGR as plant structure and leaf morphology among these species. Our findings highlight the importance of seed mass- and seed size-related root morphology (specific root length-SRL) for shade tolerance during early ontogeny. Leaf and plant morphology (SLA, LAR) were more successful in explaining variation among species due to leaf habit than shade tolerance. In both broadleaves and conifers, shade-tolerant species had lower SRL and greater allocation of biomass to stems (stem mass fraction). Light-seeded shade-intolerant species with greater SRL had greater RGR in both leaf habit groups. However, the greatest plant mass was accumulated in the group of heavy-seeded shade

  9. Modeling the Relations Between Flow Regime Components, Species Traits, and Spawning Success of Fishes in Warmwater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Scott W.; Peterson, James T.; Freeman, Mary C.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Irwin, Elise

    2010-08-01

    Modifications to stream hydrologic regimes can have a profound influence on the dynamics of their fish populations. Using hierarchical linear models, we examined the relations between flow regime and young-of-year fish density using fish sampling and discharge data from three different warmwater streams in Illinois, Alabama, and Georgia. We used an information theoretic approach to evaluate the relative support for models describing hypothesized influences of five flow regime components representing: short-term high and low flows; short-term flow stability; and long-term mean flows and flow stability on fish reproductive success during fish spawning and rearing periods. We also evaluated the influence of ten fish species traits on fish reproductive success. Species traits included spawning duration, reproductive strategy, egg incubation rate, swimming locomotion morphology, general habitat preference, and food habits. Model selection results indicated that young-of-year fish density was positively related to short-term high flows during the spawning period and negatively related to flow variability during the rearing period. However, the effect of the flow regime components varied substantially among species, but was related to species traits. The effect of short-term high flows on the reproductive success was lower for species that broadcast their eggs during spawning. Species with cruiser swimming locomotion morphologies (e.g., Micropterus) also were more vulnerable to variable flows during the rearing period. Our models provide insight into the conditions and timing of flows that influence the reproductive success of warmwater stream fishes and may guide decisions related to stream regulation and management.

  10. Tree species related functional properties of dissolved and total organic matter in throughfall, stemflow and forest floor solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalzik, Beate; Bischoff, Sebastian; Schwarz, Martin; Siemens, Jan; Thieme, Lisa; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The amount and chemical nature of water-bound organic matter is a prerequisite for advancing our understanding of the C and nutrient cycling and associated ecosystem processes. While many investigations have addressed the nature and dynamics of DOM in terrestrial ecosystems, only a few have investigated the dynamics and composition of water-bound total OM (TOM) including the particulate organic matter fraction (POM; 0.45 μm material via throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and its compositional fate traversing the forest floor (FF) are insufficiently understood. In particular we asked: How do tree species and forest types affect the amount of dissolved and particulate C and N in TF and FF solutions and thus the input into the mineral soil? Do functional properties (e.g. aromaticity) of DOM and TOM differ in TF, SF and FF solutions collected in beech and spruce stands and among different beech stands across Germany? To monitor (mineral) soil input fluxes of DOM and POM in different spruce and beech forests, we fortnightly sampled TF and FF solution over three years (2010-2012) in the "Hainich-Dün-Exploratory", Thuringia, Central Germany, which forms part of the DFG SPP 1374 "Exploratories for Large-scale and Long-term Functional Biodiversity Research". To characterize chemical properties of DOM and TOM, we applied solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy to TF, SF and FF solutions from three European beech regions across Germany and from Norway spruce sites of the Hainich-Dün-Exploratory. Fluxes of POC and PN were highly variable between years and added significantly to the annual budgets of DOC and DN in TF and FF solutions especially in beech forests. The non-consideration of these particle-bound element fluxes remarkable underestimates the TOC input to the soil by 30 to 40% and those of TN by 10 to 20%. We therefore emphasize the imperative to include POC and PN fluxes into C and N budgeting of forest ecosystems. 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed remarkable tree-species

  11. A review of reaction rates and thermodynamic and transport properties for an 11-species air model for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium calculations to 30000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Roop N.; Yos, Jerrold M.; Thompson, Richard A.; Lee, Kam-Pui

    1990-01-01

    Reaction rate coefficients and thermodynamic and transport properties are reviewed and supplemented for the 11-species air model which can be used for analyzing flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium up to temperatures of 3000 K. Such flows will likely occur around currently planned and future hypersonic vehicles. Guidelines for determining the state of the surrounding environment are provided. Curve fits are given for the various species properties for their efficient computation in flowfield codes. Approximate and more exact formulas are provided for computing the properties of partially ionized air mixtures in a high energy environment. Limitations of the approximate mixing laws are discussed for a mixture of ionized species. An electron number-density correction for the transport properties of the charged species is obtained. This correction has been generally ignored in the literature.

  12. New Microsatellite Markers for Tricyrtis macrantha (Convallariaceae and Cross-Amplification in Closely Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Ohki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were characterized in Tricyrtis macrantha (sect. Brachycyrtis, Convallariaceae, a vulnerable species endemic to Japan, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: Eleven microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to seven, and genetic diversity per locus ranged from 0.142 to 0.812. Four markers were successfully amplified in other species of sect. Brachycyrtis (T. ishiiana, T. ishiiana var. surugensis, and T. macranthopsis. Conclusions: The microsatellite markers can be used to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the vulnerable and endangered species of Tricyrtis sect. Brachycyrtis, to aid in the development of conservation strategies for each species.

  13. New species of Diabrotica Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae and a key to Diabrotica and related genera: results of a synopsis of North and Central American Diabrotica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Derunkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The following 18 new species of Diabrotica are described and illustrated as a result of the synopsis of North and Central American species: D. barclayi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. caveyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. costaricensis sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. dmitryogloblini sp. nov., Mexico; D. duckworthorum sp. nov., Honduras; D. hartjei sp. nov., Panama; D. josephbalyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. lawrencei sp. nov., Mexico; D. mantillerii sp. nov., Panama; D. martinjacobyi sp. nov., Honduras; D. mitteri sp. nov., Panama; D. perkinsi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. redfordae sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. reysmithi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. salvadorensis sp. nov., El Salvador; D. sel sp. nov., Panama; D. spangleri sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. waltersi sp. nov., Panama. In addition, a key to separate Diabrotica from related genera is presented.

  14. Four-locus phylogeny of Fusarium avenaceum and related species and their species-specific identification based on partial phosphate permease gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakheev, Alexander A; Khairulina, Dina R; Zavriev, Sergey K

    2016-05-16

    The fungus Fusarium avenaceum and its closest relatives are responsible for contamination of agricultural plants and their products by mycotoxins such as enniatins and moniliformin. Precise identification of mycotoxin producers is necessary for estimation of the accumulation risk of those compounds and for preventing the consumption of highly contaminated products. Nucleic acids amplification-based techniques proved to be the most rapid and reliable approach for pathogen diagnostics and identification. In this study partial phosphate permease gene (PHO) sequences were determined for Fusarium avenaceum (including one isolate identified as F. arthrosporioides), F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. torulosum. Phylogenetic analysis of 40 isolates of those species from different climates and geographical regions of Russia and some neighboring countries based on sequences of PHO, translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1α), beta-tubulin (β-TUB), enniatin synthetase (Esyn1) genes and combined data set demonstrated that the PHO gene possesses the highest rate of variability among them and can be considered as an informative marker for phylogenetic studies of these species. According to the combined data set phylogeny, the isolates of each species formed clusters with a high bootstrap support. Analysis of PHO sequences revealed a high intraspecific variability of F. avenaceum: there were 5 independent clusters on the dendrogram, including one cluster which was closer to F. torulosum than to other F. avenaceum isolates. Variable sites in PHO sequences have been used for the design of species-specific primers and a fluorescent hydrolysis probe. The specificity of the assay was shown for DNA samples extracted from 68 isolates of 23 Fusarium species. Quantitative PCR approach was applied to estimate the contamination rate of 17 naturally infected oat and barley samples, previously characterized by microbi