WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical release inventory

  1. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals by Groupings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) makes available information for more than 600 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or released...

  2. Toxics Release Inventory Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) dataset contains hazard information about the chemicals reported in TRI. Users can...

  3. The US EPA Geographic Information System for mapping environmental releases of toxic chemical release inventory (TRI) chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockwell, J.R.; Sorensen, J.W.; Eckert, J.W. Jr.; Carreras, E.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    This study characterizes the environmental releases of toxic chemicals of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) in the southeastern United States by using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Geographic Information System (GIS) to map them. These maps show that the largest quantities of TRI releases in the Southeast are usually near densely populated areas. This GIS mapping approach takes the first steps in defining those areas in the region which may be potential exposure zones and which could be strategic targets for future risk screening efforts in this geographic area. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01

    For reporting year 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2008 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2008, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  5. Hazard screening of chemical releases and environmental equity analysis of populations proximate to toxic release inventory facilities in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, C M; Forman, D L; Rothlein, J E

    1998-04-01

    A comprehensive approach using hazard screening, demographic analysis, and a geographic information system (GIS) for mapping is employed to address environmental equity issues in Oregon. A media-specific chronic toxicity index [or chronic index (CI)] was used to compare environmental chemical releases reported in the EPA's Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) database. In 1992, 254 facilities reportedly released more than 40 million pounds of toxic chemicals directly into the environment on-site or transferred them to sewage treatment plants or other off-site facilities for disposal and recycling. For each reported on-site TRI chemical release, a CI based on oral toxicity factors and total mass was calculated. CIs were aggregated on a media-, facility-, and chemical-specific basis. Glycol ethers, nickel, trichloroethylene, chloroform, and manganese were ranked as the top five chemicals released statewide based on total CI. In contrast, based on total mass, methanol, nickel, ammonia, acetone, and toluene were identified as the top five TRI chemicals released in Oregon. TRI facility rankings were related to the demographics and household income of surrounding neighborhoods using bivariate GIS mapping and statistical analysis. TRI facilities were disproportionately located in racial and ethnic minority neighborhoods. They were also located in areas with lower incomes compared to those in the surrounding county. No relationship was observed between the hazard ranking of the TRI facilities overall and socioeconomic characteristics of the community in which they were located.

  6. Toxic chemical release inventory reporting: Questions and answers (Qs&As)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    On September 22, 1992, the Secretary of Energy directed the Department to participate in the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) 33/50 Pollution Prevention Program and to initiate Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) reporting, pursuant to Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231) issued interim guidance on March 4, 1993, entitled ``Toxic Chemical Release Inventory and 33/50 Pollution Prevention Program`` that provided instructions on implementing the Secretarial directive. As stated in the interim guidance, all DOE sites not currently reporting under EPCRA Section 313, which meet the criteria for DOE TRI reporting, will initiate reporting of all TRI chemical releases and transfers for the 1993 calendar year with the annual report due to EPA, States and a courtesy copy to EH-20 by July 1, 1994. All other DOE sites which currently report under EPCRA Section 313 will also follow the criteria for DOE TRI reporting.

  7. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  8. PCDD/PCDF release inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, H. [UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) entered into force on 17 May 2004 with 50 Parties. In May 2004, 59 countries had ratified or acceded the Convention. The objective of the Convention is ''to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants''. For intentionally produced POPs, e.g., pesticides and industrial chemicals such as hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls, this will be achieved by stop of production and use. For unintentionally generated POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), measures have to be taken to ''reduce the total releases derived from anthropogenic sources''; the final goal is ultimate elimination, where feasible. Under the Convention, Parties have to establish and maintain release inventories to prove the continuous release reduction. Since many countries do not have the technical and financial capacity to measure all releases from all potential PCDD/PCDF sources, UNEP Chemicals has developed the ''Standardized Toolkit for the Identification of Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases'' (''Toolkit'' for short), a methodology to estimate annual releases from a number of sources. With this methodology, annual releases can be estimated by multiplying process-specific default emission factors provided in the Toolkit with national activity data. At the seventh session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, the Toolkit was recommended to be used by countries when reporting national release data to the Conference of the Parties. The Toolkit is especially used by developing countries and countries with economies in transition where no measured data are available. Results from Uruguay, Thailand, Jordan, Philippines, and Brunei Darussalam have been published.

  9. 1998 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjorie B. Stockton

    1999-11-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986 [also known as the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA), Title III], as modified by Executive Order 12856, requires that all federal facilities evaluate the need to submit an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report as prescribed in Title III, Section 313 of this Act. This annual report is due every July for the preceding calendar year. Owners and operators who manufacture, process, or otherwise use certain toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities are required to report their toxic chemical releases to all environmental mediums (air, water, soil, etc.). At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), no EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 1998 above the reportable threshold limits of 10,000 lb or 25,000 lb. Therefore LANL was not required to submit any Toxic Chemical Release Inventory reports (Form Rs) for 1998. This document was prepared to provide a detailed description of the evaluation on chemical usage and EPCRA Section 313 threshold determinations for LANL for 1998.

  10. 1997 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heather McBride

    1997-07-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCIL4), Title III, Section 313 [also known as the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA)], as modified by Executive Order 12856, requires all federal facilities to submit an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report every July for the preceding calendar year. Owners and operators of manufacturing, processing, or production facilities are required to report their toxic chemical releases to all environmental mediums (air, water, soil, etc.). At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), nitric acid was the only toxic chemical used in 1997 that met the reportable threshold limit of 10,000 lb. Form R is the only documentation required by the Environmental Protection Agency, and it is included in the appendix of this report. This report, as requested by DOE, is provided for documentation purposes. In addition, a detailed description of the evaluation and reporting process for chemicals and processes at LANL has been included.

  11. 2004 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Stockton

    2006-01-15

    Section 313 of Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. For reporting year 2004, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds, nitric acid, and nitrate compounds as required under the EPCRA Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2004 above the reportable thresholds. This document provides a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2004, as well as background information about data included on the Form R reports.

  12. 2002 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Stockton

    2003-11-01

    For reporting year 2002, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds and mercury as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2002 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical usage and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2002 as well as provide background information about the data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999 EPA promulgated a final rule on Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable under EPCRA Section 313. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  13. 2006 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group (ENV-EAQ)

    2007-12-12

    For reporting year 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2006 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2006, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  14. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  15. 77 FR 13061 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... the online reporting software application known as the Toxics Release Inventory-Made Easy Web or... Software TRI-MEweb--Toxics Release Inventory-Made Easy Internet-based Software Application U.S.C.--United... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 372 Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data AGENCY:...

  16. 78 FR 52860 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... to report non- trade-secret Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) forms to EPA using electronic software... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 372 RIN 2025-AA30 Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data AGENCY..., Toxics Release Inventory Program Division, Mailcode 2844T, OEI, Environmental Protection Agency,...

  17. Toxics Release Inventory reporting: Focus on the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biden, D.; Cain, R.D.; Hoone, D.; Duncan, M.F.; O' Reilly, M.J.; Dodson, S.; Koch, L.L.; Novitsky, W.M.; Ogitis, R.S.; Farkas, S.M.

    1999-07-01

    The look of EPA's annual Toxics Release Inventory Report (TRI) is about to change. Starting in the 1998 reporting year seven new industries are required to report TRI releases. The electric utility industry will join the chemical industry and others who have reported under TRI rules for the last ten years. A major change to EPA's report will be the top ten chemical list. The TRI releases that the electric utility sector will report are of a different chemical composition than those from manufacturing. Because of the layout of the TRI database, the large quantities of utility releases will shift the public focus away from organic constituents to that of less familiar combustion by-products. The resulting shift of reported chemicals could rekindle and intensify interest in air related issues such as acid rain, global warming, and deforestation, and result in public confusion over the health and safety implications associated with releases generated by coal combustion. The nature of the electric generation marketplace will also make year-to-year and company-to-company chemical release comparisons difficult with the present framework of EPA's publication of TRI data.

  18. Inventory of chemical releases of nuclear installations in the North-Cotentin; Inventaire des rejets chimiques des installations nucleaires du Nord-Cotentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-15

    The nuclear installations concerned by this study are Cogema La Hague, the Flamanville nuclear power plant, the Manche plant and the National Navy of Cherbourg.The objective followed by the ' source term ' work group has consisted in counting and examining the whole of existing measures relative to the releases of chemical substances in the liquid and gaseous effluents. Then because of the lack of measures for the operation first years of installations, the work group has estimated the order of magnitude of these chemical releases (essentially for Cogema La Hague). This report presents a review of the literature looking at the background levels of chemicals in different environmental compartments: air, soil, plants and animals products. these values have been summarized here to be available for comparisons with concentrations input by the North Cotentin nuclear installations, calculated by the G.R.N.C. (radioecology group of Nord Cotentin)

  19. Inventory of LCIA selection methods for assessing toxic releases. Methods and typology report part B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    This report describes an inventory of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) selection methods for assessing toxic releases. It consists of an inventory of current selection methods and other Chemical Ranking and Scoring (CRS) methods assessed to be relevant for the development of (a) new selection...... characterisation. Selection methods are used within LCIA to select those chemical emissions (mapped in the inventory part of the LCA in question) that are expected to contribute significantly to the characterisation and exclude the insignificant ones. In this way only significant emissions (i.e. the selected ones...

  20. 2004 Toxic Release Inventory Sites in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, EPA (2006) [toxic_release_inventory_site_LA_EPA_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Data extracted from the EPA Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) system for reporting year 2004. The dataset contains facility identification, submitted and/or preferred...

  1. 2009 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Environmental Stewardship Group (ENV-ES)

    2010-11-01

    For reporting year 2009, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2009 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2009, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports.

  2. USE OF CHEMICAL INVENTORY ACCURACY MEASUREMENTS AS LEADING INDICATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntamukkula, M.

    2011-02-10

    Chemical safety and lifecycle management (CSLM) is a process that involves managing chemicals and chemical information from the moment someone begins to order a chemical and lasts through final disposition(1). Central to CSLM is tracking data associated with chemicals which, for the purposes of this paper, is termed the chemical inventory. Examples of data that could be tracked include chemical identity, location, quantity, date procured, container type, and physical state. The reason why so much data is tracked is that the chemical inventory supports many functions. These functions include emergency management, which depends upon the data to more effectively plan for, and respond to, chemical accidents; environmental management that uses inventory information to aid in the generation of various federally-mandated and other regulatory reports; and chemical management that uses the information to increase the efficiency and safety with which chemicals are stored and utilized. All of the benefits of having an inventory are predicated upon having an inventory that is reasonably accurate. Because of the importance of ensuring one's chemical inventory is accurate, many have become concerned about measuring inventory accuracy. But beyond providing a measure of confidence in information gleaned from the inventory, does the inventory accuracy measurement provide any additional function? The answer is 'Yes'. It provides valuable information that can be used as a leading indicator to gauge the health of a chemical management system. In this paper, we will discuss: what properties make leading indicators effective, how chemical inventories can be used as a leading indicator, how chemical inventory accuracy can be measured, what levels of accuracies should realistically be expected in a healthy system, and what a subpar inventory accuracy measurement portends.

  3. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Chemical Release Modeling Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirrup, Timothy Scott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-20

    This evaluation documents the methodology and results of chemical release modeling for operations at Building 518, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Core Facility. This evaluation is intended to supplement an update to the CINT [Standalone] Hazards Analysis (SHA). This evaluation also updates the original [Design] Hazards Analysis (DHA) completed in 2003 during the design and construction of the facility; since the original DHA, additional toxic materials have been evaluated and modeled to confirm the continued low hazard classification of the CINT facility and operations. This evaluation addresses the potential catastrophic release of the current inventory of toxic chemicals at Building 518 based on a standard query in the Chemical Information System (CIS).

  4. U.S./Mexico Border environmental study toxics release inventory data, 1988--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.F.; LoPresti, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    This is a report on industrial toxic chemical releases and transfers based on information reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), a database maintained by the USEPA. This document discusses patterns of toxic chemical releases to the atmosphere, to water, to the land, and to underground injection; and transfers of toxic chemicals to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW), and for disposal, treatment and other off-site transfers during the TRI reporting years 1988--1992. Geographic coverage is limited to the US side of the ``Border Area``, the geographic area situated within 100 km of the US/Mexico international boundary. A primary purpose of this study is to provide background information that can be used in the future development of potential ``indicator variables`` for tracking environmental and public health status in the Border Area in conjunction with the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

  5. Human toxicity potentials for life-cycle assessment and toxics release inventory risk screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, E G; Mateles, S F; Pease, W S; McKone, T E

    2001-04-01

    The human toxicity potential (HTP), a calculated index that reflects the potential harm of a unit of chemical released into the environment, is based on both the inherent toxicity of a compound and its potential dose. It is used to weight emissions inventoried as part of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) or in the toxics release inventory (TRI) and to aggregate emissions in terms of a reference compound. Total emissions can be evaluated in terms of benzene equivalence (carcinogens) and toluene equivalents (noncarcinogens). The potential dose is calculated using a generic fate and exposure model, CalTOX, which determines the distribution of a chemical in a model environment and accounts for a number of exposure routes, including inhalation, ingestion of produce, fish, and meat, and dermal contact with water and soil. Toxicity is represented by the cancer potency q1* for carcinogens and the safe dose (RfD, RfC) for noncarcinogens. This article presents cancer and noncancer HTP values for air and surface-water emissions of 330 compounds. This list covers 258 chemicals listed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency TRI, or 79 weight-% of the TRI releases to air reported in 1997.

  6. Expansion of ARAC for chemical releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskett, R.L.; Blair, M.D.; Foster, C.S.; Taylor, A.G.

    1997-07-01

    In 1996 the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) completed an effort to expand its national emergency response modeling system for chemical releases. Key components of the new capability include the integration of (1) an extensive chemical property database, (2) source modeling for tanks and evaporating pools, (3) denser-than-air dispersion, (4) public exposure guidelines, and (5) an interactive graphical user interface (GUI). Recent use and the future of the new capability are also discussed.

  7. Features of the Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, R; Marcello, I

    1994-01-01

    The Italian National Inventory of Chemical Substances (Inventario nazionale delle sostanze chimiche, INSC), a factual data bank on chemical toxicology produced by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), consists of a computerized system on existing chemicals developed for routinary and emergency needs. Historical background, current status and future direction of INSC are discussed. The structure and the feature of INSC are briefly examined. Aspects of retrieval of information and the criteria for the inclusion of data and priority selection are also considered.

  8. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  9. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.; Davis, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This topical report contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences of releases of toxic chemical and gases for the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis report (FSAR).It does not provide results for specific accident scenarios but does provide information for use in those calculations including chemicals to be considered, chemical concentrations, chemical limits and a method of summing the fractional contributions of each chemical. Tank farm composites evaluated were liquids and solids for double shell tanks, single shell tanks, all solids,all liquids, headspace gases, and 241-C-106 solids. Emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs) were used as the limits.Where ERPGs were not available for the chemicals of interest, surrogate ERPGs were developed. Revision 2 includes updated sample data, an executive summary, and some editorial revisions.

  10. Formaldehyde-releasers : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; Flyvholm, Mari-ann; Lensen, Gerda; Menne, Torkil; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2009-01-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the literatu

  11. 2015 TRI National Analysis: Toxics Release Inventory Releases at Various Summary Levels

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The TRI National Analysis is EPA's annual interpretation of TRI data at various summary levels. It highlights how toxic chemical wastes were managed, where toxic...

  12. 2014 TRI National Analysis: Toxic Release Inventory Releases at Various Summary Levels

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The TRI National Analysis is EPA's annual interpretation of TRI data at various summary levels. It highlights how toxic chemical wastes were managed, where toxic...

  13. Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Anton C; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda;

    2009-01-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the liter...... reactions is often challenging. What concentration of formaldehyde is safe for sensitive patients remains unknown. Levels of 200-300 p.p.m. free formaldehyde in cosmetic products have been shown to induce dermatitis from short-term use on normal skin....

  14. 76 FR 2677 - Request Facilities To Report Toxics Release Inventory Information Electronically or Complete Fill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... process TRI submissions and make valuable toxic chemical release and other waste management data available... codes other than SIC codes 20 through 39): 212111, 212112, 212113 (correspond to SIC 12, Coal Mining (except 1241)); 212221, 212222, 212231, 212234, 212299 (correspond to SIC 10, Metal Mining (except...

  15. Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Menné, Torkil; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2009-08-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the literature as formaldehyde-releasers, data are inadequate to consider them as such beyond doubt. Several (nomenclature) mistakes and outdated information are discussed. Formaldehyde and formaldehyde allergy are reviewed: applications, exposure scenarios, legislation, patch testing problems, frequency of sensitization, relevance of positive patch test reactions, clinical pattern of allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde, prognosis, threshold for elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, analytical tests to determine formaldehyde in products and frequency of exposure to formaldehyde and releasers. The frequency of contact allergy to formaldehyde is consistently higher in the USA (8-9%) than in Europe (2-3%). Patch testing with formaldehyde is problematic; the currently used 1% solution may result in both false-positive and false-negative (up to 40%) reactions. Determining the relevance of patch test reactions is often challenging. What concentration of formaldehyde is safe for sensitive patients remains unknown. Levels of 200-300 p.p.m. free formaldehyde in cosmetic products have been shown to induce dermatitis from short-term use on normal skin.

  16. Modeling release of chemicals from multilayer materials into food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The migration of chemicals from materials into food is predictable by various mathematical models. In this article, a general mathematical model is developed to quantify the release of chemicals through multilayer packaging films based on Fick's diffusion. The model is solved numerically to elucidate the effects of different diffusivity values of different layers, distribution of chemical between two adjacent layers and between material and food, mass transfer at the interface of material and food on the migration process.

  17. 75 FR 8266 - Final Clarification for Chemical Identification Describing Activated Phosphors for TSCA Inventory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to assist you and others in determining... an activator would not require a separate new chemical notice. In January 1993, a lighting... purposes if the phosphors and activators were already on the TSCA Inventory. Other manufacturers...

  18. 1992 Tier Two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory. Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, Section 312

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This report is a compilation of data on emergency and hazardous chemicals stored at the Hanford Reservation. The report lists name or chemical description, physical and health hazards, inventories and storage location.

  19. Chemical Inventory Management at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shirley S.; Homan, Joseph R.; Bajorek, Michael J.; Dominguez, Manuel B.; Smith, Vanessa L.

    1997-01-01

    The Chemical Management System (CMS) is a client/server application developed with Power Builder and Sybase for the Lewis Research Center (LeRC). Power Builder is a client-server application development tool, Sybase is a Relational Database Management System. The entire LeRC community can access the CMS from any desktop environment. The multiple functions and benefits of the CMS are addressed.

  20. The ISS National Inventory of Chemical Substances (INSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Roberto; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; Ceccarelli, Federica; D'angiolini, Antonella; Fabri, Alessandra; Riva, Giovanni; Satalia, Susanna; Marcello, Ida

    2008-01-01

    The INSC (Inventario Nazionale delle Sostanze Chimiche), a factual data bank, produced by Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), consists of an electronic tool on chemical information developed for routine and emergency purposes. Historical background, current status and future perspectives of INSC are discussed. The structure and the feature of INSC are briefly examined. Aspects of information retrieval and the criteria for inclusion of data and priority selection are also considered.

  1. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a method of determining the toxicological consequences of accidental releases from Hanford Tank Farms. A determination was made of the most restrictive toxic chemicals that are expected to be present in the tanks. Concentrations were estimated based on the maximum sample data for each analyte in all the tanks in the composite. Composite evaluated were liquids and solids from single shell tanks, double shell tanks, flammable gas watch list tanks, as well as all solids, all liquids, head space gases, and 241-C-106 solids. A sum of fractions of the health effects was computed for each composite for unit releases based emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). Where ERPGs were not available for chemical compounds of interest, surrogate guidelines were established. The calculation method in this report can be applied to actual release scenarios by multiplying the sum of fractions by the release rate for continuous releases, or the release amount for puff releases. Risk guidelines are met if the product is less than for equal to one.

  2. Executive Order 12898 and Social, Economic, and Sociopolitical Factors Influencing Toxic Release Inventory Facility Location in EPA Region 6: A Multi-Scale Spatial Assessment of Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrea Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Toxic Release Inventory facilities are among the many environmental hazards shown to create environmental inequities in the United States. This project examined four factors associated with Toxic Release Inventory, specifically, manufacturing facility location at multiple spatial scales using spatial analysis techniques (i.e., O-ring statistic and…

  3. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  4. Probabilistic consequence model of accidenal or intentional chemical releases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.-S.; Samsa, M. E.; Folga, S. M.; Hartmann, H. M.

    2008-06-02

    In this work, general methodologies for evaluating the impacts of large-scale toxic chemical releases are proposed. The potential numbers of injuries and fatalities, the numbers of hospital beds, and the geographical areas rendered unusable during and some time after the occurrence and passage of a toxic plume are estimated on a probabilistic basis. To arrive at these estimates, historical accidental release data, maximum stored volumes, and meteorological data were used as inputs into the SLAB accidental chemical release model. Toxic gas footprints from the model were overlaid onto detailed population and hospital distribution data for a given region to estimate potential impacts. Output results are in the form of a generic statistical distribution of injuries and fatalities associated with specific toxic chemicals and regions of the United States. In addition, indoor hazards were estimated, so the model can provide contingency plans for either shelter-in-place or evacuation when an accident occurs. The stochastic distributions of injuries and fatalities are being used in a U.S. Department of Homeland Security-sponsored decision support system as source terms for a Monte Carlo simulation that evaluates potential measures for mitigating terrorist threats. This information can also be used to support the formulation of evacuation plans and to estimate damage and cleanup costs.

  5. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MO 2010 Permitted Hazardous Waste Sites - Areas(SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This is a polygon data set depicting locations of facilities' property boundaries. The data set contains sites permitted to treat, store or dispose of hazardous...

  6. Dependence of maximum concentration from chemical accidents on release duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven; Chang, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Chemical accidents often involve releases of a total mass, Q, of stored material in a tank over a time duration, td, of less than a few minutes. The value of td is usually uncertain because of lack of knowledge of key information, such as the size and location of the hole and the pressure and temperature of the chemical. In addition, it is rare that eyewitnesses or video cameras are present at the time of the accident. For inhalation hazards, serious health effects (such as damage to the respiratory system) are determined by short term averages (pressurized liquefied chlorine releases from tanks are given, focusing on scenarios from the Jack Rabbit I (JR I) field experiment. The analytical calculations and the predictions of the SLAB dense gas dispersion model agree that the ratio of maximum C for two different td's is greatest (as much as a factor of ten) near the source. At large distances (beyond a few km for the JR I scenarios), where tt exceeds both td's, the ratio of maximum C approaches unity.

  7. Summary of uncertainty estimation results for Hanford tank chemical and radionuclide inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferryman, T.A.; Amidan, B.G.; Chen, G. [and others

    1998-09-01

    The exact physical and chemical nature of 55 million gallons of radioactive waste held in 177 underground waste tanks at the Hanford Site is not known in sufficient detail to support safety, retrieval, and immobilization missions. The Hanford Engineering Analysis Best-Basis team has made point estimates of the inventories in each tank. The purpose of this study is to estimate probability distributions for each of the analytes and tanks for which the Hanford Best-Basis team has made point estimates. Uncertainty intervals can then be calculated for the Best-Basis inventories and should facilitate the cleanup missions. The methodology used to generate the results published in the Tank Characterization Database (TCD) and summarized in this paper is based on scientific principles, sound technical knowledge of the realities associated with the Hanford waste tanks, the chemical analysis of actual samples from the tanks, the Hanford Best-Basic research, and historical data records. The methodology builds on research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) over the last few years. Appendix A of this report summarizes the results of the study. The full set of results (in percentiles, 1--99) is available through the TCD, (http://twins.pnl.gov:8001).

  8. 77 FR 41300 - Hazardous Chemical Reporting: Revisions to the Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory Forms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... for most of the data elements from various organizations. While some commenters from industry opposed... new data elements and revising some existing data elements on the Emergency and Hazardous Chemical... Act (EPCRA). State and local implementing agencies requested that EPA add the new data elements...

  9. Toward an Assessment of the Global Inventory of Present-Day Mercury Releases to Freshwater Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kocman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems are an essential component of the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg, as inorganic Hg can be converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg in these environments and reemissions of elemental Hg rival anthropogenic Hg releases on a global scale. Quantification of effluent Hg releases to aquatic systems globally has focused on discharges to the global oceans, rather than contributions to freshwater systems that affect local exposures and risks associated with MeHg. Here we produce a first-estimate of sector-specific, spatially resolved global aquatic Hg discharges to freshwater systems. We compare our release estimates to atmospheric sources that have been quantified elsewhere. By analyzing available quantitative and qualitative information, we estimate that present-day global Hg releases to freshwater environments (rivers and lakes associated with anthropogenic activities have a lower bound of ~1000 Mg· a−1. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM represents the single largest source, followed by disposal of mercury-containing products and domestic waste water, metal production, and releases from industrial installations such as chlor-alkali plants and oil refineries. In addition to these direct anthropogenic inputs, diffuse inputs from land management activities and remobilization of Hg previously accumulated in terrestrial ecosystems are likely comparable in magnitude. Aquatic discharges of Hg are greatly understudied and further constraining associated data gaps is crucial for reducing the uncertainties in the global biogeochemical Hg budget.

  10. SewageLCI 1.0 - A first generation inventory model for quantification of chemical emissions via sewage systems. Application on chemicals of concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallice, Aurélie; Birkved, Morten; Kech, Sébastien

    Lack of inventory data on chemical emissions often forces life cycle assessors to rely on crude emissions estimates (e.g. 100 % of the applied chemical mass is assumed emitted) or in the worst case to omit chemical emissions due to lack of emission data. The inventory model SewageLCI 1.0, provides...... a mean for assessors to obtain fractions of chemicals emitted to the environment via waste water collection and treatment systems. SewageLCI 1.0 is based on existing models capable of estimating chemical degradation in waste water collection and treatment systems and also on national European statistics...... concerning waste water treatment systems. By combining readily available statistics and models stemming from environmental chemistry and waste water treatment science, the SewageLCI 1.0 model was built to simulate national specific average waste water collection and treatment systems and the model is hence...

  11. Chemical analysis of substrates with controlled release fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreij, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Water-soluble fertilizer added to media containing controlled release fertilizer cannot be analysed with the 1:1.5 volume water extract, because the latter increases the element content in the extract. During storage and stirring or mixing the substrate with the extractant, part of the controlled re

  12. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  13. Multiple Chemical Sources Localization Using Virtual Physics-Based Robots with Release Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of simultaneously locating chemical sources by a virtual physics-based multirobot system with a release strategy. The proposed release strategy includes setting forbidden area, releasing the robots from declared sources and escaping from it by a rotary force and goal force. This strategy can avoid the robots relocating the same source which has been located by other robots and leading them to move toward other sources. Various turbulent plume environments are simulated by Fluent and Gambit software, and a set of simulations are performed on different scenarios using a group of six robots or parallel search by multiple groups’ robots to validate the proposed methodology. The experimental results show that release strategy can be successfully used to find multiple chemical sources, even when multiple plumes overlap. It can also extend the operation of many chemical source localization algorithms developed for single source localization.

  14. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  15. Inventory of revisions in the EC Technical Guidance Documents (TGDs) on risk assessment of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luit RJ; Beems J; Benthem J van; Bodar CWM; Engelen JGM van; Hulzebos EM; Loveren H van; Maslankiewicz L; Pronk MEJ; Piersma AH; Rennen MAJ; Sijm THM; Zweers PGPC; SEC; TOX; SIR

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of an inventory made in 2002 by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) on the revisions of the EC Technical Guidance Documents (TGDs) in support of risk assessment for newly notified substances, existing substances and biocides. The

  16. Chemical Characterization of Compounds Released by Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    W:.. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS . MATERIALS AND MODS One sample of urine and four of semen ( sperm and/or seminal fluid) were obtained from a male Atlantic...Analysis: Seminal Plasma and Prostatic Fluid Compositions and their Interrelations with Sperm Quality, Int J Fertil, vol 22(3), p 140-147, 1977 4o 43...Ahluwalia, B and Holman, RT, Fatty Acid Composition of Lipids of Bull, Boar , Rabbit and Human Semen, J Reprod Fert, vol 18, p 431-437, 1969 64. Glenn

  17. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Sarah A; Meyer, David E; Edelen, Ashley N; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Abraham, John P; Barrett, William M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Randall, Paul M; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo; Smith, Raymond L

    2016-09-06

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfully automate the method using semantic technology. Benefits of the method are that the openly available data can be compiled in a standardized and transparent approach that supports potential automation with flexibility to incorporate new data sources as needed.

  18. Can nanofluidic chemical release enable fast, high resolution neurotransmitter-based neurostimulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Jones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial chemical stimulation could provide improvements over electrical neurostimulation. Physiological neurotransmission between neurons relies on the nanoscale release and propagation of specific chemical signals to spatially-localized receptors. Current knowledge of nanoscale fluid dynamics and nanofluidic technology allows us to envision artificial mechanisms to achieve fast, high resolution neurotransmitter release. Substantial technological development is required to reach this goal. Nanofluidic technology — rather than microfluidic — will be necessary; this should come as no surprise given the nanofluidic nature of neurotransmission.This perspective reviews the state of the art of high resolution electrical neuroprostheses and their anticipated limitations. Chemical release rates from nanopores are compared to rates achieved at synapses and with iontophoresis. A review of microfluidic technology justifies the analysis that microfluidic control of chemical release would be insufficient. Novel nanofluidic mechanisms are discussed, and we propose that hydrophobic gating may allow control of chemical release suitable for mimicking neurotransmission. The limited understanding of hydrophobic gating in artificial nanopores and the challenges of fabrication and large-scale integration of nanofluidic components are emphasized. Development of suitable nanofluidic technology will require dedicated, long-term efforts over many years.

  19. Mimicking Neurotransmitter Release in Chemical Synapses via Hysteresis Engineering in MoS2 Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Andrew J; Razavieh, Ali; Nasr, Joseph R; Schulman, Daniel S; Eichfeld, Chad M; Das, Saptarshi

    2017-03-10

    Neurotransmitter release in chemical synapses is fundamental to diverse brain functions such as motor action, learning, cognition, emotion, perception, and consciousness. Moreover, improper functioning or abnormal release of neurotransmitter is associated with numerous neurological disorders such as epilepsy, sclerosis, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. We have utilized hysteresis engineering in a back-gated MoS2 field effect transistor (FET) in order to mimic such neurotransmitter release dynamics in chemical synapses. All three essential features, i.e., quantal, stochastic, and excitatory or inhibitory nature of neurotransmitter release, were accurately captured in our experimental demonstration. We also mimicked an important phenomenon called long-term potentiation (LTP), which forms the basis of human memory. Finally, we demonstrated how to engineer the LTP time by operating the MoS2 FET in different regimes. Our findings could provide a critical component toward the design of next-generation smart and intelligent human-like machines and human-machine interfaces.

  20. CHEMICAL MODIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTIN AS A POTENTIAL DRUG RELEASE RETARDANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harika Puppala Satya Krishna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the chemical modification of pectin by acetylation of their free hydroxyl groups to yield high ester pectin and to evaluate its solubility and swelling behaviour along with the effect on the release pattern of the drug. Modified pectins were prepared by acetylation process using various strengths of 20%, 40% and 60% v/v acetyl chloride in ethanol. The prepared modified pectins were subjected to various physico-chemical characteristics like solubility, gelling studies, acid value, saponification value and ester value. FTIR studies were carried out to confirm the chemical modification of pectin. Matrix tablets of tramadol were formulated using various strengths of modified pectins in different concentrations and its impact on drug release was studied. All the formulated batches were subjected to weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content and the values obtained were within the acceptable range. The in-vitro drug release characteristics from the formulated tablets were compared with commercial sustained release tablet of tramadol. The optimized tablet formulation F4 sustained the drug release over a period of 8hours as comparable to the marketed product. Thus the synthesized modified pectin proved to be an ideal drug release retarding polymer.

  1. 75 FR 19319 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 372 RIN 2025-AA27 Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release...) section 313 toxic chemical release reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical Abstracts Service... otherwise use hydrogen sulfide. Potentially affected categories and entities may include, but are...

  2. Differential effects of environmental chemicals and food contaminants on adipogenesis, biomarker release and PPARγ activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Sørensen, Karin Dreisig; Boberg, Julie;

    2012-01-01

    differentiation although PPARγ activation is neither a requirement nor a guarantee for stimulation. Four out of the eleven chemicals (bisphenol A, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate, butylparaben, PCB 153) caused increased adipogenesis. The release of adipocyte-secreted hormones was sometimes but not always correlated...

  3. 76 FR 69136 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 372 RIN 2025-AA27 Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release... hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan found at 40 CFR 372.65. The document published in the Federal... requirements for only hydrogen sulfide. The Office of the Federal Register mistakenly lifted the stay of...

  4. EPA Releases Final Risk Assessment for Chemical used for Paint and Coating Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - Today, the U.S. EPA released the final risk assessment for N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP), a chemical commonly used to remove paint and other coatings. The assessment identified risks to pregnant women and women of childbearing age, who have

  5. 76 FR 7841 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collections; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collections; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting... codes other than SIC codes 20 through 39): 212111, 212112, 212113 (correspond to SIC 12, Coal Mining (except 1241)); or 212221, 212222, 212231, 212234, 212299 (correspond to SIC 10, Metal Mining (except...

  6. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites, Point or polygon geo-location of federally designated superfund sites in Wisconsin. Usually geolocated via on screen digitizing against DOPs (could be geo-located via GPS). Source year of DOPs vary, Published in unknown, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Wisconsin DNR - Bureau of Remediation and Redevelopment.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of...

  7. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites, StateCERCLIS-This data set contains potential EPA Superfund sites. These locations represent sites, not contaminated areas., Published in 2008, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as...

  8. Controlled drug release from lung-targeted nanocarriers via chemically mediated shell permeabilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanpeng; Woods, Arcadia; Forbes, Ben; Jones, Stuart

    2016-09-25

    Nanocarriers can aid therapeutic agent administration to the lung, but controlling drug delivery from these systems after deposition in the airways can be problematic. The aim of this study was to evaluate if chemically mediated shell permeabilisation could help manipulate the rate and extent of nanocarrier drug release. Rifampicin was loaded into lipid shell (loading efficiency 41.0±11.4%, size 50nm) and polymer shell nanocarriers (loading efficiency 25.9±2.3%, size 250nm). The drug release at pH 7.4 (lung epithelial pH) and 4.2 (macrophage endosomal pH) with and without the chemical permeabilisers (Pluronic L62D - lipid nanocarriers; H(+)- polymer nanocarriers) was then tested. At pH 7.4 the presence of the permeabilisers increased nanocarrier drug release rate (from 3.2μg/h to 6.8μg/h for lipid shell nanocarriers, 2.3μg/h to 3.4μg/h for polymer shell nanocarriers) and drug release extent (from 50% to 80% for lipid shell nanocarriers, from 45% to 76% for polymer shell nanocarriers). These effects were accompanied by lipid nanocarrier distension (from 50 to 240nm) and polymer shell hydrolysis. At pH 4.2 the polymer nanocarriers did not respond to the permeabiliser, but the lipid nanocarrier maintained a robust drug release enhancement response and hence they demonstrated that the manipulation of controlled drug release from lung-targeted nanocarriers was possible through chemically mediated shell permeabilisation.

  9. Food contact substances and chemicals of concern: a comparison of inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geueke, Birgit; Wagner, Charlotte C; Muncke, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Food contact materials (FCMs) are intended to be in contact with food during production, handling or storage. They are one possible source of food contamination, because chemicals may migrate from the material into the food. More than 6000 FCM substances appear on regulatory or non-regulatory lists. Some of these substances have been linked to chronic diseases, whilst many others lack (sufficient) toxicological evaluation. The aim of this study was the identification of known FCM substances that are also considered to be chemicals of concern (COCs). The investigation was based on the following three FCM lists: (1) the 2013 Pew Charitable Trusts database of direct and indirect food additives legally used in the United States (or Pew for short), (2) the current European Union-wide positive list for plastic FCMs (or Union for short), and (3) the 2011 non-plastics FCM substances database published by EFSA (or ESCO for short). These three lists of food contact substances (Pew, Union, ESCO lists) were compared with the Substitute It Now! (SIN) list 2.1, which includes chemicals fulfilling the criteria listed in article 57 of Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH), and the TEDX database on endocrine-disrupting chemicals. A total of 175 chemicals used in FCMs were identified as COCs. Fifty-four substances present on the SIN list 2.1 were also found on the Union and/or ESCO lists. Twenty-one of those 54 substances are candidates for Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC), and six of these 21 are listed on Annex XIV and intended for phase-out under REACH. In conclusion, COCs used in FCMs were identified and information about their applications, regulatory status and potential hazards was included.

  10. Real-Time Chemical Measurements of Dopamine Release in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James G.; Lugo-Morales, Leyda Z.; Loziuk, Philip L.; Sombers, Leslie A.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid changes in extracellular dopamine concentrations in freely moving or anesthetized rats can be detected using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). Background-subtracted FSCV is a real-time electrochemical technique that can monitor neurochemical transmission in the brain on a subsecond timescale, while providing chemical information on the analyte. Also, this voltammetric approach allows for the investigation of the kinetics of release and uptake of molecules in the brain. This chapter describes, completely, how to make these measurements and the properties of FSCV that make it uniquely suitable for performing chemical measurements of dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. PMID:23296789

  11. The Bizarre Chemical Inventory of NGC 2419, An Extreme Outer Halo Globular Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Judith G

    2012-01-01

    We present new Keck/HIRES observations of six red giants in the globular cluster NGC 2419. Although the cluster is among the most distant and most luminous in the Milky Way, it was considered chemically ordinary until very recently. Our previous work showed that the near-infrared Ca II triplet line strength varied more than expected for a chemically homogeneous cluster, and that at least one star had unusual abundances of Mg and K. Here, we confirm that NGC 2419 harbors a population of stars, comprising about one third of its mass, that is depleted in Mg by a factor of 8 and enhanced in K by a factor of 6 with respect to the Mg-normal population. Although the majority, Mg-normal population appears to have a chemical abundance pattern indistinguishable from ordinary, inner halo globular clusters, the Mg-poor population exhibits dispersions of several elements. The abundances of K and Sc are strongly anti-correlated with Mg, and some other elements (Si and Ca among others) are weakly anti-correlated with Mg. Th...

  12. Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were “confirmed” and 293 were “likely” to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore.

  13. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of /sup 26/Al, /sup 49/V, /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 93/Nb, and /sup 94/Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs.

  14. THE BIZARRE CHEMICAL INVENTORY OF NGC 2419, AN EXTREME OUTER HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Judith G.; Kirby, Evan N., E-mail: jlc@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: enk@astro.caltech.edu [Palomar Observatory, Mail Stop 249-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We present new Keck/HIRES observations of six red giants in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 2419. Although the cluster is among the most distant and most luminous in the Milky Way, it was considered chemically ordinary until very recently. Our previous work showed that the near-infrared Ca II triplet line strength varied more than expected for a chemically homogeneous cluster, and that at least one star had unusual abundances of Mg and K. Here, we confirm that NGC 2419 harbors a population of stars, comprising about one-third of its mass, that is depleted in Mg by a factor of eight and enhanced in K by a factor of six with respect to the Mg-normal population. Although the majority, Mg-normal population appears to have a chemical abundance pattern indistinguishable from ordinary, inner-halo GCs, the Mg-poor population exhibits dispersions of several elements. The abundances of K and Sc are strongly anti-correlated with Mg, and some other elements (Si and Ca among others) are weakly anti-correlated with Mg. These abundance patterns suggest that the different populations of NGC 2419 sample the ejecta of diverse supernovae in addition to asymptotic giant branch ejecta. However, the abundances of Fe-peak elements except Sc show no star-to-star variation. We find no nucleosynthetic source that satisfactorily explains all of the abundance variations in this cluster. Because NGC 2419 appears like no other GC, we reiterate our previous suggestion that it is not a GC at all, but rather the core of an accreted dwarf galaxy.

  15. The Release Behavior and Kinetic Evaluation of Tramadol HCl from Chemically Cross Linked Ter Polymeric Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Malana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Hydrogels, being stimuli responsive are considered to be effective for targeted and sustained drug delivery. The main purpose for this work was to study the release behavior and kinetic evaluation of Tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked ter polymeric hydrogels.MethodsTer-polymers of methacrylate, vinyl acetate and acrylic acid cross linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA were prepared by free radical polymerization. The drug release rates, dynamic swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of hydrogels ranging in composition from 1-10 mol % EGDMA were studied. Tramadol HCl was used as model drug substance. The release behavior was investigated at pH 8 where all formulations exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism.Results and major conclusion: Absorbency was found to be more than 99% indicating good drug loading capability of these hydrogels towards the selected drug substance. Formulations designed with increasing amounts of EGDMA had a decreased equilibrium media content as well as media penetrating velocity and thus exhibited a slower drug release rate. Fitting of release data to different kinetic models indicate that the kinetic order shifts from the first to zero order as the concentration of drug was increased in the medium, showing gradual independency of drug release towards its concentration. Formulations with low drug content showed best fitness with Higuchi model whereas those with higher concentration of drug followed Hixson-Crowell model with better correlation values indicating that the drug release from these formulations depends more on change in surface area and diameter of tablets than that on concentration of the drug. Release exponent (n derived from Korse-Meyer Peppas equation implied that the release of Tramadol HCl from these formulations was generally non-Fickian (n>0.5>1 showing swelling controlled mechanism. The mechanical strength and controlled release capability of

  16. The release behavior and kinetic evaluation of tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked Ter polymeric hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malana Muhammad A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study Hydrogels, being stimuli responsive are considered to be effective for targeted and sustained drug delivery. The main purpose for this work was to study the release behavior and kinetic evaluation of Tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked ter polymeric hydrogels. Methods Ter-polymers of methacrylate, vinyl acetate and acrylic acid cross linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA were prepared by free radical polymerization. The drug release rates, dynamic swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of hydrogels ranging in composition from 1-10 mol% EGDMA were studied. Tramadol HCl was used as model drug substance. The release behavior was investigated at pH 8 where all formulations exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Results and major conclusion Absorbency was found to be more than 99% indicating good drug loading capability of these hydrogels towards the selected drug substance. Formulations designed with increasing amounts of EGDMA had a decreased equilibrium media content as well as media penetrating velocity and thus exhibited a slower drug release rate. Fitting of release data to different kinetic models indicate that the kinetic order shifts from the first to zero order as the concentration of drug was increased in the medium, showing gradual independency of drug release towards its concentration. Formulations with low drug content showed best fitness with Higuchi model whereas those with higher concentration of drug followed Hixson-Crowell model with better correlation values indicating that the drug release from these formulations depends more on change in surface area and diameter of tablets than that on concentration of the drug. Release exponent (n derived from Korse-Meyer Peppas equation implied that the release of Tramadol HCl from these formulations was generally non-Fickian (n > 0.5 > 1 showing swelling controlled mechanism. The mechanical strength and controlled

  17. Chemical cues released by an alien invasive aquatic gastropod drive its invasion success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Raw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera.

  18. Chemical analyses of coal, coal-associated rocks and coal combustion products collected for the National Coal Quality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Bullock, John H.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the USGS initiated the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) project to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. At the time this project was initiated, the publicly available USGS coal quality data was based on samples primarily collected and analyzed between 1973 and 1985. The primary objective of NaCQI was to create a database containing comprehensive, accurate and accessible chemical information on the quality of mined and prepared United States coals and their combustion byproducts. This objective was to be accomplished through maintaining the existing publicly available coal quality database, expanding the database through the acquisition of new samples from priority areas, and analysis of the samples using updated coal analytical chemistry procedures. Priorities for sampling include those areas where future sources of compliance coal are federally owned. This project was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry. Funding support came from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  19. 1998 Tier two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory - emergency planning and community right-to-know act section 312

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZALOUDEK, D.E.

    1999-03-02

    The Hanford Site covers approximately 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land that is owned by the U.S, Government and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The Hanford Site is located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The city of Richland adjoins the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site boundary and is the nearest population center. Activities on the Hanford Site are centralized in numerically designated areas. The 100 Areas, located along the Columbia River, contain deactivated reactors. The processing units are in the 200 Areas, which are on a plateau approximately 11 kilometers (7 miles) from the Columbia River. The 300 Area, located adjacent to and north of Richland, contains research and development laboratories. The 400 Area, 8 kilometers (5 miles) northwest of the 300 Area, contains the Fast Flux Test Facility previously used for testing liquid metal reactor systems. Adjacent to the north of Richland, the 1100 Area contains offices associated with administration, maintenance, transportation, and materials procurement and distribution. The 600 Area covers all locations not specifically given an area designation. This Tier Two Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory report contains information pertaining to hazardous chemicals managed by DOE-RL and its contractors on the Hanford Site. It does not include chemicals maintained in support of activities conducted by others on lands covered by leases, use permits, easements, and other agreements whereby land is used by parties other than DOE-RL. For example, this report does not include chemicals stored on state owned or leased lands (including the burial ground operated by US Ecology, Inc.), lands owned or used by the Bonneville Power Administration (including the Midway Substation and the Ashe Substation), lands used by the National Science Foundation (the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), lands leased to the Washington

  20. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest

  1. Inventory Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Leigh

    2000-11-03

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction as directed by the development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999b) is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 1999c, 1999d). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) (NRC 1999) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [Spent Nuclear Fuel] are released from the EBS [Engineered Barrier System] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the accessible environment. The inventory abstraction is important in

  2. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  3. Study of rosin-glycerol esters as microencapsulating materials. II. Quantitative correlation between physico-chemical properties and release characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Y V; Rao, M N; Dorle, A K

    1985-01-01

    Rosin-glycerol esters have been used as microencapsulating materials. A quantitative correlation has been observed between the physico-chemical properties, i.e. acid value and moisture affinity, and the release characteristics from the encapsulated drug.

  4. Flavor release measurement by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, construction of interface and mathematical modeling of release profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Madsen, Henrik; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    An instrumental on-line retronasal flavor analysis was developed to obtain information about the release of flavor compounds in expired air from humans during eating. The volatile flavor compounds were measured by ion trap mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source...

  5. Age and isolation influence steroids release and chemical signaling in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Cavaggioni, Andrea; Redaelli, Marco; Da Dalt, Laura; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2014-05-01

    Social interactions in mice involve olfactory signals, which convey information about the emitter. In turn, the mouse social and physiological status may modify the release of chemical cues. In this study, the influences of age and social isolation on the endocrine response and the release of chemical signals were investigated in male CD1 mice, allocated into four groups: Young Isolated (from weaning till 60days; N=6), Adult Isolated (till 180days; N=6), Young Grouped (6 mice/cage; till 60days; N=18), Adult Grouped (6 mice/cage; till 180days; N=18). Mice were transferred in a clean cage to observe the micturition pattern and then sacrificed. Body and organs weights, serum testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, corticosterone and the ratio Major Urinary Protein/creatinine were measured. Urinary volatile molecules potentially involved in pheromonal communication were identified. Androgen secretion was greater in isolated mice (P<0.05), suggesting a greater reactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal axis. Grouped mice presented a higher degree of adrenal activity, and young mice showed a higher serum corticosterone (P<0.05) suggesting a greater stimulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis. The micturition pattern typical of dominant male, consisting in voiding numerous droplets, was observed in Young Isolated mice only, which showed a higher protein/creatinine ratio (P<0.05). Urinary 2-s-butyl-thiazoline was higher in both Young and Adult Isolated mice (P<0.005). Young Isolated mice showed the most prominent difference in both micturition pattern and potentially active substance emission, while long term isolation resulted in a less extreme phenotype; therefore social isolation had a higher impact on young mice hormone and pheromone release.

  6. Rapid Hydrogen Peroxide release from the coral Stylophora pistillata during feeding and in response to chemical and physical stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoza-Zvuloni, Rachel; Schneider, Avi; Sher, Daniel; Shaked, Yeala

    2016-02-15

    Corals make use of different chemical compounds during interactions with prey, predators and aggressors. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) is produced and released by a wide range of organisms as part of their defense against grazers or pathogens. In coral reefs, the large fluxes and relatively long half-life of H2O2, make it a potentially important info-chemical or defense molecule. Here we describe a previously unstudied phenomenon of rapid H2O2 release from the reef-building coral Stylophora pistillata during feeding on zooplankton and in response to chemical and physical stimuli. Following stimuli, both symbiotic and bleached corals were found to rapidly release H2O2 to the surrounding water for a short period of time (few minutes). The H2O2 release was restricted to the site of stimulus, and an increase in physical stress and chemical stimuli concentration resulted in elevated H2O2 release. Omission of calcium (a key regulator of exocytotic processes) from the experimental medium inhibited H2O2 release. Hence we suggest that H2O2 is actively released in response to stimuli, rather than leaking passively from the coral tissue. We estimate that at the site of stimulus H2O2 can reach concentrations potentially high enough to deter predators or motile, potentially pathogenic, bacteria.

  7. Chemical and enzymatic interactions of Direct Black 38 and Direct Brown 1 on release of carcinogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanamani, A; Bhaskar, M; Ganga, Radhakrishnan; Sekaran, G; Sadulla, S

    2004-09-01

    Release of amine products from azo compounds is of considerable interest, since most of the metabolized amine products have toxic and carcinogenic characters. Moreover, most of the azo dyes are extensively used as coloring agents in inks, textiles, leathers, food and pharmaceutical industries. The present study emphasis on the quantification and comparison of amines released from water soluble dyes by (i) extra cellular protein (ECP) of Streptomyces sp. SS07 and by (ii) chemical methods. It has been observed that both the methods release considerable quantities of similar type of amine products. Release of amine compounds by ECP and chemical reduction in acid and alkaline sweat medium from a leather garment sample was also assessed. ECP (0.7852 mg protein/mg of ECP) releases benzidine and 4-amino biphenyl from Direct Black 38 and Direct Brown 1 as stable products at pH 9.2 and at 37 degrees C for a contact period of 24 h. On comparison with chemical reduction, it was observed that about 5-20% increase in the release of amine products by ECP was observed. However, more than 60% of amine products were released by chemical method from leather garment samples than direct treatment with ECP.

  8. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  9. Characterization and nutrient release from silicate rocks and influence on chemical changes in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ramos Guelfi Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Brazilian agriculture has led to a heavy dependence on imported fertilizers to ensure the supply of the growing food demand. This fact has contributed to a growing interest in alternative nutrient sources, such as ground silicate rocks. It is necessary, however, to know the potential of nutrient release and changes these materials can cause in soils. The purpose of this study was to characterize six silicate rocks and evaluate their effects on the chemical properties of treated soil, assessed by chemical extractants after greenhouse incubation. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized plots, in a 3 x 6 factorial scheme, with four replications. The factors were potassium levels (0-control: without silicate rock application; 200; 400; 600 kg ha-1 of K2O, supplied as six silicate rock types (breccia, biotite schist, ultramafic rock, phlogopite schist and two types of mining waste. The chemical, physical and mineralogical properties of the alternative rock fertilizers were characterized. Treatments were applied to a dystrophic Red-Yellow Oxisol (Ferralsol, which was incubated for 100 days, at 70 % (w/w moisture in 3.7 kg/pots. The soil was evaluated for pH; calcium and magnesium were extracted with KCl 1 mol L-1; potassium, phosphorus and sodium by Mehlich 1; nickel, copper and zinc with DTPA; and the saturation of the cation exchange capacity was calculated for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, and overall base saturation. The alternative fertilizers affected soil chemical properties. Ultramafic rock and Chapada mining byproduct (CMB were the silicate rocks that most influenced soil pH, while the mining byproduct (MB led to high K levels. Zinc availability was highest in the treatments with mining byproduct and Cu in soil fertilized with Chapada and mining byproduct.

  10. Animal manure phosphorus characterization by sequential chemical fractionation, release kinetics and 31P-NMR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate release kinetics from manures are of global interest because sustainable plant nutrition with phosphate will be a major concern in the future. Although information on the bioavailability and chemical composition of P present in manure used as fertilizer are important to understand its dynamics in the soil, such studies are still scarce. Therefore, P extraction was evaluated in this study by sequential chemical fractionation, desorption with anion-cation exchange resin and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR spectroscopy to assess the P forms in three different dry manure types (i.e. poultry, cattle and swine manure. All three methods showed that the P forms in poultry, cattle and swine dry manures are mostly inorganic and highly bioavailable. The estimated P pools showed that organic and recalcitrant P forms were negligible and highly dependent on the Ca:P ratio in manures. The results obtained here showed that the extraction of P with these three different methods allows a better understanding and complete characterization of the P pools present in the manures.

  11. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically a...

  12. Calculation of the inventory and near-field release rates of radioactivity from neutron-activated metal parts discharged from the high flux isotope reactor and emplaced in solid waste storage area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelmers, A.D.; Hightower, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    Emplacement of contaminated reactor components involves disposal in lined and unlined auger holes in soil above the water table. The radionuclide inventory of disposed components was calculated. Information on the composition and weight of the components, as well as reasonable assumptions for the neutron flux fueling use, the time of neutron exposure, and radioactive decay after discharge, were employed in the inventory calculation. Near-field release rates of /sup 152/Eu, /sup 154/Eu, and /sup 155/Eu from control plates and cylinders were calculated for 50 years after emplacement. Release rates of the europium isotopes were uncertain. Two release-rate-limiting models were considered and a range of reasonable values were assumed for the time-to-failure of the auger-hole linear and aluminum cladding and europium solubility in SWSA-6 groundwater. The bounding europium radionuclide near-field release rates peaked at about 1.3 Ci/year total for /sup 152,154,155/Eu in 1987 for the lower bound, and at about 420 Ci/year in 1992 for the upper bound. The near-field release rates of /sup 55/Fe, /sup 59/Ni, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 63/Ni from stainless steel and cobalt alloy components, as well as of /sup 10/Be, /sup 41/Ca, and /sup 55/Fe from beryllium reflectors, were calculated for the next 100 years, assuming bulk waste corrosion was the release-rate-limiting step. Under the most conservative assumptions for the reflectors, the current (1986) total radionuclide release rate was calculated to be about 1.2 x 10/sup -4/ Ci/year, decreasing by 1992 to a steady release of about 1.5 x 10/sup -5/ Ci/year due primarily to /sup 41/Ca. 50 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. MODELING DISPERSION FROM CHEMICALS RELEASED AFTER A TRAIN COLLISION IN GRANITEVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Addis, R; Matt Parker, M

    2006-08-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System was used to provide meteorological and atmospheric modeling/consequence assessment support to state and local agencies following the collision of two Norfolk Southern freight trains on the morning of January 6, 2005. This collision resulted in the release of several toxic chemicals to the environment, including chlorine. The dense and highly toxic cloud of chlorine gas that formed in the vicinity of the accident was responsible for nine fatalities, and caused injuries to more than five hundred others. Transport model results depicting the forecast path of the ongoing release were made available to emergency managers in the county's Unified Command Center shortly after SRNL received a request for assistance. Support continued over the ensuing two days of the active response. The SRNL also provided weather briefings and transport/consequence assessment model results to responders from South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Emergency Operations Center (EOC), Department of Energy Headquarters, and hazmat teams dispatched from the SRS. Although model-generated forecast winds used in consequence assessments conducted during the incident were provided at 2-km horizontal grid spacing during the accident response, a high-resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 4.3.0) simulation was later performed to examine potential influences of local topography on plume migration. The detailed RAMS simulation was used to determine meteorology using multiple grids with an innermost grid spacing of 125 meters. Results from the two simulations are shown to generally agree with meteorological observations at the time; consequently, local topography did not significantly affect wind in the area. Use of a dense gas dispersion model to simulate localized plume behavior using the higher resolution

  14. Effects of Temperature and Several Chemicals on Metabolic Changes During Dormancy Release in NJ72 Nectarine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhi-you; LI Xian-li; LI Ling-hao; HAN Xing-guo; YAN Tian-li

    2003-01-01

    Poor, delayed and ununiform budbreak is a major problem for peaches in greenhouse. To clari-fy the mechanism of breaking bud dormancy in nectarines, the effect of temperature and three dormancy-breaking agents on metabolic changes during dormancy release in two-year old NJ72 nectarine (Prunus persicaL. Batch) was investigated. The result showed temperature and chemicals affected the budbreak and the me-tabolism of NJ72 nectarine during dormancy. Endogeneons peroxide content in buds increased soon after lowtemperature treatment. Meanwhile, catalase activity was also shown to increase significantly at low temperature treatment, coincided with increase of the activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismntase. The rate of res-piration in flower buds increased at low temperature during dormancy. The rate of the pentose phosphate path-way increased, while the rate of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway decreased and the rate of triearboxlic acid cycle changed little. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity increased at low temperature during dormancy.At the same time we found an accumulation of peroxide after treatment with dormancy-breaking chemicals. Inflower buds treated with dormancy-breaking agents, thiourca, KNO3 and NH4 NO3, catalase activity was in-hibited soon after treatment, whereas peroxidase activity increased, and the changes of superoxide dismutaseremained little. In this study, it was found that the rates of respiration in flower buds increased by chemicalssprays during dormancy. The activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in the pentosephosphate pathway (PPP), increased by spraying with dormancy-breaking agents, concomitantly with the ac-tivatlon of the pentose phosphate pathway.

  15. Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Known as MRO for Maintenance, Repair and Operating supplies, Tropicana Products, Inc.'s automated inventory management system is an adaptation of the Shuttle Inventory Management System (SIMS) developed by NASA to assure adequate supply of every item used in support of the Space Shuttle. The Tropicana version monitors inventory control, purchasing receiving and departmental costs for eight major areas of the company's operation.

  16. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - SUPERFUND_IDEM_IN: Superfund Program Facilities in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SUPERFUND_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains GPS-located Superfund Program facility locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of...

  17. Probing the role of chemical enhancers in facilitating drug release from patches: Mechanistic insights based on FT-IR spectroscopy, molecular modeling and thermal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenting; Quan, Peng; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Chao; Lv, Siji; Zhao, Yongshan; Fang, Liang

    2016-04-10

    In patches, a drug must release from patches prior to its percutaneous absorption. Chemical enhancers have been used for several decades, but their roles in drug release from patches are poorly understood. In this work, the roles of chemical enhancers in bisoprolol tartrate (BSP-T) release from patches were probed in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, an innovative mechanism insight of chemical enhancers in drug release process was provided at molecular level. FT-IR spectroscopy and molecular modeling were employed to investigate the influence of chemical enhancers on drug-adhesive interaction. The results showed chemical enhancers like Span 80, which had a strong ability forming hydrogen bonds, could decrease drug-adhesive interaction leading to the release of drug from adhesive of patches. Thermal analysis was conducted to research the influence of chemical enhancers on the thermodynamic properties of patch system. It showed that chemical enhancers promoted the formation of free volume of adhesive, which facilitated drug release process. By contrast, the influence on the thermodynamic properties of BSP-T was less effective in influencing BSP-T release process. In conclusion, chemical enhancers played an important role in facilitating BSP-T release from the adhesive DURO-TAK® 87-2287 of patches by decreasing drug-adhesive interaction and promoting the formation of free volume of adhesive. This work may be an important step in understanding the important roles of chemical enhancers in drug release process.

  18. Protecting buildings from a biological or chemical attack: Actions to take before or during a release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Delp, William W.; Lorenzetti, David M.; Finlayson, Elizabeth U.; Thatcher, Tracy L.; Sextro, Richard G.; Derby, Elisabeth A.; Jarvis, Sondra A.

    2003-01-29

    This report presents advice on how to operate a building to reduce casualties from a biological or chemical attack, as well as potential changes to the building (e.g. the design of the ventilation system) that could make it more secure. It also documents the assumptions and reasoning behind the advice. The particular circumstances of any attack, such as the ventilation system design, building occupancy, agent type, source strength and location, and so on, may differ from the assumptions made here, in which case actions other than our recommendations may be required; we hope that by understanding the rationale behind the advice, building operators can modify it as required for their circumstances. The advice was prepared by members of the Airflow and Pollutant Transport Group, which is part of the Indoor Environment Department at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The group's expertise in this area includes: tracer-gas measurements of airflows in buildings (Sextro, Thatcher); design and operation of commercial building ventilation systems (Delp); modeling and analysis of airflow and tracer gas transport in large indoor spaces (Finlayson, Gadgil, Price); modeling of gas releases in multi-zone buildings (Sohn, Lorenzetti, Finlayson, Sextro); and occupational health and safety experience related to building design and operation (Sextro, Delp). This report is concerned only with building design and operation; it is not a how-to manual for emergency response. Many important emergency response topics are not covered here, including crowd control, medical treatment, evidence gathering, decontamination methods, and rescue gear.

  19. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  20. Anaerobic sediment potential acidification and metal release risk assessment by chemical characterization and batch resuspension experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanno, M.P. di [Univ. de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Technologia; Curutchet, G. [Univ. de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Technologia; CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ratto, S. [Univ. de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Catedra de Edafologia

    2007-06-15

    Background, Aim and Scope: Sediments act as a sink for toxic substances (heavy metals, organic pollutants) and, consequently, dredged materials often contain pollutants which are above safe limits. In polluted anaerobic sediments, the presence of sulphides and redox potential changes creates a favorable condition for sulphide oxidation to sulphate, resulting in potential toxic metal release. The oxidation reaction is catalyzed by several microorganisms. Some clean up measures, such as dredging, can initiate the process. The aim of the present work is to assess the acidification and metal release risk in the event of sediment dredging and also to compare two different acid base account techniques with the resuspension results. The oxidation mechanism by means of inoculation with an Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: The sediments were chemically characterized (pH; organic oxidizable carbon; acid volatile sulphides; total sulphur; moisture; Cr, Cu and Zn aqua regia contents). A metal sequential extraction procedure (Community Bureau of Reference, BCR technique) was applied to calculate the Acid Producing Potential (APP) and Acid Consuming Capacity (ACC) of the sediment samples through Fe, Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} measurements. The acid base account was also performed by the Sobek methodology (Acid producing potential - AP - calculated with total sulphur and neutralization potential - NP - by titration of the remaining acid after a reaction period with the sample). Fresh sediments were placed in agitated shake flasks and samples were taken at different times to evaluate pH, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe{sup 2+} concentration. Some of the systems were inoculated with an Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain to assess the biological catalysis on sulphide oxidation. Results: Sediment chemical characterization showed high organic matter content (5.4-10.6%), total sulphur (0.36-0.86%) and equivalent CaCO{sub 3

  1. A pan-European study of capabilities to manage mass casualties from the release of chemical agents: the MASH project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David J; Murray, Virginia S G; Carli, Pierre A

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Mass Casualties and Health (MASH) project that ran between 2008 and 2010 was designed to study the management of mass casualties from chemical and radiological releases and associated health implications. One area of study for this project concerned arrangements within EU Member States for the management of mass casualties following a chemical release. This was undertaken via a confidential online questionnaire that was sent to selected points of contact throughout the EU. Responses were obtained from 18 states from respondents holding senior positions in chemical planning and incident response. Information gathered shows a lack of uniformity within the EU about the organization of responses to chemical releases and the provision of medical care. This article presents the overall findings of the study demonstrating differences between countries on planning and organization, decontamination, prehospital emergency medical responses, clinical diagnoses, and therapy and aftercare. Although there may be an understandable reluctance from national respondents to share information on security and other grounds, the findings, nevertheless, revealed substantial differences between current planning and operational responses within the EU states for the management of mass chemical casualties. The existing international networks for response to radiation incidents are not yet matched by equivalent networks for chemical responses yet sufficient information was available from the study to identify potential deficiencies, identify common casualty management pathways, and to make recommendations for future operations within the EU. Improvements in awareness and training and the application of modern information and communications will help to remedy this situation. Specialized advanced life support and other medical care for chemical casualties appear lacking in some countries. A program of specialized training and action are required to apply the findings

  2. Incorporation and release of chemically intact mitomycin C from albumin microspheres: a high performance liquid chromatography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, L; Cummings, J; Willmott, N; Whateley, T L; Smyth, J F

    1993-01-01

    Preparation of mitomycin C-loaded human serum albumin (HSA) microspheres using a new technique that avoids the use of heat denaturation, which is known chemically to degrade incorporated drug, is described. This method is based on cross-linking of protein by glutaraldehyde (2.2%) during emulsification (W/O) at room temperature. The resultant particles have a mean (s.d.) diameter of 16.9 (0.34) microns (50% weight average), contain mean (s.d.) 1.15 (0.05%) mitomycin C (MMC) (w/w, n = 17) and maintain sustained release of drug over 20 h. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection was used to study the chemical integrity of the drug. Two classes of decomposition products were evaluated: chemical degradation products and drug/nucleophile covalent adducts. The HPLC separation was validated by a number of standards of proposed degradation products. To examine incorporated drug, a complete microsphere system was solubilized with 0.4% trypsin for 24 h, while to examine released drug, microspheres were immobilized on a flow-through glass wool column and fractions were collected. No evidence of significant chemical degradation or covalent coupling to protein was detected in microsphere digests. Two candidate decomposition products, representing approximately 10% of drug released from microspheres (assuming similar molar extinction coefficients to MMC), were identified in column fractions. One of these products appeared to be a covalent adduct, the other possibly an isomeric form of intact MMC. Thus, MMC is predominantly incorporated into and released (90%) chemically intact from HSA microspheres prepared by the technique described.

  3. Release Kinetic in Yogurt from Gallic Acid Microparticles with Chemically Modified Inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Paula; Vergara, Cristina; Robert, Paz

    2015-10-01

    Gallic acid (GA) was encapsulated with native (NIn), cross-linked (CIn) and acetylated (AIn) inulin by spray-drying. Inulin microparticles were characterized by encapsulation efficiency (EE) and their release profile in yogurt. The EE was significantly higher for GA-CIn (98%) compared with GA-NIn (81%) and GA-AIn (77%) microparticles, showing the effect of the modification of inulin on interaction of GA-polymer. GA release profile data in yogurt for GA-CIn, GA-NIn and GA-AIn were fitted to Peppas and Higuchi models in order to obtain the GA release rate constant. Although the GA release rate constants were significantly different among systems, these differences were slight and the GA release was fast (80% inulin-systems did not control GA release in yogurt. The mechanism of GA release followed a Fickian diffusion and relaxation of chains for all microparticles. According to the release profile, these microparticles would be best suited for use in instant foods.

  4. Chemical treatment and chitosan coating of yeast cells to improve the encapsulation and controlled release of bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guorong; Liu, Yating; He, Zijun; Zhou, Jihen

    2016-08-10

    We investigate the encapsulation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in chemical-treated and chitosan-coated yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), for the controlled release of BSA. The chemical treatment can sufficiently enlarge the small-sized cell-wall cavities and/or break the integrity for the entrance of BSA to the interior of yeast cells, and the additional chitosan coating can well prevent the rapid release of encapsulated BSA from the yeast-derived microcapsules. The sodium hydroxide pretreated S. cerevisiae gives a maximum encapsulation yield of (10.1 ± 0.2)% for BSA. An additional coating of S. cerevisiae with chitosan can reduce the initial burst release of BSA and extend the release period from 24 h in the chitosan-free case to 48 h in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The prepared microcapsules can well keep the shapes and sizes of yeast cells and thus show uniform sizes of 3.85 ± 0.81 μm. The encapsulated BSA well retains its pristine ultraviolet spectroscopic and chromatographic behaviors. The present microencapsulation protocol has the advantages of convenient and mild operation, high encapsulation efficiency, and organic solvent-free nature, which is of reference value for establishing high-performance controllable biomacromolecule-delivery systems.

  5. Release of chemical transmitters from cell bodies and dendrites of nerve cells

    OpenAIRE

    De-Miguel, Francisco F.; Nicholls, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Papers in this issue concern extrasynaptic transmission, namely release of signalling molecules by exocytosis or diffusion from neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, axons and glia. Problems discussed concern the molecules, their secretion and importance for normal function and disease. Molecules secreted extrasynaptically include transmitters, peptides, hormones and nitric oxide. For extrasynaptic secretion, trains of action potentials are required, and the time course of release is slower than a...

  6. Development of KMnO(4)-releasing composites for in situ chemical oxidation of TCE-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S H; Chen, K F; Wu, C S; Lin, Y H; Kao, C M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a controlled-oxidant-release technology combining in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concepts to remediate trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater. In this study, a potassium permanganate (KMnO4)-releasing composite (PRC) was designed for KMnO4 release. The components of this PRC included polycaprolactone (PCL), KMnO4, and starch with a weight ratio of 1.14:2:0.96. Approximately 64% (w/w) of the KMnO4 was released from the PRC after 76 days of operation in a batch system. The results indicate that the released KMnO4 could oxidize TCE effectively. The results from a column study show that the KMnO4 released from 200 g of PRC could effectively remediate 101 pore volumes (PV) of TCE-contaminated groundwater (initial TCE concentration = 0.5 mg/L) and achieve up to 95% TCE removal. The effectiveness of the PRC system was verified by the following characteristics of the effluents collected after the PRC columns (barrier): (1) decreased TCE concentrations, (2) increased ORP and pH values, and (3) increased MnO2 and KMnO4 concentrations. The results of environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) analysis show that the PCL and starch completely filled up the pore spaces of the PRC, creating a composite with low porosity. Secondary micro-scale capillary permeability causes the KMnO4 release, mainly through a reaction-diffusion mechanism. The PRC developed could be used as an ISCO-based passive barrier system for plume control, and it has the potential to become a cost-effective alternative for the remediation of chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater.

  7. Chemical composition and release in situ due to injury of the invasive coral tubastraea (Cnidaria, Scleractinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno G. Lages

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defensive chemistry may be used against consumers and competitors by invasive species as a strategy for colonization and perpetuation in a new area. There are relatively few studies of negative chemical interactions between scleratinian corals. This study characterizes the secondary metabolites in the invasive corals Tubastraea tagusensis and T. coccinea and relates these to an in situ experiment using a submersible apparatus with Sep-Paks® cartridges to trap substances released by T. tagusensis directly from the sea-water. Colonies of Tubastraea spp were collected in Ilha Grande Bay, RJ, extracted with methanol (MeOH, and the extracts washed with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol, and analyzed by GC/MS. Methyl stearate and methyl palmitate were the major components of the hexane and hexane:MeOH fractions, while cholesterol was the most abundant in the DCM and DCM:MeOH fractions from Tubastraea spp. The organic material retained in Sep-Paks® cartridges was tentatively identified as hydrocarbons. There was a significant difference between treatments and controls for 1-hexadecene, n-hexadecane and n-eicosane contents. The production of defensive substances by the invasive corals may be a threat to the benthic communities of the region, which include endemic species.Substâncias químicas de defesa contra consumidores e competidores podem ser usadas por espécies invasoras marinhas como estratégia de colonização e perpetuação em novo ambiente. Entretanto, há poucos estudos experimentais que demonstrem as possíveis interações negativas entre corais escleractínios. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar os metabólitos secundários dos corais invasores Tubastraea tagusensis e T. coccinea; avaliar através da técnica de amostragem in situ quais são as substâncias de T. tagusensis liberadas na água do mar, com o auxílio de aparelho subaquático com colunas Sep-Paks®. Colônias dos corais invasores Tubastraea spp foram

  8. Real-Time Measurement of Volatile Chemicals Released by Bed Bugs during Mating Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund; Liu, Dezhao; Adamsen, Anders Peter

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) problems have increased dramatically in many parts of the world, leading to a renewed interest in their chemical ecology. Most studies of bed bug semiochemicals have been based on the collection of volatiles over a period of time followed by chemical...

  9. Daily rhythms of body temperature in Acomys russatus: the response to chemical signals released by Acomys cahirinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluxman, S; Haim, A

    1993-06-01

    Two species of spiny mice of the genus Acomys--the golden spiny A. russatus and the common spiny A. cahirinus--are sympatric in the arid and hot parts of the Rift Valley in Israel. The coexistence of these two species is due to exclusion of A. russatus mice by A. cahirinus mice from nocturnal activity. The aim of this research was to study if odor signals released by A. cahirinus mice can play a role in the exclusion of A. russatus mice. A. russatus mice with an implanted transmitter recording body temperature (Tb) were kept alone in a metabolic chamber under constant conditions of ambient temperature (27 degrees C) and photoperiod (12 h light:12 h dark). After 5 days of recording, chemical signals from an A. cahirinus mouse were added through the air tube going into the metabolic chamber of the A. russatus mice. This treatment caused a shift of approximately 2 h in Tb daily rhythm of the naive tested A. russatus mice, whereas no shift was observed in A. russatus mice that had been kept in the same room with the A. cahirinus mouse before measurements. These results strongly support the idea that chemical signals released by A. cahirinus mice can entrain the Tb rhythms of A. russatus mice. Therefore, it may be assumed that the exclusion of A. russatus mice from nocturnal activity by A. cahirinus mice could be achieved through the odor released by the latter.

  10. Riparian Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a digital representation of the 1:24,000 Land Use Riparian Areas Inventory for the state of Kansas. The dataset includes a 100 foot buffer around all...

  11. The need for better public health decisions on chemicals released into our environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Tracey J; Burke, Thomas A; Zeise, Lauren

    2011-05-01

    Protecting the health of the public-particularly the most vulnerable groups, such as children-requires rethinking current approaches to reducing environmental risks. We review the evolving understanding of the relationship between exposure to chemicals in the environment and disease, as well as the current state of managing those chemicals. We present recommendations to improve current approaches, including changing the burden of proof so that chemicals are not presumed safe in the absence of scientific data. We also propose modernizing approaches to assessing health risks.

  12. Physical-chemical aspects of a coaxial sustained release device based on Poly-Eva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Johannes Antonius Hendrikus van

    2005-01-01

    Sustained release of dugs offers several advantages like increased efficacy, safety, compliance and convenience. As a consequence sustained drug delivery is often preferred above daily administration of drugs. Furthermore, drug delivery systems can be designed to deliver one or more drugs at a speci

  13. 78 FR 37176 - Addition of Nonylphenol Category; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ..., or (ii) serious or irreversible-- (I) reproductive dysfunctions, (II) neurological disorders, (III.... Schenk, and R. Schulz. 2002. Environmental chemicals with known endocrine potential affect yolk protein.... Effect of the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol on the marine copepod Tisbe battagliai. Sci. Total...

  14. Physico-chemical properties of alginate/shellac aqueous-core capsules: Influence of membrane architecture on riboflavin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Messaoud, Ghazi; Sánchez-González, Laura; Probst, Laurent; Jeandel, Carole; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Desobry, Stéphane

    2016-06-25

    To enhance physico-chemical properties of alginate liquid-core capsules, shellac was incorporated into the membrane (composite capsules) or as an additional external layer (coated capsules). The influence of pH, coating time, shellac concentration and preparation mechanism (acid or calcium precipitation) were investigated. Results showed that shellac significantly influenced the capsules properties. The feasibility of shellac incorporation was closely related to the preparation conditions as confirmed by Infrared spectroscopy. Optical, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy, highlighted different capsules and membranes architectures. In contrast to simple and composite capsules, coated capsules showed a pH-dependent release of the entrapped vitamin especially after shellac crosslinking with calcium. Heating of coated capsules above the glass transition temperature investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, led to irreversible structural change due to thermoplastic behavior of shellac and enhanced riboflavin retention under acidic conditions. This global approach is useful to control release mechanism of low molecular weight molecules from macro and micro-capsules.

  15. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  16. Antihypertensive nano-ceuticales based on chitosan biopolymer: Physico-chemical evaluation and release kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Taskeen; Shabbir, Saima; Manzoor, Shahid; Rehman, Asma; Rahman, Abdur; Nasir, Habib; Imran, Muhammad

    2016-05-20

    Prime risk factor behind cardiovascular associated mortality and morbidity is hypertension. The main challenge with antihypertensive (AHT) drug therapy is their extreme hydrophobic nature and very low oral bio-availability; which result into higher dosage/frequency and associated side effects of drugs. The main objective of this study was to fabricate AHT nano-ceuticals in hydrophilic carriers of natural origin to improve drugs' solubility, protection and sustained release. AHT nano-carrier systems (NCS) encapsulating captopril, amlodipine and valsartan were fabricated using chitosan (CS) polymer by ionic gelation assisted ultra-sonication method. Drug encapsulation efficiencies of 92±1.6%, 91±0.9% and 87±0.5% were observed for captopril, valsartan and amlodipine respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) based analysis had revealed that captopril loaded polymeric NCS were regular, smooth and without any agglomeration. FTIR analyses of drug loaded and empty NCS demonstrated that drugs were molecularly dispersed inside the nanoparticles via week hydrogen bonding. Captopril and valsartan have demonstrated grafting reaction with N-H group of chitosan. Zeta sizer results had confirmed that average size of chitosan nanoparticles was below 100 nm. Encapsulation of captopril had reduced the surface charge value from +52.6±4.8 to +46.5±5.2 mV. Controlled release evaluation of highly encapsulated drug captopril had revealed a slow release in vitro from NCS in physiological buffer. Thus, here reported innovative AHT nano-ceuticals of polymeric origin can improve the oral administration of currently available hydrophobic drugs while providing the extended-release function.

  17. Low and intermediate level waste in SFR-1. Reference waste inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggare, P.; Johansson, Claes

    2001-06-01

    The objective with this report is to describe all the waste and the waste package that is expected to be deposited in SFR-1 at the time of closure. This report is a part of the SAFE project (Safety Assessment of Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste), i.e. the renewed safety assessment of SFR-1. The accounted waste inventory has been used as input to the release calculation that has been performed in the SAFE project. The waste inventory is based on an estimated operational lifetime of the Swedish nuclear power plants of 40 years and that closure of the SFR repository will happen in 2030. In the report, data about geometries, weights, materials, chemicals and radionuclide are given. No chemo toxic material has been identified in the waste. The inventory is based on so called waste types and the waste types reference waste package. The reference waste package combined with a prognosis of the number of waste packages to the year 2030 gives the final waste inventory for SFR-1. All reference waste packages are thoroughly described in the appendices of this report. The reference waste packages are as far as possible based on actual experiences and measurements. The radionuclide inventory is also based on actual measurements. The inventory is based on measurements of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137} Cs in waste packages and on measurements {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in reactor water. Other nuclides in the inventory are calculated with correlation factors. In the SAFE project's prerequisites it was said that one realistic and one conservative (pessimistic) inventory should be produced. The conservative one should then be used for the release calculations. In this report one realistic and one conservative radionuclide inventory is presented. The conservative one adds up to 10{sup 16} Bq. Regarding materials there is only one inventory given since it is not certain what is a conservative assumption.

  18. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  19. 76 FR 64022 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Examples of potentially affected entities Industry Facilities included in the following NAICS manufacturing... genetic mutations, or (IV) Other chronic health effects. (C) The chemical is known to cause or can be.... Examples of hydrogen sulfide's ecological toxicity include acute toxicity (96-hour LC 50 (i.e.,...

  20. Chemical, dissolution stability and microscopic evaluation of suspensions of ibuprofen and sustained release ibuprofen-wax microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyeye, C M; Price, J C

    1997-01-01

    Chemical stability studies of suspensions of ibuprofen powder and ibuprofen-wax microspheres were performed using an accelerated stability protocol with a modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure. The variables considered were pH, suspending agents and temperature. The study showed little or no chemical degradation in the different suspending agents after storage for three months. Dissolution stability was examined in suspensions of ibuprofen microspheres made from an optimized formulation with 17% drug loading. The storage temperature were 23, 37 and 45 degrees C. Other variables for the dissolution stability studies were suspending agents, wax types, suspending medium pH and microsphere size. Suspensions of ceresine wax microspheres stored at 37 degrees C showed faster drug release than room temperature storage, but suspensions stored at 45 degrees C showed an opposite effect. Microspheres suspended in syrup and stored at 37 degrees C had faster dissolution rates than microspheres suspended in methylcellulose at the same temperature, possibly as a result of an interaction between the syrup and the microsphere constituents. Suspensions of microcrystalline wax microspheres had better dissolution stability than microspheres made from ceresine wax. Higher suspending medium pH resulted in faster release of drug from the suspended microspheres, but particle size did not significantly affect the dissolution stability.

  1. Two brominated cyclic dipeptides released by the coldwater marine sponge Geodia barretti act in synergy as chemical defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, Martin; Jonsson, Per R; Dahlström, Mia; Lundälv, Tomas; Burman, Robert; Göransson, Ulf; Bohlin, Lars

    2011-03-25

    The current work shows that two structurally similar cyclodipeptides, barettin (1) and 8,9-dihydrobarettin (2), produced by the coldwater marine sponge Geodia barretti Bowerbank act in synergy to deter larvae of surface settlers and may also be involved in defense against grazers. Previously, 1 and 2 were demonstrated to bind specifically to serotonergic 5-HT receptors. It may be suggested that chemical defense in G. barretti involves a synergistic action where one of the molecular targets is a 5-HT receptor. A mixture of 1 and 2 lowered the EC(50) of larval settlement as compared to the calculated theoretical additive effect of the two compounds. Moreover, an in situ sampling at 120 m depth using a remotely operated vehicle revealed that the sponge releases these two compounds to the ambient water. Thus, it is suggested that the synergistic action of 1 and 2 may benefit the sponge by reducing the expenditure of continuous production and release of its chemical defense substances. Furthermore, a synergistic action between structurally closely related compounds produced by the same bioenzymatic machinery ought to be the most energy effective for the organism and, thus, is more common than synergy between structurally indistinct compounds.

  2. Endocannabinoid release modulates electrical coupling between CCK cells connected via chemical and electrical synapses in CA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eIball

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical coupling between some subclasses of interneurons is thought to promote coordinated firing that generates rhythmic synchronous activity in cortical regions. Synaptic activity of cholesystokinin (CCK interneurons which co-express cannbinoid type-1 (CB1 receptors are powerful modulators of network activity via the actions of endocannabinoids. We investigated the modulatory actions of endocannabinoids between chemically and electrically connected synapses of CCK cells using paired whole-cell recordings combined with biocytin and double immunofluorescence labelling in acute slices of rat hippocampus at P18-20 days. CA1 stratum radiatum CCK Schaffer collateral associated (SCA cells were coupled electrically with each other as well as CCK basket cells and CCK cells with axonal projections expanding to dentate gyrus. Approximately 50% of electrically coupled cells received facilitating, asynchronously released IPSPs that curtailed the steady-state coupling coefficient by 57%. Tonic CB1 receptor activity which reduces inhibition enhanced electrical coupling between cells that were connected via chemical and electrical synapses. Blocking CB1 receptors with antagonist, AM-251 (5M resulted in the synchronized release of larger IPSPs and this enhanced inhibition further reduced the steady-state coupling coefficient by 85%. Depolarization induced suppression of inhibition (DSI, maintained the asynchronicity of IPSP latency, but reduced IPSP amplitudes by 95% and enhanced the steady-state coupling coefficient by 104% and IPSP duration by 200%. However, DSI did not did not enhance electrical coupling at purely electrical synapses. These data suggest that different morphological subclasses of CCK interneurons are interconnected via gap junctions. The synergy between the chemical and electrical coupling between CCK cells probably plays a role in activity-dependent endocannabinoid modulation of rhythmic synchronization.

  3. 40 CFR 710.4 - Scope of the inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of the inventory. 710.4 Section... ACT TSCA CHEMICAL INVENTORY REGULATIONS General Provisions § 710.4 Scope of the inventory. (a... is extracted from air by any means, will automatically be included in the inventory under...

  4. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  5. Fusing Mobile In Situ Observations and Satellite Remote Sensing of Chemical Release Emissions to Improve Disaster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Leifer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical release disasters have serious consequences, disrupting ecosystems, society, and causing significant loss of life. Mitigating the destructive impacts relies on identification and mapping, monitoring, and trajectory forecasting. Improvements in sensor capabilities are enabling airborne and spacebased remote sensing to support response activities. Key applications are improving transport models in complex terrain and improved disaster response.Chemical release disasters have serious consequences, disrupting ecosystems, society, and causing significant loss of life. Mitigating the destructive impacts relies on identification and mapping, monitoring, and trajectory forecasting. Improvements in sensor capabilities are enabling airborne and space-based remote sensing to support response activities. Key applications are improving transport models in complex terrain and improved disaster response.Understanding urban atmospheric transport in the Los Angeles Basin, where topographic influences on transport patterns are significant, was improved by leveraging the Aliso Canyon leak as an atmospheric tracer. Plume characterization data was collected by the AutoMObile trace Gas (AMOG Surveyor, a commuter car modified for science. Mobile surface in situ CH4 and winds were measured by AMOG Surveyor under Santa Ana conditions to estimate an emission rate of 365±30% Gg yr-1. Vertical profiles were collected by AMOG Surveyor by leveraging local topography for vertical profiling to identify the planetary boundary layer at ~700 m. Topography significantly constrained plume dispersion by up to a factor of two. The observed plume trajectory was used to validate satellite aerosol optical depth-inferred atmospheric transport, which suggested the plume first was driven offshore, but then veered back towards land. Numerical long-range transport model predictions confirm this interpretation. This study demonstrated a novel application of satellite aerosol remote

  6. Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuten, Emma L.; Saquing, Jovita M.; Knappe, Detlef R. U.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Jonsson, Susanne; Björn, Annika; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Yamashita, Rei; Ochi, Daisuke; Watanuki, Yutaka; Moore, Charles; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Zakaria, Mohamad P.; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Ogata, Yuko; Hirai, Hisashi; Iwasa, Satoru; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Hagino, Yuki; Imamura, Ayako; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2009-01-01

    Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g–1 to µg g–1. Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters. Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub µg l–1 to mg l–1 and were correlated with the level of economic development. PMID:19528054

  7. Design, testing, fabrication and launch support of a liquid chemical barium release payload (utilizing the liquid fluorine-barium salt/hydrazine system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    A payload was designed which included a cryogenic oxidizer tank, a fuel tank, and burner section. Release of 30 lb of chemicals was planned to occur in 2 seconds at the optimum oxidizer to fuel ratio. The chemicals consisted of 17 lb of liquid fluorine oxidizer and 13 lb of hydrazine-barium salt fuel mixture. The fuel mixture was 17% barium chloride, 16% barium nitrate, and 67% hydrazine, and contained 2.6 lb of available barium. Two significant problem areas were resolved during the program: explosive valve development and burner operation. The release payload was flight tested, from Wallops Island, Virginia. The release took place at an altitude of approximately 260 km. The release produced a luminous cloud which expanded very rapidly, disappearing to the human eye in about 20 seconds. Barium ion concentration slowly increased over a wide area of sky until measurements were discontinued at sunrise (about 30 minutes).

  8. A model explaining and predicting lamb flavour from the aroma-active chemical compounds released upon grilling light lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mónica; Campo, M Mar; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the work is to understand the role of the different aroma compounds in the perception of the local "lamb flavour" concept. For this, a set of 70 loins (Longissimus dorsi) from approximately seventy day-old Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were grilled and the aroma-active chemicals released during the grilling process were trapped and analyzed. Carbonyl compounds were derivatizated and determined by GC-NCI-MS, whereas other aromatic compounds were directly analyzed by GC-GC-MS. Odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated using their odour threshold values in air. Lamb flavour could be satisfactory explained by a partial least-squares model (74% explained variance in cross-validation) built by the OAVs of 32 aroma-active chemical compounds. The model demonstrates that the lamb flavour concept is the result of a complex balance. Its intensity critically and positively depends to the levels of volatile fatty acids and several dimethylpyrazines while is negatively influenced by the different alkenals and alkadienals. (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-nonenal showed top OAVs.

  9. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  10. Estimating dead wood during national forest inventories: a review of inventory methodologies and suggestions for harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Christopher W; Rondeux, Jacques; Verkerk, Pieter J; Ståhl, Göran

    2009-10-01

    Efforts to assess forest ecosystem carbon stocks, biodiversity, and fire hazards have spurred the need for comprehensive assessments of forest ecosystem dead wood (DW) components around the world. Currently, information regarding the prevalence, status, and methods of DW inventories occurring in the world's forested landscapes is scattered. The goal of this study is to describe the status, DW components measured, sample methods employed, and DW component thresholds used by national forest inventories that currently inventory DW around the world. Study results indicate that most countries do not inventory forest DW. Globally, we estimate that about 13% of countries inventory DW using a diversity of sample methods and DW component definitions. A common feature among DW inventories was that most countries had only just begun DW inventories and employ very low sample intensities. There are major hurdles to harmonizing national forest inventories of DW: differences in population definitions, lack of clarity on sample protocols/estimation procedures, and sparse availability of inventory data/reports. Increasing database/estimation flexibility, developing common dimensional thresholds of DW components, publishing inventory procedures/protocols, releasing inventory data/reports to international peer review, and increasing communication (e.g., workshops) among countries inventorying DW are suggestions forwarded by this study to increase DW inventory harmonization.

  11. An independent review and prioritization of past radionuclide and chemical releases from the Los Alamos National Laboratory--implications for future dose reconstruction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Matthew H; Buddenbaum, John E; Burns, Robert E; Shonka, Joseph J; Gaffney, Shannon H; Donovan, Ellen P; Flack, Susan M; Widner, Thomas E

    2011-10-01

    From 1999 through 2010, a team of scientists and engineers systematically reviewed approximately eight million classified and unclassified documents at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that describe historical off-site releases of radionuclides and chemicals in order to determine the extent to which a full-scale dose reconstruction for releases is warranted and/or feasible. As a part of this effort, a relative ranking of historical airborne and waterborne radionuclide releases from LANL was established using priority index (PI) values that were calculated from estimated annual quantities released and the maximum allowable effluent concentrations according to The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Chemical releases were ranked based on annual usage estimates and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) toxicity values. PI results for airborne radionuclides indicate that early plutonium operations were of most concern between 1948 and 1961, in 1967, and again from 1970 through 1973. Airborne releases of uranium were found to be of most interest for 1968, from 1974 through 1978, and again in 1996. Mixed fission products yielded the highest PI value for 1969. Mixed activation product releases yielded the highest PI values from 1979 to 1995. For waterborne releases, results indicate that plutonium is of most concern for all years evaluated with the exception of 1956 when (90)Sr yielded the highest PI value. The prioritization of chemical releases indicate that four of the top five ranked chemicals were organic solvents that were commonly used in chemical processing and for cleaning. Trichloroethylene ranked highest, indicating highest relative potential for health effects, for both cancer and non-cancer effects. Documents also indicate that beryllium was used in significant quantities, which could have lead to residential exposures exceeding established environmental and occupational exposure limits, and warrants further consideration. In part because

  12. Effect of Kraft Pulping Pretreatment on the Chemical Composition, Enzymatic Digestibility, and Sugar Release of Moso Bamboo Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoxing Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, kraft pulping was carried out on moso bamboo residues as a pretreatment and its impact on the chemical compositions and the digestibility of the sample was investigated. Meanwhile, steam explosion and sulfuric acid pretreatments were also carried out on the sample to determine their impacts on enzymatic saccharification. Results showed that kraft pulping pretreatment removed a significant amount of lignin from the sample, and its enzymatic saccharification was enhanced. Approximately 95% of the lignin was removed with the optimized kraft pulping pretreatment (26% effective alkali charge, 24% sulfidity, 160 °C, and 70 min cooking time. Consequently, about 79% and 77% yields of glucan and xylan, respectively, were achieved with enzymatic saccharification from the pretreated sample. As a result, 352 g, 128 g, and 88 g sugars were generated from 1000 g of samples pretreated by kraft pulping, steam explosion, and sulfuric acid, respectively. The results suggested that kraft pulping can be a remarkably effective pretreatment applied on moso bamboo residues (i.e., lignin-rich biomass for sugars released, compared to steam explosion and sulfuric acid pretreatment.

  13. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the chemical structure of the Galactic discs from the first internal data release

    CERN Document Server

    Mikolaitis, Š; Recio-Blanco, A; de Laverny, P; Prieto, C Allende; Kordopatis, G; Tautvaišiene, G; Romano, D; Gilmore, G; Randich, S; Feltzing, S; Micela, G; Vallenari, A; Alfaro, E J; Bensby, T; Bragaglia, A; Flaccomio, E; Lanzafame, A C; Pancino, E; Smiljanic, R; Bergemann, M; Carraro, G; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Hourihane, A; Jofré, P; Lardo, C; Magrini, L; Maiorca, E; Morbidelli, L; Sbordone, L; Sousa, S G; Worley, C C; Zaggia, S

    2014-01-01

    Most high-resolution spectroscopic studies of the Galactic discs were mostly confined to objects in the solar vicinity. Here we aim at enlarging the volume in which individual chemical abundances are used to characterise both discs, using the first internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey. We derive and discuss the abundances of eight elements (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, Cr, Ni, and Y). The trends of these elemental abundances with iron are very similar to those in the solar neighbourhood. We find a natural division between alpha-rich and alpha-poor stars, best seen in the bimodality of the [Mg/M] distributions in bins of metallicity, which we attribute to thick- and thin-disc sequences, respectively. With the possible exception of Al, the observed dispersion around the trends is well described by the expected errors, leaving little room for astrophysical dispersion. Using previously derived distances from Recio-Blanco et al. (2014b), we further find that the thick-disc is more extended vertically and is mor...

  14. Key aspects of a Flemish system to safeguard public health interests in case of chemical release incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Roel; Colles, Ann; Cornelis, Christa; Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Chovanova, Hana; Wildemeersch, Dirk; Mampaey, Maja; Van Campenhout, Karen

    2014-12-15

    Although well-established protocols are available for emergency services and first-responders in case of chemical release incidents, a well-developed system to monitor and safeguard public health was, until recently, lacking in Flanders. We therefore developed a decision support system (DSS) to aid public health officials in identifying the appropriate actions in case of incidents. Although the DSS includes human biomonitoring as one of its key instruments, it also goes well beyond this instrument alone. Also other, complementary, approaches that focus more on effect assessment using in vitro toxicity testing, indirect exposures through the food chain, and parallel means of data collection (e.g. through ecosurveillance or public consultation), are integrated in the Flemish approach. Even though the DSS is set up to provide a flexible and structured decision tree, the value of expert opinion is deemed essential to account for the many uncertainties associated with the early phases of technological incidents. When the DSS and the associated instruments will be fully operational, it will provide a valuable addition to the already available protocols, and will specifically safeguard public health interests.

  15. The Impact of Pollution Prevention on Toxic Environmental Releases from U.S. Manufacturing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Matthew; Cox, Brendan; Keenan, Cheryl; Teitelbaum, Daniel

    2015-11-03

    Between 1991 and 2012, the facilities that reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Program conducted 370,000 source reduction projects. We use this data set to conduct the first quasi-experimental retrospective evaluation of how implementing a source reduction (pollution prevention) project affects the quantity of toxic chemicals released to the environment by an average industrial facility. We use a differences-in-differences methodology, which measures how implementing a source reduction project affects a facility's releases of targeted chemicals, relative to releases of (a) other untargeted chemicals from the same facility, or (b) the same chemical from other facilities in the same industry. We find that the average source reduction project causes a 9-16% decrease in releases of targeted chemicals in the year of implementation. Source reduction techniques vary in effectiveness: for example, raw material modification causes a large decrease in releases, while inventory control has no detectable effect. Our analysis suggests that in aggregate, the source reduction projects carried out in the U.S. since 1991 have prevented between 5 and 14 billion pounds of toxic releases.

  16. TSCA Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted to ensure...

  17. Structure-activity relationship of polyphenols on inhibition of chemical mediator release from rat peritoneal exudate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, K; Shoji, K; Mori, M; Ueyama, T; Matsuo, N; Oka, S; Nishiyama, K; Sugano, M

    1999-03-01

    The effect of phenolic compounds in foodstuffs on histamine and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) release from rat peritoneal exudate cells and their antioxidative activity were examined to assess their antiallergenic activities. Among them, triphenols such as pyrogallol and gallic acid inhibited histamine release from the cells, but diphenols did not. On the other hand, o- and p-diphenols such as catechol and hydroquinone with strong antioxidative activity inhibited LTB4 release as strongly as pyrogallol, but an m-derivative resorcinol with weak antioxidative activity did not. Though carboxylated compounds and their noncarboxylated counterparts were antioxidative, the former exerted a much weaker inhibitory effect on the LTB4 release than the latter. In flavonols, only myricetin with a triphenolic B ring strongly inhibited histamine release, but all flavonols strongly suppressed LTB4 release irrespective of the number of OH groups in the B ring. Among flavonoids with an o-diphenolic B ring, flavonol and flavone with a C4-carbonyl group strongly inhibited LTB4 release, whereas the activity of anthocyan without C4-carbonyl was much weaker than the above compounds. These results suggest that triphenolic structure is essential for the inhibition of histamine release. On the other hand, antioxidative activity and membrane permeability of phenolic compounds seemed to be essential for the inhibition of LTB4 release. In addition, the C4-carbonyl group seemed to be important for strongly inhibiting LTB4 release.

  18. 21 CFR 1304.11 - Inventory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... commences business with no controlled substances on hand, he/she shall record this fact as the initial... distributor (e.g., in transit or in storage for shipment). (5) Inventories of chemical analysts. Each...

  19. 复合型缓释肥包衣剂理化性质及缓释特性研究%Studies on Physical and Chemical Properties and Slow- Release Properties of Compound Coating Agent for Slow-Release Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊海蓉; 钟总; 官春云; 蒋利华; 邹应斌; 熊远福

    2011-01-01

    为了探明复合型缓释肥包表剂的理化性质及其缓释特性,对复合型缓释肥包衣剂的粘度、成膜性、成膜时间、膜韧性、包衣脱落率、包衣肥的养分初期溶出率、养分微分溶出率、养分累积释放曲线等进行了测定.理化性质测试结果显示:缓释肥包衣剂的粘度为44.5 MPa/s、成膜性良好、成膜时间7min、包衣膜拉长倍数达2.8倍,包衣脱落率<5%.缓释特性测试结果显示:包衣肥养分N、P、K初期溶解率<15%、微分溶解率<2%,符合中国缓释肥料标准GB/T23348-2009.其中P的初期溶解率小于N、K的初期溶解率,而N、P、K微分溶解率相差不大.养分累积释放曲线大致呈“S”型,与作物生长需肥规律一致.表明复合型缓释肥包衣剂的理化性质良好,能有效控制普通复合肥养分的缓释.%To explore the physical and chemical properties and slow-release properties of compound coating-agent for slow-release fertilizer (KSFF-2), the viscosity, forming film property, forming film time, film tenacity, coating off rates of coating agent, and the nutrient initial-release ratios, nutrient micro-release ratios and nutrient accumulation-release curves of coating slow-release fertilizer were determined. Results showed that the viscosity of the compound coating-agent was 44.5 Mpa/s, forming film property was better, forming film time was 7 min, film stretch ratio was 2.8 times, coating off rates was less than 5%. The initial release ratio of N, P, K in the coated fertilizer was less than 15%, the micro release ratio was less than 2%, which was consistent with the slow-release fertilizer standard GB/T 23348-2009 constituted by China. The initial dissolution rate of P was less than those of N and K, and the micro release ratio of N, P, K was almost the same. The nutrient accumulation-release curves were S-shape, which was consistent with the nutrient demand of crops. These results indicated the physical and chemical

  20. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

  1. From National Forest Inventory to National Forest GHG Inventories

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Ben; PANDEY Devendra; Achard, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 3.3 presents two national case studies for forest inventories in tropical countries: the Indian and Mexican national forest inventories. These national forest inventories have been use to report GHG inventories to the UNFCC

  2. HHS Enterprise Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Enterprise Data Inventory (EDI) is the comprehensive inventory listing of agency data resources including public, restricted public, and non-public datasets.

  3. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  4. World Glacier Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Glacier Inventory (WGI) contains information for over 130,000 glaciers. Inventory parameters include geographic location, area, length, orientation,...

  5. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  6. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  7. LINGUISTIC INVENTORY PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    CHIH HSUN HSIEH

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this paper has been motivated primarily by Zadeh's idea of linguistic variables intended to provide rigorous mathematical modeling of natural language and CWW, Computing With Words. This paper reports some modeling of the linguistic inventory problems where CWW have been implemented: linguistic production inventory, linguistic inventory models under linguistic demand and linguistic lead time, linguistic production inventory models based on the preference of a decision ma...

  8. Low and intermediate level waste in SFR-1. Reference Waste Inventory 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almkvist, Lisa (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (SE)); Gordon, Anna (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-11-15

    The objective with this report is to describe all the waste and the waste package that is expected to be deposited in SFR 1 at the time of closure. The report will form the basis for the release calculation in the safety analysis for SFR 1. Three different scenarios are explored in this report; the waste inventory is based on an estimated operational lifetime of the Swedish nuclear power plants of 50 and 60 years and that closure of the SFR 1 repository will take place in 2040 or 2050 respectively. The third scenario is where the repository is full (one part where the activity adds up to 1016 Bq and one part where the repository is considered full regarding volume). In the report, data about geometries, weights, materials, chemicals and radionuclide are given. No chemotoxic material has been identified in the waste. The inventory is estimated using the Prosit-interface which extracts information from the Triumf database. The inventory is based on so called 'waste types' and the waste types' 'reference waste package'. The reference waste package combined with a prognosis of the number of waste packages to be delivered to SFR 1 gives the final waste inventory for SFR 1. All reference waste packages are thoroughly described in the appendices of this report. The reference waste packages are as far as possible based on actual experiences and measurements. The radionuclide inventory is also based on actual measurements. The inventory is based on measurements of 60Co and 137Cs in waste packages and on measurements of 239Pu and 240Pu in reactor water. Other nuclides in the inventory are calculated with correlation factors

  9. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  10. A new method of inhibiting pollutant release from source water reservoir sediment by adding chemical stabilization agents combined with water-lifting aerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beibei Chai; Tinglin Huang; Weihuang Zhu; Fengying Yang

    2011-01-01

    Source water reservoirs easily become thermally and dynamically stratified.Internal pollution released from reservoir sediments is the main cause of water quality problems.To mitigate the internal pollution more effectively,a new method,which combined chemical stabilization with water lifting aerator (WLA) technology,was proposed and its efficiency in inhibiting pollutant release was studied by controlled sediment-water interface experiments.The results showed that this new method can inhibit pollutant release from sediment effectively.The values of mean efficiency (E) in different reactors 2#-5# (1# with no agent,2# 10 mg/L polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC) was added,3# 20 mg/L PAC was added,4# 30 mg/L PAC was added,5# 20 mg/L PAC and 0.2 mg/L palyacrylamide (PAM)were added) for PO43- were 35.0%,43.9%,50.4% and 63.6%,respectively.This showed that the higher the PAC concentration was,the better the inhibiting efficiency was,and PAM addition strengthened the inhibiting efficiency significantly.For Fe2+,the corresponding values of E for the reactors 2#-5# were 22.9%,47.2%,34.3% and 46.2%,respectively.The inhibiting effect of PAC and PAM on Mn release remained positive for a relatively short time,about 10 days,and was not so effective as for PO43- and Fe2+.The average efliciencies in inhibiting the release of UV254 were 35.3%,25.9%,35.5%,38.9% and 39.5% for reactors 2#-5#,respectively.The inhibiting mechanisms of the agents for different pollutants varied among the conditions and should be studied further.

  11. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  12. High chemical diversity in a wasp pheromone: a blend of methyl 6-methylsalicylate, fatty alcohol acetates and cuticular hydrocarbons releases courtship behavior in the Drosophila parasitoid Asobara tabida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, Johannes; Dandekar, Anna-Teresa; Ruther, Joachim

    2014-02-01

    Wasps of genus Asobara, a larval parasitoid of Drosophila, have become model organisms for the study of host-parasite interactions. However, little is known about the role of pheromones in locating mates and courtship behavior in this genus. In the present study, we aimed to identify the female courtship pheromone in Asobara tabida. The chemical compositions of solvent extracts from male and female wasps were analyzed by GC/MS. These extracts, fractions thereof, and synthetic pheromone candidates were tested for their activity in behavioral bioassays. The results demonstrate that the courtship pheromone of A. tabida is characterized by a remarkable chemical diversity. A multi-component blend of female-specific compounds including methyl 6-methylsalicylate (M6M), fatty alcohol acetates (FAAs), and cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) released male courtship behavior. Using a combinatory approach that included both purified natural products and synthetic analogs, it was shown that none of the three chemical classes alone was sufficient to release a full behavioral response in males. However, a blend of M6M and FAAs or combinations of one or both of these with female-derived CHCs resulted in wing-fanning responses by males comparable to those elicited by the crude extract of females. Thus, components from all three chemical classes contribute to the bioactivity of the pheromone, but none of the elements plays a key role or is irreplaceable. The fact that one of the FAAs, vaccenyl acetate, is also used as a kairomone by Asobara females to locate Drosophila hosts suggests that a pre-existing sensory responsiveness to vaccenyl acetate might have been involved in the evolution of the female sex pheromone in Asobara.

  13. Dryden Flight Research Center Chemical Pharmacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bette

    1997-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) Chemical Pharmacy "Crib" is a chemical sharing system which loans chemicals to users, rather than issuing them or having each individual organization or group purchasing the chemicals. This cooperative system of sharing chemicals eliminates multiple ownership of the same chemicals and also eliminates stockpiles. Chemical management duties are eliminated for each of the participating organizations. The chemical storage issues, hazards and responsibilities are eliminated. The system also ensures safe storage of chemicals and proper disposal practices. The purpose of this program is to reduce the total releases and transfers of toxic chemicals. The initial cost of the program to DFRC was $585,000. A savings of $69,000 per year has been estimated for the Center. This savings includes the reduced costs in purchasing, disposal and chemical inventory/storage responsibilities. DFRC has chemicals stored in 47 buildings and at 289 locations. When the program is fully implemented throughout the Center, there will be three chemical locations at this facility. The benefits of this program are the elimination of chemical management duties; elimination of the hazard associated with chemical storage; elimination of stockpiles; assurance of safe storage; assurance of proper disposal practices; assurance of a safer workplace; and more accurate emissions reports.

  14. Chemical identification, emission pattern and function of male-specific pheromones released by a rarely swarming locust, Schistocerca americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahr, Christiane; Svatoš, Aleš; Seidelmann, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones serve key functions in the biology of swarming locusts. However, research has focused largely on the mass-swarming desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. We extended these investigations to the pheromonal profile of the rarely swarming American bird grasshopper, S. americana (Drury). The headspace of mature gregarious S. americana males contained three characteristic electroantennogram-active components: (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol, (Z)-2-octen-1-ol, and nonanal. These substances were accompanied by aromatics such as phenol that are also released by females and immatures. Male-specific pheromone components were released independently from epidermal gland cells, with the highest emission rate being for (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol from the abdomen and legs. The emission of the major compound, (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol, is stress-sensitive, and coincides with sexual maturity and crowding. The emission pattern strongly supports a role of (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol in the reproductive biology of S. americana. The pheromone is involved in courtship-inhibition and is used as mate assessment pheromone in cryptic female choice. In double mating experiments, females choose sperm of males with high (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol emission. Furthermore the pheromone accelerated maturation of immature adults and supports synchronization of sexual development.

  15. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  16. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  17. Prioritization of Louisiana Parishes based on Industrial Releases of Known or Suspected Carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katner, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the geographic distribution of carcinogen releases by Louisiana industries to prioritize areas for regulatory oversight, research and monitoring, and to promote clinician awareness and vigilance. Data on estimated industry releases for the period between 1996 and 2011 were obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory. Chemicals associated with cancers of the prostate, lung, bladder, kidney, breast and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were identified. The Risk Screening Environmental Indicators model was used to derive measures or model scores based on chemical toxicity, fate and transport, and population characteristics. Parishes, chemicals, industries and media generating the highest model scores were identified. Parishes with the highest model scores were East Baton Rouge, Calcasieu, Caddo and St. John the Baptist. Clinicians should carefully monitor cancer cases in these areas, and if patients reside near or work in industry, an occupational and environmental history should be considered.

  18. Activation of soil and chemical reagents exposed to the neutrons released by the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Y; Muroyama, T; Kawabata, Y; Yamamoto, M; Komura, K

    2001-09-01

    Specific activities (Bq/g-element) of residual neutron-induced radionuclides by the JCO criticality accident were measured for soil, concrete block and chemical reagent samples collected in the JCO campus. Induced radionuclides such as 24Na, 46Sc, 54Mn, 59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn, 82Br, 122Sb, 134Cs and 140La were detected in the samples, depending on the ground distance from the accident point and the sampling date. Apparent thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluences, which reached the sample at each point, were roughly estimated from the specific activities and cross sections of the target nuclides taken from a literature. The present data are believed to be important as validation data for a three-dimensional neutron transport model calculation.

  19. Groundwater contamination by microbiological and chemical substances released from hospital wastewater: health risk assessment for drinking water consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Evens; Pierre, Marie Gisèle; Perrodin, Yves

    2009-05-01

    Contamination of natural aquatic ecosystems by hospital wastewater is a major environmental and human health issue. Disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, radionuclides and solvents are widely used in hospitals for medical purposes and research. After application, some of these substances combine with hospital effluents and, in industrialised countries, reach the municipal sewer network. In certain developing countries, hospitals usually discharge their wastewater into septic tanks equipped with diffusion wells. The discharge of chemical compounds from hospital activities into the natural environment can lead to the pollution of water resources and risks for human health. The aim of this article is to present: (i) the steps of a procedure intended to evaluate risks to human health linked to hospital effluents discharged into a septic tank equipped with a diffusion well; and (ii) the results of its application on the effluents of a hospital in Port-au-Prince. The procedure is based on a scenario that describes the discharge of hospital effluents, via septic tanks, into a karstic formation where water resources are used for human consumption. COD, Chloroform, dichlomethane, dibromochloromethane, dichlorobromomethane and bromoform contents were measured. Furthermore, the presence of heavy metals (chrome, nickel and lead) and faecal coliforms were studied. Maximum concentrations were 700 NPP/100 ml for faecal coliforms and 112 mg/L for COD. A risk of infection of 10(-5) infection per year was calculated. Major chemical risks, particularly for children, relating to Pb(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI) and Ni(II) contained in the ground water were also characterised. Certain aspects of the scenario studied require improvement, especially those relating to the characterisation of drugs in groundwater and the detection of other microbiological indicators such as protozoa, enterococcus and viruses.

  20. QSAR models for predicting the activity of non-peptide luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) antagonists derived from erythromycin A using quantum chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Michael; Caballero, Julio

    2007-04-01

    Multiple linear regression (MLR) combined with genetic algorithm (GA) and Bayesian-regularized Genetic Neural Networks (BRGNNs) were used to model the binding affinity (pK(I)) of 38 11,12-cyclic carbamate derivatives of 6-O-methylerythromycin A for the Human Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) receptor using quantum chemical descriptors. A multiparametric MLR equation with good statistical quality was obtained that describes the features relevant for antagonistic activity when the substituent at the position 3 of the erythronolide core was varied. In addition, four-descriptor linear and nonlinear models were established for the whole dataset. Such models showed high statistical quality. However, the BRGNN model was better than the linear model according to the external validation process. In general, our linear and nonlinear models reveal that the binding affinity of the compounds studied for the LHRH receptor is modulated by electron-related terms.

  1. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, CO...

  2. Preschool Connected Speech Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJohnson, Albert; And Others

    This speech inventory developed for a study of aurally handicapped preschool children (see TM 001 129) provides information on intonation patterns in connected speech. The inventory consists of a list of phrases and simple sentences accompanied by pictorial clues. The test is individually administered by a teacher-examiner who presents the spoken…

  3. Uncertainties in emission inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardenne, van J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Emission inventories provide information about the amount of a pollutant that is emitted to the atmosphere as a result of a specific anthropogenic or natural process at a given time or place. Emission inventories can be used for either policy or scientific purposes. For policy purpose

  4. Distribution and chemical coding of corticotropin-releasing factor-immunoreactive neurons in the guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sumei; Gao, Na; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Wang, Xiyu; Wang, Guo-Du; Fang, Xiucai; Gao, Xiang; Xia, Yun; Wood, Jackie D

    2006-01-01

    Immunofluorescence was used to study immunoreactivity (IR) for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the guinea pig enteric nervous system. CRF-IR was expressed in both the myenteric and the submucosal plexuses of all regions of the large and small intestine and the myenteric plexus of the stomach. CRF-IR nerve fibers were present in the myenteric and submucosal plexuses, in the circular muscle coat, and surrounding submucosal arterioles. Most of the CRF-IR fibers persisted in the myenteric and submucosal plexuses after 7 days in organotypic culture. CRF-IR was not coexpressed with tyrosine hydroxylase-IR or calcitonin gene-related peptide-IR fibers. The proportions of CRF-IR cell bodies in the myenteric plexus increased progressively from the stomach (0.6%) to the distal colon (2.8%). Most of the CRF-IR myenteric neurons (95%) had uniaxonal morphology; the remainder had Dogiel type II multipolar morphology. CRF-IR cell bodies in the myenteric plexus of the ileum expressed IR for choline acetyltransferase (56.9%), substance P (55.0%), and nitric oxide synthase (37.9%). CRF-IR never colocalized with IR for calbindin, calretinin, neuropeptide Y, serotonin, or somatostatin in the myenteric plexus. CRF-IR cell bodies were more abundant in the submucosal plexus (29.9-38.0%) than in the myenteric plexus. All CRF-IR neurons in submucosal ganglia expressed vasoactive intestinal peptide-IR and were likely to be secretomotor/vasodilator neurons. CRF-IR neurons did not express IR for the CRF(1) receptor. CRF(1)-IR was expressed in neuronal neighbors of those with CRF-IR. Collective evidence suggests that VIPergic secretomotor neurons might provide synaptic input to neighboring cholinergic neurons.

  5. The contribution of changes in P release and CO2 consumption by chemical weathering to the historical trend in land carbon uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, D. S.; Moosdorf, N.; Brovkin, V.; Hartmann, J.

    2013-12-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased to a level unprecedented in the last 2 million years, and the concentration is projected to increase further with a rate unseen in geological past. The increase in CO2 cause a rise in surface temperatures and changes in the hydrological cycle through the redistribution of rainfall patterns. All of these changes will impact the weathering of rocks, which in turn affect atmospheric CO2 concentrations via two different pathways. On the one hand, CO2 is consumed by the dissolution reaction of the exposed minerals. And on the other hand, biological CO2 fixation is affected due to changes in phosphorus release from minerals, as biological activity is constrained by phosphorus availability at large scales. The traditional view is that both effects are negligible on a centennial time scale, but recent work on catchment scale challenge this view in favor of a potential high sensitivity of weathering to ongoing climate and land use changes. To globally quantify the contribution of CO2 fixation associated with weathering on the historical trend in terrestrial CO2 uptake, we applied a model of chemical weathering and phosphorus release under climate reconstructions from four Earth System Models. The simulations indicate that changes in weathering could have contributed considerably to the trend in terrestrial CO2 uptake since the pre-industrial revolution, with warming being the main driver of change. The increase in biological CO2 fixation is of comparable magnitude as the increase in CO2 consumption by chemical weathering. Our simulations support the previous findings on catchment scale that weathering can change significantly on a centennial time scale. This finding has implications for 21st century climate projections, which ignore changes in weathering, as well as for long-term airborne fraction of CO2 emissions, whose calculation usually neglects changes in phosphorus availability.

  6. An Emission Inventory of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xilong; Zhu, Xianlei; Wang, Xuesong

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most dangerous compounds due to their high carcinogenic and mutagenic character. Emission inventory provides the primary data to account for the sources of ambient PAHs and server as a necessary database for effective PAHs pollution control. China is experiencing fast economic growth and large energy consumption, which might result in a large amount of PAHs anthropogenic emissions. Therefore, based on the previous studies and combined recently field emission measurements as well as socio-economic activity data, the development of a nationwide PAHs emission inventory is needed. In this work, the emission inventory of 16 PAHs listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants in China in the year 2012 is compiled. The emission amounts of PAHs were estimated as annual rates of emission-related activities multiplied by respective emission factors. The activities such as fuel consumption, including fossil fuel and biofuel, and socio-economic statistics were obtained from yearbook released by Chinese central government and/or provincial governments, as well as related industry reports. Emission factors were derived from the related literature. Recently reported emission factors from local measurements were used. The total emissions of PAHs were 120611 ton in 2012. In China, PAHs were emitted predominantly from domestic combustion of coal and biofuel, coking industry and motor vehicles, accounting for 72% of the total amount. PAHs emission profiles were significantly different between China and the other countries. The emission profile in China featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic combustion and coking industry. Domestic combustion of straw, coal and firewood emitted 19464 ton, 8831 ton, and 5062 ton of PAHs, respectively, which were much higher than those in other countries. Emission per capita showed

  7. SBA Network Components & Software Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s Network Components & Software Inventory contains a complete inventory of all devices connected to SBA’s network including workstations, servers, routers,...

  8. Interactive Inventory Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garud, Sumedha

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (lAD) module that communicates with, or is part of the base station to provide an initial inquiry. lnformation on location(s) of the larget invenlory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventgory item. Another embodiment provides inventory informatin for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person adjacent to that stack.

  9. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  10. Shuttle Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Inventory Management System (SIMS) consists of series of integrated support programs providing supply support for both Shuttle program and Kennedy Space Center base opeations SIMS controls all supply activities and requirements from single point. Programs written in COBOL.

  11. The Danish CORINAIR Inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.; Illerup, J. B.; Fenhann, J.;

    CORINAIR is the most comprehensive European air emission inventory programme. It consists of a defined emission calculation methodology and software for storing and further data processing. In CORINAIR 28 different emission species are estimated in 11 main sectors which are further sub-divided, a......CORINAIR is the most comprehensive European air emission inventory programme. It consists of a defined emission calculation methodology and software for storing and further data processing. In CORINAIR 28 different emission species are estimated in 11 main sectors which are further sub...... of emissions per unit activity. This report describes the structure of the Danish CORINAIR emission inventory on a 1996 level and international conventions to which Denmark submits emission data. Furthermore the most important activities in the Danish inventory are explained. Subsequently the Danish 1996...

  12. China's Glacier Inventory Completed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A 12-volume Chinese Glacier Inventory has recently been finished by a group of Chinese glaciologists headed by Prof. Shi Yafeng from the Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute under CAS.

  13. Asset Inventory Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AIDM is used to track USAID assets such as furniture, computers, and equipment. Using portable bar code readers, receiving and inventory personnel can capture...

  14. Public Waters Inventory Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...

  15. Business Process Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Inventory of maps and descriptions of the business processes of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM), with an emphasis on the processes of the Office of the...

  16. Wetlands Inventory Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Nevada wetlands inventory is a unit of a nationwide survey undertaken by the Fish and Wildlife Service to locate and tabulate by habitat types the important...

  17. Raccoon abundance inventory report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a raccoon abundance inventory on Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge in 2012. Determining raccoon abundance allows for...

  18. Land Type Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an inventory of the number of acres of various land types found at Kenai National Moose Range. Forestlands are the predominant land type, followed by tundra,...

  19. Logistics and Inventory System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Logistics and Inventory System (LIS) is the agencys primary supply/support automation tool. The LIS encompasses everything from order entry by field specialists...

  20. Software Document Inventory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwarth, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    Program offers ways to file and locate sources of reference. DOCLIB system consists of two parts to serve needs of two type of users: general user and librarian. DOCLIB systems provides user with interactive, menudriven document inventory capability.

  1. VA Enterprise Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Department of Veterans Affairs Enterprise Data Inventory accounts for all of the datasets used in the agency's information systems. This entry was approved for...

  2. National Emission Inventory (NEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data exchange allows states to submit data to the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). NEI is a national database of air...

  3. National Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Emission Inventory contains measured, modeled, and estimated data for emissions of all known source categories in the US (stationary sources, fires,...

  4. Inventory Control Crucial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    Inventory control is one of the most important business processes during the operation of a trading or manufacturing company as it relates to purchases,sales and logistic activities,In order to have clear inven- tory management,a company should focus not only on logistic management but also on sales and purchase management.The general view is that the warehouse serves as the most important component of inventory manage- ment and that the accounting department is

  5. Traffic Signs Inventory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ružbarský

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on practical application of Cambridge Correlator. The goal is to propose a traffic signs inventory system by using excellent characteristics of correlator in the rapid optical correlation. The proposal of this inventory system includes obtaining of traffic signs to create the database either collecting the GPS coordinates. It is necessary to know the traffic signs position and also to document the entire surface route for later evaluation in offline mode.

  6. Air quality simulation over South Asia using Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory and Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Divya E.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, G.; Emmons, L. K.; Jena, Chinmay; Kumar, Rajesh; Pfister, G. G.; Chate, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the distribution of tropospheric ozone and related species for South Asia using the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4) and Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory. The model present-day simulated ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are evaluated against surface-based, balloon-borne and satellite-based (MOPITT and OMI) observations. The model systematically overestimates surface O3 mixing ratios (range of mean bias about: 1-30 ppbv) at different ground-based measurement sites in India. Comparison between simulated and observed vertical profiles of ozone shows a positive bias from the surface up to 600 hPa and a negative bias above 600 hPa. The simulated seasonal variation in surface CO mixing ratio is consistent with the surface observations, but has a negative bias of about 50-200 ppb which can be attributed to a large part to the coarse model resolution. In contrast to the surface evaluation, the model shows a positive bias of about 15-20 × 1017 molecules/cm2 over South Asia when compared to satellite derived CO columns from the MOPITT instrument. The model also overestimates OMI retrieved tropospheric column NO2 abundance by about 100-250 × 1013 molecules/cm2. A response to 20% reduction in all anthropogenic emissions over South Asia shows a decrease in the anuual mean O3 mixing ratios by about 3-12 ppb, CO by about 10-80 ppb and NOX by about 3-6 ppb at the surface level. During summer monsoon, O3 mixing ratios at 200 hPa show a decrease of about 6-12 ppb over South Asia and about 1-4 ppb over the remote northern hemispheric western Pacific region.

  7. Tier II Chemical Storage Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities that store hazardous chemicals above certain quantities must submit an annual emergency and hazardous chemical inventory on a Tier II form. This is a...

  8. Shortening the Xerostomia Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, William Murray; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; Ikebe, Kazunori; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Enoki, Kaori; Hopcraft, Matthew; Ling, Guo Y

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the validity and properties of the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version in samples from Australia, The Netherlands, Japan and New Zealand. Study design Six cross-sectional samples of older people from The Netherlands (N = 50), Australia (N = 637 and N = 245), Japan (N = 401) and New Zealand (N = 167 and N = 86). Data were analysed using the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version. Results Almost all data-sets revealed a single extracted factor which explained about half of the variance, with Cronbach’s alpha values of at least 0.70. When mean scale scores were plotted against a “gold standard” xerostomia question, statistically significant gradients were observed, with the highest score seen in those who always had dry mouth, and the lowest in those who never had it. Conclusion The Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version is valid for measuring xerostomia symptoms in clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:21684773

  9. Inventory-driven costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callioni, Gianpaolo; de Montgros, Xavier; Slagmulder, Regine; Van Wassenhove, Luk N; Wright, Linda

    2005-03-01

    In the 199os, Hewlett-Packard's PC business was struggling to turn a dollar, despite the company's success in winning market share. By 1997, margins on its PCs were as thin as a silicon wafer, and some product lines hadn't turned a profit since 1993. The problem had everything to do with the PC industry's notoriously short product cycles and brutal product and component price deflation. A common rule of thumb was that the value of a fully assembled PC decreased 1% a week. In such an environment, inventory costs become critical. But not just the inventory costs companies traditionally track, HP found, after a thorough review of the problem. The standard "holding cost of inventory"--the capital and physical costs of inventory--accounted for only about 10% of HP's inventory costs. The greater risks, it turned out, resided in four other, essentially hidden costs, which stemmed from mismatches between demand and supply: Component devaluation costs for components still held in production; Price protection costs incurred when product prices drop on the goods distributors still have on their shelves; Product return costs that have to be absorbed when distributors return and receive refunds on overstock items, and; Obsolescence costs for products still unsold when new models are introduced. By developing metrics to track those costs in a consistent way throughout the PC division, HP has found it can manage its supply chains with much more sophistication. Gone are the days of across-the-board measures such as,"Everyone must cut inventories by 20% by the end of the year," which usually resulted in a flurry of cookie-cutter lean production and just-in-time initiatives. Now, each product group is free to choose the supply chain configuration that best suits its needs. Other companies can follow HP's example.

  10. Evaluating Global Emission Inventories of Biogenic Bromocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossaini, Ryan; Mantle, H.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Montzka, S. A.; Hamer, P.; Ziska, F.; Quack, B.; Kruger, K.; Tegtmeier, S.; Atlas, E.; Sala, S.; Engel, A.; Bonisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D.; Mills, G.; Ordonez, C.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Warwick, N.; Liang, Q.; Feng, W.; Moore, F.; Miller, F.; Marecal, V.; Richards, N. A. D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2013-01-01

    Emissions of halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are poorly constrained. However, their inclusion in global models is required to simulate a realistic inorganic bromine (Bry) loading in both the troposphere, where bromine chemistry perturbs global oxidizing capacity, and in the stratosphere, where it is a major sink for ozone (O3). We have performed simulations using a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) including three top-down and a single bottom-up derived emission inventory of the major brominated VSLS bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2). We perform the first concerted evaluation of these inventories, comparing both the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions. For a quantitative evaluation of each inventory, model output is compared with independent long-term observations at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ground-based stations and with aircraft observations made during the NSF (National Science Foundation) HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) project. For CHBr3, the mean absolute deviation between model and surface observation ranges from 0.22 (38 %) to 0.78 (115 %) parts per trillion (ppt) in the tropics, depending on emission inventory. For CH2Br2, the range is 0.17 (24 %) to 1.25 (167 %) ppt. We also use aircraft observations made during the 2011 Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere (SHIVA) campaign, in the tropical western Pacific. Here, the performance of the various inventories also varies significantly, but overall the CTM is able to reproduce observed CHBr3 well in the free troposphere using an inventory based on observed sea-to-air fluxes. Finally, we identify the range of uncertainty associated with these VSLS emission inventories on stratospheric bromine loading due to VSLS (Br(VSLS/y)). Our simulations show Br(VSLS/y) ranges from approximately 4.0 to 8.0 ppt depending on the inventory. We report an optimized estimate at the lower end of this range (approximately 4 ppt

  11. Developmental programming: impact of fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor mRNA in sheep hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Megan M; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC), two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, disrupt the reproductive system. BPA has profound effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) surge amplitude, and MXC has profound effects on on LH surge timing in sheep. The neural mechanisms involved in the differential disruption of the LH surge by these two EDCs remain to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that the differential effects of BPA and MXC on LH surge system involved changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen receptors (ESR), ESR1 and ESR2, mRNA expression. Pregnant sheep were given daily injections of cottonseed oil (controls), MXC, or BPA (5mg/kg/day) from day 30 to 90 of gestation (term 147d). Offspring from these animals were euthanized as adults, during the late follicular phase following synchronization of estrus with prostaglandin F(2alpha), just before the expected onset of preovulatory LH surge and changes in mRNA expression of hypothalamic GnRH, ESR1, and ESR2 quantified following in situ hybridization. GnRH mRNA expression was significantly lower in both groups of EDC-treated females compared to controls. ESR1 expression was increased in prenatal BPA- but not MXC-treated females in medial preoptic area relative to controls. In contrast, ESR2 expression was reduced in the medial preoptic area of both EDC-treated groups. Differences in expression of ESR1/ESR2 receptors may contribute to the differential effects of BPA and MXC on the LH surge system. These findings provide support that prenatal exposure to EDCs alters the neural developmental trajectory leading to long-term reproductive consequences in the adult female.

  12. Materials inventory management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Materials Inventory Management Manual (NHB 4100.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 USC 2473). It sets forth policy, performance standards, and procedures governing the acquisition, management and use of materials. This Manual is effective upon receipt.

  13. Calculating Optimal Inventory Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Perez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the project is to find the optimal value for the Economic Order Quantity Model and then use a lean manufacturing Kanban equation to find a numeric value that will minimize the total cost and the inventory size.

  14. Inventory of nanotechnology companies in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelbaum, Richard, E-mail: rich@global.ucsb.edu [University of California at Santa Barbara, MacArthur Foundation Chair in Sociology and Global & International Studies Co-PI, Center for Nanotechnology and Society, Social Science and Media Studies 2103 (United States); Zayago Lau, Edgar [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV, Zacatenco)., Multidisciplinary Graduate Programs (Mexico); Foladori, Guillermo [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico); Parker, Rachel [Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Research Programs (Canada); Vazquez, Laura Liliana Villa [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas (Mexico); Belmont, Eduardo Robles [UNAM, Institute for Research in Applied Mathematics and Systems (IIMAS) (Mexico); Figueroa, Edgar Ramón Arteaga [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    This study presents an inventory of 139 nanotechnology companies in Mexico, identifying their geographic distribution, economic sector classification, and position in the nanotechnology value chain. We find that the principal economic sector of nanotechnology-engaged firms involves the manufacture of chemical products, which largely serve as means of production (primary or intermediate materials; instruments and equipment) for industrial processes. The methodology used in this analysis could be replicated in other countries without major modifications.

  15. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  16. A Sequential Chemical Extraction and Spectroscopic Assessment of the Potential Bioavailability of Mercury Released From the Inoperative New Idria Mercury Mine, San Benito Co., CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, A. D.; Luong, P. N.; Rytuba, J. J.; Brown, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    the silica tests. The possibility of Hg being incorporated in the silica tests of diatoms is surprising, but one of the few known Hg-silicates (Edgarbailyite) was first discovered in the New Idria forming under ambient conditions, thus, a Hg-silicate species is possible. The stability of Hg contained in diatoms is important because it represents a new sink for dissolved Hg in an impacted system that was previously unknown. Freshwater diatoms present in the New Idria drainage system were found to contain significant quantities (30-60%) of Hg in the non-HgS SCE fractions, similar to the New Idria sediments, and are thought to be the major association of Hg in this system. SCE analyses of Hg(II) sorbed to synthetic 2-line and natural ferrihydrite in the laboratory showed that Hg(II) does not bind strongly to either material. The adsorption/incorporation of Hg(II) with the silica tests of diatoms is an important discovery and has major implications for passive remediation strategies for Hg in natural systems. Because the vast majority of Hg contained in sediments downstream of the New Idria site require 1M KOH or harsher chemical treatment for removal, the Hg released from New Idria can be considered to be environmentally stable.

  17. Do provisions to advance chemical facility safety also advance chemical facility security? An analysis of possible synergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2012-01-01

    endanger neighbouring populated areas. Second, facilities where high-risk chemicals are present could present opportunities for theft. The concern is that relatively small amounts of highly toxic chemicals could be taken to another location selected for higher impact. The Directive on European Critical......The European Commission has launched a study on the applicability of existing chemical industry safety provisions to enhancing security of chemical facilities covering the situation in 18 EU Member States. This paper reports some preliminary analytical findings regarding the extent to which...... exist at the mitigation level. At the strategic policy level, synergies are obvious. The security of chemical facilities is important. First, facilities with large inventories of toxic materials could be attractive targets for terrorists. The concern is sabotage causing an intentional release that could...

  18. Vendor-managed inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Vendor-managed inventory (VMI) represents the methodology through which the upstream stage of a supply chain (vendor) takes responsibility for managing the inventories at the downstream stage (customer) based on previously agreed limits. VMI is another method by which supply chains can be managed......, and, owing to centralised decision-making and constant information sharing, the benefits are much higher than in traditional supply chain case. However, there exists a lack of research that identifies the dimensions of VMI, benefits of VMI, methods, and levels used in the VMI environment. The focus...... the level-based classification. Based on the review, several recommendations that improve the performance of VMI are presented. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  19. Perishable Inventory Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Nguyen, Vivi Thuy; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates how inventory control of perishable items is managed and line up some possible options of improvement. This includes a review of relevant literature dealing with the challenges of determining ordering policies for perishable products and a study of how the current procedure...... in the retail supply chains. The goal is to find and evaluate the parameters which affect the decision making process, when finding the optimal order quantity and order time. The paper takes a starting point in the retail industry but links to other industries.......The paper investigates how inventory control of perishable items is managed and line up some possible options of improvement. This includes a review of relevant literature dealing with the challenges of determining ordering policies for perishable products and a study of how the current procedures...

  20. Experimental determination of the speciation, partitioning, and release of perrhenate as a chemical surrogate for pertechnetate from a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Fitts, Jeff. P.; Jantzen, Carol. M.; Tang, G.

    2013-12-01

    A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium (99Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO4), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M8[Al6Si6O24]X2, where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na8[AlSiO4]6SO4). Bulk X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na8[Al6Si6O24](ReO4)2). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 ?C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate minerals and include a combination of ion exchange, network hydrolysis, and the formation of an enriched-silica surface layer or phase. The steady-state S and Re concentrations are within an order of magnitude of the nosean and perrhenate sodalite solubility, respectively. The order of magnitude difference between the observed and predicted concentration for Re and S may be associated with the fact that the anion

  1. Simulating ozone concentrations using precursor emission inventories in Delhi - National Capital Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Khare, Mukesh

    2017-02-01

    This study simulates ground level ozone concentrations in a heavily populated and polluted National Capital Region (NCR- Delhi) in India. Multi-sectoral emission inventories of ozone precursors are prepared at a high resolution of 4 × 4 km2 for the whole region covering the capital city of Delhi along with other surrounding towns and rural regions in NCR. Emission inventories show that transport sector accounts for 55% of the total NOx emissions, followed by power plants (23%) and diesel generator sets (7%). In NMVOC inventories, transport sector again accounts for 33%, followed by evaporative emissions released from solvent use and fuel handling activities (30%), and agricultural residue burning (28%). Refuse burning contributes to 73% of CO emissions mainly due to incomplete combustion, followed by agricultural residue burning (14%). These emissions are spatially and temporally distributed across the study domain and are fed into the WRF-CMAQ models to predict ozone concentrations for the year 2012. Model validations are carried out with the observed values at different monitoring stations in Delhi. The performance of the models over various metrics used for evaluation was found to be satisfactory. Summers and post-monsoon seasons were better simulated than monsoon and winter seasons. Simulations have shown higher concentrations of ozone formation during summers and lesser during winters and monsoon seasons, mainly due to varying solar radiation affecting photo-chemical activities. Ozone concentrations are observed lower at those locations where NOx emissions are higher, and concentrations increase close to the boundary of study domain when compared to the center of Delhi city. Downwind regions to Delhi are influenced by the ozone formed due to plume of precursor emissions released from Delhi. Considering significant background contributions, regional scale controls are required for reducing ozone in NCR.

  2. Effect of thermal and chemical modifications on the mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet formulations containing corn, cassava and sweet potato starches as filler-binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Vbamiunomhene Lawal

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Modification of the experimental starches improved the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations. Thus, they can be developed for use as pharmaceutical excipients in specific formulations.

  3. Release of segregated nuclides from spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Tait, J.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Laboratories

    1997-10-01

    The potential release of fission and activation products from spent nuclear fuel into groundwater after container failure in the Swedish deep repository is discussed. Data from studies of fission gas release from representative Swedish BWR fuel are used to estimate the average fission gas release for the spent fuel population. Information from a variety of leaching studies on LWR and CANDU fuel are then reviewed as a basis for estimating the fraction of the inventory of key radionuclides that could be released preferentially (the Instant Release Fraction of IRF) upon failure of the fuel cladding. The uncertainties associated with these estimates are discussed. 33 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  4. Risk factors for acute chemical releases with public health consequences: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance in the U.S., 1996–2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Wendy E

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Releases of hazardous materials can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. To reduce and prevent the public health consequences (victims or evacuations from uncontrolled or illegally released hazardous substances, a more comprehensive analysis is needed to determine risk factors for hazardous materials incidents. Methods Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES data from 1996 through 2001 were analyzed using bivariate and multiple logistic regression. Fixed-facility and transportation-related events were analyzed separately. Results For fixed-facility events, 2,327 (8% resulted in at least one victim and 2,844 (10% involved ordered evacuations. For transportation-related events, 759 (8% resulted in at least one victim, and 405 (4% caused evacuation orders. Fire and/or explosion were the strongest risk factors for events involving either victims or evacuations. Stratified analysis of fixed-facility events involving victims showed a strong association for acid releases in the agriculture, forestry, and fisheries industry. Chlorine releases in fixed-facility events resulted in victims and evacuations in more industry categories than any other substance. Conclusions Outreach efforts should focus on preventing and preparing for fires and explosions, acid releases in the agricultural industry, and chlorine releases in fixed facilities.

  5. Consequences of severe radioactive releases to Nordic Marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosjpe, M.; Isaksson, M.; Joensen, H.P.

    - or minor – radioactive releases to Nordic marine environment. As a reference, the release amounts from a 3000 MWth reactor size were used. Based on source term analyses, the chosen release fractions in the study were: iodine 20% (of the total core inventory), caesium 10%, tellurium 10%, strontium 0...

  6. Stimulus-responsiveness and methyl violet release behaviors of poly(NIPAAm-co-AA) hydrogels chemically crosslinked with β-cyclodextrin polymer bearing methacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Gao, Jun; Liu, Ruina; Zhao, Sanping

    2016-06-16

    To fabricate thermo- and pH-sensitive hydrogels functionalized with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) moieties, β-CD polymer bearing methacrylate (CDP-g-GMA) used as a reactive and functional crosslinker was synthesized, and then copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylic acid (AA) in aqueous solution via UV-initiated free radical polymerization. The stimulus-responsiveness of the resultant hydrogels has been carried out by measuring the swelling ratio at different temperatures and pH values. The results showed that the thermo- and pH-sensitivities of the produced hydrogels were significantly dependent on the compositions of the hydrogels, and the dual sensitivities exhibited good reversible process. The interior morphology observed by SEM exhibited that the pore size of the hydrogels could be tailored by pH of the local medium. Using a water-soluble cationic dye methyl violet (MV) as a model drug, MV loading and release profiles of the hydrogels as potential drug controlled release carriers were evaluated. The MV release rate from CD-functionalized hydrogels was much slower than that from the hydrogel without β-CDs at both pH 2.0 and pH 7.4. The release of MV from CD-functionalized hydrogels at pH 2.0 was faster than that at pH 7.4, the release kinetics of MV from the CD-functionalized hydrogels displayed a sustained release profile, and the release mechanism followed Fickian diffusion.

  7. Inventory of armourstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Turdu Valéry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural armourstone is widely used for hydraulic works, both in the coastal domain and in border of rivers and torrents, especially to protect against flood and the effects of waves and currents. To meet the expectations associated with this resource, an inventory of armourstone quarries was realized on a national scale in France. This inventory informs not only about the localization of quarries but also about the quality and the availability of materials. To fully optimize this inventory in a dynamic format, the association of all actors of the sector was preferred to archival research. This partnership approach led to project deliverables that can constitute durably a shared reference. The database can indeed be updated regularly thanks to the contacts established with the professionals of quarries. The access to this database is offered to a wide public: maritime and fluvial ports, local authorities in charge of planning and managing structures that protect against flood and other hydraulic hazards. This new database was organized considering its importance on the operational plan. This led to a hierarchical organization at two levels for each quarry face: first level, a synthesis sheet brings the essential information to realize choices upstream to the operational phases. Second level, a detailed specification sheet presents the technical characteristics observed in the past on the considered face. The atlas has two information broadcasting formats: a pdf file with browsing functions and a geographical information system that allows remote request of the database. These two media have their own updating rhythms, annual for the first and continue for the second.

  8. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten;

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2014. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2012 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2014. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2012 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2...

  9. Energy Education Materials Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The two volumes of the Energy Education Materials Inventory (EEMI) comprise an annotated bibliography of widely available energy education materials and reference sources. This systematic listing is designed to provide a source book which will facilitate access to these educational resources and hasten the inclusion of energy-focused learning experiences in kindergarten through grade twelve. EEMI Volume II expands Volume I and contains items that have become available since its completion in May, 1976. The inventory consists of three major parts. A core section entitled Media contains titles and descriptive information on educational materials, categorized according to medium. The other two major sections - Grade Level and Subject - are cross indexes of the items for which citations appear in the Media Section. These contain titles categorized according to grade level and subject and show the page numbers of the full citations. The general subject area covered includes the following: alternative energy sources (wood, fuel from organic wastes, geothermal energy, nuclear power, solar energy, tidal power, wind energy); energy conservation, consumption, and utilization; energy policy and legislation, environmental/social aspects of energy technology; and fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, petroleum). (RWR)

  10. A study of correlations between the release of drugs from petrolatum-based gels containing nonionic surfactants and some physical and physico-chemical characteristics of the gel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colo, G D; Nannipieri, E; Serafini, M F; Vitale, D

    1986-06-01

    Synopsis The in vitro release of benzocaine and 2-ethyIhexyl p-di-methylaminobenzoate (EH-PABA) from petrolatum-based gels either containing two nonionic surfactants, or not, was compared with some physical and/or physico-chemical characteristics of the drugs, the gels and the drug-gel systems. The surfactants had no effect on the release of EH-PABA, the less polar drug, whereas they decreased the release of benzocaine. Moreover, the release data show a complex dependence of diffusive properties of ben-zocaine on drug and surfactant concentration. Benzocaine appears to form mixed micelles with each of the two surfactants and/or undergoes self-aggregation phenomena within surfactant micelles. The results indicate that drug diffusion is influenced by gel porosity, drug molecular size and polarity and molecular interactions. Etude des corrélations entre la disponibilité des medicaments dans les gels a base de vaseline contenant des surfactifs non ioniques et quelques propriétés physiques et physicochimiques des gels.

  11. An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-ion-trap mass spectrometer for the on-line analysis of volatile compounds in foods: a tool for linking aroma release to aroma perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Jean-Luc; Gierczynski, Isabelle; Sémon, Etienne

    2014-09-01

    An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometer was set up for the on-line analysis of aroma compounds. This instrument, which has been successfully employed for some years in several in vitro and in vivo flavour release studies, is described for the first time in detail. The ion source was fashioned from polyether ether ketone and operated at ambient pressure and temperature making use of a discharge corona pin facing coaxially the capillary ion entrance of the ion-trap mass spectrometer. Linear dynamic ranges (LDR), limits of detection (LOD) and other analytical characteristics have been re-evaluated. LDRs and LODs have been found fully compatible with the concentrations of aroma compounds commonly found in foods. Thus, detection limits have been found in the low ppt range for common flavouring aroma compounds (for example 5.3 ppt (0.82 ppbV) for ethyl hexanoate and 4.8 ppt (1.0 ppbV) for 2,5-dimethylpyrazine). This makes the instrument applicable for in vitro and in vivo aroma release investigations. The use of dynamic sensory techniques such as the temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) method conducted simultaneously with in vivo aroma release measurements allowed to get some new insights in the link between flavour release and flavour perception.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Chemically Cross-Linked Acrylic Acid/Gelatin Hydrogels: Effect of pH and Composition on Swelling and Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Majid Hanif Bukhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This present work was aimed at synthesizing pH-sensitive cross-linked AA/Gelatin hydrogels by free radical polymerization. Ammonium persulfate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA were used as initiator and as cross-linking agent, respectively. Different feed ratios of acrylic acid, gelatin, and EGDMA were used to investigate the effect of monomer, polymer, and degree of cross-linking on swelling and release pattern of the model drug. The swelling behavior of the hydrogel samples was studied in 0.05 M USP phosphate buffer solutions of various pH values pH 1.2, pH 5.5, pH 6.5, and pH 7.5. The prepared samples were evaluated for porosity and sol-gel fraction analysis. Pheniramine maleate used for allergy treatment was loaded as model drug in selected samples. The release study of the drug was investigated in 0.05 M USP phosphate buffer of varying pH values (1.2, 5.5, and 7.5 for 12 hrs. The release data was fitted to various kinetic models to study the release mechanism. Hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR spectroscopy which confirmed formation of structure. Surface morphology of unloaded and loaded samples was studied by surface electron microscopy (SEM, which confirmed the distribution of model drug in the gel network.

  13. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  14. Controlling Inventory: Real-World Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas G.; Özgün-Koca, S. Asli; Chelst, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Amazon, Walmart, and other large-scale retailers owe their success partly to efficient inventory management. For such firms, holding too little inventory risks losing sales, whereas holding idle inventory wastes money. Therefore profits hinge on the inventory level chosen. In this activity, students investigate a simplified inventory-control…

  15. Release Data Package for Hanford Site Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Engel, David W.

    2006-07-01

    Beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support a Hanford assessment. This report describes the data compiled in FY 2003 through 2005 to support the Release Module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) for the updated composite analysis. This work was completed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, part of the Remediation and Closure Science Project, the Hanford Assessments Project, and the Characterization of Systems Project managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Related characterization activities and data packages for the vadose zone and groundwater are being developed under the remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The Release Module applies release models to waste inventory data from the Inventory Module and accounts for site remediation activities as a function of time. The resulting releases to the vadose zone, expressed as time profiles of annual rates, become source terms for the Vadose Zone Module. Radioactive decay is accounted for in all inputs and outputs of the Release Module. The Release Module is implemented as the VADER (Vadose zone Environmental Release) computer code. Key components of the Release Module are numerical models (i.e., liquid, soil-debris, cement, saltcake, and reactor block) that simulate contaminant release from the different waste source types found at the Hanford Site. The Release Module also handles remediation transfers to onsite and offsite repositories.

  16. Denmark's national inventory report 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Lyck, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth;

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO....

  17. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2014. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2012 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2...

  18. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2007 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2. The report documents the methodology as well as presents activity data and emissi...

  19. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    2010-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2....

  20. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2013. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2011 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2....

  1. Automation of Space Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong; Wagner, Raymond; Barton, Richard; Gifford, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the utilization of automated space-based inventory management through handheld RFID readers and BioNet Middleware. The contents include: 1) Space-Based INventory Management; 2) Real-Time RFID Location and Tracking; 3) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID; and 4) BioNet Middleware.

  2. Effect of thermal and chemical modifications on the mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet formulations containing corn, cassava and sweet potato starches as filler-binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariam; Vbamiunomhene; Lawal; Michael; Ayodele; Odeniyi; Oludele; Adelanwa; Itiola

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of acetylation and pregelatinization of cassava and sweet potato starches on the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations in comparison with official corn starch.Methods: The native starches were modified by acetylation and pregelatinization. The tablets were assessed using friability(Fr), crushing strength(Cs), disintegration time(Dt) and dissolution parameters. Results: Starch acetylation produced paracetamol tablets that were stronger and had the best balance of mechanical and disintegration properties, while pregelatinization produced tablets that were more friable but had a better overall strength in relation to disintegration than formulations made from natural starches. Correlations mainly existed between Dt and the dissolution parameters t80, t2 and k1 in the formulations. Conclusions: Modification of the experimental starches improved the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations. Thus, they can be developed for use as pharmaceutical excipients in specific formulations.

  3. Effect of thermal and chemical modiifcations on the mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet formulations containing corn, cassava and sweet potato starches as ifller-binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariam Vbamiunomhene Lawal; Michael Ayodele Odeniyi; Oludele Adelanwa Itiola

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of acetylation and pregelatinization of cassava and sweet potato starches on the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations in comparison with official corn starch. Methods: The native starches were modified by acetylation and pregelatinization. The tablets were assessed using friability (Fr), crushing strength (Cs), disintegration time (Dt) and dissolution parameters. Results: Starch acetylation produced paracetamol tablets that were stronger and had the best balance of mechanical and disintegration properties, while pregelatinization produced tablets that were more friable but had a better overall strength in relation to disintegration than formulations made from natural starches. Correlations mainly existed between Dt and the dissolution parameters t80, t2 and k1 in the formulations. Conclusions:Modification of the experimental starches improved the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations. Thus, they can be developed for use as pharmaceutical excipients in specific formulations.

  4. ANALYSIS MODEL FOR INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA BURJA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The inventory represents an essential component for the assets of the enterprise and the economic analysis gives them special importance because their accurate management determines the achievement of the activity object and the financial results. The efficient management of inventory requires ensuring an optimum level for them, which will guarantee the normal functioning of the activity with minimum inventory expenses and funds which are immobilised. The paper presents an analysis model for inventory management based on their rotation speed and the correlation with the sales volume illustrated in an adequate study. The highlighting of the influence factors on the efficient inventory management ensures the useful information needed to justify managerial decisions, which will lead to a balancedfinancial position and to increased company performance.

  5. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  6. Chemical communication in Chagas disease vectors. Source, identity, and potential function of volatiles released by the metasternal and Brindley's glands of Triatoma infestans adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Gabriel; Vitta, Ana C R; Ferreira, Raquel A; Zani, Carlos L; Unelius, C Rikard; Lazzari, Claudio R; Diotaiuti, Lileia; Lorenzo, Marcelo G

    2006-09-01

    Compounds from the metasternal and Brindley's glands of the blood-sucking bug, Triatoma infestans, were identified by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Volatile compounds released by adult bugs during copulation or after mechanical disturbance were also characterized. Six compounds were identified and found consistently in all samples from metasternal glands. The most abundant were 3-pentanone, 2-methylbutanol, 3-pentanol, and an unidentified compound. The metasternal gland blends did not differ qualitatively between sexes. Compounds found in Brindley's glands were short chain acids, alcohols, esters, and a ketone with no qualitative differences between sexes. Isobutyric acid was the main component of this blend, and two new confirmed compounds were described as products of these glands: 2-butanone and 2-methylbutyric acid. 3-Pentanone was collected from the headspace over 33% of the copulating pairs of T. infestans. Volatiles found in the headspace of disturbed T. infestans adults included short-chain fatty acids, alcohols, esters, and ketones, with no qualitative differences between sexes. Both types of glands apparently discharge their contents after disturbance. However, most of the volatiles released by bugs after disturbance came from Brindley's glands. The locomotor activity of fourth instars increased significantly after stimulation with the odors emitted by disturbed adults, as compared with larvae stimulated by the odor of undisturbed adults or by clean air. We also studied the directional behavioral response of fifth instars to the disturbance scent in a locomotion compensator. Larvae exposed to volatiles released by disturbed adults walked away from the direction of the odor. The results suggest that this blend or part of it functions as an alarm pheromone for T. infestans. We suggest that the metasternal glands of this species are involved both in the sexual and the alarm contexts, and that the Brindley

  7. A review of chemical-approach and ultramorphological studies on the development of fluoride-releasing dental adhesives comprising new pre-reacted glass ionomer (PRG) fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Kunio; Tay, Franklin R; Endo, Takeshi; Pashley, David H

    2008-05-01

    This paper reviews our recent studies on fluoride-releasing adhesives and the related studies in this field based on information from original research papers, reviews, and patent literatures. A revolutionary PRG (pre-reacted glass ionomer) filler technology--where fillers were prepared by the acid-base reaction of a fluoroaluminosilicate glass with polyalkenoic acid in water, was newly developed, and a new category as "Giomer" was introduced into the market. On fluoride release capability, SIMS examination revealed in vitro fluoride ion uptake by dentin substrate from the PRG fillers in dental adhesive. On bonding durability, it was found that the improved durability of resin-dentin bonds might be achieved not only via the strengthened dentin due to fluoride ion uptake from the PRG-Ca fillers, but also due to retention of relatively insoluble 4-AETCa formed around remnant apatite crystallites within the hybrid layer in 4-AET-containing self-etching adhesives. On ultramorphological study of the resin-dentin interface, TEM images of the PRG-Ca fillers revealed that the dehydrated hydrogel was barely distinguishable from normal glass fillers, if not for the concurrent presence of remnant, incompletely reacted glass cores. In conclusion, it was expected that uptake of fluoride ions with cariostatic effect from PRG-Ca fillers would endow dentin substrates with the benefit of secondary caries prevention, together with an effective and durable adhesion to dentin.

  8. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column.

  9. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  10. Individual Pitch Control. Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Engelen, T.G.; Van der Hooft, E.L. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-06-15

    The loads on the rotor blades, drive-train and tower of horizontal axis wind turbines are caused for a significant part by the rotational sampling of turbulence, the tower shadow and the windshear. These loads depend on the azimuthal blade position and are approximately periodic in (multiples of) the rotational speed. It seems attractive to just add pure azimuth dependent variations to the pitch angle of the individual blades. However, a small phase mismatch with respect to the tower shadow and windshear effect will cause higher instead of lower loads. Besides, the stochastic loads from the torationally sampled turbulence are not reduced at all. This inventory study concerns the design and potential of individual feedback pitch control for 3 bladed wind turbines. In this approach the danger of mismatch is avoided and the stochastic blade loads are also reduced. A simple design model is derived for the parametrisation of the feedback loops for individual pitch control around one time the rotational frequency (1p). Rainflow counts and power spectra obtained from time-domain simulations give an indication of the achievable reduction of loads. In addition, the concept of individual pitch control is extended to multiples of the rotational frequency (2p, 3p; multi-mode pitch control). Scoping calculations show a significant further reduction of blade loads as well as a reduction of 3p harmonics in tilt and yaw loads in the nacelle.

  11. Microarthropods inventory in Cranendonck area

    OpenAIRE

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Dimmers, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    April 2006, microarthropod fauna inventory on former agricultural grasslands on sandy soil in Cranendonck area (and two reference sites) using a split-tube sampler. Subject of interest is organic matter

  12. Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Inventory contains descriptions of past and present CDS projects across the Federal Government. It includes Federal projects,...

  13. Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI) is an integrated database of severe weather records for the United States. SWDI enables a user to search through a variety...

  14. Forest Inventory and Analysis Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) research program has been in existence since mandated by Congress in 1928. FIA's primary objective is to determine the...

  15. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  16. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs/escapements,...

  17. Lepidoptera (Moth) Inventory: Region 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — National Wildlife Refuges protect important habitats for many plant and animal species. Refuge inventories have frequently included plants, birds and mammals, but...

  18. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  19. Droplet breakup in subsea oil releases--part 2: predictions of droplet size distributions with and without injection of chemical dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Øistein; Brandvik, Per Johan; Farooq, Umer

    2013-08-15

    A new method for prediction of droplet size distributions from subsea oil and gas releases is presented in this paper. The method is based on experimental data obtained from oil droplet breakup experiments conducted in a new test facility at SINTEF. The facility is described in a companion paper, while this paper deals with the theoretical basis for the model and the empirical correlations used to derive the model parameters from the available data from the test facility. A major issue dealt with in this paper is the basis for extrapolation of the data to full scale (blowout) conditions. Possible contribution from factors such as buoyancy flux and gas void fraction are discussed and evaluated based on results from the DeepSpill field experiment.

  20. Value-Based Inventory Management

    OpenAIRE

    Michalski, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    The basic financial purpose of a firm is to maximize its value. An inventory management system should also contribute to realization of this basic aim. Many current asset management models currently found in financial management literature were constructed with the assumption of book profit maximization as basic aim. However these models could lack what relates to another aim, i.e., maximization of enterprise value. This article presents a modified value-based inventory management model.

  1. 安徽沿江棉区控失型化肥施用技术研究%Research on the Application Technology of Controlled-release Chemical Fertilizer in the Cotton Area along Yangtze River in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余立祥; 邱冠男; 吴跃进

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究控失肥在棉区的施用技术,验证控失肥的"控失"效果及其经济效益.[方法]以当地主要推广的抗虫棉品种为供试作物,通过在安徽省沿江棉田进行施肥试验研究了控失肥不同施用方式对棉花产量和效益的影响.[结果]与一次基施全部控失肥相比,将控失肥分3次施用使棉花产量增加了240 kg/hm~2,棉农的净收入增加了156元/hm~2;将控失肥基施,后期追施速效化肥使棉花产量增加了7.04%,棉农的净收入增加了833.4元/hm~2.施用减氮20%的控失肥的棉花的现蕾期提前了6 d,开花期提前了7 d,吐絮期提前了8 d,生育期短了8 d.与施用普通氮肥的棉花相比,施用控失氮肥的棉花的秋桃增加幅度为22.29%~36.31%,皮棉产量增加了27.78%.[结论]该研究为在安徽沿江棉区推广应用控失肥提供了科学依据.%[Objective] The purpose was to research the application technology of controlled-release fertilizer in cotton area and validate its controlled-release effect and economic benefit. [Method] With the insect-resistant cotton varieties mainly popularized in the local place as tested crops, the effect of different application methods of controlled-release fertilizer on the yield and benefit of cotton was researched through carrying out fertilization experiment in the cotton fields along Yangtze River in Anhui Province. [Result] Compared with applying all the controlled-release fertilizer as base fertilizer at the first fertilization, when the controlled-release fertilizer was applied 3 times separately, the cotton yield was increased for 240 kg/hm~2 and the net income of cotton farmers was increased for 156 yuan/hm~2; when the controlled-release fertilizer was applied as base fertilizer and the fast-available chemical fertilizer was dressed in the anaphase, the cotton yield was increased by 7.04% and the net income of cotton farmers was increased for 833.4 yuan/hm~2. The squaring period of cottons applied

  2. 27 CFR 20.170 - Physical inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical inventory. 20.170... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Inventory and Records § 20.170 Physical inventory. Once in each... physical inventory of each formula of new and recovered specially denatured spirits. (Approved by...

  3. 10 CFR 39.37 - Physical inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical inventory. 39.37 Section 39.37 Energy NUCLEAR... inventory. Each licensee shall conduct a semi-annual physical inventory to account for all licensed material received and possessed under the license. The licensee shall retain records of the inventory for 3...

  4. 27 CFR 40.523 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 40.523... Inventories. Every manufacturer of processed tobacco must provide a true and accurate inventory on TTB F 5210.9 in accordance with instructions for the form. The manufacturer must make such an inventory at...

  5. 27 CFR 19.353 - Storage inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage inventories. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage Inventories § 19.353 Storage inventories. Each warehouseman shall take a physical inventory of all spirits and wines held in the storage...

  6. 27 CFR 19.981 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 19.981... Spirits § 19.981 Inventories. Proprietors shall take actual physical inventory of all spirits (including... § 19.988. The results of the inventory shall be posted in the applicable records required by §...

  7. 27 CFR 19.329 - Production inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production inventories. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Inventories § 19.329 Production inventories. Each distiller shall take a physical inventory of the spirits and denatured spirits in tanks...

  8. 27 CFR 40.201 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 40.201... PROCESSED TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Inventories and Reports § 40.201 Inventories. Every manufacturer of tobacco products shall make true and accurate inventories on Form...

  9. 48 CFR 1845.508 - Physical inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Physical inventories. 1845... Contractors 1845.508 Physical inventories. NASA contractors shall reconcile inventories with the official property records and submit reports to the property administrator within 30 days after inventory...

  10. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  11. Influences of released and predictable substances of very high concern on textile chemicals%已发布及可预见的高度关注物质对纺织化学品的影响(待续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣圻

    2014-01-01

    REACH迄今已发布了8批共138个高度关注物质(SVHC),发布SVHC的种数和数量逐渐加快。我们关注的是其中的纺织化学品,而且仅是已经发布的。还应关注可预见的,做到未雨绸缪。因为从已发布的SVHC可见一斑,例如:24个致癌芳胺已发布了9个,剩下的15个终要继续发布。而涉嫌的禁用偶氮染料一个也未列入,列入SVHC的是4个几近淘汰的三芳甲烷染料,同样情况是重金属无机颜料、邻苯二甲酸酯增塑剂、阻燃剂、有机锡等化学品。农药只发布了一只,真乃冰山一角,离世界各国包括欧盟禁用农药还差很多。本文作了大胆预测,非但列举,还讲清楚危害性和应用领域,希望对染料、助剂和印染企业有参考价值。%REACH has released 8 groups of total 138 substances of very high concern (SVHC) so far. The species and quantity of released SVHC are gradually accelerated. Among the SVHC, only the published textile chemicals are concerned. But it is also necessary to pay attention to the predictable substances in order to take precautions, because it is evident in the released SVHC. For example, 9 of 24 cancer-causing aromatic amines have been published and the rest will be sequentially released. None of suspected banned azo dyes are listed in SVHC while 4 nearly abandoned triarylmethane dyes are included. Other chemicals such as heavy metal inorganic pigments, phthalate plasticizers, flame retardants and organic tin are in the same case. Only one pesticide has been published, which is the tip of an iceberg and is far different from the banned pesticides in countries around the world including EU. It is boldly forecasted, listed and detailedly described the hazard and application fields of the substances, hoping to give some reference values on dyes, auxiliaries and dyeing and printing enterprises.

  12. Recognition Inventories in Governmental Sector Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya Pryadka

    2013-01-01

    The Study covers the research of conditions for recognition of inventories in the governmental sector accounting. The comparative analysis has been performed as to the inventories recognition criteria provided by the National Accounting Provisions (Standards) 123 in the public sector - 'Inventories', Accounting Provision (Standard) 9 - 'Inventories', International Accounting Standard 16 - 'Inventories' in the public sector. It has been found that the common characteristic, in accordance with ...

  13. Insights into solid phase characteristics and release of heavy metals and arsenic from industrial sludge via combined chemical, mineralogical, and microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Tran Thi Thu; Golreihan, Asefeh; Vassilieva, Elvira; Phung, Nguyen Ky; Cappuyns, Valérie; Swennen, Rudy

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the solid phase characteristics and release of heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and arsenic (As) from sludge samples derived from industrial wastewater treatment plants. The emphasis is determining the influence of acidification on element mobilization based on a multidisciplinary approach that combines cascade and pHstat leaching tests with solid phase characterization through X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission gun electron probe micro analysis (FEG-EPMA), and thermodynamic modeling (Visual MinteQ 3.0). Solid phase characterization and thermodynamic modeling results allow prediction of Ni and Zn leachabilities. FEG-EPMA is useful for direct solid phase characterization because it provides information on additional phases including specific element associations that cannot be detected by XRD analysis. Cascade and pHstat leaching test results indicate that disposal of improperly treated sludges at landfills may lead to extreme environmental risks due to high leachable concentrations of Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, and Pb. However, high leachabilities under acid conditions of Ni and Zn as observed from pHstat leaching test results may provide a potential opportunity for acid extraction recovery of Ni and Zn from such sludges.

  14. Training in commercial logistics practices to improve inventory management in the Army

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Leonard T.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Department of Defense (DoD) and private firms share a common set of logistical challenges. Rising costs, external pressures, new technology, and other factors have focused attention on improving logistics management. GAO believes top management support and training are fundamental to improving economy and efficiency for DoD's inventory management system. This thesis examines current inventory management training and policies for se...

  15. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  16. Annual Danish emissions inventory report to UNECE. Inventory 1990 - 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.; Lyck, E.; Hoffmann, L.; Fauser, P.

    2004-05-01

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2004. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SOx for the years 1980-2002, (2) NOx, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2002; (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM2.5 for the years 2000-2002, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2002, and (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2002. Furthermore, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  17. Information related to low-level mixed waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, B.D.; Dolak, D.A.; Wang, Y.Y.; Meshkov, N.K.

    1996-12-01

    This report was prepared to support the analysis of risks and costs associated with the proposed treatment of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) under management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The various waste management alternatives for treatment of LLMW have been defined in the DOE`s Office of Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. This technical memorandum estimates the waste material throughput expected at each proposed LLMW treatment facility and analyzes potential radiological and chemical releases at each DOE site resulting from treatment of these wastes. Models have been developed to generate site-dependent radiological profiles and waste-stream-dependent chemical profiles for these wastes. Current site-dependent inventories and estimates for future generation of LLMW have been obtained from DOE`s 1994 Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2). Using treatment procedures developed by the Mixed Waste Treatment Project, the MWIR-2 database was analyzed to provide waste throughput and emission estimates for each of the different waste types assessed in this report. Uncertainties in the estimates at each site are discussed for waste material throughputs and radiological and chemical releases.

  18. Inventory non-conventional gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntendam-Bos, A.G.; Wassing, B.B.T.; Ter Heege, J.H.; Van Bergen, F.; Schavemaker, Y.A.; Van Gessel, S.F.; De Jong, M.L.; Nelskamp, S.; Van Thienen-Visser, K.; Guasti, E.; Van den Belt; Marges, V.C. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    This report describes the results of the inventory for each non-conventional gas resource expected to be present in the Netherlands, which are: Tight Gas, Shallow gas, Coal bed Methane (CBM), Shale gas, Basin Centered Gas, Aquifer Gas and Stratigraphic traps.

  19. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Ottawa NWR describes the inventory program’s relation to Refuge objectives and outlines the program’s policies and administration....

  20. Inventory on cleaner production education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pöyry, Sirkka; Huisingh, Donald;

    Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training......Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training...

  1. CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and state...

  2. Inventory Plan : St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The inventory procedures outlined in this plan represent a cost effective inventory of the wildlife populations on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge. Winter...

  3. Lake Mason : FWS rangeland inventory assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In September 2013, The Lake Mason Unit owned by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service was inventoried for rangeland health and production. The purpose of the inventory was...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Aransas [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Aransas National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  5. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Malheur NWR summarizes Refuge objectives, policies on wildlife inventory procedures, biological habitat units, physical facility...

  6. Simulation Tool for Inventory Models: SIMIN

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiksha Saxen; Tulsi Kushwaha

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated simulation optimization model for the inventory system is developed. An effective algorithm is developed to evaluate and analyze the back-end stored simulation results. This paper proposes simulation tool SIMIN (Inventory Simulation) to simulate inventory models. SIMIN is a tool which simulates and compares the results of different inventory models. To overcome various practical restrictive assumptions, SIMIN provides values for a number of performance measurement...

  7. Renin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweda, Frank; Friis, Ulla; Wagner, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    The aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in salt, volume, and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. Renin is mainly produced and released into circulation by the so-called juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells, located......, salt, and volume overload. In contrast, the events controlling the function of renin-secreting cells at the organ and cellular level are markedly less clear and remain mysterious in certain aspects. The unravelling of these mysteries has led to new and interesting insights into the process of renin...

  8. Analysis of radionuclide inventory in accelerator wastes; Analytische Bestimmung des Radionuklidinventars in Beschleunigerabfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, D.; Weinreich, R.; Atchison, F.; Beer, H.F. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    For the determination of the radionuclide inventory of a PSI beam dump {gamma}-spectroscopic as well as -after chemical separation - AMS (Accelerator mass spectrometry) measurements were performed. The results serve as a validation of a calculation code which predict the radionuclide content of the waste for disposal. The chemical separation techniques necessary for isolation of several element fractions are described. (orig.)

  9. 78 FR 10642 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... COMMISSION Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. The inventory includes service contract actions over...

  10. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a quarterly physical inventory to account for all sealed sources and for devices containing depleted uranium...

  11. 42 CFR 35.41 - Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory. 35.41 Section 35.41 Public Health PUBLIC... STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of Money and Effects of Deceased Patients § 35.41 Inventory. Promptly after the death of a patient in a station or hospital of the Service, an inventory of his money and...

  12. 23 CFR 650.315 - Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory. 650.315 Section 650.315 Highways FEDERAL..., STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.315 Inventory. (a) Each State or Federal agency must prepare and maintain an inventory of all bridges subject to the NBIS....

  13. 75 FR 82095 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Doc No: 2010-32828] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0394] Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. The inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1374-7 - Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inventory. 1.1374-7 Section 1.1374-7 Internal... TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1374-7 Inventory. (a) Valuation. The fair market value of the inventory of an S corporation on the first day of the recognition period equals...

  15. 7 CFR 984.21 - Handler inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handler inventory. 984.21 Section 984.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.21 Handler inventory. Handler inventory as of any date means...

  16. 77 FR 5280 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. The inventory includes service contract actions over...

  17. 47 CFR 32.1220 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventories. 32.1220 Section 32.1220... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.1220 Inventories. (a) This account shall include the cost of materials and supplies held in stock and inventories of...

  18. 40 CFR 52.348 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.348 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.348 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Colorado submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories for...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2309 - Emissions inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions inventories. 52.2309 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2309 Emissions inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Texas submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the...

  20. 27 CFR 17.167 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 17.167... PRODUCTS Records § 17.167 Inventories. (a) Distilled spirits. The “on hand” figures reported in Part II of TTB Form 5154.2 shall be verified by physical inventories taken as of the end of each quarter in...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1533 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1533 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1533 Emission inventories... inventory for the entire state on January 26, 1993 as a revision to the State Implementation Plan...

  2. 40 CFR 52.993 - Emissions inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions inventories. 52.993 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.993 Emissions inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Baton...

  3. 40 CFR 52.384 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.384 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Connecticut submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2350 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2350 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Utah submitted the 1990 base year emission inventory of ozone precursors,...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1036 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1036 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Maine submitted 1990 base year emission inventories for the Knox...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2086 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2086 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2086 Emission inventories... inventory for the Providence ozone nonattainment area on January 12, 1993 as a revision to the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1125 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1125 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1125 Emission inventories... emission inventories for the Springfield nonattainment area and the Massachusetts portion of the...

  8. 27 CFR 25.294 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 25.294... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.294 Inventories. (a) The brewer shall take a physical inventory of beer and cereal beverage at least once each calender month. The brewer may take...

  9. 30 CFR 220.032 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inventories. 220.032 Section 220.032 Mineral... Inventories. (a) The lessee is responsible for NPSL materiel and shall make proper and timely cost and credit... operations. The accumulation of surplus stocks shall be avoided by proper materiel control, inventory...

  10. 27 CFR 22.162 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 22.162... Inventories. Each permittee shall take a physical inventory of the tax-free and recovered alcohol in its possession semi-annually for the periods ending June 30 and December 31 of each year; or other...

  11. 43 CFR 10.9 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventories. 10.9 Section 10.9 Public... Museums and Federal Collections § 10.9 Inventories. (a) General. This section carries out section 5 of the... holdings or collections of human remains and associated funerary objects must compile an inventory of...

  12. Studies on Preparation and Physico-chemical Properties of Coating-agent for Controlled Release Fertilizer%控释肥包衣剂的制备及理化性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 熊海蓉; 祝友; 熊远福; 李霞; 刘俊

    2013-01-01

      为了获得控释肥包衣剂的制备条件、探明其理化性质,以2种树脂为成膜材料,探讨了成膜材料复合比、成膜材料用量、增塑剂用量、乳化剂用量等单因素对控释肥包衣剂制备效果的影响,运用正交试验L9(34)确定了控释肥包衣剂制备的最佳条件;并对其pH、粘度、成膜时间、成膜性、衣膜水溶性、包衣均匀度、包衣脱落率等理化性质进行了测定。结果表明,控释肥包衣剂的最佳制备条件:树脂JZ与BZ复合比1:1.5,成膜材料用量12%,增塑剂用量0.8%,乳化剂用量1.0%,色素用量0.08%,乙酸乙酯用量86.12%。理化性质测定结果显示:pH 5.21,粘度为21.1 MPa/s,成膜性良好,衣膜不溶于水,成膜时间为6 min,包衣均匀度95%,包衣脱落率<8%,表明所制备的控释肥包衣剂理化性质良好。%To obtain the preparation conditions and explore the physico-chemical properties of coating-agent for controlled release fertilizer, the single factor tests of the composite ratio of film-forming materials, the amount of film-forming materials, plasticizer, emulsifier and pigment were made with two resins as the film-forming materials, and the optimal preparation conditions of coating-agent for controlled-fertilizer were determined by orthogonal test L9(34). The physico-chemical properties of the pH, viscosity, film-forming time, film-forming properties, water solubility of coated film, coating uniformity, coating-off rate were measured. The results showed that, the optimal preparation conditions were as follows:the composite ratio (JZ:BZ) was 1:1.5, amount of film-forming materials was 12%, plasticizer was 0.8%, emulsifier was 1.0%, pigment was 0.08% and solvent was 86.12%. Test results of physico-chemical properties showed that, the pH was 5.21, viscosity was 21.1 MPa/s, the film was good and indissolvable in water, the film-forming time was 6 min, coating uniformity was 95%, coating

  13. Identification of the odour and chemical composition of alumina refinery air emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, P S; Ioppolo-Armanios, M

    2004-01-01

    Alcoa World Alumina Australia has undertaken comprehensive air emissions monitoring aimed at characterising and quantifying the complete range of emissions to the atmosphere from Bayer refining of alumina at its Western Australian refineries. To the best of our knowledge, this project represents the most complete air emissions inventory of a Bayer refinery conducted in the worldwide alumina industry. It adds considerably to knowledge of air emission factors available for use in emissions estimation required under national pollutant release and transfer registers (NPRTs), such as the Toxic Releases Inventory, USA, and the National Pollutant Inventory, Australia. It also allows the preliminary identification of the key chemical components responsible for characteristic alumina refinery odours and the contribution of these components to the quality, or hedonic tone, of the odours. The strength and acceptability of refinery odours to employees and neighbours appears to be dependent upon where and in what proportion the odorous gases have been emitted from the refineries. This paper presents the results of the programme and develops a basis for classifying the odour properties of the key emission sources in the alumina-refining process.

  14. Danish emission inventory for particular matter (PM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Illerup, J.B.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2003-11-01

    The first Danish emission inventory that was reported in 2002 was a provisional-estimate based on data presently available. This report documents methodology, emission factors and references used for an improved Danish emission inventory for particulate matter. Further results of the improved emission inventory for the year 2000 are shown. The particulate matter emission inventory includes TSP, PM,, and PM, The report covers emission inventories for transport and stationary combustion. An appendix covering emissions from agriculture is also included. For the transport sector, both exhaust and non-exhaust emission such as tyre and break wear and road abrasion are included. (au)

  15. National GHG inventories: Recent developments under the IPCC/OECD Joint Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlot, J C; Schwengels, P; Lurding, S

    1994-05-01

    This paper summarises key results of the Joint IPCC/OECD Programme, in particular the draft IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventories to be released in January 1994. The focus is on how these results are likely to improve the availability and the quality of national inventories of anthropogenic GHG emission sources and removals by sinks. The IPCC/OECD has already received nearly 50 inventories from 35 countries. Most of the data are for 1988, but some reports cover 1989 and 1990. In addition to CO2, many of these inventories include CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, and NMVOC. Detailed analyses of these inventories have provided valuable insights about the strengths and weaknesses of the national inventories, differences in approach to estimation, reporting, available methods and data. These results in turn, have facilitated the development of the draft Guidelines, most notably the proposed reporting system, and also on estimation methods for the different anthropogenic sources and sinks of GHG. The paper previews key aspects of the draft Guidelines for non-CO2 GHG. Experts are urged to actively participate in the IPCC/OECD Programme to continue to improve inventory methods and overall the Guidelines.

  16. Implementation of a Thermodynamic Solver within a Computer Program for Calculating Fission-Product Release Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Duncan Henry

    During some postulated accidents at nuclear power stations, fuel cooling may be impaired. In such cases, the fuel heats up and the subsequent increased fission-gas release from the fuel to the gap may result in fuel sheath failure. After fuel sheath failure, the barrier between the coolant and the fuel pellets is lost or impaired, gases and vapours from the fuel-to-sheath gap and other open voids in the fuel pellets can be vented. Gases and steam from the coolant can enter the broken fuel sheath and interact with the fuel pellet surfaces and the fission-product inclusion on the fuel surface (including material at the surface of the fuel matrix). The chemistry of this interaction is an important mechanism to model in order to assess fission-product releases from fuel. Starting in 1995, the computer program SOURCE 2.0 was developed by the Canadian nuclear industry to model fission-product release from fuel during such accidents. SOURCE 2.0 has employed an early thermochemical model of irradiated uranium dioxide fuel developed at the Royal Military College of Canada. To overcome the limitations of computers of that time, the implementation of the RMC model employed lookup tables to pre-calculated equilibrium conditions. In the intervening years, the RMC model has been improved, the power of computers has increased significantly, and thermodynamic subroutine libraries have become available. This thesis is the result of extensive work based on these three factors. A prototype computer program (referred to as SC11) has been developed that uses a thermodynamic subroutine library to calculate thermodynamic equilibria using Gibbs energy minimization. The Gibbs energy minimization requires the system temperature (T) and pressure (P), and the inventory of chemical elements (n) in the system. In order to calculate the inventory of chemical elements in the fuel, the list of nuclides and nuclear isomers modelled in SC11 had to be expanded from the list used by SOURCE 2.0. A

  17. Capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  18. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    CERN Document Server

    McGinness, Lachlan P

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multi-stage iterative development cycle for incorporating expert and student feedback into successive revisions of the ACI. The student feedback, including think-aloud interviews, enabled us to identify their misconceptions about action physics.

  19. Controlling Stock and Other Inventory Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    Inventory control is one of the most important business processes during the operation of a trading or manufacturing company as it relates to purchases,sales and logistic activities.In order to have clear inventory management,a company should not only focus on logistic management but also on sales and purchase management. Commonly,we think of the warehouse as the most important component of inventory management and the accounting department is responsible for the inventory management. However,inventory control is not only the responsibility of the accounting department and the warehouse,but also the responsibility of the entire organization.Actually,there are many departments involved in the inventory control process,such as sales,purchasing, production,logistics and accounting.All these departments must work together in or- der to achieve effective inventory controls.

  20. Resolution dependence of uncertainties in gridded emission inventories: a case study in Hebei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Tong, Dan; Chen, Chuchu; Hong, Chaopeng; Li, Meng; Geng, Guannan; Lei, Yu; Huo, Hong; He, Kebin

    2017-01-01

    Gridded emission inventories are essential inputs for chemical transport models and climate models. Spatial proxies are applied to allocate emissions from regional totals to spatially resolved grids when the exact locations of emissions are absent, with additional uncertainties arising due to the spatial mismatch between the locations of emissions and spatial proxies. In this study, we investigate the impact of spatial proxies on the accuracy of gridded emission inventories at different spatial resolutions by comparing gridded emissions developed from different spatial proxies (proxy-based inventory) with a highly spatially disaggregated bottom-up emission inventory developed from the extensive use of locations of emitting facilities (bottom-up inventory) in Hebei Province, China. We find that proxy-based inventories are generally comparable to bottom-up inventories for grid sizes larger than 0.25° because spatial errors are largely diminished at coarse resolutions. However, for gridded emissions with finer resolutions, large positive biases in urban centers and negative biases in suburban and rural regions are identified in proxy-based inventories and are then propagated into significant biases in urban-scale chemical transport modeling. Compared to bottom-up inventories, the use of proxy-based emissions exhibits similar modeling results, with biases varying from 3 to 13 % when predicting surface concentrations of different pollutants at 36 km resolution and an additional 8-73 % at 4 km resolution. The resolution dependence of uncertainties in proxy-based gridded inventories can be explained by the decoupling of emission facility locations from spatial surrogates, especially because industry facilities tend to be located away from urban centers. This distance results in a divergence between emission distributions and the allocation of proxies on smaller grids. The decoupling effects are weakened when the grid size increases to cover both urban and rural regions

  1. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume 1. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1995-04-28

    The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories. This document is Volume I of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation.

  2. Classification & Labelling Inventory: role of ECHA and notification requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Schöning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The CLP Regulation introduces the criteria of the UN Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling (UN GHS in the EU. The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA manages the CLP related tasks - such as harmonised classification and labelling, handling requests for alternative names and maintaining the Classification & Labelling Inventory (C&L - to ensure consistent implementation in the EU. The obligations for industry depend on their role in the supply chain. Manufacturers and importers have to notify to ECHA the identity and classification and labelling of substances within one month of placing them on the market either on their own or in a mixture, and regardless of the quantitity. As of 3 January 2011 ECHA has received some 3.1 million notifications of over 107 000 substances. This information is stored in the C&L Inventory and accessible to Member State Competent Authorities. The non-confidential information will be made publicly available on ECHA's website in 2011.

  3. Nitrogen release during coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.; Mitchell, R.E.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.

    1995-02-01

    Experiments in entrained flow reactors at combustion temperatures are performed to resolve the rank dependence of nitrogen release on an elemental basis for a suite of 15 U.S. coals ranging from lignite to low-volatile bituminous. Data were obtained as a function of particle conversion, with overall mass loss up to 99% on a dry, ash-free basis. Nitrogen release rates are presented relative to both carbon loss and overall mass loss. During devolatilization, fractional nitrogen release from low-rank coals is much slower than fractional mass release and noticeably slower than fractional carbon release. As coal rank increases, fractional nitrogen release rate relative to that of carbon and mass increases, with fractional nitrogen release rates exceeding fractional mass and fractional carbon release rates during devolatilization for high-rank (low-volatile bituminous) coals. At the onset of combustion, nitrogen release rates increase significantly. For all coals investigated, cumulative fractional nitrogen loss rates relative to those of mass and carbon passes through a maximum during the earliest stages of oxidation. The mechanism for generating this maximum is postulated to involve nascent thermal rupture of nitrogen-containing compounds and possible preferential oxidation of nitrogen sites. During later stages of oxidation, the cumulative fractional loss of nitrogen approaches that of carbon for all coals. Changes in the relative release rates of nitrogen compared to those of both overall mass and carbon during all stages of combustion are attributed to a combination of the chemical structure of coals, temperature histories during combustion, and char chemistry.

  4. Update and improvement of the global krypton-85 emission inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlswede, Jochen; Hebel, Simon; Ross, J Ole; Schoetter, Robert; Kalinowski, Martin B

    2013-01-01

    Krypton-85 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors by fission of uranium and plutonium and released during chopping and dissolution of spent fuel rods in nuclear reprocessing facilities. As noble gas it is suited as a passive tracer for evaluation of atmospheric transport models. Furthermore, research is ongoing to assess its quality as an indicator for clandestine reprocessing activities. This paper continues previous efforts to compile a comprehensive historic emission inventory for krypton-85. Reprocessing facilities are the by far largest emitters of krypton-85. Information on sources and calculations used to derive the annual krypton-85 emission is provided for all known reprocessing facilities in the world. In addition, the emission characteristics of two plants, Tokai (Japan) and La Hague (France), are analysed in detail using emission data with high temporal resolution. Other types of krypton-85 sources are power reactors, naval reactors and isotope production facilities. These sources contribute only little or negligible amounts of krypton-85 compared to the large reprocessing facilities. Taking the decay of krypton-85 into account, the global atmospheric inventory is estimated to about 5500 PBq at the end of 2009. The correctness if the inventory has been proven by meteorological simulations and its error is assumed to be in the range of a few percent.

  5. A Genetic Algorithm on Inventory Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Aydın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventory routing problem can be defined as forming the routes to serve to the retailers from the manufacturer, deciding on the quantity of the shipment to the retailers and deciding on the timing of the replenishments. The difference of inventory routing problems from vehicle routing problems is the consideration of the inventory positions of retailers and supplier, and making the decision accordingly. Inventory routing problems are complex in nature and they can be solved either theoretically or using a heuristics method. Metaheuristics is an emerging class of heuristics that can be applied to combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we provide the relationship between vendor-managed inventory and inventory routing problem. The proposed genetic for solving vehicle routing problem is described in detail.

  6. COMPILATION AND ANALYSES OF EMISSIONS INVENTORIES FOR THE NOAA ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY PROJECT. PROGRESS REPORT, AUGUST 1997.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENKOVITZ,C.M.

    1997-09-01

    Global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for circa 1985 and 1990 and Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) for circa 1990 have been compiled by this project. Work on the inventories has been carried out under the umbrella of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program. The 1985 NO{sub x} inventory was compiled using default data sets of global emissions that were refined via the use of more detailed regional data sets; this inventory is being distributed to the scientific community at large as the GEIA Version 1A inventory. Global emissions of NO{sub x} for 1985 are estimated to be 21 Tg N y{sup -1}, with approximately 84% originating in the Northern Hemisphere. The 1990 inventories of NO{sub x} and NMVOCs were compiled using unified methodologies and data sets in collaboration with the Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Rijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene, RIVM) and the Division of Technology for Society of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, (IMW-TNO); these emissions will be used as the default estimates to be updated with more accurate regional data. The NMVOC inventory was gridded and speciated into 23 chemical categories. The resulting global emissions for 1990 are 31 Tg N yr{sup -1} for NO{sub x} and 173 Gg NMVOC yr{sup -1}. Emissions of NO{sub x} are highest in the populated and industrialized areas of eastern North America and across Europe, and in biomass burning areas of South America, Africa, and Asia. Emissions of NMVOCs are highest in biomass burning areas of South America, Africa, and Asia. The 1990 NO{sub x} emissions were gridded to 1{sup o} resolution using surrogate data, and were given seasonal, two-vertical-level resolution and speciated into NO and NO{sub 2} based on proportions derived from the 1985 GEIA Version 1B inventory. Global NMVOC

  7. Study of physico-chemical release of uranium and plutonium oxides during the combustion of polycarbonate and of ruthenium during the combustion of solvents used in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel; Etude de la mise en suspension physico-chimique des oxydes de plutonium et d'uranium lors de la combustion de polycarbonate et de ruthenium lors de la combustion des solvants de retraitement du combustible irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilloux, L

    1998-07-01

    The level of consequences concerning a fire in a nuclear facility is in part estimated by the quantities and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive compounds that may be emitted out of the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the contaminant release from the fire. Because of the multiplicity of the scenarios, two research subjects were retained. The first one concerns the study of the uranium or plutonium oxides chemical release during the combustion of the polycarbonate glove box sides. The second one is about the physico chemical characterisation of the ruthenium release during the combustion of an organic solvent mixture (tributyl phosphate-dodecane) used for the nuclear fuel reprocessing. Concerning the two research subjects, the chemical release, i.e. means the generation of contaminant compounds gaseous in the fire, was modelled using thermodynamical simulations. Experiments were done in order to determine the ruthenium release factor during solvent combustion. A cone calorimeter was used for small scale experiments. These results were then validated by large scale tests under conditions close to the industrial process. Thermodynamical simulations, for the two scenarios studied. Furthermore, the experiments on solvent combustion allowed the determination of a suitable ruthenium release factor. Finally, the mechanism responsible of the ruthenium release has been found. (author)

  8. Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth;

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2014. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SOX......(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, PCDD/F and HCB for the years 1990-2012. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory....

  9. Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth;

    The report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2013. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SOX......(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, PCDD/F and HCB for the years 1990-2011. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory....

  10. Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten;

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2016. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SOX......(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, PCDD/F and HCB for the years 1990-2014. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory....

  11. Annual Danish Emissions Inventory Report to UNECE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.;

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2004. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SOX......(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2002. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory...

  12. Review on Urban GHG Inventory in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yang; Yan, Li; Jiangang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid urbanization progress of China, a study on an urban GHG inventory is of great significance. However, related studies in China are still in the exploratory stage. This paper firstly introduces three major urban GHG inventory accounting methods and related issues with regard to Chinese cities, and then reviews the published studies of urban GHG inventories in China in the past few years. Methodology frameworks, gas types, emission scopes, geographical boundaries are examined and ...

  13. Optimal Inventory Policies When Sales Are Discretionary

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert E. Scarf

    2000-01-01

    Inventory models customarily assume that demand is fully satisfied if sufficient stock is available. We analyze the form of the optimal inventory policy if the inventory manager can choose to meet a fraction of the demand. Under classical conditions we show that the optimal policy is again of the (S,s) form. The analysis makes use of a novel property of K-concave functions.

  14. Analysis of a nuclear accident: fission and activation product releases from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility as remote indicators of source identification, extent of release, and state of damaged spent nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, Jon M; Orton, Christopher R; Clark, Richard A

    2012-08-21

    Researchers evaluated radionuclide measurements of environmental samples taken from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility and reported on the Tokyo Electric Power Co. Website following the 2011 tsunami-initiated catastrophe. This effort identified Units 1 and 3 as the major source of radioactive contamination to the surface soil near the facility. Radionuclide trends identified in the soils suggested that: (1) chemical volatility driven by temperature and reduction potential within the vented reactors' primary containment vessels dictated the extent of release of radiation; (2) all coolant had likely evaporated by the time of venting; and (3) physical migration through the fuel matrix and across the cladding wall were minimally effective at containing volatile species, suggesting damage to fuel bundles was extensive. Plutonium isotopic ratios and their distance from the source indicated that the damaged reactors were the major contributor of plutonium to surface soil at the source, decreasing rapidly with distance from the facility. Two independent evaluations estimated the fraction of the total plutonium inventory released to the environment relative to cesium from venting Units 1 and 3 to be ∼0.002-0.004%. This study suggests significant volatile radionuclides within the spent fuel at the time of venting, but not as yet observed and reported within environmental samples, as potential analytes of concern for future environmental surveys around the site. The majority of the reactor inventories of isotopes of less volatile elements like Pu, Nb, and Sr were likely contained within the damaged reactors during venting.

  15. Hanford inventory program user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkelman, K.C.

    1994-09-12

    Provides users with instructions and information about accessing and operating the Hanford Inventory Program (HIP) system. The Hanford Inventory Program is an integrated control system that provides a single source for the management and control of equipment, parts, and material warehoused by Westinghouse Hanford Company in various site-wide locations. The inventory is comprised of spare parts and equipment, shop stock, special tools, essential materials, and convenience storage items. The HIP replaced the following systems; ACA, ASP, PICS, FSP, WSR, STP, and RBO. In addition, HIP manages the catalog maintenance function for the General Supplies inventory stocked in the 1164 building and managed by WIMS.

  16. Advanced Data Collection for Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opresko, G. A.; Leet, J. H.; Mcgrath, D. F.; Eidson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Bar-coding, radio-frequency, and voice-operated systems selected. Report discusses study of state-of-the-art in automated collection of data for management of large inventories. Study included comprehensive search of literature on data collection and inventory management, visits to existing automated inventory systems, and tours of selected supply and transportation facilities at Kennedy Space Center. Information collected analyzed in view of needs of conceptual inventory-management systems for Kennedy Space Center and for manned space station and other future space projects.

  17. GIS Applications in Urban Tree Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Otey, Jennifer K.

    2007-01-01

    This project evaluates and demonstrates some applications of a GIS-based urban tree inventory. This was done by (1) collecting and analyzing data for Tinker Air Force Base (AFB), and (2) collecting and evaluating data for the Virginia Tech campus tree inventory. The urban tree inventory at Tinker AFB was estimated using remote sensing techniques that included the use of the eCognition 3.0 software. Inventory data was collected using a handheld computer and transferred to a desktop for data ba...

  18. Quantum gravity and inventory accumulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, Scott

    2011-01-01

    We begin by studying inventory accumulation at a LIFO (last-in-first-out) retailer with two products. In the simplest version, the following occur with equal probability at each time step: first product ordered, first product produced, second product ordered, second product produced. The inventory thus evolves as a simple random walk on Z^2. In more interesting versions, a p fraction of customers orders the "freshest available" product regardless of type. We show that the corresponding random walks scale to Brownian motions with diffusion matrices depending on p. We then turn our attention to the critical Fortuin-Kastelyn random planar map model, which gives, for each q>0, a probability measure on random (discretized) two-dimensional surfaces decorated by loops, related to the q-state Potts model. A longstanding open problem is to show that as the discretization gets finer, the surfaces converge in law to a limiting (loop-decorated) random surface. The limit is expected to be a Liouville quantum gravity surfa...

  19. Inventories in motion : a new approach to inventories over the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    I propose an inventories-in-motion concept which represents a new approach to inventories over the business cycle. This channel has previously been ignored by macroeconomists. I build a general equilibrium business cycle model in which inventories arise naturally as a result of gaps between production of goods and their consumption as goods are distributed. These inventories are actively managed and adjusted to meet consumption and investment needs in the economy. Although conceptually very s...

  20. Danish Emission Inventory for Solvent Use in Industries and Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik

    activities and consumer products. Emissions are calculated based on detailed information on chemical use, mainly derived from Statistics Denmark and the Nordic database: Substances in Preparations in the Nordic Countries (SPIN) and from communication with industries and related institutions in Europe......This report presents the Danish emission inventory for Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOC), N2O and CO2 from the use of solvents in industries and households. The methodology, data sources, activity data, emission factors and emissions are presented for 1985 to 2007 and uncertainties, QA...... to CO2 emissions but they are fundamental in relation to many human and environmental health issues and to longrange transport of chemical active species. Use and emission patterns of NMVOCs are diverse and complex, as many chemicals are categorised as NMVOCs and are present in many different industrial...

  1. Determination of nuclide inventories in accelerator radwaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinreich, R.; Argentini, M.; Schumann, D. [Lab. of Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Inst. Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    In switzerland, the location of two of the largest accelerator facilities, CERN and PSI, the authorities requested for a valuation of the radionuclide inventories in accelerator radwaste. In the first phase, model calculations should be verified by radioanalytical analyses. At PSI, the radioactive contents were measured after a careful chemical separation, by {gamma}-spectrometry, {alpha}-spectrometry, low-level counting and accelerator mass spectrometry, respectively. Examples: (i) The copper beam dump of target E was analyzed; its activities were in the range between 1.10{sup 7} Bq/g for {sup 60}Co and 1.10{sup -5} Bq/g for {sup 60}Fe. (ii) In shielding concrete, more than 30 mBq/g {sup 239,240}Pu were found which is higher than the exemption limit. (iii) In graphite targets, at end of bombardment 2.10{sup 11} Bq/g {sup 7}Be were detected. (iv) In an Eu project, the know-how of the radiochemical separation procedures was used for determination of transmutation-relevant nuclear reaction cross sections. (orig.)

  2. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants. Inventories until 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, M.; Hjelgaard, K.

    2010-10-15

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMVOC, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO{sub 2} emission in 2008 was 16 % lower than in 1990. However, fluctuations in the emission level are large as a result of electricity import/export. The emission of CH{sub 4} has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in combined heating and power (CHP) plants. However, the emission has decreased in recent years due to structural changes in the Danish electricity market. The N{sub 2}O emission was higher in 2008 than in 1990 but the fluctuations in the time-series are significant. A considerable decrease of the SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably in recent years resulting in increased emission of PAH, particulate matter and CO. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased combustion of wood in residential plants and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The dioxin emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants. However in recent years the emission has increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential plants. (Author)

  3. 26 CFR 1.1013-1 - Property included in inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property included in inventory. 1.1013-1 Section... inventory. The basis of property required to be included in inventory is the last inventory value of such property in the hands of the taxpayer. The requirements with respect to the valuation of an inventory...

  4. THEORY OF SPARE PARTS INVENTORY MANAGEMENT FOR PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    KATARZYNA GRONDYS

    2013-01-01

    This article presents theoretical basis of spare parts inventory management in manufacturing company. Basis definitions, allocation and differences in spare parts inventory management were compared with other manufacturing inventories. The issue of spare parts inventory management is emphasized in aspect of maintaining continuity of production and generated costs of maintaining inventory.

  5. ESTIMATING UNCERTAINTY OF EMISSIONS INVENTORIES: WHAT HAS BEEN DONE/WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENKOVITZ,C.M.

    1998-10-01

    Developing scientifically defensible quantitative estimates of the uncertainty of atmospheric emissions inventories has been a ''gleam in researchers' eyes'' since atmospheric chemical transport and transformation models (CTMs) started to be used to study ''air pollution''. Originally, the compilation of these inventories was done as part of the development and application of the models by researchers whose expertise usually did not include the ''art'' of emissions estimations. In general, the smaller the effort spent on compiling the inventories the more effort could be placed on the model development, application and analysis. Yet model results are intimately tied to the accuracy of the emissions data; no model, however accurately the atmospheric physical and chemical processes are represented, will give reliable representation of air concentrations if the emissions data are flawed.

  6. Emission Inventory for Fugitive Emissions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Nielsen, Malene

    This report presents the methodology and data used in the Danish inventory of fugitive emissions from fuels for the years until 2007. The inventory of fugitive emissions includes CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2, dioxin, PAH and particulate matter. In 2007 the total Danish emission of greenhouse...

  7. 76 FR 62327 - Retail Inventory Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...-3(e) (75 FR 78944), the amount of an allowance, discount, or price rebate a taxpayer earns by... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ64 Retail Inventory Method AGENCY: Internal Revenue... regulations relating to the retail inventory method of accounting. The regulations restate and clarify...

  8. Development of Mentor Teacher Role Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Ebru Melek

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and investigate the validity and reliability of the Mentor Teacher Role Inventory (MTRI). A total of 1843 student teachers in the Distance English Teacher Training Program participated in the study. The 58 items of the Mentor Teacher Role Inventory underwent principal factor analysis, which revealed nine factors…

  9. Construct Validation of the Physics Metacognition Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John

    2013-01-01

    The 24-item Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. Items were classified into eight subcomponents subsumed under two broader components: knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. The students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to…

  10. A Comparison of Four Personality Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorr, Maurice; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Factor analysis was used to measure the equivalence of the personality constructs measures by four different rationally devised inventories. The tests were administered to high school and college student samples. Twelve dimensions were found to be common to two or more inventories and consistent across the two samples. (Author/MV)

  11. 48 CFR 3045.508 - Physical inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical inventories. 3045.508 Section 3045.508 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Property in the Possession of Contractors 3045.508 Physical inventories....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1391 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1391 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1391 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Montana submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission...

  13. A Two-Supplier Inventory Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.B.S.L.P.; de Kok, T.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider an inventory system with two suppliers.A supply agreement is made with one of the suppliers, to deliver a xed quantity Q every review period.The replenishment decisions for the other supplier are governed by a (R; S) replenishment policy; that is, when the inventory positio

  14. Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth;

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SOX...

  15. Achieve inventory reduction and improve customer service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, M C

    2000-05-01

    Is it really possible to achieve significant reductions in your manufacturing inventories while improving customer service? If you really want to achieve significant inventory reductions, focus on the root causes, and develop countermeasures and a work plan, to execute your countermeasures. Include measurements for recording your progress, and deploy your countermeasures until they are no longer required, or until new ones are needed.

  16. Construct Validation of the Physics Metacognition Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John

    2013-01-01

    The 24-item Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. Items were classified into eight subcomponents subsumed under two broader components: knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. The students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to students'…

  17. Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Hoffmann, Leif

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2012. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2010 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2...

  18. Dynamic Pricing and Learning with Finite Inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, A.P.; Boer, A.V. den

    2015-01-01

    We study a dynamic pricing problem with finite inventory and parametric uncertainty on the demand distribution. Products are sold during selling seasons of finite length, and inventory that is unsold at the end of a selling season perishes. The goal of the seller is to determine a pricing strategy t

  19. Dynamic pricing and learning with finite inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, den Arnoud V.; Zwart, Bert

    2015-01-01

    We study a dynamic pricing problem with finite inventory and parametric uncertainty on the demand distribution. Products are sold during selling seasons of finite length, and inventory that is unsold at the end of a selling season perishes. The goal of the seller is to determine a pricing strategy t

  20. Dynamic pricing and learning with finite inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, den Arnoud; Zwart, Bert

    2013-01-01

    We study a dynamic pricing problem with finite inventory and parametric uncertainty on the demand distribution. Products are sold during selling seasons of finite length, and inventory that is unsold at the end of a selling season, perishes. The goal of the seller is to determine a pricing strategy

  1. Lost-sales inventory theory : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvank, Marco; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2011-01-01

    In classic inventory models it is common to assume that excess demand is backordered. However, studies analyzing customer behavior in practice show that most unfulfilled demand is lost or an alternative item/location is looked for in many retail environments. Inventory systems that include this lost

  2. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

  3. Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth;

    2012-01-01

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2012. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) S...

  4. Dealer Inventory and the Cost of Immediacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens

    This study shows that the recent 80% decrease in dealer inventories of corporate bonds has increased the cost of immediacy. For safe bonds which are quickly turned over again by dealers the increase is up to 15%, while for risky bonds which are kept on inventory by dealers the increase is up to 1...

  5. Validity of the Decisional Process Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Cynthia D.; Hartung, Paul J.; Newman, Isadore; Parr, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    The Gestalt-based Decisional Process Inventory and measures of career indecision and vocational identity were completed by 201 subjects. Results supported the inventory's ability to differentiate by career choice states. Concurrent validity was supported, but confirmatory factor analysis did not support the factor structure regarding measurement…

  6. Review of C-14 inventory for the SFR facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Graham; Merino, Joan; Kerrigan, Emma

    2002-08-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) is currently reviewing SKB's continuing assessment for disposal of radioactive waste to the SFR facility at Forsmark. Among the wastes disposed are reactor operating wastes. Among the relevant radionuclides is C-14, which is relatively difficult to measure and to control because of its mobility. This report documents a review of the C-14 inventory material submitted by SKB for the SFR-facility, to determine its validity and comment on the appropriate assumptions for C-14 content of wastes due to be disposed of to the SFR. The review is based on information provided by SSI as well as other relevant international experience. Conclusions are drawn upon: the chemical form of the C-14 in the waste from BWRs and PWRs; the production rate of C-14 in BWRs and PWRs and quantification of the source term in the IEX waste; the distribution of the C-14 in the IEX waste from BWR between the resins used for treatment of the primary cooling water and the resins used for treatment of the condensate water; quantification of the uncertainties. A suggestion is made that the C-14 inventory could be better developed based upon a mass balance assessment of all the C-14 produced in reactors, and its ultimate fate in effluent and solid wastes, taking account of the reactor specific operational factors identified in the review as relevant to C-14 inventory assessment.

  7. Transuranic waste baseline inventory report. Revision No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (TWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties from across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system into a series of {open_quotes}waste profiles{close_quotes} that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The purpose of Revisions 0 and 1 of this report was to provide data to be included in the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) performance assessment (PA) processes for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Revision 2 of the document expanded the original purpose and was also intended to support the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) requirement for providing the total DOE TRU waste inventory. The document included a chapter and an appendix that discussed the total DOE TRU waste inventory, including nondefense, commercial, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-contaminated, and buried (predominately pre-1970) TRU wastes that are not planned to be disposed of at WIPP.

  8. ON INVENTORY STRATEGIES OF ONLINE RETAILERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frank Y.CHEN; S.H. HUM; Cheryl H. SIM

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on inventory strategies of Internet retailers (etailers). The etailer faces options of holding her own inventory or outsourcing through the third party(ies). We assess etailer inventory strategies through mathematical modeling and numerical experiments. When ordering and holding her own stock, the etailer has full control of the order fulfillment process but bears the inventory-related risk. When outsourcing stock, etailer's orders may not get an equal priority as for those of the third party's own. Built upon simple operations research models, the numerical experiments suggest that the etailer is better off relying on others to fulfill orders if her demand (profit margin) is low, but should revert to the strategy of maintaining her own inventory if her sales volume (profit margin) is relatively high. Other factors are also investigated. These findings seem to confirm what are being practiced in the industry.

  9. Inventory Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kincaid, Charles T.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Miley, Terri B.; Nelson, Iral C.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Evans, John C.

    2006-06-01

    This document presents the basis for a compilation of inventory for radioactive contaminants of interest by year for all potentially impactive waste sites on the Hanford Site for which inventory data exist in records or could be reasonably estimated. This document also includes discussions of the historical, current, and reasonably foreseeable (1944 to 2070) future radioactive waste and waste sites; the inventories of radionuclides that may have a potential for environmental impacts; a description of the method(s) for estimating inventories where records are inadequate; a description of the screening method(s) used to select those sites and contaminants that might make a substantial contribution to impacts; a listing of the remedial actions and their completion dates for waste sites; and tables showing the best estimate inventories available for Hanford assessments.

  10. Data Driven Tuning of Inventory Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Santacoloma, Paloma Andrade; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2007-01-01

    A systematic method for criterion based tuning of inventory controllers based on data-driven iterative feedback tuning is presented. This tuning method circumvent problems with modeling bias. The process model used for the design of the inventory control is utilized in the tuning as an approximat......A systematic method for criterion based tuning of inventory controllers based on data-driven iterative feedback tuning is presented. This tuning method circumvent problems with modeling bias. The process model used for the design of the inventory control is utilized in the tuning...... as an approximation to reduce time required on experiments. The method is illustrated in an application with a multivariable inventory control implementation on a four tank system....

  11. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  12. 48 CFR 645.608 - Screening of contractor inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inventory. 645.608 Section 645.608 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 645.608 Screening of contractor inventory....

  13. Geophysical Processes - MO 2016 Inventory of Landslide Occurrences (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Missouri Inventory of Landslide Occurrences (MILO) is a statewide inventory of landslides and slope failure occurrences. Landslides can occur anywhere a hill...

  14. Controlled release from recombinant polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-09-28

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed.

  15. TSCA Inventory Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data extraction tool contains the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted...

  16. Generation and release of radioactive gases in LLW disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, M.S. [Harvard School Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Simonson, S.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The atmospheric release of radioactive gases from a generic engineered LLW disposal facility and its radiological impacts were examined. To quantify the generation of radioactive gases, detailed characterization of source inventory for carbon-14, tritium, iodine-129, krypton-85, and radon-222, was performed in terms of their activity concentrations; their distribution within different waste classes, waste forms and containers; and their subsequent availability for release in volatile or gaseous form. The generation of gases was investigated for the processes of microbial activity, radiolysis, and corrosion of waste containers and metallic components in wastes. The release of radionuclides within these gases to the atmosphere was analyzed under the influence of atmospheric pressure changes.

  17. Compilation and analyses of emissions inventories for NOAA`s atmospheric chemistry project. Progress report, August 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovitz, C.M.; Mubaraki, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    Global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for circa 1985 and 1990 and Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) for circa 1990 have been compiled by this project. Work on the inventories has been carried out under the umbrella of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program. The 1985 NO{sub x} inventory was compiled using default data sets of global emissions that were refined via the use of more detailed regional data sets; this inventory is being distributed to the scientific community at large as the GEIA Version 1A inventory. Global emissions of NO{sub x} for 1985 are estimated to be 21 Tg N y{sup -1}, with approximately 84% originating in the Northern Hemisphere. The 1990 inventories of NO{sub x} and NMVOCs were compiled using unified methodologies and data sets in collaboration with the Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Rijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene, RIVM) and the Division of Technology for Society of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, (IMW-TNO); these emissions will be used as the default estimates to be updated with more accurate regional data. The NMVOC inventory was gridded and speciated into 23 chemical categories.

  18. Tradeoff Analysis for Optimal Multiobjective Inventory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longsheng Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterministic inventory model, the economic order quantity (EOQ, reveals that carrying inventory or ordering frequency follows a relation of tradeoff. For probabilistic demand, the tradeoff surface among annual order, expected inventory and shortage are useful because they quantify what the firm must pay in terms of ordering workload and inventory investment to meet the customer service desired. Based on a triobjective inventory model, this paper employs the successive approximation to obtain efficient control policies outlining tradeoffs among conflicting objectives. The nondominated solutions obtained by successive approximation are further used to plot a 3D scatterplot for exploring the relationships between objectives. Visualization of the tradeoffs displayed by the scatterplots justifies the computation effort done in the experiment, although several iterations needed to reach a nondominated solution make the solution procedure lengthy and tedious. Information elicited from the inverse relationships may help managers make deliberate inventory decisions. For the future work, developing an efficient and effective solution procedure for tradeoff analysis in multiobjective inventory management seems imperative.

  19. Sistem Informasi untuk Transaksi dan Analisis Inventori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Damayanti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to developed an inventory information system which integrated convensional data records with an analysis system based on inventory theories to answer questions about supplying stock, i.e. the latest inventory counts, prediction of future sales, when to order supply and how much to order these supply. In this research, purchasing and selling data records that usually seperated, had been integrated into an inventory database so up to date inventory list can be shown at demand. Furthermore, with data of past time sales, system will predict future sales using Least Square Linear Regretion method and Moving Average method. Inventory analysis will determine the Economic Order Quantity and Reorder Cycles for single item and multi item. An early warning also will notify user when an item reach the reorder point. This information system software that can be used to answer similar inventory problems in retail or warehouse company. As addition, research shown that sales with increasing/decreasing pattern had a more accurate prediction using Linear Regretion, while Moving Averages are better for stable sales. Research also shown multi items order collectively for the same supplyer more cost beneficial rather than single item orders.

  20. Optimization of two-stage production/inventory systems under order base stock policy with advance demand information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Koichi; Yokozawa, Shiori

    2016-08-01

    It is important to share demand information among the members in supply chains. In recent years, production and inventory systems with advance demand information (ADI) have been discussed, where advance demand information means the information of demand which the decision maker obtains before the corresponding actual demand arrives. Appropriate production and inventory control using demand information leads to the decrease of inventory and backlog costs. For a single stage system, the optimal base stock and release lead time have been discussed in the literature. In practical production systems the manufacturing system has multiple processes. The multiple stage production and inventory system with ADI, however, has been analyzed by simulation or assuming exponential processing time. That is, their theoretical analysis and optimization of release lead time and base stock level have little been obtained because of its difficulty. In this paper, theoretical analysis of a two-stage production inventory system with advance demand information is developed, where the processing time is assumed deterministic and identical; demand arrival process is Poisson, and an order base stock policy is adopted. Using the analytical results, optimal release lead time and optimal base stock levels for minimizing the average cost on the holding and backlog costs are explicitly derived.

  1. Context sensitivity in the force concept inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay Stewart

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The force concept inventory and a 10-question context-modified test were given to 647 students enrolled in introductory physics classes at the University of Arkansas. Context changes had an effect ranging from −3% to 10% on the individual questions. The average student score on the ten transformed questions was 3% higher than the average student score on the corresponding 10 force concept inventory questions. Therefore, the effect of contextual changes on the total of the 10 questions is not sufficient to affect normal use of the force concept inventory as a diagnostic instrument.

  2. 40 CFR 721.90 - Release to water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release to water. 721.90 Section 721... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Certain Significant New Uses § 721.90 Release to water. Whenever a... predict the surface water concentration which will result from the intended release of the substance,...

  3. AX tank farm waste inventory study for the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-12-22

    In May of 1996, the US Department of Energy implemented a four-year demonstration project identified as the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI). The HTI mission is to minimize technical uncertainties and programmatic risks by conducting demonstrations to characterize and remove tank waste using technologies and methods that will be needed in the future to carry out tank waste remediation and tank farm closure at the Hanford Site. Included in the HTI scope is the development of retrieval performance evaluation criteria supporting readiness to close single-shell tanks in the future. A path forward that includes evaluation of closure basis alternatives has been outlined to support the development of retrieval performance evaluation criteria for the AX Farm, and eventual preparation of the SEIS for AX Farm closure. This report documents the results of the Task 4, Waste Inventory study performed to establish the best-basis inventory of waste contaminants for the AX Farm, provides a means of estimating future soil inventories, and provides data for estimating the nature and extent of contamination (radionuclide and chemical) resulting from residual tank waste subsequent to retrieval. Included in the report are a best-basis estimate of the existing radionuclide and chemical inventory in the AX Farm Tanks, an estimate of the nature and extent of existing radiological and chemical contamination from past leaks, a best-basis estimate of the radionuclide and chemical inventory in the AX Farm Tanks after retrieval of 90 percent, 99 percent, and 99.9 percent of the waste, and an estimate of the nature and extent of radionuclide and chemical contamination resulting from retrieval of waste for an assumed leakage from the tanks during retrieval.

  4. Inventory in a Brazilian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciano L. Milfont

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Éste artículo evalúa la validez de constructo y la validez discriminante del Inventario de Perspectiva Temporal de Zimbardo (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, ZTPI de una muestra de 247 estudiantes brasileños. La estructura de cinco-factores de ZTPI, definidos por Pasado-Negativo, Presente-Hedonístico, Futuro, Pasado- Positivo y Presente-Fatalista, provee un ajuste aceptable de los datos, y pareció ser mejor estadísticamente que el ajuste de los modelos alternativos. El Presente-Hedonístico fue positivamente correlacionado con el consumo de alcohol y negativamente con la religiosidad, el Futuro fue correlacionado positivamente con la preocupación por la salud y negativamente con el consumo de alcohol, y el Pasado-Positivo fue positivamente correlacionado con el uso del reloj. Los resultados encontrados concuerdan con los estudios anteriores, indicando que las cinco dimensiones de perspectiva del tiempo pueden ser identificadas cognitivamente. Además los patrones de correlación con otras variables son comparables a través de otras culturas.

  5. Inventory of state energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, A.G.; Gist, R.L.; Underwood, R.G.; Weber, J.C.

    1980-03-31

    These models address a variety of purposes, such as supply or demand of energy or of certain types of energy, emergency management of energy, conservation in end uses of energy, and economic factors. Fifty-one models are briefly described as to: purpose; energy system; applications;status; validation; outputs by sector, energy type, economic and physical units, geographic area, and time frame; structure and modeling techniques; submodels; working assumptions; inputs; data sources; related models; costs; references; and contacts. Discussions in the report include: project purposes and methods of research, state energy modeling in general, model types and terminology, and Federal legislation to which state modeling is relevant. Also, a state-by-state listing of modeling efforts is provided and other model inventories are identified. The report includes a brief encylopedia of terms used in energy models. It is assumed that many readers of the report will not be experienced in the technical aspects of modeling. The project was accomplished by telephone conversations and document review by a team from the Colorado School of Mines Research Institute and the faculty of the Colorado School of Mines. A Technical Committee (listed in the report) provided advice during the course of the project.

  6. Danish emission inventory for agriculture. Inventories 1985 - 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Albrektsen, R.; Gyldenkaerne, S.

    2011-02-15

    By regulations given in international conventions Denmark is obliged to work out an annual emission inventory and document the methodology. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) at Aarhus University (AU) in Denmark is responsible for calculating and reporting the emissions. This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2009. Furthermore, the report includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on national methodologies as well as international guidelines. For the Danish emissions calculations and data management an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA) is used. The emission from the agricultural sector includes emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, heavy metals, dioxin and PAH. The ammonia emission from 1985 to 2009 has decreased from 119 300 tonnes of NH{sub 3} to 73 800 tonnes NH{sub 3}, corresponding to a 38 % reduction. The emission of greenhouse gases has decreased by 25 % from 12.9 M tonnes CO{sub 2} equivalents to 9.6 M tonnes CO{sub 2} equivalents from 1985 to 2009. Improvements in feed efficiency and utilisation of nitrogen in livestock manure are the most important reasons for the reduction of both the ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions. (Author)

  7. Inventory and source term evaluation of Russian nuclear power plants for marine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    This report discusses inventory and source term properties in regard to operation and possible releases due to accidents from Russian marine reactor systems. The first part of the report discusses relevant accidents on the basis of both Russian and western sources. The overview shows that certain vessels were much more accident prone compared to others, in addition, there have been a noteworthy reduction in accidents the last two decades. However, during the last years new types of incidents, such as collisions, has occurred more frequently. The second part of the study considers in detail the most important factors for the source term; reactor operational characteristics and the radionuclide inventory. While Russian icebreakers has been operated on a similar basis as commercial power plants, the submarines has different power cyclograms which results in considerable lower values for fission product inventory. Theoretical values for radionuclide inventory are compared with computed results using the modelling tool HELIOS. Regarding inventory of transuranic elements, the results of the calculations are discussed in detail for selected vessels. Criticality accidents, loss-of-cooling accidents and sinking accidents are considered, bases on actual experiences with these types of accident and on theoretical considerations, and source terms for these accidents are discussed in the last chapter. (au)

  8. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Marsh Lake, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Marsh Lake, MN Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Marsh Lake is located on the...

  9. Biota - 2009 Vegetation Inventory - Lake Ashtabula, ND

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2009 Vegetation Classification for Lake Ashtabula, ND Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  10. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Mingo NWR outlines procedures for monitoring the distribution, abundance, and population dynamics of the species of wildlife...

  11. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  12. Wildlife Inventory Plan: Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this inventory plan for Tetlin NWR is to provide a management tool for the measurement of progress in attaining wildlife population goals. This plan...

  13. The Road Inventory of Alaska Aviation Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To determine the relative needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) was asked to inventory all public access and...

  14. Little River NWR Inventory and Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Little River National Wildlife Refuge is a step-down from the Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Forest Habitat Management...

  15. Design considerations for tropical forest inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Edward McRoberts

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests contribute substantially to maintaining the global greenhouse gas balance, primarily because among the five economic sectors identified by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, only the forestry sector has the potential to remove greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere. In this context, development of national forest carbon accounting systems, particularly in countries with tropical forests, has emerged as an international priority. Because these systems are often developed as components of or in parallel with national forest inventories, a brief review of statistical issues related to the development of forest ground sampling designs is provided. This overview addresses not only the primary issues of plot configurations and sampling designs, but also to a lesser extent the emerging roles of remote sensing and uncertainty assessment. Basic inventory principles are illustrated for two case studies, the national forest inventory of Brazil with special emphasis on the state of Santa Catarina, and an inventory for Tanzania.

  16. Wildlife Inventory Plan: Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wildlife Inventory Plan is the guideline employed to obtain useful parameters related to the distribution, abundance, and population dynamics of wildlife...

  17. US Forest Service Current Invasive Plants Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the most recent measurement of Invasive Plant Infestation polygons collected by the National Invasive Plant Inventory Protocol....

  18. Experimental validation of pulsed column inventory estimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyerlein, A.L.; Geldard, J.F. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States)); Weh, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Hannover (Germany)); Eiben, K.; Dander, T. (Wiederaufbereitungsanlage Karlsruhe Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (WAK), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)); Hakkila, E.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Near-real-time accounting (NRTA) for reprocessing plants relies on the timely measurement of all transfers through the process area and all inventory in the process. It is difficult to measure the inventory of the solvent contractors; therefore, estimation techniques are considered. We have used experimental data obtained at the TEKO facility in Karlsruhe and have applied computer codes developed at Clemson University to analyze this data. For uranium extraction, the computer predictions agree to within 15% of the measured inventories. We believe this study is significant in demonstrating that using theoretical models with a minimum amount of process data may be an acceptable approach to column inventory estimation for NRTA. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  20. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  1. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  2. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory data asset contains measured summary compliance information on light-duty, heavy-duty, and non-road...

  3. Minnesota DNR Forest Stand Inventory Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer is a digital inventory of individual forest stands. The data is collected by DNR Foresters in each DNR Forestry Administrative Area, and is updated on a...

  4. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Pungo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Major objectives of the refuge are to provide public recreation, and to maintain populations of species. A high level of management and inventory is assigned to the...

  5. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program: A unique series of scientific experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, David L.; McCook, Morgan W.; Vaughan, William W.

    The Defense Department and NASA have joined in a program to study the space environment which surrounds the earth and the effects of space radiation on modern satellite electronic systems. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) will carry an array of active experiments including chemical releases and a complement of sophisticated scientific instruments to accomplish these objectives. Other chemical release active experiments will be performed with sub-orbital rocket probes. The chemical releases will 'paint' the magnetic and electric fields of earthspace with clouds of glowing ions. Earthspace will be a laboratory, and the releases will be studied with an extensive network of ground-, aircraft-, and satellite-based diagnostic instruments. Some of the topics discussed include the following: the effects of earthspace; the need for active experiments; types of chemical releases; the CRRES program schedule; international support and coordinated studies; photographing chemical releases; information on locating chemical releases for observation by the amateur; and CRRES as a program.

  6. Sensitivity of Amazon rainforest to drought: results from forest inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteucci G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A recent study based on inventory data from the RAINFOR network, published in the journal Science, reported a relevant effect of an anomalous dry year (2005 on biomass accumulation and mortality in Amazon old-growth forests. Results were obtained by comparing inventory data taken before and after the dry year and point to biomass losses in consequence of drought. These losses were driven by large mortality increases at some plots and by small but diffuse declines in growth. If upscaled to the area affected by drought, the release of carbon (1.21 PgC would be much larger than that resulting from deforestation in the area (0.3÷0.8 PgC and would offset the carbon gained in the recent past (0.5 PgC. As the frequency of extreme dry years is expected to increase in future climate scenarios, regional carbon balances may be strongly impacted with a positive feedback on climate change. The main results of the paper are briefly presented and commented.

  7. Strategic special nuclear material Inventory Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    This sixteenth periodic semiannual report of Inventory Differences (ID) covers the last six months of fiscal year 1984 (April 1, 1984, through September 30, 1984), for the Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor facilities possessing significant quantities of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM). Inventory Differences are simply the differences between the amount of material shown in the accounting records and the amount of material reported in the physical inventory. These differences are generally due to errors in estimating material in unmeasurable form at the time of an inventory, unmeasurable holdup in equipment, measurement imprecisions, inaccuracies in initial determinations of SSNM produced or used in nuclear reactors, and inventory or bookkeeping errors. Both DOE and contractors operating DOE facilities carefully maintain, analyze, and investigate ID data. Inventory Differences are expected in nuclear material processing and are not, in and of themselves, evidence of lost or stolen material. On the other hand, ID analysis provides valuable information on the effectiveness of the safeguards system's physical protection and material control measures as well as a check on the process controls and material management procedures. If necessary, an operation may be shut down until an ID is resolved.

  8. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  9. Wildlife Inventory, Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassirer, E. Frances

    1995-06-01

    Wildlife distribution/abundance were studied at this location during 1993 and 1994 to establish the baseline as part of the wildlife mitigation agreement for construction of Dworshak reservoir. Inventory efforts were designed to (1) document distribution/abundance of 4 target species: pileated woodpecker, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, and river otter, (2) determine distribution/abundance of rare animals, and (3) determine presence and relative abundance of all other species except deer and elk. 201 wildlife species were observed during the survey period; most were residents or used the area seasonally for breeding or wintering. New distribution or breeding records were established for at least 6 species. Pileated woodpeckers were found at 35% of 134 survey points in upland forests; estimated densities were 0-0.08 birds/ha, averaging 0.02 birds/ha. Yellow warblers were found in riparian areas and shrubby draws below 3500 ft elev., and were most abundant in white alder plant communities (ave. est. densities 0.2-2. 1 birds/ha). Black-capped chickadees were found in riparian and mixed tall shrub vegetation at all elevations (ave. est. densities 0-0.7 birds/ha). River otters and suitable otter denning and foraging habitat were observed along the Snake and Salmon rivers. 15 special status animals (threatened, endangered, sensitive, state species of special concern) were observed at Craig Mt: 3 amphibians, 1 reptile, 8 birds, 3 mammals. Another 5 special status species potentially occur (not documented). Ecosystem-based wildlife management issues are identified. A monitoring plant is presented for assessing effects of mitigation activities.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Release of Radiation in Flow Blockage Accident for Two Loops PWR

    OpenAIRE

    Khurram Mehboob; Cao Xinrong; Majid Ali

    2012-01-01

    In this study modeling and simulation of release of radiation form two loops PWR has been carried out for flow blockage accident. For this purpose, a MATLAB based program “Source Term Evaluator for Flow Blockage Accident” (STEFBA) has been developed, which uses the core inventory as its primary input. The TMI-2 reactor is considered as the reference plant for this study. For 1100 reactor operation days, the core inventory has been evaluated under the core design constrains at average reactor ...

  11. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview...

  12. 78 FR 47273 - Information Collection; Inventory Property Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Inventory Property Management AGENCY: Farm Service Agency... Inventory Property Management. The information is used to evaluate applicant requests to purchase inventory... part 767) Farm Loan Programs--Inventory Property Management. OMB Number: 0560-0234. Expiration Date:...

  13. 41 CFR 101-27.208 - Inventory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Inventory analyses. 101... Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.208 Inventory analyses. (a) An inventory analysis shall...

  14. 27 CFR 19.464 - Denatured spirits inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inventories. 19.464 Section 19.464 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Inventories § 19.464 Denatured spirits inventories. Each proprietor shall take a physical inventory of all denatured spirits in the processing account at the close of each calendar quarter and...

  15. 41 CFR 109-27.5104-4 - Physical inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical inventories... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5104-4 Physical inventories. (a) Physical inventories shall be conducted annually by custodians, and witnessed by the...

  16. 48 CFR 1245.508-2 - Reporting results of inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inventories. 1245.508-2 Section 1245.508-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... 1245.508-2 Reporting results of inventories. The inventory report shall also include the following: (a) Name and title of the individual(s) that performed the physical inventory; (b) An itemized,...

  17. 26 CFR 1.471-1 - Need for inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Need for inventories. 1.471-1 Section 1.471-1...) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-1 Need for inventories. In order to reflect taxable income correctly, inventories at the beginning and end of each taxable year are necessary in every case in which the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.471-3 - Inventories at cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories at cost. 1.471-3 Section 1.471-3...) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-3 Inventories at cost. Cost means: (a) In the case of merchandise on hand at the beginning of the taxable year, the inventory price of such goods. (b) In the case...

  19. 48 CFR 3045.508-2 - Reporting results of inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inventories. 3045.508-2 Section 3045.508-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... inventories. The inventory report shall also include the following: (a) Name and title of the individual(s) that performed the physical inventory; (b) An itemized, categorized listing of all property...

  20. Teaching Accounting for Inventory by Calling on Students' Personal Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briginshaw, John

    2010-01-01

    This essay seeks to give practical guidance to accounting instructors seeking to convey the difficult concepts of accounting for inventory. Techniques to convey the concepts of assumed inventory flow, inventory valuation under inflation and deflation, impairment of inventories, LIFO [Last In, First Out] liquidations and the concept of the periodic…

  1. System to maximize inventory performance in a small hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerLinde, L P

    1983-01-01

    A computerized system to maximize inventory performance in a small hospital is described. An inventory control system, which integrates economic order quantity (EOQ) and ABC inventory models was implemented in a 146-bed hospital. The perpetual inventory control data base, supported by the hospital's mainframe computer, generates monthly inventory statistics that are segregated into A, B, and C reports. Using a hand-held computer that interfaces with the perpetual inventory system, a series of inventory management reports were developed. These reports, which are based on the EOQ model, provide the following information for each drug line item: EOQ, EOQ proposed carrying cost, actual inventory carrying costs, safety stock, order point, average inventory, and the "on hand/on order" point. Several supplemental inventory management reports were also developed. While implementing the computerized inventory system, the pharmacy also changed its purchasing strategy from predominantly direct accounts to a progressive prime-vendor wholesaler. From December 1980 to December 1981, the ABC/EOQ system with progressive prime-vendor involvement essentially doubled total aggregate inventory turnover. A 46.5% reduction in standing inventory levels occurred. The drug cost per line item dispersed remained relatively constant over the one-year period, despite price increases. The application of the computerized ABC/EOQ inventory model to an online perpetual inventory control data base effectively reduced the inventory operation costs.

  2. 41 CFR 109-27.5104-3 - Perpetual inventory records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Perpetual inventory... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5104-3 Perpetual inventory records. Perpetual inventory records shall be maintained as specified in Chapter V of DOE Order...

  3. Adaptation of foreign experience of inventory accounting in domestic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Анатоліївна Карабаза

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a comparison of foreign and domestic experience in inventory accounting. Advantages and disadvantages of perpetual and periodic inventory systems were defined. The viability of periodic inventory system practice was investigated in the context of Ukrainian accounting system. The methodology for store accounting procedure in accordance with periodic inventory system was proposed for domestic accounts

  4. Adaptation of foreign experience of inventory accounting in domestic practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ірина Анатоліївна Карабаза; Людмила Ігорівна Лежненко

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a comparison of foreign and domestic experience in inventory accounting. Advantages and disadvantages of perpetual and periodic inventory systems were defined. The viability of periodic inventory system practice was investigated in the context of Ukrainian accounting system. The methodology for store accounting procedure in accordance with periodic inventory system was proposed for domestic accounts

  5. 26 CFR 1.471-8 - Inventories of retail merchants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of retail merchants. 1.471-8 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-8 Inventories of retail merchants. (a) Retail merchants who employ what is known as the “retail method” of pricing inventories may make their returns upon...

  6. Preparing US community greenhouse gas inventories for climate action plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, Michael; Matthews, H. Scott; Sharrard, Aurora L.; Hendrickson, Chris T.; Lima Azevedo, Inês

    2011-07-01

    This study illustrates how alternative and supplemental community-level greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory techniques could improve climate action planning. Eighteen US community GHG inventories are reviewed for current practice. Inventory techniques could be improved by disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty and variability, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions reductions. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. While GHG inventorying and climate action planning are nascent fields, these techniques can improve CAP design, help communities set more meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring.

  7. Preparing US community greenhouse gas inventories for climate action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackhurst, Michael [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1752, Austin, TX 78712-0276 (United States); Scott Matthews, H; Hendrickson, Chris T [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Sharrard, Aurora L [Green Building Alliance, 333 East Carson Street, Suite 331, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States); Azevedo, Ines Lima, E-mail: mblackhurst@gmail.com, E-mail: hsm@cmu.edu, E-mail: auroras@gbapgh.org, E-mail: cth@andrew.cmu.edu, E-mail: iazevedo@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This study illustrates how alternative and supplemental community-level greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory techniques could improve climate action planning. Eighteen US community GHG inventories are reviewed for current practice. Inventory techniques could be improved by disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty and variability, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions reductions. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. While GHG inventorying and climate action planning are nascent fields, these techniques can improve CAP design, help communities set more meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring.

  8. Calculations in support of a potential definition of large release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, A.L.; Davis, R.E.; Mubayi, V.

    1994-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has stated a hierarchy of safety goals with the qualitative safety goals as Level I of the hierarchy, backed up by the quantitative health objectives as Level II and the large release guideline as Level III. The large release guideline has been stated in qualitative terms as a magnitude of release of the core inventory whose frequency should not exceed 10{sup -6} per reactor year. However, the Commission did not provide a quantitative specification of a large release. This report describes various specifications of a large release and focuses, in particular, on an examination of releases which have a potential to lead to one prompt fatality in the mean. The basic information required to set up the calculations was derived from the simplified source terms which were obtained from approximations of the NUREG-1150 source terms. Since the calculation of consequences is affected by a large number of assumptions, a generic site with a (conservatively determined) population density and meteorology was specified. At this site, various emergency responses (including no response) were assumed based on information derived from earlier studies. For each of the emergency response assumptions, a set of calculations were performed with the simplified source terms; these included adjustments to the source terms, such as the timing of the release, the core inventory, and the release fractions of different radionuclides, to arrive at a result of one mean prompt fatality in each case. Each of the source terms, so defined, has the potential to be a candidate for a large release. The calculations show that there are many possible candidate source terms for a large release depending on the characteristics which are felt to be important.

  9. Predicting recidivism with the psychological inventory of criminal thinking styles and level of service inventory-revised: screening version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2011-06-01

    Recidivism was evaluated in 178 male inmates administered the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) and scored on the Level of Service Inventory-Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R:SV) 1-55 months before their release from prison. Age, prior charges, the LSI-R:SV total score, and the PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Proactive Criminal Thinking (P), and Reactive Criminal Thinking (R) scores served as predictors of recidivism in follow-ups spanning 1-53 months. Age, prior charges, and the PICTS GCT and R scales consistently and incrementally predicted general recidivism (all charges), whereas prior charges and the PICTS R scale consistently and incrementally predicted serious recidivism (more serious charges). Although these results support the predictive efficacy and incremental validity of content-relevant self-report measures of criminality like the PICTS, they also indicate that the effect is modest and in need of further clarification. One area requiring further investigation is the potential role of the PICTS, particularly the R scale, as a dynamic risk factor.

  10. Vendor Managed Inventory:Retail Industry Perspective of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Madjlesi Taklimi, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) radically changes a traditional inventory management. Under the typical business model, the buyer or retailer is in total control of the timing and volume of the order, in order placing and managing the inventory plan. Whereas VMI is a supply chain initiative where the supplier is responsible for all decisions regarding inventories at the retailers, i.e. under VMI program the supplier is authorized to manage inventories of agreed-upon stock-keepin...

  11. Unified Communications for Space Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Kevin K.; Fink, Patrick W.; Barton, Richard; Ngo, Phong H.

    2009-01-01

    To help assure mission success for long-duration exploration activities, NASA is actively pursuing wireless technologies that promote situational awareness and autonomy. Wireless technologies are typically extensible, offer freedom from wire tethers, readily support redundancy, offer potential for decreased wire weight, and can represent dissimilar implementation for increased reliability. In addition, wireless technologies can enable additional situational awareness that otherwise would be infeasible. For example, addition of wired sensors, the need for which might not have been apparent at the outset of a program, night be extremely costly due in part to the necessary routing of cables through the vehicle. RFID, or radio frequency identification, is a wireless technology with the potential for significant savings and increased reliability and safety in space operations. Perhaps the most obvious savings relate to the application of inventory management. A fully automated inventory management system is highly desirable for long-term sustaining operations in space environments. This assertion is evidenced by inventory activities on the International Space Station, which represents the most extensive inventory tracking experience base in the history of space operations. In the short tern, handheld RFID readers offer substantial savings owing to reduced crew time for inventory audits. Over the long term, a combination of improved RFID technology and operational concepts modified to fully utilize the technology should result in space based inventory management that is highly reliable and requires very little crew time. In addition to inventory management, RFID is likely to find space applications in real-time location and tracking systems. These could vary from coarse-resolution RFID portals to the high resolution afforded by ultra-wideband (UWB) RFID. Longer range RFID technologies that leverage passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are being investigated to

  12. Radionuclide release calculations for SAR-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Gavin; Miller, Alex; Smith, Graham; Jackson, Duncan (Enviros Consulting Ltd, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom))

    2008-04-15

    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the post-closure safety assessment of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate waste (L/ILW), SAFE, the SKB has prepared an updated assessment called SAR-08. This report describes the radionuclide release calculations that have been undertaken as part of SAR-08. The information, assumptions and data used in the calculations are reported and the results are presented. The calculations address issues raised in the regulatory review, but also take account of new information including revised inventory data. The scenarios considered include the main case of expected behaviour of the system, with variants; low probability releases, and so-called residual scenarios. Apart from these scenario uncertainties, data uncertainties have been examined using a probabilistic approach. Calculations have been made using the AMBER software. This allows all the component features of the assessment model to be included in one place. AMBER has been previously used to reproduce results the corresponding calculations in the SAFE assessment. It is also used in demonstration of the IAEA's near surface disposal assessment methodology ISAM and has been subject to very substantial verification tests and has been used in verifying other assessment codes. Results are presented as a function of time for the release of radionuclides from the near field, and then from the far field into the biosphere. Radiological impacts of the releases are reported elsewhere. Consideration is given to each radionuclide and to each component part of the repository. The releases from the entire repository are also presented. The peak releases rates are, for most scenarios, due to organic C-14. Other radionuclides which contribute to peak release rates include inorganic C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. (author)

  13. A comprehensive approach for the evaluation and comparison of emission inventories in Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedrenne, Michel; Borge, Rafael; Lumbreras, Julio; Rodríguez, María Encarnación; de la Paz, David; Pérez, Javier; Manuel de Andrés, Juan; Quaassdorff, Christina

    2016-11-01

    Emission inventories provide a description of the polluting activities that occur across a specific geographic domain, and are widely used as input for air quality modelling for the assessment of compliance with environmental legislation. The spatial scale to which these inventories are referred has an influence in the representativeness of the emission estimates, as these are underpinned by a number of considerations and data with different levels of granularity. This study proposes a comprehensive framework for the evaluation of emission inventories that allows identifying methodological issues by examining differences in performance to a chemical transport model (CTM) when such inventories are used as input. To demonstrate the approach, a comparison between the national and regional emissions inventories for the Autonomous Community of Madrid (ACM) was carried out (NEI and REI respectively). The analysis revealed discrepancies in compilation methodologies for the domestic sector (SNAP 02), industrial combustion (SNAP 03), road traffic (SNAP 07) and other mobile sources (SNAP 08); most of the differences were originally caused by taking into account different activity variables, fuel mixes, and spatial disaggregation and allocation proxies. The granularity of the base data (statistics, fuel consumption, facilities, etc.) proved to be an essential limiting factor, which means that whenever bottom-up approaches were followed, the description of emission sectors tended to be more accurate.

  14. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 2. inventories of transuranium elements in surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-10-01

    This is the second of three reports on Bikini sediment studies, which discusses the concentrations and inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in sediments from the lagoon. Surface sediment samples were collected from 87 locations over the entire lagoon at Bikini Atoll during 1979. The collections were made to map the distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred in the composition of the sediment as a result of the testing program. Present inventories for {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in the surface 2 cm of sediment are estimated to be 14 and 17 TBq, respectively. These values are estimated to represent only 14% of the total inventory in the sediment column. Sediment inventories of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are changing only slowly with time through chemical- physical processes that continuously mobilize small amounts of the transuranics to the water column. The lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with deposits logoonward of the eastern reef.

  15. Planning Horizon for Production Inventory Models with Production Rate Dependent on Demand and Inventory Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses why the selection of a finite planning horizon is preferable to an infinite one for a replenishment policy of production inventory models. In a production inventory model, the production rate is dependent on both the demand rate and the inventory level. When there is an exponentially decreasing demand, the application of an infinite planning horizon model is not suitable. The emphasis of this paper is threefold. First, while pointing out questionable results from a previous study, we propose a corrected infinite planning horizon inventory model for the first replenishment cycle. Second, while investigating the optimal solution for the minimization problem, we found that the infinite planning horizon should not be applied when dealing with an exponentially decreasing demand. Third, we developed a new production inventory model under a finite planning horizon for practitioners. Numerical examples are provided to support our findings.

  16. INVENTORIES MEASUREMENT – BETWEEN PRUDENCE AND NONPRUDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia JIANU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In accounting, measurement is the process used to determine the value at which the items of financial statements are recognized in accounting and presented in the balance sheet and in the profit and loss account. Starting from the importance of measurement in accounting, the first study objective in this paper brings in the center of discussion the inventories measurement with the purpose to identify the main methods for inventories measurement at exit used by the economic entities listed on EuroNext Paris Exchange Stock. In the present context, when the financial crisis is still felt in the EU countries is important to note the extent to which economic entities demonstrate prudence in accounting by taking into consideration the inventories impairment at balance sheet date. Compliance with the prudence principle to integrate uncertainty in accounting measurement has the purpose to avoid the risk to transfer in the future periods the present uncertainties that are likely to strike the economic entity. One of the main consequences of this principle is to make impairments for inventories. Therefore the second objective of the present paper is to reflect the extent to which the entities under study record impairments for inventories at balance sheet date, as well as to highlight the manner in which is disclosed the information regarding the way the net realizable value can be calculated.

  17. Mobile source emissions inventory development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, K.Y.; De Paul, F.T.; Heavisides, T.; Wagner, D.

    1991-03-01

    The study was undertaken to develop a methodology for preparing a 5km by 5km areal gridded mobile source emissions inventory for areas of Illinois which are in nonattainment status with regard to National Ambient Air Quality Standards. A pilot emissions inventory was developed by linking the USEPA mobile source emissions program (MOBILE4) with existing traffic data from the Illinois Department of Transportation's (IDOT) Highway Record Data Bank (HRDB), the Chicago Area Transportation Study (CATS) and Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources' (ENR) Geographic Information System (GIS). The methodology developed here was applied to one pollutant in one test case county in Illinois. Hydrocarbon emissions from mobile sources in Kane county are the focus of the study. Vehicle type, vehicle age, and Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) distributions were obtained from information provided in the 1982 Illinois State Implementation Plan (SIP). Among the products of the project is a preliminary 25-sq km gridded mobile source hydrocarbon emissions inventory for Kane county. Numerical results as well as a color correlated overview map of the county-wide gridded emissions inventory are provided in the report. Recommendations for improving the methodology and further developing gridded mobile source emission inventories for other Illinois counties are also provided.

  18. Oral suspensions of morphine hydrochloride for controlled release: rheological properties and drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M E; López, G; Gallardo, V; Ruiz, M A

    2011-04-04

    Recent developments in pharmaceutical technology have facilitated the design and production of modified release formulas for drugs whose physical, chemical or biological properties impede release and thus might compromise their efficacy or safety. One such drug is morphine, whose short half-life requires repeated doses at short intervals. The use of biocompatible polymers such as ethylcellulose has made it possible to develop microencapsulated formulations which facilitate liquid, sustained-release pharmaceutical formulas for oral administration. We developed a stable final formulation of morphine with an acceptable release profile by comparing the rheological properties and stability of formulations with different thickeners (xanthan gum, Carbopol, and carboxymethylcellulose with microcrystalline cellulose) at different concentrations from 0.25% to 1.0%. Release assays in a Franz-type cell were done to determine the most suitable release profile for the formulation.

  19. Fission product inventory for CANFLEX-NU and CANFLEX-RU in the limiting channel of CANDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jung, Jong Yeob

    2007-09-15

    The fission product inventory was evaluated for the 37-element fuel, CANFLEX-NU and CANFLEX-RU fuels which irradiated in the assumed limiting O6{sub m}od channel under a normal operating condition. Generally, the assessment of fission product release is divided into 3 steps which are a calculation of FGR during steady state, a calculation of a prompt release at the time of an accident, and a calculation of delayed release after the accident. Among them the first step was described in this report. The analysis was performed by using the ELESTRES code which is a computer code used in a performance evaluation of the fuel bundle during the normal irradiation. The calculation results of the fission product inventory for the 37-element fuel, CANFLEX-NU and CANFLEX-RU were compared to each other.

  20. Design of inventory pools in spare part support operation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Daniel Y.; Tseng, Mitchell M.; Cheung, Raymond K.

    2014-06-01

    The objective of a spare part support operation is to fulfill the part request order with different service contracts in the agreed response time. With this objective to achieve different service targets for multiple service contracts and the considerations of inventory investment, it is not only important to determine the inventory policy but also to design the structure of inventory pools and the order fulfilment strategies. In this research, we focused on two types of inventory pools: multiple inventory pool (MIP) and consolidated inventory pool (CIP). The idea of MIP is to maintain separated inventory pools based on the types of service contract, while CIP solely maintains a single inventory pool regardless of service contract. Our research aims to design the inventory pool analytically and propose reserve strategies to manage the order fulfilment risks in CIP. Mathematical models and simulation experiments would be applied for analysis and evaluation.

  1. ELECTROMAGNETIC RELEASE MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, C.

    1960-09-13

    An electromagnetic release mechanism is offered that may be used, for example, for supporting a safety rod for a nuclear reactor. The release mechanism is designed to have a large excess holding force and a rapid, uniform, and dependable release. The fast release is accomplished by providing the electromagnet with slotttd polts separated by an insulating potting resin, and by constructing the poles with a ferro-nickel alloy. The combination of these two features materially reduces the eddy current power density whenever the magnetic field changes during a release operation. In addition to these features, the design of the armature is such as to provide ready entrance of fluid into any void that might tend to form during release of the armature. This also improves the release time for the mechanism. The large holding force for the mechanism is accomplished by providing a small, selected, uniform air gap between the inner pole piece and the armature.

  2. Estimating uncertainty of emissions inventories: What has been done/what needs to be done

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1998-10-01

    Developing scientifically defensible quantitative estimates of the uncertainty of atmospheric emissions inventories has been a gleam in researchers eyes since atmospheric chemical transport and transformation models (CTMs) started to be used to study air pollution. Originally, the compilation of these inventories was done as part of the development and application of the models by researchers whose expertise usually did not include the art of emissions estimations. In general, the smaller the effort spent on compiling the inventories the more effort could be placed on the model development, application and analysis. Yet model results are intimately tied to the accuracy of the emissions data; no model, however accurately the atmospheric physical and chemical processes are represented, will give reliable representation of air concentrations if the emissions data are flawed. The author briefly summarizes some of the work done to develop quantitative estimates of the uncertainty of emissions inventories. The author then presents what is needed to develop scientifically defensible quantitative estimates of the uncertainties of emissions data.

  3. Computer Modelling and Simulation for Inventory Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Adegoke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the role of computer simulation as a device for conducting scientific experiments on inventory control. The stores function utilizes a bulk of physical assets and engages a bulk of financial resources in a manufacturing outfit therefore there is a need for an efficient inventory control. The reason being that inventory control reduces cost of production and thereby facilitates the effective and efficient accomplishment of production objectives of an organization. Some mathematical and statistical models were used to compute the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ. Test data were gotten from a manufacturing company and same were simulated. The results generated were used to predict a real life situation and have been presented and discussed. The language of implementation for the three models is Turbo Pascal due to its capability, generality and flexibility as a scientific programming language.

  4. Further validation of the Psychological Maltreatment Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, E E; Gayton, W F

    1996-05-01

    This study attempted to provide further validation of the Psychological Maltreatment Inventory (PMI). The PMI was found to be correlated with scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for females but not males. Four separate ANOVAs were run with parent gender and respondent gender as independent variables and the total PMI score along with three factor subscale scores as separate dependent variables to determine the effects of both parent and respondent gender on PMI scores. Fathers were found to have significantly higher PMI scores than mothers, and post hoc tests indicated that male respondents view their fathers as more hostile rejecting than their mothers.

  5. Orchids inventory in Sintang Regency, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTI ENDAH ARIYANTI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchid is one of ornamental plants which have commercial value. Therefore most species are becoming threatened or even endangered because of over exploitation. In addition, its natural habitat is also decreasing. Conservation must be done urgently, both by in situ and ex situ conservation, which can be started by orchid inventory. The orchid inventory was done in TWA Bukit Kelam, TWA Baning and several places in Regency of Sintang, West Kalimantan. The result showed that there were 40 species belonged to 27 genera, which 32 species of them (20 genera were epiphytic orchids and 8 species (7 genera were terrestrial orchids.

  6. Towards a complete World Glacier Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The need for an inventory of the world's glaciers evolved during the International Hydrological Decade (1965-74). As a result, guidelines were established in the mid 1970s to compile a worldwide detailed inventory of existing perennial snow and ice masses. Following these international guidelines, several countries started compiling national glacier inventories based primarily on aerial photographs and maps. In the 1980s, the World Glacier Inventory (WGI) database was launched together with a status report about global and regional glacierised surface areas for the second half of the 20th century. These estimates were based on the detailed inventory data together with preliminary estimates of the remaining glacierised regions derived from early satellite imagery. In the late 1990s, the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) database was initiated to continue the inventory task with space-borne sensors. In the WGI, glaciers are represented by geographical point coordinates. The GLIMS database includes digital outlines. Both include exact time stamps and tabular information on glacier classifications, length, area, orientation, and altitude range. Both are regularly updated with newly available data: the WGI stores point information for the second half of the 20th century whereas the GLIMS includes digital outlines for the 21st century. Since these detailed glacier inventories are not (yet) globally complete, there have been several efforts towards preliminary estimates of the overall global glacier coverage. A first, well elaborated one was included in the original status report of the WGI, published in 1989, and was refined in 2005 with information from other sources by Dyurgerov and Meier. Other studies used the detailed WGI, or an extended format by Cogley, for regional or global up-scaling of glacier extents. In 2003, Cogley published a global map of percentage glacier coverage per 1°x1° grid box (GGHydro) that is widely used for modeling at global

  7. Improving the Greenlandic Greenhouse Gas Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Baunbæk, Lene; Gyldenkærne, Steen;

    The project to improve the Greenlandic greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was undertaken due to the recommendations made by the UNFCCC review team in connection with the 2008 and 2009 submissions by the Kingdom of Denmark. The improvements made to the Greenlandic GHG emission inventory were substantial....... Firstly the full CRF format was implemented significantly increasing the level of detail. For the cross-cutting elements of the reporting a tier 1 uncertainty estimation was made. The uncertainty estimation showed a total uncertainty of the GHG emission of 5.8 %. A tier 1 key category analysis was made...

  8. How to control chemical hazards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Improving protection against chemical hazards is one of the 2012 CERN safety objectives identified by the Director General. Identifying and drawing up a complete inventory of chemicals, and assessing the associated risks are important steps in this direction.   The HSE Unit has drawn up safety rules, guidelines and forms to help you to meet this objective. We would like to draw your attention to: • safety guidelines C-0-0-1 and C-1-0-2 (now also available in French), which deal with the identification of hazardous chemicals and the assessment of chemical risk; • safety guideline C-1-0-1, which deals with the storage of hazardous chemicals. All safety documents can be consulted at: cern.ch/regles-securite The HSE Unit will be happy to answer any questions you may have. Write to us at: safety-general@cern.ch The HSE Unit

  9. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT IN THE ENTERPRISE THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF IFRS 2 INVENTORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlozar Stefanov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus in the article is on the issues of valuation and presentation of the inventories under the meaning on the International Accounting Standard 2 Inventories. The Standard provides guidance on the determination of costs of finished products and its recognition as and expense in the production and sale finished products, including guidance for determination of the net realizable value. The latter is defined as the estimated selling price less the estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale. The cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to a condition suitable for subsequent use. The amount of the cost for materials used or products sold and the finished product is determined using one of the following methods: a specifically defined value, first-in � first out or weighted average cost of lots delivered. When inventories are sold, the carrying amount of those inventories is recognized as an expense in the period in which the related sales revenue is recognized. The amount of any write-down of inventories to net realizable value is recorded as a current expense and is recognized as an expense in the period the write-down occurs.

  10. Optimal Policy for Brownian Inventory Models with General Convex Inventory Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-cheng YAO

    2013-01-01

    We study an inventory system in which products are ordered from outside to meet demands,and the cumulative demand is governed by a Brownian motion.Excessive demand is backlogged.We suppose that the shortage and holding costs associated with the inventory are given by a general convex function.The product ordering from outside incurs a linear ordering cost and a setup fee.There is a constant leadtime when placing an order.The optimal policy is established so as to minimize the discounted cost including the inventory cost and ordering cost.

  11. Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.

    2010-09-21

    A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

  12. MEASUREMENT OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM SALTSTONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-01-15

    SRNL was requested by WSRC Waste Solidification Engineering to characterize the release of ammonia from saltstone curing at 95 C by performing experimental testing. These tests were performed with an MCU-type Tank 50H salt simulant containing 0, 50, and 200 mg/L ammonia. The testing program showed that above saltstone made from the 200 mg/L ammonia simulant, the vapor space ammonia concentration was about 2.7 mg/L vapor at 95 C. An upper 95% confidence value for this concentration was found to be 3.9 mg/L. Testing also showed that ammonia was chemically generated from curing saltstone at 95 C; the amount of ammonia generated was estimated to be equivalent to 121 mg/L additional ammonia in the salt solution feed. Even with chemical generation, the ammonia release from saltstone was found to be lower than its release from salt solution only with 200 mg/L ammonia.

  13. Composition of ending inventory, November 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, R.O.

    1966-12-14

    Submitted herewith are source and special nuclear material composition of ending inventory reports for the month of November 1966. The depleted uranium, enriched uranium, plutonium, enriched lithium, U-233, normal uranium, neptunium 237, plutonium 238, deuterium, tritium, and thorium compositions are all broken down.

  14. Managing Inventory At A Transitional Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Henry A.

    1993-01-01

    Kennedy Inventory Management System, KIMS, geared to needs of facility in transition from research and development to manufacturing. Operated jointly by several contractors at Kennedy Space Center, KIMS designed to reduce cost and increase efficiency of fabrication and maintenance of spaceflight hardware.

  15. Advances in Inventory Management: Dynamic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Pinçe (Çerağ)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, we develop and analyze models incorporating some of the dynamic aspects of inventory systems. In particular, we focus on two major themes to be analyzed separately: nonstationarity in demand rate and unfixed purchasing prices. In the first part of the study, we consider a

  16. The Cooperative Preschool Inventory: Test Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Francis J., Jr.

    This paper is a brief psychometric review of the Cooperative Preschool Inventory (CPI-R), Revised Edition intended to supplement the review of CPI in the "Seventh Mental Measurements Yearbook." The 1970 revision of the CPI-R is a brief screening test for teacher-administered testing of three-to-six-year-old children. It is intended to…

  17. Eysenck Personality Inventory Item Factor Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comrey, Andrew L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Three methods were used to test the factor structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory administered to 583 Australians. The preferred method was to extract factors by the minimum residual method, use the Tandem Criteria Method, and then rotate that number of factors by the Tandem Criteria I method. (SLD)

  18. Maximizing Effectiveness Using a Flexible Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    the fleet. Following Keynes (2006), it is generally accepted that the main motives for holding money are transaction, precautionary and speculative...substitutable inventory classes. Operations Research, 52(1), 83–104. Keynes , J. (2006). The general theory of employment, interest and money

  19. Forest inventory with terrestrial LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauwens, Sébastien; Bartholomeus, Harm; Calders, Kim; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The application of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories is becoming more effective. Nevertheless, the occlusion effect is still limiting the processing efficiency to extract forest attributes. The use of a mobile laser scanner (MLS) would reduce this occlusion. In this st

  20. Incomplete convolutions in production and inventory models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, van G.J.; Zijm, W.H.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we study incomplete convolutions of continuous distribution functions, as they appear in the analysis of (multi-stage) production and inventory systems. Three example systems are discussed where these incomplete convolutions naturally arise. We derive explicit, nonrecursive formulae f

  1. Development of a Meiosis Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalas, Pamela; O'Neill, Angie; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gulnur

    2013-01-01

    We have designed, developed, and validated a 17-question Meiosis Concept Inventory (Meiosis CI) to diagnose student misconceptions on meiosis, which is a fundamental concept in genetics. We targeted large introductory biology and genetics courses and used published methodology for question development, which included the validation of questions by…

  2. Inventories and upstream gasoline price dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper sheds new light on the asymmetric dynamics in upstream U.S. gasoline prices. The model is based on Pindyck's inventory model of commodity price dynamics. We show that asymmetry in gasoline price dynamics is caused by changes in the net marginal convenience yield: higher costs of marketing

  3. Computer Science Concept Inventories: Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C.; Zingaro, D.; Porter, L.; Webb, K. C.; Lee, C. B.; Clancy, M.

    2014-01-01

    Concept Inventories (CIs) are assessments designed to measure student learning of core concepts. CIs have become well known for their major impact on pedagogical techniques in other sciences, especially physics. Presently, there are no widely used, validated CIs for computer science. However, considerable groundwork has been performed in the form…

  4. The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.A.J.; Hofstee, W.K.B.; De Raad, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) assesses the Big Five factors of personality, both for self-ratings and for others' ratings. It consists of 100 brief and concrete statements, and can be administered in 10-15 min. in addition to the five factor scores, the FFPI may be used to assess 40 b

  5. Competitive Analysis of the Online Inventory Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Skak; Wøhlk, Sanne

    2010-01-01

    We consider a real-time version of the inventory problem with deterministic demand in which decisions as to when to replenish and how much to buy must be made in an online fashion without knowledge of future prices. We suggest online algorithms for each of four models for the problem and use...

  6. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2015 and 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    This report is Denmark’s annual documentation report of the greenhouse gas inventory submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The report is prepared in accordance with the UNFCCC reporting guidelines and CMP decisions and contains all...

  7. Shrink stope design using an inventory model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Taylor

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the fact that current practice in shrink-stoping in hard rock mining invariably ignores the inventory holding cost of the blasted ore. We believe, and show by example, that ignoring this cost could make the difference between profit and loss in an industry that, at present, needs all the help it can get.

  8. State-of-the-art inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gerven, K.A.J.; Akkerman, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    The present report provides a state-of-the-art inventory of relevant information and technical concepts for the ComCoast project, being the first phase of the research stages of Work Package 3 (WP3). This project was assigned to Royal Haskoning by CUR. The information scan was set-up in a systematic

  9. Calendar Year 2016 Stationary Source Emissions Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque (COA) Environmental Health Department Air Quality Program has issued stationary source permits and registrations the Department of Energy/Sandia Field Office for operations at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. This emission inventory report meets the annual reporting compliance requirements for calendar year (CY) 2016 as required by the COA.

  10. Development of the Korean Career Indecision Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jinkook; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2003-01-01

    Five analyses using Korean college students (n=283, 700, 844, 306, 315) were conducted to develop the Korean Career Indecision Inventory. Five factors emerged consistently and were confirmed by factor analysis: lack of career information, lack of necessity recognition, lack of self-identity, indecisiveness, and external barriers. Reliability and…

  11. JIT: A Strategic Tool of Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D. K.; Singh, Satyendra

    2012-03-01

    Investment in inventory absorbs a large portion of the working capital of a company and often it represents a large portion of the total assets of a business. By improving return on investment by increasing the rate of inventory turnover, management often wants to ensure economic efficiency. Effective inventory management enables a firm to provide lower costs, rapid response and flexibility for its customers. Just-in-time (JIT) philosophy is most widely adopted and practices in the recent years worldwide. It aims at reducing total production costs by producing only what is immediately needed and eliminates wastes. It is based on a radically different concept, deviating substantially from the existing manufacturing practices in many respects. It is a very effective tool to reduce the wastage of inventory and manage it effectively. It has the potential to bring substantial changes in the existing setup of a company; can give it a new face, broaden its acceptability and ensure a longer life. It can strategically change the atmosphere needed for longer survival. JIT is radically different from MRP and goes beyond materials management. The new outlook acquired by the company can meet global expectations of the cust

  12. Measurement of gap and grain-boundary inventories of {sup 129}I in used CANDU fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Moir, D.L.; Kolar, M.; Porth, R.J.; McConnell, J.L.; Kerr, A.H. [AECL Research, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1995-12-31

    Combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of {sup 129}I in 14 used CANDU fuel elements were measured by crushing and simultaneously leaching fuel segments for 4 h in a solution containing KI carrier. From analogy with previous work a near one-to-one correlation was anticipated between the amount of stable Xe and the amount of {sup 128}I in the combined gap and grain-boundary regions of the fuel. However, the results showed that such a correlation was only apparent for low linear power rating (LLPR) fuels with an average linear power rating of < 42 kW/m. For high linear power rating (HLPR) fuels (> 44 kW/m), the {sup 129}I values were considerably smaller than expected. The combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of {sup 129}I in the 14 fuels tested varied from 1.8 to 11.0%, with an average value of 3.6 {+-} 2.4% which suggests that the average value of 8.1 {+-} 1% used in safety assessment calculations overestimates the instant release fraction for {sup 129}I. Segments of used CANDU fuels were leached for 92 d (samples taken at 5, 28 and 92 d) to determine the kinetics of {sup 129}I release. Results could be fitted tentatively to half-order reaction kinetics, implying that {sup 129}I release is a diffusion-controlled process for LLPR fuels, and also for HLPR fuels, once the gap inventory has been leached. However, more data are needed over longer leaching periods to gain more understanding of the processes that control grain-boundary release of {sup 129}I from used CANDU fuel.

  13. Developing inventory of professional attitude at occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslıhan Bakır

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in order to develop a standard measurement instrument special to culture assessing nurses’s of midwives’s professional attitudes at occupation. A methodological research was conducted to evaluate the validity and reability of the inventory developed exclusively for the culture. The population of the research consisted of nurses (74 persons and midwives (86 persons working in State Hospital and Gynecology Birth and Child Diseases Hospital in Ordu province. The data were collected between the dates 1-30 June 2005. The nurses and midwives were informed about the research and their verbal consent was taken. In addition, a written consent was taken from the hospitals. The analysis of data were made via Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, Cronbach Alpha coefficient, Kaise-Mayer-Olkin test, Barlett’s test of sphericity analysis and factor analysis with SPSS 11,5 in computer. A likert-type inventory consisting of 36 items to evaluate the Professional attitude at occupation was developed in the light of literature information. The validity of content-scope was examined to determine the validity of inventory and the number of questions was reduced to 32 items. The validity structure of the inventory was examined and the results of KMO analysis and that of Barlett’s test were found as 0,860 and 807,357 respectively. Both the test results were found significant at the level of importance p=0,000. A factory analysis and total item point correlation was applied to the inventory wasn’t altered 32 item-number. Internal consistency and re-test application were carried out to determine the validity of the inventory. Cronbach Alpha coefficient was of found to be ?=0,89 and re-test correlation coefficient was found to be r =0,97.As a result in the research that the validity and reability of Inventory of Professional Attitude at Occupation were high and that it was an efficient instrument of measurement to determine

  14. Release the Body, Release the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Martha Goff

    1998-01-01

    A college English teacher describes the anxiety and resentment of students during in-class writing assignments and the successful classroom use of meditation and body movement. Movement seemed to relax the students, change their attitudes, and release their creative impulses to write. Implications related to the body-mind connection are pondered.…

  15. The Trail Inventory of Umatilla NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  16. The Trail Inventory of Tewaukon NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Carolina Sandhills NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  18. 7 CFR 930.57 - Secondary inventory reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Regulations § 930.57 Secondary inventory reserve. (a) In the event the inventory reserve... accordance with the annual marketing policy and with § 930.54....

  19. The Trail Inventory of Desert NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Desert National Wildlife Range. Trails in this inventory are eligible for...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Desert National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Desert National Wildlife Range. Trails in this inventory are eligible for...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Valentine NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Valentine National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Catahoula National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Catahoula National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  4. Amended wildlife inventory plan : Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amended wildlife inventory plan for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge objectives, wildlife inventory procedures, and manpower and...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Laguna Atascosa NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  6. Reelfoot and Lake Isom National Wildlife Refuges : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This wildlife inventory plan for Reelfoot and Lake Isom National Wildlife Refuges includes survey procedure forms that represent cost effective inventory of the...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Conboy Lake NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Conboy Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  8. Baseline inventory data users guide to abiotic GIS layers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Baseline Inventory Team was chartered by the Fulfilling the Promises Implementation Team to recommend minimum abiotic and biotic inventories for the National...

  9. The Trail Inventory of Back Bay NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Ruby Lake NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Ruby Lake NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  12. The Trail Inventory of William L. Finley NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  13. The Trail Inventory of Cape Romain NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  14. The Trail Inventory of Santee NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Santee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Santee NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Santee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  16. The Trail Inventory of Santee National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Santee National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  17. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Inventory and Monitoring Plan (IMP) is prepared to document the inventory and monitoring surveys that will, or could be conducted at Deep Fork National Wildlife...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Neosho NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Neosho National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are eligible for...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Cabeza Prieta NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Cabeza Prieta NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  1. The Trail Inventory of Monte Vista NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  2. The Trail Inventory of Tualatin River NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Bon Secour NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Spring Creek NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Wassaw NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Wassaw National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  6. The Trail Inventory of Cape May NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cape May National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Huron WMD [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Huron Wetland Management District. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Saddle Mountain NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  9. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Inventory and Monitoring Plan (IMP) documents the inventory and monitoring surveys that will be conducted at Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge (CCNWR) from...

  10. The Trail Inventory of Wheeler NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  11. The Trail Inventory of Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  12. Wildlife Inventory Plan : White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This wildlife inventory plan for White River National Wildlife Refuge describes the wildlife inventory process, procedure and costs. Target species include: black...

  13. The Trail Inventory of J. Clark Salyer NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  14. The Trail Inventory of Bayou Teche NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Bayou Teche National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  15. The Trail Inventory of Cameron Prairie NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cameron Prairie National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  16. The Trail Inventory of Santa Ana NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Piedmont NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  18. The Trail Inventory of Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  19. The Trail Inventory of Lake Ilo NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Lake Ilo National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  20. The Trail Inventory of Harrison Lake NFH [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Harrison Lake National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...