WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical soil properties

  1. Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils under Contrasting Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils under Contrasting Land Use ... the aim of understanding the response of the soil to different management practices over time. ... The soil chemical properties studied were soil pH, organic carbon, total ...

  2. Linkages between aggregate formation, porosity and soil chemical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, I.C.; Stoof, C.R.; Rousseva, S.; Weng, L.; Lair, G.J.; Kram, P.; Nikolaidis, N.P.; Kercheva, M.; Banwart, S.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Linkages between soil structure and physical–chemical soil properties are still poorly understood due to the wide size-range at which aggregation occurs and the variety of aggregation factors involved. To improve understanding of these processes, we collected data on aggregate fractions, soil

  3. Effect of biosolids application on soil chemical properties and uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of biosolids application on soil chemical properties and uptake of some heavy metals by Cercis siliquastrum. ... and municipal solid waste compost (50% CM + 50% MC) at three levels of 0, 2.5 and 5 kg/shrub and three replicates in calcareous sandy loam soil at the botanical garden of Mobarekeh steel company.

  4. Effect of vegetation switch on soil chemical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iwashima, N.; Masunaga, T.; Fujimaki, R.; Toyota, Ayu; Tayasu, I.; Hiura, T.; Kaneko, N.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 6 (2012), s. 783-792 ISSN 0038-0768 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : earthworm * litter * nutrient cycling * soil chemical properties * vegetation switch Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.889, year: 2012

  5. EFFECT OF ALTERNATIVE MULTINUTRIENT SOURCES ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current high price of potassium chloride and the dependence of Brazil on imported materials to supply the domestic demand call for studies evaluating the efficiency of alternative sources of nutrients. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of silicate rock powder and a manganese mining by-product, and secondary materials originated from these two materials, on soil chemical properties and on brachiaria production. This greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with 5 kg of soil (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico - Oxisol. The alternative nutrient sources were: verdete, verdete treated with NH4OH, phonolite, ultramafic rock, mining waste and the proportion of 75 % of these K fertilizers and 25 % lime. Mixtures containing 25 % of lime were heated at 800 ºC for 1 h. These sources were applied at rates of 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg ha-1 K2O, and incubated for 45 days. The mixtures of heated silicate rocks with lime promoted higher increases in soil pH in decreasing order: ultramafic rock>verdete>phonolite>mining waste. Applying the mining waste-lime mixture increased soil exchangeable K, and available P when ultramafic rock was incorporated. When ultramafic rock was applied, the release of Ca2+ increased significantly. Mining subproduct released the highest amount of Zn2+ and Mn2+ to the soil. The application of alternative sources of K, with variable chemical composition, altered the nutrient availability and soil chemical properties, improving mainly plant development and K plant uptake, and are important nutrient sources.

  6. Cover Crops Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Onion Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Assis de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops contribute to nutrient cycling and may improve soil chemical properties and, consequently, increase crop yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate cover crop residue decomposition and nutrient release, and the effects of these plants on soil chemical properties and on onion (Allium cepa L. yield in a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in an Inceptisol in southern Brazil, where cover crops were sown in April 2012 and 2013. In July 2013, shoots of weeds (WD, black oats (BO, rye (RY, oilseed radish (RD, oilseed radish + black oats (RD + BO, and oilseed radish + rye (RD + RY were cut at ground level and part of these material from each treatment was placed in litter bags. The litter bags were distributed on the soil surface and were collected at 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days after distribution (DAD. The residues in the litter bags were dried, weighed, and ground, and then analyzed to quantify lignin, cellulose, non-structural biomass, total organic carbon (TOC, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. In November 2012 and 2013, onion crops were harvested to quantify yield, and bulbs were classified according to diameter, and the number of rotted and flowering bulbs was determined. Soil in the 0.00-0.10 m layer was collected for chemical analysis before transplanting and after harvesting onion in December 2012 and 2013. The rye plant residues presented the highest half-life and they released less nutrients until 90 DAD. The great permanence of rye residue was considered a protection to soil surface, the opposite was observed with spontaneous vegetation. The cultivation and addition of dry residue of cover crops increased the onion yield at 2.5 Mg ha-1.

  7. Predicting radiocaesium sorption characteristics with soil chemical properties for Japanese soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Shinichiro; Smolders, Erik; Sweeck, Lieve; Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2015-08-15

    The high variability of the soil-to-plant transfer factor of radiocaesium (RCs) compels a detailed analysis of the radiocaesium interception potential (RIP) of soil, which is one of the specific factors ruling the RCs transfer. The range of the RIP values for agricultural soils in the Fukushima accident affected area has not yet been fully surveyed. Here, the RIP and other major soil chemical properties were characterised for 51 representative topsoils collected in the vicinity of the Fukushima contaminated area. The RIP ranged a factor of 50 among the soils and RIP values were lower for Andosols compared to other soils, suggesting a role of soil mineralogy. Correlation analysis revealed that the RIP was most strongly and negatively correlated to soil organic matter content and oxalate extractable aluminium. The RIP correlated weakly but positively to soil clay content. The slope of the correlation between RIP and clay content showed that the RIP per unit clay was only 4.8 mmol g(-1) clay, about threefold lower than that for clays of European soils, suggesting more amorphous minerals and less micaceous minerals in the clay fraction of Japanese soils. The negative correlation between RIP and soil organic matter may indicate that organic matter can mask highly selective sorption sites to RCs. Multiple regression analysis with soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity explained the soil RIP (R(2)=0.64), allowing us to map soil RIP based on existing soil map information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of physical and chemical properties of different soil types on optimal soil moisture for tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zebec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil plasticity is the area of soil consistency, i.e. it represents a change in soil condition due to different soil moisture influenced by external forces activity. Consistency determines soil resistance in tillage, therefore, the aim of the research was to determine the optimum soil moisture condition for tillage and the influence of the chemical and physical properties of the arable land horizons on the soil plasticity on three different types of soil (fluvisol, luvisol and humic glaysol. Statistically significant differences were found between all examined soil types, such as the content of clay particles, the density of packaging and the actual and substitution acidity, the cation exchange capacity and the content of calcium. There were also statistically significant differences between the examined types of soil for the plasticity limit, liquid limit and the plasticity index. The average established value of plasticity limit as an important element for determining the optimal moment of soil tillage was 18.9% mass on fluvisol, 24.0% mass on luvisol and 28.6% mass on humic glaysol. Very significant positive direction correlation with plasticity limits was shown by organic matter, clay, fine silt, magnesium, sodium and calcium, while very significant negative direction correlation was shown by hydrolytic acidity, coarse sand, fine sand and coarse silt. Created regression models can estimate the optimal soil moisture condition for soil cultivation based on the basic soil properties. The model precision is significantly increased by introducing a greater number of agrochemical and agrophysical soil properties, and the additional precision of the model can be increased by soil type data.

  9. Effect of animal manures on selected soil chemical properties (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of animal manures on selected soil properties were studied in the laboratory. Manures of Rabbit (RBM), Swine (SWM), Poultry (POM), Goat, (GTM) and Cow (COM) were added at 10, 20, 30 and 40 t/ha to an acidic Ultisol. The amended soils were incubated at 70% water holding capacity for 3 weeks.

  10. Effect of land use on some soil chemical properties and P fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land use directly or indirectly affects the soil chemical properties and phosphorus fractions. Two different land use types were studied. Soil chemical analysis and phosphorus fractionation of the soils was then done and the results were highly significant (p<0.001). Total C, N and P were low under the arable land use as ...

  11. Spatial variability of chemical properties of soil under pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ferreira da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of soil chemical attributes under pasture, as well as lime and fertilizer recommendations based on the interpretation of soil chemical analysis from two sampling methods: conventional and systematic depths of 0 to 10 and 10 to 20 cm. The study was conducted at IFES-campus Alegre-ES. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and geostatistics. Results indicate that the spatial method enabled the identification of deficit areas and excessive liming and fertilization, which could not be defined by the conventional method.

  12. Assessment of chemical properties of tropical peatland soil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical assessment of the peatland in oil palm plantation in South Selangor Peatland Swamp in Malaysia were evaluated in this study. Soil samples were obtained from fifteen (15) different locations within the study area at three different depths of 0.5m, 1.5 m, and 2.5 m in three replicates at each depth, using peat ...

  13. Time-dependent effect of composted tannery sludge on the chemical and microbial properties of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Ricardo Silva; Santos, Vilma Maria; de Melo, Wanderley Jose; Nunes, Luis Alfredo Pinheiro Leal; van den Brink, Paul J; Araújo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Composting has been suggested as an efficient method for tannery sludge recycling before its application to the soil. However, the application of composted tannery sludge (CTS) should be monitored to evaluate its effect on the chemical and microbial properties of soil. This study evaluated the time-dependent effect of CTS on the chemical and microbial properties of soil. CTS was applied at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 Mg ha -1 and the soil chemical and microbial properties were evaluated at 0, 45, 75, 150, and 180 days. Increased CTS rates increased the levels of Ca, Cr, and Mg. While Soil pH, organic C, and P increased with the CTS rates initially, this effect decreased over time. Soil microbial biomass, respiration, metabolic quotient, and dehydrogenase increased with the application of CTS, but decreased over time. Analysis of the Principal Response Curve showed a significant effect of CTS rate on the chemical and microbial properties of the soil over time. The weight of each variable indicated that all soil properties, except β-glucosidase, dehydrogenase and microbial quotient, increased due to the CTS application. However, the highest weights were found for Cr, pH, Ca, P, phosphatase and total organic C. The application of CTS in the soil changed the chemical and microbial properties over time, indicating Cr, pH, Ca, phosphatase, and soil respiration as the more responsive chemical and microbial variables by CTS application.

  14. Soil chemical and physical properties that differentiate urban land-use and cover types

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.V. Pouyat; I.D. Yesilonis; J. Russell-Anelli; N.K. Neerchal

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of land use and cover and surface geology on soil properties in Baltimore, MD, with the objectives to: (i) measure the physical and chemical properties of surface soils (0?10 cm) by land use and cover; and (ii) ascertain whether land use and cover explain differences in these properties relative to surface geology. Mean and median values of...

  15. Relationships between some soil physical and chemical properties with magnetic properties in different soil moisture regimes in Golestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valaee

    2016-09-01

    mm and 846 mm in Touskstan uplands (Udic regime, respectively. this study was conducted in four soil moisture regimes (Aridic, Xeric, Udic and Aquic, for exploring the relationships between soil properties and magnetic measures. In each regimes, 25 soil profiles were drug, described and soil samples were collected from each of soil horizons. Soil samples were air-dried and sieved using a 2 mm sieve. The dithionite-citrate bicarbonate (DCB method was used to measure Fed and acid ammonium oxalate for Feo. In this study, a set of environmental magnetic parameters including magnetic susceptibility at low frequency (χlf, saturation isothermal remnant magnetization (SIRM, isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM100 mT were measured. Magnetic susceptibility (χ was measured at low frequency (0.47 kHz; χlf and high frequency (4.7 kHz; χhf using a Bartington MS2 dual frequency sensor using approximately 20 g of soil held in a four-dram clear plastic vial (2.3 cm diameter. Frequency dependent susceptibility (χfd was determined by the difference between the high and low frequency measurements as a percentage of χ at low frequency. IRM was measured at the field of 100 mT generated in a Molspin pulse magnetizer (IRM100mT and at the back field of 100mT (IRM−100mT. The IRM acquired in the maximum field of 1000 mT was measured and defined as the saturation isothermal remnant magnetization (SIRM of the soil sample. Results and Discussion: The results showed that moisture regime induced significant differences for soil physical and chemical properties. Diversities in genetic soil horizons and soil development degree have been increased from Aridic to Udic soil moisture regime. The results also indicated that selected properties including magnetic measures and physical and chemical properties were significantly different in four soil moisture regimes. With increasing rainfall and reducing temperature from aridic to udic soil moisture regime, soil organic matter was increased

  16. Principal chemical properties of artificial soil composed of fly ash and furfural residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Y.J.; Li, F.; Wang, X.L.; Liu, X.M.; Zhang, L.N. [Shandong Agricultural University, Tai An (China). College of Resources & Environments

    2006-10-15

    To solve soil shortage in reclaiming subsided land of coal mines, the principal chemical properties of artificial soil formed by mixing organic furfural residue and inorganic fly ash were examined. The results indicated that the artificial soil was suitable for agriculture use after irrigation and desalination, the available nutrients in the artificial soil could satisfy the growth demand of plants, and the pH tended to the neutrality.

  17. Restoration of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Abandoned Tin- Mining in Bangka Belitung Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Yuarsah; Etik Puji Handayani; Rakhmiati; Yatmin

    2017-01-01

    The practices of tin mining that remove all soil layers on top of the mineral deposit layers have caused serious environmental problems, i.e. degradation of soil physical and chemical properties and disappearance of vegetation, flora and fauna in ecosystems, which further can change the local microclimate. The tailing area of tin mining have unstable soil structure and low organic matter content, so it is vulnerable to land slides and erosion. The characteristics of the soils in the tailing a...

  18. Bio-chemical properties of sandy calcareous soil treated with rice straw-based hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssni El-Saied

    2016-06-01

    The results obtained show that, application of the investigated hydrogels positively affects bio-chemical properties of the soil. These effects are assembled in the following: (a slightly decreasing soil pH, (b increasing cation exchange capacity (CEC of the soil indicating improvement in activating chemical reactions in the soil, (c increasing organic matter (OM, organic carbon, total nitrogen percent in the soil. Because the increase in organic nitrogen surpassed that in organic carbon, a narrower CN ratio of treated soils was obtained. This indicated the mineralization of nitrogen compounds and hence the possibility to save and provide available forms of N to growing plants, (d increasing available N, P and K in treated soil, and (e improving biological activity of the soil expressed as total count of bacteria and counts of Azotobacter sp., phosphate dissolving bacteria (PDB, fungi and actinomycetes/g soil as well as the activity of both dehydrogenase and phosphatase.

  19. Solid waste disposal in the soil: effects on the physical, chemical, and organic properties of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regina Lasaro Mangieri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is growing concern over the final destination of the solid waste generated by society. Landfills should not be considered the endpoint for substances contained or generated in solid waste. The sustainable use of natural resources, especially soil and water, has become relevant, given the increase in anthropogenic activities. Agricultural use is an alternative to solid waste (leachate, biosolid disposal, considering the hypothesis that the agricultural use of waste is promising for reducing waste treatment costs, promoting nutrient reuse and improving the physical and chemical conditions of soil. Thus, this literature review, based on previously published data, seeks to confirm or disprove the hypothesis regarding the promising use of solid waste in agriculture to decrease the environmental liability that challenges public administrators in the development of efficient management. The text below addresses the following subtopics after the introduction: current solid waste disposal and environmental issues, the use of solid waste in agriculture, and the effect on the physical and chemical properties of soil and on organic matter, ending with final considerations.

  20. Effect of Sewage Sludge on Some Macronutrients Concentration and Soil Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakine Vaseghi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge as an organic fertilizer has economic benefits. Land application of sewage sludge improves some soil chemical and physical properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge on soil chemical properties and macronutrient concentration in acid and calcareous soils. The study was carried out in a greenhouse using factorial experiment design as completely randomized with three replications. Treatments included : four levels of 0 or control, 50, and 100, 200 ton ha-1 sludge and one level of chemical fertilizer (F consisting of 250 kg ha-1 diammonium phosphate and 250 kg ha-1 urea, and soil including soils of Langroud, Lahijan, Rasht, and Isfahan. As a major vegetable , crop spinach (Spinacea oleracea was grown in the treated soils. Soils samples were analyzed for their chemical properties after crop narvesting. Application of sewage sludge significantly increased plant available k, P, total N, organic matter, electrical conductivity and cation exchange in the soils. Soils pH significantly decreased as a result sewage sludge application. The effect of sewage sludge on plant yield was significant. Overall, the results indicated that sewage sludge is potentially a valuable fertilizer. However, the sludge effect on soil EC and heavy metals should be taken into consideration before its widespread use on cropland.

  1. Fauna-associated changes in chemical and biochemical properties of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, G; Sharma, B M

    2006-12-01

    To study the impacts of abundance of woodlice, termites, and mites on some functional aspects of soil in order to elucidate the specific role of soil fauna in improving soil fertility in desert. Fauna-rich sites were selected as experimental sites and adjacent areas were taken as control. Soil samples were collected from both sites. Soil respiration was measured at both sites. The soil samples were sent to laboratory, their chemical and biochemical properties were analyzed. Woodlice showed 25% decrease in organic carbon and organic matter as compared to control site. Whereas termites and mites showed 58% and 16% decrease in organic carbon and organic matter. In contrast, available nitrogen (nitrate and ammonical both) and phosphorus exhibited 2-fold and 1.2-fold increase, respectively. Soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity at the sites rich in woodlice, termites and mites produced 2.5-, 3.5- and 2-fold increases, respectively as compared to their control values. Fauna-associated increase in these biological parameters clearly reflected fauna-induced microbial activity in soil. Maximum decrease in organic carbon and increase in nitrate-nitrogen and ammonical-nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity were produced by termites and minimum by mites reflecting termite as an efficient soil improver in desert environment. The soil fauna-associated changes in chemical (organic carbon, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonical-nitrogen, phosphorus) and biochemical (soil respiration, dehydrogenase activity) properties of soil improve soil health and help in conservation of desert pedoecosystem.

  2. Changes in soil chemical properties as affected by pyrogenic organic matter amendment with different intensity and frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Ruzhen; Zhang, Yulan; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio; Cao, Mingming; Zhang, Yongyong; Yin, Jinfei; Jiang, Yong; Chen, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) has long been used as a soil amendment to improve soil physicochemical properties. However, few studies simultaneously investigated both intensities and frequencies of PyOM addition on soil chemical properties of soil base cations, soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC),

  3. Soil physical and chemical properties of cacao farms in the south western region of cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low macro nutrient content (K, Ca and Mg) in soils under cacao is one of the major causes of the poor cacao (Theobroma cacao L) yields. Efforts were made to assess the major physical and chemical properties of soils from some important cacao zones of the South West Region of Cameroon in order t...

  4. Time-dependent effect of composted tannery sludge on the chemical and microbial properties of soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, de Ricardo Silva; Santos, Vilma Maria; Melo, de Wanderley Jose; Nunes, Luis Alfredo Pinheiro Leal; Brink, van den Paul J.; Araújo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Composting has been suggested as an efficient method for tannery sludge recycling before its application to the soil. However, the application of composted tannery sludge (CTS) should be monitored to evaluate its effect on the chemical and microbial properties of soil. This study evaluated the

  5. The Effect of Rubber Effluent on some Chemical Properties of Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary pot trial was conducted in a greenhouse to determine the effects of rubber effluent on some soil chemical properties as well as early growth and nutrient uptake by maize plant. The levels of rubber effluent used were 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ml per 2 kg soil. The trial was arranged in a completely randomized ...

  6. The Effects of Rubber Effluent on Some Chemical Properties of Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary pot trial was conducted in a greenhouse to determine the effects of rubber effluent on some soil chemical properties as well as growth and nutrient uptake by maize plant. The levels of rubber effluent used were 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ml per 2 kg soil. The trial was organized in a completely randomized ...

  7. Chemical and microbial properties in contaminated soils around a magnesite mine in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Yang; D-H Zeng; J Zhang; L-J Li; R. Mao

    2012-01-01

    We measured soil chemical and microbial properties at a depth of 0–20 cm among mine tailings, abandoned mined land, contaminated cropland, and uncontaminated cropland around a magnesite mine near Haicheng City, Liaoning Province, China. The objective was to clarify the impact of Mg on the soils. We found that soluble Mg2+ concentration and pH...

  8. Soil chemical properties and legume-cereal rotation benefits in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted at the Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria Teaching and Research Farm in 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. The objective was to evaluate the effects of edible grain legumes (cowpea and soybean) and velvet-bean/maize rotations on soil chemical properties and the contribution ...

  9. Effects of pig slurry application on soil physical and chemical properties and glyphosate mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry applied to soil at different rates may affect soil properties and the mobility of chemical compounds within the soil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rates of pig slurry application in agricultural areas on soil physical and chemical properties and on the mobility of glyphosate through the soil profile. The study was carried out in the 12th year of an experiment with pig slurry applied at rates of 0 (control, 50, 100 and 200 m³ ha-1 yr-1 on a Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Hapludox soil. In the control, the quantities of P and K removed by harvested grains were replaced in the next crop cycle. Soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, texture, and saturated hydraulic conductivity and chemical properties (organic matter, pH, extractable P, and exchangeable K were measured. Soil solution samples were collected at depths of 20, 40 and 80 cm using suction lysimeters, and glyphosate concentrations were measured over a 60-day period after slurry application. Soil physical and chemical properties were little affected by the pig slurry applications, but soil pH was reduced and P levels increased in the surface layers. In turn, K levels were increased in sub-surface layers. Glyphosate concentrations tended to decrease over time but were not affected by pig slurry application. The concentrations of glyphosate found in different depths show that the pratice of this application in agricultural soils has the potential for contamination of groundwater, especially when the water table is the surface and heavy rains occur immediately after application.

  10. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

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    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  11. Spatial distribution of the chemical properties of the soil and of soybean yield in the field

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    Alexandre Gazolla-Neto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial dependence between chemical properties of the soil and yield components in the soybean using precision farming techniques. Samples of the soil and plants were taken from georeferenced points to determine the chemical properties of the soil and the yield components. The results were submitted to Pearson correlation analysis, descriptive statistics and geostatistics. The coefficient of variation showed a wide range of distribution for the chemical attributes of the soil, with the highest indices being found for the levels of available phosphorus (102% and potassium (72.65%. Soil pH and organic matter showed a coefficient of variation of 5.96 and 15.93% respectively. Semivariogram analysis of the yield components (productivity, 1,000-seed weight and number of seeds and the chemical properties of the soil (organic matter, pH, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, boron, manganese and zinc fitted the spherical model with moderate spatial dependence, with values ranging from 200 to 700 m. Spatial distribution by means of map interpolation was efficient in evaluating spatial variability, allowing the identification and quantification of regions of low and high productivity in the production area, together with the distribution of soil attributes and their respective levels of availability to the soybean plants.

  12. Organic and inorganic amendment application on mercury-polluted soils: effects on soil chemical and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Klouza, Martin; Holečková, Zlata; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of a previous study performed in our laboratory, the use of organic and inorganic amendments can significantly modify the Hg mobility in soil. We have compared the effectiveness of organic and inorganic amendments such as digestate and fly ash, respectively, reducing the Hg mobility in Chernozem and Luvisol soils differing in their physicochemical properties. Hence, the aim of this work was to compare the impact of digestate and fly ash application on the chemical and biochemical parameters in these two mercury-contaminated soils in a model batch experiment. Chernozem and Luvisol soils were artificially contaminated with Hg and then incubated under controlled conditions for 21 days. Digestate and fly ash were applied to both soils in a dose of 10 and 1.5 %, respectively, and soil samples were collected after 1, 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation. The presence of Hg in both soils negatively affected to processes such as nitrification, provoked a decline in the soil microbial biomass C (soil microbial biomass C (MBC)), and the microbial activities (arylsulfatase, and β-glucosaminidase) in both soils. Meanwhile, the digestate addition to Chernozem and Luvisol soils contaminated with Hg improved the soil chemical properties (pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), N (Ntot), inorganic-N forms (N-NH4 (+) and N-NO3 (-))), as consequence of high content in C and N contained in digestate. Likewise, the soil MBC and soil microbial activities (dehydrogenase, arylsulfatase, and β-glucosaminidase) were greatly enhanced by the digestate application in both soils. In contrast, fly ash application did not have a remarkable positive effect when compared to digestate in Chernozem and Luvisol soil contaminated with mercury. These results may indicate that the use of organic amendments such as digestate considerably improved the soil health in Chernozem and Luvisol compared with fly ash, alleviating the detrimental impact of Hg. Probably, the chemical properties present in

  13. Changes in soil chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application of various organic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlare, M; Pell, M; Svensson, K

    2008-01-01

    A 4-year field trial was established in eastern Sweden to evaluate the effects of organic waste on soil chemical and microbiological variables. A simple crop rotation with barley and oats was treated with either compost from household waste, biogas residue from household waste, anaerobically treated sewage sludge, pig manure, cow manure or mineral fertilizer. All fertilizers were amended in rates corresponding to 100kgNha(-1)year(-1). The effects of the different types of organic waste were evaluated by subjecting soil samples, taken each autumn 4 weeks after harvest, to an extensive set of soil chemical (pH, Org-C, Tot-N, Tot-P, Tot-S, P-AL, P-Olsen, K-AL, and some metals) and microbiological (B-resp, SIR, microSIR active and dormant microorganisms, PDA, microPDA, PAO, Alk-P and N-min) analyses. Results show that compost increased pH, and that compost as well as sewage sludge increased plant available phosphorus; however, the chemical analysis showed few clear trends over the 4 years and few clear relations to plant yield or soil quality. Biogas residues increased substrate induced respiration (SIR) and, compared to the untreated control amendment of biogas residues as well as compost, led to a higher proportion of active microorganisms. In addition, biogas residues increased potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO), nitrogen mineralization capacity (N-min) as well as the specific growth rate constant of denitrifiers (microPDA). Despite rather large concentrations of heavy metals in some of the waste products, no negative effects could be seen on either chemical or microbiological soil properties. Changes in soil microbial properties appeared to occur more rapidly than most chemical properties. This suggests that soil microbial processes can function as more sensitive indicators of short-term changes in soil properties due to amendment of organic wastes.

  14. PREDICTION OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RORAIMA SOILS BY NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson E. Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils testing are time consuming and costly to operate, and can generate as high toxicity residues for the people or environment. Near Infrared Spectroscopy is one good alternative to replace conventional techniques, because it is fast – 60 seconds by sample, without producing residues and applicable to all soil properties, like physics and chemical properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the NIR technique in quantifying various Roraima soil properties. Eighty-four soil samples collected in XI RCC soil profiles were analyzed for K and Na available, organic carbon, total nitrogen, Si, Fe and Al oxides and sand and clay contents by conventional and NIR techniques. NIR spectra were obtained in the range of 10000 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1, with spectral resolution of 4 cm-1. With the all bands were adjusted by calibration and validation models submitted to pre-treatments with the purpose of reducing the noise effect and the absence of linearity. Except in relation to the available K, calibration models had R2 values for calibration and validation above 80% for all other soil properties tested. It is concluded that the NIR technique had good predictive capacity of the soil properties tested, and can be used for any variable whose interpretation is obtained based on continuous value intervals. Keywords: soil testing; green chemistry; Amazon.

  15. Short-Term Changes in Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil Charcoal Support Enhanced Landscape Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Lacey A.; Magee, Kate L.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Hockaday, William C.; Masiello, Caroline A.

    2017-11-01

    Charcoal is a major component of the stable soil organic carbon reservoir, and the physical and chemical properties of charcoal can sometimes significantly alter bulk soil properties (e.g., by increasing soil water holding capacity). However, our understanding of the residence time of soil charcoal remains uncertain, with old measured soil charcoal ages in apparent conflict with relatively short modeled and measured residence times. These discrepancies may exist because the fate of charcoal on the landscape is a function not just of its resistance to biological decomposition but also its physical mobility. Mobility may be important in controlling charcoal landscape residence time and may artificially inflate estimates of its degradability, but few studies have examined charcoal vulnerability to physical redistribution. Charcoal landscape redistribution is likely higher than other organic carbon fractions owing to charcoal's low bulk density, typically less than 1.0 g/cm3. Here we examine both the physical and chemical properties of soil and charcoal over a period of two years following a 2011 wildfire in Texas. We find little change in properties with time; however, we find evidence of enhanced mobility of charcoal relative to other forms of soil organic matter. These data add to a growing body of evidence that charcoal is preferentially eroded, offering another explanation for variations observed in its environmental residence times.

  16. Relationships between respiration, chemical and microbial properties of afforested mine soils with different soil texture and tree species: Does the time of incubation matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Józefowska, A.; Pietrzykowski, M.; Woś, B.; Cajthaml, T.; Frouz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 80, May (2017), s. 102-109 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : afforested mine soils * soil texture * tree species * chemical properties * microbial properties Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 2.445, year: 2016

  17. Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Epigeal Termite Mounds in Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana de Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We characterized soil physical and chemical properties and soil organic matter in epigeal termite mounds in pastures to evaluate the changes promoted by termites in comparison to an adjacent area. We selected seven active epigeal termite mounds in the municipality of Seropédica, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from top, center and base positions of each mound, at 0.50 and 1.50 m distance from the base of the mound. We identified individuals of the genus Embiratermes, Velocitermes, and Orthognathotermes. The humin fraction predominated over the humic and fulvic acid fractions both in mounds and adjacent soil. The amount of organic matter and the mineral fractions (mineral-associated organic carbon - MOC varied among builder species. The studied chemical attributes point to a higher concentration of nutrients in the mounds than in the adjacent soil.

  18. Tree species traits influence soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in high elevation forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ayres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North America. We hypothesized that soil properties would differ among stands dominated by different tree species and expected that aspen stands would have higher soil temperatures due to their open structure, which, combined with higher quality litter, would result in increased soil respiration rates, nitrogen availability, and microbial biomass, and differences in soil faunal community composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed soil physical, chemical, and biological properties at four sites where stands of aspen, pine, and spruce occurred in close proximity to one-another in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Leaf litter quality differed among the tree species, with the highest nitrogen (N concentration and lowest lignin:N in aspen litter. Nitrogen concentration was similar in pine and spruce litter, but lignin:N was highest in pine litter. Soil temperature and moisture were highest in aspen stands, which, in combination with higher litter quality, probably contributed to faster soil respiration rates from stands of aspen. Soil carbon and N content, ammonium concentration, and microbial biomass did not differ among tree species, but nitrate concentration was highest in aspen soil and lowest in spruce soil. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolan, and mesostigmatid mite abundance differed among the tree species, while the total abundance of nematodes, tardigrades, oribatid mites, and prostigmatid

  19. [Heidaigou Opencast Coal Mine: Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Physical and Chemical Properties Under Different Vegetation Restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ying; Ma, Ren-tian; An, Shao-shan; Zhao, Jun-feng; Xiao, Li

    2016-03-15

    Choosing the soils under different vegetation recovery of Heidaigou dump as the research objects, we mainly analyzed their basic physical and chemical properties and enzyme activities with the method of Analysis of Variance as well as their relations using Pearson correlation analysis and path analysis hoping to uncover the driving factors of the differences between soil enzyme activities under different vegetation restoration, and provide scientific suggestions for the plant selection as well as make a better evaluation to the reclamation effect. The results showed that: (1) Although the artificial vegetation restoration improved the basic physical and chemical properties of the soils while increasing their enzyme activities to a certain extent, the soil conditions still did not reach the level of the natural grassland; (2) Contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil total nitrogen (TN) of the seabuckthorns were the nearest to those of the grassland, which reached 54. 22% and 70. 00% of those of the grassland. In addition, the soil bulk density of the seabuckthorns stand was 17. 09% lower than the maximum value of the amorpha fruitcosa land. The SOC and TN contents as well as the bulk density showed that seabuckthorns had advantages as the species for land reclamation of this dump; Compared with the seabuckthorn, the pure poplar forest had lower contents of SOC and TN respectively by 35.64% and 32.14% and displayed a 16.79% higher value of soil bulk density; (3) The activities of alkaline phosphotase under different types of vegetation rehabilitation had little variation. But soil urease activities was more sensitive to reflect the effects of vegetation restoration on soil properties; (4) Elevation of the SOC and TN turned out to be the main cause for soil fertility restoration and increased biological activities of the dump.

  20. Restoration of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Abandoned Tin- Mining in Bangka Belitung Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Yuarsah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The practices of tin mining that remove all soil layers on top of the mineral deposit layers have caused serious environmental problems, i.e. degradation of soil physical and chemical properties and disappearance of vegetation, flora and fauna in ecosystems, which further can change the local microclimate. The tailing area of tin mining have unstable soil structure and low organic matter content, so it is vulnerable to land slides and erosion. The characteristics of the soils in the tailing area that are very acidic, low nutrient availability, low water holding capacity and high soil temperature challange the restoration and improvement processes of this area. The aim of the research was to develop appropriate restoration techniques to improve the soil properties of post tin mining land that have been degraded due to mining activities. Appropriate plant species and specific location technology were determined based on the characterization and evaluation of potential land resources. Annual crop cultivation, cultivation of legume cover crops (Mucuna sp., Calopogonium sp., Pueraria javanica and management of top soil and organic matter should be applied in order to improve soil structure, maintain soil moisture, as well as to reduce nutrient loss in coarse sandy soils.

  1. Evaluating effects of sewage sludge and household compost on soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debosz, K.; Petersen, S.O.; Kure, L.K.

    2002-01-01

    Recycling of organic wastes within agriculture may help maintain soil fertility via effects on physical, chemical and biological properties. Efficient use, however, requires an individual assessment of waste products, and effects should be compared with natural variations due to climate and soil......C, as well as in the field. The following properties were monitored: wet-stability of soil aggregates, clay dispersibility, hot-water extractable carbohydrates, resin-extractable P-i, inorganic N, biomass C and N, PLFA profiles, FDA hydrolysis activity, beta-glucosidase activity and CO2 evolution. In general...... amendment on the fraction of soil in wet-stable aggregates, or on the microbiological properties tested, which supported the observation from the incubation study that effects of organic wastes were transient. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. In Situ Earthworm Breeding to Improve Soil Aggregation, Chemical Properties, and Enzyme Activity in Papayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Xiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The long-term use of mineral fertilizers has decreased the soil fertility in papaya (Carica papaya L. orchards in South China. In situ earthworm breeding is a new sustainable practice for improving soil fertility. A field experiment was conducted to compare the effects of four treatments consisting of the control (C, chemical fertilizer (F, compost (O, and in situ earthworm breeding (E on soil physico-chemical properties and soil enzyme activity in a papaya orchard. The results showed that soil chemical properties, such as pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total nitrogen (TN, available nitrogen (AN, and total phosphorus (TP were significantly improved with the E treatment but declined with the F treatment. On 31 October 2008, the SOM and TN with the O and E treatments were increased by 26.3% and 15.1%, respectively, and by 32.5% and 20.6% compared with the F treatment. Furthermore, the O and E treatments significantly increased the activity of soil urease and sucrase. Over the whole growing season, soil urease activity was 34.4%~40.4% and 51.1%~58.7% higher with the O and E treatments, respectively, than that with the C treatment. Additionally, the activity of soil sucrase with the E treatment was always the greatest of the four treatments, whereas the F treatment decreased soil catalase activity. On 11 June 2008 and 3 July 2008, the activity of soil catalase with the F treatment was decreased by 19.4% and 32.0% compared with C. Soil bulk density with the four treatments was in the order of O ≤ E < F < C. The O- and E-treated soil bulk density was significantly lower than that of the F-treated soil. Soil porosity was in the order of C < F < E < O. Soil porosity with the O and E treatments was 6.0% and 4.7% higher, respectively, than that with the F treatment. Meanwhile, the chemical fertilizer applications significantly influenced the mean weight diameter (MWD of the aggregate and proportion of different size aggregate fractions. The E treatment

  3. Influence of shrubs on soil chemical properties in Alxa desert steppe, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua Fu; Shifang Pei; Yaming Chen; Changgui Wan

    2007-01-01

    Alxa desert steppe is one of severely the degraded rangelands in the Northwest China. Shrubs, as the dominant life form in the desert steppe, play an important role in protecting this region from further desertification. Chemical properties of three soil layers (0 to 10, 10 to 20 and 20 to 30 cm) at three locations (the clump center [A], in the periphery of shrub...

  4. Near infrared spectroscopy for determination of various physical, chemical and biochemical properties in Mediterranean soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, R; Guerrero, C; Mataix-Solera, J; Scow, K M; Arcenegui, V; Mataix-Beneyto, J

    2008-07-01

    The potential of near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to predict various physical, chemical and biochemical properties in Mediterranean soils from SE Spain was evaluated. Soil samples (n=393) were obtained by sampling thirteen locations during three years (2003-2005 period). These samples had a wide range of soil characteristics due to variations in land use, vegetation cover and specific climatic conditions. Biochemical properties also included microbial biomarkers based on phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). Partial least squares (PLS) regression with cross validation was used to establish relationships between the NIR spectra and the reference data from physical, chemical and biochemical analyses. Based on the values of coefficient of determination (r(2)) and the ratio of standard deviation of validation set to root mean square error of cross validation (RPD), predicted results were evaluated as excellent (r(2)>0.90 and RPD>3) for soil organic carbon, Kjeldahl nitrogen, soil moisture, cation exchange capacity, microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, acid phosphatase activity, β-glucosidase activity and PLFA biomarkers for total bacteria, Gram positive bacteria, actinomycetes, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and total PLFA biomass. Good predictions (0.81fungi were not accurate enough to satisfactorily estimate these variables, only permitting approximate predictions (0.66chemical and biochemical soil properties for Mediterranean soils, including variables related to the composition of the soil microbial community composition.

  5. Soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period: influence on soil chemical and physical properties and on sugarcane productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roniram Pereira da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The planting of diversified crops during the sugarcane fallow period can improve the chemical and physical properties and increase the production potential of the soil for the next sugarcane cycle. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the influence of various soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period on soil chemical and physical properties and productivity after the first sugarcane harvest. The experiment was conducted in two areas located in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º 14' 05'' S, 48º 17' 09'' W with two different soil types, namely: an eutroferric Red Latosol (RLe with high-clay texture (clay content = 680 g kg-1 and an acric Red Latosol (RLa with clayey texture (clay content = 440 g kg-1. A randomized block design with five replications and four treatments (crop sequences was used. The crop sequences during the sugarcane fallow period were soybean/millet/soybean, soybean/sunn hemp/soybean, soybean/fallow/soybean, and soybean. Soil use was found not to affect chemical properties and sugarcane productivity of RLe or RLa. The soybean/millet/soybean sequence improved aggregation in the acric Latosol.

  6. Effect of soil type and soil management on soil physical, chemical and biological properties in commercial organic olive orchards in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Auxiliadora Soriano, Maria; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas, Juan Antonio; Landa, Blanca B.

    2014-05-01

    One of the objectives of organic agriculture is to maintain and improve soil quality, while simultaneously producing an adequate yield. A key element in organic olive production is soil management, which properly implemented can optimize the use of rainfall water enhancing infiltration rates and controlling competition for soil water by weeds. There are different soil management strategies: eg. weed mowing (M), green manure with surface tillage in spring (T), or combination with animal grazing among the trees (G). That variability in soil management combined with the large variability in soil types on which organic olive trees are grown in Southern Spain, difficult the evaluation of the impact of different soil management on soil properties, and yield as well as its interpretation in terms of improvement of soil quality. This communications presents the results and analysis of soil physical, chemical and biological properties on 58 soils in Southern Spain during 2005 and 2006, and analyzed and evaluated in different studies since them. Those 58 soils were sampled in 46 certified commercial organic olive orchards with four soil types as well as 12 undisturbed areas with natural vegetation near the olive orchards. The four soil types considered were Eutric Regosol (RGeu, n= 16), Eutric Cambisol (CMeu, n=16), Calcaric Regosol (RGca, n=13 soils sampled) and Calcic Cambisol (CMcc), and the soil management systems (SMS) include were 10 light tillage (LT), 16 sheep grazing (G), 10 tillage (T), 10 mechanical mowing (M), and 12 undisturbed areas covered by natural vegetation (NV-C and NV-S). Our results indicate that soil management had a significant effect on olive yield as well as on key soil properties. Among these soil properties are physical ones, such as infiltration rate or bulk density, chemical ones, especially organic carbon concentration, and biological ones such as soil microbial respiration and bacterial community composition. Superimpose to that soil

  7. Soil science basis and the effect of oil contamination on chemical properties of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.; Miehlich, G.

    1993-01-01

    The changes in soil chemistry properties due to oil contamination and decontamination are examined. One main point of the work is the determination of the effect of oil on the availability of nutrients in the soil. Nutrients are not only present dissolved in the soil solution, but are for the most part reversibly adsorbed by exchangers on loaded surfaces. The clay minerals, the organic substance and iron and manganese oxide act as exchangers. Knowledge on surface structure and reactions in soils contaminated by oil is to be obtained via examination of the exchange behaviour of different bio-elements. The results supply the basis for the cleaning up technique, the judgement of cleaned materials and their reusability. (orig.) [de

  8. Invasive scotch broom alters soil chemical properties in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Timothy B. Harrington; Anthony W. D′Amato

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Scotch broom is an N-fixing invasive species that has high potential to alter soil properties. We compared soil from areas of Scotch broom invasion with nearby areas that had no evidence of invasion to assess the influence of broom on soil P fractions and other chemical properties. Methods The study was...

  9. Effects of Land Use Changes on Some Soil Chemical Properties in Khoy, West Azerbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Taghipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intensified agriculture over a long-term is an important factor in soil change phenomena that can cause some unwanted effects on soil properties. To examine this hypothesis, chemical properties of the soils under sunflower cultivation over five decades and adjoining virgin lands were investigated in order to monitor changes caused by long-term cropping. The studied soils are influenced by continuous sunflower cultivation along with flooding irrigation and using chemical fertilizers for over five decades Materials and Methods: This research was undertaken at Khoy area (38o 10′ to 38o 40′ N latitude and 44o 15′ to 45o 10′ E latitude as the northern part of western-Azarbaijan province in the north-west Iran. The Khoy area is characterized by a semi-arid climate (mean annual rainfall of 300 mm linked with soil moisture and temperature regimes of xeric and mesic, respectively. Agriculturally, the studied area is cropped continuously by sunflower-wheat or barley rotations for over five decades and has received irrigation water from rainfall, groundwater, or seasonal river water. Forty soil surface samples (0-30 cm belonging to 10 soil series from the cultivated soils and the adjoining uncultivated soils were samplied and analyzed for the different chemical properties. In each soil serie, the samples (cultivated soil and adjacent virgin land were selected in similar slope, aspect, drainage condition, and parent materials. Soil analyses were involved soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC, soil organic carbon (SOC, Calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE, cation exchange capacity (CEC, total N, soluble K, exchangeable K, and available K. Potassium absorption ration (PAR was calculated by the concentration of solution K, Ca, Mg and exchangeable potassium percentage (EPP was calculated by exchangeable Na and CEC values Results and Discussion: This study illustrate that long-term continuous sunflower cropping had considerable effects on

  10. CHANGES IN SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC PADDY FIELD WITH AZOLLA APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhari Syamsiyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizer is a way to improve soil fertility. Azolla can be used as organic fertilizer. This study aims to determine the effect of Azolla (Azolla mycrophylla. L on some soil chemical properties on organic paddy field. The field experiments used factorial complete randomized block design of three factors, namely Azolla (0 and 2 tons/ha, Manure (0 and 10 tons/ha and Rice Varieties (Mira1, Mentik Wangi and Merah Putih, with three times replication. Using Azolla on an organic paddy field does not significantly increase the levels of soil N, organic C, Cation Exchange Capacity and soil pH. However Azolla’s influence on soil available P is significant.

  11. Characterization of soil chemical properties of strawberry fields using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Oliveira Islabão

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest strawberry-producing municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul (RS is Turuçu, in the South of the State. The strawberry production system adopted by farmers is similar to that used in other regions in Brazil and in the world. The main difference is related to the soil management, which can change the soil chemical properties during the strawberry cycle. This study had the objective of assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of soil fertility parameters using principal component analysis (PCA. Soil sampling was based on topography, dividing the field in three thirds: upper, middle and lower. From each of these thirds, five soil samples were randomly collected in the 0-0.20 m layer, to form a composite sample for each third. Four samples were taken during the strawberry cycle and the following properties were determined: soil organic matter (OM, soil total nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P and potassium (K, exchangeable calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg, soil pH (pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC at pH 7.0, soil base (V% and soil aluminum saturation(m%. No spatial variation was observed for any of the studied soil fertility parameters in the strawberry fields and temporal variation was only detected for available K. Phosphorus and K contents were always high or very high from the beginning of the strawberry cycle, while pH values ranged from very low to very high. Principal component analysis allowed the clustering of all strawberry fields based on variables related to soil acidity and organic matter content.

  12. Impact of the post fire management in some soil chemical properties. First results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francos, Marcos; Pereira, Paulo; Alcañiz, Meritxell; Úbeda, Xavi

    2016-04-01

    Post-fire management after severe wildfires has impact on soil properties. In Mediterranean environments management of fire affected areas is a common practice. This intervention may change soil chemical properties of the soil such as major cations. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different types of forest management in soil extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium after a severe wildfire. The study area is located in Ódena (Catalonia, Spain). The wildfire occurred at July 27th of 2015 and burned 1235 ha. After the fire an experimental plot was designed 9 plots with 2x2 meters (4 square meters). The different managements were: a) clear-cuted area and wood removed, b) no treatment); and c) clear-cutted. The results of the first sampling showed significant differences among all treatments in extractable calcium, sodium and potassium. The amount of these extractable elements was high in clear-cutted treatment in comparison to the others. No differences were identified in extractable magnesium. Overall, in the immediate period after the fire, burned area management, changed the studied soil properties. We are currently studying the evolution of this soil properties in these plots with the time

  13. Visualization of physico-chemical properties and microbial distribution in soil and root microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhorst, Thilo; Schmidt, Hannes

    2016-04-01

    Plant root development is influenced by soil properties and environmental factors. In turn plant roots can also change the physico-chemical conditions in soil resulting in gradients between roots and the root-free bulk soil. By releasing a variety of substances roots facilitate microbial activities in their direct vicinity, the rhizosphere. The related microorganisms are relevant for various ecosystem functions in the root-soil interface such as nutrient cycling. It is therefore important to study the impact and dynamics of microorganisms associated to different compartments in root-soil interfaces on a biologically meaningful micro-scale. The analysis of microorganisms in their habitats requires microscopic observations of the respective microenvironment. This can be obtained by preserving the complex soil structure including the root system by resin impregnation resulting in high quality thin sections. The observation of such sections via fluorescence microscopy, SEM-EDS, and Nano-SIMS will be highlighted in this presentation. In addition, we will discuss the combination of this methodological approach with other imaging techniques such as planar optodes or non-invasive 3D X-ray CT to reveal the entire spatial structure and arrangement of soil particles and roots. When combining the preservation of soil structure via resin impregnation with 16S rRNA targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) single microbial cells can be visualized, localized, and quantified in the undisturbed soil matrix including the root-soil interfaces. The simultaneous use of multiple oligonucleotide probes thereby provides information on the spatial distribution of microorganisms belonging to different phylogenetic groups. Results will be shown for paddy soils, where management induced physico-chemical dynamics (flooding and drying) as well as resulting microbial dynamics were visualized via correlative microscopy in resin impregnated samples.

  14. The influence of physico-chemical properties of soils on the bioavailability of 65Zn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkov, Ilia; Anisimov, Vyacheslav

    2014-05-01

    Stability of soils to the effects of man-made origin pollutants is determined by their buffer capaci-ty (the ability to inactivate pollutants in a soil - soil solution - plant system). Soils are character-ized by the same types of stability as the ecosystem as a whole. Increased migration activity of pollutants is a symptom of ecological trouble, due to the soil transformation in an unstable state. Thus, the problem of the stability of soil is one of the fundamental problems of modern science. The aim of the study was to estimate the buffering capacity of soil as a key factor of their ecological and geochemical stability with respect to a relatively long-lived radionuclides 65Zn (T1/2 = 224 days), representing the radiological hazard in the location of nuclear facilities. There was proposed a method for scoring the buffering capacity of soils as for 65Zn contamination. It's based on dependence between the main physico-chemical soil properties and accumulation of the radionuclide in the aboveground plant parts (barley kind of "Zazersky-85"). The role of the considered indicators of soil health in the accumulation of radiozinc by plants was defined. The essence of this technique was to assess the contribution of individual characteristics of the soil condition, which play the most important role in the regulation of mobility (and bioavailability) of radionuclides, using the method of stepwise multiple regression analysis. For this aim representative sampling was compiled (from 20 soil types and varieties belonging to different climatic zones of the European part of the Russian Federation), thus providing a wide range of variation of the studied physical and chemical parameters, and also vegetation model experiments using 65Zn were held. On the basis of the conducted statistical analysis was revealed that the dominant contribution to the variation of the effective trait (accumulation coefficient of 65Zn) make: CaCO3 content, mobile iron (Tamm extract) and pH. As a

  15. Study of chemical-mineralogical properties of modified soils with polymers addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Jonny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On highways, the soil is considered a supported material and compound pavements layers. For this, they must have such characteristics that confer stability and mechanical resistance to traffic internal forces during the pavement life. When soils do not have required characteristics by the project can be used stabilization techniques that make the natural soil adequately to roads requirement. Based on this assumption, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of polymer association in soil stabilization for use in roads pavements. Were evaluated chemical and mineralogical properties on two (2 different soils with sample of pure soil and with the addition of the polymer association. Based on the obtained results, polymer association changes was observed on X-ray fluorescent spectrometry (XRF; X-ray diffraction (XRD; scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Methylene blue. In general, the polymeric association studied in this research was effective in chemical and mineralogical analyzes for use on stabilized soils, making this technique efficient for use in layers of road pavements.

  16. Effects of 1-Alkyl-3-Methylimidazolium Nitrate on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties and Microbial Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tongtong; Wang, Jun; Ma, Zhiqiang; Du, Zhongkun; Zhang, Cheng; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs), also called room temperature ILs, are widely applied in many fields on the basis of their unique physical and chemical properties. However, numerous ILs may be released into and gradually accumulate in the environment due to their extensive use and absolute solubility. The effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([C n mim]NO 3 , n = 4, 6, 8) on soil pH, conductivity, cation exchange capacity, microbial biomass carbon, and microbial biomass nitrogen were examined at the doses of 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg on days 10, 20, 30, and 40. The results demonstrated that the soil pH decreased and the conductivity increased with increasing IL doses. No significant differences were observed in the soil cation-exchange capacity. All three of the tested ILs decreased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Additionally, there were few differences among the ILs with different alkyl chain lengths on the tested indicators except for the microbial biomass nitrogen. The present study addressed a gap in the literature regarding the effects of the aforementioned ILs with different alkyl side chains on the physicochemical properties of soil, and the results could provide the basic data for future studies on their toxicity to soil organisms, such as earthworms and soil microbes.

  17. Temporal changes of soil physic-chemical properties at different soil depths during larch afforestation by multivariate analysis of covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Mei; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Zijun; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2014-04-01

    Soil physic-chemical properties differ at different depths; however, differences in afforestation-induced temporal changes at different soil depths are seldom reported. By examining 19 parameters, the temporal changes and their interactions with soil depth in a large chronosequence dataset (159 plots; 636 profiles; 2544 samples) of larch plantations were checked by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). No linear temporal changes were found in 9 parameters (N, K, N:P, available forms of N, P, K and ratios of N: available N, P: available P and K: available K), while marked linear changes were found in the rest 10 parameters. Four of them showed divergent temporal changes between surface and deep soils. At surface soils, changing rates were 262.1 g·kg(-1)·year(-1) for SOM, 438.9 mg·g(-1)·year(-1) for C:P, 5.3 mg·g(-1)·year(-1) for C:K, and -3.23 mg·cm(-3)·year(-1) for bulk density, while contrary tendencies were found in deeper soils. These divergences resulted in much moderated or no changes in the overall 80-cm soil profile. The other six parameters showed significant temporal changes for overall 0-80-cm soil profile (P: -4.10 mg·kg(-1)·year(-1); pH: -0.0061 unit·year(-1); C:N: 167.1 mg·g(-1)·year(-1); K:P: 371.5 mg·g(-1) year(-1); N:K: -0.242 mg·g(-1)·year(-1); EC: 0.169 μS·cm(-1)·year(-1)), but without significant differences at different soil depths (P > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of deep soils in studying physic-chemical changes of soil properties, and the temporal changes occurred in both surface and deep soils should be fully considered for forest management and soil nutrient balance.

  18. Physical and chemical properties of artificial potting soils; Jinko jiban ryokuka baiyodo no butsuri kagakuteki seishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-30

    Artificial potting soils are developed mostly for roof garden, and a lot of products are now on the market. However, these products have the merits and demerits. Therefore, Kajima Corporation developed 'Kei-soil' and 'Souka-meijin' to make up defects of the existing artificial potting soils, and 'Eco-eco K' using waste at a rate of 100% with consideration for environment. The paper considered what kinds of quality these artificial potting soil products developed have from physical/chemical viewpoints. As a result, the following were made clear: (1) the artificial potting soil has more excellent physical property than chernozem; (2) Since 'Aqua-soil,' '{alpha}-base 2,' 'Viva-soil' and 'Soilen G' do not include fertilizer content very much, the manuring practice in planting is important; (3) 'Kei-soil,' 'Souka-meijin' and 'Eco-eco K' include fertilizer content. (translated by NEDO)

  19. Responses of soil physical and chemical properties to karst rocky desertification evolution in typical karst valley area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Zhou, Dequan; Bai, Xiaoyong; zeng, Cheng; Xiao, Jianyong; Qian, Qinghuan; Luo, Guangjie

    2018-01-01

    In order to reveal the differences of soil physical and chemical properties and their response mechanism to the evolution of KRD. The characteristics of soil physical and chemical properties of different grades of KRD were studied by field sampling method to research different types of KRD in the typical karst valley of southern China. Instead of using space of time, to explore the response and the mechanisms of the soil physical and chemical properties at the different evolution process. The results showed that: (1) There were significant differences in organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, sediment concentration, clay content and AWHC in different levels of KRD environment. However, these indicators are not with increasing desertification degree has been degraded, but improved after a first degradation trends; (2) The correlation analysis showed that soil organic matter, acid, alkali, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and clay contents were significantly correlated with other physical and chemical factors. They are the key factors of soil physical and chemical properties, play a key role in improving soil physical and chemical properties and promoting nutrient cycling; (3) The principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and sediment concentration was 80.26%, which was the key index to evaluate rocky desertification degree based on soil physical and chemical properties. The results have important theoretical and practical significance for the protection and restoration of rocky desertification ecosystem in southwest China.

  20. Root-induced Changes in the Rhizosphere of Extreme High Yield Tropical Rice: 2. Soil Solution Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Osaki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that the extreme high yield tropical rice (Padi Panjang produced 3-8 t ha-1 without fertilizers. We also found that the rice yield did not correlate with some soil properties. We thought that it may be due to ability of root in affecting soil properties in the root zone. Therefore, we studied the extent of rice root in affecting the chemical properties of soil solution surrounding the root zone. A homemade rhizobox (14x10x12 cm was used in this experiment. The rhizobox was vertically segmented 2 cm interval using nylon cloth that could be penetrated neither root nor mycorrhiza, but, soil solution was freely passing the cloth. Three soils of different origins (Kuin, Bunipah and Guntung Papuyu were used. The segment in the center was sown with 20 seeds of either Padi Panjang or IR64 rice varieties. After emerging, 10 seedlings were maintained for 5 weeks. At 4 weeks after sowing, some chemical properties of the soil solution were determined. These were ammonium (NH4+, nitrate (NO3-, phosphorus (P and iron (Fe2+ concentrations and pH, electric conductivity (EC and oxidation reduction potential (ORP. In general, the plant root changed solution chemical properties both in- and outside the soil rhizosphere. The patterns of changes were affected by the properties of soil origins. The release of exudates and change in ORP may have been responsible for the changes soil solution chemical properties.

  1. Long-Term Coffee Monoculture Alters Soil Chemical Properties and Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingyun; Xiong, Wu; Xing, Yizhang; Sun, Yan; Lin, Xingjun; Dong, Yunping

    2018-04-17

    Long-term monoculture severely inhibits coffee plant growth, decreases its yield and results in serious economic losses in China. Here, we selected four replanted coffee fields with 4, 18, 26 and 57 years of monoculture history in Hainan China to investigate the influence of continuous cropping on soil chemical properties and microbial communities. Results showed long-term monoculture decreased soil pH and organic matter content and increased soil EC. Soil bacterial and fungal richness decreased with continuous coffee cropping. Principal coordinate analysis suggested monoculture time was a major determinant of bacterial and fungal community structures. Relative abundances of bacterial Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Nitrospira and fungal Ascomycota phyla decreased over time. At genus level, potentially beneficial microbes such as Nitrospira and Trichoderma, significantly declined over time and showed positive relationships with coffee plant growth in pots. In conclusion, continuous coffee cropping decreased soil pH, organic matter content, potentially beneficial microbes and increased soil EC, which might lead to the poor growth of coffee plants in pots and decline of coffee yields in fields. Thus, developing sustainable agriculture to improve soil pH, organic matter content, microbial activity and reduce the salt stress under continuous cropping system is important for coffee production in China.

  2. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil under soybean cultivation and at an adjacent rainforest in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.P. Beldini; R.C. Oliveira Junior; Michael Keller; P.B. de Camargo; P.M. Crill; A. Damasceno da Silva; D. Bentes dos Santos; D. Rocha de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Land-use change in the Amazon basin has occurred at an accelerated pace during the last decade, and it is important that the effects induced by these changes on soil properties are better understood. This study investigated the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil in a field under cultivation of soy and rice, and at an adjacent primary rain forest....

  3. Impact of no-till and conventional tillage practices on soil chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A.; Bangash, N.

    2015-01-01

    There is a global concern about progressive increase in the emission of greenhouse gases especially atmosphere CO/sub 2/. An increasing awareness about environmental pollution by CO/sub 2/ emission has led to recognition of the need to enhance soil C sequestration through sustainable agricultural management practices. Conservation management systems such as no-till (NT) with appropriate crop rotation have been reported to increase soil organic C content by creating less disturbed environment. The present study was conducted on Vanmeter farm of The Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon Ohio, USA to estimate the effect of different tillage practices with different cropping system on soil chemical properties. Tillage treatments were comprised of conventional tillage (CT) and No-till (NT).These treatments were applied under continuous corn (CC), corn-soybean (CS) and corn soybean-wheat-cowpea (CSW) cropping system following randomized complete block design. No-till treatment showed significant increase in total C (30%), active C (10%), and passive salt extractable (18%) and microwave extractable C (8%) and total nitrogen (15%) compared to conventional tillage practices. Total nitrogen increased significantly 23 % in NT over time. Maximum effect of no-till was observed under corn-soybean-wheat-cowpea crop rotation. These findings illustrated that no-till practice could be useful for improving soil chemical properties. (author)

  4. Physical and chemical properties of the Martian soil: Review of resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Gooding, James L.; Banin, A.; Clark, Benton C.; Roush, Ted

    1991-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of Martian surface materials are reviewed from the perspective of using these resources to support human settlement. The resource potential of Martian sediments and soils can only be inferred from limited analyses performed by the Viking Landers (VL), from information derived from remote sensing, and from analysis of the SNC meteorites thought to be from Mars. Bulk elemental compositions by the VL inorganic chemical (x ray fluorescence) analysis experiments have been interpreted as evidence for clay minerals (possibly smectites) or mineraloids (palagonite) admixed with sulfate and chloride salts. The materials contained minerals bearing Fe, Ti, Al, Mg and Si. Martian surface materials may be used in many ways. Martian soil, with appropriate preconditioning, can probably be used as a plant growth medium, supplying mechanical support, nutrient elements, and water at optimal conditions to the plants. Loose Martian soils could be used to cover structures and provide radiation shielding for surface habitats. Martian soil could be wetted and formed into abode bricks used for construction. Duricrete bricks, with strength comparable to concrete, can probably be formed using compressed muds made from martian soil.

  5. Bio solids Application on Banana Production: Soil Chemical Properties and Plant Nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, L.A.J; Berton, R.S.B; Coscione, A.R; Saes, L.A

    2011-01-01

    Bio solids are relatively rich in N, P, and S and could be used to substitute mineral fertilization for banana crop. A field experiment was carried out in a Yellow Oxisol to investigate the effects of bio solids application on soil chemical properties and on banana leaf's nutrient concentration during the first cropping cycle. Soil analysis (ph, organic matter, resin P, exchangeable Ca and K, available B, DTPA-extracted micro nutrients, and heavy metals) and index-leaf analysis (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) were evaluated. Bio solids can completely substitute mineral N and P fertilizer to banana growth. Soil exchangeable K and leaf-K concentration must be monitored in order to avoid K deficiency in banana plants. No risk of heavy metal (Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd) concentration increase in the index leaf was observed when bio solids were applied at the recommended N rate.

  6. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Palese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities.

  7. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, A. M.; Magno, R.; Casacchia, T.; Curci, M.; Baronti, S.; Miglietta, F.; Crecchio, C.; Xiloyannis, C.; Sofo, A.

    2013-01-01

    The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization). Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities. PMID:24348166

  8. Effects of a Wildfire on Selected Physical, Chemical and Biochemical Soil Properties in a Pinus massoniana Forest in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xue

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pinus massoniana forests bordering South China are often affected by wildfires. Fires cause major changes in soil properties in many forest types but little is known about the effects of fire on soil properties in these P. massoniana forests. Such knowledge is important for providing a comprehensive understanding of wildfire effects on soil patterns and for planning appropriate long-term forest management in these forests. Changes in soil physical properties, carbon, nutrients, and enzymes were investigated in a P. massoniana forest along a wildfire-induced time span consisting of an unburned soil, and soils 0, one, four, and seven years post-fire. Soil (0–10 cm was collected from burned and unburned sites immediately and one, four, and seven years after a wildfire. The wildfire effects on soil physical and chemical properties and enzyme activities were significantly different among treatment variation, time variation, and treatment-by-time interaction. Significant short-term effects on soil physical, chemical, and biological properties were found, which resulted in a deterioration of soil physical properties by increasing soil bulk density and decreasing macropores and capillary moisture. Soil pH increased significantly in the soil one-year post-fire. Carbon, total nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P, and available N and P increased significantly immediately and one year after the wildfire and decreased progressively to concentrations lower than in the unburned soil. Total potassium (K and exchangeable K increased immediately after the wildfire and then continuously decreased along the burned time-span. Urease, acid phosphatase, and catalase activities significantly decreased compared to those in the unburned soil. In fire-prone P. massoniana forests, wildfires may significantly influence soil physical properties, carbon, nutrients, and enzyme activity.

  9. Decoupling the deep: crop rotations, fertilization and soil physico-chemical properties down the profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, Eleanor; Honermeier, Bernd; Don, Axel; Amelung, Wulf; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    . This resulted in a reduction of N density at depth, which was not mirrored in C densities, indicating that fava beans decouple C and N cycles in the deep soil profile. We then tested whether these effects are a result of plant (i.e. enhanced rooting depth associated with lowered subsoil bulk density) or microbial (i.e. N-cycling and denitrification processes) activities, by investigating the isotopic signatures of C and N down the profile. Our results indicate that the selection of crop rotation influences soil C and N cycling and depth distribution. Although mineral N fertilizer has significant benefits for yield, the choice of crop rotation has a greater influence on soil C and N cycling and specifically the addition of leguminous plants into rotation can provide additional yield benefits and stability. Incorporating legumes into crop rotations affects soil physical and chemical properties and decouples C and N cycles in the deep soil profile, indicating different nutrient and water cycling processes in the deep soil profile.

  10. Soil Physico-Bio-Chemical Properties under Poplar + Indian Mustard Inter Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Bahadur Ghimire

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during the winter seasons of 2008-10 at Agroforestry Research Centre, Pantnagar, India with aim to examine the effect of different levels of recommended Nitrogen (N: Phosphorus (P: Potassium (K (NPK on soil physico-bio-chemical properties under varying poplar tree densities with mustard introcropping. Lower soil bulk density was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to sole crop in both the year. Soil bulk density (BD decreased underneath trees. However, soil pH, available N and K were not influenced by tree density in both the years. Electrical conductivity (EC and soil organic carbon (SOC increased underneath trees of either tree density compared to sole crop in both the years. Significantly (P<0.05 higher available P was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to 250 and 500 trees/ha densities including sole crop in 2008-09. Similarly, soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC increased with increasing the tree density and significantly (P<0.01 higher value was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to sole crop and sparse density both the years except 2009-10, where 500 and 1000 trees/ha densities remain statistically at par. On the other hand, dehydrogenase activity (DA was maximum under 500 trees/ha density compared to sole crop and 1000 trees/ha density in both the years. Among the fertility levels, the maximum SOC and available N were recorded with 75% compared to 50, 100 and 125% of recommended NPK in 2008-09, except available N with 100% of recommended NPK. But, available P was more with 100% of recommended NPK in 2008-09. Similarly, maximum SMBC were recorded with 75 % compared to higher doses of recommended NPK in both the years. Similarly, BD, EC, SOC, available N, P and K were recorded maximum and soil pH minimum in 0-15 cm soil layers compared deeper layers.

  11. Effect of Irrigation with Wastewater on Certain Soil Physical and Chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Rohani Shahraki

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Depending on effluent characteristics, irrigation with wastewater plant effluent can be either beneficial or harmful. To investigate the effects of nine years of irrigation with North Isfahan Wastewater Treatment Plant effluent on physical and chemical properties of soil, a study was carried out using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments included: 1 raw wastewater; 2 effluent from primary settling basin; 3 final plant effluent and 4 well water. To investigate soil physical and chemical properties, samples were taken from depths of 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm from each plot. The results showed that raw wastewater COD and SS were higher than the Iranian Standard limits for use in irrigation. So were BOD5 and turbidity of effluent from primary sedimentation tanks. From the results obtained, the raw wastewater may be considered to be of medium quality. However, regarding other parameters such as EC, SAR, Na and Pb, the quality of the raw wastewater was considerably higher than that of well water. All treatments showed medium infiltrability with respect to chloride concentration. The concentration of lead in well water was higher than in treated wastewater. It should be noted that lead concentration in all samples was less than the standard limits. The average soil bulk density and percentage of moisture in FC did not follow any specific trend. The results indicate that the soil irrigated with effluent over the nine years had a lower bulk density, a higher percentage of moisture, and a lower infiltration compared to adjacent soil not irrigated with wastewater. Analysis of variance for all results did not confirm any significant differences among treatments.

  12. Potassium fertilization for pineapple: effects on soil chemical properties and plant nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out on an Ultisol located at the city of Agudos (22º30'S; 49º03'W, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to determine the effects of rates and sources of potassium fertilizer on nutritional status of 'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple and on some soil chemical properties. The experiment was a complete factorial design with four rates (0, 175, 350, and 700 kg ha-1 of K2O and three combinations of K sources (100% KCl, 100% K2SO4 and 40% K2SO4 + 60% KCl. Soil samples were taken from the depths 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm at planting and 14 months after. Nutritional status of pineapple plants was assessed by means of tissue analysis. Soil K availability increased with application of K fertilizer, regardless of K sources. Soil chlorine and Cl concentration in pineapple leaves increased with application of KCl or K2SO4+KCl. Plant uptake of potassium was shaped by soil K availability and by the application rates of K fertilizer, independently of K sources.

  13. Crop rotations and poultry litter impact dynamic soil chemical properties and soil biota long-term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic soil physiochemical interactions with conservation agricultural practices and soil biota are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aims to quantify long-term (12-yr) impacts of cover crops, poultry litter, crop rotations, and conservation tillage and their interactions on soil physiochemica...

  14. Changes in physico-chemical properties of soil by adding organic amendments in a tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Navarro, A.; Marin Salneandro, P.; Delgado Iniesta, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    This study possible changes in the physico-chemical properties of soil under intensive cultivation of tomatoes after the addition of two different types of organic amendments: a natural as sheep manure and synthetic made. Trial plots that were designed are located in the NE of the province of Granada, in Puebla de Trial plots that were designed are located in the NE of the province of Granada, in Puebla de Don Fadrique, in the are that in recent years, change are very important in agriculture, from traditional farms extensive cultivation of rain-fed cereal crops such as intensive vegetale broccoli or tomatoes. (Author) 16 refs.

  15. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of water eroded soils of Sharkul area of district Mansehra, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, A. Iqbal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is the major threat to agricultural sustainability because it affects the soil productivity. Present study was conducted in 2008 to evaluate physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some eroded soil series of Sharkul area district Manshera, Hazara division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Six soil series including slightly eroded (Dosera and Girari, moderately eroded (Nakholi and Sharkul and severely eroded (Ahl and Banser were selected. Soil samples were collected from surface (0-15 cm, subsurface (30-45 cm and substrata soil (60-75cm depths and were analyzed for various soil properties. Due to severity of erosion, bulk density increased, while total porosity, saturation percentage and organic matter decreased significantly. AB-DTPA extractable P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations were decreased due to the severity of erosion in surface and sub surface soils, whereas in the substrata soils (60-75 cm depth, the effect of erosion was almost non significant. Sub-surface and sub-strata soils were found deficient in available P ( Zn > Fe > Mn. The physical and chemical properties of eroded soils varied significantly and the increasing severity of erosion resulted in corresponding deterioration of soil quality.

  16. Impact of a low intensity controlled-fire in some chemical soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Hueso-González, Paloma; Aranda-Gómez, Francisco; Damián Ruiz-Sinoga, José

    2014-05-01

    Some changes in chemical soil properties can be observed after fires of low intensities. pH and electric conductivity tend to increase, while C/N ratio decrease. In the case of organic matter, the content can increase due to the massive incorporation of necromass including, especially, plants and roots. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of low intensity and controlled fire in some soil properties in field conditions. El Pinarillo experimental area is located in South of Spain. Two set of closed plots were installed (24 m2: 12 m length x 2 m width). One of them was remained as control with the original vegetation cover (Mediterranean matorral: Rosmarinus officinalis, Cistus clusii, Lavandula stoechas, Chamaeropos humilis, Thymus baetica), and the other one was burnt in a controlled-fire in 2011. Weather conditions and water content of vegetation influenced in the intensity of fire (low). After the controlled-fire, soil surface sample (0-5 cm) were taken in both set of plots (B, burnt soil samples; C, control soil samples). Some soil chemical properties were analysed: organic matter content (OM), C/N ratio, pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Some changes were observed in B corroborating a controlled-fire of low intensity. pH remained equal after fire (B: pH=7.7±0.11; C: pH=7.7±0.04). An increment was obtained in the case of EC (B: EC=0.45 mScm-1±0.08 mScm-1; C: EC=0.35 mScm-1±0.07 mScm-1) and OM (B: OM=8.7%±3.8%; C: pH=7.3%±1.5%). Finally, C/N ratio decreased after fire respect to the control and initial conditions (B: C/N=39.0±14.6; C: C/N =46.5±10.2).

  17. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN RELATION WITH SOIL PERMEABILITY IN THE AREA OF VELIKA GORICA WELL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kovač

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic parameters affects behaviour of various ions in soils. The goal of this paper was to get better understanding of relationship between physical and chemical properties and soil permeability at the location of case study profile Velika Gorica, based on the physical and chemical data. Soil profile is situated in the Eutric Cambisol of the Zagreb aquifer, Croatia. Zagreb aquifer represents the only source of potable water for inhabitants of the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County. Based on the data obtained from particle size analysis, soil hydraulic parameters and measured water content, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity values were calculated for the estimation of soil profile permeability. Soil water retention curves and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities are very similar for all depths because soil content does not change significantly through the depth. Determination of anions and cations on soil samples was performed using the method of ion chromatography. Results showed decrease of ions concentrations after 0.6 m depth. SAR distribution in the soil profile shows that SAR values are not significantly changing at the soil profile. The highest CEC and EC values are determined in horizon Bw developed in 0.6 m depth which is consistent with highest SAR value and ions concentrations. All results suggest that physical and chemical properties of investigated profile are in relationship with soil permeability.

  18. Long-term Effects of Different Irrigation Methods with Treated Wastewater on Soil Chemical Properties

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    P. Najafi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation is increasing due to an increased demand for water resources in different parts of the world. Almost 70% of deviated water from rivers and pumped groundwater is used for agriculture. If wastewater is used for irrigation in agriculture, then the amount of discharged water from natural sources will be decreased and the flow of wastewater to the environment and its ensuing pollution will be prevented. Using wastewater in applications such as irrigation of agricultural lands has caused an increase of some exchangeable ions, salts and suspended solids (organic and mineral in the soil and has significantly affected physical, chemical and biological features. Therefore, paying attention to the soil health is important during use of wastewater when it is the source of irrigation water. In such cases, there will be some worries about pollution of harvested products, contact of farm workers with pathogenes and environmental issues in the farm. In these conditions, attention to irrigation methods along with consideration of environmental protection standards is important. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effects of treated wastewater (TW irrigation were tested on some chemical properties of soil for three years under five different irrigation treatments. The treatments were as follows: surface furrow irrigation (FI, surface drip irrigation (SDI, subsurface drip irrigation in 30 cm depth (SDI30, subsurface drip irrigation in 60 cm depth (SDI60 and bubbler irrigation (BI. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were collected from a depth of 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm in order to measure the electrical conductivity (EC, pH, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, organic matter (OM and calcium carbonate equivalent (CaCO3. Results and Discussion: According to the results of soil analysis, the soil became more saline than the beginning by applying the treatments. Generally, in two plots of urban and

  19. Effect of byproducts of flue gas desulfurization on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils.

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    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD are a useful external source of Ca(2+ for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, pH and electrical conductivity (EC decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0-40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m(-1 and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising.

  20. Chemical properties of soils treated with biological sludge from gelatin industry

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    Rita de Cássia Melo Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of agro-industrial organic wastes in the environment can be reduced when used in agriculture. From the standpoint of soil fertility, residue applications can increase the organic matter content and provide nutrients for plants. This study evaluated the effect of biological sludge from gelatin industry on the chemical properties of two Ultisols (loamy sand and sandy clay and an Oxisol (clay. The experiment lasted 120 days and was carried out in laboratory in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement, combining the three soils and six biological sludge rates (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m³ ha-1, with three replications. Biological sludge rates of up to 500 m³ ha-1 decreased soil acidity and increased the effective cation exchange capacity (CEC and N, Ca, Mg, and P availability, without exceeding the tolerance limit for Na. The increase in exchangeable base content, greater than the effective CEC, indicates that the major part of cations added by the sludge remains in solution and can be lost by leaching.

  1. Impact of vetch cover crop on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demelash, Nigus; Klik, Andreas; Holzmann, Hubert; Ziadat, Feras; Strohmeier, Stefan; Bayu, Wondimu; Zucca, Claudio; Abera, Atikilt

    2016-04-01

    Cover crops improve the sustainability and quality of both natural system and agro ecosystem. In Gumara-Maksegnit watershed which is located in Lake Tana basin, farmers usually use fallow during the rainy season for the preceding chickpea production system. The fallowing period can lead to soil erosion and nutrient losses. A field experiment was conducted during growing seasons 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the effect of cover crops on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia. The plot experiment contained four treatments arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications: 1) Control plot (Farmers' practice: fallowing- without cover crop), 2) Chickpea planted with Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer with 46 k ha-1 P2O5 and 23 k ha-1 nitrogen after harvesting vetch cover crop, 3) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop incorporated with the soil as green manure without fertilizer, 4) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop and incorporated with the soil as green manure and with 23 k ha-1 P2O5 and 12.5 k ha-1 nitrogen. Each plot with an area of 36 m² was equipped with a runoff monitoring system. Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) was planted as cover crop at the onset of the rain in June and used as green manure. The results of the experiment showed statistically significant (P plant, above ground biomass and grain yield of chick pea. However, there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) on average plant height, average number of branches and hundred seed weight. Similarly, the results indicated that cover crop has a clear impact on runoff volume and sediment loss. Plots with vetch cover crop reduce the average runoff by 65% and the average soil loss decreased from 15.7 in the bare land plot to 8.6 t ha-1 with plots covered by vetch. In general, this result reveales that the cover crops, especially vetch, can be used to improve chickpea grain yield in addition to reduce soil erosion in the

  2. Effect of the diatomaceous earth in the soil chemical properties in corn crops (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fabila Martínez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed out of the need to provide products and services intended for the field that meet the nutritional needs of plants without implicating environmental damage by means of chemical fertilizers and insecticides. The study assessed the fertilizer effect of two diatomaceous earth and a liquid fertilizer to corroborate empirical evidence of several producers who used a commercial product based on the study`s materials and achieved higher levels of performance in different crops. A sample of the experimental area was carried out before establishing the crop after its completion. Two commercial diatomaceous earth identified as 289 and 400 P produced by International Celite, were assessed at two concentrations 20 kg ha-1 and 40 kg ha-1 and 18 kg ha-1 and 36 kg ha-1 res­pectively, and a organic liquid fertilizer (FOL at doses of 2 L ha-1 and 4 L ha-1 was considered as control soil sample taken before the application of treatments. The experimental design used in the field for the application of the treatments was randomized complete block (DBA with 5 repetitions. The test plant was the corn hybrid HC8. The variables evaluated in the soil throudgh laboratory analysis were: physical properties of texture and bulk density (BD, and chemical pH, organic carbon (OC, organic matter (OM, electrical conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity (CIC, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg and sodium (Na. The results were analyzed under a ANOVA and Tukey test for comparison of means for treatment, using the JMP statistical package. Laboratory results indicated that the­re were changes in the chemical characteristics of the soil between the control and treatments in the majority of the chemical characteristics analyzed (pH, CO, MO, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na. However statistically and under a statistical significance of 5%, differences were only observed in the properties of CO, MO, CE, N, K and Na.  

  3. Impact of petroleum products on soil composition and physical-chemical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Brakorenko, Nataliya Nikolaevna; Korotchenko, Tatiana Valerievna

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the grain-size distribution, physical and mechanical properties, swelling and specific electrical resistivity of soils before and after the contact with petroleum products. The changes in mechanical properties of soils contaminated with petroleum products have been stated. It leads to the increase in compressibility values, decline in internal friction angle and cohesion.

  4. Impact of petroleum products on soil composition and physical-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakorenko, N. N.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article describes the grain-size distribution, physical and mechanical properties, swelling and specific electrical resistivity of soils before and after the contact with petroleum products. The changes in mechanical properties of soils contaminated with petroleum products have been stated. It leads to the increase in compressibility values, decline in internal friction angle and cohesion.

  5. Enhanced Soil Chemical Properties and Rice Yield in Acid Sulphate Soil by Application of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurzakiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Swampland development such as acid sulphate soil for agricultural cultivation has various problem, including highsoil acidity, fluctuated and unpredictable water flooding and the presence of toxic elements such as Fe whichresulting in low crop yields. The research was conducted at the experimental station Belandean, Barito Kualaregency in dry season 2007. The objective of research was to study the effect of rice straw on the dynamic of soilpH, the concentration of iron and sulphate and yield on tidal land acid sulphate soil at two different water inletchannel. This research was designed in RCBD (Randomized Completely Block Design with five treatments (0, 2.5,5.0, 7.5 and 10 Mg ha-1 and four replications. Dolomite as much as 1 Mg ha-1 was also applied. This research wasdivided into two sub-units experiment i.e. two conditions of different water inlet channel. The first water channelswere placed with limestone and the second inlet was planted with Eleocharis dulcis. The results showed that (i ricestraw application did not affect the dynamic of soil pH, concentration of iron and sulphate, and (ii the highest yieldwas obtained with 7.5 Mg ha-1 of rice straw.

  6. Effect of Chemical Remediation of Crude-Oil-Polluted Agricultural Land on Soil Properties and Crop Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Essien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical degreaser with detergent was used to wash crude-oil-polluted agricultural soil and restore it to 83% -93% of the unpolluted soil's status for sustainable productivity. Comparison of reclaimed soil's properties with unpolluted soil sample of the significant differences (p=0.05 between their values for soil moisture content, soil pH, evapotranspiration, root elongation and soil fertility. Root elongation at 1.1 cm/day in the reclaimed soil compared with 1.29 cm/day in unpolluted soil indicated 83% recovery. Saturated hydraulic conductivity also had 83% recovery. However, infiltration rate showed a low recovery of 30%, perhaps, due to the wetness of the reclaimed soil's surface prior to the reclamation process. The soil macro/microspores were unblocked by the degreaser enabling the root pores to overcome the osmotic problem caused by oil-molecules' blockade and conduct moisture through to the phloem and leaves to sustain evapotranspiration, leaves turgidity chemical reclamation by degreaser with detergent is highly recommended for short-duration in-situ remediation of crude-oil-polluted agricultural land.

  7. Survey and Zoning of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties Using Geostatistical Methods in GIS (Case Study: Miankangi Region in Sistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hashemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to provide a database, it is essential having access to accurate information on soil spatial variation for soil sustainable management such as proper application of fertilizers. Spatial variations in soil properties are common but it is important for understanding these changes, particularly in agricultural lands for careful planning and land management. Materials and Methods: To this end, in winter 1391, 189 undisturbed soil samples (0-30 cm depth in a regular lattice with a spacing of 500 m were gathered from the surface of Miankangi land, Sistan plain, and their physical and chemical properties were studied. The land area of the region is about 4,500 hectares; the average elevation of studied area is 489.2 meters above sea level with different land uses. Soil texture was measured by the hydrometer methods (11, Also EC and pH (39, calcium carbonate equivalent (37 and the saturation percentage of soils were determined. Kriging, Co-Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighting and Local Polynomial Interpolation techniques were evaluated to produce a soil characteristics map of the study area zoning and to select the best geostatistical methods. Cross-validation techniques and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE were used. Results and Discussion: Normalized test results showed that all of the soil properties except calcium carbonate and soil clay content had normal distribution. In addition, the results of correlation test showed that the soil saturation percentage was positively correlated with silt content (r=0.43 and p

  8. Relationship between soil oxidizable carbon and physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of umbric ferralsols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Adriano Marques

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Umbric Ferralsols with thick umbric epipedons (> 100 cm thickness in humid Tropical and Subtropical areas is a paradox since the processes of organic matter decomposition in these environments are very efficient. Nevertheless, this soil type has been reported in areas in the Southeast and South of Brazil, and at some places in the Northeast. Aspects of the genesis and paleoenvironmental significance of these Ferralsols still need a better understanding. The processes that made the umbric horizons so thick and dark and contributed to the preservation of organic carbon (OC at considerable depths in these soils are of special interest. In this study, eight Ferralsols with a thick umbric horizon (UF under different vegetation types were sampled (tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal forest and savanna woodland and their macromorphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical properties studied to detect soil characteristics that could explain the preservation of high carbon amounts at considerable depths. The studied UF are clayey to very clayey, strongly acidic, dystrophic, and Al-saturated and charcoal fragments are often scattered in the soil matrix. Kaolinites are the main clay minerals in the A and B horizons, followed by abundant gibbsite and hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite. The latter was only found in UFs derived from basalt rock in the South of the country. Total carbon (TC ranged from 5 to 101 g kg-1 in the umbric epipedon. Dichromate-oxidizable organic carbon represented nearly 75 % of TC in the thick A horizons, while non-oxidizable C, which includes recalcitrant C (e.g., charcoal, contributed to the remaining 25 % of TC. Carbon contents were not related to most of the inorganic soil variables studied, except for oxalate-extractable Al, which individually explained 69 % (P < 0.001 of the variability of TC in the umbric epipedon. Clay content was not suited as predictor of TC or of the other studied C forms. Bulk

  9. Exploring functional relationships between post-fire soil water repellency, soil structure and physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarfeld, Jamie; Brook, Anna; Keestra, Saskia; Wittenberg, Lea

    2016-04-01

    Soil water repellency (WR) and aggregate stability (AS) are two soil properties that are typically modified after burning and impose significant influence on subsequent hydrological and geomorphological dynamics. The response of AS and soil WR to fire depends upon how fire has influenced other key soil properties (e.g. soil OM, mineralogy). Meanwhile, routine thinning of trees and woody vegetation may alter soil properties (e.g. structure and porosity, wettability) by use of heavy machinery and species selection. The study area is situated along a north-facing slope of Mount Carmel national park (Israel). The selected sites are presented as a continuum of management intensity and fire histories. To date, the natural baseline of soil WR has yet to be thoroughly assessed and must be investigated alongside associated soil aggregating parameters in order to understand its overall impact. This study examines (i) the natural baseline of soil WR and physical properties compared to those of disturbed sites in the immediate (controlled burn) and long-term (10-years), and (ii) the interactions of soil properties with different control factors (management, surface cover, seasonal-temporal, burn temperature, soil organic carbon (OC) and mineralogy) in Mediterranean calcareous soils. Analysis of surface soil samples before and after destruction of WR by heating (200-600°C) was implemented using a combination of traditional methods and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Management and surface cover type conditioned the wettability, soil structure and porosity of soils in the field, although this largely did not affect the heat-induced changes observed in the lab. A positive correlation was observed along an increasing temperature gradient, with relative maxima of MWD and BD reached by most soils at the threshold of 400-500°C. Preliminary analyses of soil OC (MIR) and mineralogical composition (VIS-NIR) support existing research regarding: (i) the importance of soil OC quality and

  10. Variability of standard artificial soils: Physico-chemical properties and phenanthrene desorption measured by means of supercritical fluid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielská, Lucie; Hovorková, Ivana; Komprdová, Klára; Hofman, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    The study is focused on artificial soil which is supposed to be a standardized “soil like” medium. We compared physico-chemical properties and extractability of Phenanthrene from 25 artificial soils prepared according to OECD standardized procedures at different laboratories. A substantial range of soil properties was found, also for parameters which should be standardized because they have an important influence on the bioavailability of pollutants (e.g. total organic carbon ranged from 1.4 to 6.1%). The extractability of Phe was measured by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at harsh and mild conditions. Highly variable Phe extractability from different soils (3–89%) was observed. The extractability was strongly related (R 2 = 0.87) to total organic carbon content, 0.1–2 mm particle size, and humic/fulvic acid ratio in the following multiple regression model: SFE (%) = 1.35 * sand (%) − 0.77 * TOC (%)2 + 0.27 * HA/FA. - Highlights: ► We compared properties and extractability of Phe from 25 different artificial soils. ► Substantial range of soil properties was found, also for important parameters. ► Phe extractability was measured by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 2 modes. ► Phe extractability was highly variable from different soils (3–89%). ► Extractability was strongly related to TOC, 0.1–2 mm particles, and HA/FA. - Significant variability in physico-chemical properties exists between artificial soils prepared at different laboratories and affects behavior of contaminants in these soils.

  11. Urban waste compost: Effects on physical, chemical, and biochemical soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusquiani, P.L.; Gigliotti, G.; Businelli, D. [Istituto di Chimica Agraria dell`Universita, Perugia (Italy)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    A long-term field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the additions of urban waste compost on the physical and chemical properties and enzymatic activities in a calcareous soil (Fluventic Xerochrept). Total Porosity (pores >50 pm measured on thin soil sections from undisturbed samples by image analysis) was greater in the plots treated with compost than the control plots due to a larger amount of elongated pores. In the amended plots total and humified organic C, Pb, Cu, and Zn showed a significant increase compared with nonamended plots. Enzymatic activities (L-asparaginase, arylsulphatase, dehydrogenase, phosphodiesterase, and alkaline phosphomonoesterase) were significantly enhanced by the compost addition thus indicating no inhibiting influence of the heavy metals present. The increased levels of the arylsulphatase, dehydrogenase, phosphodiesterase, and phosphomonoesterase activities were significantly correlated with total porosity: the first three with pores ranging from 50 to 1000 {mu}m, mainly with pores 50 to 200 {mu}m in size and phosphomonoesterase only with pores whose size was <500 {mu}m. L-asparaginase activity was not correlated with porosity. Only arylsulphatase, dehydrogenase, and phosphodiesterase were negatively correlated with bulk density. 44 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Adsorption of mercury compounds by tropical soils. I. Adsorption in soil profiles in relation to their physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semu, E.; Singh, B.R.; Selmer-Olsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Mercury adsorption of HgCl/sub 2/ and 2-methoxyethylmercury chloride (Aretan) (100 mg Hg L/sup -1/) was measured for three soil profiles from Morogoro, Arusha, and Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. The adsorption was investigated for the physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of soils. All soil samples showed greater capacity for adsorption of Aretan than for HgCl/sub 2/. In the Morogoro profile Hg adsorption decreased with depth but in the other two soils, the minimum adsorption occurred in the third horizon and increased both upwards and downwards. In the Morogoro profile, Aretan adsorption correlated well with pH. Adsorption of both Aretan and HgCl/sub 2/ correlated well with the distribution of organic C and with the cation exchange capacity of the soils. In the Arusha and Dar es Salaam profiles Hg adsorption was not significantly correlated with any of the soil properties tested.

  13. Long Term Effects of Poultry Litter on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Cotton Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrency, J.; Tsegaye, T.; Coleman, T.; Fahsi, A.; Reddy, C.

    1998-01-01

    Poultry litter and compost can alter the moisture holding capacity of a soil. These organic materials can also increase the nutrient status of a soil during the decomposition process by microbial actions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry litter and compost on the dielectric constant and moisture holding capacity of soil. The Delta-T theta-probe was used to measure volumetric soil water content and the apparent dielectric constant of the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. Soil texture, pH, and organic matter were also determined for each plot. Results of these analyses indicated that the pH of the soil ranged from 6.4 to 7.7 and the volumetric soil moisture content ranged from 0.06 to 0.18 cu m/cu m for the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. The effect of poultry litter and compost on soil properties resulted in an increase in the volumetric moisture content and dielectric constant of the soil due to the improvement of the soil structure.

  14. Changes in Soil Chemical Properties and Lettuce Yield Response Following Incorporation of Biochar and Cow Dung to Highly Weathered Acidic Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyei Frimpong, Kwame; Amoakwah, Emmanuel; Osei, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    imposed on two highly weathered, acidic soils from the coastal savanna and tropical rainforest agroecological zones of Ghana, respectively, to elucidate their effect on yield of lettuce. The study showed that application of biochar solely or in combination with cow dung increased soil pH, total organic...... carbon, and cation exchange capacity, and temporarily increased soil respiration and microbial biomass carbon. Further, incorporation of combined application of cow dung and biochar increased lettuce yield more than sole incorporation of either amendment. The study demonstrated that corn cob biochar can...... improve soil chemical properties and lettuce yield if applied solely or in combination with cow dung....

  15. Prescribed fires effects on physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil erosion in a Mediterranean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Plaza Alvaréz, Pedro Antonio; Sagra, Javier; Alfaro Sánchez, Raquel; Moya, Daniel; Ferrandiz Gotor, Pablo; De las Heras Ibañez, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires have an important influence in forest ecosystems. Contrary to high severity fire, which may have negative impacts on the ecosystems, low severity induce small changes on soil properties. Thus and in order to reduce fire risk, low-severity prescribed fires have been widely used as a fuel reduction tool and silvicultural treatment in Mediterranean forest ecosystems. However, fire may alter microsite conditions and little is known about the impact of prescribed burning on the physico-chemical properties of runoff. In this study, we compared the effects of prescribed burning on physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil erosion during twelve months after a low severity prescribed fire applied in twelve 16 m2 plot (6 burned plots and 6 control plots used for comparison) set up in the Lezuza forest (Albacete, central-eastern Spain). Physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil losses were monitored after each rainfall event (five rainfall events in total). Also, different forest stand characteristics (slope, tree density, basal area and shrub/herbal cover) affecting each plot were measured. Results showed that forest stand characteristics were very similar in all used plots. Also, physico-chemical runoff properties were highly modified after the prescribed fire, increasing water pH, carbonates, bicarbonates, total dissolved solids and organic matter content dissolved in water. Electrical conductivity, calcium, sodium, chloride and magnesium were not affected by prescribed fire. Soil losses were highly related to precipitation intensity and tree interception. Tree intercepted the rainfall and significantly reduced soil losses and also runoff quantity. In conclusion and after the first six-month experiment, the influence of prescribed fires on physico-chemical runoff properties should be taken into account for developing proper prescribed burnings guidelines.

  16. Chemical properties of forest soils as affected by nests of .i.Myrmica ruginodis./i. (Formicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Véle, A.; Frouz, Jan; Holuša, J.; Kalčík, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2010), s. 122-127 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QH81136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : ant nests * Myrmica * soil chemical properties Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.609, year: 2010

  17. Effects of different land use on soil chemical properties, decomposition rate and earthworm communities in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Peña-Peña, K.; Huerta, E.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of land use on soil chemical properties were evaluated, and earthworm communities and the decomposition rate of three typical land use systems in tropical Mexico, namely banana plantations (B), agroforestry systems (AF) and a successional forest (S) were compared. The study was carried

  18. Influence of Fertilizer Materials on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils: cases of Wine Stefanesti-Arges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejan, C.

    2009-07-01

    The overall objective is the preservations or improvement Heritage ground, avoiding the loss of organic matter. This objective is consistent with the general approach of sustainable agriculture is an investment in the long term. Organic materials play an important role in the global funtionnement soil, through its physical, chemical and biological properties which define the concept of fertility. (Author)

  19. Accelerated detection of brown-rot decay : comparison of soil block test, chemical analysis, mechanical properties, and immunodetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Clausen; S. N. Kartal

    2003-01-01

    Early detection of wood decay is critical because decay fungi can cause rapid structural failure. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different methods purported to detect brown-rot decay in the early stages of development. The immunodiagnostic wood decay (IWD)test, soil block test/cake pan test, mechanical property tests, and chemical...

  20. Influence of Fertilizer Materials on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils: cases of Wine Stefanesti-Arges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejan, C.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective is the preservations or improvement Heritage ground, avoiding the loss of organic matter. This objective is consistent with the general approach of sustainable agriculture is an investment in the long term. Organic materials play an important role in the global funtionnement soil, through its physical, chemical and biological properties which define the concept of fertility. (Author)

  1. Effects of reclaimed water irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on the chemical properties and microbial community of soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Wei; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Qi, Xue-bin

    2017-01-01

    microbes and the chemical properties of the soil, which indicated that nitrate N (NO3−-N) and total phosphorus (TP) had significant impact on abundance of Verrucomicrobia and Gemmatimonadetes, meanwhile the pH and organic matter (OM) had impact on abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria significantly...

  2. IMPACT OF WOODY PLANTS SPECIES ON SOIL PHYSIO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES ALONG GRAZING GRADIENTS IN RANGELANDS OF EASTERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mussa Abdulahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the lowlands of arid and semiarid rangelands woody plants plays an important role in soil fertility maintenance, providing food, medicine, cosmetics, fodder, fuel wood and pesticides. A better understanding of the interaction of woody plants on their immediate environment is needed to guide optimum management of native vegetation in the production landscapes. However, the impact of woody plant species on soil properties remains poorly understood. This study evaluates the impact of two dominant woody plant species (A. senegal and B. aegyptica on soil physico-chemical properties along grazing gradients in rangelands of eastern Ethiopia. Six trees of each species were selected from light, moderate and heavy grazing sites.  Soil sample data at two depths (0-15 and 16-30 cm were collected from under and open areas of A. senegal and B. aegyptica from each grazing sites, and analysed for nutrient contents. The nutrient status of soil under both woody species was significantly higher especially with regard to soil organic matter (4.37%, total nitrogen (0.313%, and available phosphorus (11.62 than the open grassland with soil organic matter (3.82%, total nitrogen (0.246%, and available phosphorus (10.94 mg/Kg soil for A. Senegal. The soil organic matter (3.93%, total nitrogen (0.285%, available phosphorus (11.66 mg/Kg soil were significantly higher than open grassland with soil organic matter (3.52%, total nitrogen (0.218%, available phosphorus (10.73 mg/Kg soil for B. aegyptica. This was more pronounced in the top 15 cm of soil under A. senegal woody plant species and on the light and moderate grazing site. Therefore, this tree has a significant effect on soil fertility improvement in resource poor rangelands and as a result, it is important to retain scattered A. senegal and B. aegyptica plants in the lowlands of eastern Ethiopia.

  3. Relationship between soil 137Cs inventories and chemical properties in a small intensively cropped watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabit, L.

    1998-01-01

    After estimating and spatializing the erosion risks in a small agricultural watershed in northeastern France in a previous study, the authors investigate the quality of eroding soils. Soil erosion is a selective process, exporting the finest particles, and associated chemical elements, in a preferential way. Consequently, the spatial redistribution of soil should translate into the depletion of soil in eroding areas and its enrichment in deposition sectors. Of the fifteen elements considered in this study, only organic matter confirms this hypothesis. A significant correlation was found between the soil 137 Cs (indicative of the severity of erosion) and organic matter contents. This result suggests that erosion is a redistribution process that may influence the productivity of agricultural systems on the mid/long term. (authors)

  4. Physico-chemical and mineralogical properties influencing water-stability of aggregates of some Italian surface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Bazzoffi, P.; Unamba Oparah, I.

    1994-06-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine the relationship between physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of some surface soils (developed in north central Italy) and the stability of their aggregates to water. The index of stability used is the mean-weight diameter of water-stable aggregates (MWD). The ratio of total sand to clay which correlated negatively with MWD (r=-0.638) is the physical property which explained most of the variability in aggregate stability. The chemical properties which correlated best with aggregate stability are FeO (r=0.671), CaO (R=0.635), CaCO 3 (r=0.651) and SiO 2 (r=-0.649). Feldspar, chlorite and calcite are the minerals which influence MWD most, with respective ''r'' values of -0.627, 0.588 and 0.550. The best-fit model developed from soil physical properties explained 59% of the variation in MWD with a standard error of 0.432, that developed from chemical properties explained 97% of the variation in MWD with a standard error of 0.136, whereas the model developed from mineralogical properties explained 78% of the variation in MWD with a standard error of 0.222. Also the closest relationship between measured and model-predicted MWD was obtained with the chemical properties-based model (r=0.985), followed by the mineralogical properties-based model (r=0.884) and then the physical properties-based model (r=0.656). This indicates that the most reliable inference on the stability of these soils in water can be made from a knowledge of the amount and composition of their chemical constituents. (author). 32 refs, 1 fig., 9 tabs

  5. Effects of metal pollutants on magnetic and chemical properties of soils and plant biomass: experimental studies in Environmental Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Birendra

    Understanding the interactions and effects of biotic and abiotic factors on magnetic parameter measurements used to assess levels of pollutants requires experimental analysis of potential individual parameters. Using magnetic and chemical measurements, three separate experimental studies were conducted in order to evaluate the separate and combined effects of soil composition, atmospheric exposure, and contaminant levels on soil magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements, plant growth and metal uptake by plants. Experiment 1 examined the effects of incorporating an artificial Fe-rich contaminant into a synthetic soil on surficial soil magnetic properties and plant growth inside a greenhouse. Periodic measurements of surficial soil MS showed significant decreases in MS values in the three treatments (two levels of Fe-contamination and controls), with the greatest reduction in soils with the most contamination, and the least in controls. Three potential causes were suggested: Fe uptake by plants, magnetic minerals transformation, and downward migration of Fe-particles. Some arguments for the first two causes were discussed; however, the third possibility was separately evaluated in the second and third experiments. In the follow-up study (Experiment 2) conducted to examine the effects of ambient atmospheric pollution on magnetic and chemical properties of soils and plant biomass, the overall surficial soil MS was found to be significantly higher in synthetic soils exposed to a natural atmosphere in comparison to controls placed in a greenhouse. Root biomass samples taken from the exposed soils had much higher trace/heavy metal concentrations. Such increases in soil MS and bioavailability of metals in the exposed soils indicate that atmospheric pollution affected the soil and plants grown in there. Microscopic observations of Fe-rich particles from the post-harvest exposed soil revealed morphologies similar to Fe-containing particulates from power plants and

  6. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AS PREDICTORS OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROBIAL RESPIRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structure-activity analysis was used to evaluate the effects of 19 hazardous organic chemicals on microbial respiration in two slightly acidic soils (a Captina silt loam from Roane County Tennessee, and a McLaurin sandy loam from Stone County, Mississippi), both low in organic ca...

  7. the effect of rubber effluent on some chemical properties of soil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    levels of rubber effluent used were 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ml per 2 kg soil. The trial was arranged ... addition to traces of various processing chemicals. The amount of ... The aim of this trial was to examine the influence of rubber effluent on ...

  8. Determination of heavy metal content and physico-chemical properties of soils in the vicinity of Tasik Chini, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahibin Abdul Rahim; Muhd Barzani Gasim; Mohd Nizam Mohd Said; Wan Mohd Razi Idris; Azman Hashim; Sharilnizam Yusof; Masniyana Jamil

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine heavy metal content and physico-chemical properties of soils influencing heavy metal accumulation in some series surrounding the Chini Lakes. A total of 15 topsoil sample were collected randomly from 6 stations. The physical properties that were analyzed include particle size distribution and soil organic matter. Meanwhile, the chemical characteristics determined were pH, electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity. It was found that heavy metal content of Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Pb, Zn and Mn were low whereas Fe content was high. The textures of soil studied were clay, loamy sand, sandy loam, clay loam and silty clay loam. The mean of organic matter ranged from 2.68 to 11.46 %. The soil pH showed that the soil studied was acidic with values ranged between 3.36 to 3.72. The range of electrical conductivity mean was between 2150 μScm -1 to 2403 μScm -1 . Cation exchange capacity mean ranged from 2.85 until 8.59 cmol/ kg. Correlation analysis showed that there were positive and negative significant correlations between soils parameters heavy metal concentration. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were significant differences in organic matter percentage, pH, cation exchange capacity and heavy metals except cadmium between sampling station. (author)

  9. Key indicator tools for shallow slope failure assessment using soil chemical property signatures and soil colour variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Rashidi; Hasni, Shah Irani; Baharuddin, Zainul Mukrim; Hashim, Khairusy Syakirin Has-Yun; Mahamod, Lukman Hakim

    2017-10-01

    Slope failure has become a major concern in Malaysia due to the rapid development and urbanisation in the country. It poses severe threats to any highway construction industry, residential areas, natural resources and tourism activities. The extent of damages that resulted from this catastrophe can be lessened if a long-term early warning system to predict landslide prone areas is implemented. Thus, this study aims to characterise the relationship between Oxisols properties and soil colour variables to be manipulated as key indicators to forecast shallow slope failure. The concentration of each soil property in slope soil was evaluated from two different localities that consist of 120 soil samples from stable and unstable slopes located along the North-South Highway (PLUS) and East-West Highway (LPT). Analysis of variance established highly significant difference (P shallow slope failure were high value of L*(62), low values of c* (20) and h* (66), low concentration of iron (53 mg kg -1 ) and aluminium oxide (37 mg kg -1 ), low soil TOC (0.5%), low CEC (3.6 cmol/kg), slightly acidic soil pH (4.9), high amount of sand fraction (68%) and low amount of clay fraction (20%).

  10. Chemical and biological properties of phosphorus-fertilized soil under legume and grass cover (Cerrado region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fernando Pereira Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops has been suggested as an effective method to maintain and/or increase the organic matter content, while maintaining and/or enhancing the soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The fertility of Cerrado soils is low and, consequently, phosphorus levels as well. Phosphorus is required at every metabolic stage of the plant, as it plays a role in the processes of protein and energy synthesis and influences the photosynthetic process. This study evaluated the influence of cover crops and phosphorus rates on soil chemical and biological properties after two consecutive years of common bean. The study analyzed an Oxisol in Selvíria (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in a randomized block, split plot design, in a total of 24 treatments with three replications. The plot treatments consisted of cover crops (millet, pigeon pea, crotalaria, velvet bean, millet + pigeon pea, millet + crotalaria, and millet + velvet bean and one plot was left fallow. The subplots were represented by phosphorus rates applied as monoammonium phosphate (0, 60 and 90 kg ha-1 P2O5. In August 2011, the soil chemical properties were evaluated (pH, organic matter, phosphorus, potential acidity, cation exchange capacity, and base saturation as well as biological variables (carbon of released CO2, microbial carbon, metabolic quotient and microbial quotient. After two years of cover crops in rotation with common bean, the cover crop biomass had not altered the soil chemical properties and barely influenced the microbial activity. The biomass production of millet and crotalaria (monoculture or intercropped was highest. The biological variables were sensitive and responded to increasing phosphorus rates with increases in microbial carbon and reduction of the metabolic quotient.

  11. Few effects of invasive plants Reynoutria japonica, Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea on soil physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Stanek, Małgorzata; Nobis, Marcin; Zubek, Szymon

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions are an important problem of human-induced changes at a global scale. Invasive plants can modify soil nutrient pools and element cycling, creating feedbacks that potentially stabilize current or accelerate further invasion, and prevent re-establishment of native species. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Reynoutria japonica, Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea, invading non-forest areas located within or outside river valleys, on soil physical and chemical parameters, including soil moisture, element concentrations, organic matter content and pH. Additionally, invasion effects on plant species number and total plant cover were assessed. The concentrations of elements in shoots and roots of invasive and native plants were also measured. Split-plot ANOVA revealed that the invasions significantly reduced plant species number, but did not affect most soil physical and chemical properties. The invasions decreased total P concentration and increased N-NO 3 concentration in soil in comparison to native vegetation, though the latter only in the case of R. japonica. The influence of invasion on soil properties did not depend on location (within- or outside valleys). The lack of invasion effects on most soil properties does not necessarily imply the lack of influence of invasive plants, but may suggest that the direction of the changes varies among replicate sites and there are no general patterns of invasion-induced alterations for these parameters. Tissue element concentrations, with the exception of Mg, did not differ between invasive and native plants, and were not related to soil element concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of rumen digesta on the physico-chemical properties of soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IFEOMA EDEH

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... ... physico-chemical properties and crop production for food security cannot be overemphasized. ... requirements of the farming population is remote. The .... laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The.

  13. The Changes of Earthworm Population and Chemical Properties of Tropical Soils under Different Land Use Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yusnaini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Hilly area Sumberjaya, West Lampung Province, South Sumatra, Indonesia, is one of the Province where deforestation increasing in the past 30 years as a result of the implementation of agricultural systems, especially coffee plantation. it is important to study the soil fauna in these natural relicts. Six sites (3 naturals and 3 managed systems were studied in order to identify earthworm species communities, using the hand sorting method and soil chemical parameters (pH, avail-P, org-C., tot-N, and cation exchange capacity (CEC. Two species were found (Pheretima sp. and Pontoscolex sp.. All land use systems had very similar soil chemical characteristics, there can be characterised as acidic (pH between 3.6 and 5.0. A high content of organic carbon was in natural sites (bush 4.0% and primary forest 3.9%, and a low content was in managed sites (coffee plantation 2.1%. Total nitrogen (0.37% and CEC (21.84 Cmol-c kg-1 was in primary forest. However, the earthworm densities were significantly lower under primary forest than in the other sites. The acidity component explained mainly the lowest earthworm population at the primary forest (soil pH 3.6. The use of succession forest (bush and mix farming showed a positive effect on soil fertility.

  14. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil under soybean cultivation and at an adjacent rainforest in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Patrick Beldini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land-use change in the Amazon basin has occurred at an accelerated pace during the last decade, and it is important that the effects induced by these changes on soil properties are better understood. This study investigated the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil in a field under cultivation of soy and rice, and at an adjacent primary rain forest. Increases in soil bulk density, exchangeable cations and pH were observed in the soy field soil. In the primary forest, soil microbial biomass and basal respiration rates were higher, and the microbial community was metabolically more efficient. The sum of basal respiration across the A, AB and BA horizons on a mass per area basis ranged from 7.31 to 10.05 Mg CO2-C ha-1yr-1, thus yielding estimates for total soil respiration between 9.6 and 15.5 Mg CO2-C ha-1yr-1 across sites and seasons. These estimates are in good agreement with literature values for Amazonian ecosystems. The estimates of heterotrophic respiration made in this study help to further constrain the estimates of autotrophic soil respiration and will be useful for monitoring the effects of future land-use in Amazonian ecosystems.

  15. Chemically stabilized soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct laboratory evaluations to quantify the effects of compaction and moisture conditions on the strength of chemically treated soils typical utilized in pavement construction in Mississippi.

  16. THE DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES UNDER THE EFECT OF LAND RECLAMATION WORKS, FROM BAIA DRAINAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moca

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the pedo-climatic conditions of Suceava County that extends on a total surface of 855 300 ha, the balance of agricultural land affected by humidity excess with temporar or permanent character is differenciated from south to north and from east to west, between 30 % till 40%, which means almost 100 000 ha. On these soils with underground water or pluvial excess hydro ameliorative drainage systems have been installed, associated to a complex agroameliorative works. For long effect estimation of the underground drainage asociated with the agropedoameliorative works upon the some chemical properties, there were analyzed the soil and the environment conditions from Baia field.

  17. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to soil chemical properties and heavy metal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Hempel, Stefan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Schaefer, Tina; Savaghebi, Gholamreza; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Buscot, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with dominant plant species were studied along a transect from highly lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) polluted to non-polluted soil at the Anguran open pit mine in Iran. Using an established primer set for AMF in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, nine different AMF sequence types were distinguished after phylogenetic analyses, showing remarkable differences in their distribution patterns along the transect. With decreasing Pb and Zn concentration, the number of AMF sequence types increased, however one sequence type was only found in the highly contaminated area. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that further factors than HM soil concentration affect the AMF community at contaminated sites. Specifically, the soils' calcium carbonate equivalent and available P proved to be of importance, which illustrates that field studies on AMF distribution should also consider important environmental factors and their possible interactions. - The molecular diversity of AMF was found to be influenced by a combination of soil heavy metal and other soil chemical parameters.

  18. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to soil chemical properties and heavy metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, Mehdi [Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, University of Shiraz, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hempel, Stefan, E-mail: hempel.stefan@googlemail.co [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Biologie, Okologie der Pflanzen, Altensteinstrasse 6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wubet, Tesfaye; Schaefer, Tina [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Savaghebi, Gholamreza [Department of Soil Science Engineering, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam [Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), P.O. Box 31535-1897, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Buscot, Francois [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with dominant plant species were studied along a transect from highly lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) polluted to non-polluted soil at the Anguran open pit mine in Iran. Using an established primer set for AMF in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, nine different AMF sequence types were distinguished after phylogenetic analyses, showing remarkable differences in their distribution patterns along the transect. With decreasing Pb and Zn concentration, the number of AMF sequence types increased, however one sequence type was only found in the highly contaminated area. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that further factors than HM soil concentration affect the AMF community at contaminated sites. Specifically, the soils' calcium carbonate equivalent and available P proved to be of importance, which illustrates that field studies on AMF distribution should also consider important environmental factors and their possible interactions. - The molecular diversity of AMF was found to be influenced by a combination of soil heavy metal and other soil chemical parameters.

  19. Chemical and biochemical properties of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. Ktze. forest soils in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Carvalho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia, commonly named Araucaria, is a Brazilian native species that is intensively exploited due to its timber quality. Therefore, Araucaria is on the list of species threatened by extinction. Despite the importance of soil for forest production, little is known about the soil properties of the highly fragmented Araucaria forests. This study was designed to investigate the use of chemical and biological properties as indicators of conservation and anthropogenic disturbance of Araucaria forests in different sampling periods. The research was carried out in two State parks of São Paulo: Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto do Ribeira and Parque Estadual de Campos de Jordão. The biochemical properties carbon and nitrogen in microbial biomass (MB-C and MB-N, basal respiration (BR, the metabolic quotient (qCO2 and the following enzyme activities: β-glucosidase, urease, and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA were evaluated. The sampling period (dry or rainy season influenced the results of mainly MB-C, MB-N, BR, and qCO2. The chemical and biochemical properties, except K content, were sensitive indicators of differences in the conservation and anthropogenic disturbance stages of Araucaria forests. Although these forests differ in biochemical and chemical properties, they are efficient in energy use and conservation, which is shown by their low qCO2, suggesting an advanced stage of succession.

  20. Physico-chemical properties of starches isolated from potato cultivars grown in soils with different phosphorus availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonel, Magali; Carmo, Ezequiel L; Fernandes, Adalton M; Franco, Célia M L; Soratto, Rogério P

    2016-04-01

    Starch is the major component of potato tubers, amounting approximately to 150-200 g kg (-1) of the tuber weight. Starch is considered to be a major factor for the functionality of the potato in food applications. This study evaluated the physical characteristics of potato starches isolated from tubers of different potato cultivars grown in soil with three levels of phosphorus (P) availability. All potatoes were growing according the same method. The starches were isolated by physical methods and the samples were analyzed for the amylose, P content, paste properties (RVA) and thermal properties of gelatinization and retrogradation (DSC). Experimental data were analyzed considering the potato cultivars and the three soil P availability. For all measured parameters significant impact of cultivar and soil P availability was determined. Phosphorus contents in potato starches ranged from 0.252 to 0.647 g kg(-1) and amylose from 27.18 to 30.8%. Starches from different potato cultivars independent of soil showed a small range of gelatinization temperature. All starches showed low resistance heating and shear stress. The results showed the influence of growing conditions (soil P availability) and also of the differences between the potato cultivars on important characteristics of applicability of starches. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of irrigation with treated wastewater on soil chemical properties and infiltration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedbabis, Saida; Ben Rouina, Béchir; Boukhris, Makki; Ferrara, Giuseppe

    2014-01-15

    In Tunisia, water scarcity is one of the major constraints for agricultural activities. The reuse of treated wastewater (TWW) in agriculture can be a sustainable solution to face water scarcity. The research was conducted for a period of four years in an olive orchard planted on a sandy soil and subjected to irrigation treatments: a) rain-fed conditions (RF), as control b) well water (WW) and c) treated wastewater (TWW). In WW and TWW treatments, an annual amount of 5000 m(3) ha(-1) of water was supplied to the orchard. Soil samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after four years for each treatment. The main soil properties such as electrical conductivity (EC), pH, soluble cations, chloride (Cl(-)), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), organic matter (OM) as well as the infiltration rate were investigated. After four years, either a significant decrease of pH and infiltration rate or a significant increase of OM, SAR and EC were observed in the soil subjected to treated wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effects of Nitrogen Fixing Pre-Crops and Fertilizers on Physical and Chemical Properties Down the Soil Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, E.; Honermeier, B.; Don, A.; Gocke, M. I.; Amelung, W.; Kogel-Knabner, I.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effects of pre-crops with and without biological nitrogen fixation capacity (fava beans, clover mulch, fodder maize) and fertilization (no fertilizer, NPK fertilizer, PK fertilizer) on soil physico-chemical properties (bulk density, electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and stocks, N concentration and stocks) and their depth distribution (down to 1 m) at a long-term field experiment set up in 1982 in Gießen, Germany. Fertilization had significant but small impacts on the soil chemical environment, most particularly the salt content of the soil, with PK fertilization increasing electrical conductivity throughout the soil profile. Similarly, fertilization resulted in a small reduction of soil pH throughout the entire soil profile. The soil was physically and chemically affected by the type of pre-crop. Plots with fava beans and maize had lower bulk densities in the subsoil than those with clover. Pre-crop type also significantly affected the depth distribution of both N and SOC. Specifically, clover pre-cropping led to an enrichment of N at the surface compared with fava beans and maize. SOC enrichment at the surface was also observed under clover, with the effect most pronounced under PK fertilization. Combined with the bulk density effects, this shift in N distribution resulted in significantly higher N stocks under clover than under fava beans. However, the total stocks of SOC were not affected by pre-crop or fertilizer regime. Our results indicate that humans influence C and N cycling and distribution in soils through the selection of pre-crops and that the influence of crop type is greater than that of fertilization regimes. Pre-cropping with clover, which is used as a mulch, leads to N enrichment in the topsoil, reducing the need for N fertilizer for the subsequent cereal crop. In contrast, the use of fava beans as a pre-crop does not lead to N enrichment. We believe this is due to the greater rooting depth of

  3. Impact of Waste Materials Resulting from the Refining of Crude Oil on Some Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pari asadi alasvand

    2017-02-01

    unpolluted soils were mostly gypseous and/or calcareous especially in the middle parts. Considering the surface and subsurface diagnostic horizons and the aridic-thermic soil moisture and temperature regimes, the studied soils were classified as Gypsids, Calcids or Cambids (Soil Survey Staff, 2014. However, due to the added oil waste compounds and presence of impermeable geomembrane in some of the polluted pedons, they were classified as Technosols in the WRB system (FAO, 2014. Noticeable effects of Pollutants in the soil were decreasing pH and increasing OM and EC. The surface horizons of the unpolluted soils contained less than 2 percent organic matter which regularly decreased by depth. However, In some horizons of the polluted soils, soil organic matter exceeded 12 percent. pH decreased by increasing organic matter (oil waste compounds possibly due to H+ dissociation from the oil compounds (Laurent et al., 2012. Electrical conductivity throughout the polluted soil horizons showed more limited variability than the unpolluted ones, probably due to their higher capability in water and liquid dynamics. Liquid limit and plasticity limit in polluted soils are higher than unpolluted soils . Plasticity index in polluted soils decreased with increasing the amount of pollutants. The results of mineralogical studies corroborated that dominant clay mineral in this soils is Smectite. Smectites have high swelling and shrinking capacity.So, the pollutants can intercalate between soil mineral layers and then increase d-spacing of clay minerals. The micromorphology of the polluted soils showed that low dielectric constant of petroleum caused flocculation and formation granular aggregates in soil. Studied soils are inactive in terms of activity of clay. Conclusion: As observed in the studied soils, their physico-chemical properties such as pH and electrical conductivity (EC of saturated paste extract, organic matter content, mineralogical and micro-morphological properties were severely

  4. Soil Chemical Properties and Nutrient Uptake of Cocoa as Affected by Application of Different Organic Matters and Phosphate Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyanto Sugiyanto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Effort repair of land quality better be done by simultan namely with application of organic matters and inorganic fertilization. The objective of this research is to study the effect of varied organic matters source and phosphate fertilizers on the chemicals soil characteristic and cocoa nutrient uptake. The experiment was laid experimentally in split-plot design and environmentally in randomized complete block design. The main plot was source of P consisted of, control, SP 36 and rock phosphate in dosage of 200 mg P2O5 per kg of air dry soil. Source of organic matter as sub-plot consisted of control (no organic matter, cow dung, cocoa pod husk compost and sugar cane filter cake, each in dosage of 2.5 and 5.0%. Result of this experiment showed application of cow dung, cocoa pod husk compost and sugar cane filter cake increased content of C, N, Ca exchangeable, Fe available, and pH in soil, and SP 36 increased availability of P in soil. Application of sugar cane filter cake increased N, K, Ca, Mg, and SO4 uptake but did not increase Cl uptake, application of cow dung in dosage 5% increased N, K, and Cl uptake and cocoa pod husk compost dosage 5% increased N and K uptake of cocoa. SP 36 increased Mg uptake of cocoa but rock phosphate did not increase it. They were not interaction between organic matters and phosphate fertilizers to nutrient uptake of cocoa. Nutrient soil content as affected by organic matters correlated with nutrient uptake of cocoa.Key words : soil chemical properties, nutrient uptake, cocoa, organic matter, phosphate fertlizers.

  5. Effects of inorganic and organic amendment on soil chemical properties, enzyme activities, microbial community and soil quality in yellow clayey soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjun Liu

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of external organic and inorganic components on soil fertility and quality is essential for improving low-yielding soils. We conducted a field study over two consecutive rice growing seasons to investigate the effect of applying chemical fertilizer (NPK, NPK plus green manure (NPKG, NPK plus pig manure (NPKM, and NPK plus straw (NPKS on the soil nutrient status, enzyme activities involved in C, N, P, and S cycling, microbial community and rice yields of yellow clayey soil. Results showed that the fertilized treatments significantly improved rice yields over the first three experimental seasons. Compared with the NPK treatment, organic amendments produced more favorable effects on soil productivity. Notably, the NPKM treatment exhibited the highest levels of nutrient availability, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, activities of most enzymes and the microbial community. This resulted in the highest soil quality index (SQI and rice yield, indicating better soil fertility and quality. Significant differences in enzyme activities and the microbial community were observed among the treatments, and redundancy analysis showed that MBC and available N were the key determinants affecting the soil enzyme activities and microbial community. The SQI score of the non-fertilized control (0.72 was comparable to that of the NPK (0.77, NPKG (0.81 and NPKS (0.79 treatments but significantly lower compared with NPKM (0.85. The significant correlation between rice yield and SQI suggests that SQI can be a useful to quantify soil quality changes caused by different agricultural management practices. The results indicate that application of NPK plus pig manure is the preferred option to enhance SOC accumulation, improve soil fertility and quality, and increase rice yield in yellow clayey soil.

  6. Chemical properties of a Haplustalf soil under irrigation with treated wastewater and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda V. B. D. Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of irrigation with treated wastewater and nitrogen (N fertilization on the chemical characteristics of a Haplustalf soil cultivated with cotton. An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with four replicates, and arranged in a 5 x 4 factorial. Five doses of N fertilization (0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 kg ha-1 and four sources of irrigation water (freshwater, wastewater treated by an anaerobic reactor, wastewater treated by an anaerobic reactor and post-treated by intermittent sand filter in series, wastewater treated in a septic tank and post-treated by an intermittent sand filter were tested. Irrigation was daily performed from July 2011 to January 2012 according to the water demand of cotton resulting in a water depth of 620 mm. It was found that, compared with the conventional management with freshwater irrigation, treated wastewater provides greater accumulation of micronutrient, potassium and sodium in the soil, increasing the risk of sodification in irrigated areas.

  7. Soil properties and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Tis volume 2 on Soil Properties and Processes covers: - Soil physics - Soil (bio)chemistry -

  8. TANNING OF SLUDGE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE PRODUCTION OF SEEDLINGS PARICÁ (Schizolobium amazonicum AND THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena de Souza Tavares

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810547The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the tanning sludge in soil chemical properties and the morphological and nutritional ‘paricá’ seedlings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with five replicates, having as a substrate Humic Cambisol, which was characterized chemically and granulometrically, in possession of these results, the soil was previously corrected with lime and NPK. After 100 days of observation, it was analyzed the soil chemical variables (pH, H + Al, Al3+, Ca, Mg, P, K, Na, S, Cr3+, CO, SB, CEC, V, RAS and PST, the morphology plant [height (H, stem diameter (DC, the number of full sheets, the main root length (CR and dry biomass], and the concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg , S, Cr3+ and Na in the plant. The tanning sludge was used as a nutritional supplement in doses of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 g kg-1. The tanning sludge has potential as a corrective of soil acidity, with little significant increase in indicators of salinity, sodicity and Cr3+ content available. However, the use of sludge did not affect the morphological characteristics of seedlings ‘paricá’, but induced an increase in levels K and S in the shoot and Na and S in the root. The greatest concentration of nutrients in ‘paricá’ were obtained with 6.0 g

  9. Physico-Chemical Properties of Three Salt-Affected Soils in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    but the B-horizon is between low to high. ... Excess sodium on the soil exchange complex and/or soluble salts in the soil profile has rendered an estimated ...... dispersion causes soil pore blockage resulting in the reduction of soil permeability.

  10. Short- and medium-term effects of three fire fighting chemicals on the properties of a burnt soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto-Vazquez, A.; Gonzalez-Prieto, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of three fire fighting chemicals (FFC) on 11 chemical soil properties and on soil recovery (0-2 cm depth) was evaluated 1, 30, 90 and 365 days after a prescribed fire. Five treatments were considered: unburnt soil (United States) and burnt soil with 2 l m -2 of water alone (BS) or mixed with the foaming agent Auxquimica RFC-88 at 1% (BS + Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS + Fi) and FR Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS + Ap). At t = 1 day, soil pH increases in the order US 15 N decreased in all burnt soils (significatively in BS + Ap) due to the inputs of 15 N depleted ashes from leguminous vegetation. Compared with US, soil δ 15 N increased significantly in all burnt plots between t = 90 days (30 days in BS + Ap) and t = 365 days, suggesting a medium-term fire-triggered increment of N outputs ( 15 N depleted). As is habitually the case, there was a transient post-fire increase of NH 4 + -N levels (significative for BS + FFC plots) that lasted for 30 (BS, BS + Fo and BS + Fi) to 90 days (BS + Ap). The high initial NH 4 + -N levels in BS + Ap (200x that of US; 9-18x those of BS, BS + Fo and BS + Fi), and its persistence can delay the post-fire vegetation recovery due to the toxicity of NH 4 + to seeds and seedlings. NO 3 -N levels changed significantly only in BS + Ap between t = 30 and t = 90 days due to the nitrification of its large NH 4 + -N pool. Except in BS + Ap, whose soil P levels were 70-140x (t = 1 days) and 10-20x (t = 365 days) higher than in the other treatments, available P content in BS and BS + FFC was not significatively higher than in US. The concentrations of available cations in BS and BS + FFC were higher (not always significatively, except for K) than in US until t = 90 days, likely due to ashes- and FFC-derived cations. Contrarily to divalent cations, monovalent cations (more soluble and easily leached) decreased slowly until t = 90 days

  11. The relationship between ancient trees health and soil properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... Key words: Ancient trees health, soil properties, Beijing. INTRODUCTION ... growth. Soil chemical properties play an invaluable role ..... situation on soil nutrients and fertilization in eucalyptus plantations in. GuangXi. Soil and ...

  12. Response of soil physico-chemical properties to restoration approaches and submergence in the water level fluctuation zone of the Danjiangkou Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiao; Zhang, KeRong; Zhang, QuanFa; Wang, WeiBo

    2017-11-01

    With the completion of the Danjiangkou Dam, the impoundment and drainage of dams can significantly alter shorelines, hydrological regime, and sediment and can result in the loss of soil and original riparian vegetation. Revegetation may affect soil properties and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this work, we investigated the soil properties under different restoration approaches, and before and after submergence in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Soil physical (bulk density and soil moisture), chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents), and heavy metals were determined. This study reported that restoration approaches have impacts on soil moisture, pH, N, soil organic carbon, P, K and heavy metals in the WLFZ of the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Our results indicated that different restoration approaches could increase the soil moisture while decrease soil pH. Higher soil organic carbon in propagule banks transplantation (PBT) and shrubs restoration (SR) indicate that PBT and SR may provide soil organic matter more quickly than trees restoration (TR). SR and TR could significantly improve the soil total P and available P. PBT and SR could improve the soil total K and available K. SR and TR could significantly promote Cu and Zn adsorption, and Pb and Fe release by plant. Submergence could significantly affect the soil pH, NO 3 - -N, NH 4 + -N, total P and available P. Submergence could promote NO 3 - -N and available P adsorption, and NH 4 + -N and total P release by soil. The soil quality index (SQI) values implied that TR and PBT greatly improved soil quality. The present study suggests that PBT and TR could be effective for soil restoration in WLFZ of the Danjiangkou Reservoir. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. How ecosystems change following invasion by Robinia pseudoacacia: Insights from soil chemical properties and soil microbial, nematode, microarthropod and plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Mazza, Giuseppe; d'Errico, Giada; Fabiani, Arturo; Giuliani, Claudia; Inghilesi, Alberto F; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Landi, Silvia; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Pastorelli, Roberta; Roversi, Pio Federico; Torrini, Giulia; Tricarico, Elena; Foggi, Bruno

    2018-05-01

    Biological invasions are a global threat to biodiversity. Since the spread of invasive alien plants may have many impacts, an integrated approach, assessing effects across various ecosystem components, is needed for a correct understanding of the invasion process and its consequences. The nitrogen-fixing tree Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) is a major invasive species worldwide and is used in forestry production. While its effects on plant communities and soils are well known, there have been few studies on soil fauna and microbes. We investigated the impacts of the tree on several ecosystem components, using a multi-trophic approach to combine evidence of soil chemical properties and soil microbial, nematode, microarthropod and plant communities. We sampled soil and vegetation in managed forests, comparing those dominated by black locust with native deciduous oak stands. We found qualitative and quantitative changes in all components analysed, such as the well-known soil nitrification and acidification in stands invaded by black locust. Bacterial richness was the only component favoured by the invasion. On the contrary, abundance and richness of microarthropods, richness of nematodes, and richness and diversity of plant communities decreased significantly in invaded stands. The invasion process caused a compositional shift in all studied biotic communities and in relationships between the different ecosystem components. We obtained clear insights into the effects of invasion of managed native forests by black locust. Our data confirms that the alien species transforms several ecosystem components, modifying the plant-soil community and affecting biodiversity at different levels. Correct management of this aggressive invader in temperate forests is urgently required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Stratification of soil chemical and microbial properties under no-till management after lime amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption of no-till (NT) technology in the dryland cropping region of the inland Pacific Northwest (iPNW) has dramatically reduced soil erosion compared to conventional tillage. Soils under continuous NT, however, often produce stratified soil acidification compared with conventional tillage due to ...

  15. The impact of the Almalyk Industrial Complex on soil chemical and biological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukurov, Nosir; Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Steinberger, Yosef

    2005-01-01

    The effect of heavy metals on soil free-living nematodes, microbial biomass (C mic ) and basal respiration (BR) was studied along a 15 km downwind deposition gradient, originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex. Soil samples from 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers were collected at 5 km intervals. A significant decrease in heavy metal deposition was found going from the source in the downwind direction and with depth. The soil microbial biomass, basal respiration and derived microbial indices for soil samples from the Almalyk industrial area were analysed. The lowest soil microbial biomass and total number of free-living nematodes were found in soil samples near the industrial complex, with a high heavy metal and weak total organic carbon (C org ) content. The highest C mic was found in the soil samples collected 15 km from the pollution source. BR displayed similar results. The derived indices, metabolic quotient (qCO 2 ) and microbial ratio (C mic /C org ), revealed significant differences with distance, confirming environmental stress in the first and second locations. The present study elucidates the importance of soil nematode and microbial populations as suitable tools for bio-monitoring the effect of heavy metals on soil systems. - Soil nematodes and microbes are suitable biomonitors for metals in soils

  16. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems.

  17. Management systems in irrigated rice affect physical and chemical soil properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Pauletto, E.A.; Pinto, L.F.S.

    2009-01-01

    Lowland soils are commonly found in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern of Brazil, where they represent around 20% of the total area. Deficient drainage is the most important natural characteristic of these soils which therefore are mainly in use for irrigated rice (Oriza sativa). Degradation

  18. Comparison of the Chemical Properties of Forest Soil from the Silesian Beskid, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zołotajkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is spruce forests degradation observed in the Silesian Beskid. The aim of the work was the assessment of parameters diversifying organic layers of soils in two forest areas: degraded and healthy spruce forests of Silesian Beskid. 23 soil samples were collected from two fields—14 soil samples from a degraded forest and 9 soil samples from a forest, where pandemic dying of spruce is not observed. Implementation of hierarchical clustering to experimental data analysis allowed drawing a conclusion that the two forest areas vary significantly in terms of content of aluminium extracted with solutions of barium chloride (Alexch, sodium diphosphate (Alpyr, and pHKCl and in the amount of humus in soil.

  19. Comparative Study of Microbial Activity and Chemical Properties of Soil by Implementing Anti-erosion Measure Vertical Mulching with Organic Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergana Slavova Kuncheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water soil erosion is a phenomenon in which soil particles are separated transported and translocated by the action of rain water. Removal of topsoil by water flow leads to a decrease of humus in the soil, deterioration of soil structure, compaction, and reduction of microbial activity.Developed and tested have been number of methods and technologies for soil protection from the effects of water erosion. Such technology is vertical mulching, and straw or compost applied as mulching material.This work is a study of the changes that occur in some soil chemical properties and soil microbiological activity, as a result in the implementation of anti-erosion measure vertical mulching with different mulching materials for growing corn and wheat grain on carbonate chernozem, on sloping agricultural lands.

  20. Soil Chemical Property Changes in Eggplant/Garlic Relay Intercropping Systems under Continuous Cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Zhang, Mengru; Zhang, Hongjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil sickness is a critical problem for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under continuous cropping that affects sustainable eggplant production. Relay intercropping is a significant technique on promoting soil quality, improving eco-environment, and raising output. Field experiments were conducted from September 2010 to November 2012 in northwest China to determine the effects of relay intercropping eggplant with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on soil enzyme activities, available nutrient contents, and pH value under a plastic tunnel. Three treatments were in triplicate using randomized block design: eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG) and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). The major results are as follows: (1) the activities of soil invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase were generally enhanced in NG and GG treatments; (2) relay intercropping significantly increased the soil available nutrient contents, and they were mostly higher in GG than NG. On April 11, 2011, the eggplant/garlic co-growth stage, the available nitrogen content in GG was 76.30 mg·kg−1, significantly higher than 61.95 mg·kg−1 in NG. For available potassium on April 17, 2012, they were 398.48 and 387.97 mg·kg−1 in NG and GG, both were significantly higher than 314.84 mg·kg−1 in CK; (3) the soil pH showed a significantly higher level in NG treatment, but lower in GG treatment compared with CK. For the last samples in 2012, soil pH in NG and GG were 7.70 and 7.46, the highest and lowest one among them; (4) the alkaline phosphatase activity and pH displayed a similar decreasing trend with continuous cropping. These findings indicate that relay intercropping eggplant with garlic could be an ideal farming system to effectively improve soil nutrient content, increase soil fertility, and alleviate soil sickness to some extent. These findings are important in helping to develop sustainable eggplant production. PMID:25340875

  1. Copper bioavailability and extractability as related to chemical properties of contaminated soils from a vine-growing area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaignon, V.; Sanchez-Neira, I.; Herrmann, P.; Jaillard, B.; Hinsinger, P.

    2003-01-01

    Root Cu concentration is a good indicator of soil Cu bioavailability. - Vineyard soils have been contaminated by Cu as a consequence of the long-term use of Cu salts as fungicides against mildew. This work aimed at identifying which soil parameters were the best related to Cu bioavailability, as assessed by measuring the concentrations of Cu in shoots and roots of tomato cropped (in lab conditions) over a range of 29 (24 calcareous and five acidic) Cu-contaminated topsoils from a vine-growing area (22-398 mg Cu kg -1 ). Copper concentrations in tomato shoots remained in the adequate range and were independent of soil properties and soil Cu content. Conversely, strong, positive correlations were found between root Cu concentration, total soil Cu, EDTA- or K-pyrophosphate-extractable Cu and organic C contents in the 24 calcareous soils, suggesting a prominent role of organic matter in the retention and bioavailability of Cu. Such relations were not observed when including the five acidic soils in the investigated population, suggesting a major pH effect. Root Cu concentration appeared as a much more sensitive indicator of soil Cu bioavailability than shoot Cu concentration. Simple extractions routinely used in soil testing procedures (total and EDTA-extractable Cu) were adequate indicators of Cu bioavailability for the investigated calcareous soils, but not when different soil types were considered (e.g. acidic versus calcareous soils)

  2. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to soil chemical properties and heavy metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Hempel, Stefan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Schäfer, Tina; Savaghebi, Gholamreza; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Buscot, François

    2010-08-01

    Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with dominant plant species were studied along a transect from highly lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) polluted to non-polluted soil at the Anguran open pit mine in Iran. Using an established primer set for AMF in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, nine different AMF sequence types were distinguished after phylogenetic analyses, showing remarkable differences in their distribution patterns along the transect. With decreasing Pb and Zn concentration, the number of AMF sequence types increased, however one sequence type was only found in the highly contaminated area. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that further factors than HM soil concentration affect the AMF community at contaminated sites. Specifically, the soils' calcium carbonate equivalent and available P proved to be of importance, which illustrates that field studies on AMF distribution should also consider important environmental factors and their possible interactions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxidation of FGD-CaSO{sub 3} and effect on soil chemical properties when applied to the soil surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liming Chen; Cliff Ramsier; Jerry Bigham; Brian Slater; David Kost; Yong Bok Lee; Warren A. Dick [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (United States). School of Environment and Natural Resources

    2009-07-15

    Use of high-sulfur coal for power generation in the United States requires the removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) produced during burning in order to meet clean air regulations. If SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gas using a wet scrubber without forced air oxidation, much of the S product created will be sulfite (SO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). Plants take up S in the form of sulfate (SO{sub 2}{sup 2-}). Sulfite may cause damage to plant roots, especially in acid soils. For agricultural uses, it is thought that SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products must first oxidize to SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in soils before crops are planted. However, there is little information about the oxidation of SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} in FGD product to SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} under field conditions. An FGD-CaSO{sub 3} was applied at rates of 0, 1.12, and 3.36 Mg ha{sup -1} to the surface of an agricultural soil (Wooster silt loam, Oxyaquic Fragiudalf). The SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in the surface soil (0-10 cm) was analyzed on days 3, 7, 17, 45, and 61. The distribution of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ca in the 0-90 cm soil layer was also determined on day 61. Results indicated that SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} in the FGD-CaSO{sub 3} rapidly oxidized to SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} on the field surface during the first week and much of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ca moved downward into the 0-50 cm soil layer during the experimental period of two months. It is safe to grow plants in soil treated with FGD-CaSO{sub 3} if the application is made at least three days to several weeks before planting. 20 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Changes in chemical composition and engineering properties of gypseous soils through leaching: an example from Mashhad, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghari, Somaye; Ghafoori, Mohammad; Tabatabai, Salman

    2018-01-01

    on the samples and the gypsum and sulfate concentration maps were produced based on these results, combined with the previously available data from 511 boreholes drilled in the area. Seven soil samples with different gypsum concentrations were selected for further analysis in four major groups of tests...... and direct shear). Changes in the mentioned parameters were investigated through a 5-day leaching process. The results indicate that extensive dissolution of gypsum and removal of gypsum bonding between soil particles change soil chemical composition and decrease the soil compressibility and strength...

  5. Selective-placement burial of drilling fluids: 1. Effects on soil chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, M.L.; Hartmann, S.; Ueckert, D.N.; Hons, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    Burial of spent drilling fluids used in petroleum and natural gas exploration was evaluated for reducing soil contamination caused by conventional, surface disposal of these wastes on arid and semiarid rangelands. Simulated reserve pits at two locations provided burial depths of 30, 90 (with and without a 30-cm capillary barrier of coarse limestone), and 150 cm below the surface, with sequential replacement of stockpiled subsoil and topsoil. The drilling fluids contained extremely high concentrations of soluble salts, with Na and Cl being the dominant soluble ions. Upward migration of contaminants was evaluated over a 20-month period. Soluble salts migrated upward 15 to 30 cm into the overlying soil, and salt movement appeared to be governed to a greater extent by diffusive rather than convective flow mechanisms. Capillary barriers of coarse limestone effectively reduced salt movement at one of the two sites. Sodium, Ca, and Cl were the dominant mobile ions. Exchangeable Na percentages did not increase in soil increments > 15 cm above buried drilling wastes. Barium, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in drilling fluids did not migrate into overlying soil. Movement of contaminants was similar where fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.], a deep-rooted shrub, and buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm], a shallow-rooted grass, were used for revegetation

  6. Relationship between soil oxidizable carbon and physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of umbric ferralsols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, F.A.; Calegari, M.R.; Vidal-Torrado, P.; Buurman, P.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of Umbric Ferralsols with thick umbric epipedons (> 100 cm thickness) in humid Tropical and Subtropical areas is a paradox since the processes of organic matter decomposition in these environments are very efficient. Nevertheless, this soil type has been reported in areas in the

  7. Incorporation of digestate selectively affects physical, chemical and biochemical properties along with CO2 emissions in two contrasting agricultural soils in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badagliacca, Giuseppe; Petrovičová, Beatrix; Zumbo, Antonino; Romeo, Maurizio; Gullì, Tommaso; Martire, Luigi; Monti, Michele; Gelsomino, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Soil incorporation of digestate represents a common practice to dispose the solid residues from biogas producing plants. Although the digestate constitutes a residual biomass rich in partially decomposed organic matter and nutrients, whose content is often highly variable and unbalanced, its potential fertilizer value can vary considerably depending on the recipient soil properties. The aim of the work was to assess short-term changes in the fertility status of two contrasting agricultural soils in Southern Italy (Calabria), olive grove on a clay acid soil (Typic Hapludalfs) and citrus grove on a sandy loam slightly calcareous soil (Typic Xerofluvents), respectively located along the Tyrrhenian or the Ionian coast. An amount of 30 t ha-1 digestate was incorporated into the soil by ploughing. Unamended tilled soil was used as control. The following soil physical, chemical and biochemical variables were monitored during the experimental period: aggregate stability, pH, electrical conductivity, organic C, total N, Olsen-P, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the mineralization quotient (qM). Moreover, in the olive grove soil CO2 emissions have been continuously measured at field scale for 5 months after digestate incorporation. Digestate application in both site exerted a significant positive effect on soil aggregate stability with a greater increase in clay than in sandy loam soil. Over the experimental period, digestate considerably affected the nutrient availability, namely Olsen-P, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, along with the electrical conductivity. The soil type increased significantly the soil N-NH4+ content, which was always higher in the olive than in citrus grove soil. N-NO3- content was markedly increased soon after the organic amendment, followed by a seasonal decline more evident in the sandy loam soil. Moreover, soil properties as CaCO3 content and the pH selectively affected the Olsen-P dynamics. No appreciable

  8. Impact of Addition of FGDB as a Soil Amendment on Physical and Chemical Properties of an Alkali Soil and Crop Yield of Maize in Northern China Coastal Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-L. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of Flue gas desulfurization byproduct( FGDB as a soil amendment on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays and to determine the impact of FGDB additions on soil fertility characteristics in alkaline clayey soils, a 2-year field experiment was conducted in Huanghua, in Northern China Coastal Plain. The experiment included five treatments in which the soil was amended with FGDB at 15 cm depth at the rates of 0 t·hm−2, 4.50 t·hm−2, 9.00 t·hm−2, 13.5 t·hm−2, and 18.00 t·hm−2, respectively, before maize was planted. The values of soil pH, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, and bulk density (BD of the soil decreased; however, values of electrical conductivity (EC, water holding capacity (WHC, and plant nutrients increased with FGDB application in the soil. Crop plants grow more readily in FGDB amended soils because of improved soil properties. The best ameliorative effect was obtained at the rate of 13.5 t·hm−2. The germination percentage, plant height, and crop yield successively increased in both years. The results indicated FGDB was an effective soil amendment for improving the physicochemical properties and nutrient balance, and enhancing crop germination, growth, and yield, particularly when applied at a suitable application rate.

  9. Production and quality of Urochloa decumbens (stapf r.d. webster forage co-related to the physical and chemical properties of the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Frequently degraded pastureland characterized by low soil fertility and compacted surface is the basic environment of Brazilian livestock. The physical and chemical characterization of soil and its co-relationship with forage production are determining factors for performance of animals raised on pasture. The objective was to analyze the forage production of Urochloa decumbens grass correlated, linearly and spatially, with physical and chemical attributes of a savannah soil in Selvíria - MS, Brazil. A geostatistical web was introduced for the collection of soil and plant data, with 120 sampling sites within an area of 56.09 ha. The descriptive analysis of the data was undertaken and linear co-relationships, both simple and multiple, were established between plant and soil properties. Semivariograms were modeled and their respective krigings and cross-validations obtained, coupled to co-krigings (plant and soil. Production of dry matter and crude protein rates of U. decumbens may be estimated by regressions and the mechanical resistance to penetration and gravimetric humidity of the soil evaluated. Since organic matter rate and the gravimetric humidity of the soil are co-related spatially with the rate of crude protein of U. decumbens, they are the best factors to calculate or increase the forage crude protein rate.

  10. Physical and chemical properties of soils under some wild Pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf) canopies in a semi-arid ecosystem, southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owliaie, Hamidreza

    2010-05-01

    Pistacia atlantica Desf. is one of the most important wild species in Zagros forests which is of high economical and environmental value. Sustainability of these forests primarily depends on soil quality and water availability. Study the relationships between trees and soil is one of the basic factors in management and planning of forests. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the effect of tree species on soil physical and chemical properties in a semi-arid region (Kohgilouye Province) in the southwestern part of Iran. The experimental design was a factorial 4×2 (4 depths and 2 distances) in a randomized complete block design with six replications. Soil samples (0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm depth) were taken from beneath the tree crowns and adjacent open areas. Soil samples were analyzed for physical and chemical properties. The results showed that wild pistachio canopy increased mostly organic carbon, hydraulic conductivity, total N, SP, available K+, P (olsen), EC, EDTA extractable Fe2+ and Mn2+, while bulk density, CCE and DTPA extractable Cu2+ were decreased. Pistachio canopy had no significant effect on soil texture, Zn2+ and pH.

  11. Combined effects of climate, restoration measures and slope position in change in soil chemical properties and nutrient loss across lands affected by the Wenchuan Earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongming; Deng, Haojun; Du, Kun; Rafay, Loretta; Zhang, Guang-Shuai; Li, Jian; Chen, Can; Wu, Chengzhen; Lin, Han; Yu, Wei; Fan, Hailan; Ge, Yonggang

    2017-10-15

    The MS 8.0Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008 caused huge damage to land cover in the northwest of China's Sichuan province. In order to determine the nutrient loss and short term characteristics of change in soil chemical properties, we established an experiment with three treatments ('undestroyed', 'destroyed and treated', and 'destroyed and untreated'), two climate types (semi-arid hot climate and subtropical monsoon climate), and three slope positions (upslope, mid-slope, and bottom-slope) in 2011. Ten soil properties-including pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium-were measured in surface soil samples in December 2014. Analyses were performed to compare the characteristics of 3-year change in soil chemical properties in two climate zones. This study revealed that soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, Ca 2+ content, alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium were significantly higher in subtropical monsoon climate zones than in semi-arid hot climate zones. However, subtropical monsoon climate zones had a higher decrease in soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen in 'destroyed and untreated' sites than in semi-arid hot climate zones. Most soil chemical properties exhibited significant interactions, indicating that they may degrade or develop concomitantly. 'Destroyed and treated' sites in both climate types had lower C:P and N:P ratios than 'destroyed and untreated' sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first, second, and third principal components explained 76.53% of the variation and might be interpreted as structural integrity, nutrient supply availability, and efficiency of soil; the difference of soil parent material; as well as weathering and leaching effects. Our study indicated that the characteristics of short term

  12. Impacts of Woody Invader Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff. Martelli on Physio-chemical Properties of Soil and, Below and Above Ground Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A.K. Wickramathilake

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dillenia suffruticosa (Griffith Martelli, that spreads fast in low-lying areas in wet zone of Sri Lanka is currently listed as a nationally important Invasive Alien Species that deserves attention in ecological studies. Thus, impact of this woody invader on physical, chemical properties of soil and below and above ground flora was investigated. Five sampling sites were identified along a distance of 46km from Avissawella to Ratnapura. At each site, two adjacent plots [1m x10m each for D. suffruticosa present (D+ and absent (D-] were outlined. Physical and chemical soil parameters, microbial biomass and number of bacterial colonies in soil were determined using standard procedures and compared between D+ and D- by ANOVA using SPSS. Rate of decomposition of D. suffruticosa leaves was also determined using the litter bag technique at 35% and 50% moisture levels. Above ground plant species richness in sample stands was compared using Jaccard and Sorenson diversity indices.  Decomposition of D. suffruticosa leaves was slow, but occurred at a more or less similar rate irrespective of moisture content of soil. Particle size distribution in D+ soil showed a much higher percentage of large soil particles.  Higher % porosity in D+ sites was a clear indication that the soil was aerated.  The pH was significantly lower for D+ than D- thus developing acidic soils whereas conductivity has been significantly high making soil further stressed. The significant drop in Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC in D+ soil was a remarkable finding to be concerned with as it correlated with fertility of soil. Significantly higher values of phosphates reported in D+ soil support the idea that plant invaders are capable to increase phosphates in soil. Higher biomass values recorded for D+ sites together with higher number of bacterial colonies could be related to the unexpectedly recorded higher Organic Carbon. Both  the  Jaccard  and  Sorenson   indices indicated  that

  13. Soil quality changes in land degradation as indicated by soil chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties in a karst area of southwest Guizhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingjiu; Li, Lianqing; Pan, Genxing; Ren, Jingchen

    2006-12-01

    Not only the nutritional status and biological activity but also the soil ecological functioning or soil health has been impacted profoundly by land degradation in the karst area of southwest China where the karst ecosystems are generally considered as extremely vulnerable to land degradation under intensified land-use changes. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the changes in overall soil quality by a holistic approach of soil nutritional, biological activity, and soil health indicators in the karst area as impacted by intense cultivation and vegetation degradation. Topsoil samples were collected on selected eco-tesserae in a sequence of land degradation in a karst area of southwest Guizhou in 2004. The soil nutrient pools of organic carbon (Corg), extractable extracellular carbon (Cext), total soil nitrogen (Nt), alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen (Nah), total phosphorus (Pt), available phosphorus (Pa) were analyzed by wet soil chemistry. The soil biological properties were studied by means of measurements of microbial biomass carbon (both by fumigation-extraction, FE-Cmic, and by calculation from substrate-incubation respiration, SIR-Cmic) of respiration [respiration without addition of substrates, basal respiration (BR), and potential respiration (PR) with substrate-incubation] and of soil enzyme activities (invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase). Soil health status was assessed by simple indices of Cmic/Corg and BR/Cmic in conjunction with bacterial community structures determined by polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. While the nutritional pool parameters, such as Corg and Cext, described basically the changes in soil life-supporting capacity with cultivation interference and vegetation declined, those parameters of biological activity such as FE-Cmic, SIR, and SIR-Cmic as well as bacterial community structures measured by molecular method evidenced well the changes in soil functioning for ecosystem health with

  14. Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Soil/Rock Properties LaboratoryLocation: Spokane SiteThe Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory is contained in the soils bay, a 4,700 sq. ft. facility that provides space...

  15. Assessment the effect of homogenized soil on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohawesh, O.; Janssen, M.; Maaitah, O.; Lennartz, B.

    2017-09-01

    Soil hydraulic properties play a crucial role in simulating water flow and contaminant transport. Soil hydraulic properties are commonly measured using homogenized soil samples. However, soil structure has a significant effect on the soil ability to retain and to conduct water, particularly in aggregated soils. In order to determine the effect of soil homogenization on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport, undisturbed soil samples were carefully collected. Five different soil structures were identified: Angular-blocky, Crumble, Angular-blocky (different soil texture), Granular, and subangular-blocky. The soil hydraulic properties were determined for undisturbed and homogenized soil samples for each soil structure. The soil hydraulic properties were used to model soil water transport using HYDRUS-1D.The homogenized soil samples showed a significant increase in wide pores (wCP) and a decrease in narrow pores (nCP). The wCP increased by 95.6, 141.2, 391.6, 3.9, 261.3%, and nCP decreased by 69.5, 10.5, 33.8, 72.7, and 39.3% for homogenized soil samples compared to undisturbed soil samples. The soil water retention curves exhibited a significant decrease in water holding capacity for homogenized soil samples compared with the undisturbed soil samples. The homogenized soil samples showed also a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. The simulated results showed that water movement and distribution were affected by soil homogenizing. Moreover, soil homogenizing affected soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport. However, field studies are being needed to find the effect of these differences on water, chemical, and pollutant transport under several scenarios.

  16. Effects of Chromolaena and Tithonia Mulches on Soil Properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2 Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. ... Chromolaena mulch produced higher values of soil chemical properties, leaf nutrient concentrations, ..... increased activities of beneficial soil fauna.

  17. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of Soil under Decaying Wood in a Tropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcela Zalamea; Grizelle Gonzalez; D. Jean Lodge

    2016-01-01

    Decaying wood is related to nutrient cycling through its role as either a sink or source of nutrients. However, at micro scales, what is the effect of decaying logs on the physical, chemical,and biotic characteristics of the soil underneath? We took samples from a 0 to 5 cm depth under and a 50 cm distance away from decaying logs (Dacryodes excelsa and Swietenia...

  18. Soil physical properties affecting soil erosion in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Lujan, D.

    2004-01-01

    The total vegetated land area of the earth is about 11,500 hectare. Of this, about 12% is in South America. Of this, about 14% is degraded area. Water erosion, chemical degradation, wind erosion, and physical degradation have been reported as main types of degradation. In South America water erosion is a major process for soil degradation. Nevertheless, water erosion can be a consequence of degradation of the soil structure, especially the functional attributes of soil pores to transmit and retain water, and to facilitate root growth. Climate, soil and topographic characteristics determine runoff and erosion potential from agricultural lands. The main factors causing soil erosion can be divided into three groups: Energy factors: rainfall erosivity, runoff volume, wind strength, relief, slope angle, slope length; Protection factors: population density, plant cover, amenity value (pressure for use) and land management; and resistance factors: soil erodibility, infiltration capacity and soil management. The degree of soil erosion in a particular climatic zone, with particular soils, land use and socioeconomic conditions, will always result from a combination of the above mentioned factors. It is not easy to isolate a single factor. However, the soil physical properties that determine the soil erosion process, because the deterioration of soil physical properties is manifested through interrelated problems of surface sealing, crusting, soil compaction, poor drainage, impeded root growth, excessive runoff and accelerated erosion. When an unprotected soil surface is exposed to the direct impact of raindrops it can produce different responses: Production of smaller aggregates, dispersed particles, particles in suspension and translocation and deposition of particles. When this has occurred, the material is reorganized at the location into a surface seal. Aggregate breakdown under rainfall depends on soil strength and a certain threshold kinetic energy is needed to start

  19. Modification of chemical properties, Cu fractionation and enzymatic activities in an acid vineyard soil amended with winery wastes: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Calviño, David

    2017-11-01

    The effects of adding two winery wastes, perlite waste (PW) and bentonite waste (BW), to an acid vineyard soil were assessed using some chemical and biological soil properties in a field study that lasted 18 months. The addition of PW (up to 81 Mg ha -1 ) had neither significant nor permanent effects on soil characteristics such as the pH, organic matter content or nutrient concentrations, the amounts of copper or zinc, or the electrical conductivity. Moreover, no persistent negative effects were found on the enzymatic activities after PW application. In contrast, soil that was amended with up to 71 Mg BW ha -1 showed increases in its soil pH values, exchangeable potassium and water soluble potassium and phosphorus contents. In addition, it caused significant increases in the electrical conductivity and water-soluble Cu. In addition, the phosphomonoesterase enzymatic activity decreased significantly (up to 28%) in response to the amendment with 71 Mg BW ha -1 . These results showed that adding BW and PW to the soil may be a good agronomic practice for recycling these types of wastes. However, in the case of PW, its use as a soil amendment must be performed with caution to control its possible harmful effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Amendment of Tephrosia Improved Fallows with Inorganic Fertilizers Improves Soil Chemical Properties, N Uptake, and Maize Yield in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie G. Munthali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in Malawi is limited mainly by low soil N and P. Improved fallows of N-fixing legumes such as Tephrosia and Sesbania offer options for improving soil fertility particularly N supply. The interactions of Tephrosia fallows and inorganic fertilizers on soil properties, N uptake, and maize yields were evaluated at Chitedze Research Station in Malawi. The results indicated that the level of organic matter and pH increased in all the treatments except for the control. Total N remained almost unchanged while available P decreased in all plots amended with T. vogelii but increased in T. candida plots where inorganic P was applied. Exchangeable K increased in all the plots irrespective of the type of amendment. The interaction of N and P fertilizers with T. vogelii fallows significantly increased the grain yield. The treatment that received 45 kg N ha−1 and 20 kg P ha−1 produced significantly higher grain yields (6.8 t ha−1 than all the other treatments except where 68 kg N ha−1 and 30 kg P ha−1 were applied which gave 6.5 t ha−1 of maize grain. T. candida fallows alone or in combination with N and P fertilizers did not significantly affect grain yield. However, T. candida fallows alone can raise maize grain yield by 300% over the no-input control. Based on these results we conclude that high quality residues such as T. candida and T. vogelii can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields and soil fertility in N-limited soils. However, inorganic P fertilizer is needed due to the low soil available P levels.

  1. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Samuel-Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density under different land uses (native forest, no-tillage and conventional agriculture on small family farms in Southern Brazil. The results showed that the five properties evaluated can be included in soil quality assessments and are not influenced by the clay and iron oxide contents. It was concluded that for little weathered 1:1 and 2:1 phyllosilicate rich-soils, if the difference between the maximum and the minimum clay content under the different land uses is less than about 200 g kg-1 and the iron oxide content less than about 15 g kg-1, the physico-chemical soil properties in the surface layer are determined mostly by the land use.

  2. Species diversity and chemical properties of litter influence non-additive effects of litter mixtures on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Mao

    Full Text Available Decomposition of litter mixtures generally cannot be predicted from the component species incubated in isolation. Therefore, such non-additive effects of litter mixing on soil C and N dynamics remain poorly understood in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, litters of Mongolian pine and three dominant understory species and soil were collected from a Mongolian pine plantation in Northeast China. In order to examine the effects of mixed-species litter on soil microbial biomass N, soil net N mineralization and soil respiration, four single litter species and their mixtures consisting of all possible 2-, 3- and 4-species combinations were added to soils, respectively. In most instances, species mixing produced synergistic non-additive effects on soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, but antagonistic non-additive effects on net N mineralization. Species composition rather than species richness explained the non-additive effects of species mixing on soil microbial biomass N and net N mineralization, due to the interspecific differences in litter chemical composition. Both litter species composition and richness explained non-additive soil respiration responses to mixed-species litter, while litter chemical diversity and chemical composition did not. Our study indicated that litter mixtures promoted soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, and inhibited net N mineralization. Soil N related processes rather than soil respiration were partly explained by litter chemical composition and chemical diversity, highlighting the importance of functional diversity of litter on soil N cycling.

  3. Species diversity and chemical properties of litter influence non-additive effects of litter mixtures on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Bing; Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Decomposition of litter mixtures generally cannot be predicted from the component species incubated in isolation. Therefore, such non-additive effects of litter mixing on soil C and N dynamics remain poorly understood in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, litters of Mongolian pine and three dominant understory species and soil were collected from a Mongolian pine plantation in Northeast China. In order to examine the effects of mixed-species litter on soil microbial biomass N, soil net N mineralization and soil respiration, four single litter species and their mixtures consisting of all possible 2-, 3- and 4-species combinations were added to soils, respectively. In most instances, species mixing produced synergistic non-additive effects on soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, but antagonistic non-additive effects on net N mineralization. Species composition rather than species richness explained the non-additive effects of species mixing on soil microbial biomass N and net N mineralization, due to the interspecific differences in litter chemical composition. Both litter species composition and richness explained non-additive soil respiration responses to mixed-species litter, while litter chemical diversity and chemical composition did not. Our study indicated that litter mixtures promoted soil microbial biomass N and soil respiration, and inhibited net N mineralization. Soil N related processes rather than soil respiration were partly explained by litter chemical composition and chemical diversity, highlighting the importance of functional diversity of litter on soil N cycling.

  4. Selected Chemical Properties of Soybean Rhizosphere Soil as Influenced by Cropping Systems, Rhizobium Inoculation, and the Supply of Phosphorus and Potassium after Two Consecutive Cropping Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nyoki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in northern Tanzania to assess the effects of intercropping systems, Rhizobium inoculation, and fertilization with P and K on chemical properties of soybean rhizosphere soil. The experiment was laid out in split-split plot design with 2 × 4 × 7 factorial arrangement replicated thrice. The main plots had two inoculation treatments and the subplots were comprised of four cropping systems which were sole maize, sole soybean, and two intercropping at different soybean spacing (75 × 20 and 75 × 40 cm. The fertilizer levels (kg/ha control (0 kg/ha; 20 K; 40 K; 26 P; 52 P; 26 P + 20 K; and 52 P + 40 K were assigned to sub-subplots. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Least Significant Difference was used to compare treatment means at p=0.05 significance level. The results indicated that rhizosphere soil chemical properties such as pH, organic carbon (OC, and macro- and micronutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, and Na and Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn, resp. were significantly increased in the Rhizobium inoculated soybean over the control. The supply of P and K fertilizers significantly increased the rhizosphere content of macronutrients (P, K, Ca, and Mg and also they altered the pH and EC of the rhizosphere soil relative to control.

  5. GEOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Low energy perturbations used in geophysical methods provide insightful information about constant-fabric soil properties and their spatial variability. There are causal links between soil type, index properties, elastic wave velocity, electromagnetic wave parameters and thermal properties. Soil type relates to the stress-dependent S-wave velocity, thermal and electrical conductivity and permittivity. The small strain stiffness reflects the state of stress, the extent of diagenetic cementation and/or freezing. Pore fluid chemistry, fluid phase and changes in either fluid chemistry or phase manifest through electromagnetic measurements. The volumetric water content measured with electromagnetic techniques is the best predictor of porosity if the water saturation is 100%. Changes in water saturation alter the P-wave velocity when Srà100%, the S-wave velocity at intermediate saturations, and the thermal conductivity when the saturation is low Srà0%. Finally, tabulated values suffice to estimate heat capacity and latent heat for engineering design, however thermal conductivity requires measurements under proper field conditions.

  6. A greenhouse study on arsenic remediation potential of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria Zizanioides) as a function of soil physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, M. A.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic is one of the most harmful and toxic metals, being a Group A human carcinogen. Mining activities as well as the use of arsenic-containing pesticides have resulted in the contamination of a wide variety of sites including mine tailings, cattle dip sites, wood treatment sites, pesticide treatment areas, golf courses, etc. Phytoremediation has emerged as a novel and promising technology, which uses plants to clean up contaminated soil and water taking advantage of plant's natural abilities to extract and accumulate various contaminants. This method has distinct advantages, since it maintains the biological properties and physical structure of the soil, is environment friendly, and above all, inexpensive. However, effective remediation of contaminated residential soils using a specific plant species is an immensely complex task whose success depends on a multitude of factors including the ability of the target plant to uptake, translocate, detoxify, and accumulate arsenic in its system. One of the major challenges in phytoremediation lies in identifying a fast- growing, high biomass plant that can accumulate the contaminant in its harvestable parts. vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) is a fast-growing perennial grass with strong ecological adaptability and large biomass. While this plant is not a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, it has been reported to be able to tolerate and accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Being a high biomass, fast-growing plant, vetiver has the potential to be used for arsenic remediation. The present study investigates the potential of vetiver grass to tolerate and accumulate arsenic in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. A greenhouse study is in progress to study the uptake, tolerance and stress response of vetiver grass to inorganic arsenical pesticide. A column study was set up using 5 soils (Eufaula, Millhopper, Orelia, Orla, and Pahokee Muck) contaminated with sodium arsenite at 4 different concentrations of

  7. Carbon stock, chemical and physical properties of soils under management systems with different deployment times in western region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Sérgio Rosset

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the organic carbon stock and chemical and physical properties of soils in management systems with different deployment times under clayey Red Latosol in western region of Paraná, Brazil. Five managed areas and a reference area (native forest without anthropic action were analyzed in completely randomized design with five repetitions. Management systems include three areas with different time of first adoption of no-till: 6 years – NT6 (transition phase, 14 years – NT14 (consolidation phase and 22 years – NT22 (maintenance phase; 16 years of no-till, and in the last four years with integration of maize and ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis – (NT+B and an area of permanent and continuous extensive cattle pasture of coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon – (P. Physical and chemical properties, total soil organic carbon (TOC stock and carbon stratification index (SI of soils were evaluated in depths of 0-0.05; 0.05-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m. The macroporosity (MA was higher in the area of native forest, ranging from 0.23 to 0.30 m3 m-3 and the microporosity (MI was higher in cultivated areas. The areas of NT+B and P presented lower ratio macroporosity/total pore volume (MA/TPV. For soil bulk density (BD and soil penetration resistance (SPR, the managed areas show higher values, suggesting the occurrence of compacted subsurface layers. Native forest area showed the highest TOC levels in the depths of 0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m, reaching 30.5 g kg-1 in the 0–0.05 m soil layer. There was negative change on TOC stocks in the managed areas in relation to forest area, being more evident in the more superficial soil layers. The SI was greater than one, however there is a reduction in function of adoption time of no-till. There was higher soil compaction in the managed areas, and the NT in soybean/maize succession system does not contribute effectively to the increase of TOC stocks.

  8. Soil hydraulic properties of Cuban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, M.E.; Medina, H.

    2004-01-01

    Because soil hydraulic properties are indispensable for determining soil water retention and soil water movement, their input for deterministic crop simulation models is essential. From these models is possible to access the effect of the weather changes, soil type or different irrigation schedules on crop yields. With these models, possibilities are provided to answer questions regarding virtual 'what happen if' experiments with a minimum of fieldwork. Nevertheless, determining soil hydraulic properties can be very difficult owing to unavailability of necessary equipment or the lack of personal with the proper knowledge for those tasks. These deficiencies are a real problem in developing countries, and even more so when there is not enough financial possibilities for research work. This paper briefly presents the way these properties have been accessed for Cuban soils, which methods have been used and the work now in progress. (author)

  9. The influence of liming on soil chemical properties and on the alleviation of manganese and copper toxicity in Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistathis, T; Alifragis, D; Papaioannou, A

    2015-03-01

    Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations, suffering from Mn and Cu toxicity, were limed in order to reduce Cu and Mn solubility in soil. The purposes of the present work were: i) to study the changes in soil chemical properties after the addition of CaCO3, ii) to investigate the influence of liming on the reduction of Mn and Cu toxicity. After the addition of CaCO3 (three applications, during three successive years), pH and CaCO3 content were significantly increased, while organic C and N were significantly reduced. Exchangeable Ca concentrations have been slightly, or significantly, increased, while those of Mg have been decreased; in addition, ratios Ca/Mg and C/N have been significantly increased after liming. Impressive reductions of DTPA extractable Cu and Mn concentrations (more than 10 times in most cases) were recorded. It was also found that trees without Mn and Cu toxicity symptoms (healthy tress) before liming did not have, in many cases, significantly greater leaf Mn, Cu and Fe concentrations, than trees after soil liming (all the trees were healthy). This probably happened because excess Mn and Cu quantities had been accumulated into their root system. Finally, leaf Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations of trees suffering from toxicity were significantly decreased after soil liming, while leaf Fe concentrations, in all the plant species studied, were increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil properties related to 60Co bioavailability in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoly, Flavia; Wasserman, Maria Angelica; Rochedo, Elaine Ruas Rodriguez; Viana, Aline Gonzalez; Souza, Rodrigo Camara; Oliveira, Giselle Rodrigues; Reis, Wagner Goncalves Soares; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the results of field experiments to obtain soil to plants Transfer factor (TF) for 60 Co in reference plants cultivated in Ferralsol, Acrisol and Nitisol. These soils represent the majority of Brazilian agricultural area. Values of TF varied from 0.001 to 0.05 for corn and from 0.001 to 0.81 for cabbage. Results of 60 Co TF were discussed in relation to the physical and chemical properties of the soils and 60 Co geochemical partition. The sequential chemical extraction showed that more than 40% of the 60 Co present in the soils are associated to manganese oxides. These results will provide regional values for parameters used in the environmental radiological modeling aiming to optimize the planning of emergency interventions or the waste management related to tropical soils. (author)

  11. Does nitrogen fertilization history affects short-term microbial responses and chemical properties of soils submitted to different glyphosate concentrations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Nivelle

    Full Text Available The use of nitrogen (N fertilizer and glyphosate-based herbicides is increasing worldwide, with agriculture holding the largest market share. The agronomic and socioeconomic utilities of glyphosate are well established; however, our knowledge of the potential effects of glyphosate applied in the presence or absence of long-term N fertilization on microbial functional activities and the availability of soil nutrients remains limited. Using an ex situ approach with soils that did (N+ or did not (N0 receive synthetic N fertilization for 6 years, we assessed the impact of different rates (no glyphosate, CK; field rate, FR; 100 × field rate, 100FR of glyphosate application on biological and chemical parameters. We observed that, after immediate application (1 day, the highest dose of glyphosate (100FR negatively affected the alkaline phosphatase (AlP activity in soils without N fertilization history and decreased the cation exchange capacity (CEC in N0 compared to CK and FR treatments with N+. Conversely, the 100FR application increased nitrate (NO3- and available phosphorus (PO43- regardless of N fertilization history. Then, after 8 and 15 days, the N+\\100FR and N+\\FR treatments exhibited the lowest values for dehydrogenase (DH and AlP activities, respectively, while urease (URE activity was mainly affected by N fertilization. After 15 days and irrespective of N fertilization history, the FR glyphosate application negatively affected the degradation of carbon substrates by microbial communities (expressed as the average well color development, AWCD. By contrast, the 100FR treatment positively affected AWCD, increasing PO43- by 5 and 16% and NO3- by 126 and 119% in the N+ and N0 treatments, respectively. In addition, the 100FR treatment resulted in an increase in the average net nitrification rate. Principal component analysis revealed that the 100FR glyphosate treatment selected microbial communities that were able to metabolize amine substrates

  12. Effect of Vermicompost, Sulfur and Thiobacillus on Some Soil Physico-chemical Properties, Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L. in Jovain District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmmud Ahmadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The excessive use of chemical fertilizers causes environmental pollution that is led to imbalance of essential elements in agricultural production system. Organic matter application as compost in the soil can improve chemical quality and biochemical properties that increase essential elements for plant nutrition. Application of organic manure can significantly increase the soil aggregate as well. Reported that application of 7 ton ha-1 of vermicompost increased number of leaves, stem dry weight, and corn plant height as compared to control and water holding capacity increases. Sulphur in plant is near to phosphorus (0.2%. Sulphur deficiency cause severe reduction in plant growth and due to participation in protein building and its deficiency cause yellowish in younger leaves. Sulphur can be applied as elemental sulphur, with ammonium and super phosphate to the soil. Iran is situated in arid and semi arid region of the world and need to reduce the pH with sulphur application due to high pH above 8 in some parts. The aim of this research was to study the effect of above factors in yield and yield components of maize and reducing environmental pollution. Materials and Methods This research carried out at 2012 in Jovein Distract suberb of Sabzevar city. Before conducting the research soil sample were collected from 0-30 cm depth and physical and chemical properties of the soil were estimated. Treatments including sulphur, thiobacillus and vermicompost were applied to soil and well mixed with soil before sowing. Each plot consists of five rows with six m length by 80 cm from each other. Seeds were sown at the depth of five cm and 20 cm from each other. This research carried out as a factorial experiment on the basis of randomized complete block design. In this research three factors including elemental sulphur, vermicompost and thiobacillus were used with three replications. Elemental sulphur in three levels (control, 500 kg ha-1 and

  13. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES STUDYS OF PEATLANDON VARIOUS LANDUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yondra Yondra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural peat swamp forests converted can alter the soil chemical properties. This study aims to determine the extent to which changes in soil chemical properties that occur after the conversion of land from peat swamp forest to palm oil plantation, HTI Acacia crasicarpa, and sago plantation and to know which types of plants are sustainable on peatlands. The results showed that soil pH increased after the change of land function. While the water content decreased. Chemical properties such as C-organic, ash content, CEC, alkaline saturation, macro nutrients (NPK and bases can be changed also undergo changes after undergoing landuse changes, but no violations based on the law made by the government in pp No 25 of 2000 on the criteria of peatland damage and government regulation no. 150 of 2000 on the control of soil damage for biomass production. Sago is the most sustainable plant compared to others due to changes in soil chemical properties not too much different from other landuse although planted in the long term.

  14. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties following organic matter removal and compaction: 20-year response of the aspen Lake-States Long Term Soil Productivity installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Brian J. Palik; Anthony W. D' Amato; Valerie J. Kurth

    2017-01-01

    Soil functions that control plant resource availability can be altered by management activities such as increased organic matter (OM) removal and soil compaction during forest harvesting. The Long Term Soil Productivity study was established to evaluate how these practices influence soil and site productivity using experimental treatments that span a range of forest...

  15. Determination of chemical availability of cadmium and zinc in soils using inert soil moisture samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, B P; Chaudri, A M; McGrath, S P; Giller, K E

    1998-01-01

    A rapid method for extracting soil solutions using porous plastic soil-moisture samplers was combined with a cation resin equilibration based speciation technique to look at the chemical availability of metals in soil. Industrially polluted, metal sulphate amended and sewage sludge treated soils were used in our study. Cadmium sulphate amended and industrially contaminated soils all had > 65% of the total soil solution Cd present as free Cd2+. However, increasing total soil Cd concentrations by adding CdSO4 resulted in smaller total soil solution Cd. Consequently, the free Cd2+ concentrations in soil solutions extracted from these soils were smaller than in the same soil contaminated by sewage sludge addition. Amendment with ZnSO4 gave much greater concentrations of free Zn2+ in soil solutions compared with the same soil after long-term Zn contamination via sewage sludge additions. Our results demonstrate the difficulty in comparing total soil solution and free metal ion concentrations for soils from different areas with different physiochemical properties and sources of contamination. However, when comparing the same Woburn soil, Cd was much less available as Cd2+ in soil solution from the CdSO4 amended soils compared with soil contaminated by about 36 years of sewage sludge additions. In contrast, much more Zn was available in soil solution as free Zn2+ in the ZnSO4 amended soils compared with the sewage sludge treated soils.

  16. The application dosage of Azolla pinnata in fresh and powder form as organic fertilizer on soil chemical properties, growth and yield of rice plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawati, Mieke Rochimi; Damayani, Maya; Herdiyantoro, Diyan; Suryatmana, Pujawati; Anggraini, Derisfha; Khumairah, Fiqriah Hanum

    2018-02-01

    The yield of rice plants is strongly influenced by N fertilizer. Nitrogen in rice plants has roles in vegetative growth, tiller formation and increasing yield through rice protein formation. Nitrogen supplied from organic fertilizers is better than inorganic fertilizers that may have environmental problem effects. Organic fertilizers from Azolla pinnata water fern contain higher N than other organic fertilizers. Symbiosis between A. pinnata and the N-fixing cyanobacteria results in high content of nitrogen, 3 to 5%. A. pinnata can be added to the rice field as organic fertilizer in form of fresh biomass or composted. Composted form can be ground into powder which passes through 100 mesh sieve. Preparation of compost powder of A. pinnata is done to reduce the constraints of voluminous application of organic fertilizers and to improve the efficiency of its use. The objective of this research was to compare the effect of the use of fresh A. pinnata and compost powder of A. pinnata on some soil and plant chemical properties and rice yield. The treatments applied were fresh A. pinnata at the dose of 0, 10 and 20 ton ha-1 and A. pinnata compost powder at 12.5 and 25 kg ha-1. The results showed that incorporation of fresh A. pinnata at 20 tons ha-1 and its compost powder at 25 kg ha-1 increased the available P of soil, plant P content and tiller number, but did not affect the content of organic-C, total soil N, plant N content and rice yield. This study suggested the benefits of A. pinnata compost powder technology in organic fertilization of soil to increase the nutrient content of soil and rice plants.

  17. Spatial variation in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican in soil and its relationship with chemical and microbial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bending, Gary D.; Lincoln, Suzanne D.; Edmondson, Rodney N.

    2006-01-01

    The extent of within field variability in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican, and the role of intrinsic soil factors and technical errors in contributing to the variability, was investigated in sites on sandy-loam and clay-loam. At each site, 40 topsoil samples were taken from a 160x60 m area, and pesticides applied in the laboratory. Time to 25% dissipation (DT25) ranged between 13 and 61 weeks for diflufenican, 5.6 and 17.2 weeks for azoxystrobin, and 0.3 and 12.5 weeks for isoproturon. Variability in DT25 was higher in the sandy-loam in which there was also greatest variability in soil chemical and microbial properties. Technical error associated with pesticide extraction, analysis and lack of model fit during derivation of DT25 accounted for between 5.3 and 25.8% of the variability for isoproturon and azoxystrobin, but could account for almost all the variability for diflufenican. Azoxystrobin DT25, sorption and pH were significantly correlated. - Spatial variation determines risk assessment for pesticides in soil

  18. Spatial variation in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican in soil and its relationship with chemical and microbial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bending, Gary D. [Warwick HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gary.bending@warwick.ac.uk; Lincoln, Suzanne D. [Warwick HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF (United Kingdom); Edmondson, Rodney N. [Warwick HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-15

    The extent of within field variability in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican, and the role of intrinsic soil factors and technical errors in contributing to the variability, was investigated in sites on sandy-loam and clay-loam. At each site, 40 topsoil samples were taken from a 160x60 m area, and pesticides applied in the laboratory. Time to 25% dissipation (DT25) ranged between 13 and 61 weeks for diflufenican, 5.6 and 17.2 weeks for azoxystrobin, and 0.3 and 12.5 weeks for isoproturon. Variability in DT25 was higher in the sandy-loam in which there was also greatest variability in soil chemical and microbial properties. Technical error associated with pesticide extraction, analysis and lack of model fit during derivation of DT25 accounted for between 5.3 and 25.8% of the variability for isoproturon and azoxystrobin, but could account for almost all the variability for diflufenican. Azoxystrobin DT25, sorption and pH were significantly correlated. - Spatial variation determines risk assessment for pesticides in soil.

  19. Chemical properties of mendelevium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, E.K.

    1980-01-01

    The isotope 256 Md is nearly always employed for chemical studies of this element. This nuclide can be made by bombardment of fractions of a microgram of 254 Es with intense alpha-particle beams which will produce about 10 6 atoms of 256 Md with a half-life of 77 minutes. Even with the most intense ion beams and the largest available quantities of target isotope, about 10 6 atoms at a time is all the Md that can be produced for chemical studies. This lack of sufficient sample size coupled with the very short lifetimes of the few atoms produced has severly restricted the gathering and broadening of our knowledge concerning the properties of Md and the heavier elements. To illustrate, the literature contains a mere eleven references to the chemical studies of Md, and none of these deal with bulk properties associated with element found in solid phases. Some of these findings are: Md was found to be more volatile than other actinide metals which lead to the belief that it is divalent in the metallic state; separation of Md from the other actinides can be accomplished either by reduction of Md to the divalent state or by chromatographic separations with Md remaining in the tripositive state; extraction of Md with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid is much poorer than the extraction of the neighboring tripositive actinides; attempts to oxidize Md wih sodium bismuthate failed to show any evidence of Md 4+ ; standard reduction potential of Md 3+ was found to be close to -0.1 volt; Md 3+ can be reduced to Md(Hg) by sodium amalgams and by electrolysis; the electrochemical behavior of Md is very similar to that of Fm and can be summarized in the equation, Md 2+ + 2e - = Md(Hg), and E 0 = 1.5 V

  20. Chemical Modification of Uniform Soils and Soils with High/Low Plasticity Index

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xuanchi; Tao, Fei; Bobet, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Lime and/or cement are used to treat weak subgrade soils during construction of highways. These chemicals are mixed with the soil to improve its workability, compactability and engineering properties. INDOT (Indiana Department of Transportation) has been using chemical modification of native soils for the past 20 years. In fact, 90% of current subgrade is treated, typically with quick lime, lime byproducts or cement. For pavement design, it is customary to not include any improvement of the s...

  1. Using organic amendments to restore soil physical and chemical properties of a mine site in northeastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Page-Dumroese; M. R. Ott; D. G. Strawn; J. M. Tirocke

    2018-01-01

    New cost-effective strategies are needed to reclaim soils disturbed from mining activity on National Forests. In addition, disposal of waste wood from local timber harvest operations or biosolids from waste water treatment plants can be expensive. Therefore, using organic byproducts for soil reclamation activities on National Forests may provide an opportunity to...

  2. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer Application on Some Soil Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research was conducted during the 2004, 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons to study the effect of phosphorus fertilizer on some soil chemical properties and nitrogen fixation of legumes at Bauchi, northeastern Nigeria. Composite soil samples were collected from sites before planting and after harvesting at the depths of ...

  3. Chemical properties of mendelevium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, E.K.

    1980-11-01

    Even with the most intense ion beams and the largest available quantities of target isotope, about 10 6 atoms at a time is all the Md that can be produced for chemical studies. This lack of sufficient sample size coupled with the very short lifetimes of the few atoms produced has severely restricted the gathering and the broadness of our knowledge concerning the properties of Md and the heavier elements. To illustrate, the literature contains a mere eleven references to the chemical studies of Md, and none of these deal with bulk properties associated with the element bound in solid phases. Some of these findings are: Md was found to be more volatile than other actinide metals which lead to the belief that it is divalent in the metallic state; separation of Md from the other actinides can be accomplished either by reduction of Md 3+ to the divalent state or by chromatographic separations with Md remaining in the tripositive state; extraction of Md 2+ with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid is much poorer than the extraction of the neighboring tripositive actinides; attempts to oxidize Md 3+ with sodium bismuthate failed to show any evidence for Md 4+ ; reduction potential of Md 3+ was found to be close to -0.1 volt; Md 3+ can be reduced to Md(Hg) by sodium amalgams and by electrolysis; the electrochemical behavior of Md is very similar to that of Fm and can be summarized in the equation, Md 2+ + 2e - = Md(Hg) and E 0 = -1.50 V.; and Md cannot be reduced to a monovalent ion with Sm 2+

  4. Role of soil properties in sewage sludge toxicity to soil collembolans

    OpenAIRE

    Domene, X.

    2010-01-01

    Soil properties are one of the most important factors explaining the different toxicity results found in different soils. Although there is knowledge about the role of soil properties on the toxicity of individual chemicals, not much is known about its relevance for sewage sludge amendments. In particular little is known about the effect of soil properties on the toxicity modulation of these complex wastes. In addition, in most studies on sewage sludges the identity of the main substances lin...

  5. Thermal Properties of Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    plagio - clase feldspar and pyroxene. The tine fraction may Surface area and its effects contain the clay "sheet" minerals (i.e. kaolinite. illite...Pyroxene, Kaoliniwe Unified By By Ortho. Plagio . amphibole, Basic clay min. Hematite Soil Soil soil petrogr. X.ray clase clase and Igneous and clay and no

  6. Pollutant deposition in forest ecosystems and characteristics of chemical properties of soils in the environs of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochman, V.; Bucek, J.; Biba, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes the results of investigations of the chemistry of precipitation water and soil water in 1991-1992 on research plots in the nearer and farther environs of the building site of the Temelin nuclear power plant (about 25 km north of Ceske Budejovice). Research plots lie in spruce and beech stands. When the installations on research plots were built (1990 and 1991), soil samples were taken to determine the supply of biogenic elements in humus and soil. The objective of the program was to determine the current level of element deposition in forest ecosystems, dynamics of soil elements and chemistry; the program is a part of more extensive research into forest environment and stand condition. The research of investigation provide data for a forecast of the effect of the projected operation of the nuclear power plant on forest environment, basic factor of growth and stabilization and for fulfilment of their functions. They can be a basis for evaluation of the rate of changes in forest ecosystems after the nuclear power plant has been launched into operation. The results of research are currently applied to supply data to the network of plots with monitoring of pollutant loads in the forest ecosystem in Southern Bohemia. Two research plots in spruce stand (Hnevkovice and Strouha) and a plot in beech stand (Vsetec) were laid out at a distance of several kilometers from the built-up premises of the Temelin nuclear power plant. The soils on these plots are medium deep brown forest soils (Cambisol) with a large amount of mother rock skeleton (biotitic paragneiss). Moder is a soil humus form in the spruce and beech stands. To monitor pollutant deposition in the forest ecosystems and their effect of the soil properties Vojirov plots were laid out which lie in spruce stand and in a mixed stand of beech and spruce in the Jindrichuv Hradec forest district, near the frontier with Austria. Humus podzols with moder and mor forms were developed on eolian sand between

  7. Lime and rates and sources of phosphorus as influencing soybean yield and chemical properties of Pelotas soil (alfisol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, M.O.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of five phosphates as sources of phosphorus for soybean (Bragg cultivar) was evaluated in two rates (100 and 200 Kg/ha of total P 2 O 5 ), on limed and unlimed soil condtions. The experiment was carried out under field conditions, during the soybean growing season of 1973/74, 1974/75, 1975/76 and 1976/77, at UEPAE Pelotas station. The pH and the exchangeable Ca + Mg content from the soil were increased with Gafsa phosphate, but mainly with lime, Thomas slag and Yoorin thermophosphate application. The exchangeable Al content was eliminated by lime application and decreased annually by application of Gafsa phosphate, Thomas slag and Yoorin thermophosphate, when the lime was not applied. Thomas slag and Yoorin thermophosphate were the best phosphates for grain yield and do without lime: however, under limed soil conditions all phosphates had some efficiency, except for the Gafsa phosphate in the first growing season. (Author) [pt

  8. Changes in Mineralization Activity of Microbial Communities Depending on Physico-Chemical Properties of Soils and Cadmium Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Gilmullina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of glucose and cadmium addition, as well as their combination on the CO2 efflux from soils, which differed by the total organic carbon content and texture, were studied. Glucose (10 g/kg addition induced an increase in the CO2 efflux from soil and a decrease in the content of dissolved organic carbon. The intensity of this effect reduced in samples with the low total organic carbon content. Cadmium (300 mg/kg addition alone did not affect the studied parameters. In case of combined addition of glucose and cadmium, the mineralization activity of microbial community was mainly determined by glucose amendment.

  9. Comparison the Efficiency of Aquasorb and Accepta Superabsorbent Polymers in Improving Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of Soil and Tomato Turnover under Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi nourzadeh haddad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water shortage in arid and semiarid regions is the most serious factor in limiting agricultural activities as it leads to the rapid reduction of yields from both a quantitative and qualitative perspective. Under conditions of water scarcity, leaf temperature rises, which causes plant wilting and premature senescence of leaves and, eventually, severes reduction of dry matter production. Use of high-efficient irrigation practices, improvement of soil's physical properties, and use of soil amendments such as superabsorbent polymers are some ways of compensating for water shortage, especially during the growing season. Some materials such as plant residues, manure, various types of compost, and superabsorbent polymeric hydrogels can store various amounts of water and thus increase water retention and storage capacity of soils. Superabsorbent hydrogels, which are also called superabsorbent polymers (SAPs or hydrophilic polymeric gels, are hydrogels that can absorb substantial quantities of water. Hydrogels are a class of polymeric materials having network structures (with physical or chemical crosslinks that are very capable of swelling and absorbing large amounts of water. These materials are formed from water-solublepolymers by crosslinking them either using radiation or a crosslinker. Superabsorbents are widely used in many products such as disposable diapers, feminine napkins, soils for agricultural and horticultural purposes, gel actuators, water blocking tapes, medicine for the drug delivery systems and absorbent pads where water absorbency or water retention is important. Water is a major constraint for crop growth in arid and semi-arid regions, as the precipitation is low and uncertain in these areas. Efficient utilization of meager soil and water resources necessitates the adaptation of appropriate water management techniques. Suitable soil moisture increases the biological activities as result of physical and chemical

  10. Spatial variation in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican in soil and its relationship with chemical and microbial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bending, Gary D; Lincoln, Suzanne D; Edmondson, Rodney N

    2006-01-01

    The extent of within field variability in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican, and the role of intrinsic soil factors and technical errors in contributing to the variability, was investigated in sites on sandy-loam and clay-loam. At each site, 40 topsoil samples were taken from a 160 x 60 m area, and pesticides applied in the laboratory. Time to 25% dissipation (DT25) ranged between 13 and 61 weeks for diflufenican, 5.6 and 17.2 weeks for azoxystrobin, and 0.3 and 12.5 weeks for isoproturon. Variability in DT25 was higher in the sandy-loam in which there was also greatest variability in soil chemical and microbial properties. Technical error associated with pesticide extraction, analysis and lack of model fit during derivation of DT25 accounted for between 5.3 and 25.8% of the variability for isoproturon and azoxystrobin, but could account for almost all the variability for diflufenican. Azoxystrobin DT25, sorption and pH were significantly correlated.

  11. Chemical composition and Zn bioavailability of the soil solution extracted from Zn amended variable charge soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampella, Mariavittoria; Adamo, Paola

    2010-01-01

    A study on variable charge soils (volcanic Italian and podzolic Scottish soils) was performed to investigate the influence of soil properties on the chemical composition of soil solution. Zinc speciation, bioavailability and toxicity in the soil solution were examined. The soils were spiked with increasing amounts of Zn (0, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg) and the soil solutions were extracted using rhizon soil moisture samplers. The pH, total organic carbon (TOC), base cations, anions, total Zn and free Zn2+ in soil solution were analysed. A rapid bioassay with the luminescent bacterium Escherichia coli HB101 pUCD607 was performed to assess Zn toxicity. The influence of soil type and Zn treatments on the chemical composition of soil solution and on Zn toxicity was considered and discussed. Different trends of total and free Zn concentrations, base cations desorption and luminescence of E. coli HB101 pUCD607 were observed. The soil solution extracted from the volcanic soils had very low total and free Zn concentrations and showed specific Zn2+/Ca2+ exchange. The soil solution from the podzolic soil had much higher total and free Zn concentrations and showed no evidence of specific Zn2+/Ca2+ exchange. In comparison with the subalkaline volcanic soils, the acidic podzol showed enhanced levels of toxic free Zn2+ and consequently stronger effects on E. coli viability.

  12. Impact of Rangeland Degradation on Soil Physical, Chemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    major threats to enhance a sustainable pastoral-livestock production in Ethiopia. ... overall negative impact on the soil physical and chemical characteristics, demanding ... chemical properties (Gemedo et al., 2006) as well as the rangeland .... parameters such as life forms (annuals and perennials), plant forms (woody plant,.

  13. Shifts in Soil Chemical Properties and Bacterial Communities Responding to Biotransformed Dry Olive Residue Used as Organic Amendment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siles, J. A.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Hernandez, P.; Perez-Mendoza, D.; Garcia-Romera, I.; Sampedro, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 1 (2015), s. 231-243 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020218 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bioremediation * Biotransformation * Mediterranean soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.232, year: 2015

  14. Land use change in a temperate grassland soil: Afforestation effects on chemical properties and their ecological and mineralogical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cespedes-Payret, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.cespedespayret@gmail.com [UNCIEP, Instituto de Ecologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IECA), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, C.P. 11.400, Montevideo (Uruguay); Pineiro, Gustavo, E-mail: estudiosgeologicos@gmail.com [Departamento de Evolucion de Cuencas, Instituto de Ciencias Geologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, C.P. 11.400, Montevideo (Uruguay); Gutierrez, Ofelia, E-mail: gutierrez.ofelia@gmail.com [UNCIEP, Instituto de Ecologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IECA), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, C.P. 11.400, Montevideo (Uruguay); Panario, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.panario@gmail.com [UNCIEP, Instituto de Ecologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IECA), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igua 4225, C.P. 11.400, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-11-01

    The current change in land use of grassland in the temperate region of South America is a process associated with the worldwide expansion of annual crops and afforestation with fast growing exotic species. This last cultivation has particularly been the subject of numerous studies showing its negative effects on soil (acidification, loss of organic matter and base cations, among others). However its effects on the mineral fraction are not yet known, as it is generally considered as one of the slowest responses to changes. This stimulated the present study in order to assess whether the composition of clay minerals could be altered together with some of the physicochemical parameters affected by afforestation. This study compares the mineralogical composition of clays by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in a grassland soil (Argiudolls) under natural coverage and under Eucalyptus grandis cultivation implanted 25 years ago in a sector of the same grassland. The tendency of some physicochemical parameters, common to other studies was also compared. XRD results showed, as a most noticeable difference in A{sub 11} and A{sub 12} subhorizons ({approx} 20 cm) under eucalyptus, the fall of the 10 A spectrum minerals (illite-like minerals), which are the main reservoir of K in the soil. Meanwhile, the physicochemical parameters showed significant changes (p < 0.01) to highly significant ones under eucalyptus, particularly in these subhorizons, where on average soil organic matter decreased by 43%; K{sup +} by 34%; Ca{sup 2+} by 44%, while the pH dropped to this level by half a point. Our results show that the exportation of some nutrients is not compensated due to the turnover of organic forestry debris; the process of soil acidification was not directly associated with the redistribution of cations, but with an incipient podzolization process; the loss of potassium together with soil acidification, leads to a drastic change in clay mineralogy, which would be irreversible. Highlights

  15. Effect of organic fertilizers on soil chemical properties and performance of blackberry (Rubus adenotrichus) in two agroecology zones of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco Rodriguez, Rafael; Munoz Hernandez, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The effect of two organic fertilizers on soil chemical properties and plant performance blackberry (Rubus adenotrichus cv.Vino) in two areas of Costa Rica were evaluated. For this purpose, two experiments were established, one in Buena Vista of Perez Zeledon (BVPZ) and another in San Martin of Leon Cortes (SMLC), both in the province of San Jose, Costa Rica. The research was conducted between August 2005 and July 2008. Three treatments were evaluated in each experiment: Compost (C) and Vermicompost (L), at the rate of 4 kg/plant and 3 kg/plant respectively, and a control without fertilizer (T). The frequency of application of fertilizer at planting was given at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months for a total of 6,6 t/ha for C and 4,9 t/ha for L. Soil samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 35 months, after planting for analysis. The results have shown that in both agro-ecosystems, the application of C and L has increased soil pH, reduced acidity, has increased the availability of Ca, Mg, K, N, and P, and has favored the effective cation exchange capacity (ICC) and the percentage of organic matter. The accumulation of Mn, Cu and Zn was not observed. Performance-wise, in BVPZ only significant have found differences (P = 0,00188) between C (1,8 t/ha) and T (0,9 t/ha), while in SMLC, found no differences statistical significant (P [es

  16. Land use change in a temperate grassland soil: Afforestation effects on chemical properties and their ecological and mineralogical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Céspedes-Payret, Carlos; Piñeiro, Gustavo; Gutiérrez, Ofelia; Panario, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The current change in land use of grassland in the temperate region of South America is a process associated with the worldwide expansion of annual crops and afforestation with fast growing exotic species. This last cultivation has particularly been the subject of numerous studies showing its negative effects on soil (acidification, loss of organic matter and base cations, among others). However its effects on the mineral fraction are not yet known, as it is generally considered as one of the slowest responses to changes. This stimulated the present study in order to assess whether the composition of clay minerals could be altered together with some of the physicochemical parameters affected by afforestation. This study compares the mineralogical composition of clays by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in a grassland soil (Argiudolls) under natural coverage and under Eucalyptus grandis cultivation implanted 25 years ago in a sector of the same grassland. The tendency of some physicochemical parameters, common to other studies was also compared. XRD results showed, as a most noticeable difference in A 11 and A 12 subhorizons (∼ 20 cm) under eucalyptus, the fall of the 10 Å spectrum minerals (illite-like minerals), which are the main reservoir of K in the soil. Meanwhile, the physicochemical parameters showed significant changes (p + by 34%; Ca 2+ by 44%, while the pH dropped to this level by half a point. Our results show that the exportation of some nutrients is not compensated due to the turnover of organic forestry debris; the process of soil acidification was not directly associated with the redistribution of cations, but with an incipient podzolization process; the loss of potassium together with soil acidification, leads to a drastic change in clay mineralogy, which would be irreversible. Highlights: ► Eucalyptus afforestation in a grassland soil causes a loss in fertility. ► Potassium capture by trees irreversibly affects the mineral structure of illites.

  17. Relationship between Topography and Some Soil Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Pajand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topography is an important and effective property affecting the soil quality. Some researchers demonstrated that degree and aspect of land slope may influence the particle size distribution and gravel. Slope degree affects the surface and subsurface run-off, drainage, soil temperature, stability of soil aggregates and soil erosion. This research was carried out to determine the spatial variation of soil properties in different slope degrees of northern and southern slopes in Khorasan Razavei province, Iran. Material and Methods: This study was performed in Sanganeh research station (longitude 60o 15ʹ60ʺ and latitude 36o 41ʹ 36ʺ, of north-eastern, Khorasan Razavi province of Iran. In order to study the effects of topography on some soil physical and chemical properties, a topo-sequence with the same slope length, parent materials and cover crops was selected. 30 soil samples (0-30 cm depth were collected from different slopes of less than 5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50 and more than 50 percent of both southern and northern aspects. In this study, the soil particle size distribution (texture was measured by hydrometer method, organic carbon and calcium carbonate were determined by wet oxidation and titration with HCl 6 M, respectively and soil structural stability index, aggregates mean weight diameter and particles fractal dimension were calculated by related equations. Finally, the studied soil properties of 5 slopes (less than 5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, and more than 50% and 2 aspects (north and south with 3 replicates were compared by nested experimental design and Tuky test in JMP statistical software. Results and Discussion: The maximum and minimum clay contents as well as fractal dimension and organic carbon contents were found in less than 5% and more than 50% of south slopes, respectively. Clay content and fractal dimension in north aspect were also significantly (P

  18. INFLUENCE OF VERMICOMPOST ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOIL ALONG WITH YIELD AND QUALITY OF THE PULSE CROP-BLACKGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Parthasarathi, M. Balamurugan, L. S. Ranganathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during 2002-2003 on clay loam, sandy loam and red loam soil at Sivapuri, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, to evaluate the efficacy of vermicompost on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the soils and on the yield and nutrient content of blackgram - Vigna mungo, in comparison to inorganic fertilizers nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium. Vermicompost had increased the pore space, reduced particle and bulk density, increased water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, reduced pH and electrical conductivity, increased organic carbon content, available nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and microbial population and activity in all the soil types, particularly clay loam. The yield and quality (protein and sugar content in seed of blackgram was enhanced in soils, particularly clay loam soil. On the contrary, the application of inorganic fertilizers has resulted in reduced porosity, compaction of soil, reduced carbon and reduced microbial activity.

  19. Biochar can be used to capture essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improve soil physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.; Sarkhot, D. V.; Berhe, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the potential for biochar use to recapture excess nutrients from dairy wastewater has been a focus of a growing number of studies. It is suggested that biochar produced from locally available excess biomass can be important in reducing release of excess nutrient elements from agricultural runoff, improving soil productivity, and long-term carbon (C) sequestration. Here we present a review of a new approach that is showing promise for the use of biochar for nutrient capture. Using batch sorption experiments, it has been shown that biochar can adsorb up to 20-43% of ammonium and 19-65% of the phosphate in flushed dairy manure in 24 h. These results suggest a potential of biochar for recovering essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improving soil fertility if the enriched biochar is returned to soil. Based on the sorption capacity of 2.86 and 0.23 mg ammonium and phosphate, respectively, per gram of biochar and 10-50% utilization of available excess biomass, in the state of California (US) alone, 11 440 to 57 200 tonnes of ammonium-N and 920-4600 tonnes of phosphate can be captured from dairy waste each year while at the same time disposing up to 8-40 million tons of excess biomass.

  20. Influence of Height Waterlogging on Soil Physical Properties of Potential and Actual Acid Sulphate Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Fahmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water management is main factor that determines the successful of rice cultivation in acid sulphate soil. Soil waterlogging determines the direction and rate of chemical, geochemical and biological reaction in the soil, indirectly these reactions may influence to the changes of soil psycal properties during soil waterlogging process. The experiment was aimed to study the changes of two type of acid sulphate soils physical properties during rice straw decomposition processes. The research was conducted in the greenhouse consisting of the three treatment factors using the completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was soil type: potential acid sulphate soil (PASS and actual acid sulphate soil (AASS. The second factor was height of water waterlogging: 0.5-1.0 cm (muddy water–level condition and 4.0 cm from above the soil surface (waterlogged. The third factor was organic matter type: rice straw (RS, purun tikus (Eleocharis dulcis (PT and mixed of RS and PT (MX. Soil physical properties such as aggregate stability, total soil porosity, soil permeability, soil particle density and bulk density were observed at the end of experiment (vegetative maximum stage. The results showed that acid sulphate soil type had large effect on soil physicl properties, soil waterlogging decreased aggregate stability, soil particle density and bulk density both of soil type.

  1. Relationship between the standing vegetation, soil properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the floristic composition, soil properties and the soil seedbank of the vegetation around the Iron smelting factory. This was with a view to determining the functional role played by soil chemical composition and the seed bank in the modifications of vegetation patterns. Five 100 m × 5 m plots were ...

  2. VARIABILITY OF ARABLE AND FOREST SOILS PROPERTIES ON ERODED SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wiśniewski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic method of reducing soil and land erosion is a change of land use, for example, from arable to forest. Particularly effective as a protective role – according to the Polish law – soil-protecting forests. The thesis presents differences in the deformation of the basic soil properties on moraine slopes, depending on land use. There has been presented the function and the efficiency of the soil-protecting forests in erosion control. The soil cross section transects and soil analysis displayed that soil-protecting forests are making an essential soil cover protection from degradation, inter alia, limiting the decrease of humus content, reduction of upper soil horizons and soil pedons layer. On the afforested slopes it was stated some clear changes of grain size and chemical properties of soils in relation to adjacent slopes agriculturally used.

  3. Chemical, microbial and physical properties of manufactured soils produced by co-composting municipal green waste with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, O.N.; Haynes, R.J. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing proportions of coal fly ash were co-composted with municipal green waste to produce manufactured soil for landscaping use. Only the 100% green waste treatment reached a thermophilic composting phase ({ge} 50{sup o}C) which lasted for 6 days. The 25% and 50% ash treatments reached 36-38{sup o}C over the same period while little or no self-heating occurred in the 75% and 100% ash treatments. Composted green waste had a low bulk density and high total and macro-porosity. Addition of 25% ash to green waste resulted in a 75% increase in available water holding capacity. As the proportions of added ash in the composts increased, the organic C, soluble C, microbial biomass C, basal respiration and activities of beta-glucosidase, L-asparaginase, alkali phosphatase and arylsulphatase enzymes in the composted products all decreased. It could be concluded that addition of fly ash to green waste at a proportion higher than 25% did not improve the quality parameters of manufactured soil.

  4. CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL COVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Novak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A challenge for the environmental recovery of degraded areas is the search for soil data. In this process, the microbiological parameters and soil chemicals are potential indicators of soil quality. This study aimed to evaluate soil quality based on microbiological and chemical soil attributes in different areas involving environmental recovery, sugarcane cultivation and remnants of native vegetation located in a rural private property farm in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Hapludox Eutrophic soil. The microbiological (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration, microbial quotient and metabolic quotient and chemical parameters (organic matter, carbon, pH, cationic exchange capacity, sum of bases, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, saturation base and potential acidity were assessed. Data were assessed by variance and multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis and cluster analysis. Overall, the results showed highest alteration in the chemical and microbiological characteristics of the soil in sugarcane cultivation area in comparison with other areas. Considering the studied recovery areas, REC1, REC5 and REC7 show chemical and microbiological conditions with most similarity to native vegetation. Despite the short period of the resilience enhancement of environmental recovery areas, the development of vegetation cover and establishment of the microbial community were determined to be important factors for improving soil quality and environmental recovery in several of the areas studied.

  5. Application of organic amendments to a coastal saline soil in north China: effects on soil physical and chemical properties and tree growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available The ability of the following four organic amendments to ameliorate saline soil in coastal northern China was investigated from April 2010 to October 2012 in a field experiment: green waste compost (GWC, sedge peat (SP, furfural residue (FR, and a mixture of GWC, SP and FR (1∶1∶1 by volume (GSF. Compared to a non-amended control (CK, the amendments, which were applied at 4.5 kg organic matter m(-3, dramatically promoted plant growth; improved soil structure; increased the cation exchange capacity (CEC, organic carbon, and available nutrients; and reduced the salt content, electrical conductivity (EC, and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP. At the end of the experiment in soil amended with GSF, bulk density, EC, and ESP had decreased by 11, 87, and 71%, respectively, and total porosity and organic carbon had increased by 25 and 96% respectively, relative to the CK. The GSF treatment resulted in a significantly lower Na(++K(+ content than the other treatments. CEC and the contents of available N, P, and K were significantly higher in the GSF-treated soil than in the CK and were the highest in all treatments. The FR treatment resulted in the lowest pH value and Ca(2+ concentration, which decreased by 8% and 39%, respectively, relative to the CK. Overall, the results indicate that a combination of green waste compost, sedge peat and furfural residue (GSF treatment has substantial potential for ameliorating saline soils in the coastal areas of northern China, and it works better than each amendment alone. Utilization of GWC and FR can be an alternative organic amendment to substitute the nonrenewable SP in saline soil amelioration.

  6. Chemical properties of volcanic soil affected by seven-year rotations Propiedades químicas del suelo volcánico afectado por rotaciones de siete años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Hirzel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term crop rotation systems can benefit soil chemical-physical properties and crop productivity. The lack of information on the effect of long-term crop rotations on soil chemical-physical properties for volcanic soils in Chile could restrict reaping real benefits, and make it difficult to take agricultural management decisions, which could lead to possible negative consequences on some soil chemical-physical properties and the environment. The development of information associated with the effect on soil chemical-physical properties with respect to long-term rotation systems and their fertilization management contribute to improving agronomic management decisions for these soils. A study was carried out to assess the effect of six rotation systems replicating fertilization management used by farmers, especially N and P application, and eventually low rates of K, Ca and Mg on soil chemical properties in a volcanic soil after 7 yr in Central South Chile. Affected chemical properties were pH, inorganic N, and available K, along with a general decrease of pH related to fertilization used, which was insufficient in Ca, K, and Mg. Moreover, this soil exhibited high P adsorption capacity (90.2 to 97.5%. Hence, crop rotations that included pasture legumes and crops with high nutrient inputs such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. generated a less negative effect on soil chemical properties. This study indicates that fertilization management in crop rotation systems must consider the input and output nutrient balances to prevent the negative effect on some soil chemical properties.Los sistemas de rotación de cultivos de largo plazo pueden tener varios beneficios sobre las propiedades físico-químicas del suelo y productividad de los cultivos. La falta de información sobre el efecto de rotaciones de largo plazo en las propiedades físico-químicas para suelos volcánicos en Chile podría limitar la obtención de beneficios reales, dificultando

  7. Gypsum effects on soil chemical properties under two management systemsEfeito do gesso nas propriedades químicas do solo sob dois sistemas de manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Brito Chaim Jardim Rosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The combination of gypsum application and soil management may influence soil chemical properties. In this context, the aim of this paper was to evaluate soil chemical properties under two management systems and residual gypsum in soil after 55 months from treatment application. This experiment was developed in FCA/UFGD in Dourados-MS, Brazil under a randomized block design with subdivided plots and four replications. Main plots, subplots and subsubplots consisted of tillage systems (conventional and no tillage, gypsum application and soil depth (0-0,05, 0,05-0,10, 0,10-0,15, 0,15-0,20 and 0,20-0,30 m, respectively. There were no effects of residual gypsum on calcium levels. The combination of no tillage system and residual gypsum increased potassium and sulfur as well as reduced potential acidity. However, residual gypsum increased soil potential acidity in conventional system. No tillage system increased calcium levels in the depths 0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m, organic matter down to 0.05 m, sulfur accumulation in the depths 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.15 m, sum of bases and base saturation in the depth 0.05-0.10. Conversely, magnesium levels in the depth 0.10-0.15 m, phosphorus from 0.05 to 0.15 m, potential acidity from 0.05 to 0.10 m and ECC in the depth 0.10-0.15 m were decreased. Effects of residual gypsum increased sulfur and base saturation from 0.20 to 0.30 m, but decreased magnesium and phosphorus levels in the depth 0.05-0.10 m. Soil active acidity and potassium levels were decreased in deeper soil layers. A combinação de gessagem e manejo do solo podem influenciar as propriedades químicas do solo. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as propriedades químicas do solo submetido a dois manejos do solo e ao efeito residual de gesso, após 55 meses de implantação dos tratamentos. Desenvolvido em uma área experimental da FCA/UFGD de Dourados, MS, o experimento foi disposto no delineamento de blocos casualizados com os fatores

  8. THE CANOPY EFFECTS OF Prosopis juliflora (DC. AND Acacia tortilis (HAYNE TREES ON HERBACEOUS PLANTS SPECIES AND SOIL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN NJEMPS FLATS, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C. Kahi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The canopy effects of an exotic and indigenous tree species on soil properties and understorey herbaceous plant species were investigated on the Njemps Flats, Baringo district, Kenya. Samples of soil and herbaceous plant species were obtained within the canopies of systematically selected P. juliflora (exotic and A. tortilis (indigenous trees, and from adjacent open areas. Standing biomass, frequency and cover of understorey plant species were significantly (P

  9. SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND GROWTH OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. AS AFFECTED BY THE APPLICATION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND INOCULATION WITH ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolino José Nogueira da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizers and the inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi in the cultivation of oil crops is essential to reduce production costs and minimize negative impacts on natural resources. A field experiment was conducted in an Argissolo Amarelo (Ultisol with the aim of evaluating the effects of fertilizer application and inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth attributes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and on soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, using a randomized block design with three replicates in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of four treatments in regard to application of organic fertilizer (liquid biofertilizer, cow urine, mineral fertilizer, and unfertilized control and two treatments in regard to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (with and without mycorrhizal fungi. The results showed that the physiological attributes of relative growth rate and leaf weight ratio were positively influenced by fertilization, compared to the control treatment, likely brought about by the supply of nutrients from the fertilizers applied. The growth and productivity attributes were positively affected by mycorrhization.

  10. The assessment of treated wastewater quality and the effects of mid-term irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties (case study: Bandargaz-treated wastewater)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboosi, Kami

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of inflow and outflow wastewater of the Bandargaz wastewater treatment plant on the basis of the data collection of operation period and the samples taken during the study. Also the effects of mid-term use of the wastewater for irrigation (from 2005 to 2013) on soil physical and chemical characteristics were studied. For this purpose, 4 samples were taken from the inflow and outflow wastewater and 25 quality parameters were measured. Also, the four soil samples from a depth of 0-30 cm of two rice field irrigated with wastewater in the beginning and middle of the planting season and two samples from one adjacent rice field irrigated with fresh water were collected and their chemical and physical characteristics were determined. Average of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium adsorption ratio, chemical oxygen demand and 5 days biochemical oxygen demand in treated wastewater were 1.35 dS/m, 707 ppm, 0.93, 80 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. Results showed that although some restrictions exist about chlorine and bicarbonate, the treated wastewater is suitable for irrigation based on national and international standards and criteria. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused a little increase of soil salinity. However, it did not lead to increase of soil salinity beyond rice salinity threshold. Also, there were no restrictions on soil in the aspect of salinity and sodium hazard on the basis of many irrigated soil classifications. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused the increase of total N, absorbable P and absorbable K in soil due to high concentration of those elements in treated wastewater.

  11. Interactions between leaf macro, micronutrients and soil properties in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Koukoulakis, Prodromos; Chatzissavvidis, Christos; Papadopoulos, Aristotelis; Pontikis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between: (i) leaf dry matter macronutrients, micronutrients and soil chemical properties, (ii) leaf macro- and micronutrients, (iii) soil macro- and micronutrients and (iv) soil chemical properties, and soil micro- and macronutrients in 50 pistachio orchards were investigated in leaves and soils by means of regression analysis. Most of the soils were deficient in plant-available P, Zn, Mn, Fe, and B, while they were excessively supplied with Cu. Leaf analysis showed that most...

  12. Mineralogical, chemical, organic and microbial properties of subsurface soil cores from Mars Desert Research Station (Utah, USA): Phyllosilicate and sulfate analogues to Mars mission landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Clarke, Jonathan; Direito, Susana O. L.; Blake, David; Martin, Kevin R.; Zavaleta, Jhony; Foing, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    We collected and analysed soil cores from four geologic units surrounding Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) Utah, USA, including Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison formation (Brushy Basin member) and Summerville formation. The area is an important geochemical and morphological analogue to terrains on Mars. Soils were analysed for mineralogy by a Terra X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a field version of the CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission (2012 landing). Soluble ion chemistry, total organic content and identity and distribution of microbial populations were also determined. The Terra data reveal that Mancos and Morrison soils are rich in phyllosilicates similar to those observed on Mars from orbital measurements (montmorillonite, nontronite and illite). Evaporite minerals observed include gypsum, thenardite, polyhalite and calcite. Soil chemical analysis shows sulfate the dominant anion in all soils and SO4>>CO3, as on Mars. The cation pattern Na>Ca>Mg is seen in all soils except for the Summerville where Ca>Na. In all soils, SO4 correlates with Na, suggesting sodium sulfates are the dominant phase. Oxidizable organics are low in all soils and range from a high of 0.7% in the Mancos samples to undetectable at a detection limit of 0.1% in the Morrison soils. Minerals rich in chromium and vanadium were identified in Morrison soils that result from diagenetic replacement of organic compounds. Depositional environment, geologic history and mineralogy all affect the ability to preserve and detect organic compounds. Subsurface biosphere populations were revealed to contain organisms from all three domains (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya) with cell density between 3.0×106 and 1.8×107 cells ml-1 at the deepest depth. These measurements are analogous to data that could be obtained on future robotic or human Mars missions and results are relevant to the MSL mission that will investigate phyllosilicates on Mars.

  13. Developing ecotoxicological testing procedures for chemicals in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, I.; Doerfler, U.; Quast, I.; Schroll, R.; Topp, E.; Wolf, E.; Korte, F.

    1989-01-01

    The work deals with the determination of adsorption coefficients of volatile environmental chemicals, of volatilization rates (example: Lindane), biomineralization rates, total balances, and uptake into higher plants, further with the correlation of the uptake of chemicals by plants with physico-chemical and structural mass characteristics, and field experiments with lysimeters using labelled carbon 14 compounds for validation of the results obtained under laboratory conditions. - The devices for determination of adsorption coefficients and of volatilization rates of chemicals from soil and plant surfaces, as well as the closed experimental setup with controlled air throughput for billing labelled carbon 14 chemicals in the soil/plant system are described. The mass balance of the adsorption of volatile labelled carbon 14 chemicals in an alfisol, the volatilization of Lindane from the surface of a sandy soil, the concentration of hexachlorbenzene in different parts of plants, the uptake pathways of organic chemicals in higher plants and their corelation with mass properties, as well as the correlation between bioconcentration factors of chemicals in barley after application into the soil and physico-chemical and structural mass parameters are investigated and indicated in the form of tables and diagrams. (HK) [de

  14. Chemical speciation of heavy metals in sandy soils in relation to availability and mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental risk of heavy metals which are present in soil at a certain total content is highly dependent on soil properties. Chemical speciation is a comprehensive term for the distribution of heavy metals over all possible chemical forms (species) in soil solution and in the solid

  15. Improvement of Expansive Soils Using Chemical Stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikizler, S. B.; Senol, A.; Khosrowshahi, S. K.; Hatipoğlu, M.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of two chemical stabilizers on the swelling potential of expansive soil. A high plasticity sodium bentonite was used as the expansive soil. The additive materials including fly ash (FA) and lime (L) were evaluated as potential stabilizers to decrease the swelling pressure of bentonite. Depending on the type of additive materials, they were blended with bentonite in different percentages to assess the optimum state and approch the maximum swell pressure reduction. According to the results of swell pressure test, both fly ash and lime reduce the swelling potential of bentonite but the maximum improvement occurs using bentonite-lime mixture while the swelling pressure reduction approaches to 49%. The results reveal a significant reduction of swelling potential of expansive soil using chemical stabilizers. Keywords: Expansive soil; swell pressure; chemical stabilization; fly ash; lime

  16. Comment on: Shukla, M.K. et al., 2006: Physical and chemical properties of soils under some pinon-juniper-oak canopies in a semi-arid ecosystem in New Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Mikkel; Jensen, Jens Raunsø

    2008-01-01

    The paper by Shukla et al. [2006. Physical and chemical properties of soils under some pinon-juniper-oak canopies in an semi-arid ecosystem in New Mexico. Journal of Arid Environment 66, 673-685] treats interesting topics of sustainability of different ecosystems and their water availability....... However, the physical-based infiltration theories by Green and Ampt [1911. Studies on soil physics, I, flow of air and water through soils. Journal of Agricultural Science 4, 1-24] and Philip [1957. The theory of infiltration: 1. The infiltration equation and its solution. Soil Science 83, 345-357] seems...... to be applied without necessary reflections. The actual analysis can have resulted in coefficients without their original physical significance...

  17. Some physico-chemical and biological characteristics of soil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental conditions that influence biocorrosion in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria are investigated experimentally by analysing the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of four (4) soil samples and water samples taken from ten (10) selected river bodies in the region. Measured properties of the water ...

  18. Effects of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals on main soil properties, plant nutrient content and vegetation growth and cover after 10 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Fernández, M., E-mail: mariafernandez@iiag.csic.es; Gómez-Rey, M.X., E-mail: mxgomez@iiag.csic.es; González-Prieto, S.J., E-mail: serafin@iiag.csic.es

    2015-05-15

    The study addresses a knowledge-gap in the long-term ecological consequences of fire and fire-fighting chemicals. Ten years after a prescribed fire and the application of three fire-fighting chemicals, their effects on the soil–plant system were evaluated. Five treatments were established: unburnt soils (US) and burnt soils treated with water alone (BS), foaming agent (BS + Fo), Firesorb (BS + Fi) and ammonium polyphosphate (BS + Ap). Soils (0–2 cm depth) and foliar material of shrubs (Erica umbellata, Pterospartum tridentatum and Ulex micranthus) and trees (Pinus pinaster) were analysed for total N, δ{sup 15}N, and soil-available and plant total macronutrients and trace elements. Soil pH, NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N and NO{sub 3}{sup −}–N; pine basal diameter and height; and shrub cover and height were also measured. Compared with US plots, burnt soils had less nitrates and more Mo. Although differences were not always significant, BS + Ap had the highest levels of soil available P, Na and Al. Plants from BS + Ap plots had higher values of δ{sup 15}N (P. pinaster and E. umbellata), P (all species), Na (P. tridentatum and U. micranthus) and Mg (E. umbellata and P. tridentatum) than other treatments; while K in plants from BS + Ap plots was the highest among treatments for P. pinaster and the lowest for the shrubs. Pines in US plots were higher and wider than in burnt treatments, except for BS + Ap, where the tallest and widest trees were found, although half of them were either dead (the second highest mortality after BS + Fi) or had a distorted trunk. BS + Ap was the treatment with strongest effects on plants, showing E. umbellata the lowest coverage and height, P. tridentatum the highest coverage, U. micranthus one of the lowest coverages and being the only treatment where Genista triacanthos was absent. Consequently, it is concluded that both fire and ammonium polyphosphate application had significant effects on the soil–plant system after 10 years

  19. Effects of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals on main soil properties, plant nutrient content and vegetation growth and cover after 10 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Fernández, M.; Gómez-Rey, M.X.; González-Prieto, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    The study addresses a knowledge-gap in the long-term ecological consequences of fire and fire-fighting chemicals. Ten years after a prescribed fire and the application of three fire-fighting chemicals, their effects on the soil–plant system were evaluated. Five treatments were established: unburnt soils (US) and burnt soils treated with water alone (BS), foaming agent (BS + Fo), Firesorb (BS + Fi) and ammonium polyphosphate (BS + Ap). Soils (0–2 cm depth) and foliar material of shrubs (Erica umbellata, Pterospartum tridentatum and Ulex micranthus) and trees (Pinus pinaster) were analysed for total N, δ 15 N, and soil-available and plant total macronutrients and trace elements. Soil pH, NH 4 + –N and NO 3 − –N; pine basal diameter and height; and shrub cover and height were also measured. Compared with US plots, burnt soils had less nitrates and more Mo. Although differences were not always significant, BS + Ap had the highest levels of soil available P, Na and Al. Plants from BS + Ap plots had higher values of δ 15 N (P. pinaster and E. umbellata), P (all species), Na (P. tridentatum and U. micranthus) and Mg (E. umbellata and P. tridentatum) than other treatments; while K in plants from BS + Ap plots was the highest among treatments for P. pinaster and the lowest for the shrubs. Pines in US plots were higher and wider than in burnt treatments, except for BS + Ap, where the tallest and widest trees were found, although half of them were either dead (the second highest mortality after BS + Fi) or had a distorted trunk. BS + Ap was the treatment with strongest effects on plants, showing E. umbellata the lowest coverage and height, P. tridentatum the highest coverage, U. micranthus one of the lowest coverages and being the only treatment where Genista triacanthos was absent. Consequently, it is concluded that both fire and ammonium polyphosphate application had significant effects on the soil–plant system after 10 years. - Highlights: • We hypothesized

  20. Effects of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals on main soil properties, plant nutrient content and vegetation growth and cover after 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, M; Gómez-Rey, M X; González-Prieto, S J

    2015-05-15

    The study addresses a knowledge-gap in the long-term ecological consequences of fire and fire-fighting chemicals. Ten years after a prescribed fire and the application of three fire-fighting chemicals, their effects on the soil-plant system were evaluated. Five treatments were established: unburnt soils (US) and burnt soils treated with water alone (BS), foaming agent (BS+Fo), Firesorb (BS+Fi) and ammonium polyphosphate (BS+Ap). Soils (0-2 cm depth) and foliar material of shrubs (Erica umbellata, Pterospartum tridentatum and Ulex micranthus) and trees (Pinus pinaster) were analysed for total N, δ(15)N, and soil-available and plant total macronutrients and trace elements. Soil pH, NH₄(+)-N and NO₃(-)-N; pine basal diameter and height; and shrub cover and height were also measured. Compared with US plots, burnt soils had less nitrates and more Mo. Although differences were not always significant, BS+Ap had the highest levels of soil available P, Na and Al. Plants from BS+Ap plots had higher values of δ(15)N (P. pinaster and E. umbellata), P (all species), Na (P. tridentatum and U. micranthus) and Mg (E. umbellata and P. tridentatum) than other treatments; while K in plants from BS+Ap plots was the highest among treatments for P. pinaster and the lowest for the shrubs. Pines in US plots were higher and wider than in burnt treatments, except for BS+Ap, where the tallest and widest trees were found, although half of them were either dead (the second highest mortality after BS+Fi) or had a distorted trunk. BS+Ap was the treatment with strongest effects on plants, showing E. umbellata the lowest coverage and height, P. tridentatum the highest coverage, U. micranthus one of the lowest coverages and being the only treatment where Genista triacanthos was absent. Consequently, it is concluded that both fire and ammonium polyphosphate application had significant effects on the soil-plant system after 10 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical and chemical factors influencing radionuclide behaviour in arable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauret, G.; Vidal, M.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Kruglov, S.V.; Cremers, A.; Wauters, J.; Valcke, E.; Ivanov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides integrates plant physiological and soil chemical aspects. Therefore, it is necessary to study the factors affecting the equilibrium of the radionuclides between solid and soil solution phases. Desorption and adsorption studies were applied to the podsolic and peat soils considered in the ECP-2 project. In the desorption approach, both sequential extraction and 'infinite bath' techniques were used. In the adsorption approach, efforts were directed at predicting Cs and Sr-K D on the basis of soil properties and soil solution composition. Desorption approach predicts time-dynamics of transfer with time but it is un sufficient for comparatively predicting transfer. Adsorption studies informs about which are the key factors affecting radionuclide transfer. For Sr, availability depends on the CEC and on the concentration of the Ca + Mg in the soil solution. For Cs, availability is mainly dependent on the partitioning between FES -frayed edge sites-, which are highly specific and REC -regular exchange complex-, with low selectivity for Cs. Moreover, availability depends on the K and NH 4 , levels in the soil solution and fixation properties of the soil. Considering these factors, the calculation of the in situ K D values helps to predict the relative transfer of radionuclides. The calculation of the K D of the materials that could be used as countermeasures could permit the prediction of its suitability to decrease transfer and therefore to help in producing cleaner agricultural products

  2. Litter Production and Decomposition Rate in the Reclaimed Mined Land under Albizia and Sesbania Stands and Their Effects on some Soil Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Suhartoyo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation establishment is considered as a critical step of mined land rehabilitation. The growing plants do not only prevent soil erosion, but also play important roles in soil ecosystem development. Their litterfall is the main process of transferring organic matter and nutrients from aboveground tree biomass to soil. Thus, its quantification would aid in understanding biomass and nutrient dynamics of the ecosystem. This study was aimed to investigate the litter production and its decomposition rate in a reclaimed mined land using albizia and sesbania, and their effects on some soil properties. The litter under each stand was biweekly collected for four months. At the same time litter samples were decomposed in mesh nylon bags in soils and the remaining litters were biweekly measured. Soil samples were taken from 0-15 cm depths from each stand for analyses of soil organic C, total N, and cation exchange capacity (CEC. The results demonstrated that total litter production under albizia (10.58 t ha-1 yr-1 was almost twice as much as that under sesbania stands (5.43 t ha-1 yr-1. Albizia litter was dominated by leaf litter (49.26% and least as understory vegetation (23.31%, whereas sesbania litter was more evenly distributed among litter types. Decomposition rates of all litters were fastest in the initial stage and then gradually decreased. Sesbania leaf litters decomposed fastest, while albizia twigs slowest. Differences in the litter production and decomposition rates of the two species had not sufficiently caused significant effects on organic-C, total N, and CEC of the soils after one year of revegetation.

  3. Chemical denudation of the soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, O

    1952-01-01

    The chemical denudation plays a greater role in our climate than the mechanical erosion. The Swedish well waters contain 3-4 times more soluble salts than those rivers which are fed by them. The chemical denudation therefore must be much greater than formerly calculated. A map shows the salt concentration of the well waters of Sweden. The amount of nitrogen accumulated per annum in a district of central Sweden seems to amount to 3-6 kg n per har.

  4. Effect of Cassava Processing Effluent on Soil Properties, Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study, comprising a survey, greenhouse and field experiments was conducted to examine the effect of Cassava Processing Effluent (CPE) on soil chemical properties, maize growth performances and grain yield. In the survey, soil samples were taken (0-15 and 15 – 30cm) of CPE contaminated and non contaminated ...

  5. Combination of soil classification and some selected soil properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advantage in the combined use of soil classification and top soil analysis for explaining crop yield variation was examined. Soil properties and yields of maize (Zea mays L) on different soil types were measured on farmers' fields for 2 years. Yield prediction improved from 2 per cent at the Order and Association levels to ...

  6. Physico-Chemical Properties of Kaolin-Organic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo S.W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil with more than 20% of organic content is classified as organic soil in Malaysia. Contents of organic soil consist of different types of organic and inorganic matter. Each type of organic matter has its own characteristic and its effect on the properties of the soil is different. Hence, a good understanding on the effect of specific organic and inorganic matter on the physico-chemical characteristic of organic soils can serve as a guide for predicting the properties of organic soils. The main objective is to unveil the effect of organic acid on the physico-chemical properties of soil. Artificial organic soil (kaolin mixed with organic acid was utilized in order to minimize the geochemical variability of studied soil. The organic acid which consists of humic acid and fulvic acid was extracted from highly humificated plant–based compost. The effect of organic acid on the physico-chemical properties of soil was determined by varying the concentration of organic acid. The specific gravity, Atterberg limits, pH, bulk chemical composition and the functional group of kaolin-organic acid were determined. It was found that the plasticity index, specific gravity and pH value were decreased with lowered concentration of organic acid. However, the liquid limits and plastic limits were found to be increased with the concentration decrement of organic acid. The analysis of XRF on the bulk chemical composition and analysis of FTIR spectra on the functional group of artificial organic soils with different concentration have confirmed little geochemical variability between samples.

  7. WEED CONTROL EFFECTS ON SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The weed control procedures are known to affect the soil physical attributes and the nutrient amount taken up by weed roots. This work hypothesis is that weed control methods might also affect soil chemical attributes. Four experiments were carried out, three with maize (E-1, E-2 and E-3 and one with cotton (E-4, in randomized complete blocks design arranged in split-plots, with five replications. In E-1 experiment, the plots consisted of two weed control treatments: no-weed control and weed shovel-digging at 20 and 40 days after sowing; and the subplots consisted of six maize cultivars. In the three other experiments, the plots consisted of plant cultivars: four maize cultivars (E-2 and E-3 and four cotton cultivars (E-4. And, the subplots consisted of three weed control treatments: (1 no-weed control; (2 weed shovel-digging at 20 and 40 days after sowing; and (3 intercropping with cowpea (E-2 or Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. (E-3 and E-4. In all experiments, after harvest, eight soil samples were collected from each subplot (0-20 cm depth and composed in one sample. Soil chemical analysis results indicated that the weed control by shovel-digging or intercropping may increase or decrease some soil element concentrations and the alterations depend on the element and experiment considered. In E-2, the weed shovel-dug plots showed intermediate soil pH, lower S (sum of bases values and higher soil P concentrations than the other plots. In E-4, soil K and Na concentrations in plots without weed control did not differ from plots with intercropping, and in both, K and Na values were higher than in weed shovel-dug plots. Maize and cotton cultivars did not affect soil chemical characteristics.

  8. Predicting soil properties in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minasny, B.; Hartemink, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    It is practically impossible to measure soil properties continuously at each location across the globe. Therefore, it is necessary to have robust systems that can predict soil properties at a given location. That is needed in many tropical countries where the dearth of soil property measurements is

  9. Physical and chemical properties of pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Dennis A

    2002-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of the pyrethroids bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin (also zetacypermethrin), deltamethrin, esfenvalerate (also fenvalerate), fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin (also cyhalothrin), permethrin, and tralomethrin have been reviewed and summarized in this paper. Physical properties included molecular weight, octanol-water partition coefficient, vapor pressure, water solubility, Henry's law constant, fish biocencentration factor, and soil sorption, desorption, and Freundlich coefficients. Chemical properties included rates of degradation in water as a result of hydrolysis, photodecomposition, aerobic or anaerobic degradation by microorganisms in the absence of light, and also rates of degradation in soil incubated under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Collectively, the pyrethroids display a highly nonpolar nature of low water solubility, low volatility, high octanol-water partition coefficients, and have high affinity for soil and sediment particulate matter. Pyrethroids have low mobility in soil and are sorbed strongly to the sediments of natural water systems. Although attracted to living organisms because of their nonpolar nature, their capability to bioconcentrate is mitigated by their metabolism and subsequent elimination by the organisms. In fish, bioconcentration factors (BCF) ranged from 360 and 6000. Pyrethroids in water solution tend to be stable at acid and neutral pH but [table: see text] become increasingly susceptible to hydrolysis at pH values beyond neutral. Exceptions at higher pH are bifenthrin (stable), esfenvalerate (stable), and permethrin (half-life, 240 d). Pyrethroids vary in susceptibility to sunlight. Cyfluthrin and tralomethrin in water had half-lives of 0.67 and 2.5 d; lambda-cyhalothrin, esfenvalerate, deltamethrin, permethrin, and cypermethrin were intermediate with a range of 17-110 d; and bifenthrin and fenpropathrin showed the least susceptibility with half-lives of 400 and 600 d, respectively

  10. A review of the impacts of degradation threats on soil properties in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, A S; Ritz, K; McGrath, S P; Quinton, J N; Goulding, K W T; Jones, R J A; Harris, J A; Bol, R; Wallace, P; Pilgrim, E S; Whitmore, A P

    2015-10-01

    National governments are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of their soil resources and are shaping strategies accordingly. Implicit in any such strategy is that degradation threats and their potential effect on important soil properties and functions are defined and understood. In this paper, we aimed to review the principal degradation threats on important soil properties in the UK, seeking quantitative data where possible. Soil erosion results in the removal of important topsoil and, with it, nutrients, C and porosity. A decline in soil organic matter principally affects soil biological and microbiological properties, but also impacts on soil physical properties because of the link with soil structure. Soil contamination affects soil chemical properties, affecting nutrient availability and degrading microbial properties, whilst soil compaction degrades the soil pore network. Soil sealing removes the link between the soil and most of the 'spheres', significantly affecting hydrological and microbial functions, and soils on re-developed brownfield sites are typically degraded in most soil properties. Having synthesized the literature on the impact on soil properties, we discuss potential subsequent impacts on the important soil functions, including food and fibre production, storage of water and C, support for biodiversity, and protection of cultural and archaeological heritage. Looking forward, we suggest a twin approach of field-based monitoring supported by controlled laboratory experimentation to improve our mechanistic understanding of soils. This would enable us to better predict future impacts of degradation processes, including climate change, on soil properties and functions so that we may manage soil resources sustainably.

  11. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  12. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  13. Chemical composition of Chinese palm fruit and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... chemical properties and could be used as edible oils and for industrial applications. ... on it, which can provide useful information for Chinese oil palm industry. Key words: Chemical composition, palm fruit, palm oil, palm kernel oil, chemical ...

  14. Hyperspectral remote sensing of postfire soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah A. Lewis; Peter R. Robichaud; William J. Elliot; Bruce E. Frazier; Joan Q. Wu

    2004-01-01

    Forest fires may induce changes in soil organic properties that often lead to water repellent conditions within the soil profile that decrease soil infiltration capacity. The remote detection of water repellent soils after forest fires would lead to quicker and more accurate assessment of erosion potential. An airborne hyperspectral image was acquired over the Hayman...

  15. Thermal remediation alters soil properties - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M; Khan, Eakalak; Wick, Abbey F

    2018-01-15

    Contaminated soils pose a risk to human and ecological health, and thermal remediation is an efficient and reliable way to reduce soil contaminant concentration in a range of situations. A primary benefit of thermal treatment is the speed at which remediation can occur, allowing the return of treated soils to a desired land use as quickly as possible. However, this treatment also alters many soil properties that affect the capacity of the soil to function. While extensive research addresses contaminant reduction, the range and magnitude of effects to soil properties have not been explored. Understanding the effects of thermal remediation on soil properties is vital to successful reclamation, as drastic effects may preclude certain post-treatment land uses. This review highlights thermal remediation studies that have quantified alterations to soil properties, and it supplements that information with laboratory heating studies to further elucidate the effects of thermal treatment of soil. Notably, both heating temperature and heating time affect i) soil organic matter; ii) soil texture and mineralogy; iii) soil pH; iv) plant available nutrients and heavy metals; v) soil biological communities; and iv) the ability of the soil to sustain vegetation. Broadly, increasing either temperature or time results in greater contaminant reduction efficiency, but it also causes more severe impacts to soil characteristics. Thus, project managers must balance the need for contaminant reduction with the deterioration of soil function for each specific remediation project. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of organic and conventional arable farming systems was conducted in The Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils from thirteen accredited organic farms and conventionally managed neighboring

  17. Dynamic soil properties in response to anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Veerle; Ortega, Raúl

    2013-04-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance of natural vegetation can profoundly alter the physical, chemical and biological processes within soils. Rapid removal of topsoil during intense farming can result in an imbalance between soil production through chemical weathering and physical erosion, with direct implications on local biogeochemical cycling. However, the feedbacks between soil erosion, chemical weathering and biogeochemical cycling in response to anthropogenic forcing are not yet fully understood. Here, we study dynamic soil properties for a rapidly changing anthropogenic landscape, and focus on the coupling between physical erosion, soil production and soil chemical weathering. The archaeological site of Santa Maria de Melque (Toledo, Central Spain) was selected for its remarkably long occupation history dating back to the 7th century AD. As part of the agricultural complex, four retention reservoirs were built in the Early Middle Ages. The sedimentary archive was used to track the evolution in sedimentation rates and geochemical properties of the sediment. Catchment-wide soil erosion rates vary slightly between the various occupation phases (7th century-now), but are of the same magnitude as the cosmogenic nuclide-derived erosion rates. However, there exists large spatial variation in physical erosion rates that are coupled with chemical weathering intensities. The sedimentary records suggest that there are important changes in the spatial pattern of sediment source areas through time as a result of changing land use patterns

  18. Predicting Soil-Air and Soil-Water Transport Properties During Soil Vapor Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe

    Increased application of in-situ technology for control and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the subsurface has made the understanding of soil physical properties and their impact upon contaminant transport even more important. Knowledge of contaminant transport is important when...... properties of undisturbed soil from more easily measurable soil properties are developed. The importance of soil properties with respect to contaminant migration during remediation by soil vapor extraction (SVE) in the unsaturated zone was investigated using numerical simulations....

  19. Spatial Variability of Soil Morphorlogical and Physico-Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial Variability of Soil Morphorlogical and Physico-Chemical Properties in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Cashew Plantation, Ogbomoso. ... Colour (AP, B1 B2 and B3), structure (B2 and B3), stoniness (B1, B2 and B3), concretion (AP B1, B2 and B3) and boundary forms (B1, B2 and B3) have extremely ...

  20. How soil organic matter composition controls hexachlorobenzene-soil-interactions: adsorption isotherms and quantum chemical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashour A; Kühn, Oliver; Aziz, Saadullah G; Hilal, Rifaat H; Leinweber, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Hazardous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) interact in soil with the soil organic matter (SOM) but this interaction is insufficiently understood at the molecular level. We investigated the adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on soil samples with systematically modified SOM. These samples included the original soil, the soil modified by adding a hot water extract (HWE) fraction (soil+3 HWE and soil+6 HWE), and the pyrolyzed soil. The SOM contents increased in the order pyrolyzed soilsoilsoil+3 HWEsoil+6 HWE. For the latter three samples this order was also valid for the HCB adsorption. The pyrolyzed soil adsorbed more HCB than the other samples at low initial concentrations, but at higher concentrations the HCB adsorption became weaker than in the samples with HWE addition. This adsorption combined with the differences in the chemical composition between the soil samples suggested that alkylated aromatic, phenol, and lignin monomer compounds contributed most to the HCB adsorption. To obtain a molecular level understanding, a test set has been developed on the basis of elemental analysis which comprises 32 representative soil constituents. The calculated binding energy for HCB with each representative system shows that HCB binds to SOM stronger than to soil minerals. For SOM, HCB binds to alkylated aromatic, phenols, lignin monomers, and hydrophobic aliphatic compounds stronger than to polar aliphatic compounds confirming the above adsorption isotherms. Moreover, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of the binding energy with independent physical properties of the test set systems for the first time indicated that the polarizability, the partial charge on the carbon atoms, and the molar volume are the most important properties controlling HCB-SOM interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects on soil quality of biochar and straw amendment in conjunction with chemical fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li-li; ZHONG Zhe-ke; YANG Hui-min

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on chemical and microbiological properties of paddy soil of short-term biochar,straw,and chemical fertilizers compared with chemical fertilization alone.Five soil fertilization treatments were evaluated:regular chemical fertilizers (RF),straw+regular chemical fertilizers (SRF),straw biochar+regular chemical fertilizers (SCRF),bamboo biochar (BC)+regular chemical fertilizers (BCRF),and straw biochar+70% regular chemical fertilizers (SC+70%RF).Their effects were investigated after approximately 1.5 years.The soil pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly higher in biochar-treated soils.The soil phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) contents increased with biochar application.The soil Colwell P content was significantly increased with the addition of straw biochar in the treatments of SCRF and SC+70%RF.The oxygen (O):carbon (C) ratio doubled in BC picked from the soil.This indicated that BC underwent a significant oxidation process in the soil.The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints of microbial communities differed among the treatments.Soils with added biochar had higher Shannon diversity and species richness indices than soils without biochars.The results suggest that biochar can improve soil fertility.

  2. Environmental impact of petroleum products in the soil. Part II: Petroleum products composition and key properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlia, T.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil depends on the chemical-physic properties of each hydrocarbon, as well as on the soil characteristics. The mean composition of various petroleum products, the key chemical compounds and their characteristics are focused in order to outline the environmental behaviour of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil [it

  3. Changes in physico-chemical properties of soil by adding organic amendments in a tomato crop; Cambios en la propiedades fisico-quimicas del suelo por adicion de enmiendas organicas en cultivo de tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Navarro, A.; Marin Salneandro, P.; Delgado Iniesta, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    This study possible changes in the physico-chemical properties of soil under intensive cultivation of tomatoes after the addition of two different types of organic amendments: a natural as sheep manure and synthetic made. Trial plots that were designed are located in the NE of the province of Granada, in Puebla de Trial plots that were designed are located in the NE of the province of Granada, in Puebla de Don Fadrique, in the are that in recent years, change are very important in agriculture, from traditional farms extensive cultivation of rain-fed cereal crops such as intensive vegetale broccoli or tomatoes. (Author) 16 refs.

  4. Compost amendment of sandy soil affects soil properties and greenhouse tomato productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Cornelis, W.; Razzaghi, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Sandy soils, with low productivity, could be improved by compost application to sustain crop production. This study aimed to examine the effect of three compost types (vegetable, fruit and yard waste compost, garden waste compost, and spent mushroom compost) on basic properties of a loamy sand...... compost had greater effect in improving tomato productivity. A decade-long application of composts on loamy sand improved basic chemical and physical properties which were reflected in increased fruit yield in tomato. Since no negative effect of compost was observed, we suggest that sandy soils may serve...... and greenhouse tomato productivity. Disturbed and intact soil samples were taken from a decade-long compost field experiment on loamy sand with three compost types at application rate of 30 m3 ha-1 yr-1 (7.5 ton ha-1 yr-1). The soils were characterized for chemical and physical properties. Tomato was planted...

  5. Effect of land use change on soil properties and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Kõlli, Raimo; Köster, Tiina; Rannik, Kaire; Szajdak, Lech; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2014-05-01

    For good base of sustainable land management and ecologically sound protection of soils are researches on soil properties and functioning. Ecosystem approach to soil properties and functioning is equally important in both natural and cultivated land use conditions. Comparative analysis of natural and agro-ecosystems formed on similar soil types enables to elucidate principal changes caused by land use change (LUC) and to elaborate the best land use practices for local pedo-ecological conditions. Taken for actual analysis mineral soils' catena - rendzina → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols - represent ca 1/3 of total area of Estonian normal mineral soils. All soils of this catena differ substantially each from other by calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, fabric and humus cover type. This catena (representative to Estonian pedo-ecological conditions) starts with drought-prone calcareous soils. Brown (distributed in northern and central Estonia) and pseudopodzolic soils (in southern Estonia) are the most broadly acknowledged for agricultural use medium-textured high-quality automorphic soils. Dispersedly distributed gley-podzols are permanently wet and strongly acid, low-productivity sandy soils. In presentation four complex functions of soils are treated: (1) being a suitable soil environment for plant cover productivity (expressed by annual increment, Mg ha-1 yr-1); (2) forming adequate conditions for decomposition, transformation and conversion of fresh falling litter (characterized by humus cover type); (3) deposition of humus, individual organic compounds, plant nutrition elements, air and water, and (4) forming (bio)chemically variegated active space for soil type specific edaphon. Capacity of soil cover as depositor (3) depends on it thickness, texture, calcareousness and moisture conditions. Biological activity of soil (4) is determined by fresh organic matter influx, quality and quantity of biochemical substances and humus

  6. The effect of soilagrochemical properties on level of available phosphate in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yumei

    1985-01-01

    Superphosphate labelled with 32 P and 15 typies of soil were used to study the effect of various soil-agrochemical properties on the availability of phosphate. The level was figured with A value. The relations of A to soybean yield and soil-agro-chemical properties were analysed through Multiple regression

  7. Effect of wildfire on soil physical and chemical properties in a Nothofagus glauca forest, Chile Efecto del fuego en las propiedades físicas y químicas en un bosque de Nothofagus glauca en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CREIGHTON M. LITTON

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of a wildfire on soil chemical and physical properties in a Nothofagus glauca (Phil. Krasser forest in the Coastal Mountain Range of south-central Chile were investigated. Response of the soil during the first two years following a wildfire was examined, where data from soil in a burned forest were compared to that in an adjacent, unburned stand. The effects that wildfire have on soil properties in this highly fragmented ecosystem are not well understood, but results from this study suggest similar responses to those found in other mediterranean forest systems. Both physical (bulk density, percent soil moisture, and soil organic matter content and chemical properties (exchangeable inorganic nitrogen, extractable phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, and soil pH were examined, and data presented here suggest that soil properties vary in their initial response to fire in this ecosystem. Soil organic matter content and soil moisture decreased following fire and remained lower than values from unburned plots for the duration of the study. Exchangeable potassium increased initially after burning, but values in burned plots decreased with time and by the end of two years were significantly lower than in unburned soil. In turn, extractable phosphorus and soil pH both increased immediately following wildfire and values in burned plots remained significantly higher than unburned plots for the entire measurement period. Exchangeable inorganic nitrogen reached higher levels in soil of burned plots for the autumn measurements (April 1997 and 1998 and lower values in burned plots for the spring measurements (November 1997 and 1998. Soil bulk density remained unchanged following fire. In general, changes in soil properties following fire were greatest at the 0-5 cm layer and more modest at the 5-10 cm sampling depth. These changes were related primarily to oxidation of the detrital layer during fire and concurrent changes in the soil environment

  8. Soil physicochemical properties and their significance for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physicochemical properties and their significance for sustainable sugarcane production in Kesem Allaideghe plains irrigation project area, Eastern Ethiopia. ... In order to improve soil structure and water availability, addition of gypsum, plant residues and organic matter are recommended. Keywords: Soil survey ...

  9. Effects of prescribed fires on soil properties: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcañiz, M; Outeiro, L; Francos, M; Úbeda, X

    2018-02-01

    Soils constitute one of the most valuable resources on earth, especially because soil is renewable on human time scales. During the 20th century, a period marked by a widespread rural exodus and land abandonment, fire suppression policies were adopted facilitating the accumulation of fuel in forested areas, exacerbating the effects of wildfires, leading to severe degradation of soils. Prescribed fires emerged as an option for protecting forests and their soils from wildfires through the reduction of fuels levels. However such fires can serve other objectives, including stimulating the regeneration of a particular plant species, maintaining biological diversity or as a tool for recovering grasslands in encroached lands. This paper reviews studies examining the short- and long- term impacts of prescribed fires on the physical, chemical and biological soil properties; in so doing, it provides a summary of the benefits and drawbacks of this technique, to help determine if prescribed fires can be useful for managing the landscape. From the study conducted, we can affirm that prescribed fires affects soil properties but differ greatly depending on soil initial characteristics, vegetation or type of fire. Also, it is possible to see that soil's physical and biological properties are more strongly affected by prescribed fires than are its chemical properties. Finally, we conclude that prescribed fires clearly constitute a disturbance on the environment (positive, neutral or negative depending on the soil property studied), but most of the studies reviewed report a good recovery and their effects could be less pronounced than those of wildfires because of the limited soil heating and lower fire intensity and severity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Impacts of fire, fire-fighting chemicals and post-fire stabilization techniques on the soil-plant system

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Fernández, María

    2017-01-01

    Forest fires, as well as fire-fighting chemicals, greatly affect the soil-plant system causing vegetation loss, alterations of soil properties and nutrient losses through volatilization, leaching and erosion. Soil recovery after fires depends on the regeneration of the vegetation cover, which protects the soil and prevents erosion. Fire-fighting chemicals contain compounds potentially toxic for plants and soil organisms, and thus their use might hamper the regeneration of burnt ecosystems. In...

  11. Using soil properties to predict in vivo bioavailability of lead in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayawardena, M A Ayanka; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Lamb, Dane; Thavamani, Palanisami; Kuchel, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Soil plays a significant role in controlling the potential bioavailability of contaminants in the environment. In this study, eleven soils were used to investigate the relationship between soil properties and relative bioavailability (RB) of lead (Pb). To minimise the effect of source of Pb on in vivo bioavailability, uncontaminated study soils were spiked with 1500 mg Pb/kg soil and aged for 10-12 months prior to investigating the relationships between soil properties and in vivo RB of Pb using swine model. The biological responses to oral administration of Pb in aqueous phase or as spiked soils were compared by applying a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model to blood Pb concentration. The study revealed that RB of Pb from aged soils ranged from 30±9% to 83±7%. The very different RB of Pb in these soils was attributed to variations in the soils' physico-chemical properties. This was established using sorption studies showing: firstly, Freundlich partition coefficients that ranged from 21 to 234; and secondly, a strongly significant (R(2)=0.94, Psoils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such model derived using sorption partition coefficient to predict the relative bioavailability of Pb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical properties of organic soils. Chapter 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elon S. Verry; Don H. Boelter; Juhani Paivanen; Dale S. Nichols; Tom Malterer; Avi Gafni

    2011-01-01

    Compared with research on mineral soils, the study of the physical properties of organic soils in the United States is relatively new. A comprehensive series of studies on peat physical properties were conducted by Don Boelter (1959-1975), first at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) and later throughout the northern Lakes States to investigate how to express bulk...

  13. Soil properties from seismic intrinsic dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhubayev, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies in the past have shown the sensitivity of seismic waves to soil/rock properties, such as composition, porosity, pore fluid, and permeability. However, quantitative characterization of these properties has remained challenging. In case of unconsolidated soils, the

  14. Iron mineralogy and bioaccessibility of dust generated from soils as determined by reflectance spectroscopy and magnetic and chemical properties--Nellis Dunes recreational area, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Morman, Suzette A.; Moskowitz, Bruce; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J.; Flagg, Cody; Till, Jessica; Yauk, Kimberly; Berquó, Thelma S.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust exerts many important effects on the Earth system, such as atmospheric temperatures, marine productivity, and melting of snow and ice. Mineral dust also can have detrimental effects on human health through respiration of very small particles and the leaching of metals in various organs. These effects can be better understood through characterization of the physical and chemical properties of dust, including certain iron oxide minerals, for their extraordinary radiative properties and possible effects on lung inflammation. Studies of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area near Las Vegas, Nevada, focus on characteristics of radiative properties (capacity of dust to absorb solar radiation), iron oxide mineral type and size, chemistry, and bioaccessibility of metals in fluids that simulate human gastric, lung, and phagolysosomal fluids. In samples of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area with median grain sizes of 2.4, 3.1, and 4.3 micrometers, the ferric oxide minerals goethite and hematite, at least some of it nanosized, were identified. In one sample, in vitro bioaccessibility experiments revealed high bioaccessibility of arsenic in all three biofluids and higher leachate concentration and bioaccessibility for copper, uranium, and vanadium in the simulated lung fluid than in the phagolysosomal fluid. The combination of methods used here to characterize mineral dust at the Nellis Dunes recreation area can be applied to global dust and broad issues of public health.

  15. Species diversity and chemical properties of litter influence non-additive effects of litter mixtures on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Bing; Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Decomposition of litter mixtures generally cannot be predicted from the component species incubated in isolation. Therefore, such non-additive effects of litter mixing on soil C and N dynamics remain poorly understood in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, litters of Mongolian pine and three dominant understory species and soil were collected from a Mongolian pine plantation in Northeast China. In order to examine the effects of mixed-species litter on soil microbial biomass N, soil net N ...

  16. Physicochemical and biological quality of soil in hexavalent chromium-contaminated soils as affected by chemical and microbial remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yingping; Min, Xiaobo; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan; Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Yangyang

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial methods are the main remediation technologies for chromium-contaminated soil. These technologies have progressed rapidly in recent years; however, there is still a lack of methods for evaluating the chemical and biological quality of soil after different remediation technologies have been applied. In this paper, microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria and chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate were used for the remediation of soils contaminated with Cr(VI) at two levels (80 and 1,276 mg kg(-1)) through a column leaching experiment. After microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria, the average concentration of water-soluble Cr(VI) in the soils was reduced to less than 5.0 mg kg(-1). Soil quality was evaluated based on 11 soil properties and the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method, including fuzzy mathematics and correlative analysis. The chemical fertility quality index was improved by one grade using microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria, and the biological fertility quality index increased by at least a factor of 6. Chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate, however, resulted in lower levels of available phosphorus, dehydrogenase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase. The result showed that microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria was more effective for remedying Cr(VI)-contaminated soils with high pH value than chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate. In addition, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was proven to be a useful tool for monitoring the quality change in chromium-contaminated soils.

  17. The effects of tree species and substrate on carbon sequestration and chemical and biological properties in reforested post-mining soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Józefowska, A.; Pietrzykowski, M.; Woś, B.; Cajthaml, T.; Frouz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 292, April (2017), s. 9-16 ISSN 0016-7061 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : post mining soil * PLFA * bioturbation * C:N ratio * carbon stock * nitrogen stock Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 4.036, year: 2016

  18. LOSS OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN SOIL: PURE COMPOUND TREATABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive screening data on the treatability of 32 organic chemicals in soil were developed. Of the evaluated chemicals, 22 were phenolic compounds. Aerobic batch laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted using two soils: an acidic clay soil with <1% organic matter and ...

  19. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume III.- Extremadura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1998-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-13 7 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalized and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Extremadura. (Author) 50 refs

  20. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume V.- Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Roquero, C.; Magister, M.

    1998-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid. (Author) 39 refs

  1. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XV.- Aragon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma of Aragon. (Author) 47 refs

  2. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume I.-Galicia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Roquero, C.; Magister, M.

    1998-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-13 7 and Sr-90. The Department de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim. a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary)' source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma de Galicia

  3. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume XIV.- Cataluna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidad Autonoma of Cataluna. (Author) 57 refs

  4. Prediction of soil properties for agricultural and environmental applications from infrared and X-ray soil spectral properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towett, Erick Kibet

    2013-01-01

    Many of today's most pressing problems facing developing countries, such as food security, climate change, and environmental protection, require large area data on soil functional capacity. Conventional assessments (methods and measurements) of soil capacity to perform specific agricultural and environmental functions are time consuming and expensive. In addition, repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy of conventional soil analytical data are major challenges. New, rapid methods to quantify soil properties are needed, especially in developing countries where reliable data on soil properties is sparse, and to take advantage of new opportunities for digital soil mapping. Mid infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (MIR) has already shown promise as a rapid analytical tool and there are new opportunities to include other high-throughput techniques, such as total X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. In this study TXRF and XRD were tested in conjunction with IR to provide powerful diagnostic capabilities for the direct prediction of key soil properties for agricultural and environmental applications especially for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) soils. Optimal combinations of spectral methods for use in pedotransfer functions for low cost, rapid prediction of chemical and physical properties of African soils as well as prediction models for soil organic carbon and soil fertility properties (soil extractable nutrients, pH and exchangeable acidity) were tested in this study. This study has developed and tested a method for the use of TXRF for direct quantification of total element concentrations in soils using a TXRF (S2 PICOFOX trademark) spectrometer and demonstrated that TXRF could be used as a rapid screening tool for total element concentrations in soils assuming sufficient calibration measures are followed. The results of the current study have shown that TXRF can provide efficient chemical fingerprinting which could be further

  5. Prediction of soil properties for agricultural and environmental applications from infrared and X-ray soil spectral properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towett, Erick Kibet

    2013-12-09

    Many of today's most pressing problems facing developing countries, such as food security, climate change, and environmental protection, require large area data on soil functional capacity. Conventional assessments (methods and measurements) of soil capacity to perform specific agricultural and environmental functions are time consuming and expensive. In addition, repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy of conventional soil analytical data are major challenges. New, rapid methods to quantify soil properties are needed, especially in developing countries where reliable data on soil properties is sparse, and to take advantage of new opportunities for digital soil mapping. Mid infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (MIR) has already shown promise as a rapid analytical tool and there are new opportunities to include other high-throughput techniques, such as total X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. In this study TXRF and XRD were tested in conjunction with IR to provide powerful diagnostic capabilities for the direct prediction of key soil properties for agricultural and environmental applications especially for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) soils. Optimal combinations of spectral methods for use in pedotransfer functions for low cost, rapid prediction of chemical and physical properties of African soils as well as prediction models for soil organic carbon and soil fertility properties (soil extractable nutrients, pH and exchangeable acidity) were tested in this study. This study has developed and tested a method for the use of TXRF for direct quantification of total element concentrations in soils using a TXRF (S2 PICOFOX trademark) spectrometer and demonstrated that TXRF could be used as a rapid screening tool for total element concentrations in soils assuming sufficient calibration measures are followed. The results of the current study have shown that TXRF can provide efficient chemical fingerprinting which could be further

  6. Heavy Metals and Physicochemical Properties of Soils in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and such soil properties as organic carbon, available P, total N and basic cations on the other. Keywords: ..... addition through fertilizers and agro-chemicals, their ..... Analysis of Fish Tissue for Trace Metals. Afon ... Nutrition 7(2): 244-248.

  7. Effect of animal manures on soil properties, growth, nutrients status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative field study was carried out at two sites in Akure, Southwest Nigeria to determine effect of different animal manures on soil physical and chemical properties and performance of tomato (Lycopersicm esculentus Mill). Analysis of cattle (CM), goat (GM), pig (PG) and poultry (PM) manures showed that N, K, Ca ...

  8. Importance of soil-water relation in assessment endpoint in bioremediated soils: Plant growth and soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Sawatsky, N.

    1995-01-01

    Much effort has been focused on defining the end-point of bioremediated soils by chemical analysis (Alberta Tier 1 or CCME Guideline for Contaminated Soils) or toxicity tests. However, these tests do not completely assess the soil quality, or the capability of soil to support plant growth after bioremediation. This study compared barley (Hordeum vulgare) growth on: (i) non-contaminated, agricultural topsoil, (2) oil-contaminated soil (4% total extractable hydrocarbons, or TEH), and (3) oil-contaminated soil treated by bioremediation (< 2% TEH). Soil physical properties including water retention, water uptake, and water repellence were measured. The results indicated that the growth of barley was significantly reduced by oil-contamination of agricultural topsoil. Furthermore, bioremediation did not improve the barley yield. The lack of effects from bioremediation was attributed to development of water repellence in hydrocarbon contaminated soils. There seemed to be a critical water content around 18% to 20% in contaminated soils. Above this value the water uptake by contaminated soil was near that of the agricultural topsoil. For lower water contents, there was a strong divergence in sorptivity between contaminated and agricultural topsoil. For these soils, water availability was likely the single most important parameter controlling plant growth. This parameter should be considered in assessing endpoint of bioremediation for hydrocarbon contaminated soils

  9. Optical Properties of Airborne Soil Organic Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veghte, Daniel P. [William; China, Swarup [William; Weis, Johannes [Chemical; Department; Kovarik, Libor [William; Gilles, Mary K. [Chemical; Laskin, Alexander [Department

    2017-09-27

    Recently, airborne soil organic particles (ASOP) were reported as a type of solid organic particles emitted after water droplets impacted wet soils. Chemical constituents of ASOP are macromolecules such as polysaccharides, tannins, and lignin (derived from degradation of plants and biological organisms). Optical properties of ASOP were inferred from the quantitative analysis of the electron energy-loss spectra acquired over individual particles in the transmission electron microscope. The optical constants of ASOP are further compared with those measured for laboratory generated particles composed of Suwanee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) reference material, which was used as a laboratory surrogate of ASOP. The particle chemical compositions were analyzed using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. ASOP and SRFA exhibit similar carbon composition, but SRFA has minor contributions of S and Na. When ASOP are heated to 350 °C their absorption increases as a result of their pyrolysis and partial volatilization of semi-volatile organic constituents. The retrieved refractive index (RI) at 532 nm of SRFA particles, ASOP, and heated ASOP were 1.22-62 0.07i, 1.29-0.07i, and 1.90-0.38i, respectively. Compared to RISRFA, RIASOP has a higher real part but similar imaginary part. These measurements of ASOP optical constants suggest that they have properties characteristic of atmospheric brown carbon and therefore their potential effects on the radiative forcing of climate need to be assessed in atmospheric models.

  10. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of different soil management practices on soil properties and microbial diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Anna M.; Czyż, Ewa A.; Dexter, Anthony R.; Furtak, Karolina M.; Grządziel, Jarosław; Stanek-Tarkowska, Jadwiga

    2018-01-01

    The effects of different tillage systems on the properties and microbial diversity of an agricultural soil was investigated. In doing so, soil physical, chemical and biological properties were analysed in 2013-2015, on a long-term field experiment on a loamy sand at the IUNG-PIB Experimental Station in Grabów, Poland. Winter wheat was grown under two tillage treatments: conventional tillage using a mouldboard plough and traditional soil tillage equipment, and reduced tillage based on soil crushing-loosening equipment and a rigid-tine cultivator. Chopped wheat straw was used as a mulch on both treatments. Reduced tillage resulted in increased water content throughout the whole soil profile, in comparison with conventional tillage. Under reduced tillage, the content of readily dispersible clay was also reduced, and, therefore, soil stability was increased in the toplayers, compared with conventional tillage. In addition, the beneficial effects of reduced tillage were reflected in higher soil microbial activity as measured with dehydrogenases and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate, compared with conventional tillage. Moreover, the polimerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that soil under reduced till-age had greater diversity of microbial communities, compared with conventionally-tilled soil. Finally, reduced tillage increased organic matter content, stability in water and microbial diversity in the top layer of the soil.

  12. Spatial patterns and controls of soil chemical weathering rates along a transient hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, K.; Mudd, S.M.; Sanderman, J.; Amundson, Ronald; Blum, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hillslopes have been intensively studied by both geomorphologists and soil scientists. Whereas geomorphologists have focused on the physical soil production and transport on hillslopes, soil scientists have been concerned with the topographic variation of soil geochemical properties. We combined these differing approaches and quantified soil chemical weathering rates along a grass covered hillslope in Coastal California. The hillslope is comprised of both erosional and depositional sections. In the upper eroding section, soil production is balanced by physical erosion and chemical weathering. The hillslope then transitions to a depositional slope where soil accumulates due to a historical reduction of channel incision at the hillslope's base. Measurements of hillslope morphology and soil thickness were combined with the elemental composition of the soil and saprolite, and interpreted through a process-based model that accounts for both chemical weathering and sediment transport. Chemical weathering of the minerals as they moved downslope via sediment transport imparted spatial variation in the geochemical properties of the soil. Inverse modeling of the field and laboratory data revealed that the long-term soil chemical weathering rates peak at 5 g m- 2 yr- 1 at the downslope end of the eroding section and decrease to 1.5 g m- 2 yr- 1 within the depositional section. In the eroding section, soil chemical weathering rates appear to be primarily controlled by the rate of mineral supply via colluvial input from upslope. In the depositional slope, geochemical equilibrium between soil water and minerals appeared to limit the chemical weathering rate. Soil chemical weathering was responsible for removing 6% of the soil production in the eroding section and 5% of colluvial influx in the depositional slope. These were among the lowest weathering rates reported for actively eroding watersheds, which was attributed to the parent material with low amount of weatherable

  13. Some Sensitivity Studies of Chemical Transport Simulated in Models of the Soil-Plant-Litter System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, C.L.

    2002-10-28

    Fifteen parameters in a set of five coupled models describing carbon, water, and chemical dynamics in the soil-plant-litter system were varied in a sensitivity analysis of model response. Results are presented for chemical distribution in the components of soil, plants, and litter along with selected responses of biomass, internal chemical transport (xylem and phloem pathways), and chemical uptake. Response and sensitivity coefficients are presented for up to 102 model outputs in an appendix. Two soil properties (chemical distribution coefficient and chemical solubility) and three plant properties (leaf chemical permeability, cuticle thickness, and root chemical conductivity) had the greatest influence on chemical transport in the soil-plant-litter system under the conditions examined. Pollutant gas uptake (SO{sub 2}) increased with change in plant properties that increased plant growth. Heavy metal dynamics in litter responded to plant properties (phloem resistance, respiration characteristics) which induced changes in the chemical cycling to the litter system. Some of the SO{sub 2} and heavy metal responses were not expected but became apparent through the modeling analysis.

  14. Atributos químicos do solo afetado pelo manejo da água e do fertilizante potássico na cultura de arroz irrigado Chemical properties of soil affected by water and potassium fertilization management in irrigated rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto B. dos Santos

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento das culturas nas várzeas é extremamente influenciado pelo manejo destas, devido aos atributos químicos e físico-hídricos que elas possuem. O decréscimo na produtividade, verificado no monocultivo contínuo de arroz (Oryza sativa L. irrigado, pode estar relacionado à redução na fertilidade do solo, em decorrência da lixiviação de nutrientes. Com o objetivo de se avaliar os efeitos de manejo da água (MA1 - inundação contínua e MA2 - inundação intermitente seguida de contínua e do fertilizante potássico (K1 - na semeadura; K2 - adubação parcelada e K3 - meia dosagem parcelada na cultura de arroz irrigado sobre alguns atributos químicos de um solo Gley Pouco Húmico, foram conduzidos experimentos durante três anos consecutivos. Na inundação contínua ocorre maior lixiviação de cálcio e de potássio, teor de fósforo no solo e saturação por alumínio e menor pH na camada superficial do solo em relação à inundação intermitente, além de aumento do teor de potássio e do pH e diminuição de saturação por alumínio em profundidade. A inundação intermitente e o parcelamento do potássio podem contribuir na redução das perdas de nutrientes em solos de várzea que apresentam percolação excessiva. Alguns atributos químicos do solo podem ser melhorados através do manejo adequado da cultura do arroz irrigado, envolvendo manejo da água e do fertilizante potássico.Crop performance in lowland soils is influenced by management practices due to change in physico-chemical properties. Grain yield decrease in continuous monoculture of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L. may be associated with decrease in soil fertility due to leaching of nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate effect of water management (WM1 - continuous flooding, and WM2 - intermittent flooding followed by continuous flooding and potassium fertilization (K1 - at sowing; K2 - fractional application, and K3 - fractional

  15. Pedotransfer functions estimating soil hydraulic properties using different soil parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of soil hydraulic properties using pedotransfer functions (PTF) are useful in many studies such as hydrochemical modelling and soil mapping. The objective of this study was to calibrate and test parametric PTFs that predict soil water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity...... parameters. The PTFs are based on neural networks and the Bootstrap method using different sets of predictors and predict the van Genuchten/Mualem parameters. A Danish soil data set (152 horizons) dominated by sandy and sandy loamy soils was used in the development of PTFs to predict the Mualem hydraulic...... conductivity parameters. A larger data set (1618 horizons) with a broader textural range was used in the development of PTFs to predict the van Genuchten parameters. The PTFs using either three or seven textural classes combined with soil organic mater and bulk density gave the most reliable predictions...

  16. Thermal properties of degraded lowland peat-moorsh soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnatowski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    has decreased in a non-linear manner. Thermal parameters of the dry mass of the studied soils (Kdry, Cdry) were characterised by the mean value of approximately 0.11±0.028 W.m-1.K-1 and 0.781±0.220 MJ.m-3.K-1. The application of the correlation analysis showed that the most significant predictor of these properties of soils is the soil bulk density which, respectively explains: 54.6% and 67.1% of their variation. The increase of the accuracy in determining Kdry and Cdry was obtained by developing regression models, which apart from the bulk density also include the chemical properties of the peat soils. In the fully saturated soil the Ksat value ranged from 0.47 to 0.63 W.m-1.K-1, and the Csat varied from 3.200 to 3.995 MJ.m-3.K-1. The variation coefficients of these soil thermal features are at the level of approx. 5%. The obtained results allowed to conclude that the significant diversity of studied soils doesn't cause the significant differences in thermal soil parameters in fully saturated soils. The developed statistical relationships indicate that parameters Ksat and Csat were poorly correlated with saturated moisture content.

  17. Mechanical properties of chemically modified portuguese pinewood

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Duarte B; Mai, Carsten; Militz, Holger

    2014-01-01

    To turn wood into a construction material with enhanced properties, many methods of chemical modification have been developed in the last few decades. In this work, mechanical properties of pine wood were chemically modified, compared and evaluated. Maritime pine wood (Pinus pinaster) was modified with four chemical processes: 1,3-dimethylol-4,5- dihydroxyethyleneurea, N-methylol melamine formaldehyde, tetra-alkoxysilane and wax. The following mechanical properties were assessed experiment...

  18. Effects of chemical oxidation on sorption and desorption of PAHs in typical Chinese soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wei; Hou Lei; Luo Xiaoli; Zhu Lingyan

    2009-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation is a commonly applied soil and groundwater remediation technology, but can have significant effects on soil properties, which in turn might affect fate and transport of organic contaminants. In this study, it was found that oxidation treatment resulted mainly in breakdown of soil organic matter (SOM) components. Sorption of naphthalene and phenanthrene to the original soils and the KMnO 4 -treated soils was linear, indicating that hydrophobic partitioning to SOM was the predominant mechanism for sorption. Desorption from the original and treated soils was highly resistant, and was well modeled with a biphasic desorption model. Desorption of residual naphthalene after treating naphthalene-contaminated soils with different doses of KMnO 4 also followed the biphasic desorption model very well. It appears that neither changes of soil properties caused by chemical oxidation nor direct chemical oxidation of contaminated soils had a noticeable effect on the nature of PAH-SOM interactions. - Chemical oxidation of soils had little effect on the mechanisms controlling sorption and desorption of PAHs.

  19. Spatial variability of soil chemical properties after coffee tree removal Variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos do solo após remoção de cafezal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the spatial variability of soil chemical properties has become an important aspect of soil management strategies with a view to higher crop yields with minimal environmental degradation. This study was carried out at the Centro Experimental of the Instituto Agronomico, in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The aim was to characterize the spatial variability of chemical properties of a Rhodic Hapludox on a recently bulldozer-cleaned area after over 30 years of coffee cultivation. Soil samples were collected in a 20 x 20 m grid with 36 sampling points across a 1 ha area in the layers 0.0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m to measure the following chemical properties: pH, organic matter, K+, P, Ca2+, Mg2+, potential acidity, NH4-N, and NO3-N. Descriptive statistics were applied to assess the central tendency and dispersion moments. Geostatistical methods were applied to evaluate and to model the spatial variability of variables by calculating semivariograms and kriging interpolation. Spatial dependence patterns defined by spherical model adjusted semivariograms were made for all cited soil properties. Moderate to strong degrees of spatial dependence were found between 31 and 60 m. It was still possible to map soil spatial variability properties in the layers 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm after plant removal with bulldozers.A avaliação da variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos do solo tem se tornado importante ferramenta na determinação de estratégias de manejo que visam aumentar a produtividade agrícola com menor degradação ambiental. O presente trabalho foi realizado no Centro Experimental Central do Instituto Agronômico, localizado em Campinas/SP, com o objetivo de caracterizar a variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho após a remoção de um cafezal, cultivado por mais de 30 anos, com trator de esteira. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em grade georreferenciada de 20 x 20 m, totalizando 36 pontos nas camadas de 0

  20. Evaluating sensitivity of unsaturated soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, R.O.; El-Kamash, A.M.; Nagy, M.E.; Khalill, M.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of near surface disposal performance relay on numerical models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. These models use the unsaturated soil properties as input parameters, which are subject to uncertainty due to measurements errors and the spatial variability in the subsurface environment. To ascertain how much the output of the model will depend on the unsaturated soil properties the parametric sensitivity analysis is used. In this paper, a parametric sensitivity analysis of the Van Genuchten moisture retention characteristic (VGMRC) model will be presented and conducted to evaluate the relative importance of the unsaturated soil properties under different pressure head values that represent various dry and wet conditions. (author)

  1. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia

    2015-04-01

    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  2. Water-stability of soil aggregates in relation to selected properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Bazzoffi, P.; Unamba Oparah, I.

    1995-03-01

    The stability of soil aggregates in water is an important soil physical property for evaluating the potential of agricultural soils to erode and elucidating the mechanisms of soil erosion. In this study we used aggregates from 15 surface soil samples in Italy to evaluate the influence of intrinsic soil physical, chemical and mineralogical properties on aggregates stability (AS). The aim was to develop a model for predicting AS from a subset of these soil properties. The index of stability used is the mean-weight diameter of water-stable aggregates (MWD). The model developed with soil physical properties alone explained just 42% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in only 20% of test soils. The model developed with mineralogical properties alone explained 70% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 60% of the test soils. The chemical properties - based model explained 90% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 80% of the test soils. The best-fit model was developed with soil properties from the physical, chemical and mineralogical subsets. It explained 98% of variance in MWD and predicted AS in 100% of the test soils. This model shows that the most important soil properties which influence the AS of these soils include ratio of total sand to clay, concentrations of iron oxide, magnesium oxide, organic matter, silica/alumina ratio, chlorite, feldspar and muscovite. This indicates that fairly good estimates of the relative stability of these aggregates in water and hence of their potential to erode, requires a knowledge of the physico-chemical and mineralogical properties. (author). 40 refs, 4 tabs

  3. [Effects of intercropping Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens on the soil chemical and microbiological properties under the contamination of zinc and cadmium from sewage sludge application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Feng-Jiao; Wu, Long-Hua; Liu, Hong-Yan; Ren, Jing; Liu, Wu-Xing; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2013-05-01

    Taking the vegetable soil with zinc- and cadmium contamination from a long-term sewage sludge application as the object, a pot experiment was conducted to study the remediation effect of Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens under continuous monoculture and intercropping. With the remediation time increased, both S. plumbizincicola and A. graceolens under monoculture grew poorly, but S. plumbizincicola under intercropping grew well. Under intercropping, the soil organic matter, total N, extractable N, and total P contents decreased significantly while the soil extractable K content had a significant increase, the counts of soil bacteria and fungi increased by 7.9 and 18.4 times and 3.7 and 4.3 times, respectively, but the soil urease and catalase activities remained unchanged, as compared with those under A. graceolens and S. plumbizincicola monoculture. The BIOLOG ECO micro-plates also showed that the carbon sources utilization level and the functional diversity index of soil microbial communities were higher under intercropping than under monoculture, and the concentrations of soil zinc and cadmium under intercropping decreased by 5.8% and 50.0%, respectively, with the decrements being significantly higher than those under monoculture. It was suggested that soil microbial effect could be one of the important factors affecting plant growth.

  4. Effect of herbicides on microbiological properties of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nada A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms decompose herbicides and they may serve as bioindicators of soil changes following herbicide application. Certain microbial species may be used as bioherbicides. This study has shown that Azotobacter is most sensitive to herbicide application; it is, therefore, a reliable indicator of the biological value of soil. The numbers of this group of nitrogen-fixing bacteria decrease considerably in the period of 7-14 days after herbicide application. Simultaneously, the numbers of Actinomycetes and less so of fungi increase, indicating that these microorganisms use herbicides as sources of biogenous elements. Rate of herbicidal decomposition depends on the properties of the preparation applied herbicide dose as well as on the physical and chemical soil properties, soil moisture and temperature, ground cover, agrotechnical measures applied and the resident microbial population.

  5. Soil microbial activities and its relationship with soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fields assessed are organically managed Soils (OMS), Inorganically Managed Soils (IMS) and an Uncultivated Land having grass coverage (ULS). Soil Microbial Respiration (SMR), Microbial Biomass Carbon (MBC), Microbial Biomass Nitrogen (MBN) and Microbial Biomass Phosphorus (MBP) were analyzed.

  6. Variabilidade espacial das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo em áreas intensamente cultivadas Spatial variability of physical and chemical properties of soil in intensively cultivated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia de Mello

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a variabilidade espacial das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo, visando fornecer subsídios ao manejo localizado de insumos. Foram analisadas as variáveis químicas: P, MO, K, Ca, Mg, pH, CTC e V(% e físicas: areia e argila. Coletaram-se amostras de solo em duas profundidades (0-0,2 e 0,6-0,8 m situadas em malha irregular de amostragem na região de Monte Alto, num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo (PVA, sob diferentes manejos, perfazendo 88 pontos em área total de 1465 ha; e na região de Jaboticabal, em Latossolo Vermelho (LV cultivado com cana-de-açúcar, perfazendo 128 pontos, em área total de 2597 ha. As propriedades químicas e físicas dos solos estudados apresentaram dependência espacial, com exceção da CTC na profundidade de 0,6-0,8 m para o solo LV; Ca e argila na profundidade de 0-0,2 m, e P, MO, K, Mg e argila na camada de 0,6-0,8 m, no solo PVA. As variáveis estudadas ajustaram-se aos modelos esférico e exponencial, e algumas apresentaram semivariograma sem estrutura definida. O solo PVA apresentou menor continuidade espacial das propriedades químicas e físicas, principalmente na profundidade 0,6-0,8 m, camada que sofre menor influência antrópica. O solo LV apresentou zonas mais homogêneas de fertilidade e granulometria.The spatial variability of physical and chemical properties of soil were evaluated to provide subsidies for management of the agricultural input. The chemical variables: P, organic matter (OM, K, Ca, Mg, pH, CEC and base saturation (BS; and physical variables: sand and clay were analysed. Soil samples were collected at two depths (0-0.2 and 0.6-0.8 m located at irregular mesh of sampling in the region of Monte Alto, in a Yellow-Red Podzol (Alfissolo (PVA, under different managements, resulting in 88 points in 1465 ha of total area; and at the region of Jaboticabal in a Red Latosol (LV cultivated with sugarcane, resulting in 128 points in 2597 ha of total area. The chemical

  7. Influence of long-term fertilization on soil physicochemical properties in a brown soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Luo, Peiyu; Han, Xiaori; Yang, Jinfeng

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence on soil physicochemical properties under a 38-y long-term fertilization in a brown soil. Soil samples (0-20 cm)were taken from the six treatments of the long-term fertilization trial in October 2016:no fertilizer (CK), N1(mineral nitrogen fertilizer), N1P (mineral nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer), N1PK (mineral nitrogen, phosphate and potassic fertilizer), pig manure (M2), M2N1P (pig manure, mineral nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer).The results showed thatthe long-term application of chemical fertilizers reduced soil pH value, while the application of organic fertilizers increased pH value. Fertilization significantly increased the content of AHN, TN and SOM. Compared with the CK treatment and chemical fertilizer treatments, organic fertilizer treatments significantly increased the content of AP and TP. The content of AK and TK were no significant difference in different treatment.

  8. Mapping specific soil functions based on digital soil property maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Fodor, Nándor; Farkas-Iványi, Kinga; Szabó, József; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Koós, Sándor

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of soil functions and services is a great challenge in itself even if the spatial relevance is supposed to be identified and regionalized. Proxies and indicators are widely used in ecosystem service mapping. Soil services could also be approximated by elementary soil features. One solution is the association of soil types with services as basic principle. Soil property maps however provide quantified spatial information, which could be utilized more versatilely for the spatial inference of soil functions and services. In the frame of the activities referred as "Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary" (DOSoReMI.hu) numerous soil property maps have been compiled so far with proper DSM techniques partly according to GSM.net specifications, partly by slightly or more strictly changing some of its predefined parameters (depth intervals, pixel size, property etc.). The elaborated maps have been further utilized, since even DOSoReMI.hu was intended to take steps toward the regionalization of higher level soil information (secondary properties, functions, services). In the meantime the recently started AGRAGIS project requested spatial soil related information in order to estimate agri-environmental related impacts of climate change and support the associated vulnerability assessment. One of the most vulnerable services of soils in the context of climate change is their provisioning service. In our work it was approximated by productivity, which was estimated by a sequential scenario based crop modelling. It took into consideration long term (50 years) time series of both measured and predicted climatic parameters as well as accounted for the potential differences in agricultural practice and crop production. The flexible parametrization and multiple results of modelling was then applied for the spatial assessment of sensitivity, vulnerability, exposure and adaptive capacity of soils in the context of the forecasted changes in

  9. Melhorias nas propriedades químicas de um solo salino-sódico e rendimento de arroz, sob diferentes tratamentos Improvement in chemical properties of saline-sodic soil and rice yield under under different treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo Mariano Gomes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento num solo salino-sódico no Perímetro Irrigado de São Gonçalo, com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito de diferentes produtos condicionadores nas propriedades químicas do solo e seus reflexos nos componentes de produção e rendimento de grãos na cultura de arroz irrigado (Oryza sativa L.. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos estudados foram: gesso (20 Mg ha-1; casca de arroz (15 Mg ha-1; testemunha; vinhaça (40 m³ ha-1 e esterco de curral (40 Mg ha-1. Após aplicação dos tratamentos, o solo foi lixiviado durante 40 dias, mantendo uma lâmina de 8 cm de água nas parcelas. Os tratamentos mostraram efeitos positivos nas propriedades químicas do solo (percentagem de sódio trocável, condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação e pH da pasta saturada sendo que o esterco de curral e gesso proporcionaram apreciáveis decréscimos em comparação aos outros tratamentos; entretanto, os produtos utilizados não mostraram efeitos significativos no número de panículas, peso de panículas e rendimento do arroz.An experiment was installed in a saline-sodic soil of the Irrigated Perimeter of São Gonçalo, with the objective of evaluating the effect of different amendments in the chemical properties of soil and its posterior reflexes in the components of production and grain yield of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.. The experiment consisted of five treatments with five replications in a completely randomized design. The treatments studied were: gypsum (20 Mg ha-1; rice husk (15 Mg ha-1; control; stillage (40 m³ ha-1 and farmyard manure (40 Mg ha-1. After incorporation of amendments, the soil was leached for 40 days, keeping an 8 cm depth of water in the plots. The treatments showed positive effects in the chemical properties of the soil (exchangeable sodium percentage, electrical conductivity of saturation extract and pH of saturation

  10. Effective soil hydraulic properties in space and time: some field data analysis and modeling concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil hydraulic properties, which control surface fluxes and storage of water and chemicals in the soil profile, vary in space and time. Spatial variability above the measurement scale (e.g., soil area of 0.07 m2 or support volume of 14 L) must be upscaled appropriately to determine “effective” hydr...

  11. Effects of tree species on soil properties in a forest of the Northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Large differences in soil pH and available Ca in the surface soil exist among tree species growing in a mixed hardwood forest in northwestern Connecticut. The observed association between tree species and specific soil chemical properties within mixed-species stands implies that changes in

  12. Soil properties of mangroves in contrasting geomorphic settings within the Zambezi River Delta, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina E. Stringer; Carl C. Trettin; Stan Zarnoch

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves are well-known for their numerous ecosystem services, including sequestering a significant carbon stock, with soils accounting for the largest pool. The soil carbon pool is dependent on the carbon content and bulk density. Our objective was to assess the spatial variability of mangrove soil physical and chemical properties within the Zambezi River Delta and...

  13. Geotechnical properties of Egyptian collapsible soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled E. Gaaver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of constructing structures on collapsible soils presents significant challenges to geotechnical engineers due to sudden reduction in volume upon wetting. Identifying collapsible soils when encountered in the field and taking the needed precautions should substantially reduce the risk of such problems usually reported in buildings and highways. Collapsible soils are those unsaturated soils that can withstand relatively high pressure without showing significant change in volume, however upon wetting; they are susceptible to a large and sudden reduction in volume. Collapsible soils cover significant areas around the world. In Egypt, collapsible soils were observed within the northern portion of the western desert including Borg El-Arab region, and around the city of Cairo in Six-of-October plateau, and Tenth-of-Ramadan city. Settlements associated with development on untreated collapsible soils usually lead to expensive repairs. One method for treating collapsible soils is to densify their structure by compaction. The ongoing study presents the effect of compaction on the geotechnical properties of the collapsible soils. Undisturbed block samples were recovered from test pits at four sites in Borg El-Arab district, located at about 20 km west of the city of Alexandria, Egypt. The samples were tested in both unsoaked and soaked conditions. Influence of water inundation on the geotechnical properties of collapsible soils was demonstrated. A comparative study between natural undisturbed and compacted samples of collapsible soils was performed. An attempt was made to relate the collapse potential to the initial moisture content. An empirical correlation between California Bearing Ratio of the compacted collapsible soils and liquid limit was adopted. The presented simple relationships should enable the geotechnical engineers to estimate the complex parameters of collapsible soils using simple laboratory tests with a reasonable accuracy.

  14. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DEGRADATION OF AGRICULTURAL SOILS AT SAN PEDRO LAGUNILLAS, NAYARIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelacio Alejo Santiago

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the degradation to propose strategies for remediation and recovery of agricultural soils of San Pedro Lagunillas, Nayarit, Mexico; considering physical and chemical properties. Soils maintained with natural vegetation but slightly grazed and agricultural soils used for more than 20 years for the production of several crops, were compared. Eight sites were studied (four cultivated and four uncultivated, each agricultural lands (cultivated was located at a distance of 30 to 80 m from its counterpart or soil with natural vegetation (uncultivated. Samples were obtained from the following layers: 0 to 10, 10 to 20 and 20 to 30 cm. The variables evaluated were: particles smaller than 2 mm, pH, organic matter, extractable phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, calcium and magnesium; soil texture and water infiltration rate. An analysis of variance and Tukey means test (α = 0.05 was applied. It was concluded that traditional farming practices led to adverse changes in soil chemical properties, in the upper 20 cm soil layer. Physical properties were also affected because infiltration film and water infiltration rate decreased about 50% in cultivated soils. The overall results in this work evident the need to take appropriate measures to prevent the physical and chemical degradation of cultivated soils in order to preserve this resource and maintain their productivity.

  15. Visualising the equilibrium distribution and mobility of organic contaminants in soil using the chemical partitioning space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Wania, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Assessing the behaviour of organic chemicals in soil is a complex task as it is governed by the physical chemical properties of the chemicals, the characteristics of the soil as well as the ambient conditions of the environment. The chemical partitioning space, defined by the air-water partition coefficient (K(AW)) and the soil organic carbon-water partition coefficient (K(OC)), was employed to visualize the equilibrium distribution of organic contaminants between the air-filled pores, the pore water and the solid phases of the bulk soil and the relative importance of the three transport processes removing contaminants from soil (evaporation, leaching and particle erosion). The partitioning properties of twenty neutral organic chemicals (i.e. herbicides, pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls and volatile chemicals) were estimated using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships and superimposed onto these maps. This allows instantaneous estimation of the equilibrium phase distribution and mobility of neutral organic chemicals in soil. Although there is a link between the major phase and the dominant transport process, such that chemicals found in air-filled pore space are subject to evaporation, those in water-filled pore space undergo leaching and those in the sorbed phase are associated with particle erosion, the partitioning coefficient thresholds for distribution and mobility can often deviate by many orders of magnitude. In particular, even a small fraction of chemical in pore water or pore air allows for evaporation and leaching to dominate over solid phase transport. Multiple maps that represent soils that differ in the amount and type of soil organic matter, water saturation, temperature, depth of surface soil horizon, and mineral matters were evaluated.

  16. Effects of environmental factors and soil properties on topographic variations of soil respiration

    OpenAIRE

    Tamai, K.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration rates were measured along different parts of a slope in (a) an evergreen forest with common brown forest soil and (b) a deciduous forest with immature soil. The effects of soil temperature, soil moisture and soil properties were estimated individually, and the magnitudes of these effects in the deciduous and evergreen forests were compared. In the evergreen forest with common brown forest soil, soil properties had the greatest effect on soil respiration rates, followed by soi...

  17. Computing Properties Of Chemical Mixtures At Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, B. J.; Gordon, S.

    1995-01-01

    Scientists and engineers need data on chemical equilibrium compositions to calculate theoretical thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93 is general program that calculates chemical equilibrium compositions and properties of mixtures for any chemical system for which thermodynamic data are available. Includes thermodynamic data for more than 1,300 gaseous and condensed species and thermal-transport data for 151 gases. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  18. Soil Properties Control Glyphosate Sorption in Soils Amended with Birch Wood Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahawaththa Gamage, Inoka Damayanthi Kumari; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite a contemporary interest in biochar application to agricultural fields to improve soil quality and long-term carbon sequestration, a number of potential side effects of biochar incorporation in field soils remain poorly understood, e.g., in relation to interactions...... with agrochemicals such as pesticides. In a fieldbased study at two experimental sites in Denmark (sandy loam soils at Risoe and Kalundborg), we investigated the influence of birch wood biochar with respect to application rate, aging (7–19 months), and physico- chemical soil properties on the sorption coefficient......, Kd (L kg−1), of the herbicide glyphosate. We measured Kd in equilibrium batch sorption experiments with triplicate soil samples from 20 field plots that received biochar at different application rates (0 to 100 Mg ha−1). The results showed that pure biochar had a lower glyphosate Kd value as compared...

  19. Características químicas do solo sob algodoeiro em área que recebeu água residuária da suinocultura Chemical soil properties under cotton using swine wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomão de Sousa Medeiros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A crescente geração de efluentes líquidos e o seu lançamento no meio ambiente tem-se constituído numa preocupação mundial devido aos impactos negativos gerados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os possíveis impactos da aplicação do efluente proveniente da suinocultura, após seu tratamento, nos atributos químicos do solo, em área cultivada com algodão. O experimento foi realizado no Perímetro Irrigado Formoso, no município de Bom Jesus da Lapa, BA, em área experimental da Companhia de Desenvolvimento dos Vales do São Francisco e do Parnaíba - CODEVASF. Foram testados cinco tratamentos: MC - manejo convencional = água de "boa qualidade" + adubação química; ET100 = 100 % de efluente tratado; ET75:25 = 75 % de efluente tratado + 25 % de água boa; ET50:50 = 50 % de efluente tratado + 50 % de água boa; ET25:75 = 25 % de efluente tratado + 75 % de água boa. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os atributos químicos do solo avaliados foram: pH, condutividade elétrica, teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu. Em geral, quanto aos atributos químicos do solo, a adoção do manejo com efluente tratado apresentou resultados semelhantes aos obtidos com o MC, favorecendo a melhoria da fertilidade do solo e constituindo-se em uma fonte alternativa de fertilização de baixo custo. O efluente tratado, independentemente do fator de diluição, também demonstrou ser uma fonte alternativa de água.The negative impacts of the increasing volume of wastewater and of its discharge into the environment have become a worldwide concern. This study assessed the potential impacts of using treated effluent from pig raising for cotton irrigation, to evaluate their effects on soil chemical properties, and compare the results with those under conventional management. The experiment was conducted in an experimental area of the Company for the Development of the San Francisco and Parnaíba valleys

  20. Physical properties of magnesium affected soils in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Ocampo, A.

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium has some capacity to develop higher exchangeable sodium levels in clays and soil materials. The Mg +2 accumulation on the exchange complex of soils to a very high saturation levels affect their physical, chemical and biological properties. Colombia has a large area of these soils, located mainly in the main rivers valleys and in the Caribbean Region. In the Cauca River Valley there are about 117,000 hectares affected. There is a lack of information about the soil forming processes, the Mg +2 effects on soils, the type and source of compounds responsible for the magnesium enrichment, their relationship with the landscape and the way this accumulation occurs. To identify and quantify soil Mg +2 enriched areas over 2500 soil profiles from different landscape positions of the Cauca River Valley were studied. The information was processed to generate Mg-saturation maps, to identify the different soil profile types and to estimate the affected area. A topographic sequence from the alluvial inundation plain to the hills was used to explore the presence of diagnostic horizons and to determine the main soil characteristics and genetic, mineralogical or chemical evidences of soil forming processes. Two 180 kilometer transects parallel to the river were used to: a) study the type and source of Mg-compounds responsible for the Mg-enrichment and the way this accumulation occurs. b) the soil hydraulic properties like infiltration, saturated hydraulic conductivity and matrix potential at different depths were also measured. Samples of nine profiles were collected and the porosity and soil volume changes at different water content were examined. The program RETC was used for prediction of the hydraulic properties of non saturated soils. These properties involved the retention curve, the function of hydraulic conductivity and the diffusivity of the water in the soil. By grouping together the soil profiles, five main type of Mg-affected soils were identified as being

  1. The chemical properties of soil for alfalfa production after biofertiliser applicationAtributos químicos no solo e produção de alfafa sob doses de biofertilizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Luis Lemes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of biofertilisers for the production of alfalfa shoot, root and nodule dry matter, and also, to evaluate the chemical properties of the soil. This study was conducted in the greenhouse of the Support Department, Animal Production and Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/UNESP, Araçatuba – SP, from May to October 2010. The experimental design was completely randomised with six biofertiliser doses (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 m3 ha-1 and five replicates. The biofertiliser doses were the primary treatments and the cuts (five were subplots. The cuts were performed, on average, every 27 days at 10 cm above the soil. At the end of the experiment, the roots, nodules and soil from all experimental units were collected for chemical analysis. We observed a linear increase in dry matter production of the shoots relative to the doses studied. The dry matter production of the roots and nodules was not significantly different. The chemical properties of the soil significantly improved for calcium and magnesium as well as the sum of bases and base saturation with biofertiliser application. Biofertilisers can be used for agricultural production and favourably alter the soil characteristics. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de doses de biofertilizante na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, raízes e nódulos da alfafa, e os atributos químicos do solo. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária/UNESP, Campus de Araçatuba – SP, de maio a outubro de 2010. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, sendo seis doses de biofertilizante (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 e 400 m3 ha-1 e cinco repetições. As doses de biofertilizante foram consideradas como tratamentos principais e os cortes (cinco como subparcelas. Os cortes foram realizados, em média, a cada 27 dias, a 10 cm de altura do

  2. Mineralogical, chemical, organic and microbial properties of subsurface soil cores from Mars Desert Research Station (Utah, USA): Phyllosilicate and sulfate analogues to Mars mission landing sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, C.R.; Clarke, J.; Oliveira Lebre Direito, M.S.; Martin, K.; Zavaleta, J.; Blake, D.; Foing, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    We collected and analysed soil cores from four geologic units surrounding Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) Utah, USA, including Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison formation (Brushy Basin member) and Summerville formation. The area is an important geochemical and morphological analogue to

  3. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional slash and burn agriculture practiced in the Peruvian Amazon region is leading to soil degradation and deforestation of native forest flora. The only way to stop such destructive processes is through the adoptation of sustainable alternatives such as growing crops in agroforestry systems....

  4. Effect of cryogel on soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Fufaeva, M. S.; Filatov, D. A.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Rozhdestvenskii, E. A.; Gan-Erdene, T.

    2014-05-01

    Samples from the A1 and A1A2 horizons of sandy loamy gray forest soil containing 3.1% organic matter have been mixed with a 5% solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at a ratio of 7 : 1 under laboratory conditions. The samples were frozen at -20°C in a refrigerator; after a freezing-thawing cycle, the evaporation of water from their surface, their thermal conductivity coefficient, their elasticity modulus, and other properties were studied. It has been experimentally found that the thermal conductivity coefficient of cryostructured soil is lower than that of common soil by 25%. It has been shown that the cryostructured soil retains water for a longer time and that the water evaporation rate from its surface is significantly lower compared to the control soil. Cryogel has no negative effect on the catalase activity of soil; it changes the physical properties of soils and positively affects the population of indigenous soil microflora and the growth of the sown plants.

  5. Assessment of Soil Health in Urban Agriculture: Soil Enzymes and Microbial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanthi Deshani Igalavithana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture has been recently highlighted with the increased importance for recreation in modern society; however, soil quality and public health may not be guaranteed because of continuous exposure to various pollutants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil quality of urban agriculture by soil microbial assessments. Two independent variables, organic and inorganic fertilizers, were considered. The activities of soil enzymes including dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, urease, alkaline and acid phosphatases were used as indicators of important microbial mediated functions and the soil chemical properties were measured in the soils applied with organic or inorganic fertilizer for 10 years. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis was applied to determine the soil microbial community composition. Relatively higher microbial community richness and enzyme activities were found in the organic fertilizers applied soils as compared to the inorganic fertilizers applied soils. Principal component analysis explained the positive influence of organic fertilizers on the microbial community. The application of organic fertilizers can be a better alternative compared to inorganic fertilizers for the long-term health and security of urban agriculture.

  6. Adsorption properties of subtropical and tropical variable charge soils: Implications from climate change and biochar amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ren-Kou; Qafoku, Nikolla; Van Ranst, Eric; Li, Jiu-yu; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-25

    This review paper attempts to summarize the progress made in research efforts conducted over the last years to study the surface chemical properties of the tropical and subtropical soils, usually called variable charge soils, and the way they response to different management practices. The paper is composed of an introductory section that provides a brief discussion on the surface chemical properties of these soils, and five other review sections. The focus of these sections is on the evolution of surface chemical properties during the development of the variable charge properties (second section), interactions between oppositely charged particles and the resulting effects on the soil properties and especially on soil acidity (third section), the surface effects of low molecular weight organic acids sorbed to mineral surfaces and the chemical behavior of aluminum (fourth section), and the crop straw derived biochar induced changes of the surface chemical properties of these soils (fifth section). A discussion on the effect of climate change variables on the properties of the variable charge soils is included at the end of this review paper (sixth section).

  7. Biogeochemical features technogenic pollution of soils under the influence chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuraeva I.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical properties of soil (pH, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity. The regularities of the distribution of total and mobile forms of heavy metals in soil sediments in the territory of Shostka Sumy region under the influence of the chemical industry and in the background areas. Biogeochemical indicators obtained content of microscopic fungi and their species, the most characteristic of the study of soils, which can be used as an additional criterion for ecological and geochemical studies.

  8. Spatial Variability of Soil Morphorlogical and Physico- Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The available moisture of soil was very low thus water holding capacity (WHC) and wilting point (WP) of the soil was ... with spatial distribution of soil properties and its effect on ... Pore size and root .... nutrient and have better stability. Thus.

  9. LBA-ECO ND-10 Soil Properties of Pasture Chronosequences, Para, Brazil: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of soil physical property and chemical measurements of samples collected from two pasture chronosequences (years since...

  10. LBA-ECO ND-10 Soil Properties of Pasture Chronosequences, Para, Brazil: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of soil physical property and chemical measurements of samples collected from two pasture chronosequences (years since conversion...

  11. Compostos orgânicos hidrossolúveis de resíduos vegetais e seus efeitos nos atributos químicos do solo Water-soluble organic compounds in plant residue and the effects on soil chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cátia Diehl

    2008-12-01

    characteristics of a dark Red Latosol (Typic Haplortox, on soil samples in columns. The treatments consisted of: distilled water, lime incorporated in the 0-5 cm soil layer, lime and percolation of the following plant extracts: oilseed radish, black oat and wheat, maize and soybean straw. The following properties were determined in the plant extracts: the water-soluble organic ligand (WSOL by potentiometry with selective Cu2+ electrode; titration of organic anions (TOA and organic anions (OA by base addition. The OA and TOA concentrations varied from 7.0 to 32.0 mmol L-1 and WSOL from 0.60 to 2.23 mmol L-1. All plant extracts increased pH and exchangeable Ca, Mg and K and decreased the potential acidity and exchangeable Al down to a soil depth of 15 cm, while the effect of lime without plant extract was only observed down to 10 cm. The soluble organic compound concentrations of the plant residues were correlated with pH, Al3+, H+Al and soil base saturation in the 0-20 cm layer, confirming the role of these organic compounds to improve the chemical characteristics of an acid soil as well as the action of the surface-applied lime.

  12. Enhancing the engineering properties of expansive soil using bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silmi Surjandari, Niken; Djarwanti, Noegroho; Umri Ukoi, Nafisah

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with stabilization of expansive soil on a laboratory experimental basis. The aim of the research was to evaluate the enhancement of the engineering properties of expansive soil using bagasse ash. The soil is treated with bagasse ash by weight (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) based on dry mass. The performance of bagasse ash stabilized soil was evaluated using physical and strength performance tests, namely the plasticity index, standard Proctor compaction, and percentage swelling. An X-ray diffraction (XRD) test was conducted to evaluate the clay mineral, whereas an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was to the chemical composition of bagasse ash. From the results, it was observed that the basic tests carried out proved some soil properties after the addition of bagasse ash. Furthermore, the plasticity index decreased from 53.18 to 47.70%. The maximum dry density of the specimen increased from 1.13 to 1.24 gr/cm3. The percentage swelling decreased from 5.48 to 3.29%. The outcomes of these tests demonstrate that stabilization of expansive soils using bagasse ash can improve the strength.

  13. Magnetic Properties of Different-Aged Chernozemic Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattakhova, Leysan; Shinkarev, Alexandr; Kosareva, Lina; Nourgaliev, Danis; Shinkarev, Aleksey; Kondrashina, Yuliya

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the magnetic properties and degree of mineral weathering in profiles of different-aged chernozemic soils derived from a uniform parent material. In this work, layer samples of virgin leached chernozem and chernozemic soils formed on the mound of archaeological earthy monument were used. The characterization of the magnetic properties was carried out on the data of the magnetometry and differential thermomagnetic analysis. The evaluation of the weathering degree was carried out on a loss on ignition, cation exchange capacity and X-ray phase analysis on the data of the original soil samples and samples of the heavy fraction of minerals. It was found that the magnetic susceptibility enhancement in humus profiles of newly formed chernozemic soils lagged significantly behind the organic matter content enhancement. This phenomenon is associated with differences in kinetic parameters of humus formation and structural and compositional transformation of the parent material. It is not enough time of 800-900 years to form a relatively "mature" magnetic profile. These findings are well consistent with the chemical kinetic model (Boyle et al., 2010) linking the formation of the soils magnetic susceptibility with the weathering of primary Fe silicate minerals. Different-aged chernozemic soils are at the first stage of formation of a magnetic profile when it is occur an active production of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals from Fe2+ released by primary minerals.

  14. Environmental Correlation and Spatial Autocorrelation of Soil Properties in Keller Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Geraldo de Lima Moraes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The pattern of variation in soil and landform properties in relation to environmental covariates are closely related to soil type distribution. The aim of this study was to apply digital soil mapping techniques to analysis of the pattern of soil property variation in relation to environmental covariates under periglacial conditions at Keller Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica. We considered the hypothesis that covariates normally used for environmental correlation elsewhere can be adequately employed in periglacial areas in Maritime Antarctica. For that purpose, 138 soil samples from 47 soil sites were collected for analysis of soil chemical and physical properties. We tested the correlation between soil properties (clay, potassium, sand, organic carbon, and pH and environmental covariates. The environmental covariates selected were correlated with soil properties according to the terrain attributes of the digital elevation model (DEM. The models evaluated were linear regression, ordinary kriging, and regression kriging. The best performance was obtained using normalized height as a covariate, with an R2 of 0.59 for sand. In contrast, the lowest R2 of 0.15 was obtained for organic carbon, also using the regression kriging method. Overall, results indicate that, despite the predominant periglacial conditions, the environmental covariates normally used for digital terrain mapping of soil properties worldwide can be successfully employed for understanding the main variations in soil properties and soil-forming factors in this region.

  15. Chemical changes in the soil and production of oat fertilized with treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fortes Neto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project was to ensure the quality and impact of the application of treated sewage wastewater on the chemical properties of Dystrophic Yellow Argisol and on biomass and grain production of white oat (Avena sativa, L. After the wastewater was chemically characterized, it was applied to the soil in concentrations of 0, 30, 60 and 90 m3 ha-1 in plots of 200 m2. Doses of water were compared with mineral fertilizer doses recommended for oat. The experimental design was a split plot with four randomized blocks. The wastewater had chemical qualities useful for grain cultivation. The values of calcium, CTC, V, pH increased and acidity potential decreased in the soil after the wastewater was applied. Doses of the wastewater provided increments in biomass production and oat grains similar to that obtained with chemical fertilizers. We conclude that wastewater can be used to correct soil acidity and replace or supplement chemical fertilizers.

  16. Soil physical properties on Venezuelan steeplands: Applications to soil conservation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to support decision making for soil conservation on Venezuelan steeplands. The general approach is based on the evaluation of two important land qualities: soil productivity and soil erosion risk, both closely related to soil physical properties. Soil productivity can be estimated from soil characteristics such as soil air-water relationships, soil impedances and soil fertility. On the other hand, soil erosion risk depends basically on soil hydrologic properties, rainfall aggressiveness and terrain slope. Two indexes are obtained from soil and land characteristics: soil productivity index (PI) and erosion risk index (ERI), each one evaluates the respective land quality. Subsequently, a matrix with these two qualities shows different land classes as well as soil conservation priorities, conservation requirements and proposed land uses. The paper shows also some applications of the soil productivity index as an approach to evaluate soil loss tolerance for soil conservation programs on tropical steeplands. (author)

  17. Effect of Metakaolin on the geotechnical properties of Expansive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud D. Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Expansive soil spreads in Iraq and some countries of the world. But there are many problems can be occurred to the structures that built on, so we must study the characteristics of these soils due to the problems that may be caused to these structures which built on these kinds of soil and then study the methods of treatment. The present study focuses on improving the geotechnical properties of expansive soils by treating it Metakaolin(M. Metakaolin (M has never been used before as an improvement material for stabilizing the expansive soil . Metakaolin is a pozzolanic material. It’s obtained by calcination of kaolinite clay at temperatures from 700°C to 800°C. Kaolin chemical composition is basically aluminous silicates hydrates associated with Mn, Fe, Ca, K, Na. Its crystal has a lattice structure of tetrahedral and octahedral layers with interplanar distance of 7.2 Å. The soil used in the present study can be classified according to the Unified Soil Classification System as clay with high plasticity (CH .

  18. Propriedades químicas e fauna do solo influenciadas pela calagem em sistema semeadura direta Effects of liming on chemical properties and soil fauna in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Cesar Almeida

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da calagem e sua influência sobre atributos químicos e de fauna do solo em um Cambissolo sob sistema de semeadura direta. O experimento vem sendo conduzido em Lages, SC, desde maio de 2001. Os tratamentos foram: semeadura direta com calcário incorporado na dose de 1 SMP (SD-inc e superficial nas doses de 1/5 SMP (SD-1/5sup e 1/2 SMP (SD-1/2sup. Como padrão, utilizou-se solo sem cultivo e sem aplicação de calcário, e uma área de pastagem perene com calcário incorporado na dose de 1 SMP (PI-inc. O solo foi amostrado nas camadas de 0-5; 5-10; 10-20cm para análise de Ca2+, Mg+2, Al3+, pH em água e em CaCl2; e de 0-10cm para carbono orgânico total e fauna do solo. A aplicação superficial de calcário no sistema de semeadura direta na maior dose (1/2 SMP elevou os teores de Ca2+ até 10cm de profundidade e de Mg+2 até a camada de 10 a 20cm. A abundância e a diversidade da fauna edáfica foram maiores nas áreas sob semeadura direta e pastagem, em relação ao solo sem cultivo, mostrando sensibilidade às alterações advindas do manejo do solo, mas sem correlação direta com as modificações químicas decorrentes da calagem.This research was aimed at evaluating the effect of liming and its influence on chemistry and fauna properties of a Cambisol under no-tillage system. The experiment has been carried out in Lages, SC, southern Brazil, since May 2001. The treatments were: no-tillage with incorporated lime in the rate of 1 SMP (NT-inc; superficial liming in the rate of 1/5 SMP (NT-1/5sup, and 1/2 SMP (NT-1/2sup. As control treatment, bare soil without cultivation without lime application (BS, and plots with perennial pasture with incorporate lime in the rate of 1 SMP (Pp-inc were used. Soil samples were collected in the layers of 0-5; 5-10; 10-20cm depth for analysis of Ca2+, Mg+2, Al3+, water and CaCl2 pH. Total organic carbon and soil fauna were analysed in the layer 0-10cm. The superficial

  19. X-ray Microspectroscopy and Chemical Reactions in Soil Microsites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D Hesterberg; M Duff; J Dixon; M Vepraskas

    2011-12-31

    Soils provide long-term storage of environmental contaminants, which helps to protect water and air quality and diminishes negative impacts of contaminants on human and ecosystem health. Characterizing solid-phase chemical species in highly complex matrices is essential for developing principles that can be broadly applied to the wide range of notoriously heterogeneous soils occurring at the earth's surface. In the context of historical developments in soil analytical techniques, we describe applications of bulk-sample and spatially resolved synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for characterizing chemical species of contaminants in soils, and for determining the uniqueness of trace-element reactivity in different soil microsites. Spatially resolved X-ray techniques provide opportunities for following chemical changes within soil microsites that serve as highly localized chemical micro- (or nano-)reactors of unique composition. An example of this microreactor concept is shown for micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of metal sulfide oxidation in a contaminated soil. One research challenge is to use information and principles developed from microscale soil chemistry for predicting macroscale and field-scale behavior of soil contaminants.

  20. The behaviour of EDDHA isomers in soils as influenced by soil properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Schenkeveld, W.D.C.; Reichwein, A.M.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    FeEDDHA products are applied to correct iron chlorosis in plants and consist of a mixture of EDDHA isomers chelated to iron. In this study such mixtures have been divided into four (groups of) isomers: racemic o,o-EDDHA, meso o,o-EDDHA, o,p-EDDHA and rest-EDDHA. The physical and chemical properties of these isomers differ and hence does their ability to deliver Fe to plants. To come to a soil-specific iron fertilization recommendation, the behaviour of the EDDHA isomers in the soil needs to b...

  1. Chemical characterization of local and stratospheric plutonium in Ohio soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical nature of plutonium derived from stratospheric fallout and industrial sources was studied in three agricultural soils. The majority of the soil plutonium was associated with a reductant-soluble, hydrous oxide phase that, under most conditions of terrestrial ecosystems, remains essentially immobile. The proportion of plutonium associated with organic matter (0.1N NaOH-extractable) varied among soils, and increased with decreasing particle size in the same soil. In a soil containing 238 Pu from a local fabrication facility and 239 , 240 Pu from stratospheric fallout, isotopic ratios between the NaOH-extractable and residual phases were essentially constant, indicating that, in these soils, plutonium from both sources behaves similarly. The distribution of soil plutonium with particle size appears to be most directly related to the mass of the soil particle

  2. Validation of predicted exponential concentration profiles of chemicals in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollander, Anne; Baijens, Iris; Ragas, Ad; Huijbregts, Mark; Meent, Dik van de

    2007-01-01

    Multimedia mass balance models assume well-mixed homogeneous compartments. Particularly for soils, this does not correspond to reality, which results in potentially large uncertainties in estimates of transport fluxes from soils. A theoretically expected exponential decrease model of chemical concentrations with depth has been proposed, but hardly tested against empirical data. In this paper, we explored the correspondence between theoretically predicted soil concentration profiles and 84 field measured profiles. In most cases, chemical concentrations in soils appear to decline exponentially with depth, and values for the chemical specific soil penetration depth (d p ) are predicted within one order of magnitude. Over all, the reliability of multimedia models will improve when they account for depth-dependent soil concentrations, so we recommend to take into account the described theoretical exponential decrease model of chemical concentrations with depth in chemical fate studies. In this model the d p -values should estimated be either based on local conditions or on a fixed d p -value, which we recommend to be 10 cm for chemicals with a log K ow > 3. - Multimedia mass model predictions will improve when taking into account depth dependent soil concentrations

  3. GEMAS: Unmixing magnetic properties of European agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens; Kuzina, Dilyara; Kosareva, Lina; Fattakhova, Leysan; Nurgaliev, Danis

    2016-04-01

    High resolution magnetic measurements provide new methods for world-wide characterization and monitoring of agricultural soil which is essential for quantifying geologic and human impact on the critical zone environment and consequences of climatic change, for planning economic and ecological land use, and for forensic applications. Hysteresis measurements of all Ap samples from the GEMAS survey yield a comprehensive overview of mineral magnetic properties in European agricultural soil on a continental scale. Low (460 Hz), and high frequency (4600 Hz) magnetic susceptibility k were measured using a Bartington MS2B sensor. Hysteresis properties were determined by a J-coercivity spectrometer, built at the paleomagnetic laboratory of Kazan University, providing for each sample a modified hysteresis loop, backfield curve, acquisition curve of isothermal remanent magnetization, and a viscous IRM decay spectrum. Each measurement set is obtained in a single run from zero field up to 1.5 T and back to -1.5 T. The resulting data are used to create the first continental-scale maps of magnetic soil parameters. Because the GEMAS geochemical atlas contains a comprehensive set of geochemical data for the same soil samples, the new data can be used to map magnetic parameters in relation to chemical and geological parameters. The data set also provides a unique opportunity to analyze the magnetic mineral fraction of the soil samples by unmixing their IRM acquisition curves. The endmember coefficients are interpreted by linear inversion for other magnetic, physical and chemical properties which results in an unprecedented and detailed view of the mineral magnetic composition of European agricultural soils.

  4. Results of ten years study of Chernobyl NPP release fallout properties and behaviour in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Yu.; Kashparov, V.A.; Levchuk, S.; Protsak, V.; Zvaritch, S.; Khomutinin, Yu.; Oreshich, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of territories of Ukrainian and Byelorussian Polesye as a result of ChNPP accidental release is characterized by high level of un-homogenity of fallout properties (physico-chemical properties, radionuclide composition etc.), density of the territory contamination by long-lived radionuclides. On the other hand, the soil-plant cover of contaminated territory is presented by large set of soils, characterized by contrast physico-chemical and water-physical properties. Peculiarities of the behavior of different radionuclides, represented initially by various components of radioactive fallout, in soils, as a first link of migration chains are considered

  5. Methods of soil resampling to monitor changes in the chemical concentrations of forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Ivan J. Fernandez; Paul W. Hazlett; Scott W. Bailey; Donald S. Ross; Thomas R. Villars; Angelica Quintana; Rock Ouimet; Michael R. McHale; Chris E. Johnson; Russell D. Briggs; Robert A. Colter; Jason Siemion; Olivia L. Bartlett; Olga Vargas; Michael R. Antidormi; Mary M. Koppers

    2016-01-01

    Recent soils research has shown that important chemical soil characteristics can change in less than a decade, often the result of broad environmental changes. Repeated sampling to monitor these changes in forest soils is a relatively new practice that is not well documented in the literature and has only recently been broadly embraced by the scientific community. The...

  6. Soil organic carbon dynamics jointly controlled by climate, carbon inputs, soil properties and soil carbon fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongkui; Feng, Wenting; Luo, Yiqi; Baldock, Jeff; Wang, Enli

    2017-10-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics are regulated by the complex interplay of climatic, edaphic and biotic conditions. However, the interrelation of SOC and these drivers and their potential connection networks are rarely assessed quantitatively. Using observations of SOC dynamics with detailed soil properties from 90 field trials at 28 sites under different agroecosystems across the Australian cropping regions, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of climate, soil properties, carbon (C) inputs and soil C pools (a total of 17 variables) on SOC change rate (r C , Mg C ha -1  yr -1 ). Among these variables, we found that the most influential variables on r C were the average C input amount and annual precipitation, and the total SOC stock at the beginning of the trials. Overall, C inputs (including C input amount and pasture frequency in the crop rotation system) accounted for 27% of the relative influence on r C , followed by climate 25% (including precipitation and temperature), soil C pools 24% (including pool size and composition) and soil properties (such as cation exchange capacity, clay content, bulk density) 24%. Path analysis identified a network of intercorrelations of climate, soil properties, C inputs and soil C pools in determining r C . The direct correlation of r C with climate was significantly weakened if removing the effects of soil properties and C pools, and vice versa. These results reveal the relative importance of climate, soil properties, C inputs and C pools and their complex interconnections in regulating SOC dynamics. Ignorance of the impact of changes in soil properties, C pool composition and C input (quantity and quality) on SOC dynamics is likely one of the main sources of uncertainty in SOC predictions from the process-based SOC models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Micronutrient Availability in Relation to Selected Soil Properties and landscape Position in Calcareous Soils of Golpayegan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Fathi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Variety of soil reactions govern the distribution of metal micronutrients that includes complexation with organic and inorganic ligands, ion exchange, adsorption and desorption processes, precipitation and dissolution of solids and acid-based equilibria. The relative importance of these reactions depends on many factors such as soil physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties and the nature of metal ions. Environmental factors such as climate, physiographic position, and soil development may affect variability of some soil properties and thereby nutrient availability. The present research was conducted to find relationships between Iron, manganese, zinc, and copper availability and some major soil properties, physiographic condition and soil development. Materials and Methods: Golpayegan region is located in northwest of Isfahan province in central Iran. The mean elevation of the studied area is 1790 above sea level. Annual precipitation was about 244mm and mean monthly temperature ranges from -6 in January to 34°C in August. The soils were developed on different physiographic conditions including piedmont plains, alluvial-fan, plateaus, and flood plains belonging to Entisols and Aridisols. Soil samples (0–60 cm were collected from 98 grid points with 2000m distance in the agricultural area of Golpayegan. Particle size distribution, calcium carbonate, organic carbon, available potassium and phosphorus of the soils were measured by SWRI standard methods. Available Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe were determined by addition of 10 g soil to 20mL 0.005M diethylentriaminepentacetic‏. The solutions were shaken for 2 h at 25°C, centrifuged, filtered, and Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu concentrations were measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results Discussion: Studied soils were developed on calcareous material and about 60% of samples have more than 20% of calcium carbonate. Available Fe ranged from 1.4 to 6.5 mg kg-1 (mean 15.8 mg kg-1

  8. Selection of reference soils for chemicals testing in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, G.; Hertling, T.; Schmotz, W.; Vetter, L.; Fraenzle, M.; Geissler, S.; Knabe, I.; Maass, R.; Struckmeyer, A.; Heinrich, U.

    1991-01-01

    Based on an multivariate statistical evaluation of binary and metric data relating to the soil cover of the European Community five regionally representative reference soils (EURO-Soils) have been identified for chemicals testing in the EC. The soil material sampled at representative localities in Italy, Greece, Great Britain, France and Germany was treated and prepared according to OECD Test Guideline 106 and analysed in detail. The homogenised specimens were subject to an EC-wide ring test to evaluate the feasibility of the modified guideline and to validate the physical-chemical amenability of the reference soils for sorption tests. The results proved the validity of the soils selected for assessing the potential behaviour of new chemicals in soil on the basis of a comparative evaluation of the individual test results obtained. In the light of this parametric assessment potential test soils were subsequently identified in the individual EC Member States which correspond as far as possible to the above reference soils in terms of both taxonomy and sorption-relevant properties. (orig.). 164 refs., 30 tabs., 24 figs [de

  9. Chemical properties of peat used in balneology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajdak, L.; Hładoń, T.

    2009-04-01

    The physiological activity of peats is observed in human peat-bath therapy and in the promotion of growth in some plants. Balneological peat as an ecologically clean and natural substance is perceived as being more 'human friendly' than synthetic compounds. Poland has a long tradition of using balneological peat for therapeutic purposes. Balneological peat reveals a physical effect by altering temperature and biochemical effects through biologically active substances. It is mainly used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases that are quite common in Poland. Peat represents natural product. Physico-chemical properties of peat in particular surface-active, sorption and ion exchanges, defining their biological function, depend mainly on the chemical composition and molecular structure of humic substances representing the major constituent of organic soil (peat). The carbon of organic matter of peats is composed of 10 to 20% carbohydrates, primarily of microbial origin; 20% nitrogen-containing constituents, such as amino acids and amino sugars; 10 to 20% aliphatic fatty acids, alkanes, etc.; with the rest of carbon being aromatic. For balneology peat should be highly decomposed (preferably H8), natural and clean. The content of humic acids should exceed 20% of dry weight, ash content will be less than 15 15% of dry weight, sulphur content less than 0.3% of dry weight and the amount of water more than 85%. It will not contain harmful bacteria and heavy metals. Humic substances (HS) of peat are known to be macromolecular polydisperse biphyllic systems including both hydrophobic domains (saturated hydrocarbon chains, aromatic structural units) and hydrophilic functional groups, i. e having amphiphilic character. Amphiphilic properties of FA are responsible for their solubility, viscosity, conformation, surfactant-like character and a variety of physicochemical properties of considerable biologically practical significance. The chemical composition of peats depends

  10. Evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of agricultural soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of agricultural soils irrigated by the waters of the hydrolic basin of Sebou River and their influences on the transfer of trace elements into sugar crops (the case of sugar cane)

  11. Chemical Degradation of PCBs in Alaskan Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    concentrations in a contaminated feed soil from a Superfund site from 28.2 ppm to 0.043 ppm. This process sprays the contaminated soils with diesel ...modified Fenton’s chemistry. In Proceedings of Battelle Bioremediation Conference. Payne, J., F. Boelsing, A. Habekost, G. Hirschfeld, and V. Birke

  12. Chemical Compositions of Soils in Parts of Edo State, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Chemical Compositions of Soils in Parts of Edo State, Southwest Nigeria and their ... the soil in agriculture and engineering (Imasuen et al. 1989b). Clay mineral ..... Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, The. University of Western ...

  13. Litter decay controlled by temperature, not soil properties, affecting future soil carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorich, Edward G; Janzen, Henry; Ellert, Benjamin H; Helgason, Bobbi L; Qian, Budong; Zebarth, Bernie J; Angers, Denis A; Beyaert, Ronald P; Drury, Craig F; Duguid, Scott D; May, William E; McConkey, Brian G; Dyck, Miles F

    2017-04-01

    Widespread global changes, including rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, climate warming and loss of biodiversity, are predicted for this century; all of these will affect terrestrial ecosystem processes like plant litter decomposition. Conversely, increased plant litter decomposition can have potential carbon-cycle feedbacks on atmospheric CO 2 levels, climate warming and biodiversity. But predicting litter decomposition is difficult because of many interacting factors related to the chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, as well as to climate and agricultural management practices. We applied 13 C-labelled plant litter to soil at ten sites spanning a 3500-km transect across the agricultural regions of Canada and measured its decomposition over five years. Despite large differences in soil type and climatic conditions, we found that the kinetics of litter decomposition were similar once the effect of temperature had been removed, indicating no measurable effect of soil properties. A two-pool exponential decay model expressing undecomposed carbon simply as a function of thermal time accurately described kinetics of decomposition. (R 2  = 0.94; RMSE = 0.0508). Soil properties such as texture, cation exchange capacity, pH and moisture, although very different among sites, had minimal discernible influence on decomposition kinetics. Using this kinetic model under different climate change scenarios, we projected that the time required to decompose 50% of the litter (i.e. the labile fractions) would be reduced by 1-4 months, whereas time required to decompose 90% of the litter (including recalcitrant fractions) would be reduced by 1 year in cooler sites to as much as 2 years in warmer sites. These findings confirm quantitatively the sensitivity of litter decomposition to temperature increases and demonstrate how climate change may constrain future soil carbon storage, an effect apparently not influenced by soil properties. © 2016 Her Majesty

  14. Estimation of soil-soil solution distribution coefficient of radiostrontium using soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Nao K; Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko

    2009-02-01

    We propose a new approach for estimation of soil-soil solution distribution coefficient (K(d)) of radiostrontium using some selected soil properties. We used 142 Japanese agricultural soil samples (35 Andosol, 25 Cambisol, 77 Fluvisol, and 5 others) for which Sr-K(d) values had been determined by a batch sorption test and listed in our database. Spearman's rank correlation test was carried out to investigate correlations between Sr-K(d) values and soil properties. Electrical conductivity and water soluble Ca had good correlations with Sr-K(d) values for all soil groups. Then, we found a high correlation between the ratio of exchangeable Ca to Ca concentration in water soluble fraction and Sr-K(d) values with correlation coefficient R=0.72. This pointed us toward a relatively easy way to estimate Sr-K(d) values.

  15. Review and evaluation of the effects of xenobiotic chemicals on microorganisms in soil. [139 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.J.; Van Voris, P.

    1988-02-01

    The primary objective was to review and evaluate the relevance and quality of existing xenobiotic data bases and test methods for evaluating direct and indirect effects (both adverse and beneficial) of xenobiotics on the soil microbial community; direct and indirect effects of the soil microbial community on xenobiotics; and adequacy of test methods used to evaluate these effects and interactions. Xenobiotic chemicals are defined here as those compounds, both organic and inorganic, produced by man and introduced into the environment at concentrations that cause undesirable effects. Because soil serves as the main repository for many of these chemicals, it therefore has a major role in determining their ultimate fate. Once released, the distribution of xenobiotics between environmental compartments depends on the chemodynamic properties of the compounds, the physicochemical properties of the soils, and the transfer between soil-water and soil-air interfaces and across biological membranes. Abiotic and biotic processes can transform the chemical compound, thus altering its chemical state and, subsequently, its toxicity and reactivity. Ideally, the conversion is to carbon dioxide, water, and mineral elements, or at least, to some harmless substance. However, intermediate transformation products, which can become toxic pollutants in their own right, can sometimes be formed. 139 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity and air permeability from soil physical properties using state-space analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe; Møldrup, Per; Nielsen, Don

    2003-01-01

    and gaseous chemicals in the vadose zone. In this study, three modeling approaches were used to identify the dependence of saturated hydraulic conductivity (K-S) and air permeability at -100 cm H2O soil-water potential (k(a100)) on soil physical properties in undisturbed soil: (i) Multiple regression, (ii......) ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) modeling, and (iii) State-space modeling. In addition to actual soil property values, ARIMA and state-space models account for effects of spatial correlation in soil properties. Measured data along two 70-m-long transects at a 20-year old constructed......Estimates of soil hydraulic conductivity (K) and air permeability (k(a)) at given soil-water potentials are often used as reference points in constitutive models for K and k(a) as functions of moisture content and are, therefore, a prerequisite for predicting migration of water, air, and dissolved...

  17. Soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, Jr., John W.

    1991-01-01

    A real time soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system includes a plurality of ground-engaging tools in association with individual soil sensors which measure soil chemical levels. The system includes the addition of a solvent which rapidly saturates the soil/tool interface to form a conductive solution of chemicals leached from the soil. A multivalent electrode, positioned within a multivalent frame of the ground-engaging tool, applies a voltage or impresses a current between the electrode and the tool frame. A real-time soil chemical sensor and controller senses the electrochemical reaction resulting from the application of the voltage or current to the leachate, measures it by resistivity methods, and compares it against pre-set resistivity levels for substances leached by the solvent. Still greater precision is obtained by calibrating for the secondary current impressed through solvent-less soil. The appropriate concentration is then found and the servo-controlled delivery system applies the appropriate amount of fertilizer or agricultural chemicals substantially in the location from which the soil measurement was taken.

  18. Anaerobic N mineralization in paddy soils in relation to inundation management, physicochemical soil fractions, mineralogy and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleutel, Steven; Kader, Mohammed Abdul; Ara Begum, Shamim; De Neve, Stefaan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic N mineralization measured from (saturated) repacked soil cores from 25 paddy fields in Bangladesh and was previously found to negatively related to soil N content on a relative basis. This suggests that other factors like soil organic matter (SOM) quality or abiotic factors instead control the anaerobic N mineralization process. We therefore assessed different physical and chemical fractions of SOM, management factors and various soil properties as predictors for the net anaerobic N mineralization. 1° First, we assessed routinely analyzed soil parameters (soil N and soil organic carbon, texture, pH, oxalate- and pyrophosphate-extractable Fe, Al, and Mn, fixed-NH4 content). We found no significant influences of neither soil mineralogy nor the annual length of inundation on soil N mineralization. The anaerobic N mineralization correlated positively with Na-pyrophosphate-extractable Fe and negatively with pH (both at Presistant OM fraction, followed by extraction of mineral bound OM with 10%HF thereby isolating the HF-resistant OM. None of the physicochemical SOM fractions were found useful predictors anaerobic N mineralization. The linkage between these chemical soil N fractions and N supplying processes actually occurring in the soil thus appears to be weak. Regardless, we hypothesize that variation in strength of N-mineral and N-OM linkages is likely to explain variation in bio-availability of organic N and proneness to mineralization. Yet, in order to separate kinetically different soil N fractions we then postulated that an alternative approach would be required, which instead isolates soil N fractions on the basis of bonding strength. In this respect bonding strength should be seen as opposite of proneness to dissolution of released N into water, the habitat of soil microorganisms mediating soil N mineralization. We hypothesize that soil N extracted by water at increasing temperatures would reflect such N fractions with increasing bonding strength, in

  19. Alterações químicas do solo e resposta do milho à calagem e aplicação de gesso Changes in soil chemical properties and corn response to lime and gypsum applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Caires

    2004-02-01

    á State, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the changes in the chemical soil properties and corn response to lime and gypsum applications at the installation of a no-tillage system. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications, in a split-plot experiment. The main plots received dolomitic limestone treatments (no lime; 4.5 t ha-1 of lime applied on the surface supplying the total demand; 1/3 of the total demand applied on the surface during three years; total demand incorporated into the soil and the subplots received gypsum rates (0, 3, 6, and 9 t ha-1. The treatments with lime were applied in July 1998 and the rates of gypsum in October 1998. Corn was evaluated in the agricultural year of 2001/02. The applied surface liming, at full or split rates, provided a more accentuated soil acidity correction in the superficial layer (0-0.05 m, and there was a stronger reaction in the 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m layers, when lime was incorporated into the soil. Gypsum improved the subsoil, increasing the concentrations of Ca and S-SO4(2-, raised N, K, and Ca concentrations in the corn leaves, while it reduced the Mg concentration in soil and corn leaves. Liming and gypsum treatments did not affect the corn root growth. Liming (whether surface applied, at full or split rates, or incorporated into the soil and gypsum increased the corn yield, due to an increase in the Ca soil saturation of the superficial layers. The application of gypsum associated to liming was an effective strategy to maximize grain yields.

  20. Toxic Chemicals in the Soil Environment. Volume 2. Interactions of Some Toxic Chemicals/Chemical Warfare Agents and Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    K., S. Barik , and N. Sethunathan. 1981. Stability of commercial formulations of fenitrothion, methyl parathion, and parathion in anaero- bic soils. J ...34 D(Cl - C2 )L where; J - rate of flow or flWx, or the 4mount of solute (chemical) diffuisiguuit ti= across a unit crossý-ectional area, D difffuoion...surfaces (coatentrations C, aud C2) varies vith the concentration gradient, tlus’: 3 - -D(dC/dx) Where: J * the flux in grams or moles in cm%1s- acroeas a

  1. Effects of Fuel Oil on the Geotechnical Properties of Clay Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Obaid Karkush

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study highlights the effects of medium fuel oil (MFO on the chemical, physical and mechanical properties of clay soil samples (disturbed and undisturbed obtained from the site of the electrical power plant in the campus of the University of Baghdad at Al-Jadriah district in Baghdad/Iraq. The soil sample was classified according to the unified soil classification system (USCS as CL and described as lean clay of low plasticity. The medium fuel oil is an industrial wastewater disposed as a byproduct from the fuel used in the electricity power plant. The soil samples are artificially contaminated with two percentages of medium fuel oil, 10 and 20 % related to the dry weight of soil. The soil samples were mixed with the contaminant (MFO by hand and then left for 4 days for homogeneity. A series of laboratory tests are conducted on both natural and artificially contaminated soil samples to measure the effects of medium fuel oil on the chemical, physical and mechanical properties of soil samples. The results of tests showed that the medium fuel oil has significant impacts on some properties of soil and slight effects on the others. Increasing the percentage of contaminant causes a slight decrease in the liquid limit and particle size distribution; on the other hand, it causes a considerable increase in the consolidation parameters and decrease in shear strength parameters. Also, there is a slight change in the chemical composition of soil samples.

  2. Termite Mounds Effects on Soil Properties in the Atlantic Forest Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana de Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Termites have peculiar activities in the soil, inducing significant changes in the soil properties. The objective of this study was to assess physical and chemical properties and soil organic matter to evaluate the effect of termite activity and termite mounds on the soil. Two toposequences were selected and divided in slope thirds (shoulder, backslope, and footslope. In each of these, four termite mounds were selected. Samples were taken from the soils and termite mounds (top, center, and base along with a variety of termites for identification. Analyses were carried out for physical, soil texture, and chemical properties, as well as for particle size and chemical fractioning of organic matter. The species Cornitermes cumulans was found in all mounds. Soil with termite mound presented higher clay content, acidity, and Al3+ content. Phosphorus contents differed considerably between mound material and soil. Sum of bases and cation exchange capacity of the soil were higher in mounds, and differed within the mounds, according to the sampling height. Total organic carbon and particulate carbon content were highest at the mound base. A marked disparity was observed between the contents of humic substances in the mounds and surrounding soil, with humin fraction differences in distinct topographic position. The high nutrient contents detected in the termite mounds confirm the importance of termites in concentrating nutrients.

  3. Effects of environmental factors and soil properties on topographic variations of soil respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tamai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration rates were measured along different parts of a slope in (a an evergreen forest with common brown forest soil and (b a deciduous forest with immature soil. The effects of soil temperature, soil moisture and soil properties were estimated individually, and the magnitudes of these effects in the deciduous and evergreen forests were compared. In the evergreen forest with common brown forest soil, soil properties had the greatest effect on soil respiration rates, followed by soil moisture and soil temperature. These results may be explained by the fact that different soil properties matured within different environments. It can be argued that the low soil respiration rates in the low parts of the slope in the evergreen forest resulted from soil properties and not from wet soil conditions. In the deciduous forest, soil respiration rates were more strongly affected by soil moisture and soil temperature than by soil properties. These effects were likely due to the immaturity of the forest soil.

  4. Properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, M F; Khrapach, I; Barnes, M D; Russo, S

    2013-01-01

    The vast and yet largely unexplored family of graphene materials has great potential for future electronic devices with novel functionalities. The ability to engineer the electrical and optical properties in graphene by chemically functionalizing it with a molecule or adatom is widening considerably the potential applications targeted by graphene. Indeed, functionalized graphene has been found to be the best known transparent conductor or a wide gap semiconductor. At the same time, understanding the mechanisms driving the functionalization of graphene with hydrogen is proving to be of fundamental interest for energy storage devices. Here we discuss recent advances on the properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene. (topical review)

  5. The bioavailability of chemicals in soil for earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanno, R.; Wells, J.; Conder, Jason M.; Bradham, K.; Basta, N.

    2004-01-01

    The bioavailability of chemicals to earthworms can be modified dramatically by soil physical/chemical characteristics, yet expressing exposure as total chemical concentrations does not address this problem. In order to understand the effects of modifying factors on bioavailability, one must measure and express chemical bioavailability to earthworms in a consistent, logical manner. This can be accomplished by direct biological measures of bioavailability (e.g., bioaccumulation, critical body residues), indirect biological measures of bioavailability (e.g., biomarkers, reproduction), or indirect chemical measures of bioavailability (e.g., chemical or solid-phase extracts of soil). If indirect chemical measures of bioavailability are to be used, they must be correlated with some biological response. Bioavailability can be incorporated into ecological risk assessment during risk analysis, primarily in the estimation of exposure. However, in order to be used in the site-specific ecological risk assessment of chemicals, effects concentrations must be developed from laboratory toxicity tests based on exposure estimates utilizing techniques that measure the bioavailable fraction of chemicals in soil, not total chemical concentrations. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Millet Husk Ash Bitumen Stabilized Soil Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Abdulwahab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation into the improvement of strength and durability properties of lateritic soil blocks using Millet Husk Ash (MHA and Bitumen as additives so as to reduce its high cost and find alternative disposal method for agricultural waste. The lateritic soil samples were selected and treated with 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of MHA by weight of laterite. The lateritic soil-MHA mixture was later admixed with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 14% cut-back bitumen solution by weight of laterite. Both the natural lateritic soil, lateritic and MHA, and the blend of Soil, MHA and Bitumen were first subjected to physical and chemical analysis using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF and Scanning Electromagnetic Machine (SEM to determine their engineering properties followed by the performance test on bricks cast with varying quantities of the additives. A total of one hundred and ninety two (192 cubes were tested for moisture absorption, erodability and compressive strength tests. The result of the test showed that MHA and Bitumen acted as pozzolana in performance test on the soil blocks. Up to 30% MHA – laterite and 20% MHA admixed with 8% laterite were found to give optimum compressive strength of 10.8N/mm2 and 10.9N/mm2 for the bricks produced. The result also showed that about 50% MHA blended with 14% Bitumen solution ensured water tight bricks. Thus the use of MHA as partial replacement of cement will provide an economic use of by-product and consequently produce a cheaper soil block construction without comprising its strength.

  7. Determination of solute organic concentration in contaminated soils using a chemical-equilibrium soil column system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Jesper; Kjeldsen, Peter; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    using two soils with different content of organic carbon (f(oc) of 1.5 and 6.5%, respectively). A quadruple blind test of the ER-V system using glass beads in stead of soil showed an acceptable recovery (65-85%) of all of the 11 VOCs tested. Only for the most volatile compound (heptane, K-H similar...... to 80) an unacceptable recovery was found (9%). The contact time needed for obtaining chemical equilibrium was tested in the ER-H system by performing five test with different duration (1, 2, 4, 7 and 19 days) using the low organic carbon soil. Seven days of contact time appeared sufficient...... for determination of solute concentration in a contaminated soil were developed; (1) a chemical Equilibrium and Recirculation column test for Volatile organic chemicals (ER-V) and (2) a chemical Equilibrium and Recirculation column test for Hydrophobic organic chemicals (ER-H). The two test systems were evaluated...

  8. Electrical Conductivity and Chemical Composition of Soil Solution: Comparison of Solution Samplers in Tropical Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Lopes do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil solution samplers may have the same working principle, but they differ in relation to chemical and physical characteristics, cost and handling, and these aspects exert influence on the chemical composition of the soil solution obtained. This study was carried out to evaluate, over time, the chemical composition of solutions extracted by Suolo Acqua, with the hydrophilic membrane (HM as a standard, using soils with contrasting characteristics, and to determine the relationship between electrical conductivity (EC and concentration of ions and pH of soil solution samples. This study was carried out under laboratory conditions, using three soils samples with different clay and organic matter (OM contents. Soil solution contents of F−, Cl−, NO−3, Br−, SO42−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, were analyzed, as well as inorganic, organic, and total C contents, pH, and EC, in four successive sampling times. Soil solution chemical composition extracted by the Suolo Acqua sampler is similar to that collected by the HM, but the Suolo Acqua extracted more Na+ and soluble organic C than the HM solution. Solution EC, cation and anion concentrations, and soluble C levels are higher in the soil with greater clay and OM contents (Latossolo and Cambissolo in this case. Soil solution composition varied over time, with considerable changes in pH, EC, and nutrient concentrations, especially associated with soil OM. Thus, single and isolated sampling of the soil solution must be avoided, otherwise composition of the soil solution may not be correctly evaluated. Soil solution EC was regulated by pH, as well as the sum of cation and anion concentrations, and the C contents determined in the soil liquid phase.

  9. Spectral Assessment of Soil Properties: Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Soil Properties Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D...ERDC 6.2 GRE ARTEMIS STO-R DRTSPORE ERDC TR-17-9 August 2017 Spectral Assessment of Soil Properties Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic...Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat Stacey L. Jarvis, Karen L. Foley, Robert M. Jones, Stephen D. Newman, and Robyn A. Barbato

  10. Effects of soil properties on the uptake of pharmaceuticals into earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Laura J.; Ryan, Jim J.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals can enter the soil environment when animal slurries and sewage sludge are applied to land as a fertiliser or during irrigation with contaminated water. These pharmaceuticals may then be taken up by soil organisms possibly resulting in toxic effects and/or exposure of organisms higher up the food chain. This study investigated the influence of soil properties on the uptake and depuration of pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine and orlistat) in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The uptake and accumulation of pharmaceuticals into E. fetida changed depending on soil type. Orlistat exhibited the highest pore water based bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and displayed the largest differences between soil types with BCFs ranging between 30.5 and 115.9. For carbamazepine, diclofenac and fluoxetine BCFs ranged between 1.1 and 1.6, 7.0 and 69.6 and 14.1 and 20.4 respectively. Additional analysis demonstrated that in certain treatments the presence of these chemicals in the soil matrices changed the soil pH over time, with a statistically significant pH difference to control samples. The internal pH of E. fetida also changed as a result of incubation in pharmaceutically spiked soil, in comparison to the control earthworms. These results demonstrate that a combination of soil properties and pharmaceutical physico-chemical properties are important in terms of predicting pharmaceutical uptake in terrestrial systems and that pharmaceuticals can modify soil and internal earthworm chemistry which may hold wider implications for risk assessment. - Highlights: • Uptake of pharmaceuticals into earthworms is influenced by soil parameters. • Presence of pharmaceuticals in the terrestrial environment influences soil pH. • Uptake of pharmaceuticals by earthworms changes internal earthworm pH. - The uptake of pharmaceuticals into soil invertebrates is dependent on the complex interplay between pharmaceutical physico-chemical properties and soil

  11. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U...... and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends....... Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl...

  12. Applying soil property information for watershed assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, V.; Mayn, C.; Brown, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Forest Service uses a priority watershed scheme to guide where to direct watershed restoration work. Initial assessment was done across the nation following the watershed condition framework process. This assessment method uses soils information for a three step ranking across each 12 code hydrologic unit; however, the soil information used in the assessment may not provide adequate detail to guide work on the ground. Modern remote sensing information and terrain derivatives that model the environmental gradients hold promise of showing the influence of soil forming factors on watershed processes. These small scale data products enable the disaggregation of coarse scale soils mapping to show continuous soil property information across a watershed. When this information is coupled with the geomorphic and geologic information, watershed specialists can more aptly understand the controlling influences of drainage within watersheds and focus on where watershed restoration projects can have the most success. A case study on the application of this work shows where road restoration may be most effective.

  13. The effects of land use types and soil depth on soil properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of land use types and soil depth on soil properties of Agedit watershed, Northwest Ethiopia. ... immediate intervention to protect the remnant forests and to replenish the degraded soil properties for sustainable agricultural productivity. Keywords: cultivation, deforestation, grazing, land management, soil fertility ...

  14. Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.

    2003-03-06

    Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.

  15. Short-term effects of different organic amendments on soil chemical, biochemical and biological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Donato; Aly, Adel; Yirga Dagnachew, Ababu; Piscitelli, Lea; Dumontet, Stefano; Miano, Teodoro

    2014-05-01

    compared to control soil. Results concerning biochemical indicators revealed that phosphatase and β-glycosidase were significantly reduced, while activities of urease and FDA were improved in all amended plots in comparison to the control, regardless of amendment type. Data demonstrated the efficiency, the high sensitivity and a quick response of the biochemical indicators in assessing soil quality changes. As a conclusion, it is possible to emphasize that alternative and common soil organic amendments behave similarly in enhancing the chemical, biochemical and biological properties. The alternative soil organic amendments could, then, be candidates for substituting some commonly used one which are currently showing shortage in their supply and a lowering in their quality. Keywords: Organic agriculture, Soil quality, Enzymatic activities, Olive mill wastewater, Residues of mushroom cultivation, Coffee chaff.

  16. Chemical composition, physicochemical and functional properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of chemical composition, physicochemical and functional properties for both lupin samples indicated that lupins can be used as a raw material for various food products manufacturing and provide consistency in food processing, analogous to other food legumes. Therefore, the research findings can be used by ...

  17. Tillage system affects microbiological properties of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; Avilés, M.; Perea, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil tillage significantly affects organic carbon accumulation, microbial biomass, and subsequently enzymatic activity in surface soil. Microbial activity in soil is a crucial parameter contributing to soil functioning, and thus a basic quality factor for soil. Since enzymes remain soil after excretion by living or disintegrating cells, shifts in their activities reflect long-term fluctuations in microbial biomass. In order to study the effects of no-till on biochemical and microbiological properties in comparison to conventional tillage in a representative soil from South Spain, an experiment was conducted since 1982 on the experimental farm of the Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research of Andalusia (IFAPA) in Carmona, SW Spain (37o24'07''N, 5o35'10''W). The soil at the experimental site was a very fine, montomorillonitic, thermic Chromic Haploxerert (Soil Survey Staff, 2010). A randomized complete block design involving three replications and the following two tillage treatments was performed: (i) Conventional tillage, which involved mouldboard plowing to a depth of 50 cm in the summer (once every three years), followed by field cultivation to a depth of 15 cm before sowing; crop residues being burnt, (ii) No tillage, which involved controlling weeds before sowing by spraying glyphosate and sowing directly into the crop residue from the previous year by using a planter with double-disk openers. For all tillage treatments, the crop rotation (annual crops) consisted of winter wheat, sunflower, and legumes (pea, chickpea, or faba bean, depending on the year), which were grown under rainfed conditions. Enzymatic activities (ß-glucosidase, dehydrogenase, aryl-sulphatase, acid phosphatase, and urease), soil microbial biomass by total viable cells number by acridine orange direct count, the density of cultivable groups of bacteria and fungi by dilution plating on semi-selective media, the physiological profiles of the microbial communities by BiologR, and the

  18. Soil parameters are key factors to predict metal bioavailability to snails based on chemical extractant data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauget, B.; Gimbert, F.; Scheifler, R.; Coeurdassier, M.; Vaufleury, A. de

    2012-01-01

    Although soil characteristics modulate metal mobility and bioavailability to organisms, they are often ignored in the risk assessment of metal transfer. This paper aims to determine the ability of chemical methods to assess and predict cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) environmental bioavailability to the land snail Cantareus aspersus. Snails were exposed in the laboratory for 28 days to 17 soils from around a former smelter. The soils were selected for their range of pH, organic matter, clay content, and Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations. The influence of soil properties on environmental availability (estimated using HF-HClO 4 , EDTA, CaCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 , NaNO 3 , free ion activity and total dissolved metal concentration in soil solution) and on environmental bioavailability (modelled using accumulation kinetics) was identified. Among the seven chemical methods, only the EDTA and the total soil concentration can be used to assess Cd and Pb environmental bioavailability to snails (r² adj = 0.67 and 0.77, respectively). For Zn, none of the chemical methods were suitable. Taking into account the influence of the soil characteristics (pH and CEC) allows a better prediction of Cd and Pb environmental bioavailability (r² adj = 0.82 and 0.83, respectively). Even though alone none of the chemical methods tested could assess Zn environmental bioavailability to snails, the addition of pH, iron and aluminium oxides allowed the variation of assimilation fluxes to be predicted. A conceptual and practical method to use soil characteristics for risk assessment is proposed based on these results. We conclude that as yet there is no universal chemical method to predict metal environmental bioavailability to snails, and that the soil factors having the greatest impact depend on the metal considered. - Highlights: ► New approach to identify chemical methods able to predict metal bioavailability to snails. ► Bioavailability of cadmium, lead and zinc to snails was determined by

  19. Soil parameters are key factors to predict metal bioavailability to snails based on chemical extractant data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauget, B.; Gimbert, F., E-mail: frederic.gimbert@univ-fcomte.fr; Scheifler, R.; Coeurdassier, M.; Vaufleury, A. de

    2012-08-01

    Although soil characteristics modulate metal mobility and bioavailability to organisms, they are often ignored in the risk assessment of metal transfer. This paper aims to determine the ability of chemical methods to assess and predict cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) environmental bioavailability to the land snail Cantareus aspersus. Snails were exposed in the laboratory for 28 days to 17 soils from around a former smelter. The soils were selected for their range of pH, organic matter, clay content, and Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations. The influence of soil properties on environmental availability (estimated using HF-HClO{sub 4}, EDTA, CaCl{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, NaNO{sub 3}, free ion activity and total dissolved metal concentration in soil solution) and on environmental bioavailability (modelled using accumulation kinetics) was identified. Among the seven chemical methods, only the EDTA and the total soil concentration can be used to assess Cd and Pb environmental bioavailability to snails (r Superscript-Two {sub adj} = 0.67 and 0.77, respectively). For Zn, none of the chemical methods were suitable. Taking into account the influence of the soil characteristics (pH and CEC) allows a better prediction of Cd and Pb environmental bioavailability (r Superscript-Two {sub adj} = 0.82 and 0.83, respectively). Even though alone none of the chemical methods tested could assess Zn environmental bioavailability to snails, the addition of pH, iron and aluminium oxides allowed the variation of assimilation fluxes to be predicted. A conceptual and practical method to use soil characteristics for risk assessment is proposed based on these results. We conclude that as yet there is no universal chemical method to predict metal environmental bioavailability to snails, and that the soil factors having the greatest impact depend on the metal considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New approach to identify chemical methods able to predict metal bioavailability

  20. Estimation of Corn Yield and Soil Nitrogen via Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurement Treated with Organic, Chemical and Biological Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khalilzade

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Around the world maize is the second crop with the most cultivated areas and amount of production, so as the most important strategic crop, have a special situation in policies, decision making, resources and inputs allocation. On the other side, negative environmental consequences of intensive consumption of agrochemicals resulted to change view concerning food production. One of the most important visions is sustainable production of enough food plus attention to social, economic and environmental aspects. Many researchers stated that the first step to achieve this goal is optimization and improvement of resources use efficiencies. According to little knowledge on relation between soil electrical conductivity and yield of maize, beside the environmental concerns about nitrogen consumption and need to replace chemical nitrogen by ecological inputs, this study designed and aimed to evaluate agroecological characteristics of corn and some soil characteristics as affected by application of organic and biological fertilizers under field conditions. Materials and Methods In order to probing the possibility of grain yield and soil nitrogen estimation via measurement of soil properties, a field experiment was conducted during growing season 2010 at Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was used. Treatments included: 1- manure (30 ton ha-1, 2-vermicompost (10 ton ha-1, 3- nitroxin (containing Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp., inoculation was done according to Kennedy et al., 4- nitrogen as urea (400 kg ha-1 and 5- control (without fertilizer. Studied traits were soil pH, soil EC, soil respiration rate, N content of soil and maize yield. Soil respiration rate was measured using equation 1: CO2= (V0- V× N×22 Equation 1 In which V0 is the volume of consumed acid for control treatment titration, V is of the volume of consumed acid for sample treatment

  1. Basic Soils. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  2. Heavy metals content in degraded agricultural soils of a mountain region related to soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Pedreño, José; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Gómez, Ignacio; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Zorpas, Antonis

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture has been practiced for long time in Mediterranean regions. Intensive agriculture and irrigation have developed mainly in the valleys and coastal areas. In the mountainous areas, dry farming has been practiced for centuries. Soils have been fertilized using mainly organic amendments. Plants extracted nutrients and other elements like heavy metals presented in soils and agricultural practices modified soil properties that could favor the presence of heavy metals. In this work, it has been checked the content of heavy metals in 100 agricultural soils samples of the NorthWest area of the province of Alicante (Spain) which has been long cultivated with cereals and olive trees, and now soils are abandoned and degraded because of the low agricultural yields. European policy has the aim to improve the sustainable agriculture and recover landscapes of mountain regions. So that, it is important to check the state of the soils (Marques et al. 2007). Soils samples (arable layer) were analyzed determining: pH (1:5, w/v, water extract), equivalent calcium carbonate content, organic matter by Walkley-Black method (Nelson and Sommers 1996), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) extracted with DTPA (Lindsay and Norvell, 1978) and measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, and total content of metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb) measured in soil samples after microwave acid digestion (Moral et al. 1996), quantifying the content of metals by ICP analysis. The correlation between soil properties and metals. The results indicated that pH and carbonates are the most important properties of these soils correlated with the metals (both micronutrients and heavy metals). The available micronutrients (all of them) are close correlated with the pH and carbonates in soils. Moreover, heavy metals like Pb and Ni are related to available Mn and Zn. Keywords: pH, carbonates, heavy metals, abandoned soils. References: Lindsay,W.L., andW.A. Norvell. 1978. "Development of a DTPA Soil Test for Zinc, Iron

  3. Soil physico-chemical characterization in the different soil layers of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Khadka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil pit digging and their precise study is a decision making tool to assess history and future of soil management of a particular area. Thus, the present study was carried out to differentiate soil physico-chemical properties in the different layers of excavated pit of the National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. Eight pits were dug randomly from three blocks at a depth of 0 to 100 cm. The soil parameters were determined in-situ, and in laboratory for texture, pH, OM, N, P (as P2O5, K (as K2O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn of collected soils samples of different layers following standard analytical methods at Soil Science Division, Khumaltar. The result revealed that soil structure was sub-angular in majority of the layers, whereas bottom layer was single grained. The value and chrome of colour was increasing in order from surface to bottom in the majority pits. Similarly, the texture was sandy loam in majority layers of the pits. Moreover, four types of consistence (loose to firm were observed. Furthermore, mottles and gravels were absent in the majority layers. Likewise, soil was very to moderately acidic in observed layers of majority pits, except bottom layer of agronomy block was slightly acidic. Regarding fertility parameters (OM, macro and micronutrients, some were increasing and vice-versa, while others were intermittent also. Therefore, a single layer is not dominant for particular soil physico-chemical parameters in the farm. In overall, surface layer is more fertile than rest of the layers in all the pits.

  4. Net sulfur mineralization potential in Swedish arable soils in relation to long-term treatment history and soil properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Kristin; Nilsson, S Ingvar; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    accumulated net S mineralization (SAccMin) and a number of soil physical and chemical properties were determined. Treatments and soil differences in SAccMin, as well as correlations with soil variables, were tested with single and multivariate analyses. Long-term FYM application resulted in a significantly (p......The long-term treatment effect (since 1957-1966) of farmyard manure (FYM) application compared with crop residue incorporation was investigated in five soils (sandy loam to silty clay) with regards to the net sulfur (S) mineralization potential. An open incubation technique was used to determine...... = 0.012) higher net S mineralization potential, although total amounts of C, N, and S were not significantly (p soils within this treatment. The measured soil variables were not significantly correlated...

  5. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  6. Where do organic chemicals found in soil systems come from

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragun, J.; Mason, S.A.; Barkach, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    Today's regulatory climate encourages the private sector to assess the environmental condition of their facilities. An environmental assessment often includes the collection of soil samples. Despite the trend to obtain reams of numbers to show the presence of chemicals, many misconceptions exist among environmental scientists and engineers regarding the interpretation of those numbers. The presence of organic chemicals in soil may or may not be problematic. This depends primarily upon the source. If an industrial point source is responsible for the spill or bulk release, then remedial activity usually ensues. However, if the source is not an industrial release, then remedial activity may not be required. This paper will briefly discuss the sources, other than industrial point sources, responsible for the presence of organic chemicals in soil systems

  7. Modeling relationship between runoff and soil properties in dry-farming lands, NW Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Vaezi, A. R.; Bahrami, H. A.; Sadeghi, S. H. R.; Mahdian, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The process of transformation of rainfall into runoff over a catchment is very complex and exhibits both temporal and spatial variability. However, in a semi-arid area this variability is mainly controlled by the physical and chemical properties of the soil surface. Developing an accurate and easily-used model that can appropriately determine the runoff generation value is of strong demand. In this study a simple, an empirically based model developed to explore effect of soil properties on ru...

  8. Using 137 Cs measurements to investigate the influence of erosion and soil redistribution on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, P; Walling, D E

    2011-05-01

    Information on the interaction between soil erosion and soil properties is an important requirement for sustainable management of the soil resource. The relationship between soil properties and the soil redistribution rate, reflecting both erosion and deposition, is an important indicator of this interaction. This relationship is difficult to investigate using traditional approaches to documenting soil redistribution rates involving erosion plots and predictive models. However, the use of the fallout radionuclide (137)Cs to document medium-term soil redistribution rates offers a means of overcoming many of the limitations associated with traditional approaches. The study reported sought to demonstrate the potential for using (137)Cs measurements to assess the influence of soil erosion and redistribution on soil properties (particle size composition, total C, macronutrients N, P, K and Mg, micronutrients Mn, Mo, Fe, Cu and Zn and other elements, including Ti and As). (137)Cs measurements undertaken on 52 soil cores collected within a 7 ha cultivated field located near Colebrooke in Devon, UK were used to establish the magnitude and spatial pattern of medium-term soil redistribution rates within the field. The soil redistribution rates documented for the individual sampling points within the field ranged from an erosion rate of -12.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) to a deposition rate of 19.2 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Composite samples of surface soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately adjacent to each coring point and these samples were analysed for a range of soil properties. Individual soil properties associated with these samples showed significant variability, with CV values generally lying in the range 10-30%. The relationships between the surface soil properties and the soil redistribution rate were analysed. This analysis demonstrated statistically significant relationships between some soil properties (total phosphorus, % clay, Ti and As) and the soil redistribution rate, but for

  9. Using 137Cs measurements to investigate the influence of erosion and soil redistribution on soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, P.; Walling, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the interaction between soil erosion and soil properties is an important requirement for sustainable management of the soil resource. The relationship between soil properties and the soil redistribution rate, reflecting both erosion and deposition, is an important indicator of this interaction. This relationship is difficult to investigate using traditional approaches to documenting soil redistribution rates involving erosion plots and predictive models. However, the use of the fallout radionuclide 137 Cs to document medium-term soil redistribution rates offers a means of overcoming many of the limitations associated with traditional approaches. The study reported sought to demonstrate the potential for using 137 Cs measurements to assess the influence of soil erosion and redistribution on soil properties (particle size composition, total C, macronutrients N, P, K and Mg, micronutrients Mn, Mo, Fe, Cu and Zn and other elements, including Ti and As). 137 Cs measurements undertaken on 52 soil cores collected within a 7 ha cultivated field located near Colebrooke in Devon, UK were used to establish the magnitude and spatial pattern of medium-term soil redistribution rates within the field. The soil redistribution rates documented for the individual sampling points within the field ranged from an erosion rate of -12.9 t ha -1 yr -1 to a deposition rate of 19.2 t ha -1 yr -1 . Composite samples of surface soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately adjacent to each coring point and these samples were analysed for a range of soil properties. Individual soil properties associated with these samples showed significant variability, with CV values generally lying in the range 10-30%. The relationships between the surface soil properties and the soil redistribution rate were analysed. This analysis demonstrated statistically significant relationships between some soil properties (total phosphorus, % clay, Ti and As) and the soil redistribution rate, but for most

  10. Variabilidad temporal de algunas propiedades químicas en un suelo sometido a distintas sucesiones de cultivo Temporal variability of chemical properties in a soil with three cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozimbo Silveira Carvalho

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo ha sido realizado en la Finca Experimental "La Poveda" en Arganda del Rey (Madrid, con las siguientes coordenadas geográficas: latitud 40º19' N; longitud 3º19' W Gr; y altitud 550 m. El objetivo principal consiste en el estudio de la variabilidad temporal de algunas propiedades químicas en un suelo sometido a distintas sucesiones de cultivo. Para el estudio de la variabilidad temporal de las características químicas el muestreo se realizó en los meses de febrero y septiembre de 1993 y febrero y septiembre de 1994. La materia orgánica del sistema Prado/Veza-Avena presenta el menor coeficiente de variación con respecto a los sistemas monocultivo de Cebada y Veza-Avena/Girasol. El menor contenido de materia orgánica a lo largo del tiempo lo presenta el sistema Cebada/Cebada. Los sistemas Prado/Veza-Avena y Veza-Avena/Girasol presentaron contenidos de materia orgánica 42,86% y 40,54% superiores al del sistema Cebada/Cebada.This study has been carried out at the Experimental Station "La Poveda" in Arganda del Rey (Madrid, with the following geographical coordinates: latitude 40º19' N; longitude 3º19' W Gr; and altitude 550 m. The main objective was to study the temporal variability of chemical properties in a soil with three cultivation systems. In order to study variation with time of chemical characteristics, samples were taken in February and September 1993 and February and September 1994. Organic matter content in the prairie/vetch-oat system had the smallest variation coefficient with respect to barley and vetch-oat/sunflower systems. Along with the time the barley/barley system presented a lower organic matter content. The crop systems pasture/vetch-oat and vetch-oat/sunflower presented an organic matter content 42.86 and 40.54% higher than that presented by barley/barley system, respectively.

  11. Research Regarding The Impact Of Chemical Fertilizers Upon The Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Călugăr

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical fertilizers need to be used according to the natural fertility of the soil, to the ecological conditions and the cultivation requirements for nourishing elements. Keeping this in mind, they will not have any negative effects over the surrounding environment. But if the optimal doses are not respected the soil will be polluted. Regarding this matter a study has been made that showed that if the correct dosage is not respected this could lead to the acidification of the soil to such a level that it won’t be suitable for agricultural purposes. Even if excess usage of fertilizers does not cause any changes in the soils texture, it can still contribute to its pure quality. If the correct dosage and the period of administration is respected than the soil will be improved with nourishing elements, this leading to a better agricultural production.

  12. Photometric properties of Mars soils analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Jost, B.; Beck, P.; Okubo, C.; McEwen, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the bidirectional reflectance of analogs of dry, wet, and frozen Martian soils over a wide range of phase angles in the visible spectral range. All samples were produced from two geologic samples: the standard JSC Mars-1 soil simulant and Hawaiian basaltic sand. In a first step, experiments were conducted with the dry samples to investigate the effects of surface texture. Comparisons with results independently obtained by different teams with similar samples showed a satisfying reproducibility of the photometric measurements as well as a noticeable influence of surface textures resulting from different sample preparation procedures. In a second step, water was introduced to produce wet and frozen samples and their photometry investigated. Optical microscope images of the samples provided information about their microtexture. Liquid water, even in relatively low amount, resulted in the disappearance of the backscattering peak and the appearance of a forward-scattering peak whose intensity increases with the amount of water. Specular reflections only appeared when water was present in an amount large enough to allow water to form a film at the surface of the sample. Icy samples showed a wide variability of photometric properties depending on the physical properties of the water ice. We discuss the implications of these measurements in terms of the expected photometric behavior of the Martian surface, from equatorial to circum-polar regions. In particular, we propose some simple photometric criteria to improve the identification of wet and/or icy soils from multiple observations under different geometries.

  13. Using deuterated PAH amendments to validate chemical extraction methods to predict PAH bioavailability in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L.; Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Validating chemical methods to predict bioavailable fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by comparison with accumulation bioassays is problematic. Concentrations accumulated in soil organisms not only depend on the bioavailable fraction but also on contaminant properties. A historically contaminated soil was freshly spiked with deuterated PAHs (dPAHs). dPAHs have a similar fate to their respective undeuterated analogues, so chemical methods that give good indications of bioavailability should extract the fresh more readily available dPAHs and historic more recalcitrant PAHs in similar proportions to those in which they are accumulated in the tissues of test organisms. Cyclodextrin and butanol extractions predicted the bioavailable fraction for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants (Lolium multiflorum) better than the exhaustive extraction. The PAHs accumulated by earthworms had a larger dPAH:PAH ratio than that predicted by chemical methods. The isotope ratio method described here provides an effective way of evaluating other chemical methods to predict bioavailability. - Research highlights: → Isotope ratios can be used to evaluate chemical methods to predict bioavailability. → Chemical methods predicted bioavailability better than exhaustive extractions. → Bioavailability to earthworms was still far from that predicted by chemical methods. - A novel method using isotope ratios to assess the ability of chemical methods to predict PAH bioavailability to soil biota.

  14. Using deuterated PAH amendments to validate chemical extraction methods to predict PAH bioavailability in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L., E-mail: j.l.gomezeyles@reading.ac.uk [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E. [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Validating chemical methods to predict bioavailable fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by comparison with accumulation bioassays is problematic. Concentrations accumulated in soil organisms not only depend on the bioavailable fraction but also on contaminant properties. A historically contaminated soil was freshly spiked with deuterated PAHs (dPAHs). dPAHs have a similar fate to their respective undeuterated analogues, so chemical methods that give good indications of bioavailability should extract the fresh more readily available dPAHs and historic more recalcitrant PAHs in similar proportions to those in which they are accumulated in the tissues of test organisms. Cyclodextrin and butanol extractions predicted the bioavailable fraction for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants (Lolium multiflorum) better than the exhaustive extraction. The PAHs accumulated by earthworms had a larger dPAH:PAH ratio than that predicted by chemical methods. The isotope ratio method described here provides an effective way of evaluating other chemical methods to predict bioavailability. - Research highlights: > Isotope ratios can be used to evaluate chemical methods to predict bioavailability. > Chemical methods predicted bioavailability better than exhaustive extractions. > Bioavailability to earthworms was still far from that predicted by chemical methods. - A novel method using isotope ratios to assess the ability of chemical methods to predict PAH bioavailability to soil biota.

  15. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA) and denitrifying (nirK) genes), greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil. A high impact of land use

  16. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Caio T C C; Piccolo, Marisa C; Leite, Deborah Catharine A; Balieiro, Fabiano C; Coutinho, Heitor Luiz C; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Peixoto, Raquel S; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2012-08-08

    Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA) and denitrifying (nirK) genes), greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil. A high impact of land use was observed in soil under

  17. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Caio TCC

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane, next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA and denitrifying (nirK genes, greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil

  18. Plant absorption of trace elements in sludge amended soils and correlation with soil chemical speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torri, Silvana, E-mail: torri@agro.uba.ar [Catedra de Fertilidad y Fertilizantes, Facultad de Agronomia, UBA, Avda San Martin 4453, Buenos Aires (C1417 DSE) (Argentina); Lavado, Raul [Catedra de Fertilidad y Fertilizantes, Facultad de Agronomia, UBA, Avda San Martin 4453, Buenos Aires (C1417 DSE) (Argentina)

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Lolium perenne L. uptake of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sludge amended soils and soil availability of these elements assessed by soil sequential extraction. A greenhouse experiment was set with three representative soils of the Pampas Region, Argentina, amended with sewage sludge and sewage sludge enriched with its own incinerated ash. After the stabilization period of 60 days, half of the pots were sampled for soil analysis; the rest of the pots were sown with L. perenne and harvested 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after sowing, by cutting just above the soil surface. Cadmium and Pb concentrations in aerial tissues of L. perenne were below detection limits, in good agreement with the soil fractionation study. Copper and Zn concentration in the first harvest were significantly higher in the coarse textured soil compared to the fine textured soil, in contrast with soil chemical speciation. In the third harvest, there was a positive correlation between Cu and Zn concentration in aerial biomass and soil fractions usually considered of low availability. We conclude that the most available fractions obtained by soil sequential extraction did not provide the best indicator of Cu and Zn availability to L. perenne.

  19. Plant absorption of trace elements in sludge amended soils and correlation with soil chemical speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torri, Silvana; Lavado, Raul

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Lolium perenne L. uptake of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sludge amended soils and soil availability of these elements assessed by soil sequential extraction. A greenhouse experiment was set with three representative soils of the Pampas Region, Argentina, amended with sewage sludge and sewage sludge enriched with its own incinerated ash. After the stabilization period of 60 days, half of the pots were sampled for soil analysis; the rest of the pots were sown with L. perenne and harvested 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after sowing, by cutting just above the soil surface. Cadmium and Pb concentrations in aerial tissues of L. perenne were below detection limits, in good agreement with the soil fractionation study. Copper and Zn concentration in the first harvest were significantly higher in the coarse textured soil compared to the fine textured soil, in contrast with soil chemical speciation. In the third harvest, there was a positive correlation between Cu and Zn concentration in aerial biomass and soil fractions usually considered of low availability. We conclude that the most available fractions obtained by soil sequential extraction did not provide the best indicator of Cu and Zn availability to L. perenne.

  20. Characterization of leached phosphorus from soil, manure, and manure-amended soil by physical and chemical fractionation and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia Andersen; Donner, Erica; Magid, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We are challenged to date to fully understand mechanisms controlling phosphorus (P) mobilization in soil. In this study we evaluated physical properties, chemical reactivity, and potential bioavailability of P mobilized in soil during a leaching event and examined how the amounts and properties...... with manure. Manure particles themselves were also largely retained by the soil. Combined physical (centrifugation) and chemical (molybdate reactiveness) fractionation of leached P showed that leachates in the manure treated soils were dominated by dissolved unreactive P (DUP), mainly originating from manure...... of leached P were influenced by surface application of cattle manure. Leaching experiments on manure itself, and on intact soil columns (14.1 cm inner dia., 25 cm height) before and after manure application, were carried out at an irrigation rate of 1 mm h−1 for 48 h. High concentrations of dissolved...

  1. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with

  2. Seasonal Patterns of Soil Respiration and Related Soil Biochemical Properties under Nitrogen Addition in Winter Wheat Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guopeng; Houssou, Albert A.; Wu, Huijun; Cai, Dianxiong; Wu, Xueping; Gao, Lili; Li, Jing; Wang, Bisheng; Li, Shengping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the changes of soil respiration under increasing N fertilizer in cropland ecosystems is crucial to accurately predicting global warming. This study explored seasonal variations of soil respiration and its controlling biochemical properties under a gradient of Nitrogen addition during two consecutive winter wheat growing seasons (2013–2015). N was applied at four different levels: 0, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha-1 year-1 (denoted as N0, N12, N18 and N24, respectively). Soil respiration exhibited significant seasonal variation and was significantly affected by soil temperature with Q10 ranging from 2.04 to 2.46 and from 1.49 to 1.53 during 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 winter wheat growing season, respectively. Soil moisture had no significant effect on soil respiration during 2013–2014 winter wheat growing season but showed a significant and negative correlation with soil respiration during 2014–2015 winter wheat growing season. Soil respiration under N24 treatment was significantly higher than N0 treatment. Averaged over the two growing seasons, N12, N18 and N24 significantly increased soil respiration by 13.4, 16.4 and 25.4% compared with N0, respectively. N addition also significantly increased easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EEG), soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. In addition, soil respiration was significantly and positively correlated with β-glucosidase activity, EEG, SOC, total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. The results indicated that high N fertilization improved soil chemical properties, but significantly increased soil respiration. PMID:26629695

  3. Seasonal Patterns of Soil Respiration and Related Soil Biochemical Properties under Nitrogen Addition in Winter Wheat Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guopeng; Houssou, Albert A; Wu, Huijun; Cai, Dianxiong; Wu, Xueping; Gao, Lili; Li, Jing; Wang, Bisheng; Li, Shengping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the changes of soil respiration under increasing N fertilizer in cropland ecosystems is crucial to accurately predicting global warming. This study explored seasonal variations of soil respiration and its controlling biochemical properties under a gradient of Nitrogen addition during two consecutive winter wheat growing seasons (2013-2015). N was applied at four different levels: 0, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) (denoted as N0, N12, N18 and N24, respectively). Soil respiration exhibited significant seasonal variation and was significantly affected by soil temperature with Q10 ranging from 2.04 to 2.46 and from 1.49 to 1.53 during 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winter wheat growing season, respectively. Soil moisture had no significant effect on soil respiration during 2013-2014 winter wheat growing season but showed a significant and negative correlation with soil respiration during 2014-2015 winter wheat growing season. Soil respiration under N24 treatment was significantly higher than N0 treatment. Averaged over the two growing seasons, N12, N18 and N24 significantly increased soil respiration by 13.4, 16.4 and 25.4% compared with N0, respectively. N addition also significantly increased easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EEG), soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. In addition, soil respiration was significantly and positively correlated with β-glucosidase activity, EEG, SOC, total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. The results indicated that high N fertilization improved soil chemical properties, but significantly increased soil respiration.

  4. Atributos químicos de solos influenciados pela substituição do carbonato por silicato de cálcio Soil chemical properties influenced by the substitution of calcium carbonate by calcium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ferreira de Souza

    2008-08-01

    ácia do silicato de Ca foi inferior à de carbonato de Ca na melhoria das condições químicas do solo.The application of silicates to soils can result in increased soil cation exchange capacity (CEC, displace anions, especially H2PO4- (diacid phosphate, neutralize the pH and Al toxicity and, in general, increase the nutrient availability to plants. However, calcium silicates may be less efficient than calcium carbonates. To evaluate the effect of calcium carbonate substitution by calcium silicate on the soil chemical properties, especially on phosphorus availability, four experiments were conducted in an entirely randomized design with four replications, in a greenhouse. The treatments consisted of five levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % of calcium carbonate substitution by calcium silicate, with a 4:1 Ca:Mg stoichiometric and the same amount of CaO, enough to reach a 60 % base saturation. The treatments were applied to 4 dm³ samples of a sandy orthic Quartzarenic Neosol (Quartzpsament, a sandy loam dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol (Oxisol, sandy clay loam dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol (Oxisol and a clayey dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol; each soil represented one experiment. The pH values in H2O, P, phosphorus in the equilibrium solution (P-rem, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Al, H + Al, organic matter (OM, Cu, Mn, Zn and B, sum of bases (S, effective (t ant total (T CEC, base saturation (V and Al saturation (m were submitted to analysis of variance and simple regression models fitted as a function of CaCO3 substitution by CaSiO3 levels. It was observed that carbonate substitution by silicate promoted significant increases in the values of Si, Al, H + Al and m and reduction in the values of P-rem, pH, S, t and V. The values of Mehlich 1 P, K, Mg, OM, T, Mn, Cu, and B were not influenced significantly. A reduction in Zn availability was verified in the dystrophic orthic Quartzarenic Neosol only. Calcium silicate was less efficient than calcium carbonate in the improvement of soil chemical

  5. Relationships between soil properties and community structure of soil macroinvertebrates in oak-history forests along an acidic deposition gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-02-01

    Soil macroinvertebrate communities were studied in ecologically analogous oak-hickory forests across a three-state atmospheric pollution gradient in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The goal was to investigate changes in the community structure of soil fauna in study sites receiving different amounts of acidic deposition for several decades and the possible relationships between these changes and physico-chemical properties of soil. The study revealed significant differences in the numbers of soil animals among the three study sites. The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroinvertebrate fauna seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroinvertebrates with soil parameters suggest that their populations could have been affected by acidic deposition in the region. Abundance of total soil macroinvertebrates decreased with the increased cumulative loading of acidic deposition. Among the groups most sensitive to deposition were: earthworms gastropods, dipteran larvae, termites, and predatory beetles. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic long-term acidic deposition could aversely affect the soil decomposer community which could cause lower organic matter turnover rates leading to an increase in soil organic matter content in high deposition sites.

  6. 3.4. Chemical additives and granulometric composition influence on soils armed by cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, D.Kh.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of this work was to evaluate an influence of various chemical additives on soils armed by portland cement. Experimental research of kinetics of soil cements structure formation after adding the chemicals was carried out. According to the investigations it was determined that structure formation process of soil cements depended on granulometric composition of armed soil, cement quantity, type and quantity of chemical additives.

  7. Optimization of the sampling scheme for maps of physical and chemical properties estimated by kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener Tadeu Pereira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The sampling scheme is essential in the investigation of the spatial variability of soil properties in Soil Science studies. The high costs of sampling schemes optimized with additional sampling points for each physical and chemical soil property, prevent their use in precision agriculture. The purpose of this study was to obtain an optimal sampling scheme for physical and chemical property sets and investigate its effect on the quality of soil sampling. Soil was sampled on a 42-ha area, with 206 geo-referenced points arranged in a regular grid spaced 50 m from each other, in a depth range of 0.00-0.20 m. In order to obtain an optimal sampling scheme for every physical and chemical property, a sample grid, a medium-scale variogram and the extended Spatial Simulated Annealing (SSA method were used to minimize kriging variance. The optimization procedure was validated by constructing maps of relative improvement comparing the sample configuration before and after the process. A greater concentration of recommended points in specific areas (NW-SE direction was observed, which also reflects a greater estimate variance at these locations. The addition of optimal samples, for specific regions, increased the accuracy up to 2 % for chemical and 1 % for physical properties. The use of a sample grid and medium-scale variogram, as previous information for the conception of additional sampling schemes, was very promising to determine the locations of these additional points for all physical and chemical soil properties, enhancing the accuracy of kriging estimates of the physical-chemical properties.

  8. Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and inhibitory action of unripe plantain ( M. Paradisiacae ) flour. ... of dry matter (48.00 ± 3.96%) and starch (31.10 ± 0.44%) but was low in phenol (1.42 ± 0.03%), protein (3.15 ± 0.042%), ash (5.50 ± 0.42%) and total soluble sugar (0.64 ± 0.001%) (p < 0.05).

  9. Transport and Fate of Volatile Organic Chemical in Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lis Wollesen

    Recently much attention has been paid to the behavior of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in the environment. This is due to the fact that the environmental pollution with these hazardous chemicals has drastically increased during the last decades. The present study is limited to consider...... the transport and fate of VOCs in the gaseous phase, thus contributing to the overall understanding of VOCs behavior in soil, which eventually will facilitate future cleanup....

  10. Characterization and nutrient release from silicate rocks and influence on chemical changes in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ramos Guelfi Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Brazilian agriculture has led to a heavy dependence on imported fertilizers to ensure the supply of the growing food demand. This fact has contributed to a growing interest in alternative nutrient sources, such as ground silicate rocks. It is necessary, however, to know the potential of nutrient release and changes these materials can cause in soils. The purpose of this study was to characterize six silicate rocks and evaluate their effects on the chemical properties of treated soil, assessed by chemical extractants after greenhouse incubation. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized plots, in a 3 x 6 factorial scheme, with four replications. The factors were potassium levels (0-control: without silicate rock application; 200; 400; 600 kg ha-1 of K2O, supplied as six silicate rock types (breccia, biotite schist, ultramafic rock, phlogopite schist and two types of mining waste. The chemical, physical and mineralogical properties of the alternative rock fertilizers were characterized. Treatments were applied to a dystrophic Red-Yellow Oxisol (Ferralsol, which was incubated for 100 days, at 70 % (w/w moisture in 3.7 kg/pots. The soil was evaluated for pH; calcium and magnesium were extracted with KCl 1 mol L-1; potassium, phosphorus and sodium by Mehlich 1; nickel, copper and zinc with DTPA; and the saturation of the cation exchange capacity was calculated for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, and overall base saturation. The alternative fertilizers affected soil chemical properties. Ultramafic rock and Chapada mining byproduct (CMB were the silicate rocks that most influenced soil pH, while the mining byproduct (MB led to high K levels. Zinc availability was highest in the treatments with mining byproduct and Cu in soil fertilized with Chapada and mining byproduct.

  11. Using the Rasch model as an objective and probabilistic technique to integrate different soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Francisco J.; Jesús Moral García, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) is one of the simplest, least expensive soil measurements that integrates many soil properties affecting crop productivity, including, for instance, soil texture, water content, and cation exchange capacity. The ECa measurements obtained with a 3100 Veris sensor, operating in both shallow (0-30 cm), ECs, and deep (0-90 cm), ECd, mode, can be used as an additional and essential information to be included in a probabilistic model, the Rasch model, with the aim of quantifying the overall soil fertililty potential in an agricultural field. This quantification should integrate the main soil physical and chemical properties, with different units. In this work, the formulation of the Rasch model integrates 11 soil properties (clay, silt and sand content, organic matter -OM-, pH, total nitrogen -TN-, available phosphorus -AP- and potassium -AK-, cation exchange capacity -CEC-, ECd, and ECs) measured at 70 locations in a field. The main outputs of the model include a ranking of all soil samples according to their relative fertility potential and the unexpected behaviours of some soil samples and properties. In the case study, the considered soil variables fit the model reasonably, having an important influence on soil fertility, except pH, probably due to its homogeneity in the field. Moreover, ECd, ECs are the most influential properties on soil fertility and, on the other hand, AP and AK the less influential properties. The use of the Rasch model to estimate soil fertility potential (always in a relative way, taking into account the characteristics of the studied soil) constitutes a new application of great practical importance, enabling to rationally determine locations in a field where high soil fertility potential exists and establishing those soil samples or properties which have any anomaly; this information can be necessary to conduct site-specific treatments, leading to a more cost-effective and sustainable field

  12. Effects of waste water irrigation on soil properties and soil fauna of spinach fields in a West African urban vegetable production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchly, Kathrin; Dao, Juliane; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Buerkert, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L.) in a West African urban vegetable production system. We used gypsum as a soil amendment with the potential to alleviate soil chemical stress resulting in a potentially positive impact on soil arthropods. A total of 32 plots were established that showed a gradient in soil pH ranging from slight to strong soil alkalinity and that were irrigated with WW (n = 12) or clean water (CW; n = 20), including eight plots into which gypsum was incorporated. Our study revealed a high tolerance of soil-dwelling arthropods for alkaline soils, but spinach fields with increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) showed a reduced abundance of Hymenoptera, Diptera and Auchenorrhyncha. Arthropod abundance was positively related to a dense spinach cover that in turn was not affected by WW irrigation or soil properties. Gypsum application reduced soil pH but increased soil EC. WW irrigation and related soil pH affected arthropod composition in the investigated spinach fields which may lead to negative effects on agronomical important arthropod groups such as pollinators and predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil properties mapping with the DIGISOIL multi-sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, G.

    2012-04-01

    The multidisciplinary DIGISOIL project aimed to integrate and improve in situ and proximal measurement technologies for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going from the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in (digital) soil mapping (DSM). In order to assess and prevent soil degradation and to benefit from the different ecological, economical and historical functions of the soil in a sustainable way, high resolution and quantitative maps of soil properties are needed. The core objective of the project is to explore and exploit new capabilities of advanced geophysical technologies for answering this societal demand. To this aim, DIGISOIL addresses four issues covering technological, soil science and economic aspects: (i) the validation of geophysical (in situ, proximal and airborne) technologies and integrated pedo-geophysical inversion techniques (mechanistic data fusion) (ii) the relation between the geophysical parameters and the soil properties, (iii) the integration of the derived soil properties for mapping soil functions and soil threats, (iv) the pre-evaluation, standardisation and sub-industrialization of the proposed methodologies, including technical and economical studies related to the societal demand. With respect to these issues, the DIGISOIL project allows to develop, test and validate the most relevant geophysical technologies for mapping soil properties. The system was tested on different field tests, and validated the proposed technologies and solutions for each of the identified methods: geoelectric, GPR, EMI, seismics, magnetic and hyperspectral. After data acquisition systems, sensor geometry, and advanced data processing techniques have been developed and validated, we present now the solutions for going from geophysical data to soil properties maps. For two test sites, located respectively in Luxembourg (LU) and Mugello (IT) a set of soil properties maps have been produced. They give

  14. Chemical Speciation and Mobility of Some Heavy Metals in Soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mobility of some heavy metals (Fe, Co, Ni and Mn) in soils around automobile waste dumpsites in Northern part of Niger Delta was assessed using Tessier et al. five syteps sequential chemical extraction procedure. The results showed that majority of iron and manganese were associated with the residual fraction with ...

  15. Chemical oxidation of cable insulating oil contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinlan Xu,; Pancras, T.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Leaking cable insulating oil is a common source of soil contamination of high-voltage underground electricity cables in many European countries. In situ remediation of these contaminations is very difficult, due to the nature of the contamination and the high concentrations present. Chemical

  16. Chemical speciation and behaviour of cyanide in contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, J.C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cyanide is present as a contaminant of the soil on several hundred (former) industrial sites in the Netherlands. The risk for the occurrence of adverse effects on human health and the environment strongly depends on the chemical form in which cyanide is present and on the behaviour of this

  17. Grey water impact on soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel L. Murcia-Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing demand for food produced by the increase in population, water as an indispensable element in the growth cycle of plants every day becomes a fundamental aspect of production. The demand for the use of this resource is necessary to search for alternatives that should be evaluated to avoid potential negative impacts. In this paper, the changes in some physical properties of soil irrigated with synthetic gray water were evaluated. The experimental design involved: one factor: home water and two treatments; without treated water (T1 and treated water (T2. The variables to consider in the soil were: electrical conductivity (EC, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, average weighted diameter (MWD and soil moisture retention (RHS. The water used in drip irrigation high frequency was monitored by tensiometer for producing a bean crop (Phaseolous vulgaris L. As filtration system used was employed a unit composed of a sand filter (FLA and a subsurface flow wetland artificial (HFSS. The treatments showed significant differences in the PSI and the RHS. The FLA+HFSS system is an alternative to the gray water treatment due to increased sodium retention.

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of the Effects of 3-Chloride Compounds on the Geotechnical Properties of an Expansive Subgrade Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, G.; Anjan Kumar, M.; Raju, G. V. R. Prasada

    2017-12-01

    Expansive soils are known to be problematic due to their nature and behavior. These soils show volume changes due to changes in moisture content, which cause distortions to structures constructed on them. Relentless efforts are being made all over the world to find solution to the problems of expansive soils. In the case of flexible pavements, unless the subgrade is appropriately treated during the construction stage, the maintenance cost will increase substantially due to deterioration. There are many methods of stabilising expansive subgrade soils. Chemical stabilisation is one such technique employed in improving the engineering properties of the expansive soil. Investigations on chemical stabilization of expansive soils revealed that conventionally used lime could be replaced by the chloride compound chemicals because of their ready dissolvability in water, ease of mixing with soil and supply of sufficient cations for ready cation exchange. The main objective of this work is to study the effectiveness of three chloride compound chemicals, ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on the geotechnical properties of an expansive soil. The chemicals content up to 2% were added to the soil and its effect on the index limits, swell pressure, compaction characteristics as well as California bearing ratio are studied. It was observed that aluminum chloride chemical content has a significantly higher influence than the other two chemicals and it could be recognized as an effective chemical stabilizer.

  19. Assessment of soil properties by organic matter and EM-microorganism incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valarini P. J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of a claim loam soil, collected in Aranjuez (Madrid and enriched with organic matter and microorganisms, were evaluated under controlled temperature and moisture conditions, over a period of three months. The following treatments were carried out: soil (control; soil + 50 t ha-1 of animal manure (E50; soil + 50 t ha-1 of animal manure + 30 L ha-1 of effective microorganisms (E50EM; soil + 30 t ha-1 of the combination of various green crop residues and weeds (RC30 and soil + 30 t ha-1 of the combination of various green crop residues and weeds + 30 L ha-1 of effective microorganisms (RC30EM. Soil samples were taken before and after incubation and their physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters analyzed. Significant increase was observed in the production of exopolysaccharides and basic phosphatase and esterase enzyme activities in the treatments E50EM and RC30EM, in correlation with the humification of organic matter, water retention at field capacity, and the cationic exchange capacity (CEC of the same treatments. The conclusion was drawn that the incorporation of a mixture of effective microorganisms (EM intensified the biological soil activity and improved physical and chemical soil properties, contributing to a quick humification of fresh organic matter. These findings were illustrated by the microbiological activities of exopolysaccharides and by alkaline phosphatase and esterase enzymes, which can be used as early and integrated soil health indicators.

  20. Effect of peanut shells amendment on soil properties and growth of seedlings of Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Vachellia seyal (Delile) P. Hurter, and Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC in salt-affected soils

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, D.; Bakhoum, N.; Fall, F.; Diouf, F.; Ndiaye, C.; Faye, M. N.; Hocher, Valérie; Diouf, D.

    2018-01-01

    Key message The soil amendment with peanut shells (4, 6 or 8 t ha(-1)) improves soil properties and growth of Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Vachellia seyal (Delile) P. Hurter and Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC seedlings on salty soils (86, 171, 257 mM NaCl). Context Salinization causes the degradation of biological, chemical, and physical properties of soils. Salty soils reclamation can be achieved with organic amendments and afforestation with salt tolerant species.Aims The aim of the stud...

  1. Cacao Crop Management Zones Determination Based on Soil Properties and Crop Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Silva Matos de Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The use of management zones has ensured yield success for numerous agricultural crops. In spite of this potential, studies applying precision agricultural techniques to cacao plantations are scarce or almost nonexistent. The aim of the present study was to delineate management zones for cacao crop, create maps combining soil physical properties and cacao tree yield, and identify what combinations best fit within the soil chemical properties. The study was conducted in 2014 on a cacao plantation in a Nitossolo Háplico Eutrófico (Rhodic Paleudult in Bahia, Brazil. Soil samples were collected in a regular sampling grid with 120 sampling points in the 0.00-0.20 m soil layer, and pH(H2O, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, H+Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, SB, V, TOC, effective CEC, CEC at pH 7.0, coarse sand, fine sand, clay, and silt were determined. Yield was measured in all the 120 points every month and stratified into annual, harvest, and early-harvest cacao yields. Data were subjected to geostatistical analysis, followed by ordinary kriging interpolation. The management zones were defined through a Fuzzy K-Means algorithm for combinations between soil physical properties and cacao tree yield. Concordance analysis was carried out between the delineated zones and soil chemical properties using Kappa coefficients. The zones that best classified the soil chemical properties were defined from the early-harvest cacao yield map associated with the clay or sand fractions. Silt content proved to be an inadequate variable for defining management zones for cacao production. The delineated management zones described the spatial variability of the soil chemical properties, and are therefore important for site-specific management in the cacao crop.

  2. Distribution coefficients for 85Sr and 137Cs in Japanese agricultural soils and their correlations with soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei-Ishikawa, N.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, soil-soil solution distribution coefficients (K d ) of Sr and Cs were obtained for 112 Japanese agricultural soil samples (50 paddy soil and 62 upland soil samples) using batch sorption test. The relationships between Sr- or Cs-K d values and soil properties were discussed. Furthermore, the amount of Cs fixed in soil was estimated for 22 selected soil samples using a sequential extraction method. Then, cross effects of some soil properties for Cs fixation were evaluated. (author)

  3. Vital soil; function, value and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelman, P.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Healthy soil, with active soil life, deters long-term soil degradation and ensures that geo-physical processes are undisturbed. Is the vitality of soil under threat due to human civilization? Or is it due to contamination, intensification, and deforestation? Vital Soil aims to look at the effects

  4. Liming influence on soil chemical properties, nutritional status and yield of alfalfa grown in acid soil Influência da calagem nas propriedades químicas do solo, estado nutricional e produção da alfafa em um solo ácido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is an important forage crop with high nutritive value, although highly susceptible to soil acidity. Liming is one of the most efficient and prevailing practices to correct soil acidity and improve alfalfa yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate response to liming of alfalfa grown in a greenhouse on a Typic Quartzipsamment soil. The treatments consisted of four lime rates (0, 3.8, 6.6 and 10.3 Mg ha-1 and two cuts. Alfalfa dry matter increased quadratically with increasing lime rates. In general, dry matter yield was maximized by a lime rate of 8.0 Mg ha-1. Except for the control, the dry matter nutrient contents in the treatments were adequate. The positive linear correlation between root and nodule dry matter with lime rates indicated improvement of these plant traits with decreasing soil acidity. The soil acidity indices pH, base saturation, Ca2+ concentration, Mg2+ concentration, and H + Al were relevant factors in the assessment of alfalfa yield. The magnitude of influence of these soil acidity indices on yield as determined by the coefficient of determination (R² varied and decreased in the order: base saturation, H + Al, pH, Ca and Mg concentrations. Optimum values of selected soil chemical properties were defined for maximum shoot dry matter; these values can serve as a guideline for alfalfa liming to improve the yield of this forage on acid soils.A alfafa é uma importante forrageira com alto valor nutritivo, porém é altamente suscetível à acidez do solo. A calagem é uma das mais eficientes práticas para corrigir esse problema e melhorar a produtividade da alfafa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta à calagem da alfafa cultivada em Neossolo Quartzarênico em casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro doses de calcário (0; 3,8; 6,6 e 10,3 Mg ha-1 e duas épocas de corte. A produção de matéria seca foi significativamente aumentada com a adição de calcário, com o m

  5. Bacterial community structure and soil properties of a subarctic tundra soil in Council, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Min; Jung, Ji Young; Yergeau, Etienne; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Hinzman, Larry; Nam, Sungjin; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ok-Sun; Chun, Jongsik; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-08-01

    The subarctic region is highly responsive and vulnerable to climate change. Understanding the structure of subarctic soil microbial communities is essential for predicting the response of the subarctic soil environment to climate change. To determine the composition of the bacterial community and its relationship with soil properties, we investigated the bacterial community structure and properties of surface soil from the moist acidic tussock tundra in Council, Alaska. We collected 70 soil samples with 25-m intervals between sampling points from 0-10 cm to 10-20 cm depths. The bacterial community was analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and the following soil properties were analyzed: soil moisture content (MC), pH, total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3-). The community compositions of the two different depths showed that Alphaproteobacteria decreased with soil depth. Among the soil properties measured, soil pH was the most significant factor correlating with bacterial community in both upper and lower-layer soils. Bacterial community similarity based on jackknifed unweighted unifrac distance showed greater similarity across horizontal layers than through the vertical depth. This study showed that soil depth and pH were the most important soil properties determining bacterial community structure of the subarctic tundra soil in Council, Alaska. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  6. 生物炭及炭基硝酸铵肥料对土壤化学性质及作物产量的影响%Effect of Biochar and Biochar-based Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizers on Soil Chemical Properties and Crop Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海英; 何绪生; 陈心想; 张雯; 耿增超

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote research about biochar and its potential use in agriculture, we conducted a pot experiment to study the effect of biochar and two biochar-based N fertilizers on selected soil chemical properties, available nutrient concentrations, and crop yields. The results showed that biochar-based N fertilizer significantly increased soil organic C storage, soil pH, and soil cation exchange capacity. Biochar-based N fertilizer also increased available P, available K, and mineral N concentrations in the soil and enhanced the ability of soil to retain nutrients. Crop yields were also higher in soil treated with biochar-based N fertilizer. Amendment with biochar alone improved soil chemical properties and available nutrient concentrations to some extent; However, biochar amendment had a negative or insignificant effect on crop yield. Overall, combining biochar with N to produce biochar-based N fertilizer can not only make use of the positive effects of biochar on soil function, but also promote crop growth and increase yield. The use of biochar-based N fertilizer will enhance the economic benefits of biochar application to agricultural soils.%为了促进生物炭研究和农用,采用盆栽试验研究了两种生物炭基氮肥及相应生物炭对土壤部分化学性质、养分状况及作物产量的影响.试验结果表明:施用生物炭基氮肥可显著提高土壤有机碳含量,提高土壤pH值、阳离子交换量、土壤速效磷、速效钾和矿质态氮含量,增强土壤保肥能力,促进作物增产.生物炭对土壤化学性质和养分状况虽有一定改善作用,但作物增产效应不明显甚至减产.因此,将生物炭与肥料复合制成生物炭基肥料不但可以保持生物炭改良土壤的功能,还可促进作物生长和增产,有利于生物炭农用效益的提升.

  7. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A.; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-01-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha −1 . We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ s ) and envelope (ρ e ) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~ years

  8. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista, E-mail: g.sorrenti@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Masiello, Caroline A., E-mail: masiello@rice.edu [Departments of Earth Science, BioSciences, and Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Dugan, Brandon, E-mail: dugan@rice.edu [Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Toselli, Moreno, E-mail: moreno.toselli@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha{sup −1}. We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ{sub s}) and envelope (ρ{sub e}) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over

  9. Sorption of samarium in soils: influence of soil properties and Sm concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Salaberria, Aitor; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Due to the fact that barriers of Deep Geological Repositories (DGR) may lose efficiency before the radioisotopes present in the High Level Radioactive Waste (HLRW) completely decay, it is possible that, in the long-term, radioactive leachates may escape from the DGR and reach the soil and water compartments in the biosphere. Therefore, it is required to examine the interaction and mobility of radionuclides present in the HLRW, or their chemical analogues, to predict the impact of their eventual incorporation in the biosphere and to assess the derived risk. Although relevant data have been recently obtained for a few radionuclides in soils, there are still some important gaps for some radionuclides, such us for samarium (Sm). Sm is a lanthanide that, besides being considered as a natural analogue of actinides, may also be present in HLRW in the form of the radioactive isotope {sup 151}Sm. The main objective of this work was to obtain sorption data (K{sub d}) of {sup 151}Sm gathered from a set of soil samples physicochemical fully-characterized (pH, texture, cationic exchange capacity, soil solution cationic composition, organic matter, carbonate and metallic oxides content, etc.). Additionally, as an alternative for testing sorption capacity of radionuclides in soils is the use of the corresponding stable isotope or a chemical analogue, the influence of Sm concentration was also checked. To evaluate {sup 151}Sm sorption, batch assays were carried out for each soil sample, which consisted in a pre-equilibration step of 2 g of each soil with 50 ml of double deionised water, and a subsequent equilibration step with the same solution, but labelled with {sup 151}Sm. The activity of {sup 151}Sm in initial and final solutions was measured by liquid scintillation and K{sub d} ({sup 151}Sm) data were calculated. The reversibly sorbed fraction was estimated by the application of a single extraction test, with double deionised water, to soil residues coming from the previous

  10. Engineering electrical properties of graphene: chemical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Yuna; Hong, Byung Hee; Novoselov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the high performance of graphene-based devices, it is necessary to engineer the electrical properties of graphene with enhanced conductivity, controlled work function, opened or closed bandgaps, etc. This can be performed by various non-covalent chemical approaches, including molecular adsorption, substrate-induced doping, polymerization on graphene, deposition of metallic thin films or nanoparticles, etc. In addition, covalent approaches such as the substitution of carbon atoms with boron or nitrogen and the functionalization with hydrogen or fluorine are useful to tune the bandgaps more efficiently, with better uniformity and stability. In this review, representative examples of chemically engineered graphene and its device applications will be reviewed, and remaining challenges will be discussed. (topical review)

  11. Soil friability - Concept, Assessment and Effects of Soil Properties and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    Soil friability is a key soil physical property yielding valuable information on the ease of productin a favorable seed- and root beds during tillage operations. Therefore, soil friability is acrucial soil property in relation to the ability of soil to support plant growth and to minimzethe energy...... required for tillage. The topic has interested farmers and soil scientiest for centuries, but is was the paper by Utomo and Dexter (1981) that significantly put the topic on the soil science agenda. The awareness of soil friability is growing, both in practiceand in soil science. This must be viewed...... in the light of the present renewed focus on global food security together with a focus on fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in crop production. Certainly, the demand for well-functioning, arable soils is rising to meet the global challenges....

  12. Chemical and Physical Soil Restoration in Mining Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; de Marchi Soares, Thaís; Roberti Alves de Almeida, Danilo; Sartorio, Simone Daniela; Casagrande, José Carlos; Santin Brancalion, Pedro Henrique

    2017-04-01

    The current trend of ecological restoration is to address the recovery of degraded areas by ecosystemic way, overcoming the rehabilitation process. In this sense, the topsoil and other complementary techniques in mining areas plays an important role in soil recovery. The aim of this study was to contextualize the soil improvement, with the use of topsoil through chemical and physical attributes, relative to secondary succession areas in restoration, as well as in reference ecosystems (natural forest). Eighteen areas were evaluated, six in forest restoration process, six native forests and six just mining areas. The areas were sampled in the depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. Chemical indicators measured were parameters of soil fertility and texture, macroporosity, microporosity, density and total porosity as physical parameters. The forest restoration using topsoil was effective in triggering a process of soil recovery, promoting, in seven years, chemical and physical characteristics similar to those of the reference ecosystem.

  13. Studying of the combined salts effect on the engineering properties of clayey soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Obaidi Anwar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies had been performed to investigate the effect of pore water chemistry on the strength and compressibility characteristics of soil. Although the effect of chloride and sulfates salts separately in pore fluids on the geotechnical properties of soil seems to be well understood, but the influence of combined effect of sulfates and chlorides in pore water on the behavior of soil is still unclear mostly due to the limited numbers of studies as well as the complexity of processes that may occur in soil (with the presence of salts in pore water-soil interaction. Southern regions of Iraq, especially Basra suffers from low water levels in the summer season in addition to the lack of rain water, which causes a significant increase of salt in the Shatt al Arab. Water salinity continues to increase with time. To investigate the combined impacts of water salinity on the behavior of clayey soils, the basic characteristics of the soil brought from Al-Nahrawan site was studied. Chemical methods were done with three types of water (distilled, water of highly saline as Shatt Al-Arab water and water of Tarmiya as moderate saline water. The effect of water salinity on the geotechnical properties of fine grain soil was investigated. Different laboratory tests such as Atterberg limits, standard compaction, consolidation and shear strength of soil .Results showed that the presence of perceptible amounts of dissolved salts in water can lead to changes in the engineering properties of the soil.

  14. Nonlinear Changes in Soil Properties and Their Impact on Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, O. A.; Chorover, J. D.

    2001-12-01

    Soils are open systems that act as a membrane at Earth's surface. Water and dissolved acids are the main materials transferred into soils, whereas water and lithogenic solutes dominate the output with the net result being depletion of rock forming constituents such as silica and base cations that are also ecosystem nutrients. The time-dependent coupling of water flux and chemical reactions determines the nature of the colloidal phase that is responsible for nutrient retention. Pedogenesis is a biogeochemical process that is constrained by thermodynamics, but still maintains considerable flexibility as a result of parallel reaction kinetics and a spatially heterogeneous matrix. In the open system, there are many processes that are governed by nonlinear response to changes in environmental variables and/or internal soil properties. From a thermodynamic perspective, the chemistry of pedogenesis is characterized by a number of thresholds. Simultaneous acid-base, ion exchange, redox and mineral transformation reactions interact to determine the direction and rate of change. Over time, the reaction of atmospheric acids with soil bases changes the acid neutralizing capacity of soil to an extent that is controlled by the prevailing buffering reactions. The amount of buffering reaction and effect on pH depend on the nature of the reactive species, their relative amounts, and their respective rates of reaction. Ion exchange and surface complexation reactions consume protons in the short term but long-term buffering derives from mineral weathering. The nature of the governing reactions is such that soils are well buffered to pH change in the alkaline and acid regions but far less so in the neutral to slightly acid zones. In an analogous fashion, organic matter may drive oxidation-reduction processes through a stepwise consumption of electron acceptors (thereby producing thresholds). Mineralogical change tends to occur in a serial, irreversible fashion that, under favorable

  15. Soil Properties in Natural Forest Destruction and Conversion to Agricultural Land,in Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Wasis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Destruction of the Gunung Leuser National Park area of North Sumatera Province through land clearing and land cover change from natural forest to agricultural land. Less attention to land use and ecosystem carrying capacity of the soil can cause soil degradation and destruction of flora, fauna, and wildlife habitat destruction. Environmental damage will result in a national park wild life will come out of the conservation area and would damage the agricultural community. Soil sampling conducted in purposive sampling in natural forest and agricultural areas.  Observation suggest that damage to the natural forest vegetation has caused the soil is not protected so that erosion has occurred. Destruction of natural forest into agricultural are as has caused damage to soil physical properties, soil chemical properties, and biological soil properties significantly. Forms of soil degradation caused by the destruction of natural forests, which is an increase in soil density (density Limbak by 103%, a decrease of 93% organic C and soil nitrogen decreased by 81%. The main factors causing soil degradation is the reduction of organic matter and soil erosion due to loss of natural forest vegetation.  Criteria for soil degradation in Governance Regulation Number 150/2000 can be used to determine the extent of soil degradation in natural forest ecosystems.Keywords: Gunung Leuser National Park, natural forest, agricultural land, land damage, soil properties

  16. Arbutus unedo L.: chemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria G; Faleiro, Maria L; Guerreiro, Adriana C; Antunes, Maria D

    2014-09-30

    Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree) has a circum-Mediterranean distribution, being found in western, central and southern Europe, north-eastern Africa (excluding Egypt and Libya) and the Canary Islands and western Asia. Fruits of the strawberry tree are generally used for preparing alcoholic drinks (wines, liqueurs and brandies), jams, jellies and marmalades, and less frequently eaten as fresh fruit, despite their pleasing appearance. An overview of the chemical composition of different parts of the plant, strawberry tree honey and strawberry tree brandy will be presented. The biological properties of the different parts of A. unedo and strawberry tree honey will be also overviewed.

  17. Arbutus unedo L.: Chemical and Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Miguel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree has a circum-Mediterranean distribution, being found in western, central and southern Europe, north-eastern Africa (excluding Egypt and Libya and the Canary Islands and western Asia. Fruits of the strawberry tree are generally used for preparing alcoholic drinks (wines, liqueurs and brandies, jams, jellies and marmalades, and less frequently eaten as fresh fruit, despite their pleasing appearance. An overview of the chemical composition of different parts of the plant, strawberry tree honey and strawberry tree brandy will be presented. The biological properties of the different parts of A. unedo and strawberry tree honey will be also overviewed.

  18. Remediation of cadmium contamination in paddy soils by washing with chemicals: Selection of washing chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Tomoyuki; Sugahara, Kazuo; Sakurai, Yasuhiro; Takano, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Takashi; Sasaki, Kouta; Itou, Tadashi; Sekiya, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    The efficiencies of neutral salts, strong acids, and chelates were tested for extracting cadmium (Cd) from three paddy soils. The higher the selectivity of the cations of the added neutral salts toward soil adsorption sites, the lower the pH in the extracts and the more soil Cd could be extracted. In addition, soil carbon and nitrogen contents and mineral composition were closely associated with the amount of Cd extracted. Calcium chloride and iron(III) chloride were selected as wash chemicals to restore Cd-contaminated paddy soils in situ. Washing with calcium chloride led to the formation of Cd chloride complexes, enhancing Cd extraction from the soils. The washing also substantially decreased soil levels of exchangeable and acid-soluble Cd, which are the major forms of bioavailable Cd for rice (Oryza sativa L.). The optimum conditions for in situ soil washing were also determined for calcium chloride. - Calcium chloride and iron(III) chloride were useful for the in situ washing of Cd-contaminated paddy soils

  19. Occurrence of pesticide non extractable residues in physical and chemical fractions from two natural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, K.; Jones, K.; Semple, K.

    2009-04-01

    Distribution of pesticide non extractable residues resulted from the incubation of two natural soils with each of the isoproturon, diazinon and cypermethrin pesticide was assessed in this study. Pesticide non extractable residues distribution in soil physical and chemical fractions is known to ultimately affect their fate. This study aimed to address the fate and behaviour of the non extractable residues in the context of their association with soil physical and chemical fractions with varying properties and characteristics. Non extractable residues were formed from incubation of each pesticide in the two natural soils over a period of 24 months. Soils containing the non extractable residues were fractionated into three solid phase fractions using a physical fractionation procedure as follows: Sediment (SED, >20 μm), (II) Microaggregate (MA, 20-2 μm) and (III) Colloid phase (COL, 2-0.05 μm). Each soil fraction was then fractionated into organic carbon chemical fractionations as follows: Fulvic acid (FA), Humic acid (HA) and Humin (HM). Significant amount of the pesticides was lost during the incubation period. Enrichment factors for the organic carbon and the 14C-pesticide residues were higher in the MA and COL fraction rather than the SED fraction. Greater association and enrichment of the fulvic acid fraction of the organic carbon in the soil was observed. Non extractable residues at the FA fraction showed to diminish while in the HA fraction were increased with decreasing the fraction size. An appreciable amount of non extractable residues were located in the HM fraction but this was less than the amount recovered in the humic substances. Long term fate of pesticide non extractable residues in the soil structural components is important in order to assess any risk associated with them.

  20. Interpretation of soil-to-plant transfer on the basis of soil solution chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembrechts, J.F.; Van Loon, L.R.; Van Ginkel, J.H.; Desmet, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Soil-to-plant translocation of a radionuclide depends on its availability on the one hand and on the efficiency of the uptake process on the other. Criticism on the use of transfer coefficients for the description of translocation mainly concerns the fact that the complex variety of processes, a.o. dependent on plant characteristics and soil type and treatment, is integrated in a single ratio. For the interpretation of the effect of counter-measures the static transfer coefficient proved to be hard to handle and knowledge of the separate underlying processes and their time dependence showed to be indispensible. Based upon translocation experiments with technetium, cobalt, strontium and zinc transfer was shown to be primarily related to the concentration of the plant available fraction in the soil solution as well as to the soil solution chemistry in general. The transfer factor of the first three elements expressed in the basis of soil solution activity (ml/g), was observed to decrease when the nutrient content of the soil solution -- reflected by its conductivity -- increased. The characteristics of the soil matrix (solid phase) furthermore showed to be of secondary importance for the explanation of the observed accumulation. Since the interstitial soil liquid phase mediates between solid phase and plant root, reliable interpretations of soil-to-plant transfer might as a rule be based on a separate study of the effect of soil properties on availability on the one hand of the uptake from nutrient solutions on the other

  1. 40 CFR 716.50 - Reporting physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical properties. Studies of physical and chemical properties must be reported under this subpart if... they investigated one or more of the following properties: (a) Water solubility. (b) Adsorption... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting physical and chemical...

  2. Avaliação das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo sujeito a diferentes sistemas de mobilização em soutos do Nordeste Transmontano Effect of different soil management systems on soil physical and chemical properties in chestnut orchards of Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raimundo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se várias propriedades físicas e químicas do solo de soutos do Nordeste de Portugal em que foram experimentados, a partir de 1996, quatro sistemas de preparação do solo: (a mobilização tradicional (MT com escarificador, (b mobilização com grade de discos (GD, (c instalação de pastagem semeada de sequeiro (PS e (d não-mobilização com vegetação herbácea espontânea (NM. Até 2004 observou- -se que a massa volúmica aparente do solo foi significativamente superior nos tratamentos NM e PS do que no MT, imediatamente após as mobilizações, pois poucos meses depois essa diferença esbate-se. Os tratamentos GD, PS e NM induziram a um acréscimo da resistência à penetração na camada superficial do solo (0-12 cm; comparativamente ao tratamento MT; o tratamento GD, por seu turno, determinou menor compactação do solo do que os tratamentos NM e PS somente até 3 cm de profundidade. A concentração de N mineral do solo, até 15 cm de profundidade, atingiu os menores valores no tratamento NM; o tratamento MT apresentou um forte aumento dessa concentração no período posterior à execução das mobilizações. Os teores de C orgânico, P e K extraíveis, Ca, Mg, K, acidez e Al de troca e os valores de pH não foram, na generalidade, influenciados significativamente pelos tratamentos, considerando o conjunto das varias camadas do solo analisadas. A produção de fruto foi menor no tratamento MT, nomeadamente nos últimos três anos de estudo (2002-2004.Several soil physical and chemical properties were evaluated in chestnut groves subjected to several soil management systems: chisel plow, that corresponds to the traditional tillage (MT, disc harrowing (GD, with rainfed seeded pasture (PS, and no-tillage with spontaneous herbaceous vegetation (NM. Obtained results, between 1996 and 2004, showed that soil bulk density was significantly higher in treatments NM and PS than in MT, just after tillage; nevertheless, five months

  3. Predicting saturated hydraulic conductivity using soil morphological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay Karahan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to predict soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks by parametric soil properties such as bulk density and particle-size distribution. Although soil morphological properties have a strong effect on Ks, studies predicting Ks by soil morphological properties such as type, size, and strength of soil structure; type, orientation and quantity of soil pores and roots and consistency are rare. This study aimed at evaluating soil morphological properties to predict Ks. Undisturbed soil samples (15 cm length and 8.0 cm id. were collected from topsoil (0-15 cm and subsoil (15-30 cm (120 samples with a tractor operated soil sampler at sixty randomly selected sampling sites on a paddy field and an adjecent grassland in Central Anatolia (Cankırı, Turkey. Synchronized disturbed soil samples were taken from the same sampling sites and sampling depths for basic soil analyses. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured on the soil columns using a constant-head permeameter. Following the Ks measurements, the upper part of soil columns were covered to prevent evaporation and colums were left to drain in the laboratory. When the water flow through the column was stopped, a subsample were taken for bulk density and then soil columns were disturbed for describing the soil morphological properties. In addition, soil texture, bulk density, pH, field capacity, wilting point, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, aggregate stability, organic matter, and calcium carbonate were measured on the synchronized disturbed soil samples. The data were divided into training (80 data values and validation (40 data values sets. Measured values of Ks ranged from 0.0036 to 2.14 cmh-1 with a mean of 0.86 cmh-1. The Ks was predicted from the soil morphological and parametric properties by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Soil structure class, stickiness, pore-size, root-size, and pore-quantity contributed to the Ks prediction

  4. Quantifying the heterogeneity of soil compaction, physical soil properties and soil moisture across multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Victoria; Pattison, Ian; Sander, Graham

    2016-04-01

    England's rural landscape is dominated by pastoral agriculture, with 40% of land cover classified as either improved or semi-natural grassland according to the Land Cover Map 2007. Since the Second World War the intensification of agriculture has resulted in greater levels of soil compaction, associated with higher stocking densities in fields. Locally compaction has led to loss of soil storage and an increased in levels of ponding in fields. At the catchment scale soil compaction has been hypothesised to contribute to increased flood risk. Previous research (Pattison, 2011) on a 40km2 catchment (Dacre Beck, Lake District, UK) has shown that when soil characteristics are homogeneously parameterised in a hydrological model, downstream peak discharges can be 65% higher for a heavy compacted soil than for a lightly compacted soil. However, at the catchment scale there is likely to be a significant amount of variability in compaction levels within and between fields, due to multiple controlling factors. This research focusses in on one specific type of land use (permanent pasture with cattle grazing) and areas of activity within the field (feeding area, field gate, tree shelter, open field area). The aim was to determine if the soil characteristics and soil compaction levels are homogeneous in the four areas of the field. Also, to determine if these levels stayed the same over the course of the year, or if there were differences at the end of the dry (October) and wet (April) periods. Field experiments were conducted in the River Skell catchment, in Yorkshire, UK, which has an area of 120km2. The dynamic cone penetrometer was used to determine the structural properties of the soil, soil samples were collected to assess the bulk density, organic matter content and permeability in the laboratory and the Hydrosense II was used to determine the soil moisture content in the topsoil. Penetration results show that the tree shelter is the most compacted and the open field area

  5. Spectral estimation of soil properties in siberian tundra soils and relations with plant species composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholomeus, Harm; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Blok, Daan

    2012-01-01

    yields a good prediction model for K and a moderate model for pH. Using these models, soil properties are determined for a larger number of samples, and soil properties are related to plant species composition. This analysis shows that variation of soil properties is large within vegetation classes......Predicted global warming will be most pronounced in the Arctic and will severely affect permafrost environments. Due to its large spatial extent and large stocks of soil organic carbon, changes to organic matter decomposition rates and associated carbon fluxes in Arctic permafrost soils...

  6. Influence of relief and vegetation on soil properties in a disturbed chernozem soil landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; Hirsch, Florian; Vasserman, Oleksandr; Raab, Alexandra; Naeth, Anne

    2017-04-01

    In central and southeastern Alberta, chernozems dominate the soil landscape and are divided into several groups that follow the climate gradient from Northwest to Southeast: Dark Grey Chernozems, Black Chernozems, Dark Brown Chernozems; Brown Chernozems. Principles controlling development and distribution of these chernozem subtypes along the ecotone transect are quite well known. However, intensive land use over the last century has affected soils that originally have formed under natural conditions during the Holocene in more than 10,000 years. There is a lack of knowledge regarding soil development in these landscapes on the decadal to centennial time scale. Within this time frame the most important factor of soil formation may be relief, although this has not been properly studied. This study aims to compare soil properties in a typical chernozem landscape where soils have been highly disturbed and parent materials have been re-arranged by surface coal mining. We hypothesize that within 50 years, soils develop with significant differences based on vegetation type and slope aspect. Our study site is the former Diplomat Mine near Forestburg, Alberta where spoils form a small scale ridge and graben topography. The south facing slopes of the piles are covered by grassland, whereas on the north exposition has trees and shrubs. Samples were taken from six sites with differences in topography and vegetation type. Diplomate T1 is at the top of the ridge with grassland, Diplomate S1 is on the southern slope with grassland, Diplomate N1 is on the northern slope with trees, and Diplomate N2 is on the northern slope with shrubs. For comparison we took samples from two sites without slope aspect. One site was an undisturbed grassland (Diplomate Z1) and the other sites were reclaimed piles (Diplomate R1). At each site, five soil profiles were examined and volumetrically sampled (250 cm3 steel ring) in steps of five centimeters to a depth of 30 centimeters. We present first

  7. Characteristics of wood ash and influence on soil properties and nutrient uptake: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, A; Voundi Nkana, J C; Verloo, M G

    2001-05-01

    Wood industries and power plants generate enormous quantities of wood ash. Disposal in landfills has been for long a common method for removal. New regulations for conserving the environment have raised the costs of landfill disposal and added to the difficulties for acquiring new sites for disposal. Over a few decades a number of studies have been carried out on the utilization of wood ashes in agriculture and forestry as an alternative method for disposal. Because of their properties and their influence on soil chemistry the utilization of wood ashes is particularly suited for the fertility management of tropical acid soils and forest soils. This review principally focuses on ash from the wood industry and power plants and considers its physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics, its effect on soil properties, on the availability of nutrient elements and on the growth and chemical composition of crops and trees, as well as its impact on the environment.

  8. Predicting Soluble Nickel in Soils Using Soil Properties and Total Nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Jumei; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Bo; Ma, Yibing

    2015-01-01

    Soil soluble nickel (Ni) concentration is very important for determining soil Ni toxicity. In the present study, the relationships between soil properties, total and soluble Ni concentrations in soils were developed in a wide range of soils with different properties and climate characteristics. The multiple regressions showed that soil pH and total soil Ni concentrations were the most significant parameters in predicting soluble Ni concentrations with the adjusted determination coefficients (Radj2) values of 0.75 and 0.68 for soils spiked with soluble Ni salt and the spiked soils leached with artificial rainwater to mimic field conditions, respectively. However, when the soils were divided into three categories (pH 8), they obtained better predictions with Radj2 values of 0.78-0.90 and 0.79-0.94 for leached and unleached soils, respectively. Meanwhile, the other soil properties, such as amorphous Fe and Al oxides and clay, were also found to be important for determining soluble Ni concentrations, indicating that they were also presented as active adsorbent surfaces. Additionally, the whole soil speciation including bulk soil properties and total soils Ni concentrations were analyzed by mechanistic speciation models WHAM VI and Visual MINTEQ3.0. It was found that WHAM VI provided the best predictions for the soils with pH 8. The Visual MINTEQ3.0 could provide better estimation for pH 8. These results indicated the possibility and applicability of these models to predict soil soluble Ni concentration by soil properties.

  9. Assessment of Index Properties and Bearing Capacities of Soils for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Owoyemi

    on the physical properties and foundation bearing capacity of the soil in this area. This research aimed ... While many new structures are springing up daily in the .... plasticity soil. Most soil samples from both locations classify as A-2 -4 under the AASHTO classification system, rating as good subgrade materials. Bulk density ...

  10. Effects of sewage sludge application on selected soil properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NSK/2) and one pit on the site that did not (NS/NSK) and described them before collecting soil samples from the genetic horizons of each pit for analysis of soil properties. Soil organic carbon (OC), microbial respiration, electrical conductivity (EC), ...

  11. Influence of Soil Properties on Soldierless Termite Distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bourguignon, T.; Drouet, T.; Šobotník, J.; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2015), e0135341/1-e0135341/11 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : tropical termites * soil -feeding termites * soil properties * soil preference Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0135341

  12. IMPACT OF OIL ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL SUBSIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алексей Алексеевич Бурцев

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the effect of oil content on the mechanical properties of soil subsidence - Ek modulus and compressibility factor m0, obtained in the laboratory with the help of artificial impregnation oil soil samples. A comparison of the above parameters with samples of the same soil in the natural and water-saturated conditions has been perfomed.

  13. Soil profile property estimation with field and laboratory VNIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) soil sensors have the potential to provide rapid, high-resolution estimation of multiple soil properties. Although many studies have focused on laboratory-based visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy of dried soil samples, previous work has demonstrated ...

  14. Design and Fabrication of a Soil Moisture Meter Using Thermal Conductivity Properties of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir DAS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Study of soil for agricultural purposes is one of the main focuses of research since the beginning of civilization as food related requirements is closely linked with the soil. The study of soil has generated an interest among the researchers for very similar other reasons including understanding of soil water dynamics, evolution of agricultural water stress and validation of soil moisture modeling. In this present work design of a soil moisture measurement meter using thermal conductivity properties of soil has been proposed and experimental results are reported.

  15. Soil adsorption of various chemical forms of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabova, T.; Palagyi, S.

    1976-01-01

    The adsorption was studied of radioiodate and radioiodide by the soil in an experiment aimed at testing the behaviour of these two chemical forms of radioiodine. 131 IO 3 - was used in the experiment, prepared by the oxidation of carrier-free Na 131 I with NaClO in an acid medium. Thin-layer chromatography showed that the stability of radioiodate depended on the solution pH value. The highest stability was found at pH 7 to 11. When pH=7 was maintained, only a slow reduction was found of radioiodate to radioiodide. A significant difference was found in the adsorption of radioiodate and radioiodide. The iodide was sorbed faster and to a higher degree, especially by chernozem (due to the high content of organic mass in the soil) as against retzina. It is believed that soil contamination is primarily due to radioiodide. (L.O.)

  16. Soil surface protection by Biocrusts: effects of functional groups on textural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concostrina-Zubiri, Laura; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Martínez, Isabel; Flores Flores, José Luis; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-04-01

    In drylands, where vegetation cover is commonly scarce, soil surface is prone to wind and water soil erosion, with the subsequent loss of topsoil structure and chemical properties. These processes are even more pronounced in ecosystems subjected to extra erosive forces, such as grasslands and rangelands that support livestock production. However, some of the physiological and functional traits of biocrusts (i.e., complex association of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, fungi and soil particles) make them ideal to resist in disturbed environments and at the same time to protect soil surface from mechanical perturbations. In particular, the filaments and exudates of soil cyanobacteria and the rhizines of lichen can bind together soil particles, forming soil aggregates at the soil surface and thus enhancing soil stability. Also, they act as "biological covers" that preserve the most vulnerable soil layer from wind and runoff erosion and raindrop impact, maintaining soil structure and composition. In this work, we evaluated soil textural properties and organic matter content under different functional groups of biocrusts (i.e., cyanobacteria crust, 3 lichen species, 1 moss species) and in bare soil. In order to assess the impact of livestock trampling on soil properties and on Biocrust function, we sampled three sites conforming a disturbance gradient (low, medium and high impact sites) and a long-term livestock exclusion as control site. We found that the presence of biocrusts had little effects on soil textural properties and organic matter content in the control site, while noticeable differences were found between bare soil and soil under biocrusts (e.g., up to 16-37% higher clay content, compared to bare soil and up to 10% higher organic matter content). In addition, we found that depending on morphological traits and grazing regime, the effects of biocrusts changed along the gradient. For example, soil under the lichen Diploschistes diacapsis, with thick thallus

  17. Designing chemical soil characterization programs for mixed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, K.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project is a remedial action effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Weldon Spring Site, a former uranium processing facility, is located in east-central Missouri on a portion of a former ordnance works facility which produced trinitrotoluene during World War II. As a result of both uranium and ordnance production, the soils have become both radiologically and chemically contaminated. As a part of site characterization efforts in support of the environmental documentation process, a chemical soil characterization program was developed. This program consisted of biased and unbiased sampling program which maximized areal coverage, provided a statistically sound data base and maintained cost effectiveness. This paper discusses how the general rationale and processes used at the Weldon Spring Site can be applied to other mixed and hazardous waste sites

  18. Influence of wood-derived biochar on the physico-mechanical and chemical characteristics of agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed S. F.; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2018-01-01

    Amendment of soil with biochar has been shown to enhance fertility and increase crop productivity, but the specific influence of biochar on soil workability remains unclear. Select physico-mechanical and chemical properties of clay loam and sandy loam soils were measured after amendment with wood-derived biochar of two particle size ranges (0.5-425 and 425-850 µm) at five dosages ranging from 0.5 to 10% dry weight. Whereas the clay loam soil workability decreased when the finer wood-derived biochar was applied at rates of 6 or 10%, soil fertility was not enhanced. The sandy loam soil, due to Proctor compaction, significantly decreased in bulk density with 6 and 10% wood-derived biochar amendments indicating higher soil resistance to compaction.

  19. Soil Catena Properties of Daher Al- Jabal in South Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam H. M. Husein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil catena concept is a sequence of soils extends across relief positions and is developed from similar parent material. This study highlighted on the important aspects and properties of soil catena of Daher El-Jabal in Jabal Al-Arab mountainous area South eastern of Syria, by implementing pedologic study in 2010-2012. Six soil profiles have been studied along pedo-genetic transect in order to highlight the soil catena prevailing properties. The results reveal that the soil has formed from igneous basaltic parent casts, related to Neogen era, where reliefs had the key role in the developing of soil solum. Consequently, Entisols were dominated on eroded summits, Inceptisols on back slops and mountain flanks, Mollisols on depressions. Both water erosion of soil surface and leaching inside soil solum processes were responsible for variation of soil texture, as such soils showed evident of changing in particles size distribution as well as in clay content. Cation exchange capacity (CEC was less than moderate with domination of Magnesium cation. Soil trace elements were poor to somewhat poor. Soil pH values in general were low; which reflect the pedo-genic character of igneous parent material in which soil drifted from. In some cases, where soil body subjected to continuous leaching of soil bases, in particular calcium cation; soil profiles became totally freed from calcium carbonates. Accordingly soil problems related to downing of soil reaction (pH are more expected to be increasing by time. This is main reason for some physical diseases, which beginning arise on pomes fruits, particularly bitter pit.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 87-107

  20. Bioaccumulation and chemical modification of Tc by soil bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrot, J.

    1989-01-01

    Bioaccumulation and chemical modification of pertechnetate (TcO 4 -) by aerobically and anaerobically grown soil bacteria and by pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio sp.) were studied to gain insight on the possible mechanisms by which bacteria can affect the solubility of Tc in soil. Aerobically grown bacteria had no apparent effect on TcO 4 -; they did not accumulate Tc nor modify its chemical form. Anaerobically grown bacteria exhibited high bioaccumulation and reduced TcO 4 -, enabling its association with organics of the growth medium. Reduction was a metabolic process and not merely the result of reducing conditions in the growth medium. Association of Tc with bacterial polysaccharides was observed only in cultures of anaerobic bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria efficiently removed Tc from solution and promoted its association with organics. Up to 70% of the total Tc in the growth medium was bioaccumulated and/or precipitated. The remaining Tc in soluble form was entirely associated with organics. Pertechnetate was not reduced by the same mechanism as dissimilatory sulfate reduction, but rather by some reducing agent released in the growth medium. A calculation of the amount of Tc that could be associated with the bacterial biomass present in soil demonstrates that high concentration ratios in cultures do not necessarily imply that bioaccumulation is an important mechanism for long-term retention of Tc in soil

  1. Mitigating the Expansive Behavior of Chemically Treated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Sochan; Santagata, Maria Caterina

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate-induced heave, resulting from the chemical treatment of sulfate rich soils, has been known to cause significant damage to pavements and other structures particularly in the south-western United States. This research addressed the problem of sulfate-induced heave in coal mine spoils, formed as a result of shallow strip coal mining, after treatment with calcium-based stabilizers. These spoils occur in areas of Indiana in which substantial infrastructure development is taking place and w...

  2. Global soil-climate-biome diagram: linking soil properties to climate and biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Yang, Y.; Fang, J.

    2017-12-01

    As a critical component of the Earth system, soils interact strongly with both climate and biota and provide fundamental ecosystem services that maintain food, climate, and human security. Despite significant progress in digital soil mapping techniques and the rapidly growing quantity of observed soil information, quantitative linkages between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale remain unclear. By compiling a large global soil database, we mapped seven major soil properties (bulk density [BD]; sand, silt and clay fractions; soil pH; soil organic carbon [SOC] density [SOCD]; and soil total nitrogen [STN] density [STND]) based on machine learning algorithms (regional random forest [RF] model) and quantitatively assessed the linkage between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale. Our results demonstrated a global soil-climate-biome diagram, which improves our understanding of the strong correspondence between soils, climate and biomes. Soil pH decreased with greater mean annual precipitation (MAP) and lower mean annual temperature (MAT), and the critical MAP for the transition from alkaline to acidic soil pH decreased with decreasing MAT. Specifically, the critical MAP ranged from 400-500 mm when the MAT exceeded 10 °C but could decrease to 50-100 mm when the MAT was approximately 0 °C. SOCD and STND were tightly linked; both increased in accordance with lower MAT and higher MAP across terrestrial biomes. Global stocks of SOC and STN were estimated to be 788 ± 39.4 Pg (1015 g, or billion tons) and 63 ± 3.3 Pg in the upper 30-cm soil layer, respectively, but these values increased to 1654 ± 94.5 Pg and 133 ± 7.8 Pg in the upper 100-cm soil layer, respectively. These results reveal quantitative linkages between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale, suggesting co-evolution of the soil, climate and biota under conditions of global environmental change.

  3. Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Lasso, Daniel Hidalgo; van der Zaan, Bas; van Gaans, Pauline; Maphosa, Farai; Smidt, Hauke; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-03-01

    To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in two diesel-contaminated soils (peat and fill). Chemical oxidant and soil type affected the microbial community diversity and biodegradation activity; however, this was only observed following treatment with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent, and in the biotic control without oxidation. Differences in the highest overall removal efficiencies of 69 % for peat (biotic control) and 59 % for fill (Fenton's reagent) were partially explained by changes in contaminant soil properties upon oxidation. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA and alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene abundances indicated that oxidation with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent negatively affected microbial abundance. However, regeneration occurred, and final relative alkB abundances were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in chemically treated microcosms than in the biotic control. 16S rRNA gene fragment fingerprinting with DGGE and prominent band sequencing illuminated microbial community composition and diversity differences between treatments and identified a variety of phylotypes within Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. Understanding microbial community dynamics during coupled chemical oxidation and bioremediation is integral to improved biphasic field application.

  4. Influence of plants on the chemical extractability and biodegradability of 2,4-dichlorophenol in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucard, Tatiana K.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the fate and behaviour of [UL- 14 C] 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) in planted (Lolium perenne L.) and unplanted soils over 57 days. Extractability of [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was measured using calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), acetonitrile-water and dichloromethane (DCM) extractions. Biodegradability of [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was assessed through measurement of 14 CO 2 production by a degrader inoculum (Burkholderia sp.). Although extractability and mineralisation of [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity decreased significantly in both planted and unplanted soils, plants appeared to enhance the sequestration process. After 57 days, in unplanted soil, 27% of the remaining [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was mineralised by Burkholderia sp., and 13%, 48%, and 38% of 14 C-activity were extracted by CaCl 2 , acetonitrile-water and DCM, respectively. However, after 57 days, in planted soils, only 10% of the [UL- 14 C] 2,4-DCP associated activity was available for mineralisation, whilst extractability was reduced to 2% by CaCl 2 , 17% by acetonitrile-water and 11% by DCM. This may be due to the effect of plants on soil moisture conditions, which leads to modification of the soil structure and trapping of the compound. However, the influence of plants on soil biological and chemical properties may also play a role in the ageing process

  5. Physical and water properties of selected Polish heavy soils of various origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarek Zbigniew

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of selected physical, chemical, and water properties of four mineral arable soils characterized with heavy and very heavy texture. Soil samples from genetic horizons of black earths from areas near Kętrzyn, Gniew and Kujawy, and alluvial soils from Żuławy were used. The following properties were determined in the samples of undisturbed and disturbed structure: texture, particle density, bulk density, porosity, natural and hygroscopic moistures, maximal hygroscopic capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, potential of water bonding in soil, total and readily available water, total retention in the horizon of 0–50 cm, drainage porosity, content of organic carbon and total nitrogen Parent rocks of these soils were clays, silts and loams of various origin. High content of clay fraction strongly influenced the values of all the analyzed properties. All the examined soils had high content of organic carbon and total nitrogen and reaction close to neutral or alkaline. High content of mineral and organic colloids and, what follows, beneficial state of top horizons’ structure, determined – apart from heavy texture – low soil bulk density and high porosity. The investigated soils were characterized by high field water capacity and wide scopes of total and readily available water. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was low and characteristic to heavy mineral arable soils. The parameter which influenced the variability of analyzed parameters most was texture.

  6. Relationships between soil erosion risk, soil use and soil properties in Mediterranean areas. A comparative study of three typical sceneries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Juan; Priego-Navas, Mercedes; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Generally, literature shows that the high variability of rainfall-induced soil erosion is related to climatic differences, relief, soil properties and land use. Very different runoff rates and soil loss values have been reported in Mediterranean cropped soils depending on soil management practices, but also in soils under natural vegetation types. OBJECTIVES The aim of this research is to study the relationships between soil erosion risk, soil use and soil properties in three typical Mediterranean areas from southern Spain: olive groves under conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no-till practices, and soils under natural vegetation. METHODS Rainfall simulation experiments have been carried out in order to assess the relationship between soil erosion risk, land use, soil management and soil properties in olive-cropped soils under different types of management and soils under natural vegetation type from Mediterranean areas in southern Spain RESULTS Results show that mean runoff rates decrease from 35% in olive grove soils under conventional tillage to 25% in olive (Olea europaea) grove soils with minimum tillage or no-till practices, and slightly over 22% in soils under natural vegetation. Moreover, considering the different vegetation types, runoff rates vary in a wide range, although runoff rates from soils under holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia), 25.70%, and marginal olive groves , 25.31%, are not significantly different. Results from soils under natural vegetation show that the properties and nature of the organic residues play a role in runoff characteristics, as runoff rates above 50% were observed in less than 10% of the rainfall simulations performed on soils with a organic layer. In contrast, more than half of runoff rates from bare soils reached or surpassed 50%. Quantitatively, average values for runoff water losses increase up to 2.5 times in unprotected soils. This is a key issue in the study area, where mean annual rainfall is above 600 mm

  7. Effect of Different Organic Wastes on Soil Propertie s and Plant Growth and Yield: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain M. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic wastes in agriculture plays a great role in recycling essential plant nutrients, sustaining soil security as well as protecting the environment from unwanted hazards. This review article deals with the effect of different kinds of organic wastes on soil properties and plant growth and yield. Municipal solid waste is mainly used as a source of nitrogen and organic matter, improving soil properties and microbial activity that are closely related to soil fertility. Biowaste and food waste increase pH, nitrogen content, cation exchange capacity, water holding capacity, and microbial biomass in soil. Sewage sludge contains various amounts of organic matter and huge amounts of plant nutrients. Manure is a common waste which improves soil properties by adding nutrients and increases microbial and enzyme activity in soil. It also reduces toxicity of some heavy metals. These organic wastes have a great positive impact on soil physical, chemical, and biological properties as well as stimulate plant growth and thus increase the yield of crops.

  8. AN ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF SELENIUM IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Luca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential microelement, sometimes redoubtable, through its beneficial role - risk depending on its concentration in the food chain, at low dose is an important nutrient in the life of humans and animals, contrary at high doses, it becomes toxic. Selenium may be find itself in the environment (soil, sediment, water in many forms (oxidized, reduced, organometallic which determine their mobility and toxicity. Determination of chemical speciation (identification of different chemical forms provides much more complete information for a better understanding of the behavior and the potential impact on the environment. In this work we present the results of methodological research on the extraction of sequential forms of selenium in the soil and the coupling of analytical methods capable of identifying very small amounts of selenium in soils An efficient scheme of sequential extractions forms of selenium (SES consisting in atomic absorption spectrometry coupled with hydride generation (HGAAS has been developed into five experimental steps, detailed in the paper. This operational scheme has been applied to the analysis of chemical speciation in the following areas: the Bărăgan Plain and Central Dobrogea of Romania.

  9. Plant species diversity affects infiltration capacity in an experimental grassland through changes in soil properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, C.; Tischer, J.; Roscher, C.; Eisenhauer, N.; Ravenek, J.; Gleixner, G.; Attinger, S.; Jensen, B.; Kroon, de H.; Mommer, L.; Scheu, S.; Hildebrandt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Soil hydraulic properties drive water distribution and availability in soil. There exists limited knowledge of how plant species diversity might influence soil hydraulic properties. Methods We quantified the change in infiltration capacity affected by soil structural variables

  10. Improvement of geotechnical properties of sabkha soil utilizing cement kiln dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Al-Homidy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of properties of weak soils in terms of strength, durability and cost is the key from engineering point of view. The weak soils could be stabilized using mechanical and/or chemical methods. Agents added during chemical stabilization could improve the engineering properties of treated soils. Stabilizers utilized have to satisfy noticeable performance, durability, low price, and can be easily implemented. Since cement kiln dust (CKD is industrial by-product, it would be a noble task if this waste material could be utilized for stabilization of sabkha soil. This study investigates the feasibility of utilizing CKD for improving the properties of sabkha soil. Soil samples are prepared with 2% cement and 10%, 20% or 30% CKD and are tested to determine their unconfined compressive strength (UCS, soaked California bearing ratio (CBR and durability. Mechanism of stabilization is studied utilizing advanced techniques, such as the scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, backscattered electron image (BEI and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD. It is noted that the sabkha soil mixed with 2% cement and 30% CKD could be used as a sub-base material in rigid pavements. The incorporation of CKD leads to technical and economic benefits.

  11. Change in a ferralsol physico-chemical properties under pineapple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-07-31

    Jul 31, 2015 ... The values of chemical characteristics started to decline ... Journal of Applied Biosciences 91:8559 – 8569. ISSN 1997–5902 .... potentiometric method (in a soil / water ratio of 1 / ..... Engineer Agronomist thesis, University of.

  12. Physical and chemical properties of pyrolyzed biosolids for utilization in sand-based turfgrass rootzones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosolids are several forms of treated sewage sludge that are intended for use as soil conditioners for horticultural, agricultural and industrial crops. The objectives of this research were to determine the chemical and physical properties of biosolids pyrolyzed at several different temperatures, a...

  13. Interaction Among Machine Traffic, Soil Physical Properties and Loblolly Pine Root Prolifereation in a Piedmont Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily A. Carter; Timothy P. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The impact of forwarder traffic on soil physical properties was evaluated on a Gwinnett sandy loam, a commonly found soil of the Piedmont. Soil strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity were significantly altered by forwarder traffic, but reductions in air-filled porosity also occurred. Bulk density did not increase significantly in trafficked treatments. The...

  14. Impact of land management on soil structure and soil hydraulic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Jirků, V.; Nikodem, A.; Mühlhanselová, M.; Žigová, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010) ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Wienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : land management * soil structure * soil hydraulic properties * micromorphology Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  15. Inversion of soil electrical conductivity data to estimate layered soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    CBulk apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) sensors respond to multiple soil properties, including clay content, water content, and salt content (i.e., salinity). They provide a single sensor value for an entire soil profile down to a sensor-dependent measurement depth, weighted by a nonlinear...

  16. Soil heating in chaparral fires: effects on soil properties, plant nutrients, erosion, and runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard F. DeBano; Raymond M. Rice; Conrad C. Eugene

    1979-01-01

    This state-of-the-art report summarizes what is known about the effects of heat on soil during chaparral fires. It reviews the literature on the effects of such fires on soil properties, availabilty and loss of plant nutrients, soil wettability, erosion, and surface runoff. And it reports new data collected during recent prescribed burns and a wildfire in southern...

  17. Soil formation and soil biological properties post mining sites after coal mining in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaneda, Satoshi; Frouz, Jan; Krištůfek, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Pižl, Václav; Starý, Josef; Háněl, Ladislav; Tajovský, Karel; Chroňáková, Alica

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, - (2007), s. 13 ISSN 0288-5840. [Annual Meeting Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition . 22.08.2007, Setagaya city] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil formation * soil biological properties * post mining sites Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Soil physical property estimation from soil strength and apparent electrical conductivity sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantification of soil physical properties through soil sampling and laboratory analyses is time-, cost-, and labor-consuming, making it difficult to obtain the spatially-dense data required for precision agriculture. Proximal soil sensing is an attractive alternative, but many currently available s...

  19. Furfural and its biochar improve the general properties of a saline soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Xu, G.; Shao, H. B.

    2014-07-01

    Organic materials (e.g., furfural residue) are generally believed to improve the physical and chemical properties of saline soils with low fertility. Recently, biochar has been received more attention as a possible measure to improve the carbon balance and improve soil quality in some degraded soils. However, little is known about their different amelioration of a sandy saline soil. In this study, 56 d incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of furfural and its biochar on the properties of saline soil. The results showed that both furfural and biochar greatly reduced pH, increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content and cation exchange capacity (CEC), and enhanced the available phosphorus (P) in the soil. Furfural is more efficient than biochar in reducing pH: 5% furfural lowered the soil pH by 0.5-0.8 (soil pH: 8.3-8.6), while 5% biochar decreased by 0.25-0.4 due to the loss of acidity in pyrolysis process. With respect to available P, furfural addition at a rate of 5% increased available P content by 4-6 times in comparison to 2-5 times with biochar application. In reducing soil exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), biochar is slightly superior to furfural because soil ESP reduced by 51% and 43% with 5% furfural and 5% biochar at the end of incubation. In addition, no significant differences were observed between furfural and biochar about their capacity to retain N, P in leaching solution and to increase CEC in soil. These facts may be caused by the relatively short incubation time. In general, furfural and biochar exhibited a different effect depending on the property: furfural was more effective in decreasing pH and increasing available P, whereas biochar played a more important role in increasing SOC and reducing ESP of saline soil.

  20. Impacts of land leveling on lowland soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Barbat Parfitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of land leveling alters the soil surface to create a uniform slope to improve land conditions for the application of all agricultural practices. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impacts of land leveling through the magnitudes, variances and spatial distributions of selected soil physical properties of a lowland area in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; the relationships between the magnitude of cuts and/or fills and soil physical properties after the leveling process; and evaluation of the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. In the 0-0.20 m layer, a 100-point geo-referenced grid covering two taxonomic soil classes was used in assessment of the following soil properties: soil particle density (Pd and bulk density (Bd; total porosity (Tp, macroporosity (Macro and microporosity (Micro; available water capacity (AWC; sand, silt, clay, and dispersed clay in water (Disp clay contents; electrical conductivity (EC; and weighted average diameter of aggregates (WAD. Soil depth to the top of the B horizon was also measured before leveling. The overall effect of leveling on selected soil physical properties was evaluated by paired "t" tests. The effect on the variability of each property was evaluated through the homogeneity of variance test. The thematic maps constructed by kriging or by the inverse of the square of the distances were visually analyzed to evaluate the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the properties and of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. Linear regression models were fitted with the aim of evaluating the relationship between soil properties and the magnitude of cuts and fills. Leveling altered the mean value of several soil properties and the agronomic effect was negative. The mean values of Bd and Disp clay increased and Tp, Macro and Micro, WAD, AWC and EC decreased. Spatial distributions of all

  1. Impact of TiO2 on the chemical and biological transformation of formulated chiral-metalaxyl in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junxing; Zhang, Xu; Liang, Chuanzhou; Hu, Jun

    2018-04-15

    The impacts of TiO 2 on the chemical and biological transformation of racemic metalaxyl wettable powder (rac-metalaxyl WP) in agricultural soils, and soil microorganisms were investigated. Under simulated solar irradiation, TiO 2 highly promoted the transformation of rac-metalaxyl WP without changing the enantiomer fraction, with the promotion amplitude (60-1280%) being dependent on TiO 2 characteristics. TiO 2 characteristics showed different influence on the transformation of rac-metalaxyl WP in soils and aqueous solutions because their characteristics changed differently in soils. The impact of the mancozeb and other co-constituents on the transformation of rac-metalaxyl WP was smaller in soil media than in aqueous solution. Autoclave sterilization changed soil properties and subsequently weakened the promotion effects of TiO 2 on the chemical transformations of rac-metalaxyl WP to 0-233%. Microorganism biomass and bacterial community were not statistically significant changed by TiO 2 exposure regardless of rac-metalaxyl WP, suggesting that the promotional effects occurred mainly through chemical processes. The results also showed TiO 2 -soil interactions may be strengthened with TiO 2 (Degussa P25) aging time in soils, which decreased its promotion amplitude from 1060% (without aging) to 880% (aging for 20 days). Intermediate formed in soil biological transformation process was different from that in TiO 2 photocatalysis process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relating soil geochemical properties to arsenic bioaccessibility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — soil element total concentration, soil pH and arsenic bioaccessibility values. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: EPA cannot release personally...