WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical release inventory

  1. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals by Groupings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) makes available information for more than 600 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or...

  2. Toxics Release Inventory Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) dataset contains hazard information about the chemicals reported in TRI. Users...

  3. 2001 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act SEC 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuant to section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA), and Executive Order 13148, Greening the Government Through Leadership in Environmental Management, the US Department of Energy has prepared and submitted a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory for the Hanford Site covering activities performed during calendar year 2001. EPCRA Section 313 requires facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use listed toxic chemicals in quantities exceeding established threshold levels to report total annual releases of those chemicals. During calendar year 2001, Hanford Site activities resulted in one chemical used in amounts exceeding an activity threshold. Accordingly, the Hanford Site 2001 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory, DOE/RL-2002-37, includes total annual amount of lead released to the environment, transferred to offsite locations, and otherwise managed as waste

  4. 1997 toxic chemical release inventory. Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, Section 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two listed toxic chemicals were used at the Hanford Site above established activity thresholds: phosphoric acid and chlorine. Because total combined quantities of chlorine released, disposed, treated, recovered through recycle operations, co-combusted for energy recovery, and transferred to off-site locations for the purpose of recycle, energy recovery, treatment, and/or disposal, amounted to less than 500 pounds, the Hanford Site qualified for the alternate one million pound threshold for chlorine. Accordingly, this Toxic Chemical Release Inventory includes a Form A for chlorine, and a Form B for phosphoric acid

  5. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  6. Toxics Release Inventory Pollution Prevention Search Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a publicly available EPA database that contains information on toxic chemical releases and waste management and pollution...

  7. 1995 Toxic chemical release inventory: Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Section 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA) requires the annual submittal of toxic chemical release information to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Executive Order 12856, 'Federal Compliance With Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements' extends the requirements of EPCRA to all Federal agencies. The following document is the August 1996 submittal of the Hanford Site Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report. Included is a Form R for ethylene glycol, the sole chemical used in excess of the established regulatory thresholds at the Hanford Site by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and its contractors during Calendar Year 1995

  8. Inventory of chemical releases of nuclear installations in the North-Cotentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear installations concerned by this study are Cogema La Hague, the Flamanville nuclear power plant, the Manche plant and the National Navy of Cherbourg.The objective followed by the ' source term ' work group has consisted in counting and examining the whole of existing measures relative to the releases of chemical substances in the liquid and gaseous effluents. Then because of the lack of measures for the operation first years of installations, the work group has estimated the order of magnitude of these chemical releases (essentially for Cogema La Hague). This report presents a review of the literature looking at the background levels of chemicals in different environmental compartments: air, soil, plants and animals products. these values have been summarized here to be available for comparisons with concentrations input by the North Cotentin nuclear installations, calculated by the G.R.N.C. (radioecology group of Nord Cotentin)

  9. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) widget allows users to identify facilities in a user-specified area of interest that have toxic releases as reported by the...

  10. PCDD/PCDF release inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, H. [UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) entered into force on 17 May 2004 with 50 Parties. In May 2004, 59 countries had ratified or acceded the Convention. The objective of the Convention is ''to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants''. For intentionally produced POPs, e.g., pesticides and industrial chemicals such as hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls, this will be achieved by stop of production and use. For unintentionally generated POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), measures have to be taken to ''reduce the total releases derived from anthropogenic sources''; the final goal is ultimate elimination, where feasible. Under the Convention, Parties have to establish and maintain release inventories to prove the continuous release reduction. Since many countries do not have the technical and financial capacity to measure all releases from all potential PCDD/PCDF sources, UNEP Chemicals has developed the ''Standardized Toolkit for the Identification of Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases'' (''Toolkit'' for short), a methodology to estimate annual releases from a number of sources. With this methodology, annual releases can be estimated by multiplying process-specific default emission factors provided in the Toolkit with national activity data. At the seventh session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, the Toolkit was recommended to be used by countries when reporting national release data to the Conference of the Parties. The Toolkit is especially used by developing countries and countries with economies in transition where no measured data are available. Results from Uruguay, Thailand, Jordan, Philippines, and Brunei Darussalam have been published.

  11. 1998 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986 [also known as the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA), Title III], as modified by Executive Order 12856, requires that all federal facilities evaluate the need to submit an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report as prescribed in Title III, Section 313 of this Act. This annual report is due every July for the preceding calendar year. Owners and operators who manufacture, process, or otherwise use certain toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities are required to report their toxic chemical releases to all environmental mediums (air, water, soil, etc.). At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), no EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 1998 above the reportable threshold limits of 10,000 lb or 25,000 lb. Therefore LANL was not required to submit any Toxic Chemical Release Inventory reports (Form Rs) for 1998. This document was prepared to provide a detailed description of the evaluation on chemical usage and EPCRA Section 313 threshold determinations for LANL for 1998

  12. 1998 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjorie B. Stockton

    1999-11-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986 [also known as the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA), Title III], as modified by Executive Order 12856, requires that all federal facilities evaluate the need to submit an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report as prescribed in Title III, Section 313 of this Act. This annual report is due every July for the preceding calendar year. Owners and operators who manufacture, process, or otherwise use certain toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities are required to report their toxic chemical releases to all environmental mediums (air, water, soil, etc.). At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), no EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 1998 above the reportable threshold limits of 10,000 lb or 25,000 lb. Therefore LANL was not required to submit any Toxic Chemical Release Inventory reports (Form Rs) for 1998. This document was prepared to provide a detailed description of the evaluation on chemical usage and EPCRA Section 313 threshold determinations for LANL for 1998.

  13. 1997 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heather McBride

    1997-07-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCIL4), Title III, Section 313 [also known as the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA)], as modified by Executive Order 12856, requires all federal facilities to submit an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report every July for the preceding calendar year. Owners and operators of manufacturing, processing, or production facilities are required to report their toxic chemical releases to all environmental mediums (air, water, soil, etc.). At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), nitric acid was the only toxic chemical used in 1997 that met the reportable threshold limit of 10,000 lb. Form R is the only documentation required by the Environmental Protection Agency, and it is included in the appendix of this report. This report, as requested by DOE, is provided for documentation purposes. In addition, a detailed description of the evaluation and reporting process for chemicals and processes at LANL has been included.

  14. 2004 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Stockton

    2006-01-15

    Section 313 of Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. For reporting year 2004, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds, nitric acid, and nitrate compounds as required under the EPCRA Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2004 above the reportable thresholds. This document provides a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2004, as well as background information about data included on the Form R reports.

  15. 2006 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group (ENV-EAQ)

    2007-12-12

    For reporting year 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2006 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2006, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  16. 2002 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For reporting year 2002, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds and mercury as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2002 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical usage and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2002 as well as provide background information about the data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999 EPA promulgated a final rule on Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable under EPCRA Section 313. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R

  17. 2002 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Stockton

    2003-11-01

    For reporting year 2002, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds and mercury as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2002 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical usage and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2002 as well as provide background information about the data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999 EPA promulgated a final rule on Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable under EPCRA Section 313. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  18. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Explorer Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Explorer Widget allows the user to generate reports on releases, transfers, and waste managed that can be displayed by facility,...

  19. Roadmaps to sources of information on chemicals listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-To-Know Act (also known as SARA Title 3), Section 313. Toxic release inventory (for microcomputers). Data file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    EPA has developed a database of sources of information on the chemicals listed in section 313 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). The datbase is intended to assist users of section 313 Toxic Release Inventory data to perform exposure and risk assessments of these chemicals. The Roadmaps system displays and/or prints information for the SARA section 313 chemicals on health and environmental effects, Federal regulations, and state air and water regulations, monitoring data, and state contacts.

  20. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  1. Chemical release module facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical release module provides the capability to conduct: (1) thermite based metal vapor releases; (2) pressurized gas releases; (3) dispersed liquid releases; (4) shaped charge releases from ejected submodules; and (5) diagnostic measurements with pi supplied instruments. It also provides a basic R-F and electrical system for: (1) receiving and executing commands; (2) telemetering housekeeping data; (3) tracking; (4) monitoring housekeeping and control units; and (5) ultrasafe disarming and control monitoring.

  2. Roadmaps to sources of information on chemicals listed in the Emergency Planning Community and Community Right-To-Know Act also known as SARA (Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act) Title III, Section 313. Toxic Release Inventory (for microcomputers). Data file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzke, J.; Edelstein, M.

    1989-07-14

    EPA has developed a database of sources of information on the chemicals listed in Section 313 of the Emergency Preparedness Community Right-To-Know Act, Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. The database is intended to assist users of Section 313 Toxic Release Inventory data to perform exposure and risk assessments of these chemicals. The Roadmaps system displays and/or prints out information for the Section 313 chemicals on health and environmental effects, Federal Regulation, and state air and water regulations, monitoring data, and state contacts.

  3. Toxics Release Inventory My Right-To-Know (myRTK) Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) tracks the management of certain toxic chemicals that may pose a threat to human health and the environment. U.S. facilities in...

  4. Inventory of chemical releases of nuclear installations in the North-Cotentin; Inventaire des rejets chimiques des installations nucleaires du Nord-Cotentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-15

    The nuclear installations concerned by this study are Cogema La Hague, the Flamanville nuclear power plant, the Manche plant and the National Navy of Cherbourg.The objective followed by the ' source term ' work group has consisted in counting and examining the whole of existing measures relative to the releases of chemical substances in the liquid and gaseous effluents. Then because of the lack of measures for the operation first years of installations, the work group has estimated the order of magnitude of these chemical releases (essentially for Cogema La Hague). This report presents a review of the literature looking at the background levels of chemicals in different environmental compartments: air, soil, plants and animals products. these values have been summarized here to be available for comparisons with concentrations input by the North Cotentin nuclear installations, calculated by the G.R.N.C. (radioecology group of Nord Cotentin)

  5. 78 FR 52860 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... ``Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data'' (March 5, 2012; 77 FR 13061). These comments are... to report non- trade-secret Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) forms to EPA using electronic software... EPA--U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPCRA--Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act...

  6. TRI.NET data engine for EPA Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — TRI.NET ("T-R-I-dot-net") is a new application developed by EPA to help you analyze Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) information. This application is capable of...

  7. EPA Region 2 Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Reporters GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ArcGIS 10.2 point feature class contains identification, location and status information on facilities regulated under EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory Program...

  8. 2004 Toxic Release Inventory Sites in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, EPA (2006) [toxic_release_inventory_site_LA_EPA_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Data extracted from the EPA Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) system for reporting year 2004. The dataset contains facility identification, submitted and/or preferred...

  9. USE OF CHEMICAL INVENTORY ACCURACY MEASUREMENTS AS LEADING INDICATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntamukkula, M.

    2011-02-10

    Chemical safety and lifecycle management (CSLM) is a process that involves managing chemicals and chemical information from the moment someone begins to order a chemical and lasts through final disposition(1). Central to CSLM is tracking data associated with chemicals which, for the purposes of this paper, is termed the chemical inventory. Examples of data that could be tracked include chemical identity, location, quantity, date procured, container type, and physical state. The reason why so much data is tracked is that the chemical inventory supports many functions. These functions include emergency management, which depends upon the data to more effectively plan for, and respond to, chemical accidents; environmental management that uses inventory information to aid in the generation of various federally-mandated and other regulatory reports; and chemical management that uses the information to increase the efficiency and safety with which chemicals are stored and utilized. All of the benefits of having an inventory are predicated upon having an inventory that is reasonably accurate. Because of the importance of ensuring one's chemical inventory is accurate, many have become concerned about measuring inventory accuracy. But beyond providing a measure of confidence in information gleaned from the inventory, does the inventory accuracy measurement provide any additional function? The answer is 'Yes'. It provides valuable information that can be used as a leading indicator to gauge the health of a chemical management system. In this paper, we will discuss: what properties make leading indicators effective, how chemical inventories can be used as a leading indicator, how chemical inventory accuracy can be measured, what levels of accuracies should realistically be expected in a healthy system, and what a subpar inventory accuracy measurement portends.

  10. U.S./Mexico Border environmental study toxics release inventory data, 1988--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.F.; LoPresti, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    This is a report on industrial toxic chemical releases and transfers based on information reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), a database maintained by the USEPA. This document discusses patterns of toxic chemical releases to the atmosphere, to water, to the land, and to underground injection; and transfers of toxic chemicals to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW), and for disposal, treatment and other off-site transfers during the TRI reporting years 1988--1992. Geographic coverage is limited to the US side of the ``Border Area``, the geographic area situated within 100 km of the US/Mexico international boundary. A primary purpose of this study is to provide background information that can be used in the future development of potential ``indicator variables`` for tracking environmental and public health status in the Border Area in conjunction with the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

  11. Expansion of ARAC for chemical releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996 the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) completed an effort to expand its national emergency response modeling system for chemical releases. Key components of the new capability include the integration of (1) an extensive chemical property database, (2) source modeling for tanks and evaporating pools, (3) denser-than-air dispersion, (4) public exposure guidelines, and (5) an interactive graphical user interface (GUI). Recent use and the future of the new capability are also discussed

  12. 76 FR 2677 - Request Facilities To Report Toxics Release Inventory Information Electronically or Complete Fill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... the facility complete the form by using a typewriter. Facilities that elect to submit paper forms must... facility may submit a withdrawal request by paper. For detailed instructions concerning withdrawals, please... Release Inventory-Made Easy Web application (TRI-MEweb) to report and submit Toxics Release...

  13. Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, Anton C.; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Menne, Torkil; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2009-01-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the literature as formaldehyde-releasers, data are inadequate to consider them as such beyond doubt. Several (nomenclature) mistakes and outdated information are discussed. Formaldehyde and formaldehyde allerg...

  14. Formaldehyde-releasers : relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton C.; Flyvholm, Mari-ann; Lensen, Gerda; Menne, Torkil; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2009-01-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the literatu

  15. Digital data sets describing Toxics Release Inventory locations with 1995 VOC releases in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a subset of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Envirofacts point data set which includes facilities included in the the Toxic Release...

  16. Environmental release of chemicals and reproductive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, J S; Misra, A; Rajalakshmi, M; Madan, R

    1993-07-01

    Reproductive ecology is defined as "the study of causes and mechanisms of the effects of environmental risk factors on reproductive health and the methods of their prevention and management." Major areas of concern, within the purview of this paper, relate to adverse pregnancy outcomes, effects on target tissues in the male and the female, and alterations in the control and regulatory mechanisms of reproductive processes. Teratogenic potential of chemicals, released as a result of accidents and catastrophes, is of critical significance. Congenital Minamata disease is due to transplacental fetal toxicity caused by accidental ingestion of methyl mercury. Generalized disorders of ectodermal tissue following prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls have been reported in Taiwan and Japan. The Bhopal gas disaster, a catastrophic industrial accident, was due to a leak of toxic gas, methyl isocyanate (MIC), in the pesticide manufacturing process. The outcome of pregnancy was studied in female survivors of MIC exposure. The spontaneous abortion rate was nearly four times more common in the affected areas as compared to the control area (24.2% versus 5.6%; p disasters are outlined. PMID:8243381

  17. 2014 TRI National Analysis: Toxic Release Inventory Releases at Various Summary Levels

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The TRI National Analysis is EPA's annual interpretation of TRI data at various summary levels. It highlights how toxic chemical wastes were managed, where toxic...

  18. Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Anton C; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda;

    2009-01-01

    This is one of series of review articles on formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers (others: formaldehyde in cosmetics, in clothes and in metalworking fluids and miscellaneous). Thirty-five chemicals were identified as being formaldehyde-releasers. Although a further seven are listed in the...... literature as formaldehyde-releasers, data are inadequate to consider them as such beyond doubt. Several (nomenclature) mistakes and outdated information are discussed. Formaldehyde and formaldehyde allergy are reviewed: applications, exposure scenarios, legislation, patch testing problems, frequency of...... sensitization, relevance of positive patch test reactions, clinical pattern of allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde, prognosis, threshold for elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, analytical tests to determine formaldehyde in products and frequency of exposure to formaldehyde and releasers. The...

  19. Probing the magnetosphere using chemical releases from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the chemical release experiments from NASA's Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program. Preliminary results are given for the CRRES investigations of (1) stimulated electron and ion precipitation, (2) ion transport in the magnetotail, (3) critical ionization velocity, (4) field line tracing and parallel acceleration, (5) diamagnetic cavity formation and collapse, and (6) plasma instabilities. The chemical vapor properties from a thermite release mechanism are also briefly described.

  20. Chemically resistant encapsulation for MEMS release

    OpenAIRE

    Stoukatch, Serguei; Tooten, ester; Axisa, Fabrice; Heusdens, Bruno; Francis, Laurent; Destiné, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed and explored a novel sequence in MEMS fabrication process flow. The novel MEMS fabrication process flow can be shortly described as a “packaging first, MEMS release second”. We propose to package the MEMS device first (die mount, wire bonding and encapsulation) and to perform the MEMS release as the last step in the fabrication process flow. The standard route for IC manufacturing is, that the die packaging is the last step [1]. Such approach can’t be directly transferred and...

  1. Amoco/Environmental Protection Agency Pollution Prevention Project, Yorktown refinery. Refinery release inventory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report volume summarizes physical data obtained during a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A multi-media sampling program was used to identify potential pollution sources within the Refinery. Sampling and analysis included air, surface water, groundwater, and solid waste data. Public perceptions about environmental issues of concern in the vicinity of the Refinery were also surveyed. The inventory showed that nearly 99 percent of the releases were airborne at the facility. Most of the remainder involved land disposal of solid wastes. Specific sources of major pollutants are identified

  2. Modeling release of chemicals from multilayer materials into food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The migration of chemicals from materials into food is predictable by various mathematical models. In this article, a general mathematical model is developed to quantify the release of chemicals through multilayer packaging films based on Fick's diffusion. The model is solved numerically to elucidate the effects of different diffusivity values of different layers, distribution of chemical between two adjacent layers and between material and food, mass transfer at the interface of material and food on the migration process.

  3. National inventory of alkylphenol ethoxylate compounds in U.S. sewage sludges and chemical fate in outdoor soil mesocosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined the first nationwide inventories of alkylphenol surfactants in U.S. sewage sludges (SS) using samples from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2001 national SS survey. Additionally, analysis of archived 3-year outdoor mesocosm samples served to determine chemical fates in SS-amended soil. Nonylphenol (NP) was the most abundant analyte (534 ± 192 mg/kg) in SS composites, followed by its mono- and di-ethoxylates (62.1 ± 28 and 59.5 ± 52 mg/kg, respectively). The mean annual load of NP and its ethoxylates in SS was estimated at 2408–7149 metric tonnes, of which 1204–4289 is applied on U.S. land. NP compounds showed observable loss from SS/soil mixtures (1:2), with mean half-lives ranging from 301 to 495 days. Surfactant levels in U.S. SS ten-times in excess of European regulations, substantial releases to U.S. soils, and prolonged half-lives found under field conditions, all argue for the U.S. to follow Europe's move from 20 years ago to regulate these chemicals. -- Highlights: ► First national survey of alkylphenol surfactants in U.S. sewage sludges. ► Nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates were consistently detected in all samples. ► Levels of NP in U.S. biosolids exceed regulatory limit set by European Union. ► Significant surfactant releases to U.S. soils via biosolids land application. ► Half-lives >300 days for NP and its ethoxylates observed in outdoor soil mesocosms. -- First study providing national inventories of alkylphenol surfactants in U.S. sewage sludges (SS), shows significant release of chemicals to U.S. soils through SS land application

  4. 1992 Tier Two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory. Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, Section 312

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This report is a compilation of data on emergency and hazardous chemicals stored at the Hanford Reservation. The report lists name or chemical description, physical and health hazards, inventories and storage location.

  5. 78 FR 48156 - Update to An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... also provides limited estimates for releases of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In... polychlorinated biphenyls to the air, land, and water of the United States. The inventory suggested that there was... of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (CDF) compounds present...

  6. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a method of determining the toxicological consequences of accidental releases from Hanford Tank Farms. A determination was made of the most restrictive toxic chemicals that are expected to be present in the tanks. Concentrations were estimated based on the maximum sample data for each analyte in all the tanks in the composite. Composite evaluated were liquids and solids from single shell tanks, double shell tanks, flammable gas watch list tanks, as well as all solids, all liquids, head space gases, and 241-C-106 solids. A sum of fractions of the health effects was computed for each composite for unit releases based emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). Where ERPGs were not available for chemical compounds of interest, surrogate guidelines were established. The calculation method in this report can be applied to actual release scenarios by multiplying the sum of fractions by the release rate for continuous releases, or the release amount for puff releases. Risk guidelines are met if the product is less than for equal to one.

  7. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a method of determining the toxicological consequences of accidental releases from Hanford Tank Farms. A determination was made of the most restrictive toxic chemicals that are expected to be present in the tanks. Concentrations were estimated based on the maximum sample data for each analyte in all the tanks in the composite. Composite evaluated were liquids and solids from single shell tanks, double shell tanks, flammable gas watch list tanks, as well as all solids, all liquids, head space gases, and 241-C-106 solids. A sum of fractions of the health effects was computed for each composite for unit releases based emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). Where ERPGs were not available for chemical compounds of interest, surrogate guidelines were established. The calculation method in this report can be applied to actual release scenarios by multiplying the sum of fractions by the release rate for continuous releases, or the release amount for puff releases. Risk guidelines are met if the product is less than for equal to one

  8. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  9. First report of the National Pollutant Release Inventory multi-stakeholder work group on substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through consultations with Canadian stakeholders, and especially the members of the previous multi-stakeholder National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Ad Hoc Work Group on Substances, Environment Canada has established a permanent process for modifying the NPRI. The public is to be notified yearly of proposed changes by Environment Canada, and input on the proposed changes is to be obtained via an appropriate consultation process. Three major topics are addressed in this report: Integration of Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs) into the NPRI for the 2002 reporting year, other proposed changes for the 2002 reporting year, and future agenda items for the Work Group. Specifically, the CACs to be added are nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter including total particulate matter (TPM), particulate matter less than 10 micrometers an particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers. Following an introduction, the document presents the addition of criteria air contaminants - proposed substance definitions and thresholds in section 2, as well as other data elements in section 3. A review of existing exemptions is presented in section 4. Other proposed changes for the 2002 reporting year are discussed in section 5 and the future agenda items for the work group relevant to the 2003 reporting year appear in section 6. tabs

  10. Vegetation of stormwater basins : flora inventory and physico-chemical characterization of vegetated surface

    OpenAIRE

    Saulais, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Urban stormwater basins surfaces can be highly contaminated and can be spontaneously or intentionaly vegetated. The aim of this work is to better characterize the role of the vegetation on heavy metal (Zn, Cd, Cu) mobility. Firstly, vegetation inventory has pointed out the high species diversity in these devices (from ruderal vegetation to wetland plants). Then, a physico-chemical characterization of surface samples vegetated by dominant species has been carried out. We have shown that carbon...

  11. Probabilistic consequence model of accidenal or intentional chemical releases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.-S.; Samsa, M. E.; Folga, S. M.; Hartmann, H. M.

    2008-06-02

    In this work, general methodologies for evaluating the impacts of large-scale toxic chemical releases are proposed. The potential numbers of injuries and fatalities, the numbers of hospital beds, and the geographical areas rendered unusable during and some time after the occurrence and passage of a toxic plume are estimated on a probabilistic basis. To arrive at these estimates, historical accidental release data, maximum stored volumes, and meteorological data were used as inputs into the SLAB accidental chemical release model. Toxic gas footprints from the model were overlaid onto detailed population and hospital distribution data for a given region to estimate potential impacts. Output results are in the form of a generic statistical distribution of injuries and fatalities associated with specific toxic chemicals and regions of the United States. In addition, indoor hazards were estimated, so the model can provide contingency plans for either shelter-in-place or evacuation when an accident occurs. The stochastic distributions of injuries and fatalities are being used in a U.S. Department of Homeland Security-sponsored decision support system as source terms for a Monte Carlo simulation that evaluates potential measures for mitigating terrorist threats. This information can also be used to support the formulation of evacuation plans and to estimate damage and cleanup costs.

  12. Public Health Consequences on Vulnerable Populations from Acute Chemical Releases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perri Zeitz Ruckart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from a large, multi-state surveillance system on acute chemical releases were analyzed to describe the type of events that are potentially affecting vulnerable populations (children, elderly and hospitalized patients in order to better prevent and plan for these types of incidents in the future. During 2003–2005, there were 231 events where vulnerable populations were within ¼ mile of the event and the area of impact was greater than 200 feet from the facility/point of release. Most events occurred on a weekday during times when day care centers or schools were likely to be in session. Equipment failure and human error caused a majority of the releases. Agencies involved in preparing for and responding to chemical emergencies should work with hospitals, nursing homes, day care centers, and schools to develop policies and procedures for initiating appropriate protective measures and managing the medical needs of patients. Chemical emergency response drills should involve the entire community to protect those that may be more susceptible to harm.

  13. Methodology for uncertainty estimation of Hanford tank chemical and radionuclide inventories and concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact physical and chemical nature of 55 million gallons of toxic waste held in 177 underground waste tanks at the Hanford Site is not known with sufficient detail to support the safety, retrieval, and immobilization missions presented to Hanford. The Hanford Best Basis team has made point estimates of the inventories in each tank. The purpose of this study is to estimate probability distributions for each of the 71 analytes and 177 tanks that the Hanford Best Basis team has made point estimates for. This will enable uncertainty intervals to be calculated for the Best Basis inventories and should facilitate the safety, retrieval, and immobilization missions. Section 2 of this document describes the overall approach used to estimate tank inventory uncertainties. Three major components are considered in this approach: chemical concentration, density, and waste volume. Section 2 also describes the two different methods used to evaluate the tank wastes in terms of sludges and in terms of supernatant or saltcakes. Sections 3 and 4 describe in detail the methodology to assess the probability distributions for each of the three components, as well as the data sources for implementation. The conclusions are given in Section 5

  14. Citizen participation in managing the risks of chemical releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, P.A.; Allison, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the extent to which an industrial association in east Harris County, Texas, is voluntarily involving citizens in managing the risks of chemical releases. In response to a rule in the Clean Air Act of 1990, industrial associations around the US are managing risks of so-called worst case and other scenarios. All the rule requires is that the risk management plans for these scenarios be made public in some way, for example, by putting them in a public library. However, on their own initiatives, these associations are involving citizens to a greater or lesser extent. Thus, the east Harris County project is not unique in that regard. Rather, it provides some measure of how some chemical companies are empowering citizens as part of the planning process for how to meet the rule. This behavior stands in contrast to the way in which these chemical companies operated as recently as ten years ago. At that time they did not pursue questions about sharing power with citizens. There were no questions and certainly no answers about citizens' role in management decisions about chemical releases. However, in the present situation, companies are committed to following through on the rule requiring risk management plans, that is, to preventing chemical accidents and to reducing risks by ways which citizens suggest and help implement. To substantiate the foregoing claim, this paper will not only review the Risk Management Program (RMP) rule of 1996, but also the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986. The paper will go on to describe what companies are doing in the east Harris County project relative to what much the same companies did about ten years ago. Finally, the paper will describe the two phases of the release of risk management plans that had taken place by the time of writing of this paper.

  15. SewageLCI 1.0 - A first generation inventory model for quantification of chemical emissions via sewage systems. Application on chemicals of concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallice, Aurélie; Birkved, Morten; Kech, Sébastien

    Lack of inventory data on chemical emissions often forces life cycle assessors to rely on crude emissions estimates (e.g. 100 % of the applied chemical mass is assumed emitted) or in the worst case to omit chemical emissions due to lack of emission data. The inventory model SewageLCI 1.0, provides...... a mean for assessors to obtain fractions of chemicals emitted to the environment via waste water collection and treatment systems. SewageLCI 1.0 is based on existing models capable of estimating chemical degradation in waste water collection and treatment systems and also on national European...

  16. Evidence for chemical and cellular reactivities of the formaldehyde releaser bronopol, independent of formaldehyde release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireche, Mustapha; Peiffer, Jean-Luc; Antonios, Diane; Fabre, Isabelle; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Pallardy, Marc; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Ourlin, Jean-Claude

    2011-12-19

    Formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers are widely used preservatives and represent an important group of skin sensitizers. Formaldehyde is very often suspected to be the sensitizing agent of formaldehyde-releasers; however, many reported clinical cases of contact allergy to these molecules such as bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol) indicate negative skin reactions to formaldehyde suggesting a more complex mechanism. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical reactivity and biological activity of formaldehyde with those of two formaldehyde releasers: 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and 1,3-dimethylol-5,5-dimethylhydantoin. A key step in the sensitization to chemicals is the formation of the hapten-protein antigenic complex via covalent binding between the chemical sensitizer and amino acids in proteins. The chemical reactivity of the three compounds was thus addressed using (13)C NMR analysis of adduct formation upon incubation with a set of nucleophilic amino acids. The biological activity was measured in two in vitro models based on dendritic cells and a monocytic cell line (CD34-DC and THP-1 model) through monitoring of a panel of biomarkers. The results obtained show that 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol produces low amount of free formaldehyde in physiological buffers but that its degradation generates various molecules including 2-bromoethanol. In addition, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol also generates adducts with amino acids, not observed with formaldehyde alone, that could be explained by the reactivity of 2-bromoethanol. In parallel, in a cellular approach using the human monocytic THP-1 cell line, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol activates THP-1 cells at concentrations that are not correlated to simple formaldehyde release. This observation is confirmed in the more physiological model CD34-DC. Moreover, in the THP-1 model, the expression profiles of several biomarkers are specific to 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol. Finally, the use in the

  17. Summary of uncertainty estimation results for Hanford tank chemical and radionuclide inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferryman, T.A.; Amidan, B.G.; Chen, G. [and others

    1998-09-01

    The exact physical and chemical nature of 55 million gallons of radioactive waste held in 177 underground waste tanks at the Hanford Site is not known in sufficient detail to support safety, retrieval, and immobilization missions. The Hanford Engineering Analysis Best-Basis team has made point estimates of the inventories in each tank. The purpose of this study is to estimate probability distributions for each of the analytes and tanks for which the Hanford Best-Basis team has made point estimates. Uncertainty intervals can then be calculated for the Best-Basis inventories and should facilitate the cleanup missions. The methodology used to generate the results published in the Tank Characterization Database (TCD) and summarized in this paper is based on scientific principles, sound technical knowledge of the realities associated with the Hanford waste tanks, the chemical analysis of actual samples from the tanks, the Hanford Best-Basic research, and historical data records. The methodology builds on research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) over the last few years. Appendix A of this report summarizes the results of the study. The full set of results (in percentiles, 1--99) is available through the TCD, (http://twins.pnl.gov:8001).

  18. Summary of uncertainty estimation results for Hanford tank chemical and radionuclide inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact physical and chemical nature of 55 million gallons of radioactive waste held in 177 underground waste tanks at the Hanford Site is not known in sufficient detail to support safety, retrieval, and immobilization missions. The Hanford Engineering Analysis Best-Basis team has made point estimates of the inventories in each tank. The purpose of this study is to estimate probability distributions for each of the analytes and tanks for which the Hanford Best-Basis team has made point estimates. Uncertainty intervals can then be calculated for the Best-Basis inventories and should facilitate the cleanup missions. The methodology used to generate the results published in the Tank Characterization Database (TCD) and summarized in this paper is based on scientific principles, sound technical knowledge of the realities associated with the Hanford waste tanks, the chemical analysis of actual samples from the tanks, the Hanford Best-Basic research, and historical data records. The methodology builds on research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) over the last few years. Appendix A of this report summarizes the results of the study. The full set of results (in percentiles, 1--99) is available through the TCD, (http://twins.pnl.gov:8001)

  19. A recommended approach to completing the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for the upstream oil and gas industry : guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment Canada administers a facility-based inventory for national releases of pollutants. This document was prepared by the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) Subcommittee of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) to help its members meet reporting requirements of the NPRI. It is intended to be a supplement to Environment Canada's guides for reporting to the NPRI and provides CAPP members with specific oil, gas and oil sand examples and clarifies NPRI requirements as applied to oil, gas and oil sand facilities. Having all CAPP members use the procedures in the guide to determine their NPRI emissions contributes to consistent and comparable emissions reporting between upstream oil and gas companies. The NPRI was developed in the early 1990s. Owners and operators of facilities are required to report to the NPRI if they meet the reporting criteria determined by the Minister of the Environment. Criteria air contaminants (CAC) were reported for the first time in 2002 when all upstream oil and gas facilities with 20,000 employee-hours worked onsite had to report criteria air contaminants (CAC) releases. In 2003, the 20,000 man hours worked threshold exemption for the upstream oil and gas industry was removed for CAC reporting. There were no major changes to the NPRI for the 2004 reporting year. This report outlined the general reporting criteria to the NPRI with reference to all buildings, equipment, structures and stationary items located on a single site, pipeline installations and offshore installations. The report addressed reporting exemptions and special considerations; generalized estimation methods; combustion sources and CAC; fugitive equipment leaks; process venting; hydrocarbon emissions from storage tanks; loading losses; spills and accidental releases; releases to underground injection; disposal and recycling; hydrogen sulphides; speciation of volatile organic compounds; particulate matter from cooling towers; in-situ oil sand

  20. Computer code PERI - permeation of hydrogen through metal membranes, release from metal surfaces and inventory in metal walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer program PERI was developed as an aid to interpret experimental observations in connection with the permeation of hydrogen through metal membranes and the release of hydrogen from metal walls (Langmuir effect). Such experiments are made to find out the materials constants determining the diffusion of hydrogen as well as its solubility and release from the material. Their knowledge is indispensable for the operation of fusion plants and permits to calculate the hydrogen recycling, the inventory in the wall and the permeation (e.g. of tritium). Experiments have shown that the permeation flow density at low primary pressures (< or approx. 1 Torr) can become directly proportional to the latter and not - as Richardson's equation would lead one to expect - to the square root of the pressure. The validity of Richardson's equation, however, is frequently taken for granted when materials constants are determined. (orig./GG)

  1. Influence of start up and pulsed operation on tritium release and inventory of NET ceramic blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first estimate for the tritium release behaviour of a ceramic breeder blanket in pulsed operation is obtained by assuming a linear steady state temperature distribution and taking into account the time constant of the thermal behaviour. The release behaviour of the breeder exposed to consecutive periods of tritium generation is described with an analytical solution of the diffusion equation. The results are compared with a simple exponential approach valid for surfacte desorption controlled release. The exponential model is used to simulate a blanket with aluminate as breeder material, which takes longest to reach steady state. The simulation demonstrates that a significant fraction (>67%) of steady state can be achieved after a testing time of about one day. (author). 7 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. A recommended approach to the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for the upstream oil and gas industry : 2002 : CAC emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is a database of annual releases to air, water, land and off-site transfers of 273 specified pollutants. Environment Canada requires that the NPRI be reported annually. Criteria Air Contaminants (CAC) had to be reported for the first time in 2002. Air pollutants that contribute to the formation of ground level ozone and smog are included in the definition of CAC, along with any eye or respiratory irritants to both humans and animals. The substances of special interest to the petroleum industry are: oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, total particulate matter, and particulate matters. This guide is intended to provide member companies of Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), operating upstream oil and gas facilities, with readily available data to determine the amount of CAC emissions released from their processes and equipment. Companies using these guidelines will be able to compare the performance of various upstream oil and gas companies more readily because the data is consistent. The scope of the project was described in section 1, and the sources of CAC emissions were identified in section 2. The reporting threshold was discussed in section 3. Data required for collection was outlined in section 4. Section 5 outlines how CAC emission quantities are determined. Calculation examples were provided in section 6 and definitions provided in section 7. 11 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Fission product release from high gap-inventory LWR fuel under LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission product release tests were performed with light water reactor (LWR) fuel rod segments containing large amounts of cesium and iodine in the pellet-to-cladding gap space in order to check the validity of the previously published Source Term Model for this type of fuel. The model describes the release of fission product cesium and iodine from LWR fuel rods for controlled loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) transients in the temperature range 500 to 12000C. The basis for the model was test data obtained with simulated fuel rods and commercial fuel irradiated to high burnup but containing relatively small amounts of cesium and iodine in the pellet-to-cladding gap space

  4. ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM HARD CHROMIUM PLATING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The University of Central Florida Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering is investigating methods for improved estimation of chemical releases which require reporting under provisions of SARA Title III (Toxic Release Inventory, Form R). This paper describes results fr...

  5. Can Nanofluidic Chemical Release Enable Fast, High Resolution Neurotransmitter-Based Neurostimulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter D.; Stelzle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Artificial chemical stimulation could provide improvements over electrical neurostimulation. Physiological neurotransmission between neurons relies on the nanoscale release and propagation of specific chemical signals to spatially-localized receptors. Current knowledge of nanoscale fluid dynamics and nanofluidic technology allows us to envision artificial mechanisms to achieve fast, high resolution neurotransmitter release. Substantial technological development is required to reach this goal....

  6. Evaluating the Content and Response Process Validity of Data from the Chemical Concepts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Paul; Barbera, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Data produced by psychometric instruments are often used to inform understanding about a certain population's knowledge of ideas or perspectives about specific topics. Concept inventories are an example of psychometric instruments used to probe students' content knowledge within a defined framework. Concept inventories have been used as…

  7. Evaluation of Slow Release Fertilizer Applying Chemical and Spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled-release fertilizer offers a number of advantages in relation to crop production in newly reclaimed soils. Butadiene styrene latex emulsion is one of the promising polymer for different purposes. In this work, laboratory evaluation of butadiene styrene latex emulsion 24/76 polymer loaded with a mixed fertilizer was carried out. Macro nutrients (N, P and K) and micro-nutrients(Zn, Fe, and Cu) were extracted by basic extract from the polymer fertilizer mixtures. Micro-sampling technique was investigated and applied to measure Zn, Fe, and Cu using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in order to overcome the nebulization difficulties due to high salt content samples. The cumulative releases of macro and micro-nutrients have been assessed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the release depends on both nutrients and polymer concentration in the mixture. Macro-nutrients are released more efficient than micro-nutrients of total added. Therefore it can be used for minimizing micro-nutrients hazard in soils

  8. Chemical analysis of substrates with controlled release fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreij, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Water-soluble fertilizer added to media containing controlled release fertilizer cannot be analysed with the 1:1.5 volume water extract, because the latter increases the element content in the extract. During storage and stirring or mixing the substrate with the extractant, part of the controlled re

  9. Chemical instability of pharmaceutical peptides in polymeric controlled release systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirangi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide and protein drugs are presently an important class of pharmaceuticals due to their favorable properties, i.e. high and selective activity. However, peptides and proteins are relatively sensitive for degradation and therefore there is need for investigation of the chemical stability of these

  10. 76 FR 54932 - TSCA Inventory Update Reporting Modifications; Chemical Data Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... provided by EPA for the completion and submission of the CDR data. Industrial function means the intended...; incorporated into a formulation, mixture, reaction product, or article; repackaged; or used. Industrial use... Inventory File as an enzyme, lignin, a polysaccharide (cellulose, gum, starch), a protein (albumin,...

  11. Physical and chemical control of released microorganisms at field sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegan, K.; Seidler, R.; Matyac, C.

    1991-01-01

    An important consideration in the environmental release of a genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) is the capability for reduction or elimination of GEM populations once their function is completed or if adverse environmental effects are observed. The decontamination treatments of burning and biocide application, alone and in combination with tilling, were evaluated for their ability to reduce populations of bacteria released on the phylloplane. Field plots of bush beans sprayed with the bacterium Erwinia herbicola, received the following treatments: (1) control, (2) control + till, (3) burn, (4) burn + till, (5) Kocide (cupric hydroxide), (6) Kocide + till, (7) Agri-strep (streptomycin sulfate), and (8) Agri-strept + till. Leaves and soil from the plots were sampled -1, 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, and 27 days after application of the decontamination treatments. Burning produced a significant and persistent reduction in the number of bacteria whereas tilling, alone or in combination with the biocide treatments, stimulated a significant and persistent reduction in the number of bacteria, whereas tilling, alone or in combination with the biocide treatments, stimulated a significant increase in bacterial populations that persisted for several weeks.

  12. What about risk associated with chemical releases of nuclear installations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French authority for nuclear safety requests the French institute of radiation protection (IRSN) to perform impacts assessment for the chemical discharges from nuclear facilities in the context of licensing operator. To carry out its mission, IRSN developed assessment methods and a computer tool named CALIES (CALcul d'Impact Environnemental et Sanitaire des rejets d'effluents chimiques liquides et gazeux - Risk assessment for environment and population). (author)

  13. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  14. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  15. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Sarah A; Meyer, David E; Edelen, Ashley N; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Abraham, John P; Barrett, William M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Randall, Paul M; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo; Smith, Raymond L

    2016-09-01

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfully automate the method using semantic technology. Benefits of the method are that the openly available data can be compiled in a standardized and transparent approach that supports potential automation with flexibility to incorporate new data sources as needed. PMID:27517866

  16. Can Nanofluidic Chemical Release Enable Fast, High Resolution Neurotransmitter-Based Neurostimulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter D.; Stelzle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Artificial chemical stimulation could provide improvements over electrical neurostimulation. Physiological neurotransmission between neurons relies on the nanoscale release and propagation of specific chemical signals to spatially-localized receptors. Current knowledge of nanoscale fluid dynamics and nanofluidic technology allows us to envision artificial mechanisms to achieve fast, high resolution neurotransmitter release. Substantial technological development is required to reach this goal. Nanofluidic technology—rather than microfluidic—will be necessary; this should come as no surprise given the nanofluidic nature of neurotransmission. This perspective reviews the state of the art of high resolution electrical neuroprostheses and their anticipated limitations. Chemical release rates from nanopores are compared to rates achieved at synapses and with iontophoresis. A review of microfluidic technology justifies the analysis that microfluidic control of chemical release would be insufficient. Novel nanofluidic mechanisms are discussed, and we propose that hydrophobic gating may allow control of chemical release suitable for mimicking neurotransmission. The limited understanding of hydrophobic gating in artificial nanopores and the challenges of fabrication and large-scale integration of nanofluidic components are emphasized. Development of suitable nanofluidic technology will require dedicated, long-term efforts over many years. PMID:27065794

  17. 40 CFR 350.18 - Release of chemical identity determined to be non-trade secret; notice of intent to release...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of chemical identity determined to be non-trade secret; notice of intent to release chemical identity. 350.18 Section 350.18... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY...

  18. Estimated inventory of chemicals added to underground waste tanks, 1944--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The five major chemical processes, the Bismuth Phosphate process, the Uranium Recovery process, the Redox process, the Purex process, and the Waste Fractionization process have each contributed to give the total Hanford waste chemicals. Each of these processes is studied to determine the total estimated chemicals stored in underground waste tanks. The chemical contents are derived mainly from flowsheet compositions and recorded waste volumes sent to underground storage. The major components and amounts of Hanford waste are sodium hydroxide, 230 million gram-moles (20 million pounds), sodium nitrate, 1400 million gram-moles (270 million pounds), sodium nitrite, 220 million gram-moles (34 million pounds), sodium aluminate, 400 million gram-moles (72 million pounds), and sodium phosphate, 87 million gram-moles (31 million pounds). Chemical analyses of the sludge and salt cake samples are tabulated to determine the chemical characteristics of the solids. A relative chemical toxicity of the Hanford underground waste tank chemicals is developed from maximum permissible chemical concentrations in air and water. The most toxic chemicals are assumed to be sodium phosphate--35%, sodium aluminate--28%, and chromium hydroxide--19%. If air standards set toxicity limits, the most toxic chemicals are bismuth--41%, chromium hydroxide--23%, and fluoride--10%

  19. Release of single cells from the colonial oil-producing alga Botryococcus braunii by chemical treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Liyuan; Park, Hyunsun; Okada, Shigeru; Ohama, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    We tested for chemical reagents that would be useful in preparing a large number of vital single cells from colonial Botryococcus braunii B-race, variety Showa. Among the 18 reagents assayed, glycerol and erythritol showed the highest potency for releasing single cells. Incubation in medium containing these reagents released 40–50 % single cells in 15 min. Fluorescent staining with Nile red revealed that except for the cap-like structures the released single cells were free of hydrocarbon oil...

  20. Chemical controls on abiotic and biotic release of geogenic arsenic from Pleistocene aquifer sediments to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillispie, Elizabeth C; Andujar, Erika; Polizzotto, Matthew L

    2016-08-10

    Over 150 million people in South and Southeast Asia consume unsafe drinking water from arsenic-rich Holocene aquifers. Although use of As-free water from Pleistocene aquifers is a potential mitigation strategy, such aquifers are vulnerable to geogenic As pollution, placing millions more people at potential risk. The goal of this research was to define chemical controls on abiotic and biotic release of geogenic As to groundwater. Batch incubations of sediments with natural chemical variability from a Pleistocene aquifer in Cambodia were conducted to evaluate how interactions among arsenic, manganese and iron oxides, and dissolved and sedimentary organic carbon influenced As mobilization from sediments. The addition of labile dissolved organic carbon produced the highest concentrations of dissolved As after >7 months, as compared to sediment samples incubated with sodium azide or without added carbon, and the extent of As release was positively correlated with the percent of initial extractable Mn released from the sediments. The mode of As release was impacted by the source of DOC supplied to the sediments, with biological processes responsible for 81% to 85% of the total As release following incubations with lactate and acetate but only up to 43% to 61% of the total As release following incubations with humic and fulvic acids. Overall, cycling of key redox-active elements and organic-carbon reactivity govern the potential for geogenic As release to groundwater, and results here may be used to formulate better predictions of the arsenic pollution potential of aquifers in South and Southeast Asia. PMID:27463026

  1. Most Plastic Products Release Estrogenic Chemicals: A Potential Health Problem That Can Be Solved

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chun Z.; Yaniger, Stuart I.; Jordan, V. Craig; Klein, Daniel J.; Bittner, George D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chemicals having estrogenic activity (EA) reportedly cause many adverse health effects, especially at low (picomolar to nanomolar) doses in fetal and juvenile mammals. Objectives: We sought to determine whether commercially available plastic resins and products, including baby bottles and other products advertised as bisphenol A (BPA) free, release chemicals having EA. Methods: We used a roboticized MCF-7 cell proliferation assay, which is very sensitive, accurate, and repeatable,...

  2. Differential effects of environmental chemicals and food contaminants on adipogenesis, biomarker release and PPARγ activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Sørensen, Karin Dreisig; Boberg, Julie;

    2012-01-01

    differentiation although PPARγ activation is neither a requirement nor a guarantee for stimulation. Four out of the eleven chemicals (bisphenol A, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate, butylparaben, PCB 153) caused increased adipogenesis. The release of adipocyte-secreted hormones was sometimes but not always correlated...

  3. Real-Time Flavor Release from French Fries Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Flavor release from French fries was measured with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) using both assessors (in vivo) and a mouth model system (in vitro). Several volatiles measured with APCI were identified with MS-MS. The effect of frying time, salt addition, and a

  4. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC, VOLUME 14: CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF PHOSGENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report, discussing phosgene, is one of a series addressing the prevention of accidental releases of toxic chemicals. Phosgene, a highly reactive and corrosive liquid that boils at room temperature has an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (lDLH) conctntration of 2 ppm, ...

  5. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) injection well: Operations history and hydrochemical inventory of the waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) documents were searched for information regarding service disposal operations, and the chemical characteristics and volumes of the service waste emplaced in, and above, the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRP) from 1953-1992. A summary database has been developed which synthesizes available, but dispersed, information. This assembled data records spatial, volumetric and chemical input patterns which will help establish the initial contaminant water characteristics required in computer modeling, aid in interpreting the monitoring well network hydrochemical information, and contribute to a better understanding of contaminant transport in the aquifer near the ICPP. Gaps and uncertainties in the input record are also identified with respect to time and type. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites, CERCLIS Potential Hazardous Waste Sites; s44xcc97;This dataset shows the approximate location of potential hazardous waste sites. These sites are from the Federal EPA listed comprehensive environmental response compensation and liability info systems, Published in 1997, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of...

  7. Savannah River Site TIER TWO report 1992: Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of data on emergency and hazardous chemicals stored at the Savannah River Site. The report lists quantities of materials, general types of storage containment, types of storage conditions (pressure and temperature), and other information of relevance for particular materials

  8. Study about the integrated treatment of chemical and radioactive effluents, introducing the zero release concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Integrated System to the treatment of Chemical and Radioactive Effluents to the Centro Experimental Aramar is proposed and evaluated, introducing the Effluent Zero Release concept, where factors related to the environmental regulation in vigor in the country, as well as the availability of hydrological resources in the place where CEA have been implanted, are considered. Through a literature analysis of the main effluents treatment techniques available nowadays and after a case of study selection, take into account two industrial installations that will be implanted at CEA, it was defined an arrangement to compose the Integrated System to the Treatment of Chemicals and Radioactive Effluents, focusing the Zero Release concept consolidation. A defined arrangement uses a combination among three treatment processes, it means chemical precipitation, reverse osmosis and evaporation, that were experimentally evaluated. The proposed arrangement was evaluated using synthetic effluents, that were prepared based on data from literature and conception documents of the installation considered in this work. Three kinds of effluents were simulated, one arising from a nuclear reactor laundry, one arising from the water refrigeration system and demineralized water production to the nuclear reactor and the other one arising from a nuclear material production laboratory. Each effluent were individually submitted to the selected treatment processes, to get the best operational conditions for each treatment process. The results got during the laboratory assays show that the proposed Integrated System to the Treatment of Chemicals and Radioactive Effluents is feasible, consolidating the Effluent Zero Release concept, which is the proposition of this work. (author)

  9. Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Leu, Yu-Rui; Aitken, Robert J.; Riediker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) are already entering the marketplace. This leads, inter alia, to questions about the potential for release of ENP into the environment from commercial products. We have inventoried the prevalence of ENP-containing consumer products in the Singapore market by carrying out onsite assessments of products sold in all major chains of retail and cosmetic stores. We have assessed their usage patterns and estimated release factors and emission quantities to obtain a better understanding of the quantities of ENP that are released into which compartments of the aquatic environment in Singapore. Products investigated were assessed for their likelihood to contain ENP based on the declaration of ENP by producers, feature descriptions, and the information on particle size from the literature. Among the 1,432 products investigated, 138 were “confirmed” and 293 were “likely” to contain ENP. Product categories included sunscreens, cosmetics, health and fitness, automotive, food, home and garden, clothing and footwear, and eyeglass/lens coatings. Among the 27 different types of nanomaterials identified, SiO2 was predominant, followed by TiO2 and ZnO, Carbon Black, Ag, and Au. The amounts of ENP released into the aquatic system, which was estimated on the basis of typical product use, ENP concentration in the product, daily use quantity, release factor, and market share, were in the range of several hundred tons per year. As these quantities are likely to increase, it will be important to further study the fate of ENP that reach the aquatic environment in Singapore. PMID:26213957

  10. Modeling accidental releases to the atmosphere of a dense reactive chemical (Uranium hexafluoride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven R.; Chang, Joseph C.; Zhang, Xiaoming J.

    In order to model the atmospheric transport and dispersion of dense reactive chemicals such as uranium hexafluoride (UF 6), it is necessary to include algorithms that account for heat exchanges due to chemical reactions and phase changes. UF 6 may be released accidentally at uranium-enrichment plants as a warm gas from a pipeline rupture, or as a flashing liquid from a pressurized tank or line break. The resulting plume is initially very dense due to the large molecular weight of UF 6, but may become lighter-than-air as the UF 6 reacts with water vapor to form HF, which has a molecular weight less than that of air, and which may cause an increase in plume temperature due to the exothermic reaction. The major chemical and thermodynamic processes related to UF 6 have been incorporated in a modified version of an existing dense gas model, HGSYSTEM. The same general approach could be used to include other reactive chemicals in the modeling system. New modules that are applicable to any type of chemical release have also been added to HGSYSTEM to account for building downwash, lift-off of warm plumes from the ground, and deposition. The revised HGSYSTEM/UF 6 model has been evaluated with field data from UF 6 tests. The sensitivities of the model predictions to variations in input parameters have been assessed.

  11. Relationship between soil 137Cs inventories and chemical properties in a small intensively cropped watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After estimating and spatializing the erosion risks in a small agricultural watershed in northeastern France in a previous study, the authors investigate the quality of eroding soils. Soil erosion is a selective process, exporting the finest particles, and associated chemical elements, in a preferential way. Consequently, the spatial redistribution of soil should translate into the depletion of soil in eroding areas and its enrichment in deposition sectors. Of the fifteen elements considered in this study, only organic matter confirms this hypothesis. A significant correlation was found between the soil 137Cs (indicative of the severity of erosion) and organic matter contents. This result suggests that erosion is a redistribution process that may influence the productivity of agricultural systems on the mid/long term. (authors)

  12. Identification of the chemical inventory of different paint types applied in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The floors, concrete walls and many of the metal surfaces in nuclear power plant containments are coated with zinc primers or paint films to preserve the metal surfaces and simplify decontamination in the containment after the occurrence of a severe nuclear incident or accident. A chemical examination of paint films from different nuclear installations out of operation, as well as current operating ones, reveals that different types of paints are used whose composition can vary significantly. Results obtained for one type of paint at a certain nuclear site are in most cases unlikely to be comparable with sites painted with another type of paint. During normal operation and particularly during nuclear accidents, the paints will degrade under the high temperature, steam and irradiation influence. As paint and its degradation products can act as sources and depots for volatile iodine compounds, the type and aging conditions of the paint films will have a significant impact on the source term of the volatile fission product iodine. Thus, great care should be taken when extrapolating any results obtained for the interaction of radioactive iodine with one paint product to a different paint product. The main focus of the study is a comparison of the chemical profile of paint films applied in Swedish nuclear power plants. Teknopox Aqua V A, an epoxy paint recently used at Ringhals 2, and an emulsion paint used in the scrubber buildings of Ringhals 1-4 are compared with a paint film from Barsebaeck nuclear power plant unit 1 that had been aged under real reactor conditions for 20 years. In addition, two paint films, an emulsion and a gloss paint, used in an international nuclear fuel reprocessing facility, are compared with the paints from the Swedish nuclear power plants. (author)

  13. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of 26Al, 49V, 51Cr, 54Mn, 55Fe, 58Co, 60Co, 93Nb, and 94Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs

  14. 75 FR 9411 - Official Release of the MOVES2010 Motor Vehicle Emissions Model for Emissions Inventories in SIPs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... replaces the previous emissions model, MOBILE6.2, which was released in 2004 (69 FR 28830).\\1\\ \\1\\ Today's... analyses for transportation conformity (73 FR 3464). MOVES2010 improves upon MOBILE6.2 in several key... Register on May 19, 2004, 69 FR 28830-28832. Also see EPA's memoranda: ``Policy Guidance on the Use of...

  15. Molecular Inventories and Chemical Evolution of Low-mass Protostellar Envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, J K; Van Dishoeck, E F

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the first substantial study of the chemistry of the envelopes around a sample of 18 low-mass pre- and protostellar objects for which physical properties have previously been derived from radiative transfer modeling of their dust continuum emission. Single-dish line observations of 24 transitions of 9 molecular species (not counting isotopes) including HCO+, N2H+, CS, SO, SO2, HCN, HNC, HC3N and CN are reported. The line intensities are used to constrain the molecular abundances by comparison to Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling of the line strengths. An empirical chemical network is constructed on the basis of correlations between the abundances of various species. For example, it is seen that the HCO+ and CO abundances are linearly correlated, both increasing with decreasing envelope mass. Species such as CS, SO and HCN show no trend with envelope mass. In particular no trend is seen between ``evolutionary stage'' of the objects and the abundances of the main sulfur- or nitrogen-con...

  16. The release behavior and kinetic evaluation of tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked Ter polymeric hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malana Muhammad A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study Hydrogels, being stimuli responsive are considered to be effective for targeted and sustained drug delivery. The main purpose for this work was to study the release behavior and kinetic evaluation of Tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked ter polymeric hydrogels. Methods Ter-polymers of methacrylate, vinyl acetate and acrylic acid cross linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA were prepared by free radical polymerization. The drug release rates, dynamic swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of hydrogels ranging in composition from 1-10 mol% EGDMA were studied. Tramadol HCl was used as model drug substance. The release behavior was investigated at pH 8 where all formulations exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Results and major conclusion Absorbency was found to be more than 99% indicating good drug loading capability of these hydrogels towards the selected drug substance. Formulations designed with increasing amounts of EGDMA had a decreased equilibrium media content as well as media penetrating velocity and thus exhibited a slower drug release rate. Fitting of release data to different kinetic models indicate that the kinetic order shifts from the first to zero order as the concentration of drug was increased in the medium, showing gradual independency of drug release towards its concentration. Formulations with low drug content showed best fitness with Higuchi model whereas those with higher concentration of drug followed Hixson-Crowell model with better correlation values indicating that the drug release from these formulations depends more on change in surface area and diameter of tablets than that on concentration of the drug. Release exponent (n derived from Korse-Meyer Peppas equation implied that the release of Tramadol HCl from these formulations was generally non-Fickian (n > 0.5 > 1 showing swelling controlled mechanism. The mechanical strength and controlled

  17. The Release Behavior and Kinetic Evaluation of Tramadol HCl from Chemically Cross Linked Ter Polymeric Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Malana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Hydrogels, being stimuli responsive are considered to be effective for targeted and sustained drug delivery. The main purpose for this work was to study the release behavior and kinetic evaluation of Tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked ter polymeric hydrogels.MethodsTer-polymers of methacrylate, vinyl acetate and acrylic acid cross linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA were prepared by free radical polymerization. The drug release rates, dynamic swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of hydrogels ranging in composition from 1-10 mol % EGDMA were studied. Tramadol HCl was used as model drug substance. The release behavior was investigated at pH 8 where all formulations exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism.Results and major conclusion: Absorbency was found to be more than 99% indicating good drug loading capability of these hydrogels towards the selected drug substance. Formulations designed with increasing amounts of EGDMA had a decreased equilibrium media content as well as media penetrating velocity and thus exhibited a slower drug release rate. Fitting of release data to different kinetic models indicate that the kinetic order shifts from the first to zero order as the concentration of drug was increased in the medium, showing gradual independency of drug release towards its concentration. Formulations with low drug content showed best fitness with Higuchi model whereas those with higher concentration of drug followed Hixson-Crowell model with better correlation values indicating that the drug release from these formulations depends more on change in surface area and diameter of tablets than that on concentration of the drug. Release exponent (n derived from Korse-Meyer Peppas equation implied that the release of Tramadol HCl from these formulations was generally non-Fickian (n>0.5>1 showing swelling controlled mechanism. The mechanical strength and controlled release capability of

  18. 1998 Tier two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory - emergency planning and community right-to-know act section 312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site covers approximately 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land that is owned by the U.S, Government and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The Hanford Site is located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The city of Richland adjoins the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site boundary and is the nearest population center. Activities on the Hanford Site are centralized in numerically designated areas. The 100 Areas, located along the Columbia River, contain deactivated reactors. The processing units are in the 200 Areas, which are on a plateau approximately 11 kilometers (7 miles) from the Columbia River. The 300 Area, located adjacent to and north of Richland, contains research and development laboratories. The 400 Area, 8 kilometers (5 miles) northwest of the 300 Area, contains the Fast Flux Test Facility previously used for testing liquid metal reactor systems. Adjacent to the north of Richland, the 1100 Area contains offices associated with administration, maintenance, transportation, and materials procurement and distribution. The 600 Area covers all locations not specifically given an area designation. This Tier Two Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory report contains information pertaining to hazardous chemicals managed by DOE-RL and its contractors on the Hanford Site. It does not include chemicals maintained in support of activities conducted by others on lands covered by leases, use permits, easements, and other agreements whereby land is used by parties other than DOE-RL. For example, this report does not include chemicals stored on state owned or leased lands (including the burial ground operated by US Ecology, Inc.), lands owned or used by the Bonneville Power Administration (including the Midway Substation and the Ashe Substation), lands used by the National Science Foundation (the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), lands leased to the Washington

  19. Hanford 1999 Tier 2 Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Section 312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site covers approximately 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land that is owned by the U.S. Government and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The Hanford Site is located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The city of Richland adjoins the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site boundary and is the nearest population center. Activities on the Hanford Site are centralized in numerically designated areas. The 100 Areas, located along the Columbia River, contain deactivated reactors. The processing units are in the 200 Areas, which are on a plateau approximately 11 kilometers (7 miles) from the Columbia River. The 300 Area, located adjacent to and north of Richland, contains research and development laboratories. The 400 Area, 8 kilometers (5 miles) northwest of the 300 Area, contains the Fast Flux Test Facility previously used for testing liquid metal reactor systems. Adjacent to the north of Richland, the 1100 Area contains offices associated with administration, maintenance, transportation, and materials procurement and distribution. The 600 Area covers all locations not specifically given an area designation. This Tier Two Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory report contains information pertaining to hazardous chemicals managed by DOE-RL and its contractors on the Hanford Site. It does not include chemicals maintained in support of activities conducted by others on lands covered by leases, use permits, easements, and other agreements whereby land is used by parties other than DOE-RL. For example, this report does not include chemicals stored on state owned or leased lands (including the burial ground operated by US Ecology, Inc.), lands owned or used by the Bonneville Power Administration (including the Midway Substation and the Ashe Substation), lands used by the National Science Foundation (the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), lands leased to the Washington

  20. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest

  1. Chemical characterization of oil-based asphalt release agents and their emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing Tang; Ulf Isacsson [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Division of Highway Engineering, Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering

    2006-06-15

    Four commercial asphalt release agents were chemically characterized using different analytical methods. Functional groups and molecular weight distributions were determined by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and mass spectrometry (MS). General compositions of the agents were obtained as petroleum hydrocarbons, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), fatty acids and glycerides using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and MS probe inlet method. The contents of health related analytes, such as aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were determined. Asphalt release agents emission was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The emission proneness as well as emission level of aromatic hydrocarbons from these agents were compared. The results obtained were used for ranking the agents with regard to health hazards. 19 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. A model for transient electric fields associated with chemical release experiments by rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, G.; Brenning, N.; Holmgren, G.; Haerendel, G.

    As a follow-up to the chemical release experiment Trigger in 1977, the TOR rocket was launched from Esrange on October 24,1984. A large amplitude electric field pulse of 250 mV/m was detected shortly after the explosion. The central part of the pulse was found to be clearly correlated with an intense layer of swept up ambient particles behind a propagating shockfront. The field was directed towards the center of the expanding ionized cloud, which is indicative of a polarization electric field source. An expression for this radial polarization field is derived and found to result in an excellent agreement with observations.

  3. Age and isolation influence steroids release and chemical signaling in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Cavaggioni, Andrea; Redaelli, Marco; Da Dalt, Laura; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2014-05-01

    Social interactions in mice involve olfactory signals, which convey information about the emitter. In turn, the mouse social and physiological status may modify the release of chemical cues. In this study, the influences of age and social isolation on the endocrine response and the release of chemical signals were investigated in male CD1 mice, allocated into four groups: Young Isolated (from weaning till 60days; N=6), Adult Isolated (till 180days; N=6), Young Grouped (6 mice/cage; till 60days; N=18), Adult Grouped (6 mice/cage; till 180days; N=18). Mice were transferred in a clean cage to observe the micturition pattern and then sacrificed. Body and organs weights, serum testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, corticosterone and the ratio Major Urinary Protein/creatinine were measured. Urinary volatile molecules potentially involved in pheromonal communication were identified. Androgen secretion was greater in isolated mice (P<0.05), suggesting a greater reactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal axis. Grouped mice presented a higher degree of adrenal activity, and young mice showed a higher serum corticosterone (P<0.05) suggesting a greater stimulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis. The micturition pattern typical of dominant male, consisting in voiding numerous droplets, was observed in Young Isolated mice only, which showed a higher protein/creatinine ratio (P<0.05). Urinary 2-s-butyl-thiazoline was higher in both Young and Adult Isolated mice (P<0.005). Young Isolated mice showed the most prominent difference in both micturition pattern and potentially active substance emission, while long term isolation resulted in a less extreme phenotype; therefore social isolation had a higher impact on young mice hormone and pheromone release. PMID:24525008

  4. Rapid Hydrogen Peroxide release from the coral Stylophora pistillata during feeding and in response to chemical and physical stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoza-Zvuloni, Rachel; Schneider, Avi; Sher, Daniel; Shaked, Yeala

    2016-01-01

    Corals make use of different chemical compounds during interactions with prey, predators and aggressors. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) is produced and released by a wide range of organisms as part of their defense against grazers or pathogens. In coral reefs, the large fluxes and relatively long half-life of H2O2, make it a potentially important info-chemical or defense molecule. Here we describe a previously unstudied phenomenon of rapid H2O2 release from the reef-building coral Stylophora pistillata during feeding on zooplankton and in response to chemical and physical stimuli. Following stimuli, both symbiotic and bleached corals were found to rapidly release H2O2 to the surrounding water for a short period of time (few minutes). The H2O2 release was restricted to the site of stimulus, and an increase in physical stress and chemical stimuli concentration resulted in elevated H2O2 release. Omission of calcium (a key regulator of exocytotic processes) from the experimental medium inhibited H2O2 release. Hence we suggest that H2O2 is actively released in response to stimuli, rather than leaking passively from the coral tissue. We estimate that at the site of stimulus H2O2 can reach concentrations potentially high enough to deter predators or motile, potentially pathogenic, bacteria. PMID:26875833

  5. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  6. BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers

  7. Runoff rates, chemical speciation and bioavailability of copper released from naturally patinated copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlén, C; Wallinder, I Odnevall; Heijerick, D; Leygraf, C

    2002-01-01

    The release of copper, induced by atmospheric corrosion, from naturally patinated copper of varying age (0 and 30 years) has been investigated together with its potential ecotoxic effect. Results were generated in an interdisciplinary research effort in which corrosion science and ecotoxicology aspects were combined. The aim of the investigation was to elucidate the situation when copper-containing rainwater leaves a roof in terms of runoff rate, chemical speciation, bioavailability and ecotoxicity effects. Data have been collected during a three-year field exposure conducted in the urban environment of Stockholm, Sweden. The potential environmental effects have been evaluated using a combination of a copper specific biosensor test with the bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus and the conventional 72-h growth inhibition test with the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata. The results show annual runoff rates between 1.0 and 1.5 g/m2 year for naturally patinated copper of varying age. The runoff rate increased slightly with patina age, which mainly is attributed to the enhanced first flush effect observed on thicker patina layers. The total copper concentration in investigated runoff samplings ranged from 0.9 to 9.7 mg/l. Both computer modeling and experimental studies revealed that the majority (60-100%) of released copper was present as the free hydrated cupric ion, Cu(H2O)6(2+), the most bioavailable copper species. However, other copper species in the runoff water, such as, e.g. Cu(OH)+ and Cu2(OH)2(2+), were also bioavailable. The copper-containing runoff water, sampled directly after release from the roof, caused significant reduction in growth rate of the green alga. It should be emphasized that the results describe the runoff situation immediately after release from the copper roof and not the real environmental ecotoxicity. Therefore the data should only be used as an initial assessment of the potential environmental effect of copper runoff from building

  8. On transient electric fields observed in chemical release experiments by rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a follow-up to the successful chemical release experiment Trigger in 1977, the Trigger Optimized Repetition rocket was launched from Esrange on October 24, 1984. As in the Trigger experiment, a large-amplitude electric field pulse of 200 mV/m was detected shortly after the explosion.The central part of the pulse was found to be clearly correlated with an intense layer of swept up ambient particles behind a propagating shock front. The field was directed toward the center of the expanding ionized cloud, which is indicative of a polarization electric field source. Expressions for this radial polarization field and the much weaker azimuthal-induced electric field are derived from a simple cylindrical model for the field and the expanding neutral cloud. Time profiles of the radial electric field are shown to be in good agreement with observations

  9. On transient electric fields observed in chemical release experiments by rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a follow-up to the successful chemical release experiment Trigger in 1977, the TOR (Trigger Optimized Repetition) rocket was launched from Esrange on Oct. 24, 1984. Like in the Trigger experiment a large amplitude electric field pulse of 200 mV/m was detected shortly after the explosion. The central part of the pulse was found to be clearly correlated with an intense layer of swept up ambient particles behind a propagating shock-front. The field was directed towards the centre of the expanding ionized cloud, which is indicative of a polarisation electric field source. Expressions for this radial polarisation field and the much weaker azimuthal induced electric field are derived from a simple cylindrical model for the field and the expanding neutral cloud. Time profiles of the radial electric field are shown to be in good agreement with observations. (authors)

  10. On transient electric fields observed in chemical release experiments by rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, G.; Brenning, N.; Holmgren, G.; Haerendel, G.

    1987-05-01

    As a follow-up to the successful chemical release experiment Trigger in 1977, the Trigger Optimized Repetition rocket was launched on October 24, 1984. As in the Trigger experiment, a large-amplitude electric field pulse of 200 mV/m was detected shortly after the explosion. The central part of the pulse was found to be clearly correlated with an intense layer of swept up ambient particles behind a propagating shock front. The field was directed toward the center of the expanding ionized cloud, which is indicative of a polarization electric field source. Expressions for this radial polarization field and the much weaker azimuthal-induced electric field are derived from a simple cylindrical model for the field and the expanding neutral cloud. Time profiles of the radial electric field are shown to be in good agreement with observations.

  11. Relationship between fire temperature and changes in chemical soil properties: a conceptual model of nutrient release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Edivaldo L.; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of fire temperatures (i.e., soil heating) on nutrient release and aggregate physical changes in soil. A preliminary conceptual model of nutrient release was established based on results obtained from a controlled burn in a slash-and-burn agricultural system located in Brazil. The study was carried out in clayey subtropical soil (humic Cambisol) from a plot that had been fallow for 8 years. A set of three thermocouples were placed in four trenches at the following depths: 0 cm on the top of the mineral horizon, 1.0 cm within the mineral horizon, and 2 cm within the mineral horizon. Three soil samples (true independent sample) were collected approximately 12 hours post-fire at depths of 0-2.5 cm. Soil chemical changes were more sensitive to fire temperatures than aggregate physical soil characteristics. Most of the nutrient response to soil heating was not linear. The results demonstrated that moderate temperatures ( 500 °C) decreased soil fertility.

  12. Prescription launching related to the chemical measurement methods in the waste and environmental field with regards to the regulation framework dedicated to the NPP chemical releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time, chemical analytical methods are elaborated by EDF Corporate Laboratories and then transmitted to the NPP laboratories for them to decline these procedures to fit with their own analytical devices. In fact, the feedback linked to the exceedings of the regulatory release thresholds pointed out that some differences in the chemical releases regarding several chemical substances could be attributed to the measurement channel. In some cases, one can exhibit a significant increase concerning some NPP chemical releases which can be due to modifications inherent to preservation methods and/or sample analyses. In 2004, this context lead EDF Nuclear Generation Corporate Division supported by NPP Representatives to prescribe the chemical analytical methods in the effluents and environment field and to standardise the dedicated chemical analytical devices. Several goals are carried on : To develop reliable, simple, rapid and applicable on site procedures which are congruent with the existing standards or with a simple adaptation of the standardised method when the standard is not directly applicable or does not fit; To standardise the dedicated analytical devices already available or available at a reasonable investment; To encourage an optimisation of the human resources; and, Health potential problems are also taken into account in the choice of the chemical reagents to be used in the analytical procedures. Other positive consequences can be pointed out concerning the regulatory framework, that is to say a consolidation with regards to the documents linked to the new requests exhibited in the NPP new licences for waste releases and water supply. For the citizens, it reinforces the confidence in the efficiency of the releases surveillance. (author)

  13. Animal manure phosphorus characterization by sequential chemical fractionation, release kinetics and 31P-NMR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate release kinetics from manures are of global interest because sustainable plant nutrition with phosphate will be a major concern in the future. Although information on the bioavailability and chemical composition of P present in manure used as fertilizer are important to understand its dynamics in the soil, such studies are still scarce. Therefore, P extraction was evaluated in this study by sequential chemical fractionation, desorption with anion-cation exchange resin and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR spectroscopy to assess the P forms in three different dry manure types (i.e. poultry, cattle and swine manure. All three methods showed that the P forms in poultry, cattle and swine dry manures are mostly inorganic and highly bioavailable. The estimated P pools showed that organic and recalcitrant P forms were negligible and highly dependent on the Ca:P ratio in manures. The results obtained here showed that the extraction of P with these three different methods allows a better understanding and complete characterization of the P pools present in the manures.

  14. Creation of the ecology standards for the releases of the radionuclides and some chemical substances into environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to creation of standards for radionuclide and other hazardous substance releases and effluents taking into account complex effects of hazardous substances on ecosystems is discussed. The approach is based on approximated standardization method according to indeterminate quality criterion. Determination of the ecosystem normal state when creating the standards for releases and effluents, as well as standardization of radiation and chemical effects upon ecosystems are reduced to the unified complex. The classification of aquatic objects in respect to radiation state is suggested. The standardization of radioactive substance releases and effluents based on the three-level system of standards is considered. 19 refs

  15. Calculation of the inventory and near-field release rates of radioactivity from neutron-activated metal parts discharged from the high flux isotope reactor and emplaced in solid waste storage area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emplacement of contaminated reactor components involves disposal in lined and unlined auger holes in soil above the water table. The radionuclide inventory of disposed components was calculated. Information on the composition and weight of the components, as well as reasonable assumptions for the neutron flux fueling use, the time of neutron exposure, and radioactive decay after discharge, were employed in the inventory calculation. Near-field release rates of 152Eu, 154Eu, and 155Eu from control plates and cylinders were calculated for 50 years after emplacement. Release rates of the europium isotopes were uncertain. Two release-rate-limiting models were considered and a range of reasonable values were assumed for the time-to-failure of the auger-hole linear and aluminum cladding and europium solubility in SWSA-6 groundwater. The bounding europium radionuclide near-field release rates peaked at about 1.3 Ci/year total for /sup 152,154,155/Eu in 1987 for the lower bound, and at about 420 Ci/year in 1992 for the upper bound. The near-field release rates of 55Fe, 59Ni, 60Co, and 63Ni from stainless steel and cobalt alloy components, as well as of 10Be, 41Ca, and 55Fe from beryllium reflectors, were calculated for the next 100 years, assuming bulk waste corrosion was the release-rate-limiting step. Under the most conservative assumptions for the reflectors, the current (1986) total radionuclide release rate was calculated to be about 1.2 x 10-4 Ci/year, decreasing by 1992 to a steady release of about 1.5 x 10-5 Ci/year due primarily to 41Ca. 50 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Midlatitude daytime wind measurements in the dynamo region with a sounding rocket chemical release technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. F.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Yamamoto, M. Y.; Kakinami, Y.; Watanabe, S.

    2015-12-01

    The sounding rocket chemical release technique can provide wind measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere with excellent height resolution and extended altitude coverage, but such measurements are generally limited to nighttime conditions. Lithium trails, however, have a sufficiently bright resonant emission in sunlight to be detected with cameras or photometers using very narrow-band filters tuned to the emission wavelength. This type of measurement was attempted successfully a few times in the 1970's. We present the results of a recent experiment that represents the first use of the technique since those early attempts. Specifically, a rocket launched from Wallops Island, Virginia, on July 4, 2013, at 1031 LT, released a series of three lithium trails covering the altitude range from 95 to 125 km. The trails were observed with cameras equipped with 2-nm telecentric filter lenses on a NASA aircraft at an altitude of 28,000 feet, above the majority of the lower-level haze layer. The wind profile obtained from the observations showed maximum wind speeds of approximately 150 m/s in the altitude range where the strongest dynamo currents are expected. A large shear was evident below the altitude of the wind maximum, and the turbopause transition could be seen in the trail within the region of the large shear. In addition, there were large changes in the wind speed and wind direction during the 10 to 15 minute observing period. The results are of interest in terms of the technique development, which improves significantly on the measurements from the 1970's by using modern filter lens systems and sensitive digital cameras. In addition, the observed wind profiles show the characteristics of the winds and their time variations in daytime conditions across this critical altitude range.

  17. MODELING DISPERSION FROM CHEMICALS RELEASED AFTER A TRAIN COLLISION IN GRANITEVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Addis, R; Matt Parker, M

    2006-08-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System was used to provide meteorological and atmospheric modeling/consequence assessment support to state and local agencies following the collision of two Norfolk Southern freight trains on the morning of January 6, 2005. This collision resulted in the release of several toxic chemicals to the environment, including chlorine. The dense and highly toxic cloud of chlorine gas that formed in the vicinity of the accident was responsible for nine fatalities, and caused injuries to more than five hundred others. Transport model results depicting the forecast path of the ongoing release were made available to emergency managers in the county's Unified Command Center shortly after SRNL received a request for assistance. Support continued over the ensuing two days of the active response. The SRNL also provided weather briefings and transport/consequence assessment model results to responders from South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Emergency Operations Center (EOC), Department of Energy Headquarters, and hazmat teams dispatched from the SRS. Although model-generated forecast winds used in consequence assessments conducted during the incident were provided at 2-km horizontal grid spacing during the accident response, a high-resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 4.3.0) simulation was later performed to examine potential influences of local topography on plume migration. The detailed RAMS simulation was used to determine meteorology using multiple grids with an innermost grid spacing of 125 meters. Results from the two simulations are shown to generally agree with meteorological observations at the time; consequently, local topography did not significantly affect wind in the area. Use of a dense gas dispersion model to simulate localized plume behavior using the higher resolution

  18. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - SUPERFUND_IDEM_IN: Superfund Program Facilities in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SUPERFUND_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains GPS-located Superfund Program facility locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of...

  19. Emission inventory of primary pollutants and chemical speciation in 2010 for the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Bin; Xing, Jia; Cheng, Zhen; Liu, Huan; Hao, Jiming

    2013-05-01

    We developed a high-resolution emission inventory of primary air pollutants for Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, which included Shanghai plus 24 cities in the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang. The emissions of SO2, NOX, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOCs and NH3 in the year of 2010 were estimated as 2147 kt, 2776 kt, 1006 kt, 643 kt, 3822 kt and 1439 kt, respectively. Power plants are the largest emission sources for SO2 and NOX, which contributes 44.1% and 37.3% of total SO2 and NOX emissions. Emissions from industrial process accounted for 26.9%, 28.9% and 33.7% of the total PM10, PM2.5 and NMVOCs respectively. Besides, 37.3% of NMVOCs emissions were contributed by solvent use. Livestock and fertilizer application contribute over 90% of NH3 emissions. High emission densities are visible in Shanghai and the area around Tai Lake. This emission inventory includes the speciation of PM2.5 for the YRD region for the first time, which is important to source apportionment and secondary-pollution analysis. In 2010, emissions of three major PM2.5 species, namely OC, EC and sulfate, are 136.9 kt, 75.0 kt and 76.2 kt, respectively. Aromatics and alkanes are the main NMVOC species, accounting for 30.4% and 20.3% of total VOCs. Non-road transportation and biomass burning were main uncertain sources because of a lack of proper activity and emission factor data. Compared with other pollutants, NMVOCs and NH3 have higher uncertainty. From 2000 to 2010, emissions of all pollutants have changed significantly, suggesting that the newly updated and high-resolution emission inventory will be useful for the identification of air pollution sources in YRD.

  20. Protecting buildings from a biological or chemical attack: Actions to take before or during a release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Delp, William W.; Lorenzetti, David M.; Finlayson, Elizabeth U.; Thatcher, Tracy L.; Sextro, Richard G.; Derby, Elisabeth A.; Jarvis, Sondra A.

    2003-01-29

    This report presents advice on how to operate a building to reduce casualties from a biological or chemical attack, as well as potential changes to the building (e.g. the design of the ventilation system) that could make it more secure. It also documents the assumptions and reasoning behind the advice. The particular circumstances of any attack, such as the ventilation system design, building occupancy, agent type, source strength and location, and so on, may differ from the assumptions made here, in which case actions other than our recommendations may be required; we hope that by understanding the rationale behind the advice, building operators can modify it as required for their circumstances. The advice was prepared by members of the Airflow and Pollutant Transport Group, which is part of the Indoor Environment Department at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The group's expertise in this area includes: tracer-gas measurements of airflows in buildings (Sextro, Thatcher); design and operation of commercial building ventilation systems (Delp); modeling and analysis of airflow and tracer gas transport in large indoor spaces (Finlayson, Gadgil, Price); modeling of gas releases in multi-zone buildings (Sohn, Lorenzetti, Finlayson, Sextro); and occupational health and safety experience related to building design and operation (Sextro, Delp). This report is concerned only with building design and operation; it is not a how-to manual for emergency response. Many important emergency response topics are not covered here, including crowd control, medical treatment, evidence gathering, decontamination methods, and rescue gear.

  1. Identification and characterization of a pituitary corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein by chemical cross-linking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimura, E; Billestrup, Nils; Perrin, M;

    1987-01-01

    A corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) binding protein has been identified based on the chemical cross-linking of ovine [Nle21,m-125I-Tyr32]CRF (125I-oCRF) to bovine anterior pituitary membranes using disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). The apparent molecular weight of the cross-linked complex...

  2. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  3. Chemical characterization and toxicologic evaluation of airborne mixtures. Chemical characterization of Army colored smokes: inventory smoke mixes (red, violet, yellow, and green). Final report, 1980-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, I.B.; Buchanan, M.V.

    1983-06-01

    Red, violet, yellow, and green inventory smoke mixes were fractionated by vacuum sublimation, differential solubility and liquid chromatography. Two unique components, benzanthrone and dibenzochrysenedione, were purified by the same methods. Major components of the smoke mixes were isolated and identified by comparison to the pure dyes using a variety of instrumental techniques. A number of contaminants at very minor levels were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. All of the smoke mixes contained relatively large quantities (10 to 25 percent) of chloroform insoluble or non-volatile undifferentiated carbonaceous material.

  4. Inventory Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Among practitioners, inventory is often thought to be the root of all evil in operations management. The stock market hates it, the media abhors it, and managers have come to fear it. But high inventory levels can also be the result of strategic buying and high-availability strategies. The problem is that when the market sees lots of inventory, it cannot tell whether it is because of poor or smart operations. We hypothesize that inventory has a signaling role. In our model, publicly- traded f...

  5. Inventory and inventory-taking

    OpenAIRE

    Keltnerová, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Inventory is an extensive process, which is one of the few methods to control for accuracy of accounting. Accounting under obligation upon the low is necessary lead completely, demonstrably and correctly. The main theme of the bachelor thesis is to characterize the inventory and warehouse management in the specific company. The bachelor thesis is formed (consists) of theoretical basis and a case study. The theoretical part characterizes the inventory in several stages and stock records, where...

  6. Chemical form of released tritium from molten Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} salt under neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Chemical forms of released tritium from FLIBE (the 2:1 mixture of LiF and BeF{sub 2}) by in-pile tritium release experiment were HT and TF and their proportion depended on the chemical composition of purge gas and the dehumidification time of specimen at high temperatures. The chemical form of tritium was determined by the thermodynamic equilibrium of the isotopic exchange reaction (T{sup +} + H{sub 2} {yields} H{sup +} + HT). (author)

  7. Drug release mechanisms of chemically cross-linked albumin microparticles: effect of the matrix erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitta, Danielly L A; Guilherme, Marcos R; da Silva, Elisangela P; Valente, Artur J M; Muniz, Edvani C; Rubira, Adley F

    2014-10-01

    Albumin (BSA) microparticles were developed as a biotechnological alternative for drug delivery. Vitamin B12 (Vit-B12) was used as a model drug. The microparticles were obtained from maleic anhydride-functionalized BSA and N',N'-dimethylacrylamide (DMAAm) in a W/O emulsion without and with PVA. The microparticles produced at 15min of stirring without PVA showed the best results in terms of size, homogeneity, and sphericity. In such a case, BSA played a role as a surface active agent, replacing PVA. For longer stirring times, BSA was unable to act as an emulsifier. These microparticles showed an uncommon release profile, consisting of a two-step release mechanism, at the pH range studied. Considering that a two-step release mechanism is occurring, the experimental data were adjusted by applying modified power law and Weibull equations in order to describe release mechanism n and release rate constant k, respectively. Each one of the release stages was related to a specific value of n and k. The second stage was driven by a super case II transport mechanism, as a result of diffusion, macromolecular relaxation, and erosion. A third model, described by Hixson-Crowell, confirmed the erosion mechanism. Vit-B12 diffusion kinetics in aqueous solutions (i.e., without the microparticles) follows a one-step process, being k dependent on the pH, confirming that the two-step release mechanism is a characteristic profile of the developed microparticles. The microparticles released only 2.70% of their initial drug load at pH 2, and 58.53% at pH 10. PMID:25087021

  8. Dating gasoline releases using ground-water chemical analyses: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents case studies where geochemical data were analyzed in spatial and temporal relation to documented gasoline releases at typical service station sites. In particular, the authors present ground-water analytical data for sites where (1) the date of the gasoline release is known with a good degree of confidence, (2) the release is confined to a relatively short period of time so as to be considered essentially instantaneous, (3) antecedent geochemical condition are known or can be reasonably expected to have been either unaffected by previous hydrocarbon impacts or minor in comparison to known release events, and (4) where geologic materials can be classified as to structure and composition. The authors' intent is to provide empirical data regarding the hydrogeological fate of certain gasoline components, namely the compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis of gasoline weathering as a means of comparing releases in given hydrogeologic environments. Trends seen in a variety of comparative hydrocarbon compound ratios may provide a basis for evaluating relative release dates

  9. Trade inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan McCarthy; Egon Zakrajsek

    1998-01-01

    We examine the behavior of trade inventories using both industry-level and high-frequency firm-level data. The cost structure underlying the firm's optimization problem--convex delivery costs vs. fixed costs of ordering--provides the two competing hypotheses. In the presence of fixed costs (S,s) inventory policies are optimal, and steady-state reduced-form predictions regarding the dynamics of inventories and sales can be used to test the model. The alternative of convex delivery costs is pro...

  10. Application of Kinetic Models in Describing Soil Potassium Release Characteristics and Their Correlations with Potassium Extracted by Chemical Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.R.HOSSEINPUR; H.R.MOTAGHIAN

    2013-01-01

    Potassium (K) release characteristics in soil play a significant role in supplying available K.Information on K-release characteristics in soils of central Iran is limited.The objectives of this study were to determine K release characteristics and correlations of K release rate constants with K extracted by different chemical methods in surface soils of ten calcareous soils of central Iran.The kinetics of K release in the soils was determined by successive extraction with 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 in a period of 2-2017 h at 25±1 ℃.Soil K was extracted by distilled water,0.5 mol L-1 MgNO3,0.002 mol L-1 SrCl2,0.1 mol L-1 BaCl2,0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2,1 mol L-1 NaCI,1 mol L-1 boiling HNO3,1 mol L-1 NH4OAC,Mehlich 1,0.002 mol L-1 SrCl2 + 0.05 mol L-1 citric acid,and ammonium bicarbonate-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA).A plot of cumulative amounts of K released showed a discontinuity in slope at 168 h.Thus,two equations were applied to two segments of the total reaction time (2-168 and 168-2 017 h).Cumulative amounts of K released ranged from 55 to 299 mg kg-1 in 2-168 h and from 44 to 119 mg kg-1 in 168-2017 h.Release kinetics of K in the two time segments conformed fairly well to parabolic diffusion,simplified Elovich,and power function models.There was a wide variation in the K release rate constants.Increasingly higher average concentrations of soil K were extracted by distilled water,Mehlich 1,SrCl2,CaCl2,SrCl2 + citric acid,AB-DTPA,MgNO3,NaCl,NH4OAc,BaCl2,and HNO3.Potassium release rate constants were significantly correlated with K extracted.The results of this study showed that information obtained from mathematical modeling in two reaction time segments can help to estimate the K-supplying power of soils.

  11. Assessment of impacts at the advanced test reactor as a result of chemical releases at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an assessment of potential impacts at the Advanced Test Reactor Facility (ATR) resulting from accidental chemical spill at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Spills postulated to occur at the Lincoln Blvd turnoff to ICPP were also evaluated. Peak and time weighted average concentrations were calculated for receptors at the ATR facility and the Test Reactor Area guard station at a height above ground level of 1.0 m. Calculated concentrations were then compared to the 15 minute averaged Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) and the 30 minute averaged Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) limit. Several different methodologies were used to estimate source strength and dispersion. Fifteen minute time weighted averaged concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and anhydrous ammonia exceeded TLV-STEL values for the cases considered. The IDLH value for these chemicals was not exceeded. Calculated concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, hexone, nitric acid, propane, gasoline, chlorine and liquid nitrogen were all below the TLV-STEL value

  12. Riparian Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a digital representation of the 1:24,000 Land Use Riparian Areas Inventory for the state of Kansas. The dataset includes a 100 foot buffer around...

  13. Chemical composition and release in situ due to injury of the invasive coral tubastraea (Cnidaria, Scleractinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno G. Lages

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defensive chemistry may be used against consumers and competitors by invasive species as a strategy for colonization and perpetuation in a new area. There are relatively few studies of negative chemical interactions between scleratinian corals. This study characterizes the secondary metabolites in the invasive corals Tubastraea tagusensis and T. coccinea and relates these to an in situ experiment using a submersible apparatus with Sep-Paks® cartridges to trap substances released by T. tagusensis directly from the sea-water. Colonies of Tubastraea spp were collected in Ilha Grande Bay, RJ, extracted with methanol (MeOH, and the extracts washed with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol, and analyzed by GC/MS. Methyl stearate and methyl palmitate were the major components of the hexane and hexane:MeOH fractions, while cholesterol was the most abundant in the DCM and DCM:MeOH fractions from Tubastraea spp. The organic material retained in Sep-Paks® cartridges was tentatively identified as hydrocarbons. There was a significant difference between treatments and controls for 1-hexadecene, n-hexadecane and n-eicosane contents. The production of defensive substances by the invasive corals may be a threat to the benthic communities of the region, which include endemic species.Substâncias químicas de defesa contra consumidores e competidores podem ser usadas por espécies invasoras marinhas como estratégia de colonização e perpetuação em novo ambiente. Entretanto, há poucos estudos experimentais que demonstrem as possíveis interações negativas entre corais escleractínios. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar os metabólitos secundários dos corais invasores Tubastraea tagusensis e T. coccinea; avaliar através da técnica de amostragem in situ quais são as substâncias de T. tagusensis liberadas na água do mar, com o auxílio de aparelho subaquático com colunas Sep-Paks®. Colônias dos corais invasores Tubastraea spp foram

  14. 7 CFR 930.57 - Secondary inventory reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall retain control over the release of any cherries from the secondary inventory reserve. No cherries... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary inventory reserve. 930.57 Section 930.57... Handling Regulations § 930.57 Secondary inventory reserve. (a) In the event the inventory...

  15. Chemical form of tritium released from solid breeder materials and the influences of it on a bred tritium recovery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of HTO in total tritium was measured at release of the bred tritium to the purge gas with hydrogen using the thermal release after irradiation method, where neutron irradiation was performed at JRR-3 reactor in JAERI or KUR reactor in Kyoto University. It is experimentally confirmed in this study that not a small portion of bred tritium is released to the purge gas in the form of HTO form ceramic breeder materials even when hydrogen is added to the purge gas. The chemical composition is to be decided by the competitive reaction at the grain surface of a ceramic breeder material where desorption reaction, isotope exchange reaction 1, isotope exchange reaction 2 and water formation reaction are considered to take part. Observation in this study implies that it is necessary to have a bred tritium recovery system applicable for both HT and HTO form to recover whole bred tritium. The chemical composition also decides the amount of tritium transferable to the cooling water of the electricity generation system through the structural material in the blanket system. Permeation behavior of tritium through some structural materials at various conditions are also discussed. (author)

  16. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  17. Release properties of chemical and enzymatic crosslinked gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles containing a fluorescent probe plus vetiver essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ana S; Zanin, Maria H A; Ré, Maria I; Grosso, Carlos R F

    2008-12-01

    Oil-containing gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles were prepared by complex coacervation followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde or transglutaminase. A fluorescent mixture, khusimyl dansylate (KD) as the fluorescent compound mixed to the vetiver essential oil, was used as oil model. The effect of the type of crosslinking of the coacervated gelatin-gum Arabic membrane, the physical state of microparticles, wet or freeze-dried and the type of release media, aqueous with surfactants, Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (sds) or Tween 80 (tw) and anhydrous ethanol as organic media on the release rate of the KD from the microparticles, was experimentally investigated. It was shown that the oil was dispersed uniformly throughout the microparticles and the chemical crosslinked microparticles were more resistant to swelling, presenting smaller sizes after hydration. Also the crosslinking effect, transglutaminase or glutaraldehyde, could be confirmed by the integrity of the crosslinked gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles after incubation in the aqueous sds media, compared to complete dissolution of the uncrosslinked microparticles in this media. The cumulative fluorescent KD release from the gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles decreased in the following order of dissolution media: anhydrous ethanol>tw>sds and the wet microparticles have shown a faster KD release than freeze-dried ones. A mathematical model was used to estimate the diffusion coefficient (D). The chemically crosslinked gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles ensured a pronounced retard effect in the KD diffusion, presenting a D varying from 0.02 to 0.6 x 10(-11)cm(2)/s, mainly in an aqueous media, against D varying from 1.05 to 13.9 x 10(-11)cm(2)/s from the enzymatic crosslinked microparticles. PMID:18835139

  18. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  19. Aerosol-halogen interaction: Change of physico-chemical properties of SOA by naturally released halogen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner, J.; Balzer, N.; Buxmann, J.; Grothe, H.; Krüger, H.; Platt, U.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Zetzsch, C.

    2011-12-01

    Reactive halogen species are released by various sources like photo-activated sea-salt aerosol or salt pans and salt lakes. These heterogeneous release mechanisms have been overlooked so far, although their potential of interaction with organic aerosols like Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA), Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA) or Atmospheric Humic LIke Substances (HULIS) is completely unknown. Such reactions can constitute sources of gaseous organo-halogen compounds or halogenated organic particles in the atmospheric boundary layer. To study the interaction of organic aerosols with reactive halogen species (RHS), SOA was produced from α-pinene, catechol and guaiacol using an aerosol smog-chamber. The model SOAs were characterized in detail using a variety of physico-chemical methods (Ofner et al., 2011). Those aerosols were exposed to molecular halogens in the presence of UV/VIS irradiation and to halogens, released from simulated natural halogen sources like salt pans, in order to study the complex aerosol-halogen interaction. The heterogeneous reaction of RHS with those model aerosols leads to different gaseous species like CO2, CO and small reactive/toxic molecules like phosgene (COCl2). Hydrogen containing groups on the aerosol particles are destroyed to form HCl or HBr, and a significant formation of C-Br bonds could be verified in the particle phase. Carbonyl containing functional groups of the aerosol are strongly affected by the halogenation process. While changes of functional groups and gaseous species were visible using FTIR spectroscopy, optical properties were studied using Diffuse Reflectance UV/VIS spectroscopy. Overall, the optical properties of the processed organic aerosols are significantly changed. While chlorine causes a "bleaching" of the aerosol particles, bromine shifts the maximum of UV/VIS absorption to the red end of the UV/VIS spectrum. Further physico-chemical changes were recognized according to the aerosol size-distributions or the

  20. Normalization in EDIP97 and EDIP2003: updated European inventory for 2004 and guidance towards a consistent use in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2011-01-01

    limited to Europe. The emission inventory was collected from different publicly available databases and monitoring bodies. Where necessary, gaps were filled using extrapolations. A new approach for inventorizing specific groups of substances—non-methane volatile organic compounds and pesticides—was also...... inventories, which are known not to encompass all potentially harmful chemicals released in Europe, e.g. omitting some toxic metals. Conclusions: The present study provides the most updated set of publicly available normalization references for the EDIP methodology and emission inventories for Europe that may...

  1. Fission product and chemical energy releases during core melt events in U-Al research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission product releases data from heated uranium-aluminum reactor fuels are analyzed. Extensive library of correlations was developed for predicting releases which may vary with time, burnup ambient, fuel-type subject to certain assumptions. Correlations were developed in various forms for U-Al. (dispersed/alloy), U308-Al (dispersed) and dispersed U3Si2-AL, and U3Si-Al Fuels. Overall statistics is quite favorable. Unresolved issues and data needs demand best estimate analyses of reactors using U3Si2-Al fuel. Importance of capturing fragment size distribution was demonstrated. Results agree with Nelson's observations for onset ignition. The need to develop an appropriate fragmentation model was evident

  2. Antihypertensive nano-ceuticales based on chitosan biopolymer: Physico-chemical evaluation and release kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Taskeen; Shabbir, Saima; Manzoor, Shahid; Rehman, Asma; Rahman, Abdur; Nasir, Habib; Imran, Muhammad

    2016-05-20

    Prime risk factor behind cardiovascular associated mortality and morbidity is hypertension. The main challenge with antihypertensive (AHT) drug therapy is their extreme hydrophobic nature and very low oral bio-availability; which result into higher dosage/frequency and associated side effects of drugs. The main objective of this study was to fabricate AHT nano-ceuticals in hydrophilic carriers of natural origin to improve drugs' solubility, protection and sustained release. AHT nano-carrier systems (NCS) encapsulating captopril, amlodipine and valsartan were fabricated using chitosan (CS) polymer by ionic gelation assisted ultra-sonication method. Drug encapsulation efficiencies of 92±1.6%, 91±0.9% and 87±0.5% were observed for captopril, valsartan and amlodipine respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) based analysis had revealed that captopril loaded polymeric NCS were regular, smooth and without any agglomeration. FTIR analyses of drug loaded and empty NCS demonstrated that drugs were molecularly dispersed inside the nanoparticles via week hydrogen bonding. Captopril and valsartan have demonstrated grafting reaction with N-H group of chitosan. Zeta sizer results had confirmed that average size of chitosan nanoparticles was below 100 nm. Encapsulation of captopril had reduced the surface charge value from +52.6±4.8 to +46.5±5.2 mV. Controlled release evaluation of highly encapsulated drug captopril had revealed a slow release in vitro from NCS in physiological buffer. Thus, here reported innovative AHT nano-ceuticals of polymeric origin can improve the oral administration of currently available hydrophobic drugs while providing the extended-release function. PMID:26917399

  3. Low and intermediate level waste in SFR-1. Reference waste inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective with this report is to describe all the waste and the waste package that is expected to be deposited in SFR-1 at the time of closure. This report is a part of the SAFE project (Safety Assessment of Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste), i.e. the renewed safety assessment of SFR-1. The accounted waste inventory has been used as input to the release calculation that has been performed in the SAFE project. The waste inventory is based on an estimated operational lifetime of the Swedish nuclear power plants of 40 years and that closure of the SFR repository will happen in 2030. In the report, data about geometries, weights, materials, chemicals and radionuclide are given. No chemo toxic material has been identified in the waste. The inventory is based on so called waste types and the waste types reference waste package. The reference waste package combined with a prognosis of the number of waste packages to the year 2030 gives the final waste inventory for SFR-1. All reference waste packages are thoroughly described in the appendices of this report. The reference waste packages are as far as possible based on actual experiences and measurements. The radionuclide inventory is also based on actual measurements. The inventory is based on measurements of 60Co and 137 Cs in waste packages and on measurements 239Pu and 240Pu in reactor water. Other nuclides in the inventory are calculated with correlation factors. In the SAFE project's prerequisites it was said that one realistic and one conservative (pessimistic) inventory should be produced. The conservative one should then be used for the release calculations. In this report one realistic and one conservative radionuclide inventory is presented. The conservative one adds up to 1016 Bq. Regarding materials there is only one inventory given since it is not certain what is a conservative assumption

  4. Low and intermediate level waste in SFR-1. Reference waste inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggare, P.; Johansson, Claes

    2001-06-01

    The objective with this report is to describe all the waste and the waste package that is expected to be deposited in SFR-1 at the time of closure. This report is a part of the SAFE project (Safety Assessment of Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste), i.e. the renewed safety assessment of SFR-1. The accounted waste inventory has been used as input to the release calculation that has been performed in the SAFE project. The waste inventory is based on an estimated operational lifetime of the Swedish nuclear power plants of 40 years and that closure of the SFR repository will happen in 2030. In the report, data about geometries, weights, materials, chemicals and radionuclide are given. No chemo toxic material has been identified in the waste. The inventory is based on so called waste types and the waste types reference waste package. The reference waste package combined with a prognosis of the number of waste packages to the year 2030 gives the final waste inventory for SFR-1. All reference waste packages are thoroughly described in the appendices of this report. The reference waste packages are as far as possible based on actual experiences and measurements. The radionuclide inventory is also based on actual measurements. The inventory is based on measurements of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137} Cs in waste packages and on measurements {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu in reactor water. Other nuclides in the inventory are calculated with correlation factors. In the SAFE project's prerequisites it was said that one realistic and one conservative (pessimistic) inventory should be produced. The conservative one should then be used for the release calculations. In this report one realistic and one conservative radionuclide inventory is presented. The conservative one adds up to 10{sup 16} Bq. Regarding materials there is only one inventory given since it is not certain what is a conservative assumption.

  5. 75 FR 8889 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... toxic chemicals as part of a 1993 final rule (December 1, 1993, 58 FR 63500). Hydrogen sulfide was... Federal Register of February 4, 1987 (52 FR 3479) to provide guidance regarding the recommended content... Federal Register of May 23, 1991 (56 FR 23703) regarding the recommended content of petitions to...

  6. 76 FR 64022 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... rule (December 1, 1993, 58 FR 63500). Hydrogen sulfide was listed under the criteria of EPCRA section... EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(B) (see 59 FR 61432, 61433, 61440-61442). Hydrogen sulfide has also been... adding hydrogen sulfide to the EPCRA section 313 list of toxic chemicals (58 FR 63500) (effective...

  7. Hanford Soil Inventory Model (SIM) Rev. 1 Users Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of the development and application of a soil inventory model as part of the Remediation and Closure Science (RCS) Project managed by PNNL was to develop a probabilistic approach to estimate comprehensive, mass balanced-based contaminant inventories for the Hanford Site post-closure setting. The outcome of this effort was the Hanford Soil Inventory Model (SIM). This document is a user's guide for the Hanford SIM. The principal project requirement for the SIM was to provide comprehensive quantitative estimates of contaminant inventory and its uncertainty for the various liquid waste sites, unplanned releases, and past tank farm leaks as a function of time and location at Hanford. The majority, but not all of these waste sites are in the 200 Areas of Hanford where chemical processing of spent fuel occurred. A computer model capable of performing these calculations and providing satisfactory quantitative output representing a robust description of contaminant inventory and uncertainty for use in other subsequent models was determined to be satisfactory to address the needs of the RCS Project. The ability to use familiar, commercially available software on high-performance personal computers for data input, modeling, and analysis, rather than custom software on a workstation or mainframe computer for modeling, was desired

  8. Endocannabinoid release modulates electrical coupling between CCK cells connected via chemical and electrical synapses in CA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eIball

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical coupling between some subclasses of interneurons is thought to promote coordinated firing that generates rhythmic synchronous activity in cortical regions. Synaptic activity of cholesystokinin (CCK interneurons which co-express cannbinoid type-1 (CB1 receptors are powerful modulators of network activity via the actions of endocannabinoids. We investigated the modulatory actions of endocannabinoids between chemically and electrically connected synapses of CCK cells using paired whole-cell recordings combined with biocytin and double immunofluorescence labelling in acute slices of rat hippocampus at P18-20 days. CA1 stratum radiatum CCK Schaffer collateral associated (SCA cells were coupled electrically with each other as well as CCK basket cells and CCK cells with axonal projections expanding to dentate gyrus. Approximately 50% of electrically coupled cells received facilitating, asynchronously released IPSPs that curtailed the steady-state coupling coefficient by 57%. Tonic CB1 receptor activity which reduces inhibition enhanced electrical coupling between cells that were connected via chemical and electrical synapses. Blocking CB1 receptors with antagonist, AM-251 (5M resulted in the synchronized release of larger IPSPs and this enhanced inhibition further reduced the steady-state coupling coefficient by 85%. Depolarization induced suppression of inhibition (DSI, maintained the asynchronicity of IPSP latency, but reduced IPSP amplitudes by 95% and enhanced the steady-state coupling coefficient by 104% and IPSP duration by 200%. However, DSI did not did not enhance electrical coupling at purely electrical synapses. These data suggest that different morphological subclasses of CCK interneurons are interconnected via gap junctions. The synergy between the chemical and electrical coupling between CCK cells probably plays a role in activity-dependent endocannabinoid modulation of rhythmic synchronization.

  9. Incoherent scatter radar and in situ and chemical release measurements of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudeki, Erhan; Pfaff, Robert; Larsen, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Two sounding rockets collecting DC and AC electric field and plasma density measurements were launched into the equatorial ionosphere during an active E-region sunset event being monitored by ALTAIR and IRIS (UHF and VHF) radar systems. TMA and lithium vapor releases by the rockets climbing to 180 and 330 km apogees also enabled the measurements of E- and lower F-region neutral winds during this pre-reversal enhancement period followed by spread-F activity. E-region turbulence during sunset and F-region turbulence and plasma drifts that developed subsequently were monitored by ALTAIR and IRIS (a 50 MHz two-element fixed-beam radar interferometer) systems using a combination of coherent and incoherent scatter modes. Winds, drifts, and turbulence measurements of the post sunset ionosphere conducted during this equatorial vortex experiment (EVEX) and their implications for post-sunset spread-F development will be presented and discussed.

  10. 77 FR 5614 - Department of State FY11 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Department of State FY11 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of the release of the Department of State FY11 Service Contract Inventory. SUMMARY: The Department of State has publically released its Service Contract Inventory for FY11 and its analysis of the FY10 inventory. They...

  11. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  12. Physico-chemical properties of alginate/shellac aqueous-core capsules: Influence of membrane architecture on riboflavin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Messaoud, Ghazi; Sánchez-González, Laura; Probst, Laurent; Jeandel, Carole; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Desobry, Stéphane

    2016-06-25

    To enhance physico-chemical properties of alginate liquid-core capsules, shellac was incorporated into the membrane (composite capsules) or as an additional external layer (coated capsules). The influence of pH, coating time, shellac concentration and preparation mechanism (acid or calcium precipitation) were investigated. Results showed that shellac significantly influenced the capsules properties. The feasibility of shellac incorporation was closely related to the preparation conditions as confirmed by Infrared spectroscopy. Optical, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy, highlighted different capsules and membranes architectures. In contrast to simple and composite capsules, coated capsules showed a pH-dependent release of the entrapped vitamin especially after shellac crosslinking with calcium. Heating of coated capsules above the glass transition temperature investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, led to irreversible structural change due to thermoplastic behavior of shellac and enhanced riboflavin retention under acidic conditions. This global approach is useful to control release mechanism of low molecular weight molecules from macro and micro-capsules. PMID:27083835

  13. Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuten, Emma L.; Saquing, Jovita M.; Knappe, Detlef R. U.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Jonsson, Susanne; Björn, Annika; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Yamashita, Rei; Ochi, Daisuke; Watanuki, Yutaka; Moore, Charles; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Zakaria, Mohamad P.; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Ogata, Yuko; Hirai, Hisashi; Iwasa, Satoru; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Hagino, Yuki; Imamura, Ayako; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2009-01-01

    Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g–1 to µg g–1. Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters. Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub µg l–1 to mg l–1 and were correlated with the level of economic development. PMID:19528054

  14. Contact Antimicrobial Surface Obtained by Chemical Grafting of Microfibrillated Cellulose in Aqueous Solution Limiting Antibiotic Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Seema; Belgacem, Naceur; Mendes, Joana; Elegir, Graziano; Bras, Julien

    2015-08-19

    Contact active surfaces are an innovative tool for developing antibacterial products. Here, the microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) surface was modified with the β-lactam antibiotic benzyl penicillin in aqueous medium to prepare antimicrobial films. Penicillin was grafted on the MFC surface using a suspension of these nanofilaments or directly on films. Films prepared from the penicillin-modified MFC were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, elemental analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and tested for antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Penicillin-grafted MFC films exhibited successful killing effect on Gram-positive bacteria with 3.5-log reduction whereas bacteriostatic efficiency was found in penicillin-grafted MFC suspension. The zone of inhibition test and leaching dynamic assay demonstrated that penicillin was not diffused into the surrounding media, thus proving that the films were indeed contact active. Thus, penicillin can be chemically bound to the modified substrate surface to produce promising nonleaching antimicrobial systems. PMID:26218855

  15. A model explaining and predicting lamb flavour from the aroma-active chemical compounds released upon grilling light lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mónica; Campo, M Mar; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the work is to understand the role of the different aroma compounds in the perception of the local "lamb flavour" concept. For this, a set of 70 loins (Longissimus dorsi) from approximately seventy day-old Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were grilled and the aroma-active chemicals released during the grilling process were trapped and analyzed. Carbonyl compounds were derivatizated and determined by GC-NCI-MS, whereas other aromatic compounds were directly analyzed by GC-GC-MS. Odour activity values (OAVs) were calculated using their odour threshold values in air. Lamb flavour could be satisfactory explained by a partial least-squares model (74% explained variance in cross-validation) built by the OAVs of 32 aroma-active chemical compounds. The model demonstrates that the lamb flavour concept is the result of a complex balance. Its intensity critically and positively depends to the levels of volatile fatty acids and several dimethylpyrazines while is negatively influenced by the different alkenals and alkadienals. (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E)-2-nonenal showed top OAVs. PMID:25089786

  16. Chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has nonamphibian hosts and releases chemicals that cause pathology in the absence of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Taegan A; Brannelly, Laura A; Chatfield, Matthew W H; Johnson, Pieter T J; Joseph, Maxwell B; McKenzie, Valerie J; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L; Venesky, Matthew D; Rohr, Jason R

    2013-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a pathogenic chytrid fungus implicated in worldwide amphibian declines, is considered an amphibian specialist. Identification of nonamphibian hosts could help explain the virulence, heterogeneous distribution, variable rates of spread, and persistence of B. dendrobatidis in freshwater ecosystems even after amphibian extirpations. Here, we test whether mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) and crayfish (Procambarus spp. and Orconectes virilis), which are syntopic with many amphibian species, are possible hosts for B. dendrobatidis. Field surveys in Louisiana and Colorado revealed that zoosporangia occur within crayfish gastrointestinal tracts, that B. dendrobatidis prevalence in crayfish was up to 29%, and that crayfish presence in Colorado wetlands was a positive predictor of B. dendrobatidis infections in cooccurring amphibians. In experiments, crayfish, but not mosquitofish, became infected with B. dendrobatidis, maintained the infection for at least 12 wk, and transmitted B. dendrobatidis to amphibians. Exposure to water that previously held B. dendrobatidis also caused significant crayfish mortality and gill recession. These results indicate that there are nonamphibian hosts for B. dendrobatidis and suggest that B. dendrobatidis releases a chemical that can cause host pathology, even in the absence of infection. Managing these biological reservoirs for B. dendrobatidis and identifying this chemical might provide new hope for imperiled amphibians. PMID:23248288

  17. Design, testing, fabrication and launch support of a liquid chemical barium release payload (utilizing the liquid fluorine-barium salt/hydrazine system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, C. S.; Smith, E. W.; Murphy, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    A payload was designed which included a cryogenic oxidizer tank, a fuel tank, and burner section. Release of 30 lb of chemicals was planned to occur in 2 seconds at the optimum oxidizer to fuel ratio. The chemicals consisted of 17 lb of liquid fluorine oxidizer and 13 lb of hydrazine-barium salt fuel mixture. The fuel mixture was 17% barium chloride, 16% barium nitrate, and 67% hydrazine, and contained 2.6 lb of available barium. Two significant problem areas were resolved during the program: explosive valve development and burner operation. The release payload was flight tested, from Wallops Island, Virginia. The release took place at an altitude of approximately 260 km. The release produced a luminous cloud which expanded very rapidly, disappearing to the human eye in about 20 seconds. Barium ion concentration slowly increased over a wide area of sky until measurements were discontinued at sunrise (about 30 minutes).

  18. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  19. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms

  20. An independent review and prioritization of past radionuclide and chemical releases from the Los Alamos National Laboratory--implications for future dose reconstruction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Matthew H; Buddenbaum, John E; Burns, Robert E; Shonka, Joseph J; Gaffney, Shannon H; Donovan, Ellen P; Flack, Susan M; Widner, Thomas E

    2011-10-01

    From 1999 through 2010, a team of scientists and engineers systematically reviewed approximately eight million classified and unclassified documents at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that describe historical off-site releases of radionuclides and chemicals in order to determine the extent to which a full-scale dose reconstruction for releases is warranted and/or feasible. As a part of this effort, a relative ranking of historical airborne and waterborne radionuclide releases from LANL was established using priority index (PI) values that were calculated from estimated annual quantities released and the maximum allowable effluent concentrations according to The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Chemical releases were ranked based on annual usage estimates and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) toxicity values. PI results for airborne radionuclides indicate that early plutonium operations were of most concern between 1948 and 1961, in 1967, and again from 1970 through 1973. Airborne releases of uranium were found to be of most interest for 1968, from 1974 through 1978, and again in 1996. Mixed fission products yielded the highest PI value for 1969. Mixed activation product releases yielded the highest PI values from 1979 to 1995. For waterborne releases, results indicate that plutonium is of most concern for all years evaluated with the exception of 1956 when (90)Sr yielded the highest PI value. The prioritization of chemical releases indicate that four of the top five ranked chemicals were organic solvents that were commonly used in chemical processing and for cleaning. Trichloroethylene ranked highest, indicating highest relative potential for health effects, for both cancer and non-cancer effects. Documents also indicate that beryllium was used in significant quantities, which could have lead to residential exposures exceeding established environmental and occupational exposure limits, and warrants further consideration. In part because

  1. Flavor release measurement by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, construction of interface and mathematical modeling of release profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Madsen, Henrik; Smedsgaard, Jørn;

    2003-01-01

    that of the flavor detection threshold. An application study on the release of menthone and menthol from chewing gum by a group of six test persons was performed. Flavored chewing gum was used as a model matrix because of the long chewing periods and the simplicity of the system. It is concluded that...... the interface and the method can be used to measure breath from the nose. A mathematical model of the data was developed to give a quantitative method for description and characterization of the release of flavor compounds. The release profiles consisted of two sequences, one for a chewing period, and...

  2. Fission product release from LWR fuel defected in steam in the temperature range 500 to 16000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For practical purposes the release of cesium and iodine from LWR fuel rods in the temperature range 500 to 16000C can be considered to originate from three sources: (1) the gap inventory with release by both burst (vented gas) and diffusion; (2) grain boundary with release by tunnel formation; and (3) UO2 matrix with release by solid state diffusion. The chemical behavior of released iodine and cesium (at least after contact with steam) is predominantly that of CsI and CsOH. Fission gas release is the sum of the plenum inventory, gas embedded in the fuel and cladding surface layers and that released by tunnel formation, and solid state diffusion from the UO2 matrix. A small amount of large particle-sized fuel dust is ejected at time of rupture

  3. TSCA Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted to ensure...

  4. Submission for the CSNI/GREST benchmark exercise on chemical thermodynamic modeling in core-concrete interaction releases of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A submission for the CSNI/PWG-4/GREST standard problem on chemical thermodynamic modeling in core-concrete interaction releases of radionuclides is described. Part A of the exercise is a highly defined benchmark calculation in which data and speciation are specified. The problem is, however, ambiguous concerning the definition of an ideal solution. Consequently, two solutions are provided. In one solution, specified species are treated as molecular entities to define the ideal solution. In the second, mixing is assumed to occur ideally on cationic and anionic lattices. The different results obtained in these calculations illustrate the importance of condensed phase modeling in the analyses of high temperature melt interactions with concrete. Part B of the exercise consists of six problems in which the temperatures, pressures and bulk compositions of the melts are specified. Data and speciation are to be supplied as parts of the solutions to the problems. Results of calculations for these six problems are presented. Additional solutions are provided to illustrate the effects of speciation in the condensed oxide phase, non-ideality in the condensed metal phase and uncertainty in the thermodynamic properties of gas phase species. 17 refs., 14 tabs

  5. Early time evolution of negative ion clouds and electron density depletions produced during electron attachment chemical release experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Ganguli, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations are used to study the early time evolution of electron depletions and negative ion clouds produced during electron attachment chemical releases in the ionosphere. The simulation model considers the evolution in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field and a three-species plasma that contains electrons, positive ions, and also heavy negative ions that result as a by-product of the electron attachment reaction. The early time evolution (less than the negative ion cyclotron period) of the system shows that a negative charge surplus initially develops outside of the depletion boundary as the heavy negative ions move across the boundary. The electrons are initially restricted from moving into the depletion due to the magnetic field. An inhomogenous electric field develops across the boundary layer due to this charge separation. A highly sheared electron flow velocity develops in the depletion boundary due to E x B and Delta-N x B drifts that result from electron density gradients and this inhomogenous electric field. Structure eventually develops in the depletion boundary layer due to low-frequency electrostatic waves that have growth times shorter than the negative ion cyclotron period. It is proposed that these waves are most likely produced by the electron-ion hybrid instability that results from sufficiently large shears in the electron flow velocity.

  6. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the chemical structure of the Galactic discs from the first internal data release

    CERN Document Server

    Mikolaitis, Š; Recio-Blanco, A; de Laverny, P; Prieto, C Allende; Kordopatis, G; Tautvaišiene, G; Romano, D; Gilmore, G; Randich, S; Feltzing, S; Micela, G; Vallenari, A; Alfaro, E J; Bensby, T; Bragaglia, A; Flaccomio, E; Lanzafame, A C; Pancino, E; Smiljanic, R; Bergemann, M; Carraro, G; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Hourihane, A; Jofré, P; Lardo, C; Magrini, L; Maiorca, E; Morbidelli, L; Sbordone, L; Sousa, S G; Worley, C C; Zaggia, S

    2014-01-01

    Most high-resolution spectroscopic studies of the Galactic discs were mostly confined to objects in the solar vicinity. Here we aim at enlarging the volume in which individual chemical abundances are used to characterise both discs, using the first internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey. We derive and discuss the abundances of eight elements (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, Cr, Ni, and Y). The trends of these elemental abundances with iron are very similar to those in the solar neighbourhood. We find a natural division between alpha-rich and alpha-poor stars, best seen in the bimodality of the [Mg/M] distributions in bins of metallicity, which we attribute to thick- and thin-disc sequences, respectively. With the possible exception of Al, the observed dispersion around the trends is well described by the expected errors, leaving little room for astrophysical dispersion. Using previously derived distances from Recio-Blanco et al. (2014b), we further find that the thick-disc is more extended vertically and is mor...

  7. The Inventory Growth Spread

    OpenAIRE

    Belo, Frederico; Lin, Xiaoji

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies show that firms with low inventory growth outperform firms with high inventory growth in the cross-section of publicly traded firms. In addition, inventory investment is volatile and procyclical, and inventory-to-sales is persistent and countercyclical. We embed an inventory holding motive into the investment-based asset pricing framework by modeling inventory as a factor of production with convex and nonconvex adjustment costs. The augmented model simultaneously matches the ...

  8. ICPP water inventory study project summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Water inventory Study was initiated in September 1993 with the formation of a joint working group consisting of representatives from DOE-ID, State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, US Geological Survey, and INEL employees to investigate three issues that had been identified by the INEL Oversight Program at ICPP: (1) the water inventory imbalance at ICPP, (2) the source of water infiltrating into the Tank Farm vault sumps, and (3) the source of water providing potential recharge to perched water bodies underlying ICPP. These issues suggested that water was being lost from the ICPP distribution system. The INEL Oversight Program was concerned that the unaccounted for water at ICPP could be spreading contaminants that have been released over the past 40 years of operations of ICPP, possibly to the Snake River Plain Aquifer. This report summarizes the findings of each of the component investigations that were undertaken to resolve each of the three issues. Concerns about the risk of spreading contaminants will be resolved as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study being undertaken at ICPP in compliance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order between DOE-H), EPA, and the State of Idaho. This report will be a key input to that study

  9. The Impact of Pollution Prevention on Toxic Environmental Releases from U.S. Manufacturing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Matthew; Cox, Brendan; Keenan, Cheryl; Teitelbaum, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Between 1991 and 2012, the facilities that reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Program conducted 370,000 source reduction projects. We use this data set to conduct the first quasi-experimental retrospective evaluation of how implementing a source reduction (pollution prevention) project affects the quantity of toxic chemicals released to the environment by an average industrial facility. We use a differences-in-differences methodology, which measures how implementing a source reduction project affects a facility's releases of targeted chemicals, relative to releases of (a) other untargeted chemicals from the same facility, or (b) the same chemical from other facilities in the same industry. We find that the average source reduction project causes a 9-16% decrease in releases of targeted chemicals in the year of implementation. Source reduction techniques vary in effectiveness: for example, raw material modification causes a large decrease in releases, while inventory control has no detectable effect. Our analysis suggests that in aggregate, the source reduction projects carried out in the U.S. since 1991 have prevented between 5 and 14 billion pounds of toxic releases. PMID:26477531

  10. Structure-activity relationship of polyphenols on inhibition of chemical mediator release from rat peritoneal exudate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, K; Shoji, K; Mori, M; Ueyama, T; Matsuo, N; Oka, S; Nishiyama, K; Sugano, M

    1999-03-01

    The effect of phenolic compounds in foodstuffs on histamine and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) release from rat peritoneal exudate cells and their antioxidative activity were examined to assess their antiallergenic activities. Among them, triphenols such as pyrogallol and gallic acid inhibited histamine release from the cells, but diphenols did not. On the other hand, o- and p-diphenols such as catechol and hydroquinone with strong antioxidative activity inhibited LTB4 release as strongly as pyrogallol, but an m-derivative resorcinol with weak antioxidative activity did not. Though carboxylated compounds and their noncarboxylated counterparts were antioxidative, the former exerted a much weaker inhibitory effect on the LTB4 release than the latter. In flavonols, only myricetin with a triphenolic B ring strongly inhibited histamine release, but all flavonols strongly suppressed LTB4 release irrespective of the number of OH groups in the B ring. Among flavonoids with an o-diphenolic B ring, flavonol and flavone with a C4-carbonyl group strongly inhibited LTB4 release, whereas the activity of anthocyan without C4-carbonyl was much weaker than the above compounds. These results suggest that triphenolic structure is essential for the inhibition of histamine release. On the other hand, antioxidative activity and membrane permeability of phenolic compounds seemed to be essential for the inhibition of LTB4 release. In addition, the C4-carbonyl group seemed to be important for strongly inhibiting LTB4 release. PMID:10476914

  11. Influence of recoil-implanted and thermally released iodine on I-SCC of Zircaloy-4 in PCI-conditions: chemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pellet cladding interaction (PCI) phenomenon can lead to cladding failure by iodine induced stress corrosion cracking (I-SCC) during power transients. In these situations, the aggressive species is present as both, recoil implanted iodine in the cladding, and gaseous iodine thermally released in the gap. The aim of this work is to determine the respective roles of implanted and gaseous iodine in the SCC phenomenon. Two types of SCC tests have thus been performed. In the first one, zirconium and iodine recoil implanted tensile test specimens were used, with implantation profiles typical of those existing in a cladding under PCI conditions either on the dose or on the induced damage standpoint. These tests have shown that recoil implanted iodine has no chemical effect on the development of the SCC cracks. The second type of tests was performed on reference tensile test specimens at 350 C with iodine released either, in oxygen containing atmospheres or, at increasing temperatures. The iodine efficiency for cracks initiation was found to be stronger when no oxygen is available for repassivation and when iodine is released at higher temperature. These two conditions being fulfilled during PCI loading, since no gaseous oxygen is available in the fuel-to-clad gap, and since iodine is released through the pellet radical cracks at high temperature, thermally released iodine can be considered as the chemical active species responsible for SCC. (orig.)

  12. WILDLIFE HABITAT INVENTORY

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNDOĞDU, Ebubekir

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on what does habitat mean in wildlife, which factors it contains, how to make inventory for these factors and how to analyses habitat according to chosen species. In spite of habitat inventory has various meanings for varying areas and species by examining literature on this issue the most preferred habitat inventory standards are presented in this article. Keywords: Habitat, Inventory, Mapping

  13. Forest inventory in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest inventory in Myanmar started in 1850s. Up till 1975, Myanmar Forest Department conducted forest inventories covering approximately one forest division every year. The National Forest Survey and Inventory Project funded by UNDP and assisted by FAO commenced in 1981 and the National Forest Management and Inventory project followed in 1986. Up till end March 1993, pre-investment inventory has covered 26.7 million acres, reconnaissance inventory 5.4 million acres and management inventory has carried out in 12 townships

  14. 复合型缓释肥包衣剂理化性质及缓释特性研究%Studies on Physical and Chemical Properties and Slow- Release Properties of Compound Coating Agent for Slow-Release Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊海蓉; 钟总; 官春云; 蒋利华; 邹应斌; 熊远福

    2011-01-01

    为了探明复合型缓释肥包表剂的理化性质及其缓释特性,对复合型缓释肥包衣剂的粘度、成膜性、成膜时间、膜韧性、包衣脱落率、包衣肥的养分初期溶出率、养分微分溶出率、养分累积释放曲线等进行了测定.理化性质测试结果显示:缓释肥包衣剂的粘度为44.5 MPa/s、成膜性良好、成膜时间7min、包衣膜拉长倍数达2.8倍,包衣脱落率<5%.缓释特性测试结果显示:包衣肥养分N、P、K初期溶解率<15%、微分溶解率<2%,符合中国缓释肥料标准GB/T23348-2009.其中P的初期溶解率小于N、K的初期溶解率,而N、P、K微分溶解率相差不大.养分累积释放曲线大致呈“S”型,与作物生长需肥规律一致.表明复合型缓释肥包衣剂的理化性质良好,能有效控制普通复合肥养分的缓释.%To explore the physical and chemical properties and slow-release properties of compound coating-agent for slow-release fertilizer (KSFF-2), the viscosity, forming film property, forming film time, film tenacity, coating off rates of coating agent, and the nutrient initial-release ratios, nutrient micro-release ratios and nutrient accumulation-release curves of coating slow-release fertilizer were determined. Results showed that the viscosity of the compound coating-agent was 44.5 Mpa/s, forming film property was better, forming film time was 7 min, film stretch ratio was 2.8 times, coating off rates was less than 5%. The initial release ratio of N, P, K in the coated fertilizer was less than 15%, the micro release ratio was less than 2%, which was consistent with the slow-release fertilizer standard GB/T 23348-2009 constituted by China. The initial dissolution rate of P was less than those of N and K, and the micro release ratio of N, P, K was almost the same. The nutrient accumulation-release curves were S-shape, which was consistent with the nutrient demand of crops. These results indicated the physical and chemical

  15. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports

  16. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 3 consists of eleven appendices containing the following: Field verification reports for Idaho National Engineering Lab., Rocky Flats Plant, Brookhaven National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., and Sandia National Laboratories (NM); Mini-visits to small DOE sites; Working Group meeting, June 7--8, 1994; Commendable practices; Related chemical safety initiatives at DOE; Regulatory framework and industry initiatives related to chemical safety; and Chemical inventory data from field self-evaluation reports.

  17. Synthesis and Chemical and Biological Comparison of Nitroxyl and Nitric Oxide Releasing Diazeniumdiolate-based Aspirin Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Basudhar, Debashree; Bharadwaj, Gaurav; Cheng, Robert Y.; Jain, Sarthak; Shi, Sa; Heinecke, Julie L.; Holland, Ryan J.; Ridnour, Lisa A.; Caceres, Viviane de M.; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina C.; Paolocci, Nazareno; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A.; Wink, David A.; Miranda, Katrina M.

    2013-01-01

    Structural modifications of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have successfully reduced the side effect of gastrointestinal ulceration without affecting anti-inflammatory activity, but may increase risk of myocardial infarction with chronic use. That nitroxyl (HNO) reduces platelet aggregation, preconditions against myocardial infarction and enhances contractility led us to synthesize a diazeniumdiolate-based HNO releasing aspirin and to compare it to an NO-releasing analogue. He...

  18. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada)

  19. Effects of the purification techniques applied to industrial wastes on the chemical behaviour of ruthenium 106 in the marine environment. The case of La Hague reprocessing plant releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since nuclear fuel reprocessing started at the La Hague plant in 1966, the efficiency of the purification techniques applied to radioactive wastes has been improved by a factor of 600. The chemical behaviour of 106Ru observed in the liquid releases into the sea and at two coastal sites near the outlet, shows time variations related to the evolution of the reprocessing techniques used. The ''wet chemical method'' based on 106Ru coprecipitation with cobalt sulphide has fulfilled the objectives of environmental protection and the requirements of industrial productivity. As a consequence, 106Ru behaves like the weakly reactive complexes formed during the nitric acid dissolution stage of the process. Since 1989, vitrification of the effluents mainly affected by these complexes and the optimization of the wet method have contributed to the reduction of 106Ru liquid releases into the sea. At the same time, the radionuclide chemical non-reactivity has been attenuated. Measurements of 106Ru activity carried out in the seaweed Fucus serratus show that the availability of nitrosylruthenium in seawater is closely related to hydrolysis of the complexes. Hydrolysis products are the main source of the chemical species available for exchange with the seaweed, its concentration factor being estimated at 500 ± 350. (authors). 26 refs., 10 tabs., 6 figs

  20. HHS Enterprise Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Enterprise Data Inventory (EDI) is the comprehensive inventory listing of agency data resources including public, restricted public, and non-public datasets.

  1. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  2. World Glacier Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Glacier Inventory (WGI) contains information for over 130,000 glaciers. Inventory parameters include geographic location, area, length, orientation,...

  3. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count...

  4. From National Forest Inventory to National Forest GHG Inventories

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Ben; PANDEY Devendra; Achard, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 3.3 presents two national case studies for forest inventories in tropical countries: the Indian and Mexican national forest inventories. These national forest inventories have been use to report GHG inventories to the UNFCC

  5. Commodities Inventory Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Carpantier, Jean-Francois; DUFAYS, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Does commodity price volatility increase when inventories are low? We are the first ones to document this relationship. To that aim, we estimate asym- metric volatility models for a large set of commodities over 1994-2011. Since inventories are hard to measure, especially for high frequency data, we use positive return shocks as a new original proxy for inventories and find that asymmetric GARCH models reveal a significant inventory effect for many commodities. The results look robust. They h...

  6. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  7. Applying ABC analysis to the Navy's inventory management system

    OpenAIRE

    May, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited ABC Analysis is an inventory categorization technique used to classify and prioritize inventory items in an effort to better allocate business resources. A items are defined as the inventory items considered extremely important to the business, requiring strict oversight and control. B items are important to the business, but don’t require the tight controls and oversight required of the A items. C items are marginally important to the...

  8. Basic inventory management techniques for the Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Cheng-Wen

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Lacking further development of mathematical inventory models and well utilized automated records, the Republic of China (ROC) Naval supply system cannot operate efficiently and effectively. The constraints of budget, foreign exchange and unpredictable procurement lead times have resulted in an inventory level higher than optimal. However, the inventory management process and overall supply support performance could be i...

  9. 77 FR 15609 - Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for Certain High Production Volume Chemical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ..., Substantial Release, and Substantial or Significant Human Exposure; Notice. Federal Register (58 FR 28736, May... chemical substance was based on reports from several companies to the 2002 TSCA Inventory Update Reporting... coefficient and water solubility, and to screen for reproduction/developmental toxicity. Studies responding...

  10. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  11. Low and intermediate level waste in SFR-1. Reference Waste Inventory 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective with this report is to describe all the waste and the waste package that is expected to be deposited in SFR 1 at the time of closure. The report will form the basis for the release calculation in the safety analysis for SFR 1. Three different scenarios are explored in this report; the waste inventory is based on an estimated operational lifetime of the Swedish nuclear power plants of 50 and 60 years and that closure of the SFR 1 repository will take place in 2040 or 2050 respectively. The third scenario is where the repository is full (one part where the activity adds up to 1016 Bq and one part where the repository is considered full regarding volume). In the report, data about geometries, weights, materials, chemicals and radionuclide are given. No chemotoxic material has been identified in the waste. The inventory is estimated using the Prosit-interface which extracts information from the Triumf database. The inventory is based on so called 'waste types' and the waste types' 'reference waste package'. The reference waste package combined with a prognosis of the number of waste packages to be delivered to SFR 1 gives the final waste inventory for SFR 1. All reference waste packages are thoroughly described in the appendices of this report. The reference waste packages are as far as possible based on actual experiences and measurements. The radionuclide inventory is also based on actual measurements. The inventory is based on measurements of 60Co and 137Cs in waste packages and on measurements of 239Pu and 240Pu in reactor water. Other nuclides in the inventory are calculated with correlation factors

  12. Low and intermediate level waste in SFR-1. Reference Waste Inventory 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almkvist, Lisa (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (SE)); Gordon, Anna (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-11-15

    The objective with this report is to describe all the waste and the waste package that is expected to be deposited in SFR 1 at the time of closure. The report will form the basis for the release calculation in the safety analysis for SFR 1. Three different scenarios are explored in this report; the waste inventory is based on an estimated operational lifetime of the Swedish nuclear power plants of 50 and 60 years and that closure of the SFR 1 repository will take place in 2040 or 2050 respectively. The third scenario is where the repository is full (one part where the activity adds up to 1016 Bq and one part where the repository is considered full regarding volume). In the report, data about geometries, weights, materials, chemicals and radionuclide are given. No chemotoxic material has been identified in the waste. The inventory is estimated using the Prosit-interface which extracts information from the Triumf database. The inventory is based on so called 'waste types' and the waste types' 'reference waste package'. The reference waste package combined with a prognosis of the number of waste packages to be delivered to SFR 1 gives the final waste inventory for SFR 1. All reference waste packages are thoroughly described in the appendices of this report. The reference waste packages are as far as possible based on actual experiences and measurements. The radionuclide inventory is also based on actual measurements. The inventory is based on measurements of 60Co and 137Cs in waste packages and on measurements of 239Pu and 240Pu in reactor water. Other nuclides in the inventory are calculated with correlation factors

  13. Combined treatment with antioxidants and immunosuppressants on cytokine release by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells - chemically injured keratocyte reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Kayoung; Chung, Tae Young; Hyon, Joon Young; Koh, Jae Woong; Wee, Won Ryang; Shin, Young Joo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of antioxidants and immunosuppresants on mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) - chemically injured keratocytes reaction (MLKR). Methods The PBMC stimulation assay was performed using chemically injured keratocytes treated with 0.05 N NaOH for 90 s (MLKR). MLKR were treated with various drugs including rapamycin, dexamethasone, mycophenoleic acid (MPA), alpha lipoic acid (ALA), and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9), transform...

  14. Inventory - Dollars and sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear utilities are becoming more aware of the importance of having an inventory investment that supports two opposing philosophies. The business philosophy wants a minimal inventory investment to support a better return on invested dollars. This increase in return comes from having the dollars available to invest versus having the money tied up in inventory sitting on the shelf. The opposing viewpoint is taken by maintenance/operations organizations, which desire the maximum inventory available on-site to repair any component at any time to keep the units on-line at all times. Financial managers also want to maintain cash flow throughout operations so that plants run without interruptions. Inventory management is therefore a mixture of financial logistics with an operation perspective in mind. A small amount of common sense and accurate perception also help. The challenge to the materials/inventory manager is to optimize effectiveness of the inventory by having high material availability at the lowest possible cost

  15. Reactor core heterogeneity effects on radionuclide inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Reactor core heterogeneity effects on radionuclide inventory are studied. ► A methodology for inventory estimation of individual fuel assembly is developed. ► Estimated inventory using presently developed and conventional method is compared. ► Radionuclide density peak and its location in equilibrium VVER core are investigated. - Abstract: Understanding fission product behavior is an important aspect of nuclear safety studies. A nuclear reactor core contains complex mixture of fuel elements with different levels of enrichment, power and burnup. Conventional method of core radionuclide inventory estimation is based on use of homogenized core parameters like burnup, enrichment, specific power etc. This approach does not reveal the variation in radionuclide density among different fuel elements within the core. The present work aims to bridge this knowledge gap by estimating the distribution of radionuclides in the nuclear reactor core taking into account the heterogeneity of the core explicitly. The analysis has brought out peak radionuclide density in the core which can be helpful in appropriate estimation of the radiological release in the accidental scenarios involving failures of few fuel assemblies. A quantitative comparison of total core inventory estimated based conventional core average parameters and detailed core inventory using individual fuel assembly inventory estimate has been made

  16. Characterization of Residential Pesticide Use and Chemical Formulations through Self-Report and Household Inventory: The Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Neela; Ward, Mary H; Gunier, Robert; Colt, Joanne S.; Lea, C. Suzanne; Buffler, Patricia A.; Metayer, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Home and garden pesticide use has been linked to cancer and other health outcomes in numerous epidemiological studies. Exposure has generally been self-reported, so the assessment is potentially limited by recall bias and lack of information on specific chemicals. Objectives: As part of an integrated assessment of residential pesticide exposure, we identified active ingredients and described patterns of storage and use. Methods: During a home interview of 500 residentially stable ...

  17. Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Sengul, Hatice

    2010-04-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck an area dense with industry, causing numerous releases of petroleum and hazardous materials. This study integrates information from a number of sources to describe the frequency, causes, and effects of these releases in order to inform analysis of risk from future hurricanes. Over 200 onshore releases of hazardous chemicals, petroleum, or natural gas were reported. Storm surge was responsible for the majority of petroleum releases and failure of storage tanks was the most common mechanism of release. Of the smaller number of hazardous chemical releases reported, many were associated with flaring from plant startup, shutdown, or process upset. In areas impacted by storm surge, 10% of the facilities within the Risk Management Plan (RMP) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) databases and 28% of SIC 1311 facilities experienced accidental releases. In areas subject only to hurricane strength winds, a lower fraction (1% of RMP and TRI and 10% of SIC 1311 facilities) experienced a release while 1% of all facility types reported a release in areas that experienced tropical storm strength winds. Of industrial facilities surveyed, more experienced indirect disruptions such as displacement of workers, loss of electricity and communication systems, and difficulty acquiring supplies and contractors for operations or reconstruction (55%), than experienced releases. To reduce the risk of hazardous material releases and speed the return to normal operations under these difficult conditions, greater attention should be devoted to risk-based facility design and improved prevention and response planning. PMID:20345576

  18. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  19. A new method of inhibiting pollutant release from source water reservoir sediment by adding chemical stabilization agents combined with water-lifting aerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beibei Chai; Tinglin Huang; Weihuang Zhu; Fengying Yang

    2011-01-01

    Source water reservoirs easily become thermally and dynamically stratified.Internal pollution released from reservoir sediments is the main cause of water quality problems.To mitigate the internal pollution more effectively,a new method,which combined chemical stabilization with water lifting aerator (WLA) technology,was proposed and its efficiency in inhibiting pollutant release was studied by controlled sediment-water interface experiments.The results showed that this new method can inhibit pollutant release from sediment effectively.The values of mean efficiency (E) in different reactors 2#-5# (1# with no agent,2# 10 mg/L polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC) was added,3# 20 mg/L PAC was added,4# 30 mg/L PAC was added,5# 20 mg/L PAC and 0.2 mg/L palyacrylamide (PAM)were added) for PO43- were 35.0%,43.9%,50.4% and 63.6%,respectively.This showed that the higher the PAC concentration was,the better the inhibiting efficiency was,and PAM addition strengthened the inhibiting efficiency significantly.For Fe2+,the corresponding values of E for the reactors 2#-5# were 22.9%,47.2%,34.3% and 46.2%,respectively.The inhibiting effect of PAC and PAM on Mn release remained positive for a relatively short time,about 10 days,and was not so effective as for PO43- and Fe2+.The average efliciencies in inhibiting the release of UV254 were 35.3%,25.9%,35.5%,38.9% and 39.5% for reactors 2#-5#,respectively.The inhibiting mechanisms of the agents for different pollutants varied among the conditions and should be studied further.

  20. Association between Six Environmental Chemicals and Lung Cancer Incidence in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Juhua Luo; Michael Hendryx; Alan Ducatman

    2011-01-01

    Background. An increased risk of lung cancer has been observed at exposure to certain industrial chemicals in occupational settings; however, less is known about their carcinogenic potential to the general population when those agents are released into the environment. Methods. We used the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data to conduct an ecological study at the county level. We used multiple linear regression to assess the assoc...

  1. 75 FR 19319 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... requirements for hydrogen sulfide (75 FR 8889). B. Why and for How Long Is EPA Extending the Comment Period... Number (CAS No.) 7783-06-4) (75 FR 8889). The purpose of today's action is to inform interested parties... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 372 RIN 2025-AA27 Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical...

  2. From solution to in-cell study of the chemical reactivity of acid sensitive functional groups: a rational approach towards improved cleavable linkers for biospecific endosomal release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Sylvain A; Leriche, Geoffray; Mosser, Michel; Nothisen, Marc; Muller, Christian D; Remy, Jean-Serge; Wagner, Alain

    2016-06-01

    pH-Sensitive linkers designed to undergo selective hydrolysis at acidic pH compared to physiological pH can be used for the selective release of therapeutics at their site of action. In this paper, the hydrolytic cleavage of a wide variety of molecular structures that have been reported for their use in pH-sensitive delivery systems was examined. A wide variety of hydrolytic stability profiles were found among the panel of tested chemical functionalities. Even within a structural family, a slight modification of the substitution pattern has an unsuspected outcome on the hydrolysis stability. This work led us to establish a first classification of these groups based on their reactivities at pH 5.5 and their relative hydrolysis at pH 5.5 vs. pH 7.4. From this classification, four representative chemical functions were selected and studied in-vitro. The results revealed that only the most reactive functions underwent significant lysosomal cleavage, according to flow cytometry measurements. These last results question the acid-based mechanism of action of known drug release systems and advocate for the importance of an in-depth structure-reactivity study, using a tailored methodology, for the rational design and development of bio-responsive linkers. PMID:27169758

  3. Chemical design of pH-sensitive nanovalves on the outer surface of mesoporous silicas for controlled storage and release of aromatic amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.

    2014-07-01

    Mesoporous silicas with hexagonally arranged pore channels were synthesized in water-ethanol-ammonia solution using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as template. Directed modification of silica surface with N-[N‧-(N‧-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups was realized by postsynthetic activation of halogenoalkylsilicas, which have surface uniformly or selectively distributed 3-chloropropyl groups, with 2-aminodiphenylamine in the liquid phase. Chemical composition of silica materials was estimated by IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the surface products of reactions. Characteristics of porous structure of MCM-41-type silicas were determined from X-ray and low-temperature nitrogen ad-desorption measurements. Release ability of synthesized silica carriers was established on encapsulation of 4-aminobenzoic acid in pore channels and subsequent delivery at pH=6.86 and pH=1.00. It was found that N-[N‧-(N‧-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups block pore entrances at neutral pH preventing 4-aminobenzoic acid release. At pH=1.00 repulsion of positively charged surface aromatic amino groups localized near pore orifices provides unhindered liberation of aromatic amino acid from mesoporous channels.

  4. Components of Manufacturing Inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Auerbach, Alan J.; Jerry R. Green

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a structural model of production and inventory accumulation based on the hypothesis of cost minimization. It differs from previous attempts in several respects. First, it integrates the analysis of input inventories with output inventories, treating the two stocks separately. Second, it distinguishes between temporary and permanent fluctuations in sales as they are anticipated by the industry. Third, it allows for a more general structure of adjustment costs, and in partic...

  5. 21st Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Elliot; Dean, Brandon; Mason, Brannon

    2015-01-01

    Currently, Network Infrastructure & Services (NI&S) takes inventory of equipment assigned to employees (computers, laptops, tablets, tools) and sends reports of higher value items to the Controller’s Office. All items have a VT tag number and a CNS number, which can currently only be matched up via an Oracle Forms interface. An inventory clerk must personally verify the existence and location of each piece of equipment. An improvement would be an app that scans an inventory number or bar code...

  6. Modelling manufacturing inventories

    OpenAIRE

    John D. Tsoukalas

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents and applies a stage-of-fabrication inventory model to the UK manufacturing sector. The model emphasises the interaction between input (raw materials and work-in-process) and output (finished goods) inventories. This interaction is an important empirical regularity and proves critical for the ability of the model to fit the data. Decisions about input and output inventory investment cannot be considered in isolation from each other, but must be analysed jointly. Overall, th...

  7. Inventories and sales uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Caglayan, M.; Maioli, S. (Silvia); Mateut, S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the empirical linkages between sales uncertainty and firms´ inventory investment behavior while controlling for firms´ financial strength. Using large panels of manufacturing firms from several European countries we find that higher sales uncertainty leads to larger stocks of inventories. We also identify an indirect effect of sales uncertainty on inventory accumulation through the financial strength of firms. Our results provide evidence that financial strength mitigates the a...

  8. Tritium inventory measurements using calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past calorimetry has been developed as a powerful tool in radiometrology. Calorimetric methods have been applied for the determination of activities, half lives and mean energies released during the disintegration of radioactive isotopes. The fundamental factors and relations which determine the power output of radioactive samples are presented and some basic calorimeter principles are discussed in this paper. At the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) a family of 3 calorimeters has been developed to measure the energy release from radiative waste products arising from reprocessing operations. With these calorimeters, radiative samples with sizes from a few cm3 to 2 ·105 cm3 and heat ratings ranging from a few nW to kW can be measured. After modifications of tits inner part the most sensitive calorimeter among the three calorimeters mentioned above would be best suited for measuring the tritium inventory in T-getters of the Amersham-type

  9. Chemical design of pH-sensitive nanovalves on the outer surface of mesoporous silicas for controlled storage and release of aromatic amino acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoporous silicas with hexagonally arranged pore channels were synthesized in water–ethanol-ammonia solution using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as template. Directed modification of silica surface with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups was realized by postsynthetic activation of halogenoalkylsilicas, which have surface uniformly or selectively distributed 3-chloropropyl groups, with 2-aminodiphenylamine in the liquid phase. Chemical composition of silica materials was estimated by IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the surface products of reactions. Characteristics of porous structure of MCM-41-type silicas were determined from X-ray and low-temperature nitrogen ad-desorption measurements. Release ability of synthesized silica carriers was established on encapsulation of 4-aminobenzoic acid in pore channels and subsequent delivery at pH=6.86 and pH=1.00. It was found that N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups block pore entrances at neutral pH preventing 4-aminobenzoic acid release. At pH=1.00 repulsion of positively charged surface aromatic amino groups localized near pore orifices provides unhindered liberation of aromatic amino acid from mesoporous channels. - Graphical abstract: Blocking of pores with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups at pH=6.86 for storage of ABA and opening of pore entrances at pH=1.00 for unhindered ABA liberation. - Highlights: • Modification of MCM-41 with N-[N -(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups. • Study of release ability of synthesized silica carriers in relation to amino acid. • Controlled blocking and opening of pores by amino groups at pH change were performed. • Retention of amino acid at pH=6.86 and its liberation at pH=1.00 was proved

  10. Chemical design of pH-sensitive nanovalves on the outer surface of mesoporous silicas for controlled storage and release of aromatic amino acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roik, N.V., E-mail: roik_nadya@ukr.net; Belyakova, L.A.

    2014-07-01

    Mesoporous silicas with hexagonally arranged pore channels were synthesized in water–ethanol-ammonia solution using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as template. Directed modification of silica surface with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups was realized by postsynthetic activation of halogenoalkylsilicas, which have surface uniformly or selectively distributed 3-chloropropyl groups, with 2-aminodiphenylamine in the liquid phase. Chemical composition of silica materials was estimated by IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the surface products of reactions. Characteristics of porous structure of MCM-41-type silicas were determined from X-ray and low-temperature nitrogen ad-desorption measurements. Release ability of synthesized silica carriers was established on encapsulation of 4-aminobenzoic acid in pore channels and subsequent delivery at pH=6.86 and pH=1.00. It was found that N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups block pore entrances at neutral pH preventing 4-aminobenzoic acid release. At pH=1.00 repulsion of positively charged surface aromatic amino groups localized near pore orifices provides unhindered liberation of aromatic amino acid from mesoporous channels. - Graphical abstract: Blocking of pores with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups at pH=6.86 for storage of ABA and opening of pore entrances at pH=1.00 for unhindered ABA liberation. - Highlights: • Modification of MCM-41 with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups. • Study of release ability of synthesized silica carriers in relation to amino acid. • Controlled blocking and opening of pores by amino groups at pH change were performed. • Retention of amino acid at pH=6.86 and its liberation at pH=1.00 was proved.

  11. Measurement of krypton grain-boundary inventories in CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for measuring the Kr-85 grain-boundary inventory in irradiated fuel based on the conversion of UO2 to U3O8 at low temperatures has been improved. The improvements include: 1) the use of a tracer isotope to account for release from the matrix during measurement of the grain-boundary inventory and 2) the cutting of samples from known locations. With these improvements it is possible to measure radial variations in the grain-boundary inventory. The measurements of Kr-85 grain-boundary inventory can be combined with gamma mapping and ceramography to allow investigation of the connection between microstructure and fission-product distribution. (author)

  12. Fate of Organohalogens in U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants and Estimated Chemical Releases to Soils Nationwide from Biosolids Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Heidler, Jochen; Halden, Rolf U.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the occurrence in wastewater of 11 aromatic biocides, pesticides and degradates, and their fate during passage through U.S. treatment plants, as well as the chemical mass contained in sewage sludge (biosolids) destined for land application. Analyte concentrations in wastewater influent, effluent and sludge from 25 facilities in 18 U.S. states were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray (tandem) mass spectrometry. Dichlorocarbanilide, fipronil, triclocarban, and t...

  13. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  14. Review of analytical techniques to determine the chemical forms of vapours and aerosols released from overheated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review has been undertaken of appropriate analytical techniques to monitor and measure the chemical effects that occur in large-scale tests designed to study severe reactor accidents. Various methods have been developed to determine the chemical forms of the vapours, aerosols and deposits generated during and after such integral experiments. Other specific techniques have the long-term potential to provide some of the desired data in greater detail, although considerable efforts are still required to apply these techniques to the study of radioactive debris. Such in-situ and post-test methods of analysis have been also assessed in terms of their applicability to the analysis of samples from the Phebus-FP tests. The recommended in-situ methods of analysis are gamma-ray spectroscopy, potentiometry, mass spectrometry, and Raman/UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Vapour/aerosol and deposition samples should also be obtained at well-defined time intervals during each experiment for subsequent post-test analysis. No single technique can provide all the necessary chemical data from these samples, and the most appropriate method of analysis involves a complementary combination of autoradiography, AES, IR, MRS, SEMS/EDS, SIMS/LMIS, XPS and XRD

  15. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Sellström

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking.

  16. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  17. Canadian pollutant releases and transfers : NPRI data 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large, two-sided fold-out poster showing pollution hotspots throughout Canada, has been released by the Canadian Institute for Environmental Law and Policy (CIELAP). The poster is based on the maps and tables of the National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) 1998. It presents the top on-site releases and off-site transfers of pollutants by facilities across Canada, and provides a summary of releases, transfers and recycling of pollutants by province. The map depicts the facilities with the five largest quantities of individual pollutants released to each medium, i. e. water, air, land, underground. The crude oil and gas, other utilities, primary metal, paper and chemical industrial sectors are responsible for the largest on-site releases, while the business services, fabricated metal. primary metal and chemical industrial sectors account for the largest off-site transfers. Twenty-five of the 176 substances whose releases and transfers are reported under the NPRI are classified as 'toxic' or 'carcinogenic'. tabs., maps

  18. Study of physico-chemical release of uranium and plutonium oxides during the combustion of polycarbonate and of ruthenium during the combustion of solvents used in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of consequences concerning a fire in a nuclear facility is in part estimated by the quantities and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive compounds that may be emitted out of the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the contaminant release from the fire. Because of the multiplicity of the scenarios, two research subjects were retained. The first one concerns the study of the uranium or plutonium oxides chemical release during the combustion of the polycarbonate glove box sides. The second one is about the physico chemical characterisation of the ruthenium release during the combustion of an organic solvent mixture (tributyl phosphate-dodecane) used for the nuclear fuel reprocessing. Concerning the two research subjects, the chemical release, i.e. means the generation of contaminant compounds gaseous in the fire, was modelled using thermodynamical simulations. Experiments were done in order to determine the ruthenium release factor during solvent combustion. A cone calorimeter was used for small scale experiments. These results were then validated by large scale tests under conditions close to the industrial process. Thermodynamical simulations, for the two scenarios studied. Furthermore, the experiments on solvent combustion allowed the determination of a suitable ruthenium release factor. Finally, the mechanism responsible of the ruthenium release has been found. (author)

  19. Interaction mechanisms of radioactive, chemical and thermal releases from the nuclear industry: Methodology for considering co-operative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of chemicals are known which can modify radiation effects on cell killing, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. In this paper data are reported for radiosensitizing agents. In order to discuss the interaction mechanisms of these synergistic effects, the action of radiation on DNA, on its biological functions and on its metabolism are explained briefly. Also it is indicated that part of the radiation effects in the DNA can be 'repaired' and that living cells can recover from radiation damage. One group of radiosensitizers interacts with cellular DNA or with the DNP-complex. These reactions change the configurational structure or metabolism of DNA and DNP. In this connection the action of antibiotics such as actinomycin D, and the action of SH-blocking agents such as iodoacetamide and NEM, as well as the action of alkylating agents, are discussed. A second group of radiosensitizers, especially with hypoxic cells, are the electron affinic chemicals like nitro-compounds, ketones and others. Data are also given on the modification of radiation effects by changes in temperature. Further, the problem of whether synergistic effects are to be expected arising from the chemicals and radiation originating in the nuclear industry is considered. Data show that repair and recovery processes especially are modified by radiosensitizers. The implications of this fact on sensitization at low radiation doses and at low dose rates, as well as the effect of high LET radiation, are considered. It is of interest that the dose modifying factor of some sensitizers can reach a magnitude of a factor of two to three. (author)

  20. Morphological and Chemical Evolution of Gradually Deposited Diamond-Like Carbon Films on Polyethylene Terephthalate: From Subplantation Processes to Structural Reorganization by Intrinsic Stress Release Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Alberto; Guo, Qiaochu; Kunze, Michael R; Agnello, Simonpietro; Gelardi, Franco M; Wehner, Stefan; Fischer, Christian B

    2016-04-27

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are nowadays intensively studied composites due to their excellent gas barrier properties and biocompatibility. Despite their applicative features being highly explored, the interface properties and structural film evolution of DLC coatings on PET during deposition processes are still sparsely investigated. In this study two different types of DLC films were gradually deposited on PET by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) using acetylene plasma. The surface morphology of the deposited samples has been analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their chemical composition was investigated by diffusive reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and Raman spectroscopy analysis and the surface wettability by contact angle measurements. Subplantation processes and interface effects are revealed through the morphological and chemical analysis of both types. During plasma deposition processes the increasing carbon load causes the rise of intrinsic film stress. It is proven that stress release phenomena cause the transition between polymer-like to a more cross-linked DLC network by folding dehydrogenated chains into closed 6-fold rings. These findings significantly lead to an enhanced understanding in DLC film growth mechanism by RF-PECVD processes. PMID:27058762

  1. Force Concept Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestenes, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reports the rationale, design, validation, and uses of the "Force Concept Inventory," an instrument to assess the students' beliefs on force. Includes results and implications of two studies that compared the inventory with the "Mechanics Baseline." Includes a copy of the instrument. (MDH)

  2. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.;

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, ......, NMVOC, SO2, HFCs, PFCs and SF6....

  3. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, CO...

  4. Vendor-managed inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Vendor-managed inventory (VMI) represents the methodology through which the upstream stage of a supply chain (vendor) takes responsibility for managing the inventories at the downstream stage (customer) based on previously agreed limits. VMI is another method by which supply chains can be managed...

  5. Controle de estoque de materiais com diferentes padrões de demanda: estudo de caso em uma indústria química Inventory control of items with different demand patterns: a case study in the chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos dos Santos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O desafio do gestor de estoques é saber quando e quanto ressuprir de cada material e quanto deve manter em estoque de segurança. Com o crescente número de itens com diferentes padrões de demanda e características específicas, a complexidade na administração de materiais aumenta devido à necessidade de controle diferenciado. Este trabalho, por meio de um estudo de caso em uma empresa química, propõe um método de classificação dos materiais em famílias afins com a adoção de políticas distintas de ressuprimento e estoques de segurança, com o objetivo de garantir o balanceamento dos estoques e atender aos níveis de serviço requeridos à produção.The main challenge of inventory managers is to define when and how many of each item to replenish and how much to keep in a safety stock. The increasing number of items with different demand patterns and specific characteristics requires different policies to ensure a good performance in this area. Based on a case study of a chemical company, this paper proposes a method for classifying materials with different demand patterns into families, using specific replenishment and safety stock policies aimed at maintaining a balance of stocks and meeting the service levels required for production.

  6. Fission Product Inventory in CANDU Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the reactor is operated at power, fuel composition changes continuously. The fission reaction produces a large variety of fission fragments which are radioactive and decay into other isotopic species. For different accident analyses or operational events, detailed calculations of the fuel radioactive inventory (fission products and actinides) are needed. The present paper reviews two types of radioactive inventory calculations performed at Cernavoda NPP: one for determining the whole core inventory and one for determining the evolution of the inventory within fuel bundles stored in the Spent Fuel Bay. Two computer codes are currently used for radioactive inventory calculations: ORIGEN-S and ELESTRES-IST. The whole core inventory calculation was performed with both codes, the comparison showing that ELESTRES-IST gives a more conservative result. One of the challenges met during the analysis was to set a credible, yet conservative “image” of the in core fuel power/burnup distribution. Consequently, a statistical analysis was performed to find the best estimate plus uncertainties map for the power/burnup distribution of all in core fuel elements. For each power/burnup in the map, the fission product inventory was computed using a scaled irradiation history based on the Limiting Overpower Envelope. After the Fukushima accident, the problem of assessing the consequences of a loss of cooling event at the Spent Fuel Bay was raised. In order to estimate its impact, a calculation for determining the fission products inventory and decay heat evolution within the spent fuel bundles stored in the bay was performed. The calculation was done for a bay filled with fuel bundles up to its maximum capacity. The results obtained have provided a conservative estimation of the decay heat released and the expected evolution of the water temperature in the bay. This provided a technical basis for selecting the emergency actions required to cope with such events. (author)

  7. Optimal fuel inventory strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to maintain their competitive edge, most utilities are reevaluating many of their conventional practices and policies in an effort to further minimize customer revenue requirements without sacrificing system reliability. Over the past several years, Illinois Power has been rethinking its traditional fuel inventory strategies, recognizing that coal supplies are competitive and plentiful and that carrying charges on inventory are expensive. To help the Company achieve one of its strategic corporate goals, an optimal fuel inventory study was performed for its five major coal-fired generating stations. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe Illinois Power's system and past practices concerning coal inventories, highlight the analytical process behind the optimal fuel inventory study, and discuss some of the recent experiences affecting coal deliveries and economic dispatch

  8. Numerical analysis of the chemical kinetic mechanisms of ozone depletion and halogen release in the polar troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the role of halogen species (e.g. Br, Cl in the troposphere of polar regions is investigated after the discovery of their importance for boundary layer ozone destruction in the polar spring. Halogen species take part in an auto-catalytic chemical cycle including key self reactions. In this study, several chemical reaction schemes are investigated, and the importance of specific reactions and their rate constants is identified by a sensitivity analysis. A category of heterogeneous reactions related to HOBr activate halogen ions from sea salt aerosols, fresh sea ice or snow pack, driving the "bromine explosion". In the Arctic, a small amount of NOx may exist, which comes from nitrate contained in the snow, and this NOx may have a strong impact on ozone depletion. The heterogeneous reaction rates are parameterized by considering the aerodynamic resistance, a reactive surface ratio, β, i.e. ratio of reactive surface area to total ground surface area, and the boundary layer height, Lmix. It is found that for β = 1, the ozone depletion process starts after five days and lasts for 40 h for Lmix = 200 m. Ozone depletion duration becomes independent of the height of the boundary layer for about β≥20, and it approaches a value of two days for β=100. The role of nitrogen and chlorine containing species on the ozone depletion rate is studied. The calculation of the time integrated bromine and chlorine atom concentrations suggests a value in the order of 103 for the [Br] / [Cl] ratio, which reveals that atomic chlorine radicals have minor direct influence on the ozone depletion. The NOx concentrations are influenced by different chemical cycles over different time periods. During ozone depletion, the reaction cycle involving the BrONO2 hydrolysis is dominant. A critical value of 0.002 of the uptake coefficient of the BrONO2 hydrolysis reaction at the aerosol and saline surfaces is identified, beyond which the existence of NOx species

  9. Do provisions to advance chemical facility safety also advance chemical facility security? An analysis of possible synergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    The European Commission has launched a study on the applicability of existing chemical industry safety provisions to enhancing security of chemical facilities covering the situation in 18 EU Member States. This paper reports some preliminary analytical findings regarding the extent to which...... exist at the mitigation level. At the strategic policy level, synergies are obvious. The security of chemical facilities is important. First, facilities with large inventories of toxic materials could be attractive targets for terrorists. The concern is sabotage causing an intentional release that could...

  10. Impact of the releases of water residuals on the physico-chemical and algological quality of Naher Antelias (Lebanon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water from the Antelias river that supplies water to the north of Beirut region, were sampled bimonthly during 2000-2001 and analyzed for major ions( Na-+, K-+, Ca-2+, Mg-2+,Cl--, SO -24-,NO-3-,HCO- -3) and trace metal ( Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn) The major ion composition in the river is predominantly influenced by sea-salt aerosol in rain water, with a cationic dominance order Ca > Mg > Na > K. and anionic order of HCO3- >> Cl- > SO2-4. These results are very similar to the common natural major ion assemblages established for Lebanese rivers which tend to be predominantly influenced by chemical weathering of rocks and minerals . the mean concentration of trace elements in the freshwater of the coastal stations increase remarkably. Increases in major ion and trace elements concentration are mainly due to climatic factors and anthropogenic activities resulting from urban and industrial effluents during the summer period. The mean concentration of the major ions , which decrease by the factor of 1.5-3.0 with decreasing water discharge, can be attributed also to evaporation effect. The diatoms, that are the most reliable bioindicators of the water quality, present a heterogeneous biodiversity among the different stations and reflect an acute pollution especially during the summer season. (author)

  11. Interactive Inventory Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garud, Sumedha

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (lAD) module that communicates with, or is part of the base station to provide an initial inquiry. lnformation on location(s) of the larget invenlory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventgory item. Another embodiment provides inventory informatin for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person adjacent to that stack.

  12. Timber inventory using Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The results of recent efforts to apply Landsat MSS imagery, in concert with topological maps, to forestry timber inventories via the FOCIS program are reported. FOCIS (Forests Classification and Inventory System) was defined for inventorying the lumber volume of coniferous tree types in rugged terrain regions. Data from four bands serve as input for unsupervised clustering and iterative labeling of the elevation, slope angle, and subregions of interest. Simulated photographic maps are generated which serve as overlays for regular maps for assessing timber harvests and sales goals. Sample procedures followed in mapping the Eldorado region forests in the Sierra Nevada mountains are discussed.

  13. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.

    1990-08-01

    This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

  14. National Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Emission Inventory contains measured, modeled, and estimated data for emissions of all known source categories in the US (stationary sources, fires,...

  15. VA Enterprise Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Department of Veterans Affairs Enterprise Data Inventory accounts for all of the datasets used in the agency's information systems. This entry was approved for...

  16. The Danish CORINAIR Inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.; Illerup, J. B.; Fenhann, J.;

    CORINAIR is the most comprehensive European air emission inventory programme. It consists of a defined emission calculation methodology and software for storing and further data processing. In CORINAIR 28 different emission species are estimated in 11 main sectors which are further sub-divided, a......CORINAIR is the most comprehensive European air emission inventory programme. It consists of a defined emission calculation methodology and software for storing and further data processing. In CORINAIR 28 different emission species are estimated in 11 main sectors which are further sub...... of emissions per unit activity. This report describes the structure of the Danish CORINAIR emission inventory on a 1996 level and international conventions to which Denmark submits emission data. Furthermore the most important activities in the Danish inventory are explained. Subsequently the Danish 1996...

  17. China's Glacier Inventory Completed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A 12-volume Chinese Glacier Inventory has recently been finished by a group of Chinese glaciologists headed by Prof. Shi Yafeng from the Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute under CAS.

  18. Logistics and Inventory System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Logistics and Inventory System (LIS) is the agencys primary supply/support automation tool. The LIS encompasses everything from order entry by field specialists...

  19. Public Waters Inventory Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...

  20. Asset Inventory Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AIDM is used to track USAID assets such as furniture, computers, and equipment. Using portable bar code readers, receiving and inventory personnel can capture...

  1. National Emission Inventory (NEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data exchange allows states to submit data to the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). NEI is a national database of air...

  2. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  3. Inventory Control Crucial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    Inventory control is one of the most important business processes during the operation of a trading or manufacturing company as it relates to purchases,sales and logistic activities,In order to have clear inven- tory management,a company should focus not only on logistic management but also on sales and purchase management.The general view is that the warehouse serves as the most important component of inventory manage- ment and that the accounting department is

  4. A Radioisotope Inventory Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioisotope Inventory Program maintains an accurate and up-to-date inventory of all radioisotopes used on campus. An instruction manual provides easy to use directions for using the program. The program is implemented on a Hewlett-Packard HP-85 microcomputer and can be used on other systems. The commands allow updating and changing licensee information easily and quickly. Data Security is maintained by placing the data on a removable tape cartridge and locking the cartridge

  5. Traffic Signs Inventory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ružbarský

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on practical application of Cambridge Correlator. The goal is to propose a traffic signs inventory system by using excellent characteristics of correlator in the rapid optical correlation. The proposal of this inventory system includes obtaining of traffic signs to create the database either collecting the GPS coordinates. It is necessary to know the traffic signs position and also to document the entire surface route for later evaluation in offline mode.

  6. Air quality simulation over South Asia using Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory and Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Divya E.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, G.; Emmons, L. K.; Jena, Chinmay; Kumar, Rajesh; Pfister, G. G.; Chate, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the distribution of tropospheric ozone and related species for South Asia using the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4) and Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory. The model present-day simulated ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are evaluated against surface-based, balloon-borne and satellite-based (MOPITT and OMI) observations. The model systematically overestimates surface O3 mixing ratios (range of mean bias about: 1-30 ppbv) at different ground-based measurement sites in India. Comparison between simulated and observed vertical profiles of ozone shows a positive bias from the surface up to 600 hPa and a negative bias above 600 hPa. The simulated seasonal variation in surface CO mixing ratio is consistent with the surface observations, but has a negative bias of about 50-200 ppb which can be attributed to a large part to the coarse model resolution. In contrast to the surface evaluation, the model shows a positive bias of about 15-20 × 1017 molecules/cm2 over South Asia when compared to satellite derived CO columns from the MOPITT instrument. The model also overestimates OMI retrieved tropospheric column NO2 abundance by about 100-250 × 1013 molecules/cm2. A response to 20% reduction in all anthropogenic emissions over South Asia shows a decrease in the anuual mean O3 mixing ratios by about 3-12 ppb, CO by about 10-80 ppb and NOX by about 3-6 ppb at the surface level. During summer monsoon, O3 mixing ratios at 200 hPa show a decrease of about 6-12 ppb over South Asia and about 1-4 ppb over the remote northern hemispheric western Pacific region.

  7. TFTR tritium inventory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontau, A.E.; Brice, D.K.; Buchenauer, D.A.; Causey, R.A.; Doyle, B.L.; Hsu, W.L.; Lee, S.R.; McGrath, R.T.; Mills, B.; Wampler, W.R.; Wilson, K.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA); Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Langley, R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Dylla, H.F.; Heifetz, D.B.; Kilpatrick, S.; Lamarche, P.H.; Sissingh, R.A.P.; Ulrickson, M. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Brooks, J.N. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1989-06-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is scheduled to begin D-T operation in 1990 with the on-site tritium inventory limited to 5 grams. The physics and chemistry of the in-vessel tritium inventory will impact safety concerns, and also the entire operating schedule of the tokamak. We have investigated plasma-material interaction processes that will affect this first tritium-fueled tokamak. Tritium inventory estimates for TFTR are derived from: (1) Laboratory simulation, (2) in-situ plasma measurements, (3) post-run surface analysis, and (4) modeling. This paper presents the results of these investigations, the derivation of a tritium inventory estimate and its uncertainties, and a discussion of its impact. A particular discharge-by-discharge operating schedule has been developed and evaluated. The major source of in-vessel tritium inventory will be codeposition of tritium and eroded carbon onto surfaces. We find that the on-site limit may be approached unless specific inventory reduction techniques are invoked, e.g., discharge cleaning. (orig.).

  8. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  9. Bromide as chemical tracer to measure the liquid effluent flow at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Douglas B.; Faustino, Mainara G.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: dbsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Due to recent changes in CONAMA Resolution 357, which occurred through the publication of Resolution 430, on May 13, 2011 that now set standards about the effluent release, IPEN-CNEN/SP initiated several actions to improve the Environmental Monitoring Program (PMA-Q) of stable chemical compounds. Besides various parameters (physical and chemical) established by CONAMA, the submission of an annual pollution inventory report became necessary. The liquid effluent flow measurement is required to implement this inventory. Thereby, this paper describes a study that uses bromide as a chemical tracer. This paper presents the results of 6 tracer releases in IPEN wastewater collection network between 2011 and 2012. Two tracer releases designs were performed: single pulse and continuous releases performed with 1 to 6 hours duration, done by using one single piston pump manufactured by DIONEX. After the release, one fraction of the effluent was collected every 15 minutes at IPEN effluent monitoring station. The tracer concentration in the effluent was analyzed by ion chromatography and flow was calculated considering the dilution in the system and pump flow set up for the release. The flow values were measured in 6 events were determined and evaluated as per Brazilian regulation requirements. Experimental designs to be implemented during 2013 monitoring were also discussed in this paper, contributing to legal compliance and to improve IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). (author)

  10. Evidence of improved inventory control

    OpenAIRE

    Dan M. Bechter; Stephen Stanley

    1992-01-01

    Inventory data applied to a standard partial stock-adjustment model demonstrate that inventory control, defined by desired marginal inventory-sales ratios and speeds of adjustment, improved in the last decade or so, particularly in the manufacturing sector. In addition, the evidence suggests that, contrary to popular wisdom, the net effect of these changes in inventory control has been to increase the volatility of inventory investment in both the manufacturing and trade sectors.

  11. Inventories in dynamic general equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Shibayama, Katsuyuki

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates a dynamic general equilibrium model with a stockout constraint, which means that no seller can sell more than the inventories that she has. The model successfully explains two inventory facts; (i) inventory investment is procyclical, and (ii) production is more volatile than sales. The key intuition is that, since inventories and demand are complements in generating sales, the optimal level of inventories is increasing in expected demand. Thus, when demand is expecte...

  12. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  13. Managing Inventories of Heavy Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has stored a limited inventory of heavy actinides contained in irradiated targets, some partially processed, at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 'heavy actinides' of interest include plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes; specifically 242Pu and 244Pu, 243Am, and 244/246/248Cm. No alternate supplies of these heavy actinides and no other capabilities for producing them are currently available. Some of these heavy actinide materials are important for use as feedstock for producing heavy isotopes and elements needed for research and commercial application. The rare isotope 244Pu is valuable for research, environmental safeguards, and nuclear forensics. Because the production of these heavy actinides was made possible only by the enormous investment of time and money associated with defense production efforts, the remaining inventories of these rare nuclear materials are an important part of the legacy of the Nuclear Weapons Program. Significant unique heavy actinide inventories reside in irradiated Mark-18A and Mark-42 targets at SRS and ORNL, with no plans to separate and store the isotopes for future use. Although the costs of preserving these heavy actinide materials would be considerable, for all practical purposes they are irreplaceable. The effort required to reproduce these heavy actinides today would likely cost billions of dollars and encompass a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles for at least 50 years; thus, reproduction is virtually impossible. DOE has a limited window of opportunity to recover and preserve these heavy actinides before they are disposed of as waste. A path forward is presented to recover and manage these irreplaceable National Asset materials for future use in research, nuclear forensics, and other potential applications.

  14. Nuclear materials inventory plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In any processing, manufacturing, or active storage facility it is impractical to assume that any physical security system can prevent the diversion of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). It is, therefore, the responsibility of any DOE Contractor, Licensee, or other holder of SNM to provide assurance that loss or diversion of a significant quantity of SNM is detectable. This ability to detect must be accomplishable within a reasonable time interval and can be accomplished only by taking physical inventories. The information gained and decisions resulting from these inventories can be no better than the SNM accounting system and the quality of measurements performed for each receipt, removal and inventory. Inventories interrupt processing or production operations, increase personnel exposures, and can add significantly to the cost of any operation. Therefore, realistic goals for the inventory must be defined and the relationship of the inherent parameters used in its validation be determined. Purpose of this document is to provide a statement of goals and a plan of action to achieve them

  15. The chemical nature of the carbon-14- labelled organic matter released into soil from growing wheat roots. Effects of soil micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual wheat plants were grown in a sandy soil under an atmosphere of 14CO2 for 21 days with the plant roots maintained under sterile or non-sterile conditions. A comparison has been made of the chemical nature of the 14C-labelled organic matter present in root-free soil from the sterile and non-sterile treatments, based on solubility, molecular size and ion-exchange chromatography of soil extracts and acid hydrolysates of whole soil. There was little difference between sterile and non-sterile soils for the values from any of these determinations. It is proposed that a major part of the organic 14C present in soils from both treatments resulted from autolysis of root tissue, particularly in localized zones where low water availability may have limited microbial decomposition of sugars and amino acids released from the roots. About 15% of the 14C in both soil treatments was present in humic acid fractions with a molecular weight, estimated from ultrafiltration of >5X104. These experiments show that there can be a significant formation of soil organic matter during active root growth, much of it directly from root tissue without the intervention of soil microflora or microfauna. Such reactions would be important in nutrient cycling in permanent pastures and forests, and in the interchange of nutrients in grass/legume associations. (author)

  16. The LANL Physical Inventory Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LANL physical inventory program (statistically based) provides assurance that the inventory is represented to the defined confidence levels. In addition, it establishes a benchmark to prove that the inventory is accurately stated. The LANL's Physical Inventory Program for nuclear materials requires the performance of periodic physical inventories and special inventories of nuclear material. The Inventory Program also requires the reconciliation of inventory measurements with previously established nuclear material accountability values. This inventory program applies to all material balance areas (MBAs) and is designed in accordance with DOE order 474.1, 'Nuclear Material Control and Accountability'. The program uses a graded approach for performing physical inventories with primary emphasis placed on Categories I and II quantities of special nuclear material. This paper describes the essential elements of the LANL Physical Inventory Program. In addition, the inter-dependency of the Inventory Program with respect to other LANL MC and A Programs is discussed. This paper, by outlining the elements and approach of a site-specific physical inventory program assists safeguards practitioners in the design of related physical inventory programs.

  17. Inventory-driven costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callioni, Gianpaolo; de Montgros, Xavier; Slagmulder, Regine; Van Wassenhove, Luk N; Wright, Linda

    2005-03-01

    In the 199os, Hewlett-Packard's PC business was struggling to turn a dollar, despite the company's success in winning market share. By 1997, margins on its PCs were as thin as a silicon wafer, and some product lines hadn't turned a profit since 1993. The problem had everything to do with the PC industry's notoriously short product cycles and brutal product and component price deflation. A common rule of thumb was that the value of a fully assembled PC decreased 1% a week. In such an environment, inventory costs become critical. But not just the inventory costs companies traditionally track, HP found, after a thorough review of the problem. The standard "holding cost of inventory"--the capital and physical costs of inventory--accounted for only about 10% of HP's inventory costs. The greater risks, it turned out, resided in four other, essentially hidden costs, which stemmed from mismatches between demand and supply: Component devaluation costs for components still held in production; Price protection costs incurred when product prices drop on the goods distributors still have on their shelves; Product return costs that have to be absorbed when distributors return and receive refunds on overstock items, and; Obsolescence costs for products still unsold when new models are introduced. By developing metrics to track those costs in a consistent way throughout the PC division, HP has found it can manage its supply chains with much more sophistication. Gone are the days of across-the-board measures such as,"Everyone must cut inventories by 20% by the end of the year," which usually resulted in a flurry of cookie-cutter lean production and just-in-time initiatives. Now, each product group is free to choose the supply chain configuration that best suits its needs. Other companies can follow HP's example. PMID:15768682

  18. ORNL studies of fission product release under LWR severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large inventories of radioactive fission products in irradiated fuel represent the principal personnel hazards from nuclear reactors. A large fraction of the existing fission-product release data has been collected from experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Tests of high-burnup light-water-reactor fuel, and also simulated fuel with fission-product tracers, have been conducted in an induction furnace at temperatures up to 2,700 K. In addition to the total releases, on-line release data for 85Kr and 137Cs at 1-min intervals throughout the tests provided release-rate values. The most valuable fission-product elements - krypton, iodine, and cesium - are released almost totally at the highest temperatures, with little effect of atmosphere, but the releases of fission product strontium, molybdenum, ruthenium, tellurium, antimony, barium, and europium are sensitive to atmosphere. Data for krypton and cesium releases have been used to develop the ORNL Diffusion Release Model, a simple, single-atom model that reliably predicts the release of volatile fission products. Studies of transport behavior and the chemical forms of released elements, as well as fuel melt progression, have been included also. 52 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Purchasing and inventory management techniques for optimizing inventory investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to reduce operations and maintenance costs among nuclear plants, many utilities are taking a closer look at their inventory investment. Various approaches for inventory reduction have been used and discussed, but these approaches are often limited to an inventory management perspective. Interaction with purchasing and planning personnel to reduce inventory investment is a necessity in utility efforts to become more cost competitive. This paper addresses the activities that purchasing and inventory management personnel should conduct in an effort to optimize inventory investment while maintaining service-level goals. Other functions within a materials management organization, such as the warehousing and investment recovery functions, can contribute to optimizing inventory investment. However, these are not addressed in this paper because their contributions often come after inventory management and purchasing decisions have been made

  20. Evaluating Global Emission Inventories of Biogenic Bromocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossaini, Ryan; Mantle, H.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Montzka, S. A.; Hamer, P.; Ziska, F.; Quack, B.; Kruger, K.; Tegtmeier, S.; Atlas, E.; Sala, S.; Engel, A.; Bonisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D.; Mills, G.; Ordonez, C.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Warwick, N.; Liang, Q.; Feng, W.; Moore, F.; Miller, F.; Marecal, V.; Richards, N. A. D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2013-01-01

    Emissions of halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are poorly constrained. However, their inclusion in global models is required to simulate a realistic inorganic bromine (Bry) loading in both the troposphere, where bromine chemistry perturbs global oxidizing capacity, and in the stratosphere, where it is a major sink for ozone (O3). We have performed simulations using a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) including three top-down and a single bottom-up derived emission inventory of the major brominated VSLS bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2). We perform the first concerted evaluation of these inventories, comparing both the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions. For a quantitative evaluation of each inventory, model output is compared with independent long-term observations at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ground-based stations and with aircraft observations made during the NSF (National Science Foundation) HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) project. For CHBr3, the mean absolute deviation between model and surface observation ranges from 0.22 (38 %) to 0.78 (115 %) parts per trillion (ppt) in the tropics, depending on emission inventory. For CH2Br2, the range is 0.17 (24 %) to 1.25 (167 %) ppt. We also use aircraft observations made during the 2011 Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere (SHIVA) campaign, in the tropical western Pacific. Here, the performance of the various inventories also varies significantly, but overall the CTM is able to reproduce observed CHBr3 well in the free troposphere using an inventory based on observed sea-to-air fluxes. Finally, we identify the range of uncertainty associated with these VSLS emission inventories on stratospheric bromine loading due to VSLS (Br(VSLS/y)). Our simulations show Br(VSLS/y) ranges from approximately 4.0 to 8.0 ppt depending on the inventory. We report an optimized estimate at the lower end of this range (approximately 4 ppt

  1. Inventory order crossovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J.

    2006-01-01

    The control policies that are used in inventory management systems assume that orders arrive in the same sequence as they were ordered. Due to changes in supply chains and markets, this assumption is no longer valid. This paper aims at providing an improved understanding of the phenomenon of order c

  2. NEW HAVEN TOXICS INVENTORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA will be working with the New Haven Department of Health to collect data and create an inventory of toxic air pollutants in the New Haven area. Under section 112 of the Clean Air Act, EPA and cities and states are required to reduce cancer and non-cancer health risks in urb...

  3. Natural vegetation inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrumpf, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    Unique characteristics of ERTS imagery can be used to inventory natural vegetation. While satellite images can seldom be interpreted and identified directly in terms of vegetation types, such types can be inferred by interpretation of physical terrain features and through an understanding of the ecology of the vegetation.

  4. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  5. Rapid inventory taking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A data processing system designed to facilitate inventory taking is described. The process depends upon the earliest possible application of computer techniques and the elimination of manual operations. Data is recorded in optical character recognition (OCR) 'A' form and read by a hand held wand reader. Limited validation checks are applied before recording on mini-tape cassettes. 5 refs

  6. Calculating Optimal Inventory Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Perez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the project is to find the optimal value for the Economic Order Quantity Model and then use a lean manufacturing Kanban equation to find a numeric value that will minimize the total cost and the inventory size.

  7. Iodine release characteristic in reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the chemical behavior for the iodine release from the fuel element in nuclear reactor accidents, partition coefficient in the water and air and the release characteristic in time. The research of the iodine release was suggested

  8. The Employability Inventory: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes the background, development, content, and validation of the Employability Inventory, an instrument designed to assess knowledge of job seeking, job retention, and job success. Discusses usefulness of the inventory in both counseling and education. (ABL)

  9. Inventory of nanotechnology companies in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelbaum, Richard, E-mail: rich@global.ucsb.edu [University of California at Santa Barbara, MacArthur Foundation Chair in Sociology and Global & International Studies Co-PI, Center for Nanotechnology and Society, Social Science and Media Studies 2103 (United States); Zayago Lau, Edgar [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV, Zacatenco)., Multidisciplinary Graduate Programs (Mexico); Foladori, Guillermo [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico); Parker, Rachel [Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Research Programs (Canada); Vazquez, Laura Liliana Villa [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas (Mexico); Belmont, Eduardo Robles [UNAM, Institute for Research in Applied Mathematics and Systems (IIMAS) (Mexico); Figueroa, Edgar Ramón Arteaga [Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Latin American Nanotechnology & Society Network (ReLANS), Unidad Académica en Estudios del Desarrollo (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    This study presents an inventory of 139 nanotechnology companies in Mexico, identifying their geographic distribution, economic sector classification, and position in the nanotechnology value chain. We find that the principal economic sector of nanotechnology-engaged firms involves the manufacture of chemical products, which largely serve as means of production (primary or intermediate materials; instruments and equipment) for industrial processes. The methodology used in this analysis could be replicated in other countries without major modifications.

  10. Inventory of nanotechnology companies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents an inventory of 139 nanotechnology companies in Mexico, identifying their geographic distribution, economic sector classification, and position in the nanotechnology value chain. We find that the principal economic sector of nanotechnology-engaged firms involves the manufacture of chemical products, which largely serve as means of production (primary or intermediate materials; instruments and equipment) for industrial processes. The methodology used in this analysis could be replicated in other countries without major modifications

  11. Modern Approaches to Inventory Management

    OpenAIRE

    Drago Pupavac

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important tasks of logistics management is efficient inventory management. The basic mission of inventory management is to find balance between item in stocks and customer service. Traditional model in inventory management, also known as the economic order quantity (EOQ) is increasingly being replaced or supplemented by contemporary models of inventory management: Just in Time, Materials Requirement Planning and Distribution Requirement Planning. The research topic of importan...

  12. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth;

    2010-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2.......This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2....

  13. Inventories in ToTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvtsov, Oleksiy; Zhang, Yang

    2010-01-01

    ToTEM - the Bank of Canada's principal projection and policy-analysis model for the Canadian economy - is extended to include inventories. In the model, firms accumulate inventories of finished goods for their role in facilitating the demand for goods. The model is successful in matching procyclical and volatile inventory investment behaviour. The authors show that the convex cost of stock adjustment is key to the model's ability to match the inventory data quantitatively.

  14. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site

  15. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 2 consists of seven appendices containing the following: Tasking memorandums; Project plan for the CSV Review; Field verification guide for the CSV Review; Field verification report, Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Field verification report, Oak Ridge Reservation; Field verification report, Savannah River Site; and the Field verification report, Hanford Site.

  16. Inventory Costs: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Clifford H.; Ursery, Nancy

    1985-01-01

    Presents procedures and statistics for a manual inventory and an inventory coordinated with conversion to an online circulation system at University of Kansas main library. Results of this two-phase inventory (Dewey Decimal-classified materials, LC-classified materials) and the cost-effectiveness of such a project in a large library are…

  17. Procedure for taking physical inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This session is intended to apprise one of the various aspects of procedures and routines that Exxon Nuclear uses with respect to its nuclear materials physical inventory program. The presentation describes how plant physical inventories are planned and taken. The description includes the planning and preparation for taking the inventory, the clean-out procedures for converting in-process material to measurable items, the administrative procedures for establishing independent inventory teams and for inventorying each inventory area, the verification procedures used to include previously measured tamper-safed items in the inventory, and lastly, procedures used to reconcile the inventory and calculate MUF (materials unaccounted for). The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the planning and pre-inventorty procedures and their importance; (2) understand the need for and the required intensity of clean-out procedures; (3) understand how inventory teams are formed, and how the inventory is conducted; (4) understand the distinction between inventory previously measured tamper-safed items and other materials not so characterized; (5) understand the reconciliation procedures; and (6) calculate a MUF given the book and inventory results

  18. SACHET, Dynamic Fission Products Inventory in PWR Multiple Compartment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: SACHET evaluates the dynamic fission product inventories in the multiple compartment system of pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. 2 - Method of solution: SACHET utilizes a matrix of fission product core inventory which is previously calculated by the ORIGEN code. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Liquid wastes such as chemical waste and detergent waste are not included

  19. National Biological Monitoring Inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Biological Monitoring Inventory, initiated in 1975, currently consists of four computerized data bases and voluminous manual files. MAIN BIOMON contains detailed information on 1,021 projects, while MINI BIOMON provides skeletal data for over 3,000 projects in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, plus a few in Canada and Mexico. BIBLIO BIOMON and DIRECTORY BIOMON complete the computerized data bases. The structure of the system provides for on-line search capabilities to generate details of agency sponsorship, indications of funding levels, taxonomic and geographic coverage, length of program life, managerial focus or emphasis, and condition of the data. Examples of each of these are discussed and illustrated, and potential use of the Inventory in a variety of situations is emphasized

  20. Procedure for taking physical inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical inventories are taken periodically to meet Company, State and IAEA requirements. Those physical inventories may be verified by IAEA and/or State inspectors. This presentation describes in an introductory but detailed manner the approaches and procedures used in planning, preparing, conducting, reconciling and reporting physical inventories for the Model Plant. Physical inventories are taken for plant accounting purposes to provide an accurate basis for starting and closing the plant material balance. Physical inventories are also taken for safeguards purposes to provide positive assurance that the nuclear materials of concern are indeed present and accounted for

  1. Indian scales and inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, t...

  2. PROCESSING REVERSE LOGISTICS INVENTORIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bajor, Ivona; Novačko, Luka; Ogrizović, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Developed logistics systems have organized reverse logistics flows and are continuously analyzing product returns, tending to detect patterns in oscillations of returning products in certain time periods. Inventory management in reverse logistics systems depends on different criteria, regarding goods categories, formed contracts between subjects of supply chains, uncertainty in manufacturer’s quantities of DOA (dead on arrival) products, etc. The developing logistics systems, such as the Croa...

  3. The Danish CORINAIR Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CORINAIR is the most comprehensive European air emission inventory programme. It consists of a defined emission calculation methodology and software for storing and further data processing. In CORINAIR 28 different emission species are estimated in 11 main sectors which are further sub-divided, and all emission sources are regarded as either area or large point sources. According to the CORINAIR guidelines the emissions are calculated as a activities times emission factors. Activities are numbers referring to the specific emission generating processes, while emission factors are the mass of emissions per unit activity. This report describes the structure of the Danish CORINAIR emission inventory on a 1996 level and international conventions to which Denmark submits emission data. Furthermore the most important activities in the Danish inventory are explained. Subsequently the Danish 1996 emissions are viewed sector-wise and compared with EU per capita levels, and in addition the Danish national and international emissions are shown on time series from 1975 to 1996. (au)

  4. Work plan for defining a standard inventory estimate for wastes stored in Hanford Site underground tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work plan addresses the Standard Inventory task scope, deliverables, budget, and schedule for fiscal year 1997. The goal of the Standard Inventory task is to resolve differences among the many reported Hanford Site tank waste inventory values and to provide inventory estimates that will serve as Standard Inventory values for all waste management and disposal activities. These best-basis estimates of chemicals and radionuclides will be reported on both a global and tank-specific basis and will be published in the Tank Characterization Database

  5. Experimental determination of the speciation, partitioning, and release of perrhenate as a chemical surrogate for pertechnetate from a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Multiphase ceramic waste form is composed of primarily of nepheline, nosean, and sodalite. • Rhenium is in the 7+ oxidation state and has partitioned to a mixed Re-bearing sodalite phase. • Mechanism of corrosion for the multiphase matrix is similar to other silicate minerals. • A mixed-anion sodalite phases controls Re release in the multiphase waste forms. - Abstract: A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium (99Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO4), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M8[Al6Si6O24]X2, where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na8[AlSiO4]6SO4). Bulk X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na8[Al6Si6O24](ReO4)2). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 °C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate minerals and include a combination

  6. A description of the reactor inventory module NECTAR-RICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note describes the NECTAR-RICE module of the CEGB's NECTAR environmental code, which can be used to calculate the actinide and/or fission product inventories of irradiated nuclear fuel used as input to the calculation of the release source term to atmosphere for accidental releases. The range of actinide and fission product nuclides considered is large enough to permit studies to be made for virtually any irradiation history consisting of ad hoc combinations of irradiation and cooling periods. The actinide and fission product inventories are calculated for burnup periods using numerical methods best suited to this problem, while analytical solutions are used for cooling periods. The code can be used to perform a coupled actinide-fission product calculation, a solely actinide calculation or a solely fission product calculation. Output consists of inventories, activities, and γ spectra, among others. A brief description is also given of previous work in this field. (author)

  7. Experimental Determination of the Speciation, Partitioning, and Release of Perrhenate as a Chemical Surrogate for Pertechnetate from a Sodalite-Bearing Multiphase Ceramic Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL; Lukens, Wayne W [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Fitts, Jeffrey P [Princeton University; Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Jantzen, C M [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)

    2013-01-01

    A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium (99Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO4), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M8[Al6Si6O24]X2, where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na8[AlSiO4]6SO4). Bulk x-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na8[Al6Si6O24](ReO4)2). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate minerals and include a combination of ion exchange, network hydrolysis, and the formation of an enriched-silica surface layer or phase. The steady-state S and Re concentrations are within an order of magnitude of the nosean and perrhenate sodalite solubility, respectively. The order of magnitude difference between the observed and predicted concentration for Re and S may be associated with the fact that the anion

  8. Experimental determination of the speciation, partitioning, and release of perrhenate as a chemical surrogate for pertechnetate from a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Fitts, Jeff. P.; Jantzen, Carol. M.; Tang, G.

    2013-12-01

    A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium (99Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO4), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M8[Al6Si6O24]X2, where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na8[AlSiO4]6SO4). Bulk X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na8[Al6Si6O24](ReO4)2). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 ?C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate minerals and include a combination of ion exchange, network hydrolysis, and the formation of an enriched-silica surface layer or phase. The steady-state S and Re concentrations are within an order of magnitude of the nosean and perrhenate sodalite solubility, respectively. The order of magnitude difference between the observed and predicted concentration for Re and S may be associated with the fact that the anion

  9. Tritium release of Li4SiO4, Li2O and beryllium and chemical compatibility of beryllium with Li4SiO4, Li2O and steel (SIBELIUS irradiation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the SIBELIUS irradiation, a joint EC-US project performed at CEN Grenoble, was to investigate the oxidation kinetics of beryllium in contact with ceramic and the nature and extent of beryllium in contact with ceramic and the nature and extent of beryllium interaction with (316 L and 1.4914) steel in a neutron environment. In this work post irradiation examinations of SIBELIUS specimens performed at KfK are described. Tritium release of Li4SiO4, Li2O and beryllium was studied by out-of-pile annealing and chemical compatibility of beryllium with Li4SiO4, Li2O and steel by microscopic examinations. Tritium release of the ceramics was found to be consistent with SIBELIUS inpile observations and previous tests. Release of tritium generated in beryllium was found to be very slow, in accordance with previous work. For beryllium which was in contact with ceramic during irradiation, a second type of tritium, caused by injection of 2.7 MeV tritons generated in the ceramic, is observed. Release of injected tritium is faster than that of generated. Evidence for injected tritium in beryllium was also found in the microscopic studies. The observed minor chemical reactions of beryllium with steel and probably also those with breeder materials under neutron irradiation are consistent with the results of laboratory annealing tests. (orig.)

  10. Perishable Inventory Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Nguyen, Vivi Thuy; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates how inventory control of perishable items is managed and line up some possible options of improvement. This includes a review of relevant literature dealing with the challenges of determining ordering policies for perishable products and a study of how the current procedures...... in the retail supply chains. The goal is to find and evaluate the parameters which affect the decision making process, when finding the optimal order quantity and order time. The paper takes a starting point in the retail industry but links to other industries....

  11. Tritium transport and release from lithium ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an operating fusion reactor,, the tritium breeding blanket will reach a condition in which the tritium release rate equals the production rate. The tritium release rate must be fast enough that the tritium inventory in the blanket does not become excessive. Slow tritium release will result in a large tritium inventory, which is unacceptable from both economic and safety viewpoints As a consequence, considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the tritium release mechanism from ceramic breeders and beryllium neutron multipliers through theoretical, laboratory, and in-reactor studies. This information is being applied to the development of models for predicting tritium release for various blanket operating conditions

  12. Release of segregated nuclides from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential release of fission and activation products from spent nuclear fuel into groundwater after container failure in the Swedish deep repository is discussed. Data from studies of fission gas release from representative Swedish BWR fuel are used to estimate the average fission gas release for the spent fuel population. Information from a variety of leaching studies on LWR and CANDU fuel are then reviewed as a basis for estimating the fraction of the inventory of key radionuclides that could be released preferentially (the Instant Release Fraction of IRF) upon failure of the fuel cladding. The uncertainties associated with these estimates are discussed

  13. Stimulus-responsiveness and methyl violet release behaviors of poly(NIPAAm-co-AA) hydrogels chemically crosslinked with β-cyclodextrin polymer bearing methacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Gao, Jun; Liu, Ruina; Zhao, Sanping

    2016-06-16

    To fabricate thermo- and pH-sensitive hydrogels functionalized with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) moieties, β-CD polymer bearing methacrylate (CDP-g-GMA) used as a reactive and functional crosslinker was synthesized, and then copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylic acid (AA) in aqueous solution via UV-initiated free radical polymerization. The stimulus-responsiveness of the resultant hydrogels has been carried out by measuring the swelling ratio at different temperatures and pH values. The results showed that the thermo- and pH-sensitivities of the produced hydrogels were significantly dependent on the compositions of the hydrogels, and the dual sensitivities exhibited good reversible process. The interior morphology observed by SEM exhibited that the pore size of the hydrogels could be tailored by pH of the local medium. Using a water-soluble cationic dye methyl violet (MV) as a model drug, MV loading and release profiles of the hydrogels as potential drug controlled release carriers were evaluated. The MV release rate from CD-functionalized hydrogels was much slower than that from the hydrogel without β-CDs at both pH 2.0 and pH 7.4. The release of MV from CD-functionalized hydrogels at pH 2.0 was faster than that at pH 7.4, the release kinetics of MV from the CD-functionalized hydrogels displayed a sustained release profile, and the release mechanism followed Fickian diffusion. PMID:27152631

  14. Strategic Inventories in Vertical Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok

    2008-01-01

    Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...

  15. Inventory and the Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Richard

    2006-01-01

    How does the stock market affect inventory decisions? The efficient markets view is that low stock price means poor fundamentals, a higher cost of capital, and lower inventory. Normatively, firms should obtain their cost of capital from an efficient markets model of stock prices. My study is motivated by the growing body of evidence that the stock market is not efficient and can temporarily mis-value firms. I report evidence that the market's behavioral component explains firms' inventory as ...

  16. Ownership structure and inventory policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tribó, Josep A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of a firm’s ownership structure on its inventory policy. We have argued that the presence of institutional investors like banks as blockholders, reduces a firm’s liquidity needs and prevents overinvestment policies. This, in turn, leads to lower inventory levels, especially for small and/or diversified firms. Also, we expect less inventory investment when bank equity financing is compared with bank debt financing. Finally, other components of ownership structure...

  17. Inventories and Optimal Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas A. Lubik; Wing Leong Teo

    2010-01-01

    We introduce inventories into a standard New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model to study the effect on the design of optimal monetary policy. The possibility of inventory investment changes the transmission mechanism in the model by decoupling production from final consumption. This allows for a higher degree of consumption smoothing since firms can add excess production to their inventory holdings. We consider both Ramsey optimal monetary policy and a monetary poli...

  18. NRC inventory of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRC Inventory of Dams has been prepared as required by the charter of the NRC Dam Safety Officer. The inventory lists 51 dams associated with nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams (licensed by NRC) in the US as of February 1, 1982. Of the 85 listed nuclear power plants (148 units), 26 plants obtain cooling water from impoundments formed by dams. The 51 dams associated with the plants are: located on a plant site (29 dams at 15 plant sites); located off site but provide plant cooling water (18 dams at 11 additional plant sites); and located upstream from a plant (4 dams) - they have been identified as dams whose failure, and ensuing plant flooding, could result in a radiological risk to the public health and safety. The dams that might be considered NRC's responsibility in terms of the federal dam safety program are identified. This group of dams (20 on nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams) was obtained by eliminating dams that do not pose a flooding hazard (e.g., submerged dams) and dams that are regulated by another federal agency. The report includes the principal design features of all dams and related useful information

  19. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miscellaneous streams discharging to the soil column on the Hanford Site are subject to requirements of several milestones identified in Consent Order No. DE 9INM-177 (Ecology and DOE 1991). The Plan and Schedule for Disposition and Regulatory Compliance for Miscellaneous Stream (DOE/RL-93-94) provides a plan and schedule for the disposition of miscellaneous streams to satisfy one of the Section 6.0 requirements of the Consent Order. One of the commitments (Activity 6-2.2) established in the plan and schedule is to annually update, the miscellaneous streams inventory. This document constitutes the 1998 revision of the miscellaneous streams inventory. Miscellaneous stream discharges were grouped into four permitting categories (Table 1). The first miscellaneous streams Permit (ST 4508) was issued May 30, 1997, to cover wastewater discharges from hydrotesting, maintenance, and construction activities. The second miscellaneous streams Permit (ST4509) covers discharges from cooling water and condensate discharges. The third permit application for category three waste streams was eliminated by recategorizing waste streams into an existing miscellaneous streams permit or eliminating stream discharges. Elimination of the third categorical permit application was approved by Ecology in January 1997 (Ecology 1997). The fourth permit application, to cover storm water, is due to Ecology in September 1998. Table 1 provides a history of the miscellaneous streams permitting activities

  20. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1998-08-14

    Miscellaneous streams discharging to the soil column on the Hanford Site are subject to requirements of several milestones identified in Consent Order No. DE 9INM-177 (Ecology and DOE 1991). The Plan and Schedule for Disposition and Regulatory Compliance for Miscellaneous Stream (DOE/RL-93-94) provides a plan and schedule for the disposition of miscellaneous streams to satisfy one of the Section 6.0 requirements of the Consent Order. One of the commitments (Activity 6-2.2) established in the plan and schedule is to annually update, the miscellaneous streams inventory. This document constitutes the 1998 revision of the miscellaneous streams inventory. Miscellaneous stream discharges were grouped into four permitting categories (Table 1). The first miscellaneous streams Permit (ST 4508) was issued May 30, 1997, to cover wastewater discharges from hydrotesting, maintenance, and construction activities. The second miscellaneous streams Permit (ST4509) covers discharges from cooling water and condensate discharges. The third permit application for category three waste streams was eliminated by recategorizing waste streams into an existing miscellaneous streams permit or eliminating stream discharges. Elimination of the third categorical permit application was approved by Ecology in January 1997 (Ecology 1997). The fourth permit application, to cover storm water, is due to Ecology in September 1998. Table 1 provides a history of the miscellaneous streams permitting activities.

  1. Energy Education Materials Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The two volumes of the Energy Education Materials Inventory (EEMI) comprise an annotated bibliography of widely available energy education materials and reference sources. This systematic listing is designed to provide a source book which will facilitate access to these educational resources and hasten the inclusion of energy-focused learning experiences in kindergarten through grade twelve. EEMI Volume II expands Volume I and contains items that have become available since its completion in May, 1976. The inventory consists of three major parts. A core section entitled Media contains titles and descriptive information on educational materials, categorized according to medium. The other two major sections - Grade Level and Subject - are cross indexes of the items for which citations appear in the Media Section. These contain titles categorized according to grade level and subject and show the page numbers of the full citations. The general subject area covered includes the following: alternative energy sources (wood, fuel from organic wastes, geothermal energy, nuclear power, solar energy, tidal power, wind energy); energy conservation, consumption, and utilization; energy policy and legislation, environmental/social aspects of energy technology; and fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, petroleum). (RWR)

  2. Hanford inventory program user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provides users with instructions and information about accessing and operating the Hanford Inventory Program (HIP) system. The Hanford Inventory Program is an integrated control system that provides a single source for the management and control of equipment, parts, and material warehoused by Westinghouse Hanford Company in various site-wide locations. The inventory is comprised of spare parts and equipment, shop stock, special tools, essential materials, and convenience storage items. The HIP replaced the following systems; ACA, ASP, PICS, FSP, WSR, STP, and RBO. In addition, HIP manages the catalog maintenance function for the General Supplies inventory stocked in the 1164 building and managed by WIMS

  3. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten;

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2014. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2012 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2014. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2012 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2...

  4. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten;

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2013. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2011 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2.......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2013. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2011 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2....

  5. Effects of Chemical Conjugation of l-Leucine to Chitosan on Dispersibility and Controlled Release of Drug from a Nanoparticulate Dry Powder Inhaler Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsin, Mohammad D A; George, Graeme; Beagley, Kenneth; Ferro, Vito; Wang, Hui; Islam, Nazrul

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated l-leucine-conjugated chitosan as a drug delivery vehicle in terms of dispersibility and controlled release from a nanoparticulate dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for pulmonary delivery using diltiazem hydrochloride (DH) as the model drug. DH-loaded nanoparticles of chitosan and conjugate were prepared by water-in-oil emulsification followed by glutaraldehyde cross-linking. Nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering for particle size, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for surface composition, and twin stage impinger for drug dispersibility. The controlled release of DH was studied in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.3 ± 0.2, 37 °C) using UV spectrophotometry. The fine particle fractions of conjugated chitosan with and without drug were higher than those of nonconjugated chitosan nanoparticles. The conjugate nanoparticles were superior to those of unmodified chitosan in drug loading, entrapment efficiency, and controlled release profile. The higher dispersibility was attributed to the amphiphilic environment of the l-leucine conjugate and hydrophobic cross-links, and the release profile reflects the greater swelling. The conjugated chitosan nanoparticles could be useful, after appropriate testing for biodegradability and toxicity, as an alternative carrier for lung drug delivery with enhanced aerosolization and prolonged drug release from nanoparticulate DPI formulations. PMID:26998555

  6. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  7. Inventory of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes the content of the inventory of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material. It covers accidents and losses resulting in the actual release of radioactive materials into the marine environment and also those which have the potential for release. For completeness, records of radioactive materials involved in accidents but which were recovered intact from the sea are also reported. Information on losses of sealed sources resulting in actual or potential release of activity to the marine environment nad of sealed sources that were recovered intact is also presented

  8. 76 FR 43327 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ...-products processing from, distant operation. residues. P-11-0423 6/2/2011 8/30/2011 Dow Chemical (S... intends to manufacture (defined by statute to include import) a new chemical (i.e., a chemical not on the TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory (TSCA Inventory)) to notify EPA and comply with the...

  9. Controlling Inventory: Real-World Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas G.; Özgün-Koca, S. Asli; Chelst, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Amazon, Walmart, and other large-scale retailers owe their success partly to efficient inventory management. For such firms, holding too little inventory risks losing sales, whereas holding idle inventory wastes money. Therefore profits hinge on the inventory level chosen. In this activity, students investigate a simplified inventory-control…

  10. Revised Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), Section 313, Toxic Chemical Release reporting for calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains forms which contain information on the physical location of the Y-12 Plant and the amount of lead that was released to the East Fork Poplar Creek and amounts transferred to landfills on-site as well as landfills in Texas and South Carolina. Amounts are given in pounds per year

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Chemically Cross-Linked Acrylic Acid/Gelatin Hydrogels: Effect of pH and Composition on Swelling and Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Majid Hanif Bukhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This present work was aimed at synthesizing pH-sensitive cross-linked AA/Gelatin hydrogels by free radical polymerization. Ammonium persulfate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA were used as initiator and as cross-linking agent, respectively. Different feed ratios of acrylic acid, gelatin, and EGDMA were used to investigate the effect of monomer, polymer, and degree of cross-linking on swelling and release pattern of the model drug. The swelling behavior of the hydrogel samples was studied in 0.05 M USP phosphate buffer solutions of various pH values pH 1.2, pH 5.5, pH 6.5, and pH 7.5. The prepared samples were evaluated for porosity and sol-gel fraction analysis. Pheniramine maleate used for allergy treatment was loaded as model drug in selected samples. The release study of the drug was investigated in 0.05 M USP phosphate buffer of varying pH values (1.2, 5.5, and 7.5 for 12 hrs. The release data was fitted to various kinetic models to study the release mechanism. Hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR spectroscopy which confirmed formation of structure. Surface morphology of unloaded and loaded samples was studied by surface electron microscopy (SEM, which confirmed the distribution of model drug in the gel network.

  12. Indian scales and inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, S

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  13. Lao Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson-Muskin, M B; Golden, C

    1989-01-01

    There are no measurement tools that accurately measure depression among Lao refugees. The overall purpose of this research was to complete the development and validation procedures for the Lao Depression Inventory (LDI). The study consisted of 216 Ethnic Lao refugees. A clinical interview and 164 true/false questions were administered to identify specific items which could identify depression among the Ethnic Lao people. All items were administered in both English and Lao. Overall, 78 of the 164 items differentiated groups of depressed and nondepressed Lao at the .01 level. Results of validation procedures showed that a 30-item scale had an accuracy rate of 89% in identifying the presence of depression in the validation group; the hit-rate for the same items and cutoff was 92% in the cross-validation group. Potential uses of the scale are discussed. PMID:2918451

  14. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten; Nielsen, Malene; Gyldenkærne, Steen; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Albrektsen, Rikke; Thomsen, Marianne; Hjelgaard, Katja; Hoffmann, Leif; Fauser, Patrik; Bruun, Henrik Gundorph; Johannsen, Vivian Kvist; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Vesterdal, Lars; Møller, Inge Stupak; Caspersen, Ole Hjort; Rasmussen, Erik; Petersen, Susanne Bødtker; Baunbæk, Lene; Hansen, Maria Gunnleivsdóttir

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2014. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2012 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2...

  15. Automation of Space Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong; Wagner, Raymond; Barton, Richard; Gifford, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the utilization of automated space-based inventory management through handheld RFID readers and BioNet Middleware. The contents include: 1) Space-Based INventory Management; 2) Real-Time RFID Location and Tracking; 3) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID; and 4) BioNet Middleware.

  16. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth;

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2007 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2. The report documents the methodology as well as presents activity data and emission...

  17. Denmark's national inventory report 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Lyck, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth;

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO....

  18. Toxic release inventories and green consumerism: empirical evidence from Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Antweiler; Kathryn Harrison

    2003-01-01

    Do firms abate pollution in response to actual or anticipated green consumerism? Lacking direct observational data on the extent of green consumerism, we construct an indirect method to elicit its effect on pollution abatement. If environmentally motivated consumers target companies rather than particular facilities of a multi-product firm, green consumerism can be identified through intra-firm inter-plant spillover effects in pollution abatement. We test the prediction that `environmentally-...

  19. 77 FR 13061 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act FR--Federal Register GPEA--Government Paperwork Elimination Act... data. This proposal to require electronic TRI reporting supports broader government efforts to further... or Complete Fill-and-Print Reporting Forms. Federal Register (76 FR 2677, January 14, 2011)...

  20. ANALYSIS MODEL FOR INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA BURJA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The inventory represents an essential component for the assets of the enterprise and the economic analysis gives them special importance because their accurate management determines the achievement of the activity object and the financial results. The efficient management of inventory requires ensuring an optimum level for them, which will guarantee the normal functioning of the activity with minimum inventory expenses and funds which are immobilised. The paper presents an analysis model for inventory management based on their rotation speed and the correlation with the sales volume illustrated in an adequate study. The highlighting of the influence factors on the efficient inventory management ensures the useful information needed to justify managerial decisions, which will lead to a balancedfinancial position and to increased company performance.

  1. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation.

  2. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation

  3. Implications and control of fuel-cladding chemical interaction for LMFBR fuel pin design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction (FCCI) is typically incorporated into the design of an LMFBR fuel pin as a wastage allowance. Several interrelated factors are considered during the evolution of an LMFBR fuel pin design. Those which are indirectly affected by FCCI include: allowable pin power, fuel restructuring, fission gas migration and release from the fuel, fuel cracking, fuel swelling, in-reactor cladding creep, cladding swelling, and the cladding mechanical strain. Chemical activity of oxygen is the most readily controlled factor in FCCI. Two methods are being investigated: control of total oxygen inventory by limiting fuel O/M, and control of oxygen activity with buffer metals

  4. 40 CFR 370.44 - To whom must I submit the inventory information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information? 370.44 Section 370.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL REPORTING: COMMUNITY... submit the inventory information? You must submit the required inventory information to your SERC,...

  5. Effect of thermal and chemical modiifcations on the mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet formulations containing corn, cassava and sweet potato starches as ifller-binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariam Vbamiunomhene Lawal; Michael Ayodele Odeniyi; Oludele Adelanwa Itiola

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of acetylation and pregelatinization of cassava and sweet potato starches on the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations in comparison with official corn starch. Methods: The native starches were modified by acetylation and pregelatinization. The tablets were assessed using friability (Fr), crushing strength (Cs), disintegration time (Dt) and dissolution parameters. Results: Starch acetylation produced paracetamol tablets that were stronger and had the best balance of mechanical and disintegration properties, while pregelatinization produced tablets that were more friable but had a better overall strength in relation to disintegration than formulations made from natural starches. Correlations mainly existed between Dt and the dissolution parameters t80, t2 and k1 in the formulations. Conclusions:Modification of the experimental starches improved the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations. Thus, they can be developed for use as pharmaceutical excipients in specific formulations.

  6. Effect of thermal and chemical modifications on the mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet formulations containing corn, cassava and sweet potato starches as filler-binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariam; Vbamiunomhene; Lawal; Michael; Ayodele; Odeniyi; Oludele; Adelanwa; Itiola

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of acetylation and pregelatinization of cassava and sweet potato starches on the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations in comparison with official corn starch.Methods: The native starches were modified by acetylation and pregelatinization. The tablets were assessed using friability(Fr), crushing strength(Cs), disintegration time(Dt) and dissolution parameters. Results: Starch acetylation produced paracetamol tablets that were stronger and had the best balance of mechanical and disintegration properties, while pregelatinization produced tablets that were more friable but had a better overall strength in relation to disintegration than formulations made from natural starches. Correlations mainly existed between Dt and the dissolution parameters t80, t2 and k1 in the formulations. Conclusions: Modification of the experimental starches improved the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations. Thus, they can be developed for use as pharmaceutical excipients in specific formulations.

  7. Assessment of inhalation dose from radioactivity release from coal-fired Thermal Power Plant (TPP) and its impact related to chemical pollutants-Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal used in thermal power plants (TPPs) invariably contains trace amounts of primordial radionuclides of uranium and thorium series, which are retained in ash and on an average 2 percent of the ash is discharged from the stack. Probable contribution of the airborne radionuclides to inhalation dose to individuals residing near the vicinity of the plant therefore needs assessment. The concept of environmental quality index (EQI), which can serve as an indicator of the impact of the environmental releases has been employed here, for a typical 500 MW(e) coal-fired TPP. The impact in terms of the EQI due to the conventional pollutants and the radioactivity release from the TPP is presented and discussed in this paper. (author). 8 refs., 10 tabs

  8. A coupled chemical-mass transport submodel for predicting radionuclide release from an engineered barrier system containing high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mechanistic model describing a dynamic mass balance between the production and consumption of silicic acid was coupled to a near-field mass transport model to predict the dissolution kinetics of a high-level waste glass in a deep geologic repository. The effects of interactions between an iron overpack and the glass are described by a time-dependent precipitation reaction for a ferrous silicate mineral. The kinetic model is used to transform a geochemical reaction path computer code, to concentration-versus-time values that are used to calculate the rate of radionuclide release by diffusive mass transfer to the surrounding host rock. The model provides for both solubility-limited and kinetically limited release; the rate-controlling mechanism is dependent on the predicted glass/groundwater chemistry

  9. Effect of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate on swelling and on metformin hydrochloride release behavior of chemically crosslinked pH–sensitive acrylic acid–polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Muhammad Faheem; Ranjha, Nazar Muhammad; Hanif, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Background The present work objective was to prepare and to observe the effect of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate on swelling and on drug release behavior of pH-sensitive acrylic acid–polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel. Methods In the present work, pH sensitive acrylic acid–polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels have been prepared by free radical polymerization technique in the presence of benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. Different crosslinker contents were used to observe its effect on swelling and on drug rel...

  10. Recent evidence on the muted inventory cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Filardo

    1995-01-01

    Inventories play an important role in business cycles. Inventory build-ups add momentum to the economy during expansions, while inventory liquidations sap economic strength during recessions. In addition, because inventory fluctuations are notoriously difficult to predict, they present considerable uncertainty in assessing the economic outlook.> The role of inventories in shaping the current outlook for the U.S. economy is particularly uncertain. In the early 1990s, inventory swings appeared ...

  11. Case Study on Inventory Management Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Plinere Darya; Borisov Arkady

    2015-01-01

    Inventory management is a challenging problem area in supply chain management. Companies need to have inventories in warehouses in order to fulfil customer demand, meanwhile these inventories have holding costs and this is frozen fund that can be lost. Therefore, the task of inventory management is to find the quantity of inventories that will fulfil the demand, avoiding overstocks. This paper presents a case study for the assembling company on inventory management. It is proposed to use inve...

  12. Input and output inventories in general equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Iacoviello, Matteo; SCHIANTARELLI, FABIO; Schuh, Scott

    2007-01-01

    We build and estimate a two-sector (goods and services) dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with two types of inventories: materials (input) inventories facilitate the production of finished goods, while finished goods (output) inventories yield utility services. The model is estimated using Bayesian methods. The estimated model replicates the volatility and cyclicality of inventory investment and inventory-to-target ratios. Although inventories are an important element of the model'...

  13. Waste Inventory for Near Surface Repository (NSR) - 13482

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics, physical, chemical as well as radiological of the waste intended to be disposed of in the planned NSR are described. This description is mainly based on the waste inventory investigations performed by the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP). The four different waste streams to be disposed of in the NSR are described and investigated. (authors)

  14. Alternate approach to inertial confinement fusion with low tritium inventories and high power densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-tritium-inventory, high-power-density, pool-type chamber approach to inertial confinement fusion is introduced. The concept uses target designs with internal tritiumand 3He breeding, eliminating the need for a lithium-breeding blanket. The fraction of the fusion energy carried out by neutrons is estimated as 10%, compared with 70% in a typical D-T system, and the neutron spectrum is softer. Liquid metals other than lithium that are less chemically reactive, such as lead, can be used for first-wall protection. The reduced neutron component and the elimination of the need for a thick lithium blanket for tritium breeding lead to higher power densities and more compact chamber designs. The radiation damage at the first structural wall is reduced, leading to potentially longer wall lifetimes. A significant environmental advantage in terms of reduced radioactive release risks under operational and accident conditions is identified, primarily due to the one to two orders of magnitude reduction in the tritium inventories compared with D-T-based systems

  15. Release Data Package for Hanford Site Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Engel, David W.

    2006-07-01

    Beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support a Hanford assessment. This report describes the data compiled in FY 2003 through 2005 to support the Release Module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) for the updated composite analysis. This work was completed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, part of the Remediation and Closure Science Project, the Hanford Assessments Project, and the Characterization of Systems Project managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Related characterization activities and data packages for the vadose zone and groundwater are being developed under the remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The Release Module applies release models to waste inventory data from the Inventory Module and accounts for site remediation activities as a function of time. The resulting releases to the vadose zone, expressed as time profiles of annual rates, become source terms for the Vadose Zone Module. Radioactive decay is accounted for in all inputs and outputs of the Release Module. The Release Module is implemented as the VADER (Vadose zone Environmental Release) computer code. Key components of the Release Module are numerical models (i.e., liquid, soil-debris, cement, saltcake, and reactor block) that simulate contaminant release from the different waste source types found at the Hanford Site. The Release Module also handles remediation transfers to onsite and offsite repositories.

  16. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column

  17. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  18. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column.

  19. A HIGHWAY MODEL FOR THE ADVECTION, DIFFUSION AND CHEMICAL REACTION OF POLLUTANTS RELEASED BY AUTOMOBILES: PART I. ADVECTION AND DIFFUSION OF SF6 TRACER GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two-dimensional, finite-difference model simulating a highway has been developed which is able to handle linear and nonlinear chemical reactions. Transport of the pollutants is accomplished by use of an upstream-flux-corrected algorithm developed at the Naval Research Laborator...

  20. The use of low temperature calories released by nuclear power plants. Effects of soil temperature on the chemical composition of percolate waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of studies on pollution from nuclear power plants, investigations were initiated on the use of calories in agriculture and pisciculture. A short-term experiment showed that increase of soil temperature, either by heating or irrigation, acted on the chemical composition of the percolates

  1. It Just Keeps Getting Better-Tru Waste Inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opened on March 26, 1999, becoming the nation's first deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste. In May 1998, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified WIPP and re-certified WIPP in March 2006. The knowledge of TRU waste inventory is fundamental to packaging, transportation, disposal strategies, resource allocation, and is also imperative when working in a regulatory framework. TRU waste inventory data are used to define the waste that will fill the WIPP repository in terms of volume, radionuclides, waste material parameters, other chemical components, and to model the impact of the waste on the performance of the WIPP over a 10,000-year evolution. The data that pertain to TRU waste is defined in the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA), as '..waste containing more that 100 nanocuries of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years..' Defining TRU waste further, the wastes are classified as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH) TRU waste, depending on the dose rate at the surface of the waste container. CH TRU wastes are packaged with an external surface dose rate not greater than 200 milli-rem (mrem) per hour, while RH TRU wastes are packaged with an external surface dose rate of 200 mrem per hour or greater. The Los Alamos National Laboratory-Carlsbad Operations (LANL-CO) Inventory Team has developed a powerful new database, the Comprehensive Inventory Database (CID), to maintain the TRU waste inventory information. The CID is intended to replace the Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Database (TWBID), Revision 2.1, as the central inventory information repository for tracking all existing and potential (TRU) waste generated across the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste complex. It is also the source for information submitted for the Annual TRU Waste Inventory Reports some of which will be used in

  2. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site

  3. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site.

  4. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TX-103: Best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-TX-103 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task. The best-basis inventory is based on an engineering assessment of waste type, process flowsheet data, early sample data, and/or other available information. The Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes (Kupfer et al. 1997) describes standard methodology used to derive the tank-by-tank best-basis inventories. This preliminary TCR will be updated using this same methodology when additional data on tank contents become available

  5. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TX-114: Best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-TX-114 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task. The best-basis inventory is based on an engineering assessment of waste type, process flowsheet data, early sample data, and other available information. The Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes (Kupfer et al. 1997) describes standard methodology used to derive the tank-by-tank best-basis inventories. This preliminary TCR will be updated using this same methodology when additional data on tank contents become available

  6. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TX-111: Best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-TX-111 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task. The best-basis inventory is based on an engineering assessment of waste type, process flowsheet data, early sample data, and/or other available information. The Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes (Kupfer et al. 1997) describes standard methodology used to derive the tank-by-tank best-basis inventories. This preliminary TCR will be updated using this same methodology when additional data on tank contents become available

  7. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TX-112: Best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort is underway to provide waste inventory estimates that will serve as standard characterization source terms for the various waste management activities. As part of this effort, an evaluation of available information for single-shell tank 241-TX-112 was performed, and a best-basis inventory was established. This work follows the methodology that was established by the standard inventory task. The best-basis inventory is based on an engineering assessment of waste type, process flowsheet data, early sample data, and other available information. The Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes (Kupfer et al. 1997) describes standard methodology used to derive the tank-by-tank best-basis inventories. This preliminary TCR will be updated using this same methodology when additional data on tank contents become available

  8. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runsescapements,...

  9. Lepidoptera (Moth) Inventory: Region 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — National Wildlife Refuges protect important habitats for many plant and animal species. Refuge inventories have frequently included plants, birds and mammals, but...

  10. Title V Permitting Statistics Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Title V Permitting Statistics Inventory contains measured and estimated nationwide statistical data, consisting of counts of permitted sources, types of permits...

  11. Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI) is an integrated database of severe weather records for the United States. SWDI enables a user to search through a variety...

  12. Inventory differences: An evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses an evaluation methodology which is used for inventory differences at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is recognized that there are various methods which can be, and are being, used to evaluate process inventory differences at DOE facilities. The purpose of this paper is to share our thoughts on the subject and our techniques with those who are responsible for the evaluation of inventory differences at their facility. One of the most dangerous aspects of any evaluation technique, especially one as complex as most inventory difference evaluations tend to be, is to fail to look at the tools being used as indicators. There is a tendency to look at the results of an evaluation by one technique as an absolute. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, several tools are used and the final evaluation is based on a combination of the observed results of a many-faceted evaluation. The tools used and some examples are presented

  13. Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Inventory contains descriptions of past and present CDS projects across the Federal Government. It includes Federal projects,...

  14. Forest Inventory and Analysis Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) research program has been in existence since mandated by Congress in 1928. FIA's primary objective is to determine the...

  15. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  16. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  17. Assessment of mercury emissions inventories for the Great Lakes states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic mercury (Hg) air emissions for the eight Great Lakes states in 1999-2000 were evaluated by analyzing three inventories. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI) had the most complete coverage for all states, and total Hg emissions ranged from 4226 lb in Minnesota to 15,828 lb in Pennsylvania. Coal-fired electric utilities accounted for 52.7% of the region's Hg emissions, varying from 20.2% of the total in New York to 67.5% in Ohio. Other important contributors to regional emissions included municipal waste combustion (5.6%), mercury-cell chlor-alkali plants and hazardous-waste incinerators (4% each), stationary internal combustion engines (ICEs) (3.5%), industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers (3.3%), and lime manufacturing (3.0%). Although medical waste incineration accounted for just over 1% of regional emissions using the original classifications, the inclusion of health care facilities that may have been inappropriately identified with other sectors would increase the sector to 4.5% of regional emissions (and decrease the stationary ICE sector to 1.4% of the regional total). There were substantial differences for some sectors between the NEI and the Great Lakes Regional Air Toxics Emissions Inventory (GLEI), as well as unexplained differences within inventories between states (particularly for the cement, lime, and asphalt industries, and for lamp breakage). Toxics Release Inventory data for 2000 mainly covered electric utilities, and differences from the NEI were significant for several states. An independent assessment indicates the possibility of underestimated Hg emissions by about twofold for ICI boilers, although data for the sector (in particular concerning fuel oil emissions) are highly uncertain. Limited data indicate the likelihood of significant underestimates of electric arc furnace mercury emissions in the NEI and GLEI inventories. Several measures are here identified for improving

  18. Danish emission inventories for agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Albrektsen, Rikke; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    By regulations given in international conventions Denmark is obliged to work out an annual emission inventory and document the methodology. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) at Aarhus University (AU) in Denmark is responsible for calculating and reporting the emissions. This re......By regulations given in international conventions Denmark is obliged to work out an annual emission inventory and document the methodology. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) at Aarhus University (AU) in Denmark is responsible for calculating and reporting the emissions...

  19. INVENTORY FLOW TILL PRODUCTION CAPACITY

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Magdalena DINU

    2013-01-01

    An efficient management of inventories means proper planning and usage of the control methods as Just in Time(JIT), Material requirements planning(MRP), Vendor Management Inventory(VMI) or Distribution resource planning(DRP). Are presented and analyzed in their interdependence, issues such as: delivery time, payment term, payment methods, payment instruments, delivery time, risk assuming in terms of delivery terms agreed and accepted, transport administration, minimum quantity delivered, stoc...

  20. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  1. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  2. Fission product release in conditions of a spent fuel pool severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Depending on the residence time, fuel burnup, and fuel rack configuration, there may be sufficient decay heat for the fuel clad to heat up, swell, and burst in case of a loss of pool water. Initiating event categories can be: loss of offsite power from events initiated by severe weather, internal fire, loss of pool cooling, loss of coolant inventory, seismic event, aircraft impact, tornado, missile attack. The breach in the clad releases the radioactive gases present in the gap between the fuel and clad, what is called 'gap release'. If the fuel continues to heat up, the zirconium clad will reach the point of rapid oxidation in air. This reaction of zirconium and air, or zirconium and steam is exothermic. The energy released from the reaction, combined with the fuel's decay energy, can cause the reaction to become self-sustaining and ignite the zirconium. The increase in heat from the oxidation reaction can also raise the temperature in adjacent fuel assemblies and propagate the oxidation reaction. Simultaneously, the sintered UO2 pellets resulting from pins destroying are oxidized. Due to the self-disintegration of pellets by oxidation, fission gases and low volatile fission products are released. The release rate, the chemical nature and the amount of fission products depend on powder granulation distribution and environmental conditions. The zirconium burning and pellets self-disintegration will result in a significant release of spent fuel fission products that will be dispersed from the reactor site. (author)

  3. Global emissions inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dignon, J.

    1995-07-01

    Atmospheric chemistry determines the concentrations of most of the important greenhouse gases except for carbon dioxide. The rate of removal of the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere is also controlled by atmospheric chemistry. The indirect effects of chemical forcing resulting from the chemical interactions of other species can also affect the concentrations of radiatively important gases such as ozone. In order to establish the contribution of any possible climatic change attributable to individual greenhouse gases, spatially and temporally resolved estimates of their emissions need to be established. Unfortunately, for most of the radiatively important species the global magnitudes of their individual fluxes are not known to better than a factor of two and their spatial distributions are even more poorly characterized. Efforts to estimate future projections of potential impacts and to monitor international agreements will require continued research to narrow the uncertainties of magnitude and geographical distribution of emissions.

  4. Global emissions inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric chemistry determines the concentrations of most of the important greenhouse gases except for carbon dioxide. The rate of removal of the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere is also controlled by atmospheric chemistry. The indirect effects of chemical forcing resulting from the chemical interactions of other species can also affect the concentrations of radiatively important gases such as ozone. In order to establish the contribution of any possible climatic change attributable to individual greenhouse gases, spatially and temporally resolved estimates of their emissions need to be established. Unfortunately, for most of the radiatively important species the global magnitudes of their individual fluxes are not known to better than a factor of two and their spatial distributions are even more poorly characterized. Efforts to estimate future projections of potential impacts and to monitor international agreements will require continued research to narrow the uncertainties of magnitude and geographical distribution of emissions

  5. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  6. 27 CFR 40.523 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 40.523... Inventories. Every manufacturer of processed tobacco must provide a true and accurate inventory on TTB F 5210.9 in accordance with instructions for the form. The manufacturer must make such an inventory at...

  7. 27 CFR 40.201 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 40.201... PROCESSED TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Inventories and Reports § 40.201 Inventories. Every manufacturer of tobacco products shall make true and accurate inventories on Form...

  8. 27 CFR 19.981 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 19.981... Spirits § 19.981 Inventories. Proprietors shall take actual physical inventory of all spirits (including... § 19.988. The results of the inventory shall be posted in the applicable records required by §...

  9. 10 CFR 300.6 - Emissions inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emissions inventories. 300.6 Section 300.6 Energy... Emissions inventories. (a) General. The objective of an emission inventory is to provide a full accounting... emission inventory must be prepared in accordance with Chapter 1 of the Technical Guidelines...

  10. 27 CFR 19.353 - Storage inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage inventories. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage Inventories § 19.353 Storage inventories. Each warehouseman shall take a physical inventory of all spirits and wines held in the storage...

  11. 27 CFR 19.329 - Production inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production inventories. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Inventories § 19.329 Production inventories. Each distiller shall take a physical inventory of the spirits and denatured spirits in tanks...

  12. 48 CFR 1845.508 - Physical inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Physical inventories. 1845... Contractors 1845.508 Physical inventories. NASA contractors shall reconcile inventories with the official property records and submit reports to the property administrator within 30 days after inventory...

  13. 21 CFR 1304.11 - Inventory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the inventory of the registered location to which they are subject to control or to which the person... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory requirements. 1304.11 Section 1304.11... REGISTRANTS Inventory Requirements § 1304.11 Inventory requirements. (a) General requirements. Each...

  14. 27 CFR 20.170 - Physical inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical inventory. 20.170... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Inventory and Records § 20.170 Physical inventory. Once in each... physical inventory of each formula of new and recovered specially denatured spirits. (Approved by...

  15. 10 CFR 39.37 - Physical inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical inventory. 39.37 Section 39.37 Energy NUCLEAR... inventory. Each licensee shall conduct a semi-annual physical inventory to account for all licensed material received and possessed under the license. The licensee shall retain records of the inventory for 3...

  16. 76 FR 62327 - Retail Inventory Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ..., first out (LIFO) taxpayer that elects to use the retail inventory method must approximate cost. Under... ending inventory value for a retail LCM method taxpayer than for a similarly situated first-in, first-out...-in, first-out (LIFO) inventory method with the retail inventory method uses the retail......

  17. Foetal Hypothalamic and Pituitary Expression of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone and Galanin Systems is Disturbed by Exposure to Sewage Sludge Chemicals via Maternal Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingham, Michelle; Fowler, Paul A.; Amezaga, Maria R.; Whitelaw, Christine M.; Rhind, Stewart M.; Cotinot, Corinne; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice; Sharpe, Richard M.; Evans, Neil P.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and humans are chronically exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which are ubiquitous in the environment. There are strong circumstantial links between environmental EDC exposure and both declining human/wildlife reproductive health and the increasing incidence of reproductive system abnormalities. Verification of such links, however, is difficult and requires animal models exposed to 'real life', environmentally relevant concentrations/mixtures of environmental contaminants (ECs), particularly in- utero, when sensitivity to EC exposure is high. The aim of this study was to determine whether the fetal sheep reproductive neuroendocrine axis, particularly GnRH and galaninergic systems were affected by maternal exposure to a complex mixture of chemicals, applied to pasture, in the form of sewage sludge. Sewage sludge contains high concentrations of a spectrum of EDCs and other pollutants, relative to environmental concentrations but is frequently recycled to land as a fertiliser. We found that foetuses exposed, to the EDC mixture in-utero through their mothers, had lower GnRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and lower GnRHR and galanin receptor (GALR) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Strikingly, this, treatment had no significant effect on maternal GnRH or GnRHR mRNA expression although GALR mRNA expression within the maternal hypothalamus and pituitary gland was reduced. This study clearly demonstrates that the developing foetal neuroendocrine axis is sensitive to real-world mixtures of environmental chemicals. Given the important role of GnRH and GnRHR in the regulation of reproductive function, its known in-utero programming role, and the role of galanin in the regulation of many physiological/neuroendocrine systems, in-utero changes in the activity of these systems are likely to have long term consequences in adulthood and represent a novel pathway through which EC mixtures could perturb normal reproductive function

  18. 安徽沿江棉区控失型化肥施用技术研究%Research on the Application Technology of Controlled-release Chemical Fertilizer in the Cotton Area along Yangtze River in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余立祥; 邱冠男; 吴跃进

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究控失肥在棉区的施用技术,验证控失肥的"控失"效果及其经济效益.[方法]以当地主要推广的抗虫棉品种为供试作物,通过在安徽省沿江棉田进行施肥试验研究了控失肥不同施用方式对棉花产量和效益的影响.[结果]与一次基施全部控失肥相比,将控失肥分3次施用使棉花产量增加了240 kg/hm~2,棉农的净收入增加了156元/hm~2;将控失肥基施,后期追施速效化肥使棉花产量增加了7.04%,棉农的净收入增加了833.4元/hm~2.施用减氮20%的控失肥的棉花的现蕾期提前了6 d,开花期提前了7 d,吐絮期提前了8 d,生育期短了8 d.与施用普通氮肥的棉花相比,施用控失氮肥的棉花的秋桃增加幅度为22.29%~36.31%,皮棉产量增加了27.78%.[结论]该研究为在安徽沿江棉区推广应用控失肥提供了科学依据.%[Objective] The purpose was to research the application technology of controlled-release fertilizer in cotton area and validate its controlled-release effect and economic benefit. [Method] With the insect-resistant cotton varieties mainly popularized in the local place as tested crops, the effect of different application methods of controlled-release fertilizer on the yield and benefit of cotton was researched through carrying out fertilization experiment in the cotton fields along Yangtze River in Anhui Province. [Result] Compared with applying all the controlled-release fertilizer as base fertilizer at the first fertilization, when the controlled-release fertilizer was applied 3 times separately, the cotton yield was increased for 240 kg/hm~2 and the net income of cotton farmers was increased for 156 yuan/hm~2; when the controlled-release fertilizer was applied as base fertilizer and the fast-available chemical fertilizer was dressed in the anaphase, the cotton yield was increased by 7.04% and the net income of cotton farmers was increased for 833.4 yuan/hm~2. The squaring period of cottons applied

  19. The IGAC activity for the development of global emissions inventories: Description and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modeling assessments of the atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climatic conditions of the past, present and future require as input inventories of emissions of the appropriate chemical species constructed on appropriate spatial and temporal scales. The task of the Global Emissions Inventories Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) is the production of global inventories suitable for a range of research applications. Current GEIA programs are generally based on addressing emissions by species; these include CO2, NH3/N2O, SO2/NOx, CFC, volatile organic compounds and radioisotopes. In addition a separate program to inventory emissions from biomass burning is also being structured, plus an additional program to address data management issues for all the developing inventories. Program priorities are based on current knowledge and tasks needed to produce the desired inventories. This paper will discuss the different types of global inventories to be developed by the GEIA programs, their key characteristics, and areas to be addressed in the compilation of such inventories. Results of the first GEIA task, a survey of existing inventories and auxiliary data, will be presented. The survey included status assessments for the available inventory information for nineteen different atmospheric species or groups of species on global and regional scales and over time. Of this entire body of information, the only inventory regarded as satisfactory was that for the global emissions of CFCs. An implication of the results of these assessments is that properly gridded emissions inventories are badly needed to support atmospheric modeling calculations on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Initial studies in the development of global inventories of sulfur dioxide, currently the most advanced GEIA program, will be presented and discussed

  20. Tradeoff Analysis for Optimal Multiobjective Inventory Model

    OpenAIRE

    Longsheng Cheng; Ching-Shih Tsou; Ming-Chang Lee; Li-Hua Huang; Dingwei Song; Wei-Shan Teng

    2013-01-01

    Deterministic inventory model, the economic order quantity (EOQ), reveals that carrying inventory or ordering frequency follows a relation of tradeoff. For probabilistic demand, the tradeoff surface among annual order, expected inventory and shortage are useful because they quantify what the firm must pay in terms of ordering workload and inventory investment to meet the customer service desired. Based on a triobjective inventory model, this paper employs the successive approximation to obtai...

  1. Recognition Inventories in Governmental Sector Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya Pryadka

    2013-01-01

    The Study covers the research of conditions for recognition of inventories in the governmental sector accounting. The comparative analysis has been performed as to the inventories recognition criteria provided by the National Accounting Provisions (Standards) 123 in the public sector - 'Inventories', Accounting Provision (Standard) 9 - 'Inventories', International Accounting Standard 16 - 'Inventories' in the public sector. It has been found that the common characteristic, in accordance with ...

  2. Annual Danish emissions inventory report to UNECE. Inventory 1990 - 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.; Lyck, E.; Hoffmann, L.; Fauser, P.

    2004-05-01

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2004. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SOx for the years 1980-2002, (2) NOx, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2002; (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM2.5 for the years 2000-2002, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2002, and (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2002. Furthermore, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  3. Ecotoxicological thresholds-practical application to an industrial inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsell, Steve; Hodges, Geoff; Marshall, Stuart; Roberts, Jayne

    2015-04-01

    The concept of thresholds of toxicological concern as a potentially useful tool in environmental risk assessment has been applied to the inventory of a home and personal care products company to derive a series of chemical class-based ecotoxicological threshold of concern (ecoTTC) values. Cationic chemicals of various types show notably higher toxicity than other classes and should be treated separately. Despite this, the ecoTTC for the full data set in the present study is only slightly lower than that derived previously for chemicals causing toxicity via Verhaar modes of action (MoAs) 1 to 3. Exclusion of cationic chemicals resulted in an ecoTTC value slightly higher than the MoA 1 to 3 value. These observations indicate that such data sets contain few specifically acting chemicals. The applicability of threshold approaches in environmental risk assessment has been extended to include a limited number of inorganic/organometallic chemicals, polymers, and all classes of surfactants. The use of such ecoTTC values in conjunction with mode of action-based quantitative structure-activity relationships will allow the efficient screening and prioritization of large inventories of heterogeneous chemicals, focusing resources on those chemicals that require additional information to better understand any potential risk. PMID:25641655

  4. Combined effects of cold work and chemical polishing on the absorption and release of hydrogen from SRF cavities inferred from resistance measurements of cavity-grade niobium bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyuba, A.; Cooley, L. D.

    2014-03-01

    A series of small fine-grained and single-crystal bars, with strain from 0% (recrystallized) to 50%, were given different amounts of chemical polishing. Four-point resistivity (ρ) data was used to characterize the electron scattering from dislocations, hydrogen, and any other trace contaminants. As noted by previous studies, annealed Nb displayed a weak linear increase of ρ (11 K) with polishing time due to hydrogen absorption, and bulk hydrogen concentration did not exceed 15% for 200 μm metal removed. Cold-worked samples displayed steeper slopes with polishing time (after subtracting resistivity due to strain alone), suggesting that dislocations assist the absorption of hydrogen during polishing. Absorption accelerated above 30% strain and 100 μm material removal, with room-temperature hydrogen concentration rising rapidly from 2% up to 5%. This threshold is significant, since superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities are usually polished as-formed, with >35% strain, and polishing removes >150 μm of metal. Resistance jumps between 40 and 150 K, which signal the formation of hydride precipitates, were stronger in cold-worked samples, suggesting that dislocations also assist precipitate nucleation. High-vacuum anneals at 800 °C for 2 h, which are known to fully recrystallize cavity-grade niobium and de-gas hydrogen, removed the 40-150 K jumps and recovered the resistivity increase due to chemical polishing entirely. But, about 30% of the resistivity increase due to cold work remained, possibly due to residual dislocation clusters. Continued annealing only facilitated the diffusion of surface impurities into the bulk and did not recover the initial 0% state. Strain, polishing, and annealing thus appear to combine as irreversible paths that change the material. Bearing this in mind, the significant difference in hydrogen uptake between annealed and cold-worked samples suggests that annealing SRF cavities prior to chemical polishing could greatly reduce

  5. Iodine releases from reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The airborne releases of iodine from water reactor accidents are small fractions of the available iodine and occur only slowly. However, in reactor accidents in which water is absent, the release of iodine to the environment can be large and rapid. These differences in release fraction and rate are related to the chemical states attained by iodine under the accident conditions. It is clear that neither rapid issue of blocking KI nor rapid evacuation of the surrounding population is required to protect the public from the radioiodine released in the event of a major water reactor accident

  6. Layered and segmented system organization (LASSO) for highly reliable inventory monitoring systems (IMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Trilateral Initiative is preparing for International Atomic Energy Agency (LUiA) verification of excess fissile material released itom the defense programs of the United States and the Russian Federation. Following acceptance of the material using an Attribute Verification System, the IAEA will depend on an Inventory Monitoring System to maintain Continuity of Knowledge of the large inventory of thousands of items. Recovery fiom a total loss of Continuity of Knowledge in such a large storage facility would involve an extremely costly inventory re-verification This paper presents the framework for a Layered and Segmented System Organization that is the basis for a highly reliable IMS with protection-in-depth.

  7. Layered and segmented system organization (LASSO) for highly reliable inventory monitoring systems (IMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangan, Dennis L.; Matter, John C.; Waddoups, I. (Ivan); Abhold, M. E. (Mark E.); Chiaro, P. (Peter)

    2002-01-01

    The Trilateral Initiative is preparing for International Atomic Energy Agency (LUiA) verification of excess fissile material released itom the defense programs of the United States and the Russian Federation. Following acceptance of the material using an Attribute Verification System, the IAEA will depend on an Inventory Monitoring System to maintain Continuity of Knowledge of the large inventory of thousands of items. Recovery fiom a total loss of Continuity of Knowledge in such a large storage facility would involve an extremely costly inventory re-verification This paper presents the framework for a Layered and Segmented System Organization that is the basis for a highly reliable IMS with protection-in-depth.

  8. Development and validation of a model of uranium release to groundwater from legacy disposals at the UK Low Level Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previous radiological assessment of the UK Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) has considered how the prevailing reducing chemical conditions in disposal trenches, may limit uranium release through the extreme low solubility of U(IV) solids. This study considers the additional effects that the physical and chemical nature of the uranium wastes may have on the release of uranium. Fluoride process residues produced by refining of uranium metal comprise the majority of the legacy inventory. Based on historic records and descriptions of the uranium wastes a conceptual model has been developed which bounds the release rate of uranium present as inclusions and dissolved in the solid residues by the dissolution rate of a magnesium fluoride matrix. The model is represented in a 3-dimensional groundwater flow and geochemical model. Initial findings indicate that the model correctly represents the range of fluoride and uranium concentrations that are measured in leachate from the LLWR trenches. Incorporation of this model in future safety assessments, together with a reduction in the derived inventory of uranium, is likely to result in a significant lowering of the peak groundwater dose to acceptable levels, even in the case that the site re-oxidizes. The study builds confidence in the inherent safety features that are provided by the sparingly soluble uranium waste residues and the reducing chemical conditions of the LLWR trenches. (authors)

  9. Nuclear, thermo-mechanical and tritium release analysis of ITER breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the breeding blanket in ITER applies pebble bed breeder in tube (BIT) surrounded by multiplier pebble bed. It is assumed to use the same module support mechanism and coolant manifolds and coolant system as the shielding blankets. This work focuses on the verification of the design of the breeding blanket, from the viewpoints which is especially unique to the pebble bed type breeding blanket, such as, tritium breeding performance, tritium inventory and release behavior and thermo-mechanical performance of the ITER breeding blanket. With respect to the neutronics analysis, the detailed analyses of the distribution of the nuclear heating rate and TBR have been performed in 2D model using MCNP to clarify the input data for the tritium inventory and release rate analyses and thermo-mechanical analyses. With respect to the tritium inventory and release behavior analysis, the parametric analyses for selection of purge gas flow rate were carried out from the view point of pressure drop and the tritium inventory/release performance for Li2TiO3 breeder. The analysis result concluded that purge gas flow rate can be set to conventional flow rate setting (88 l/min per module) to 1/10 of that to save the purge gas flow and minimize the size of purge gas pipe. However, it is necessary to note that more tritium is transformed to HTO (chemical form of water) in case of Li2TiO3 compared to other breeder materials. With respect to the thermo-mechanical analyses of the pebble bed blanket structure, the analyses have been performed by ABAQUS with 2D model derived from one of eight facets of a blanket module, based on the reference design. Analyses were performed to identify the temperature distribution incorporating the pebble bed mechanical simulation and influence of mechanical behavior to the thermal behavior. The result showed that the maximum temperature in the breeding material was 617degC in the first row of breeding rods and the minimum temperature was 328degC in

  10. Characterization and heading of irradiated fuels and their chemical analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents results of leaching experiments under deionized water and under synthetic granite at room temperature in air using spent fuel (UO2 and MOX LWR fuels) and the chemical analogues, natural UO2 and SIMFUEL. The experimental conditions and procedure for irradiated and non-irradiated materials were kept similar as much as possible. Also dissolution behaviour studies of preoxidised LWR UO2 and MOX spent fuel up to different on the oxidation degree. For both fuel types, UO2 and MOX, the fission products considered showed a fractional release normalised to uranium higher than 1, due to either the larger inventory at preferential leaching zones, such as, grain boundaries or to the inherent higher solubility of some of these elements. In contrast to fission products, the fractional release of PU from the UO2 fuel was not affected by the oxidation level. Finally a thermodynamic study of the experimental leaching results obtained in this work was performed. (Author)

  11. Contribution to the study of TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) conformation using circular dichroism. Physico-chemical studies, radioactive labelling and biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to reach a better understanding at the molecular level of phenomena connected with the action of TRF the conformation and radioactive labelling of this hormone were investigated. The specific detection of a hormone at its action site is only possible if labelled substances of very high specific activity are used. TRF was tritium labelled by three methods: direct catalytic exchange; catalytic dehalogenation of mono- and di-iodo TRF; catalytic denitrogenation of mono-azo-TRF. Whatever the method used the tritiated TRF has a very high specific activity and keeps all its biological properties. Biological activity measurements carried out on labelled TRF, in vivo in rats and in vitro on a TRF-sensitive prolactine cell clone, are described. TRF tritiated by the above methods is shown to have the same biological activity as standard TRF. Some results are given concerning the application of labelled TRF to research on the hormone action mechanism. The tritiated TRF distribution kinetics were examined in vivo and in vitro. The kinetics of hormone fixation on the antehypophysary tissue match those of in vivo release of the plasma thyreotropic hormone, confirming the relationships between the hormone fixation on its target tissue and its biological effect. Finally an outline is given of work on the interaction of tritiated TRF with prolactine cell receptors and on the penetration of intact tritiated TRF into these cells. In addition the radioimmunological analysis of TRF was developed by the use of 125I-mono-iodo-TRF at high specific activity (above 2000 Ci/mmole)

  12. Synergic chemical analysis - the coupling of TG with FTIR, MS and GC-MS; 1. The determination of the gases released during the thermal oxidation of a printed circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution reports the coupling of TG with FTIR, MS and GC-MS (Synergic chemical analysis). During thermogravimetric analysis the gases evolved are analysed using 'real-time' FTIR and MS. Simultaneously the gases are collected on an absorbent trap (organic trap module, OTM) for subsequent analysis using GC-MS. As an example the technique has been used to identify the products evolved from a printed circuit board during thermal oxidation. The use of TG-FTIR-MS-OTM-GC-MS provided information that could not be available through single techniques alone. For example, it was possible to ascertain the temperature range over which bromophenol was released. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Development of new radioactive labelling methods (3H and 11C) in luteizing hormone (LH) and its releasing hormone (LRF). Study of physico-chemical properties of LRF by circular dichroism and emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of present knowledge on the hypothalamus-hypophysis this thesis falls into three parts. The first situates the peptide hormones studied in their biological context. Research on the radioactive labelling of hormonal peptides is dealt with in part two which includes, besides the application of already known tritiation methods to particular problems, the description of a new tritium labelling method and the use of carbon 11 for the kinetic distribution study of a hormone. Part three concerns the physico-chemical study of a hypothalamic hormone. As a contribution towards research on the hypophysary gonadotrophic function regulation, the work involved in all the above three sections was directed towards the luteinising hormone (LH) and its hypothalamic release factor (LRF). During the study of this latter the problem of peptides containing tryptophane arose and was consequently investigated

  14. An emission inventory of sulfur from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsat, S. V.; Graf, H. F.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents first results of a comprehensive emission inventory of chemical species from anthropogenic activities (power generation, vehicles, ships and aircraft) in Antarctica, covering the 2004-2005 period. The inventory is based on estimated emission rates of fuel consumption provided by some of the Antarctic research stations. Since the emission sources have different modes of operation and use a variety of fuel, the emission flux rate of chemical species is calculated by multiplying the fuel consumption value with the density of fuel and appropriate emission factors. A separate inventory is prepared for each anthropogenic emission source in Antarctica. Depending on the type of operation, emission rates of SO2, and BC (Black Carbon, from shipping only) have been calculated using the above technique. However, only results of SO2 emissions from each source are presented here. Emission inventory maps of SO2 depicting the track/path taken by each mobile source are shown. The total annual SO2 is 158 Mg from power generation and vehicle operations, 3873 Mg from ships and 56 Mg from aircraft for 2004-2005 and these values undergo strong seasonality following the human activity in Antarctica. Though these figures are small when compared to the emissions at most other regions of the world, they are an indication that human presence in Antarctica leads to at least local pollution. The sources are mainly line and point sources and thus the local pollution potentially is relatively strong.

  15. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  16. The Issue of Calculating the Final Temperature of the Products of Rapid Exothermic Chemical Reactions with Significant Energy Release in a Closed Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarev, V.; Geidmanis, D.

    2016-02-01

    The theoretical problem solved in this article is the calculation of thermodynamic parameters such as final temperature, distribution of the liquid and dry saturated vapour phases of the substance that are considered to be in thermodynamic equilibrium, and pressure of the system of several reaction products after adding to the system a certain amount of heat or the thermal effect released during rapid exothermic reaction in a closed volume that occurs so fast that it can be considered to be adiabatic, and when the volume of liquid reagents is several orders of magnitude less than the volume of the reactor. The general multi-substance problem is reduced to a theoretical problem for one substance of calculation thermodynamic parameters of system after adding a certain amount of heat that gives theoretically rigorous isochoric calculation. In this article, we substantiate our view that isochoric pass of calculation is more robust compared to seemingly more natural isobaric pass of calculation, if the later involves quite not trivial calculation of the adiabatic compression of a two-phase system (liquid - dry saturated vapour) that can pass itself into another kind of state (liquid - wet saturated vapour), which requires, apparently, more complex descriptions compared with isochoric calculation because the specific heat capacity of wet saturated vapour can be negative. The solved theoretical problem relates to a practical problem that has been a driver for our research as part of a design of the reactor of the titanium reduction from magnesium and titanium tetrachloride supplied into atmosphere of the reactor at high temperatures when both reagents are in gaseous state. The reaction is known to be exothermic with a high thermal effect, and estimate of the final temperature and pressure of the products of reaction, for instance, designing the reactor allows eliminating the possibility of the reaction products to penetrate backwards into supply tracts of the reagents

  17. Renin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweda, Frank; Friis, Ulla; Wagner, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    The aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in salt, volume, and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. Renin is mainly produced and released into circulation by the so-called juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells, located...

  18. Information related to low-level mixed waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared to support the analysis of risks and costs associated with the proposed treatment of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) under management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The various waste management alternatives for treatment of LLMW have been defined in the DOE's Office of Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. This technical memorandum estimates the waste material throughput expected at each proposed LLMW treatment facility and analyzes potential radiological and chemical releases at each DOE site resulting from treatment of these wastes. Models have been developed to generate site-dependent radiological profiles and waste-stream-dependent chemical profiles for these wastes. Current site-dependent inventories and estimates for future generation of LLMW have been obtained from DOE's 1994 Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2). Using treatment procedures developed by the Mixed Waste Treatment Project, the MWIR-2 database was analyzed to provide waste throughput and emission estimates for each of the different waste types assessed in this report. Uncertainties in the estimates at each site are discussed for waste material throughputs and radiological and chemical releases

  19. Information related to low-level mixed waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared to support the analysis of risks and costs associated with the proposed treatment of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) under management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The various waste management alternatives for treatment of LLMW have been defined in the DOE's Office of Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. This technical memorandum estimates the waste material throughput expected at each proposed LLMW treatment facility and analyzes potential radiological and chemical releases at each DOE site resulting from treatment of these wastes. Models have been developed to generate site-dependent radiological profiles and waste-stream-dependent chemical profiles for these wastes. Current site-dependent inventories and estimates for future generation of LLMW have been obtained from DOE's 1994 Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2). Using treatment procedures developed by the Mixed Waste Treatment Project, the MWIR-2 database was analyzed to provide waste throughput and emission estimates for each of the different waste types assessed in this report. Uncertainties in the estimates at each site are discussed for waste material throughputs and radiological and chemical releases

  20. Sourcing Life Cycle Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The collection and validation of quality lifecycle inventory (LCI) data can be the most difficult and time-consuming aspect of developing a life cycle assessment (LCA). Large amounts of process and production data are needed to complete the LCI. For many studies, the LCA analyst ...

  1. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for…

  2. The Personality Inventory for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachar, David

    The development of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) began with the core concept that maternal reports would provide data for child guidance evaluation and the consequent belief that maternal responses to a 600-item administration booklet could yield scales useful in determining child and family status. Two areas of weakness were found:…

  3. Loss of inventory control transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenarios resulting from the loss of inventory control in the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system due to loss of control to feed and bleed valves are developed here. Their consequences are also discussed. The loss of inventory control resulting in net feed flow will over pressurize the PHT system. If reactor trip is not initiated at high pressure trip set point, opening of the primary relief valves at 1631 psi g will terminate the transient. If opening of primary relief valves is also not credited, PHT pressure will increase further and will ultimately be limited by the capacity of charging pumps of about 1741 psi g. At this pressure there is very little chance of system integrity failure as PHT design operating pressure is exceeded only by a small amount. Loss of inventory control resulting in the opening of feed and bleed valves will depressurize the system. System pressure will decrease until feed flow balances the bleed flow. Resulting system pressure (1158 psi g) will be higher than the saturation pressure at the maximum system temperature. However, loss of inventory control resulting in the opening of bleed valves alone will depressurize the system rapidly and bulk boiling will take place in about 10 seconds. 10 figs.; 8 tabs. (author)

  4. CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and...

  5. Inventory Plan : St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The inventory procedures outlined in this plan represent a cost effective inventory of the wildlife populations on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge. Winter...

  6. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Ottawa NWR describes the inventory program’s relation to Refuge objectives and outlines the program’s policies and administration....

  7. Inventory on cleaner production education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pöyry, Sirkka; Huisingh, Donald; Borup, Mads; Leskinen, Arto

    Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training......Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training...

  8. Lake Mason : FWS rangeland inventory assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In September 2013, The Lake Mason Unit owned by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service was inventoried for rangeland health and production. The purpose of the inventory was...

  9. Cooperative forestry inventory project for Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, R.

    1981-01-01

    A forest inventory project employing computerized classification of LANDSAT data to inventory vegetation types in western Nevada is described. The methodology and applicability of the resulting survey are summarized.

  10. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Ottawa NWR describes the inventory programs relation to Refuge objectives and outlines the programs policies and administration....

  11. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wildlife Inventory Plan discusses the following protocols; wildlife inventory procedures, physical facility needs, manpower days, and special considerations.

  12. Corporate social responsibility and inventory policy

    OpenAIRE

    Barcos, Lucía; Tribó, Josep A.; Surroca, Jordi; Barroso, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we study the impact of implementing corporate social responsible (CSR) practices on a firm’s inventory policy. Our proposal is that there is an inverted U-shape relationship between firms’ CSR and their inventory levels. Two elements explain such proposal. First, stakeholders have different interests regarding the outcome of the inventory system. Specifically, we hypothesize that customers pressure firms to increase inventories; employees have conflicting views regarding inve...

  13. Changes in Inventories in the National Accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Segismundo Fassler; Manik L. Shrestha

    2003-01-01

    The principles underlying the recording of changes in inventories are explained in the System of National Accounts, 1993 (1993 SNA), but operational guidelines on their measurement are lacking. This paper elaborates specific statistical techniques and their underlying assumptions for calculating changes in inventories and holding gains when only data on stocks of inventories are available. Several data situations are considered. The authors propose methods for measuring changes in inventories...

  14. Inventories, stockouts, and ToTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvtsov, Oleksiy; Zhang, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Inventory investment is an important component of the Canadian business cycle. Despite its small average size - less than 1 per cent of output - it exhibits volatile procyclical fluctuations, accounting for almost one-third of output variance. Procyclicality of inventories is somewhat smaller than that of sales, resulting in a counter-cyclical aggregate inventory-sales ratio. These salient inventory facts are matched in a partialequilibrium version of Kryvtsov and Midrigan's (2010) model in w...

  15. Inventories in a Labour-Managed Economy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers a two-period model in which two labour-managed firms can use inventory investment as a strategic device. In the first period, each firm simultaneously and independently chooses how much it sells in the current market and the level of inventory it holds for the second-period market. The paper shows the reaction curves in the model with inventories. The paper finds that inventories may be used by labour-managed firms to facilitate tacit collusion.

  16. Intensity of Disequilibrium and Changes in Inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Welfe, A.

    1986-01-01

    It is usually accepted in economic theory that one of the main reasons for keeping inventories is to balance supply and demand. However, the experiences of the recent years in Poland indicate that inventories play this role only in a limited way. The present paper is devoted to an interesting problem concerning the possibilities of using the changes of stocks of inventories as disequilibrium indicator for particular commodity markets. The analysis covers the changes of inventories in a social...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2309 - Emissions inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions inventories. 52.2309 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2309 Emissions inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Texas submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the...

  18. 43 CFR 10.9 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventories. 10.9 Section 10.9 Public... Museums and Federal Collections § 10.9 Inventories. (a) General. This section carries out section 5 of the... holdings or collections of human remains and associated funerary objects must compile an inventory of...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1533 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1533 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1533 Emission inventories... inventory for the entire state on January 26, 1993 as a revision to the State Implementation Plan...

  20. 27 CFR 17.167 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 17.167... PRODUCTS Records § 17.167 Inventories. (a) Distilled spirits. The “on hand” figures reported in Part II of TTB Form 5154.2 shall be verified by physical inventories taken as of the end of each quarter in...

  1. 47 CFR 32.1220 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventories. 32.1220 Section 32.1220... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.1220 Inventories. (a) This account shall include the cost of materials and supplies held in stock and inventories of...

  2. 40 CFR 52.384 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.384 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Connecticut submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2086 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2086 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2086 Emission inventories... inventory for the Providence ozone nonattainment area on January 12, 1993 as a revision to the...

  4. 27 CFR 22.162 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 22.162... Inventories. Each permittee shall take a physical inventory of the tax-free and recovered alcohol in its possession semi-annually for the periods ending June 30 and December 31 of each year; or other...

  5. 27 CFR 25.294 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 25.294... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.294 Inventories. (a) The brewer shall take a physical inventory of beer and cereal beverage at least once each calender month. The brewer may take...

  6. 40 CFR 52.348 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.348 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.348 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Colorado submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories for...

  7. 30 CFR 220.032 - Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inventories. 220.032 Section 220.032 Mineral... Inventories. (a) The lessee is responsible for NPSL materiel and shall make proper and timely cost and credit... operations. The accumulation of surplus stocks shall be avoided by proper materiel control, inventory...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The 2002 base year emission inventory requirement of 40 CFR 51.915 has been satisfied... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1036 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1036 Emission inventories. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2350 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2350 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Utah submitted the 1990 base year emission inventory of ozone precursors,...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1125 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1125 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1125 Emission inventories... emission inventories for the Springfield nonattainment area and the Massachusetts portion of the...

  11. 40 CFR 52.993 - Emissions inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions inventories. 52.993 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.993 Emissions inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Baton...

  12. 75 FR 82095 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. The inventory includes service contract... at the NRC's electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html . From this page... inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded in FY 2010. The...

  13. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a quarterly physical inventory to account for all sealed sources and for devices containing depleted uranium...

  14. 42 CFR 35.41 - Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory. 35.41 Section 35.41 Public Health PUBLIC... STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of Money and Effects of Deceased Patients § 35.41 Inventory. Promptly after the death of a patient in a station or hospital of the Service, an inventory of his money and...

  15. 23 CFR 650.315 - Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory. 650.315 Section 650.315 Highways FEDERAL..., STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.315 Inventory. (a) Each State or Federal agency must prepare and maintain an inventory of all bridges subject to the NBIS....

  16. 7 CFR 984.21 - Handler inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handler inventory. 984.21 Section 984.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.21 Handler inventory. Handler inventory as of any date means...

  17. Management of supply of inventories of enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Горбунова, Анна Володимирівна

    2016-01-01

    Peculiarities of supply of inventories under present-day business conditions have been researched. It has been suggested to stipulate in the purchase contract stimulation of a supplier to deliver inventories in time, paying it out certain part of economy, received from avoiding keeping unnecessary inventories.

  18. Limit Distribution of Inventory Level of Perishable Inventory Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hailing Dong; Guochao Jiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies a perishable inventory model, which assumes that each perishable item has finite lifetime, and only one item is consumed each time. The lifetimes of perishable items are independent random variables with the general distribution and so are the consumption internal. Under this assumption, by using backward equations and limit distribution of Markov skeleton processes, this paper obtains the existence conditions and the explicit expression of the limit distribution of the inv...

  19. Deuterium inventory in Tore Supra: Contribution of carbon deposits outgassing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotis, S., E-mail: stephanie.panayotis@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pégourié, B.; Caprin, E.; Douai, D.; Hatchressian, J.-C.; Negrier, V.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Vartanian, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Monier-Garbet, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-07-15

    In carbon dominated devices, the in vessel D inventory obtained from post-mortem analyses of plasma facing component samples is generally smaller by a factor of ∼4 than that estimated from gas balance measurements. However, for an accurate evaluation of the wall inventory, gas balance measurements must be done not only during discharges and conditioning procedures, but also in between discharges and during vents. From the analysis of the whole Tore Supra database for the 2002–2007 period, we show that long term outgassing during nights, weekends and vents is essential for evaluating the deuterium release. Taking these contributions into account reconciles the gas balance and post-mortem estimations of fuel retention.

  20. Deuterium inventory in Tore Supra: Contribution of carbon deposits outgassing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In carbon dominated devices, the in vessel D inventory obtained from post-mortem analyses of plasma facing component samples is generally smaller by a factor of ∼4 than that estimated from gas balance measurements. However, for an accurate evaluation of the wall inventory, gas balance measurements must be done not only during discharges and conditioning procedures, but also in between discharges and during vents. From the analysis of the whole Tore Supra database for the 2002–2007 period, we show that long term outgassing during nights, weekends and vents is essential for evaluating the deuterium release. Taking these contributions into account reconciles the gas balance and post-mortem estimations of fuel retention

  1. 41 CFR 109-27.5007 - Physical inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical inventories...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5007 Physical inventories....

  2. Analysis of the production planning and inventory control system used by NADEP, North Island for the repair of the T-64 series engine

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Telford G.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis is an analysis of the current production planning and inventory control system used by NADEP, North Island for the repair of the T-64 series engine. The system is described and analyzed for its effect on repair time and work-in-process inventory. Recommendations are made to improve repair time and reduce work-in-process inventory levels. A simulation and queueing theory are used to compare the queue of awaiting maintenance ...

  3. Inventory management for dual sales channels with inventory-level-dependent demand

    OpenAIRE

    Tingting Li; Xiaobo Zhao; Jinxing Xie

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the inventory management problem of dual channels operated by one vendor. Demands of dual channels are inventory-level-dependent. We propose a multi-period stochastic dynamic programming model which shows that under mild conditions, the myopic inventory policy is optimal for the infinite horizon problem. To investigate the importance of capturing demand dependency on inventory levels, we consider a heuristic where the vendor ignores demand dependency on inventory levels, an...

  4. Physical inventory taking at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical inventory planning and implementation at the Lucas Heights research reactor as the model facility are described. The description includes the computer-based records system used and the steps to ensure its accuracy, the labelling of separate items of nuclear material, the clean-out procedures for converting in-process material to measurable items, the administrative procedures for inventorying each inventory area, the verification procedures used to include previously measured tamper-safe items in the inventory, and lastly, procedures used to reconcile the inventory and calculate MUF (material unaccounted for). 2 figs

  5. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    CERN Document Server

    McGinness, Lachlan P

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multi-stage iterative development cycle for incorporating expert and student feedback into successive revisions of the ACI. The student feedback, including think-aloud interviews, enabled us to identify their misconceptions about action physics.

  6. National inventory of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.)

  7. 控释肥包衣剂的制备及理化性质研究%Studies on Preparation and Physico-chemical Properties of Coating-agent for Controlled Release Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 熊海蓉; 祝友; 熊远福; 李霞; 刘俊

    2013-01-01

      为了获得控释肥包衣剂的制备条件、探明其理化性质,以2种树脂为成膜材料,探讨了成膜材料复合比、成膜材料用量、增塑剂用量、乳化剂用量等单因素对控释肥包衣剂制备效果的影响,运用正交试验L9(34)确定了控释肥包衣剂制备的最佳条件;并对其pH、粘度、成膜时间、成膜性、衣膜水溶性、包衣均匀度、包衣脱落率等理化性质进行了测定。结果表明,控释肥包衣剂的最佳制备条件:树脂JZ与BZ复合比1:1.5,成膜材料用量12%,增塑剂用量0.8%,乳化剂用量1.0%,色素用量0.08%,乙酸乙酯用量86.12%。理化性质测定结果显示:pH 5.21,粘度为21.1 MPa/s,成膜性良好,衣膜不溶于水,成膜时间为6 min,包衣均匀度95%,包衣脱落率<8%,表明所制备的控释肥包衣剂理化性质良好。%To obtain the preparation conditions and explore the physico-chemical properties of coating-agent for controlled release fertilizer, the single factor tests of the composite ratio of film-forming materials, the amount of film-forming materials, plasticizer, emulsifier and pigment were made with two resins as the film-forming materials, and the optimal preparation conditions of coating-agent for controlled-fertilizer were determined by orthogonal test L9(34). The physico-chemical properties of the pH, viscosity, film-forming time, film-forming properties, water solubility of coated film, coating uniformity, coating-off rate were measured. The results showed that, the optimal preparation conditions were as follows:the composite ratio (JZ:BZ) was 1:1.5, amount of film-forming materials was 12%, plasticizer was 0.8%, emulsifier was 1.0%, pigment was 0.08% and solvent was 86.12%. Test results of physico-chemical properties showed that, the pH was 5.21, viscosity was 21.1 MPa/s, the film was good and indissolvable in water, the film-forming time was 6 min, coating uniformity was 95%, coating

  8. Capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  9. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  10. Validation of the ORIGEN-S code for predicting radionuclide inventories in used CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment being conducted by AECL Research for the concept of deep geological disposal of used CANDU UO2 fuel requires the calculation of radionuclide inventories in the fuel to provide source terms for radionuclide release. This report discusses the validation of selected actinide and fission-product inventories calculated using the ORIGEN-S code coupled with the WIMS-AECL lattice code, using data from analytical measurements of radioisotope inventories in Pickering CANDU reactor fuel. The recent processing of new ENDF/B-VI cross-section data has allowed the ORIGEN-S calculations to be performed using the most up-to-date nuclear data available. The results indicate that the code is reliably predicting actinide and the majority of fission-product inventories to within the analytical uncertainty. ((orig.))

  11. Controlling Stock and Other Inventory Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    Inventory control is one of the most important business processes during the operation of a trading or manufacturing company as it relates to purchases,sales and logistic activities.In order to have clear inventory management,a company should not only focus on logistic management but also on sales and purchase management. Commonly,we think of the warehouse as the most important component of inventory management and the accounting department is responsible for the inventory management. However,inventory control is not only the responsibility of the accounting department and the warehouse,but also the responsibility of the entire organization.Actually,there are many departments involved in the inventory control process,such as sales,purchasing, production,logistics and accounting.All these departments must work together in or- der to achieve effective inventory controls.

  12. Inventory Methods in a Conversion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purposes of the inventories are: to safeguard the interests of the Commissariat, to evaluate losses, and to check the measures taken for waste storage. On stocktaking the investigator can either carry out a physical inventory, participate in the inventory, or check the inventory. The latter method gives the best results. The stocktaking operations, preceded by a preparatory meeting to determine the methods to be applied, are carried out in two stages: the weight inventory check and the physical auditing check. Some questions arising in connection with the inventory are disputes between consignors and consignees regarding weight and content; choice of weighing equipment, waste, and evaluation of losses. Inventory methods should not differ greatly from one country to another. It would appear desirable to stress the difficulties which arise during operation and to consider jointly ways of surmounting them. (author)

  13. Reactor with very low fission product inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast converter with one zone and an internal breeding ratio of 1.00, with liquid fuel in the form of molten plutonium- uranium- and sodium chloride, with a thermal power of 3 GW (th) allows continuous extraction of the volatile fission products (Br, I, Kr, Xe, Te) by means of helium purging in the core. The non-volatile fission products e.g. Sr and Cs can continuously be extracted in a chemical reprocessing plant at the reactor site. The impact on an accidental release of fission products is rather significant; the amounts released are 50-100 times smaller than those in a reference reactor (LWR with oxide fuel). Because the heat sink is relatively large and after heat reduced, the temperature of the fuel does not exceed 5000C after an accident, which greatly reduces the consequences of an accident. (Auth.)

  14. Inventory of methane emissions from U.S. cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, H.; Lamb, B.; Johnson, K. A.; Huyler, M.

    2001-01-01

    Many countries, including the United States, are in the process of inventorying greenhouse gas emissions as a prerequisite for designing control strategies. We have developed a measurement-based inventory of methane emissions from cattle in the United States. Methane emission factors were established for the major livestock groups using an internal tracer method. The groups studied included cows, replacement heifers, slaughter cattle, calves, and bulls in the beef sector and cows plus replacement heifers in the dairy industry. Since methane emission is dependent on the quality and quantity of feed, diets were chosen that are representative of the feed regimes utilized by producers in the United States. Regional cattle populations, obtained from U.S. Department of Agriculture statistics, were combined with the methane emission factors to yield regional emission estimates. The methane totals from the five regions were then summed to give a U.S. inventory of cattle emissions for 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, and 1998. Annual releases ranged from 6.50 Tg in 1990 to a high of 6.98 Tg in 1996. On a regional scale the North Central region of the United States had the largest methane emissions from livestock followed by the South Central and the West. The beef cow group released the most methane (˜2.5 Tg yr-1) followed by slaughter cattle (˜1.7 Tg yr-1) and dairy cows at about 1.5 Tg yr-1. Methane released by cattle in the United States contributes about 11% of the global cattle source.

  15. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  16. Radioactive releases from nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the various stages in the pathway from irradiated nuclear fuel to man as separate modules, in each of which mathematical models are derived to represent the transfer of radioactivity. It begins with the generation of the radioactive inventories within fuel, both fission products and the build-up of transuranic elements; the release from fuel is then considered for metal and oxide fuels, following which the effects of plate-out in the reactor circuit are discussed. There is then a detailed treatment of the behaviour of the effluent in the atmosphere including effective height of release, building entrainment, meteorological dispersion, mechanisms for ground deposition and the effects of the duration of release. Having specified the radioactive environment, its interaction with man is described including external exposures from γ-emitting plumes of activity and the estimation of depth doses, as well as the internal organ doses resulting from inhalation or ingestion of radioactivity. Finally, applications of the methods are described in reanalysing the 1957 Windscale accident and in the planning of procedures for reactor accident monitoring as well as in the implications of future reactor designs to assessments of accidental releases. A brief summary of the reactor siting criteria adopted in the U.K. and in the U.S.A. has also been given as a background against which to review the predictive techniques and results from the range of studies of accident considered. (author)

  17. Release of 14C from the gap and grain-boundary regions of used CANDU fuels to aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP), to measure 14C inventories of used CANDU fuel. Other objectives were to measure the fraction of the total 14C inventory that would be instantly released to solution from used CANDU fuels upon sheath failure and to determine if the assumptions made in safety assessment calculations of used fuel waste disposal regarding instant release of 14C were correct. Results showed that the measured 14C inventories were a factor of 11.5 ± 3.9 lower than the estimated 14C inventory values used in safety assessment calculations. Measured instant release values for 14C ranged from 0.06 to 5.04% (of total 14C inventories) with an average of 2.7 ± 1.6%, indicating that instant release fractions for 14C used in safety assessment calculations (1.2--25%) were overestimated

  18. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. Geographical inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geographical inventory of the radioactive wastes present on the French territory (as recorded until the 31 of december, 2007) is presented, region by region. The various types of waste sites (production, processing, conditioning and storage sites, Uranium mines, ANDRA storage centers, historical storage sites and polluted sites where wastes are stored) are listed and located on maps. Details are given on the nature and origin of these wastes (nuclear industry, medical domain, scientific research, conventional industry, Defense...). A total of 1121 sites have been recorded, among which 163 are presented with details and charts

  19. Implementation of a Thermodynamic Solver within a Computer Program for Calculating Fission-Product Release Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Duncan Henry

    During some postulated accidents at nuclear power stations, fuel cooling may be impaired. In such cases, the fuel heats up and the subsequent increased fission-gas release from the fuel to the gap may result in fuel sheath failure. After fuel sheath failure, the barrier between the coolant and the fuel pellets is lost or impaired, gases and vapours from the fuel-to-sheath gap and other open voids in the fuel pellets can be vented. Gases and steam from the coolant can enter the broken fuel sheath and interact with the fuel pellet surfaces and the fission-product inclusion on the fuel surface (including material at the surface of the fuel matrix). The chemistry of this interaction is an important mechanism to model in order to assess fission-product releases from fuel. Starting in 1995, the computer program SOURCE 2.0 was developed by the Canadian nuclear industry to model fission-product release from fuel during such accidents. SOURCE 2.0 has employed an early thermochemical model of irradiated uranium dioxide fuel developed at the Royal Military College of Canada. To overcome the limitations of computers of that time, the implementation of the RMC model employed lookup tables to pre-calculated equilibrium conditions. In the intervening years, the RMC model has been improved, the power of computers has increased significantly, and thermodynamic subroutine libraries have become available. This thesis is the result of extensive work based on these three factors. A prototype computer program (referred to as SC11) has been developed that uses a thermodynamic subroutine library to calculate thermodynamic equilibria using Gibbs energy minimization. The Gibbs energy minimization requires the system temperature (T) and pressure (P), and the inventory of chemical elements (n) in the system. In order to calculate the inventory of chemical elements in the fuel, the list of nuclides and nuclear isomers modelled in SC11 had to be expanded from the list used by SOURCE 2.0. A

  20. Derivation of a radionuclide inventory for irradiated graphite-chlorine-36 inventory determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    fraction of the chlorine is released from the graphite during irradiation, both in natural precursor and activated form. The release rate of inactive chlorine and of chlorine-36 was modelled, to allow the calculation of a residual chlorine-36 inventory in operational and decommissioning wastes; actual measurements on operational wastes have confirmed this release. This has subsequently been used to assess the effect on disposal risks. This paper provides a description of the work undertaken by Nirex to establish the residual inventory of chlorine-36 in irradiated nuclear graphite, and outline the implications for disposal of these wastes. (author)

  1. Optimal Control of Brownian Inventory Models with Convex Inventory Cost: Discounted Cost Case

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Jim; Yao, Dacheng

    2011-01-01

    We consider an inventory system in which inventory level fluctuates as a Brownian motion in the absence of control. The inventory continuously accumulates cost at a rate that is a general convex function of the inventory level, which can be negative when there is a backlog. At any time, the inventory level can be adjusted by a positive or negative amount, which incurs a fixed positive cost and a proportional cost. The challenge is to find an adjustment policy that balances the inventory cost ...

  2. Initial performance of the advanced inventory verification sample system (AVIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the requirements, design and initial performance of the Advanced Inventory Verification Sample System (AVIS) a non-destructive assay (NDA) system to measure small samples of bulk mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) materials (powders and pellets). The AVIS design has evolved from previously developed conceptual physics and engineering designs for the Inventory Sample Verification System (INVS), a safeguards system for nondestructive assay of small samples. The AVIS is an integrated gamma-neutron system. Jointly designed by the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), AVIS is intended to meet a performance specification of a total measurement uncertainty of less than 0.5% in the neutron (240Pueffective) measurement. This will allow the AVIS to replace destructive chemical analysis for many samples, with concomitant cost, exposure and waste generation savings for the facility. Data taken to date confirming the performance of the AVIS is presented.

  3. Initial performance of the advanced inventory verification sample system (AVIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlow, Johnna B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, Carlos D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements, design and initial performance of the Advanced Inventory Verification Sample System (AVIS) a non-destructive assay (NDA) system to measure small samples of bulk mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) materials (powders and pellets). The AVIS design has evolved from previously developed conceptual physics and engineering designs for the Inventory Sample Verification System (INVS), a safeguards system for nondestructive assay of small samples. The AVIS is an integrated gamma-neutron system. Jointly designed by the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), AVIS is intended to meet a performance specification of a total measurement uncertainty of less than 0.5% in the neutron ({sup 240}Pu{sub effective}) measurement. This will allow the AVIS to replace destructive chemical analysis for many samples, with concomitant cost, exposure and waste generation savings for the facility. Data taken to date confirming the performance of the AVIS is presented.

  4. Classification & Labelling Inventory: role of ECHA and notification requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Schöning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The CLP Regulation introduces the criteria of the UN Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling (UN GHS in the EU. The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA manages the CLP related tasks - such as harmonised classification and labelling, handling requests for alternative names and maintaining the Classification & Labelling Inventory (C&L - to ensure consistent implementation in the EU. The obligations for industry depend on their role in the supply chain. Manufacturers and importers have to notify to ECHA the identity and classification and labelling of substances within one month of placing them on the market either on their own or in a mixture, and regardless of the quantitity. As of 3 January 2011 ECHA has received some 3.1 million notifications of over 107 000 substances. This information is stored in the C&L Inventory and accessible to Member State Competent Authorities. The non-confidential information will be made publicly available on ECHA's website in 2011.

  5. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume 1. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories. This document is Volume I of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation

  6. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Stanley H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

  7. INCAP ? Applying short-term flexibility to control inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Lödding, Hermann; Lohmann, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Inventory Based Capacity Control (INCAP) is a very simple method that allows inventory levels to be effectively controlled by using short-term capacity flexibility in make-to-stock settings. Moreover, INCAP can be used for finished goods inventories as well as for semi-finished goods inventories. The basic idea is to define upper and lower inventory limits and to adjust capacities if the inventory level reaches either limit. Should the inventory fall below the lower limit,...

  8. The validation of a home food inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Heitzler Carrie; Moe Stacey; Lytle Leslie; Nelson Melissa C; Fulkerson Jayne A; Pasch Keryn E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Home food inventories provide an efficient method for assessing home food availability; however, few are validated. The present study's aim was to develop and validate a home food inventory that is easily completed by research participants in their homes and includes a comprehensive range of both healthful and less healthful foods that are associated with obesity. Methods A home food inventory (HFI) was developed and tested with two samples. Sample 1 included 51 adult part...

  9. Sales-Force Incentives and Inventory Management

    OpenAIRE

    Fangruo Chen

    2000-01-01

    This article studies the problem of sales-force compensation by considering the impact of sales-force behavior on a firm's production and inventory system. The sales force's compensation package affects how the salespeople are going to exert their effort, which in turn determines the sales pattern for the firm's product and ultimately drives the performance of the firm's production and inventory system. In general, a smooth demand process facilitates production/inventory planning. Therefore, ...

  10. Inventories in the Australian business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Chindamo, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This Economics Research Note examines inventories in the business cycle for Australia covering the period since the mid 1980s. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) defines inventories as all materials etc., work in progress and finished goods owned by a business, whether held at locations of the business or elsewhere. These items are usually held by businesses in anticipation of a product’s sale. Inventory investment is counted as an additional contribution to gross domestic product (...

  11. Data Driven Tuning of Inventory Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Santacoloma, Paloma Andrade; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad;

    2007-01-01

    A systematic method for criterion based tuning of inventory controllers based on data-driven iterative feedback tuning is presented. This tuning method circumvent problems with modeling bias. The process model used for the design of the inventory control is utilized in the tuning as an...... approximation to reduce time required on experiments. The method is illustrated in an application with a multivariable inventory control implementation on a four tank system....

  12. Rapid inventory taking by electronic data gathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Plessey bar-code reading system has been installed in a nuclear material store at AEE Winfrith and is used to identify discrete packages of various nuclear materials. A mini-computer is utilized as a data store which, coupled with the Plessey bar-code system, produces physical inventory listings or inventory discrepancy reports very quickly. The time taken for a complete inventory of the store has been reduced from 60 man-days to 5 man-days. (author)

  13. Inventories and the Structure of Macro Models

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    The message of this paper can be summed up in two words: inventories matter. They matter empirically, in the sense that inventory developments are of major importance in the propagation of business cycles; and they matter theoretically, in the sense that recognition of their existence changes the structure of a variety of theoretical macromodels in some fairly important ways. This paper is mainly about the implications of inventories for the structure of theoretical macro models, but I begin ...

  14. Inventories in the Keynesian Macro Model

    OpenAIRE

    Alan S. Blinder

    1980-01-01

    An otherwise conventional Keynesian macro model is modified to include inventories of final goods by (1) drawing a distinction between production and final sales, and (2) allowing for a negative effect of the level of inventories on production. Two models are presented: one in which the labor market clears and one in which it does not. Both models are stable only if the negative effect of inventories on production is "large enough." Both models also imply that real wages move counter cyclical...

  15. Optimal Inventory Policies When Sales Are Discretionary

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert E. Scarf

    2000-01-01

    Inventory models customarily assume that demand is fully satisfied if sufficient stock is available. We analyze the form of the optimal inventory policy if the inventory manager can choose to meet a fraction of the demand. Under classical conditions we show that the optimal policy is again of the (S,s) form. The analysis makes use of a novel property of K-concave functions.

  16. Quantum gravity and inventory accumulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, Scott

    2011-01-01

    We begin by studying inventory accumulation at a LIFO (last-in-first-out) retailer with two products. In the simplest version, the following occur with equal probability at each time step: first product ordered, first product produced, second product ordered, second product produced. The inventory thus evolves as a simple random walk on Z^2. In more interesting versions, a p fraction of customers orders the "freshest available" product regardless of type. We show that the corresponding random walks scale to Brownian motions with diffusion matrices depending on p. We then turn our attention to the critical Fortuin-Kastelyn random planar map model, which gives, for each q>0, a probability measure on random (discretized) two-dimensional surfaces decorated by loops, related to the q-state Potts model. A longstanding open problem is to show that as the discretization gets finer, the surfaces converge in law to a limiting (loop-decorated) random surface. The limit is expected to be a Liouville quantum gravity surfa...

  17. GIS Applications in Urban Tree Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Otey, Jennifer K.

    2007-01-01

    This project evaluates and demonstrates some applications of a GIS-based urban tree inventory. This was done by (1) collecting and analyzing data for Tinker Air Force Base (AFB), and (2) collecting and evaluating data for the Virginia Tech campus tree inventory. The urban tree inventory at Tinker AFB was estimated using remote sensing techniques that included the use of the eCognition 3.0 software. Inventory data was collected using a handheld computer and transferred to a desktop for data ba...

  18. Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Hoffmann, Leif;

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2012. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2010 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2012. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2010 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2...

  19. High-temperature transient fission-gas release from UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four of the in-reactor coolant transient tests performed at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories have provided data on fission-gas release during dryout and LOCA conditions. On-line release measurements and fuel operating conditions have been used to deduce physical mechanisms involved in the transient release of fission products under these high-temperature conditions. Post-irradiation examination of the fuel from these four tests, including ceramography and scanning electron microscopy, are consistent with the on-line release data, and with the release mechanisms postulated from that data. In particular, the microstructural evidence confirms the presence of a stored fission gas inventory in these low burnup fuels, which is available for release by fuel cracking. Measured releases under these simulated accident conditions were less than 1.5% of inventory, indicating that transient fission-gas release during LOCA accidents with fuel temperatures up to 2000 degrees Celsius are not likely to be significant

  20. Evaluation of the radiological relevance of the inventories present on the site of a nuclear power plant (except nuclear inventory) as input for the decision-aid system RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The input data deposed in the source-term library of the decision-aid system RODOS comprehend hitherto only source terms with release from parts of the nuclear inventory, however no source terms for accident slopes with release of other activity inventories present on the site of a nuclear power plant. In the framework of the project described here the other activity inventories on the site of a PWR and a BWR reference facility are summarized in view of the quantity of the activity, each nuclide composition, and the release potentials. For the radiological classification of the source terms dose calculations with the program SAFER2, which transposes the manual for the technical adviser catastrophe protection, were performed. By means of the intervention rules of the frame recommendations for the catastrophe protection in the environment of nuclear facilities it is occasionally stated, whether and in which radius catastrophe protection procedures would be necessary.

  1. COMPILATION AND ANALYSES OF EMISSIONS INVENTORIES FOR THE NOAA ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY PROJECT. PROGRESS REPORT, AUGUST 1997.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENKOVITZ,C.M.

    1997-09-01

    Global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for circa 1985 and 1990 and Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) for circa 1990 have been compiled by this project. Work on the inventories has been carried out under the umbrella of the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program. The 1985 NO{sub x} inventory was compiled using default data sets of global emissions that were refined via the use of more detailed regional data sets; this inventory is being distributed to the scientific community at large as the GEIA Version 1A inventory. Global emissions of NO{sub x} for 1985 are estimated to be 21 Tg N y{sup -1}, with approximately 84% originating in the Northern Hemisphere. The 1990 inventories of NO{sub x} and NMVOCs were compiled using unified methodologies and data sets in collaboration with the Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Rijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene, RIVM) and the Division of Technology for Society of the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, (IMW-TNO); these emissions will be used as the default estimates to be updated with more accurate regional data. The NMVOC inventory was gridded and speciated into 23 chemical categories. The resulting global emissions for 1990 are 31 Tg N yr{sup -1} for NO{sub x} and 173 Gg NMVOC yr{sup -1}. Emissions of NO{sub x} are highest in the populated and industrialized areas of eastern North America and across Europe, and in biomass burning areas of South America, Africa, and Asia. Emissions of NMVOCs are highest in biomass burning areas of South America, Africa, and Asia. The 1990 NO{sub x} emissions were gridded to 1{sup o} resolution using surrogate data, and were given seasonal, two-vertical-level resolution and speciated into NO and NO{sub 2} based on proportions derived from the 1985 GEIA Version 1B inventory. Global NMVOC

  2. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TY-102: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a preliminary Tank Characterization Report (TCR). It only contains the current best-basis inventory (Appendix D) for single-shell tank 241-TY-102. No TCRs have been previously issued for this tank, and current core sample analyses are not available. The best-basis inventory, therefore, is based on an engineering assessment of waste type, process flowsheet data, early sample data, and/or other available information. The Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes describes standard methodology used to derive the tank-by-tank best-basis inventories. This preliminary TCR will be updated using this same methodology when additional data on tank contents become available

  3. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TX-113: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a preliminary Tank Characterization Report (TCR). It only contains the current best-basis inventory (Appendix D) for single-shell tank 241-TX-113. No TCRs have been previously issued for this tank, and current core sample analyses are not available. The best-basis inventory, therefore, is based on an engineering assessment of waste type, process flowsheet data, early sample data, and/or other available information. The Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes describes standard methodology used to derive the tank-by-tank best-basis inventories. This preliminary TCR will be updated using this same methodology when additional data on tank contents become available

  4. Modeling unusual tritium release behavior from Li2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a diffusion-desorption tritium release model in which the unusual tritium-release behavior observed in the CRITIC experiment is accounted for by an activation energy of desorption that is surface coverage dependent. Desorption and adsorption activation energies which are dependent on the amount of surface coverage have been reported. The current model is capable of reproducing both the unusual and the normal tritium release observed in CRITIC and predicts other regions where the surface-coverage-dependent release behavior may be observed. Results from the CRITIC experiment and our calculations imply that the details of the surface phenomena must be known to accurately predict the tritium inventory and changes in inventory that occur with changes in the breeder-material environment. 29 refs., 4 figs

  5. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants. Inventories until 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, M.; Hjelgaard, K.

    2010-10-15

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMVOC, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO{sub 2} emission in 2008 was 16 % lower than in 1990. However, fluctuations in the emission level are large as a result of electricity import/export. The emission of CH{sub 4} has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in combined heating and power (CHP) plants. However, the emission has decreased in recent years due to structural changes in the Danish electricity market. The N{sub 2}O emission was higher in 2008 than in 1990 but the fluctuations in the time-series are significant. A considerable decrease of the SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably in recent years resulting in increased emission of PAH, particulate matter and CO. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased combustion of wood in residential plants and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The dioxin emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants. However in recent years the emission has increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential plants. (Author)

  6. Study of physico-chemical release of uranium and plutonium oxides during the combustion of polycarbonate and of ruthenium during the combustion of solvents used in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel; Etude de la mise en suspension physico-chimique des oxydes de plutonium et d'uranium lors de la combustion de polycarbonate et de ruthenium lors de la combustion des solvants de retraitement du combustible irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilloux, L

    1998-07-01

    The level of consequences concerning a fire in a nuclear facility is in part estimated by the quantities and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive compounds that may be emitted out of the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the contaminant release from the fire. Because of the multiplicity of the scenarios, two research subjects were retained. The first one concerns the study of the uranium or plutonium oxides chemical release during the combustion of the polycarbonate glove box sides. The second one is about the physico chemical characterisation of the ruthenium release during the combustion of an organic solvent mixture (tributyl phosphate-dodecane) used for the nuclear fuel reprocessing. Concerning the two research subjects, the chemical release, i.e. means the generation of contaminant compounds gaseous in the fire, was modelled using thermodynamical simulations. Experiments were done in order to determine the ruthenium release factor during solvent combustion. A cone calorimeter was used for small scale experiments. These results were then validated by large scale tests under conditions close to the industrial process. Thermodynamical simulations, for the two scenarios studied. Furthermore, the experiments on solvent combustion allowed the determination of a suitable ruthenium release factor. Finally, the mechanism responsible of the ruthenium release has been found. (author)

  7. Determination of nuclide inventories in accelerator radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In switzerland, the location of two of the largest accelerator facilities, CERN and PSI, the authorities requested for a valuation of the radionuclide inventories in accelerator radwaste. In the first phase, model calculations should be verified by radioanalytical analyses. At PSI, the radioactive contents were measured after a careful chemical separation, by γ-spectrometry, α-spectrometry, low-level counting and accelerator mass spectrometry, respectively. Examples: (i) The copper beam dump of target E was analyzed; its activities were in the range between 1.107 Bq/g for 60Co and 1.10-5 Bq/g for 60Fe. (ii) In shielding concrete, more than 30 mBq/g 239,240Pu were found which is higher than the exemption limit. (iii) In graphite targets, at end of bombardment 2.1011 Bq/g 7Be were detected. (iv) In an Eu project, the know-how of the radiochemical separation procedures was used for determination of transmutation-relevant nuclear reaction cross sections. (orig.)

  8. 26 CFR 1.1013-1 - Property included in inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property included in inventory. 1.1013-1 Section... inventory. The basis of property required to be included in inventory is the last inventory value of such property in the hands of the taxpayer. The requirements with respect to the valuation of an inventory...

  9. Analysis of a nuclear accident: fission and activation product releases from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility as remote indicators of source identification, extent of release, and state of damaged spent nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes, Jon M; Orton, Christopher R; Clark, Richard A

    2012-08-21

    Researchers evaluated radionuclide measurements of environmental samples taken from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility and reported on the Tokyo Electric Power Co. Website following the 2011 tsunami-initiated catastrophe. This effort identified Units 1 and 3 as the major source of radioactive contamination to the surface soil near the facility. Radionuclide trends identified in the soils suggested that: (1) chemical volatility driven by temperature and reduction potential within the vented reactors' primary containment vessels dictated the extent of release of radiation; (2) all coolant had likely evaporated by the time of venting; and (3) physical migration through the fuel matrix and across the cladding wall were minimally effective at containing volatile species, suggesting damage to fuel bundles was extensive. Plutonium isotopic ratios and their distance from the source indicated that the damaged reactors were the major contributor of plutonium to surface soil at the source, decreasing rapidly with distance from the facility. Two independent evaluations estimated the fraction of the total plutonium inventory released to the environment relative to cesium from venting Units 1 and 3 to be ∼0.002-0.004%. This study suggests significant volatile radionuclides within the spent fuel at the time of venting, but not as yet observed and reported within environmental samples, as potential analytes of concern for future environmental surveys around the site. The majority of the reactor inventories of isotopes of less volatile elements like Pu, Nb, and Sr were likely contained within the damaged reactors during venting. PMID:22680069

  10. Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth;

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2014. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) S...

  11. Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth;

    The report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2013. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO...

  12. Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten;

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2016. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) S...

  13. Forest inventories for carbon change assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, G.M.J.; Hasenauer, H.; Köhl, M.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    We give a general overview of forest inventory developments and their potential to estimate forest carbon budgets and GHG emissions. Forest inventories mostly focus on timber resources, but can be extended to cover other forest characteristics, such as forest biomass. From forest biomass, ecosystem

  14. Clean Lead Facility Inventory System user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this user's manual is to provide instruction and guidance needed to enter and maintain inventory information for the Clean Lead Facility (CLF), PER-612. Individuals responsible for maintaining and using the system should study and understand the information provided. The user's manual describes how to properly use and maintain the CLF Inventory System. Annual, quarterly, monthly, and current inventory reports may be printed from the Inventory System for reporting purposes. Profile reports of each shipment of lead may also be printed for verification and documentation of lead transactions. The CLF Inventory System was designed on Microsoft Access version 2.0. Similar inventory systems are in use at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to facilitate site-wide compilations of mixed waste data. The CLF Inventory System was designed for inventorying the clean or non-radioactive contaminated lead stored at the CLF. This data, along with the mixed waste data, will be compiled into the Idaho Mixed Waste Information (IMWI) system for reporting to the Department of Energy Idaho Office, Department of Energy Headquarters, and/or the State of Idaho

  15. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, NH3, particulate matter, heavy metals, PCDD/F, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2011...

  16. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt;

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, NH3, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2008...

  17. 48 CFR 3045.508 - Physical inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical inventories. 3045.508 Section 3045.508 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Property in the Possession of Contractors 3045.508 Physical inventories....

  18. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt;

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2007 was 10...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1391 - Emission inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1391 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1391 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Montana submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission...

  20. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…