WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical recovery deteccao

  1. Fault detection-case: modelling of temperature control of smelt in a chemical recovery; Deteccao de defeitos via redes neurais: aplicacao no sistema de resfriamento das bicas de fundidos de uma caldeira de recuperacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, Sergio H.S. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil); Klabin Papeis Monte Alegre, Telemaco Borba, PR (Brazil); Neitzel, Ivo [Faculdade de Telemaco Borba, PR (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil); Vieira, Osvaldo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil); Klabin Papeis Monte Alegre, Telemaco Borba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper proposes a method for the detection of defects in the control systems components which was applied in the smelt spouts cooling system of a chemical recovery boiler. The almost static behavior of the system was modeled with neural networks. The comparison between the inferred variable by the model and the measurement in the process generated a residual vector. A second neural network, the classification type, was built to analyze the residue. The training process of this neural network was carried out with two types of data base, one of them where there was no defect (classified as non faulty data) and the other where there were defects in one of the process control system sensors. The generation of faulty data was carried out through defects simulation by neural model. Both neural networks were programmed on Excel software to make the continuous monitoring of the productive process possible. The process data feeding in the system was done though the Plant Information (PI) software. The rate of false alarm of process monitoring for two and half months was of 3%. Errors ranging from 2 to 15% were simulated at the manipulated variable of the control system to test the performance of the method. Within the range of 10% simulated errors the detection of defects rate was of 97% for the set of non trained standards. (author)

  2. Chemical agent recoveries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset shows the calculation of reported decontamination efficacies from the raw data (i.e., measured amount of chemical recovered from test coupons and positive...

  3. Recovery during radiation and chemical mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    These investigations were directed toward the study of recovery in radiation and chemical mutagenesis in cultured mammalian cells. A mutagenesis system was established in which mutation of V79-17lb Chinese hamster cells to 8-azaguanine resistance was tested. The effects of split dose and postirradiation treatments upon both x-ray and EMS induced mutagenesis were determined. Increasing the cell inoculum by a factor of 5 (from 10 5 to 5 x 10 5 ) decreased both the spontaneous and x-ray induced mutation frequencies by two orders of magnitude. The x-ray induced mutation frequency was found to be higher for those cells allowed to attach for 5 hours before irradiation, in comparison to those allowed to attach for 2 hours. The uv spectrum of 8-azaguanine changes as a function of storage time at low temperature, but not when diluted to either 10 μg/ml or 30 μg/ml and maintained at 37 0 C. The optimal expression time required after irradiation is dose dependent and can be determined from the relationship: E.T. = 1.93(10 -2 )D + 15.5. (E.T. = hours; D = rads). The duration of the optimal expression time can be estimated by summing the cell cycle time and the radiation induced lag time

  4. Factors influencing recovery and restoration following a chemical incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, A; Wyke, S; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    Chemicals are an important part of our society. A wide range of chemicals are discharged into the environment every day from residential, commercial and industrial sources. Many of these discharges do not pose a threat to public health or the environment. However, global events have shown that chemical incidents or accidents can have severe consequences on human health, the environment and society. It is important that appropriate tools and technical guidance are available to ensure that a robust and efficient approach to developing a remediation strategy is adopted. The purpose of remediation is to protect human health from future exposure and to return the affected area back to normal as soon as possible. There are a range of recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that are applicable to a broad range of chemicals and incidents. Recovery options should be evaluated according to their appropriateness and efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment; however economic drivers and social and political considerations often influence decision makers on which remedial actions are implemented during the recovery phase of a chemical incident. To date, there is limited information in the literature on remediation strategies and recovery options that have been implemented following a chemical incident, or how successful they have been. Additional factors that can affect the approach taken for recovery are not well assessed or understood by decision makers involved in the remediation and restoration of the environment following a chemical incident. The identification of this gap has led to the development of the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents to provide a framework for choosing an effective recovery strategy. A compendium of practical evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) for inhabited areas, food production systems and water environments has also been developed and is included in the chemical

  5. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  6. Feasibility of oil recovery by chemical flooding through horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Abbas, A.M.; El-Sallaly, M. E.; Sayyouh, M. H.; El-Batanony, M. H.; Darwich, T. M.; Desouky, S. M. [Cairo Univ (Egypt)

    1998-12-31

    Crude oil production in the Gulf of Suez by polymer, surfactant, and surfactant/polymer flooding from a horizontal well in a scaled five-spot sandpacked model was studied. The suitability of the enhanced oil recovery predictive models, developed by the U.S. Department of Energy, was investigated for their ability to predict the experimental data and to assess the feasibility of oil recovery by chemical flooding. Good agreement was found between the predicted and experimental values. Experimental results showed that oil recovery was significantly affected by the physical properties of the crude oil and chemical solutions; that oil recovery was higher for a polymer flooding than for a surfactant flooding operation; and that oil recovery was improved by increasing the perforated length ratio up to a value of 0.81. A tendency for oil recovery to decrease was observed when the horizontal well was positioned below or above the central axis path of the formation at the advanced injection stages; and oil recovery by surfactant or polymer flooding was significantly affected by the onset timing of the surfactant or polymer slug injection. The oil-water bank stability in surfactant and polymer flooding processes was found to be dependent on slug size and slug injection time. 23 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  7. Enhanced oil recovery chemicals from renewable wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grune, W.N.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Crenshaw, J.M.

    1979-04-01

    Most of the wood pulp in the U.S. is produced by cooking, or digesting, wood chips in a chemical solution. These pulping processes have effluent streams which contain dissolved lignins, lignin breakdown products, and carbohydrates. There is a substantial economic incentive to use these materials as feedstocks for the production of high-valued micellar flood chemicals. The pulp and paper industries have practiced chemical recovery for almost a century. The largest chemical recycle processes are the internal recycle of inorganic salts for reuse in pulping. This is coupled with the use of waste organic compounds in the liquor as a fuel for directly-fired evaporation processes. Diversion of effluent and low valued streams for chemical recovery using fermentation, purification, or synthesis methods appears technically feasible in several cases. The use of new recovery processes could yield a variety of different wood-effluent based products. Some of the sugar acids in pulping liquors might be used as sequestering agents in reservoirs where there are large amounts of multivalent cations in flood brines. Fermentation production of high viscosity polymers, sequestering agents, and coagent alcohols appears worth further investigation. Tall oil acids and their derivatives can be used as surfactants in some reservoirs. Some waste constituents may adsorb preferentially on formations and thereby reduce loss of surfactants and other higher-valued chemicals.

  8. Chemical process for improved oil recovery from Bakken shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuler, Patrick; Tang, Hongxin; Lu, Zayne [ChemEOR Inc (United States); Tang, Youngchun [Power Environmental Energy Research Institute (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the new chemically-improved oil recovery process (IOR) process for Bakken formation reservoirs. A custom surfactant agent can be used in standard hydraulic fracturing treatments in the Bakken to increase oil recovery. The rock formation consists of three members: the lower shale, middle dolostone and the upper shale. The dolostone was deposited as a coastal carbonate during shallower water and the shales were deposited in a relatively deep marine condition. With the widespread advent of horizontal well drilling and large-volume hydraulic fracturing treatments, production from the Bakken has become very active. The experimental results exhibited that specialized surfactant formulations will interact with this mixed oil-wet low permeability middle member to produce more oil. It was also observed that oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition was fast and significant. The best surfactant found in this study is compatible with a common fracture fluid system.

  9. Viscous fingering and channeling in chemical enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir; Dutta, Sourav

    2017-11-01

    We have developed a hybrid numerical method based on discontinuous finite element method and modified method of characteristics to compute the multiphase multicomponent fluid flow in porous media in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery. We use this method to study the effect of various chemical components on the viscous fingering and channeling in rectilinear and radial flow configurations. We will also discuss about the efficiency of various flooding schemes based on these understandings. Time permitting, we will discuss about the effect of variable injection rates in these practical setting. U.S. National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1522782.

  10. Chemical control in steam systems by using a stabilized inorganic product with gain of energy and speed in detecting contaminations; Controle quimico em geradores de vapor, pelo uso de agente inorganico estabilizado, com ganhos de energia e celeridade na deteccao de contaminacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Barny de; Pereira, Renato Andre Nunes [Kurita do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the basic conditions to control the relation between phosphate and sodium in high pressure boilers by applying a stabilized chemical product ensuring operation with low variability and energy gain by the eliminating of corrective blowdown. It presents the routine and the relevant benefits provided by a strong monitoring program of phosphate application in high pressure boilers as an important tool do detect deviations and to get better control of silica solubilization in this pressure level. (author)

  11. Preliminary Study on Effect of Chemical Composition Alteration on Elastic Recovery and Stress Recovery of Nitrile Gloves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kai Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrile gloves are widely used in the medical and automobile field due to its superiority in hypo-allergic component and chemical resistance over natural latex gloves. However, poor elastic recovery of nitrile glove to compressive force also creates an aesthetic issue for customers with high levels of wrinkling after removing from glove box. This paper demonstrates the preliminary study on the varies chemical composition such as crosslinking agents, sulphur and zinc oxide, the accelerator agent added during curing process, and the rubber filler Titanium Dioxide, on the elastic recovery and stress relaxation in nitrile gloves manufacturing. These chemical were studied at different concentration level comparing the high and low level versus the normal production range. Due to the inconsistency in the analysis technique on the surface imaging, the elastic recovery result was unable to be quantified and was not conclusive at this point. The cross linking agents, sulphur and zinc oxide, and the accelerator agent, played a significant role in the mechanical strength of the gloves. Increment of these chemicals result in higher tensile strength, but a reduction in the elasticity of the materials in which causes a lesser elongation at break percentage for the gloves. Both cross-linkers demonstrate different behaviour where higher sulphur content, provide higher stress relaxation (SR% yet zinc oxide shows otherwise.

  12. Electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from chemically precipitated sewage sludge ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Phosphorus scarcity requires improved recover and reuse of urban sources; the recycling of this nutrient from sewage sludge has become increasingly important in the last years. Using an innovative electrodialytic process, the present study shows the potential for P separation from Fe and Al...... precipitated sewage sludge ash using this technique, with a recovery rate of around 70%. Furthermore, heavy metals were removed from the phosphorous fraction, producing a pure and safe phosphorus source in the end....

  13. Electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from chemically precipitated sewage sludge ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viader, Raimon Parés; Erland Jensen, Pernille; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Phosphorus scarcity requires improved recover and reuse of urban sources; the recycling of this nutrient from sewage sludge has become increasingly important in the last years. Using an innovative electrodialytic process, the present study shows the potential for P separation from Fe and Al...... precipitated sewage sludge ash using this technique, with a recovery rate of around 70%. Furthermore, heavy metals were removed from the phosphorous fraction, producing a pure and safe phosphorus source in the end...

  14. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents. Critical infrastructure and economic impact considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, David Oliver [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Yang, Lynn I. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hammer, Ann E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  15. Water extraction of pyrolysis oil: the first step for the recovery of renewable chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitasari, C.R.; Meindersma, G.W.; Haan, de A.B.

    2011-01-01

    The interest in biomass as a source of renewable energy and chemicals has been increasing in keeping up with the transition to a sustainable bio-based economy. An important initial step of chemicals recovery from biomass-derived pyrolysis oil is water extraction where most of polar compounds are

  16. Recovery of useful chemicals from palm oil mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanaporn, Yuangsawad; Duangkamol, Na-Ranong; Teruoki, Tago; Takao, Masuda

    2017-11-01

    A two-step process consisting of pyrolysis of dried sludge and catalytic upgrading of pyrolysed liquid was proposed. Wastewater from a palm oil mill was separated to solid cake and liquid by filtration. The solid cake was dried and pyrolysed at 773 K. Liquid product obtained from the pyrolysis had two immiscible aqueous and oil phases (PL-A and PL-O). Identification of chemicals in PL-A and PL-O indicated that both phases contained various chemicals with unsaturated bonds, such as carboxylic acids and alcohols, however, most of the chemicals could not be identified. Catalytic upgrading of PL-A and PL-O over ZrO2·FeOx were separately performed using a fixed bed reactor at various conditions, T = 513-723 K and mass of catalyst to feed rate = 0.25-10 h. The main components in the liquid products of PL-A upgrading were methanol and acetone whereas they were acetone and phenol in the case of PL-O upgrading. More than 15% of carbon in raw material was deposited on the catalyst. To reduce the carbon deposition, the used catalyst was treated with air at 823 K. This simple treatment could reasonably regenerate the catalyst only for the case of PL-A catalytic upgrading.

  17. Biological responses to the chemical recovery of acidified fresh waters in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteith, D.T. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: d.monteith@geog.ucl.ac.uk; Hildrew, A.G. [School of Biological Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Flower, R.J. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom); Raven, P.J. [Environment Agency, Rio House, Waterside Drive, Aztec West, Almondsbury, Bristol, BS32 4UD (United Kingdom); Beaumont, W.R.B. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Dorset, Winfrith Technology Centre, Winfrith, Newburgh, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8ZD (United Kingdom); Collen, P. [Fisheries Research Services, Freshwater Laboratory, Faskally, Pitlochry, Perthshire, PH16 5LB (United Kingdom); Kreiser, A.M. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom); Shilland, E.M. [Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP (United Kingdom); Winterbottom, J.H. [School of Biological Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-15

    We report biological changes at several UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network lakes and streams that are spatially consistent with the recovery of water chemistry induced by reductions in acid deposition. These include trends toward more acid-sensitive epilithic diatom and macroinvertebrate assemblages, an increasing proportional abundance of macroinvertebrate predators, an increasing occurrence of acid-sensitive aquatic macrophyte species, and the recent appearance of juvenile (<1 year old) brown trout in some of the more acidic flowing waters. Changes are often shown to be directly linked to annual variations in acidity. Although indicative of biological improvement in response to improving water chemistry, 'recovery' in most cases is modest and very gradual. While specific ecological recovery endpoints are uncertain, it is likely that physical and biotic interactions are influencing the rate of recovery of certain groups of organisms at particular sites. - Recently observed changes in the species composition of UK lakes and streams are consistent with chemical recovery from acidification.

  18. Biological responses to the chemical recovery of acidified fresh waters in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteith, D.T.; Hildrew, A.G.; Flower, R.J.; Raven, P.J.; Beaumont, W.R.B.; Collen, P.; Kreiser, A.M.; Shilland, E.M.; Winterbottom, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    We report biological changes at several UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network lakes and streams that are spatially consistent with the recovery of water chemistry induced by reductions in acid deposition. These include trends toward more acid-sensitive epilithic diatom and macroinvertebrate assemblages, an increasing proportional abundance of macroinvertebrate predators, an increasing occurrence of acid-sensitive aquatic macrophyte species, and the recent appearance of juvenile (<1 year old) brown trout in some of the more acidic flowing waters. Changes are often shown to be directly linked to annual variations in acidity. Although indicative of biological improvement in response to improving water chemistry, 'recovery' in most cases is modest and very gradual. While specific ecological recovery endpoints are uncertain, it is likely that physical and biotic interactions are influencing the rate of recovery of certain groups of organisms at particular sites. - Recently observed changes in the species composition of UK lakes and streams are consistent with chemical recovery from acidification

  19. Chemical Compounds Recovery in Carboxymethyl Cellulose Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-H. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is a kind of cellulose ether widely used in industrial production. CMC wastewater usually have high chemical oxygen demand (COD and salinity (>10 %, which result from organic and inorganic by-products during CMC production. It is significant that the wastewater is pretreated to decrease salinity and recover valuable organics before biochemical methods are employed. In this paper, distillation-extraction method was used to pretreat CMC wastewater and recover valuable chemical compounds from wastewater (Fig. 1. Initial pH of CMC wastewater was adjusted to different values (6.5, 8.5, 9.5, 10.5, 12.0 before distillation to study the effect of pH on by-products in wastewater. By-products obtained from CMC wastewater were extracted and characterized by NMR, XRD and TGA. Distillate obtained from distillation of wastewater was treated using biological method, i.e., upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB-contact oxidation process. Domestic sewage and flushing water from manufacturing shop was added into distillate to decrease initial COD and increase nutrients such as N, P, K. Experimental results showed that by-products extracted from CMC wastewater mainly include ethoxyacetic acid and NaCl, which were confirmed by NMR and XRD (Fig. 2. TGA results of by-products indicated that the content of NaCl in inorganic by-products reached 96 %. Increasing initial pH value of CMC wastewater might significantly raise the purity of ethoxyacetic acid in organic by-products. UASB-contact oxidation process showed a good resistance to shock loading. Results of 45-day continuous operation revealed that CODCr of final effluent might be controlled below 500 mg l−1 and meet Shanghai Industrial Wastewater Discharge Standard (CODCr −1, which indicated that the treatment process in this study was appropriate to treat distillate of wastewater from CMC production industry.

  20. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jr., James S.; Westmoreland, Clyde G.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  1. Ecological Recovery Potential of Freshwater Organisms: Consequences for Environmental Risk Asseswsment of Chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gergs, A.; Classen, S.; Strauss, T.; Ottermans, R.; Brock, T.C.M.; Ratte, H.T.; Hommen, U.; Preuss, T.G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contaminants released into the in the environment may have adverse effects on (non-target) species, populations and communities. The return of a stressed system to its pre-disturbance or other reference state, i.e. the ecological recovery, may depend on various factors related to the

  2. A Road Map to Canadian Chemical Recovery Handbook for Inhabited Areas: Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    A Road Map to Canadian Chemical Recovery Handbook for I © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National...Australia (EMA) Office of Attorney General, Canberra. b) Australian Emergency Management Institute Mount Macedon, Victoria

  3. Sulfomethylated lignosulfonates as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1979-10-30

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignosulfonate salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the sulfomethylated lignosulfonates into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well.

  4. Sulfomethylated lignosulfonates as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1981-05-26

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignosulfonate salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the sulfomethylated lignosulfonates into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well.

  5. Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Haffenden, R.; Lerner, K.; Meleski, S.A.; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lewis, L.M. [US Dept. of Agriculture (United States); Hemphill, R.C. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (United States); Adams, J.D. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), describes the transition from immediate emergency response to restoration, and analyzes the legal framework that would govern restoration activities. Social, economic, and administrative issues, as well as technical ones, need to be considered in the planning effort. Because of possible jurisdictional conflicts, appropriate federal, state, and local agencies need to be included in a coordinated planning process. Advance consideration should be given to the pertinent federal and state statutes and regulations. On the federal level, the principal statutes and regulations to be considered are those associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Environmental Policy Act. This report recommends that extensive preaccident planning be undertaken for the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage and outlines several key issues that should be considered in that planning. The need for interagency cooperation and coordination at all levels of the planning process is emphasized.

  6. Heat Recovery from High Temperature Slags: A Review of Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery from high temperature slags represents the latest potential way to remarkably reduce the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the steel industry. The molten slags, in the temperature range of 1723–1923 K, carry large amounts of high quality energy. However, the heat recovery from slags faces several fundamental challenges, including their low thermal conductivity, inside crystallization, and discontinuous availability. During past decades, various chemical methods have been exploited and performed including methane reforming, coal and biomass gasification, and direct compositional modification and utilization of slags. These methods effectively meet the challenges mentioned before and help integrate the steel industry with other industrial sectors. During the heat recovery using chemical methods, slags can act as not only heat carriers but also as catalysts and reactants, which expands the field of utilization of slags. Fuel gas production using the waste heat accounts for the main R&D trend, through which the thermal heat in the slag could be transformed into high quality chemical energy in the fuel gas. Moreover, these chemical methods should be extended to an industrial scale to realize their commercial application, which is the only way by which the substantial energy in the slags could be extracted, i.e., amounting to 16 million tons of standard coal in China.

  7. Influence of chemical inhibitors on cell recovery after exposure to different LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evstratova, Ekaterina S.; Petin, Vladislav G. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Kim, Jin Kyu; KIm, Jin Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Chemical radiosensitizers are often used to increase cell radiosensitivity. It is known that the ability of chemical drugs to increase cell radiosensitivity is related with inhibition of cell recovery from damage induced by ionizing radiation. However, there are little comparative investigations of cell sensitivity modification after exposure to radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET). Therefore, we studied the anticancer drugs cisplatin and endoxan and their impact on the ability of yeast cells to recover after cell exposure to radiations with different LET. The ability of cell recovery from radiation damage was less effective after exposure to high-LET radiation, when cells were irradiated without drug, with the increase in cisplatin concentration resulting in the disappearance of this difference. The increase of cisplatin concentration results in progressive increase in the fraction of irreversible damage independently of radiation quality.

  8. Influence of chemical inhibitors on cell recovery after exposure to different LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstratova, Ekaterina S.; Petin, Vladislav G.; Kim, Jin Kyu; KIm, Jin Hong

    2016-01-01

    Chemical radiosensitizers are often used to increase cell radiosensitivity. It is known that the ability of chemical drugs to increase cell radiosensitivity is related with inhibition of cell recovery from damage induced by ionizing radiation. However, there are little comparative investigations of cell sensitivity modification after exposure to radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET). Therefore, we studied the anticancer drugs cisplatin and endoxan and their impact on the ability of yeast cells to recover after cell exposure to radiations with different LET. The ability of cell recovery from radiation damage was less effective after exposure to high-LET radiation, when cells were irradiated without drug, with the increase in cisplatin concentration resulting in the disappearance of this difference. The increase of cisplatin concentration results in progressive increase in the fraction of irreversible damage independently of radiation quality.

  9. On the stabilizing role of species diffusion in chemical enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir; Gin, Craig

    2015-11-01

    In this talk, the speaker will discuss a problem on the stability analysis related to the effect of species diffusion on stabilization of fingering in a Hele-Shaw model of chemical enhanced oil recovery. The formulation of the problem is motivated by a specific design principle of the immiscible interfaces in the hope that this will lead to significant stabilization of interfacial instabilities, there by improving oil recovery in the context of porous media flow. Testing the merits of this hypothesis poses some challenges which will be discussed along with some numerical results based on current formulation of this problem. Several open problems in this context will be discussed. This work is currently under progress. Supported by the grant NPRP 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).

  10. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine- cis -epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  11. Recovery of Americium-241 from lightning rod by the method of chemical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    About 95% of the lightning rods installed in the Peruvian territory have set in their structures, pose small amounts of radioactive sources such as Americium-241 ( 241 Am), fewer and Radium 226 ( 226 Ra) these are alpha emitters and have a half life of 432 years and 1600 years respectively. In this paper describes the recovery of radioactive sources of 241 Am radioactive lightning rods using the conventional chemical treatment method using agents and acids to break down the slides. The 241 Am recovered was as excitation source and alpha particle generator for analysing samples by X Ray Fluorescence, for fixing the stainless steel 241 Am technique was used electrodeposition. (author)

  12. Chemically evolving systems for oil recovery enhancement in heavy oil deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, I. V.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Stasyeva, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the results of laboratory studies and field tests of new physicochemical technologies for enhanced oil recovery of heavy oil fields under natural development conditions and with thermal-steam stimulation using oil-displacing "smart" systems. The systems are based on surfactants and buffer systems. Their rheological and acid-base properties can be regulated by their chemical evolution directly in the formation. Field tests of the technologies carried out on high-viscosity oil deposit in the Usinskoye oilfield have shown that the EOR technologies are environmentally friendly and technologically effective.

  13. Possibilities for recovery and prospects of the Serbian chemical industry in the light of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Petar M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous dilemmas related to the meaning of common terms associated with modern economic sectors, and especially the ones concerning industry. Chemical industry is a typical example of a term which changes rapidly and qualitatively, exactly with the pace of changing of the very technology based on knowledge, procedure, processes, raw materials, energy, as well as on the products themselves and on the way of their use. Numerous difficulties caused by huge changes in global market, by transition of command economies towards market system, as well as by the latest global economic-financial crisis, have brought the chemical industry in modern Serbia to an unenviable position. We cannot generally claim that chemical industry is collapsing, but the recovery of the whole chemical industry, as well as of the industry in general, necessitates many favourable presumptions from the environment, as well as strategic, systemic and operative measures, of the state within the so-called industry policy, as well as of the very companies which deal with chemical industry. The re-industrialization strategy, adopted officially during the first crisis blow, but to the full extent only during the prolonged crisis period in Serbia (2009-2013 should not be based on direct state incentives, but above all on the institutional infrastructure and business environment improvement which will lead to the investments in technological reconstruction and re-organization of the entire sector. However, chemical industry cannot be observed as a chance for economic growth per se, nor it can lead to higher employment rate in such a short period of time, but above all to productive use of profession, or of growth potential based on knowledge factor. This is why a proper evolution and prosperity of the Serbian chemical industry can be comprehended, not only through contribution of one separate sector, but as complementary and useful technologies within many other industries

  14. Chemical fluxes in time through forest ecosystems in the UK - Soil response to pollution recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanguelova, E.I.; Benham, S.; Pitman, R.; Moffat, A.J.; Broadmeadow, M.; Nisbet, T.; Durrant, D.; Barsoum, N.; Wilkinson, M.; Bochereau, F.; Hutchings, T.; Broadmeadow, S.; Crow, P.; Taylor, P.; Durrant Houston, T.

    2010-01-01

    Long term trend analysis of bulk precipitation, throughfall and soil solution elemental fluxes from 12 years monitoring at 10 ICP Level II forest sites in the UK reveal coherent national chemical trends indicating recovery from sulphur deposition and acidification. Soil solution pH increased and sulphate and aluminium decreased at most sites. Trends in nitrogen were variable and dependant on its form. Dissolved organic nitrogen increased in bulk precipitation, throughfall and soil solution at most sites. Nitrate in soil solution declined at sites receiving high nitrogen deposition. Increase in soil dissolved organic carbon was detected - a response to pollution recovery, changes in soil temperature and/or increased microbial activity. An increase of sodium and chloride was evident - a possible result of more frequent storm events at exposed sites. The intensive and integrated nature of monitoring enables the relationships between climate/pollutant exposure and chemical/biological response in forestry to be explored. - Forest soils are recovering from acid and sulphur pollution in the UK, but soil responses to nitrogen deposition and climatic changes are still uncertain.

  15. Chemical fluxes in time through forest ecosystems in the UK - Soil response to pollution recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanguelova, E.I., E-mail: elena.vanguelova@forestry.gsi.gov.u [Centre of Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Benham, S.; Pitman, R.; Moffat, A.J. [Centre of Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Broadmeadow, M. [Forestry Commission, England, Alice Holt, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Nisbet, T.; Durrant, D.; Barsoum, N.; Wilkinson, M.; Bochereau, F.; Hutchings, T.; Broadmeadow, S.; Crow, P.; Taylor, P. [Centre of Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Durrant Houston, T. [DG Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Land Management and Natural Hazards Unit - TP 261, Ispra, I-21027 (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Long term trend analysis of bulk precipitation, throughfall and soil solution elemental fluxes from 12 years monitoring at 10 ICP Level II forest sites in the UK reveal coherent national chemical trends indicating recovery from sulphur deposition and acidification. Soil solution pH increased and sulphate and aluminium decreased at most sites. Trends in nitrogen were variable and dependant on its form. Dissolved organic nitrogen increased in bulk precipitation, throughfall and soil solution at most sites. Nitrate in soil solution declined at sites receiving high nitrogen deposition. Increase in soil dissolved organic carbon was detected - a response to pollution recovery, changes in soil temperature and/or increased microbial activity. An increase of sodium and chloride was evident - a possible result of more frequent storm events at exposed sites. The intensive and integrated nature of monitoring enables the relationships between climate/pollutant exposure and chemical/biological response in forestry to be explored. - Forest soils are recovering from acid and sulphur pollution in the UK, but soil responses to nitrogen deposition and climatic changes are still uncertain.

  16. Procedure of Destructive Chemical Recovery of Precious Metals in Nitric Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubičić, M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The heart of the nitric acid production process is the chemical reactor containing a platinum-based catalyst pack and an associated catchment system, which allows the ammonia oxidation reaction to take place efficiently. Under the severe operating conditions imposed by the high-pressure ammonia oxidation process, the catalyst gauzes experience progressive deterioration, as shown by the restricted surface of the catalyst wires, the loss of catalytic activity and the loss of catalytic materials. The higher the pressure of gaseous ammonia oxidation, the greater the loss of platinum group metals from the surface of the applied selective heterogeneous catalysts. Total losses for one batch over the whole period of using selective heterogeneous catalysts may account in the range from 20 to 40 % of the total installed quantity of precious metals. An important part of the platinum removed from the platinum-rhodium alloy wires can be recovered at the outlet of the reactor by means of palladium catchment gauzes. However, this catchment process, which is based on the great ability of palladium to alloy with platinum, is not 100 % effective and a fraction of the platinum and practically all of the rhodium lost by the catalyst wires, evades the catchment package and is then deposited in other parts of the plant, especially heat exchangers. From the above mentioned operating equipment, the retained mass of precious metals can be recovered by the technical procedure of non-destructive and destructive chemical solid-liquid extraction.Shown is the technical procedure of destructive chemical recovery of preheater and boiler for preheating and production of steam by applying sulfuric acid (w = 20 % and subsequent procedure of raffination of derived sludge, to the final recovery of precious metals. The technical procedure of destructive chemical recovery of precious metals from preheater and boiler for preheating and production of steam in nitric acid production is

  17. Chemical and Microbial Characterization of North Slope Viscous Oils to Assess Viscosity Reduction and Enhanced Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Mary Beth Leigh

    2008-12-31

    A large proportion of Alaska North Slope (ANS) oil exists in the form of viscous deposits, which cannot be produced entirely using conventional methods. Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a promising approach for improving oil recovery for viscous deposits. MEOR can be achieved using either ex situ approaches such as flooding with microbial biosurfactants or injection of exogenous surfactant-producing microbes into the reservoir, or by in situ approaches such as biostimulation of indigenous surfactant-producing microbes in the oil. Experimental work was performed to analyze the potential application of MEOR to the ANS oil fields through both ex situ and in situ approaches. A microbial formulation containing a known biosurfactant-producing strain of Bacillus licheniformis was developed in order to simulate MEOR. Coreflooding experiments were performed to simulate MEOR and quantify the incremental oil recovery. Properties like viscosity, density, and chemical composition of oil were monitored to propose a mechanism for oil recovery. The microbial formulation significantly increased incremental oil recovery, and molecular biological analyses indicated that the strain survived during the shut-in period. The indigenous microflora of ANS heavy oils was investigated to characterize the microbial communities and test for surfactant producers that are potentially useful for biostimulation. Bacteria that reduce the surface tension of aqueous media were isolated from one of the five ANS oils (Milne Point) and from rock oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), and may prove valuable for ex situ MEOR strategies. The total bacterial community composition of the six different oils was evaluated using molecular genetic tools, which revealed that each oil tested possessed a unique fingerprint indicating a diverse bacterial community and varied assemblages. Collectively we have demonstrated that there is potential for in situ and ex situ MEOR of ANS oils. Future work

  18. Heavy metal recovery from contaminated biomass ashes by chemical leaching, bioleaching and biosorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirker, K.

    2000-01-01

    Ashes from biomass combustion plants contain plant nutrients which makes their application as fertilizers economically interesting. The possibility of recycling the ash can be looked upon as a contribution to obtain a sustainable energy utilization from biomass. The ash contains heavy metals which have to be removed. The possibility of decontaminating the ash by chemical and biological leaching was investigated. The leaching capacity of commercially available organic and inorganic acids and of citric acid produced by the fungus Penicillium simplicissimus were determined. A process for heavy metal recovery from biomass ashes consisting of four steps was designed. All environmentally relevant heavy metals (except lead) were removed from contaminated biomass ashes by chemical leaching. The heavy metals were recovered and enriched by precipitation and subsequent biosorption. Inactivated bacteria and fungi were used as biosorbents. The overall costs and the washing-out of plant nutrients from the ashes by chemical leaching were drawbacks of the metal recovering process. Biosorption in combination with existing processes of waste water treatment would offer another promising possibility for achieving the low Austrian limiting values for heavy metals in waste water. (author)

  19. Physical-chemical treatment of rainwater runoff in recovery and recycling companies: lab-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, E; De Wandel, S; Florin, R; Hugelier, S; Chys, M; Depuydt, V; Folens, K; Du Laing, G; Verliefde, A; Van Hulle, S W H

    2017-08-10

    Scrap material recovery and recycling companies are producing wastewater in which common pollutants (such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids), toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) frequently can exceed the discharge limits. Lab-scale optimisation of different possible physical-chemical treatment techniques was performed on the wastewater originating from three different companies in view of further testing at pilot-scale testing and implementation at full-scale. The lab-scale tests demonstrate that sedimentation or hydrocyclone treatment as stand-alone technique cannot be used for proper treatment of this type of wastewater. Dual bed filtration or coagulation/flocculation proved to be more promising with removal efficiencies of about 71-95% (dual bed filtration) and 61-97% (coagulation/flocculation) for the above-mentioned pollutants (metals, PAH and PCB).

  20. Selenium recovery from kiln powder of cement manufacturing by chemical leaching and bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, S; Hasegawa, A; Kuroda, M; Hanada, A; Yamashita, M; Ike, M

    2015-01-01

    A novel process by using chemical leaching followed by bacterial reductive precipitation was proposed for selenium recovery from kiln powder as a byproduct of cement manufacturing. The kiln powder at a slurry concentration of 10 w/v% with 0.25 M Na2CO3 at 28°C produced wastewater containing about 30 mg-Se/L selenium. The wastewater was diluted four-fold and adjusted to pH 8.0 as preconditioning for bioreduction. A bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri NT-I, capable of reducing selenate and selenite into insoluble elemental selenium, could recover about 90% selenium from the preconditioned wastewater containing selenium of 5 mg-Se/L when supplemented with lactate or glycerol. The selenium concentrations in the treated wastewater were low around the regulated effluent concentration of 0.1 mg-Se/L in Japan.

  1. Chemical recovery of thallium-203 following production and separation of lead-201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayfus, G.P.; Boothe, T.E.; Campbell, J.A.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Because of the cost and limited availabilty of isotopically enriched thallium (>92% 203 Tl), its use in the 203 Tl(p, 3n) 201 Pb nuclear reaction necessitates chemical recovery. An adaptive method has been developed and evaluated. After the separation of 201 Pb, the 203 Tl(I) is oxidized to 203 Tl(III) by Cl 2 , Br 2 or [Fe(CN) 6 ] -2 , precipitated as Tl(OH) 3 with NaOH and subsequently converted to Tl 2 O 3 by heating. Due to potential loss during recovery, the solubilities of Tl(OH) 3 and Tl 2 O 3 in aqueous solution as a function of pH have been studied using the internal tracer 202 Tl(T=12.2 d), produced during cyclotron irradiation. Effective solubility product constants have been determined to be 5.4x10 -48 and 2.5x10 -47 for Tl(OH) 3 and Tl 2 O 3 , respectively. (author)

  2. Impact of innovations on future energy supply - chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) expects an increase of global energy demand by one-third during next 20 years together with a change in the global energy mix. A key-influencing factor is a strong expected increase in oil and gas production in the United States driven by 'new' technologies such as hydraulic fracturing. Chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR) is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. In the case of polymer flooding with poly acrylamide, the number of full field implementations has increased in recent years. In the meantime new polymers have been developed to cover previously unmet needs - such polymers can be applied in fields of high salinity and high temperature. Use of surfactants is in an earlier stage, but pilot tests show promising results.

  3. Study of the reduction in detection limits of track detectors used for {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li reaction rate measure through annealing and chemical etching experiments; Estudo da reducao nos limites de deteccao de detectores de tracos utilizados na medida de taxa de reacao {sup 10}B(n, α){sup 7}Li atraves de experimentos de annealing e ataque quimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Herminiane L.; Smilgys, Barbara; Guedes, Sandro, E-mail: hluizav@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Castro, Vinicius A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-08-15

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiotherapy for cancer treatment. It is based on {sup 10}B(n, α){sup 7}Li reaction, which can be measured by track detectors capable of recording events that strike them. With this recording, it is possible to determine the number of alpha particles and recoiling Lithium-7 nucleus, reaction products, and from this information, which amount of radiation dose a patient is exposed to. In this work, PADC detectors were characterized, irradiated at the IEA-R1 IPEN/CNEN reactor to assess the contribution of the{sup 10}B(n, α){sup 7}Li reaction and protons from fast neutron scattering with the elements that compounds the tissue. With the aim of reducing the proton background, the detectors were subjected to heating experiments at 80°C for periods in the range 0-100 hours. This was done in order to restore partially modified structure of the detector, causing a reduction in the size and density of tracks. This effect is known as annealing. For the visualization of tracks at microscope, detectors were made three chemical attacks with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for 30, 60 and 90 minutes at 70°C. It was observed a reduction in the track density achieving a plateau heating time of 50 hours. For detectors that have not undergone annealing and were etched with another etchant, PEW solution, a reduction of 87% in track density was obtained. (author)

  4. 40 CFR 60.2025 - What if my chemical recovery unit is not listed in § 60.2020(n)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials that are recovered. (3) A description (including a process flow diagram) of the process in which... process. (4) A description (including a process flow diagram) of the chemical constituent recovery process, highlighting the type, design, and operation of the equipment used in this process. (5) A description of the...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2558 - What if a chemical recovery unit is not listed in § 60.2555(n)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... process flow diagram) of the process in which the materials are burned, highlighting the type, design, and operation of the equipment used in this process. (4) A description (including a process flow diagram) of the chemical constituent recovery process, highlighting the type, design, and operation of the equipment used...

  6. Investigation of certain physical–chemical features of oil recovery by an optimized alkali–surfactant–foam (ASF) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini Nasab, S.M.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to discover a synergistic effect between foam stability in bulk and micro-emulsion phase behaviour to design a high-performance chemical system for an optimized alkaline–surfactant–foam (ASF) flooding for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The focus is on the interaction

  7. Recovery of rare earths from used polishes by chemical vapor transport process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Machida, K.; Adachi, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Rare earth oxide polishes are widely used in the glass industry because of its mechanical and chemical polishing action. The Japanese glass industry use 2000 tons per year of the polishes, and a large portion of them are thrown away after their polishing lifetime. A dry recovery processes for rare earths from the used polishes have been investigated by using a chemical vapor transport method via the formation of vapor complexes RAl n Cl 3+3n (R = rare earths). A flow type reactor with various temperature gradients was employed for the process. The used polishes were mixed with active carbon, and chlorinated with N 2 + Cl 2 mixture at 1273 K. Aluminium oxide were also chlorinated at lower temperature and the resulting AlCl 3 were introduced to the reactor. The rare earth chlorides and AlCl 3 were converted to the vapor complexes. These were driven along the temperature gradient, decomposed according to the reverse reaction, and regenerated RCl 3 . About 90 % of the used polish were chlorinated after 2 hours. Rare earth chlorides, AlCl 3 , and FeCl 3 were fully transported after 82 hours. The rare earth chlorides were mainly condensed over the temperature range 1263-903 K. On the other hand, AlCl 3 and FeCl 3 were deposited at the temperature range below 413 K. CaCl 2 and SrCl 2 were hardly transported and remained in the residue. When the temperature gradient with the smaller slope was used, mutual separation efficiencies among the rare earths was improved. The highest CeCl 3 purity of 80% was obtained in the process

  8. Recovery of phosphorus and aluminium from sewage sludge ash by a new wet chemical elution process (SESAL-Phos-recovery process).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzet, S; Peplinski, B; Bodkhe, S Y; Cornel, P

    2011-01-01

    The potential of a new wet chemical process for phosphorus and aluminium recovery from sewage sludge ash by sequential elution with acidic and alkaline solutions has been investigated: SESAL-Phos (sequential elution of sewage sludge ash for aluminium and phosphorus recovery). Its most innovative aspect is an acidic pre-treatment step in which calcium is leached from the sewage sludge ash. Thus the percentage of alkaline soluble aluminium phosphates is increased from 20 to 67%. This aluminium phosphate is then dissolved in alkali. Subsequently, the dissolved phosphorus is precipitated as calcium phosphate with low heavy metal content and recovered from the alkaline solution. Dissolved aluminium is recovered and may be reused as a precipitant in wastewater treatment plants.

  9. Mathematical modelling of flux recovery during chemical cleaning of tubular membrane fouled with whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jelena Đ.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane process efficiency in the dairy industry is impaired by the formation of deposits during filtration processes. This work describes cleaning procedures for ceramic tubular membrane (50 nm fouled with whey proteins. Also, mathematical modelling was performed to obtain models which allow deeper insight into the mechanisms involved during cleaning procedures. The caustic solutions (0.2%w/w, 0.4%w/w and 1.0%w/w NaOH and the mixture of two commercial detergents (0.8%w/w P3-ultrasil 69+0.5% w/w P3-ultrasil 67 and 1.2% P3-ultrasil 69+0.75 P3-ultrasil 67 were used as chemical cleaning agents. The results showed that the best flux recovery was achieved with 0.4%w/w NaOH solution. After analyzing the experimental data, five parameter and six parameter kinetic models were suggested for alkali and detergent cleaning, respectively. The changes of total and specific resistances, as well as the change of the effective pore diameter and deposit thickness during cleaning are estimated by applying these models.

  10. Modeling and simulation of multiphase multicomponent multiphysics porous media flows in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Daripa, Prabir; Fluids Team

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important methods of chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) involves the use of complex flooding schemes comprising of various layers of fluids mixed with suitable amounts of polymer or surfactant or both. The fluid flow is characterized by the spontaneous formation of complex viscous fingering patterns which is considered detrimental to oil recovery. Here we numerically study the physics of such EOR processes using a modern, hybrid method based on a combination of a discontinuous, multiscale finite element formulation and the method of characteristics. We investigate the effect of different types of heterogeneity on the fingering mechanism of these complex multiphase flows and determine the impact on oil recovery. We also study the effect of surfactants on the dynamics of the flow via reduction of capillary forces and increase in relative permeabilities. Supported by the grant NPRP 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).

  11. Investigation of Chemical-Foam Design as a Novel Approach toward Immiscible Foam Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Nasab, S M; Zitha, P L J

    2017-10-19

    Strong foam can be generated in porous media containing oil, resulting in incremental oil recovery; however, oil recovery factor is restricted. A large fraction of oil recovered by foam flooding forms an oil-in-water emulsion, so that costly methods may need to be used to separate the oil. Moreover, strong foam could create a large pressure gradient, which may cause fractures in the reservoir. This study presents a novel chemical-foam flooding process for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) from water-flooded reservoirs. The presented method involved the use of chemically designed foam to mobilize the remaining oil after water flooding and then to displace the mobilized oil to the production well. A blend of two anionic surfactant formulations was formulated for this method: (a) IOS, for achieving ultralow interfacial tension (IFT), and (b) AOS, for generating a strong foam. Experiments were performed using Bentheimer sandstone cores, where X-ray CT images were taken during foam generation to find the stability of the advancing front of foam propagation and to map the gas saturation for both the transient and the steady-state flow regimes. Then the proposed chemical-foam strategy for incremental oil recovery was tested through the coinjection of immiscible nitrogen gas and surfactant solutions with three different formulation properties in terms of IFT reduction and foaming strength capability. The discovered optimal formulation contains a foaming agent surfactant, a low IFT surfactant, and a cosolvent, which has a high foam stability and a considerably low IFT (1.6 × 10 -2 mN/m). Coinjection resulted in higher oil recovery and much less MRF than the same process with only using a foaming agent. The oil displacement experiment revealed that coinjection of gas with a blend of surfactants, containing a cosolvent, can recover a significant amount of oil (33% OIIP) over water flooding with a larger amount of clean oil and less emulsion.

  12. Concurrent reduction and distillation: an improved technique for the recovery and chemical refinement of the isotopes of cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudill, H.H.; McBride, L.E.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Isotope Separations Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been involved in the separation, chemical recovery, and refinement of the stable isotopes of cadmium and zinc since 1946. Traditionally, the chemical refinement procedures for these elements consisted of ion exchange separations using anion exchange resins followed by pH-controlled hydrogen sulfide precipitations. The procedures were quite time-consuming and made it difficult to remove trace quantities of sulfur which interferes in subsequent attempts to prepare rolled metal foils. As demands for 113 Cd and 68 Zn (a precursor for the production of the radiopharmaceutical 67 Ga) increased, it became evident that a quicker, more efficient refinement procedure was needed. Details of an improved method, which employs concurrent hydrogen reduction and distillation in the recovery and refinement of isotopically enriched zinc, are described. Modifications of the procedure suitable for the refinement of cadmium isotopes are also described. 3 figures, 1 table

  13. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-01-19

    This report covers the work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context the following general areas were studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flows in porous media, including processes in steam injection; (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity in a variety of foams, from pore scale to macroscopic scale; (3) The flow properties of additives for improvement of recovery efficiency, particularly foams and other non-Newtonian fluids; and (4) The development of optimization methods to maximize various measures of oil recovery.

  14. Chemical inhibition of cell recovery after irradiation with sparsely and densely ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evastratova, Ekaterina S.; Petin, Vladislav [A. Tsyb Medical Radiological Research Centre-branch of the National Medical Research Radiological Centre of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI), Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Youg Khi [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The dependence of cell survival on exposure dose and the duration of the liquid holding recovery (LHR) was obtained for diploid yeast cells irradiated with ionizing radiation of different linear energy transfer (LET) and recovering from radiation damage without and with various concentrations of cisplatin - the most widely used anticancer drug. The ability of yeast cells to recover from radiation damage was less effective after cell exposure to high-LET radiation, when cells were irradiated without drug. The increase in cisplatin concentration resulted in the disappearance of this difference whereas the fraction of irreversible damage was permanently enlarged independently of radiation quality. The probability of cell recovery was shown to be constant for various conditions of irradiation and recovery. A new mechanism of cisplatin action was suggested according with which the inhibition of cell recovery after exposure to ionizing radiations was completely explained by the production of irreversible damage.

  15. Chemical inhibition of cell recovery after irradiation with sparsely and densely ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evastratova, Ekaterina S.; Petin, Vladislav; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lim, Youg Khi

    2017-01-01

    The dependence of cell survival on exposure dose and the duration of the liquid holding recovery (LHR) was obtained for diploid yeast cells irradiated with ionizing radiation of different linear energy transfer (LET) and recovering from radiation damage without and with various concentrations of cisplatin - the most widely used anticancer drug. The ability of yeast cells to recover from radiation damage was less effective after cell exposure to high-LET radiation, when cells were irradiated without drug. The increase in cisplatin concentration resulted in the disappearance of this difference whereas the fraction of irreversible damage was permanently enlarged independently of radiation quality. The probability of cell recovery was shown to be constant for various conditions of irradiation and recovery. A new mechanism of cisplatin action was suggested according with which the inhibition of cell recovery after exposure to ionizing radiations was completely explained by the production of irreversible damage

  16. Assessment of Risk Due to Chemicals Transferred in a Watershed: A Case of an Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyon Wook Ji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the potential risks of chemicals that can affect an aquifer storage transfer and recovery (ASTR site. ASTR is a water supply system that injects surface water into an aquifer and then extracts naturally filtered groundwater. The pilot site of the ASTR supplying drinking water is located downstream of the Nakdong River in South Korea. Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP was adopted to ensure suitable water quality in response to the deteriorated water quality of the Nakdong River. HACCP is a proactive management system for ensuring consistent confidence in food (or water. Hazard analysis, the first of the seven principles of HACCP, assesses physical, microbial, chemical, and radioactive hazards. This study focuses on the chemicals that are most likely to be involved in major hazardous events. Pollutant release and transfer register (PRTR data were used to analyze potential risks of chemicals. A PRTR is a national environmental database of potentially hazardous chemicals. Potential risk analysis considers the total amount of chemicals transferred off-site for treatment or disposal. Fifty-five cities and the top 10 chemicals released in the Nakdong River basin were investigated. Potential risk was defined as a function of total transfers, the relative distance, and toxicity. The top 10 cities with high potential risks were identified, and the city with the highest potential risk turned out to be Ulju.

  17. Four Years of Chemical Measurements from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Define the Deep Sea Sediment footprint and Subsequent Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, P.

    2016-02-01

    Chemical data acquired during and after the DWHOS showed that several mechanisms were responsible for transport of oil from the water column to the sediments in the deep sea off the continental shelf. Three primary pathways were identified:Sorption onto and sinking of drilling mud particles during "Top Kill" response activity, highly scattered deposition of residuesfrom in situ burns, and deposition of oil combined with microbial organic matter from diffuse oil plumes ("marine snow"). Data collected during 2010, 2011 and 2014 were used to define the oil footprint and estimate time to recovery. More than 1200 stations were sampled. Of these, 27 stations were visited all three years, providing a time series from which recovery rates were calculated using the loss of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) over time fit to first order kinetics. Results showed that the footprint of the oil was limited to the area around the wellhead and in patches to the southwest. Mostsamples had returned to background levels by 2015, with some exceptions close to the wellhead. Deposition to the northeast (DeSoto Canyon) was minor as evidenced by the absence of oil in sediments in that area. Samples with the longest recovery times were within 2 nautical miles of the wellhead, and often contained drilling mud, as shown by olefin signatures on the GC/FID chromatogram. Detailed chemistry data evaluation and chemical fingerprinting provided evidence that oil was being degraded in situ.

  18. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  19. Evaluation of alternatives for radium recovery of phosphogysum waste from chemical treatment of phosphatic ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.A. dos.

    1986-12-01

    The results from the research work undertaken to evaluate the economic recovery of the Itataia, Ceara phosphogypsum waste, obtained during the treatment of uranium bearing phosphatic ore are present. The implications involved in the waste storage taking into account different aspects of environmental safety, are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Hidalgo Lasso, D.; Zaan, van der B.M.; Gaans, van P.; Maphosa, F.; Smidt, H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in

  1. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Hazardous Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    imperative that the community address the range of values, and have agreement, before a disaster strikes. Pre-event clearance level concurrence is...on the cleanup of specific sites: those containing only cesium-137 (Goiania) and those containing 137Cs and other radionuclides ( Chernobyl ...targets and consider initiatives to enhance the quality of life of the residents of the contaminated areas. Recovery experience from the Chernobyl

  2. Chemical cocktails in aquatic systems: Pesticide effects on the response and recovery of >20 animal taxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Jessica; Relyea, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Natural systems are often exposed to individual insecticides or combinations of multiple insecticides. Using an additive and substitutive design, we examined how populations and communities containing >20 animal taxa are affected by four insecticides applied individually and as a mixture for 18 wks in aquatic mesocosms. The four insecticides had distinct lethal effects on the response and recovery of cladocerans, copepods, amphipods, isopods, and amphibians but not snails. The lethal effect on cladocerans and copepods induced trophic cascades that facilitated algal blooms and abiotic changes (higher pH and dissolved oxygen, but lower light transmission). Exposure to endosulfan resulted in a lag effect reducing cladocerans and spring-breeding amphibian abundance. The reduction in spring-breeding amphibian abundance led to cascading indirect effects on summer-breeding amphibians. Finally, the mixture treatment had lethal effects throughout the community that led to long-term effects on amphibian mass and unique indirect consequences on phytoplankton and abiotic variables. - Highlights: • Insecticides had unique direct and indirect effects on response and recovery. • Due to lag effects, endosulfan was more toxic than expected based on 4d tests. • Variation in oviposition phenology led to positive effects on amphibians. • Lethal direct effects of mixtures were pervasive and led to unique indirect effects. - Insecticides applied individually and in a mixture have complex direct and indirect consequences on aquatic system response and recovery

  3. A predictive model of chemical flooding for enhanced oil recovery purposes: Application of least square support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Applying chemical flooding in petroleum reservoirs turns into interesting subject of the recent researches. Developing strategies of the aforementioned method are more robust and precise when they consider both economical point of views (net present value (NPV and technical point of views (recovery factor (RF. In the present study huge attempts are made to propose predictive model for specifying efficiency of chemical flooding in oil reservoirs. To gain this goal, the new type of support vector machine method which evolved by Suykens and Vandewalle was employed. Also, high precise chemical flooding data banks reported in previous works were employed to test and validate the proposed vector machine model. According to the mean square error (MSE, correlation coefficient and average absolute relative deviation, the suggested LSSVM model has acceptable reliability; integrity and robustness. Thus, the proposed intelligent based model can be considered as an alternative model to monitor the efficiency of chemical flooding in oil reservoir when the required experimental data are not available or accessible.

  4. Synthesis and analysis of separation networks for the recovery of intracellular chemicals generated from microbial-based conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenkie, Kirti M; Wu, Wenzhao; Maravelias, Christos T

    2017-01-01

    Bioseparations can contribute to more than 70% in the total production cost of a bio-based chemical, and if the desired chemical is localized intracellularly, there can be additional challenges associated with its recovery. Based on the properties of the desired chemical and other components in the stream, there can be multiple feasible options for product recovery. These options are composed of several alternative technologies, performing similar tasks. The suitability of a technology for a particular chemical depends on (1) its performance parameters, such as separation efficiency; (2) cost or amount of added separating agent; (3) properties of the bioreactor effluent (e.g., biomass titer, product content); and (4) final product specifications. Our goal is to first synthesize alternative separation options and then analyze how technology selection affects the overall process economics. To achieve this, we propose an optimization-based framework that helps in identifying the critical technologies and parameters. We study the separation networks for two representative classes of chemicals based on their properties. The separation network is divided into three stages: cell and product isolation (stage I), product concentration (II), and product purification and refining (III). Each stage exploits differences in specific product properties for achieving the desired product quality. The cost contribution analysis for the two cases (intracellular insoluble and intracellular soluble) reveals that stage I is the key cost contributor (>70% of the overall cost). Further analysis suggests that changes in input conditions and technology performance parameters lead to new designs primarily in stage I. The proposed framework provides significant insights for technology selection and assists in making informed decisions regarding technologies that should be used in combination for a given set of stream/product properties and final output specifications. Additionally, the

  5. Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Lasso, Daniel Hidalgo; van der Zaan, Bas; van Gaans, Pauline; Maphosa, Farai; Smidt, Hauke; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-03-01

    To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in two diesel-contaminated soils (peat and fill). Chemical oxidant and soil type affected the microbial community diversity and biodegradation activity; however, this was only observed following treatment with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent, and in the biotic control without oxidation. Differences in the highest overall removal efficiencies of 69 % for peat (biotic control) and 59 % for fill (Fenton's reagent) were partially explained by changes in contaminant soil properties upon oxidation. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA and alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene abundances indicated that oxidation with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent negatively affected microbial abundance. However, regeneration occurred, and final relative alkB abundances were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in chemically treated microcosms than in the biotic control. 16S rRNA gene fragment fingerprinting with DGGE and prominent band sequencing illuminated microbial community composition and diversity differences between treatments and identified a variety of phylotypes within Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. Understanding microbial community dynamics during coupled chemical oxidation and bioremediation is integral to improved biphasic field application.

  6. Groundwater chemical baseline values to assess the Recovery Plan in the Matanza-Riachuelo River basin, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, M E; Martínez, S; Manzano, M; Vives, L

    2016-01-15

    The two most exploited aquifers in the Matanza-Riachuelo River basin are being monitored in the framework of the Integrated Environmental Sanitation Plan that implements the Basin Authority, Autoridad de Cuenca Matanza Riachuelo. In this context, this work identifies the groundwater chemical types and the natural processes behind them; determines spatial and temporal changes; establishes ranges of variation for chemical components, and proposes concentration values for the upper limit of the natural chemical background. A total of 1007 samples from three aquifer-layers (Upper Aquifer, top and bottom of Puelche Aquifer) have been studied. As concrete guidelines for practical determination of baseline values are not available in the region, the methodology used follows the proposals of European projects which assessed European water directives. The groundwater composition is very stable in terms of both chemical facies and mineralization degree, and the changes observed in the dry and wet periods analysed are subtle in general. Most of the groundwater is Na-HCO3 type, except a few samples that are Ca-HCO3, Na-ClSO4 and Na-Cl types. The Ca-HCO3 waters are the result of calcium carbonate dissolution, Na-HCO3 waters result from cation exchange and carbonate dissolution, while in the Na-ClSO4 and Na-Cl waters, mixing with connate and with encroached old marine water from the underlying and overlying sediments are the most relevant processes. The proposed values for the upper limit of the natural background consider the influence of geology and Holocene marine ingressions in the baseline of coastal groundwater. This study allowed to know the initial chemical conditions of the groundwater system of the Matanza-Riachuelo River basin and to establish the reference from which Basin Authority can start to evaluate trends and monitor the recovery plan. At the same time, it sets a precedent for future studies in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical process for recovery of uranium values contained in phosphoric mineral lixivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, E.L.H. da; Awwal, M.A.; Coelho, S. V.

    1980-01-01

    A recovery process of uranium values from phosporic mineral lixivia for obtaining uranio oxide concentrate adjusted to specifications of purity for its commercialization the process consists of the adjustment of electromotive force of lixiviem to suitable values for uranium extraction, extraction with organic solvent containing phosphoric acid ester and oxidant reextraction from this solvent with phosphoric acid solution, suggesting a new solvent extraction containing synergetic mixture of di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid and tri-octyl phosphine, leaching this solvent with water and re-extraction/precipitation with ammonium carbonate solution, resulting in the formation of uranyl tricarbonate and ammonium, that by drying and calcination gives the uranium oxide with purity degree for commercialization. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Methods for chemical recovery of non-carrier-added radioactive tin from irradiated intermetallic Ti-Sb targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshina, Elena V [Troitsk, RU; Zhuikov, Boris L [Troitsk, RU; Srivastava, Suresh C [Setauket, NY; Ermolaev, Stanislav V [Obninsk, RU; Togaeva, Natalia R [Obninsk, RU

    2012-01-17

    The invention provides a method of chemical recovery of no-carrier-added radioactive tin (NCA radiotin) from intermetallide TiSb irradiated with accelerated charged particles. An irradiated sample of TiSb can be dissolved in acidic solutions. Antimony can be removed from the solution by extraction with dibutyl ether. Titanium in the form of peroxide can be separated from tin using chromatography on strong anion-exchange resin. In another embodiment NCA radiotin can be separated from iodide solution containing titanium by extraction with benzene, toluene or chloroform. NCA radiotin can be finally purified from the remaining antimony and other impurities using chromatography on silica gel. NCA tin-117m can be obtained from this process. NCA tin-117m can be used for labeling organic compounds and biological objects to be applied in medicine for imaging and therapy of various diseases.

  9. Evaluation of improved chemical waste disposal and recovery methods for N reactor fuel fabrication operations: 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, T.L.; Hartley, J.N.

    1984-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory personnel identified and evaluated alternative methods for recovery, recycle, and disposal of waste acids produced during N Reactor fuel operations. This work was conducted under a program sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc.; the program goals were to reduce the volume of liquid waste by rejuvenating and recycling acid solutions and to generate a residual waste low in nitrates, fluorides, and metals. Disposal methods under consideration included nitric acid reclamation, grout encapsulation of final residual waste, nitrogen fertilizer production, biodenitrifaction, chemical or thermal destruction of NO 3 , and short-term impoundment of liquid NO 3 /SO 4 wastes. Preliminary testing indicated that the most feasible and practicable of these alternatives were (1) nitric acid reclamation followed by grouting of residual waste and (2) nitrogen fertilizer production. This report summarizes the investigations, findings, and recommendations for the 1984 fiscal year

  10. The Role of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Preadaptation in the Biotransformation of Trace Organic Chemicals during Aquifer Recharge and Recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Ouf, Mohamed

    2012-05-01

    Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) is a low-cost and environmentally-friendly treatment technology which uses conventionally treated wastewater effluent for groundwater recharge and subsequent recovery for agricultural, industrial or drinking water uses. This study investigated the effect of different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) composition in wastewater effluent on the fate of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) during ARR. Four biologically active columns were setup receiving synthetic wastewater effluent with varying DOC compositions. The difference in DOC composition triggered variations in the microbial community’s diversity and hence its ability to degrade TOrCs. It was found that the presence of protein-like DOC enhances the removal of DOC in comparison with the presence of humic-like DOC. On the other hand, the presence of humic-like DOC, which is more difficult to degrade, improved the removal of several degradable TOrCs. Other column experiments were also carried out to investigate the role of previous and continuous exposure to TOrCs in their removal. The use of soil pre-exposed to low concentrations of TOrCs and DOC provided better removal of both DOC and TOrCs. The findings of this study suggest that the presence of more humic-like DOC in the effluent enhances the biotransformation of TOrCs during ARR. In addition, long exposure to both DOC and TOrCs increases the degree of their removal over time

  11. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  12. Gravity packaging final waste recovery based on gravity separation and chemical imaging control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia; Potenza, Fabio; Luciani, Valentina; Di Maio, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Plastic polymers are characterized by a high calorific value. Post-consumer plastic waste can be thus considered, in many cases, as a typical secondary solid fuels according to the European Commission directive on End of Waste (EoW). In Europe the practice of incineration is considered one of the solutions for waste disposal waste, for energy recovery and, as a consequence, for the reduction of waste sent to landfill. A full characterization of these products represents the first step to profitably and correctly utilize them. Several techniques have been investigated in this paper in order to separate and characterize post-consumer plastic packaging waste fulfilling the previous goals, that is: gravity separation (i.e. Reflux Classifier), FT-IR spectroscopy, NIR HyperSpectralImaging (HSI) based techniques and calorimetric test. The study demonstrated as the proposed separation technique and the HyperSpectral NIR Imaging approach allow to separate and recognize the different polymers (i.e. PolyVinyl Chloride (PVC), PolyStyrene (PS), PolyEthylene (PE), PoliEtilene Tereftalato (PET), PolyPropylene (PP)) in order to maximize the removal of the PVC fraction from plastic waste and to perform the full quality control of the resulting products, can be profitably utilized to set up analytical/control strategies finalized to obtain a low content of PVC in the final Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF), thus enhancing SRF quality, increasing its value and reducing the "final waste". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lunar bulk chemical composition: a post-Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G Jeffrey; Wieczorek, Mark A

    2014-09-13

    New estimates of the thickness of the lunar highlands crust based on data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory mission, allow us to reassess the abundances of refractory elements in the Moon. Previous estimates of the Moon fall into two distinct groups: earthlike and a 50% enrichment in the Moon compared with the Earth. Revised crustal thicknesses and compositional information from remote sensing and lunar samples indicate that the crust contributes 1.13-1.85 wt% Al2O3 to the bulk Moon abundance. Mare basalt Al2O3 concentrations (8-10 wt%) and Al2O3 partitioning behaviour between melt and pyroxene during partial melting indicate mantle Al2O3 concentration in the range 1.3-3.1 wt%, depending on the relative amounts of pyroxene and olivine. Using crustal and mantle mass fractions, we show that that the Moon and the Earth most likely have the same (within 20%) concentrations of refractory elements. This allows us to use correlations between pairs of refractory and volatile elements to confirm that lunar abundances of moderately volatile elements such as K, Rb and Cs are depleted by 75% in the Moon compared with the Earth and that highly volatile elements, such as Tl and Cd, are depleted by 99%. The earthlike refractory abundances and depleted volatile abundances are strong constraints on lunar formation processes. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Water-Soluble Hyperbranched Polymer as Enhanced Oil Recovery Chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanjun Lai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hyperbranched polymer was synthesized using acrylamide (AM, acrylic acid (AA, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP, and dendrite functional monomer as raw materials by redox initiation system in an aqueous medium. The hyperbranched polymer was characterized by infrared (IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The viscosity retention rate of the hyperbranched polymer was 22.89% higher than that of the AM/AA copolymer (HPAM at 95°C, and the viscosity retention rate was 8.17%, 12.49%, and 13.68% higher than that of HPAM in 18000 mg/L NaCl, 1800 mg/L CaCl2, and 1800 mg/L MgCl2·6H2O brine, respectively. The hyperbranched polymer exhibited higher apparent viscosity (25.2 mPa·s versus 8.1 mPa·s under 500 s−1 shear rate at 80°C. Furthermore, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR of 1500 mg/L hyperbranched polymer solutions was up to 23.51% by the core flooding test at 80°C.

  15. Improved CO sub 2 enhanced oil recovery -- Mobility control by in-situ chemical precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameri, S.; Aminian, K.; Wasson, J.A.; Durham, D.L.

    1991-06-01

    The overall objective of this study has been to evaluate the feasibility of chemical precipitation to improve CO{sub 2} sweep efficiency and mobility control. The laboratory experiments have indicated that carbonate precipitation can alter the permeability of the core samples under reservoir conditions. Furthermore, the relative permeability measurements have revealed that precipitation reduces the gas permeability in favor of liquid permeability. This indicates that precipitation is occurring preferentially in the larger pores. Additional experimental work with a series of connected cores have indicated that the permeability profile can be successfully modified. However, Ph control plays a critical role in propagation of the chemical precipitation reaction. A numerical reservoir model has been utilized to evaluate the effects of permeability heterogeneity and permeability modification on the CO{sub 2} sweep efficiency. The computer simulation results indicate that the permeability profile modification can significantly enhance CO{sub 2} vertical and horizontal sweep efficiencies. The scoping studies with the model have further revealed that only a fraction of high permeability zones need to be altered to achieve sweep efficiency enhancement. 64 refs., 30 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

    2012-11-30

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen

  17. Sequential electrodialytic recovery of phosphorus from low-temperature gasification ashes of chemically precipitated sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    the P solubilisation from aluminium and ferric phosphates. In addition, P was separated from most metals as they became insoluble under the prevailing chemical environment. The obtained ratio of Al, Fe, Mg and most heavy metals to P was comparable to wet process phosphoric acid. Therefore......Phosphorus recycling from secondary materials like sewage sludge ashes offers an alternative to mining of phosphates from primary resources and a mean to counteract the current phosphorous rock depletion concern. A separation of P from the bulk ash is normally required, due to its low plant......, this sequential process was found to be suitable to recycle P and potentially use it in the production of common fertilizers like diammonium phosphate. ...

  18. Chemical Structure, Property and Potential Applications of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus subtilis in Petroleum Recovery and Spill Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Feng; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Lipopeptides produced by microorganisms are one of the five major classes of biosurfactants known and they have received much attention from scientific and industrial communities due to their powerful interfacial and biological activities as well as environmentally friendly characteristics. Microbially produced lipopeptides are a series of chemical structural analogues of different families and, among them, 26 families covering about 90 lipopeptide compounds have been reported in the last two decades. This paper reviews the chemical structural characteristics and molecular behaviors of surfactin, one of the representative lipopeptides of the 26 families. In particular, two novel surfactin molecules isolated from cell-free cultures of Bacillus subtilis HSO121 are presented. Surfactins exhibit strong self-assembly ability to form sphere-like micelles and larger aggregates at very low concentrations. The amphipathic and surface properties of surfactins are related to the existence of the minor polar and major hydrophobic domains in the three 3-D conformations. In addition, the application potential of surfactin in bioremediation of oil spills and oil contaminants, and microbial enhanced oil recovery are discussed. PMID:25741767

  19. Chemical form of tritium released from solid breeder materials and the influences of it on a bred tritium recovery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukubo, Y.; Nishikawa, M.; Nishida, Y.; Kinjyo, T.; Tanifuji, Takaaki; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Enoeda, Mikio

    2004-01-01

    The ratio of HTO in total tritium was measured at release of the bred tritium to the purge gas with hydrogen using the thermal release after irradiation method, where neutron irradiation was performed at JRR-3 reactor in JAERI or KUR reactor in Kyoto University. It is experimentally confirmed in this study that not a small portion of bred tritium is released to the purge gas in the form of HTO form ceramic breeder materials even when hydrogen is added to the purge gas. The chemical composition is to be decided by the competitive reaction at the grain surface of a ceramic breeder material where desorption reaction, isotope exchange reaction 1, isotope exchange reaction 2 and water formation reaction are considered to take part. Observation in this study implies that it is necessary to have a bred tritium recovery system applicable for both HT and HTO form to recover whole bred tritium. The chemical composition also decides the amount of tritium transferable to the cooling water of the electricity generation system through the structural material in the blanket system. Permeation behavior of tritium through some structural materials at various conditions are also discussed. (author)

  20. Chemical Structure, Property and Potential Applications of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus subtilis in Petroleum Recovery and Spill Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipopeptides produced by microorganisms are one of the five major classes of biosurfactants known and they have received much attention from scientific and industrial communities due to their powerful interfacial and biological activities as well as environmentally friendly characteristics. Microbially produced lipopeptides are a series of chemical structural analogues of different families and, among them, 26 families covering about 90 lipopeptide compounds have been reported in the last two decades. This paper reviews the chemical structural characteristics and molecular behaviors of surfactin, one of the representative lipopeptides of the 26 families. In particular, two novel surfactin molecules isolated from cell-free cultures of Bacillus subtilis HSO121 are presented. Surfactins exhibit strong self-assembly ability to form sphere-like micelles and larger aggregates at very low concentrations. The amphipathic and surface properties of surfactins are related to the existence of the minor polar and major hydrophobic domains in the three 3-D conformations. In addition, the application potential of surfactin in bioremediation of oil spills and oil contaminants, and microbial enhanced oil recovery are discussed.

  1. Damage and recovery of skin barrier function after glycolic acid chemical peeling and crystal microdermabrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Youn; Kang, Hyun A; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Park, Young Min; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2004-03-01

    Superficial chemical peeling and microdermabrasion have become increasingly popular methods for producing facial rejuvenation. However, there are few studies reporting the skin barrier function changes after these procedures. To evaluate objectively the degree of damage visually and the time needed for the skin barrier function to recover after glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion using noninvasive bioengineering methods. Superficial chemical peeling using 30%, 50%, and 70% glycolic acid and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion were used on the volar forearm of 13 healthy women. The skin response was measured by a visual observation and using an evaporimeter, corneometer, and colorimeter before and after peeling at set time intervals. Both glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion induced significant damage to the skin barrier function immediately after the procedure, and the degree of damage was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with glycolic acid peeling. The damaged skin barrier function had recovered within 24 hours after both procedures. The degree of erythema induction was less severe after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion compared with the glycolic acid peeling procedure. The degree of erythema induced after the glycolic acid peeling procedure was not proportional to the peeling solution concentration used. The erythema subsided within 1 day after the aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure and within 4 days after the glycolic acid peeling procedure. These results suggest that the skin barrier function is damaged after the glycolic acid peeling and aluminum oxide crystal microdermabrasion procedure but recovers within 1 to 4 days. Therefore, repeating the superficial peeling procedure at 2-week intervals will allow sufficient time for the damaged skin to recover its barrier function.

  2. Alkali roasting of bomar ilmenite: rare earths recovery and physico-chemical changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Segado Sergio

    2014-11-01

    (FeTiO3 is presented as a process route for integrated beneficiation of the mineral for rutile-rich phase and rare earth oxides; the latter is released as a consequence of physical changes in the ilmenite matrix, during the water leaching after roasting. The oxidative alkali roasting transforms ilmenite mineral into water-insoluble alkali titanate and water-soluble ferrite. After roasting the insoluble alkali titanate is separated from rare-earth oxide mixture in colloidal form and water-soluble ferrite. Further leaching of alkali titanate is carried out with oxalic (0.3M and ascorbic (0.01M acid solution which removes the remaining Fe2+ ions into the leachate and allows precipitation of high-purity synthetic rutile containing more than 95% TiO2. Iron is removed as iron oxalate. The physico-chemical changes occurred during the roasting and leaching processes are reported by comparing the role of alkali on the roasting process and product morphologies formed.

  3. The Role of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Preadaptation in the Biotransformation of Trace Organic Chemicals during Aquifer Recharge and Recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Ouf, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) is a low-cost and environmentally-friendly treatment technology which uses conventionally treated wastewater effluent for groundwater recharge and subsequent recovery for agricultural, industrial or drinking water

  4. Short term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2014-12-01

    vineyard and time, increasing with rain precipitations in the old vineyard. Though the euedaphic forms, well adapted to soil life, were always rare. Microbiological analysis revealed a different structure of eubacterial communities between old and new vineyard in the whole period. However, the DGGE similarity values of such communities increased of about 2.5% per year, suggesting that at least 3 years more are needed to compare intra- and inter-specific diversity of the two vineyards. In conclusion, the consequences of deep earthworks on soil chemical, micro and mesobiological properties were still evident after four years from planting, indicating that more time is necessary for the recovery of soil functions, probably longer than that needed to obtain an economic grape production.

  5. Investigation of Chemical-Foam Design as a Novel Approach toward Immiscible Foam Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini Nasab, S.M.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2017-01-01

    Strong foam can be generated in porous media containing oil, resulting in incremental oil recovery; however, oil recovery factor is restricted. A large fraction of oil recovered by foam flooding forms an oil-in-water emulsion, so that costly methods may need to be used to separate the oil.

  6. Short-term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2015-06-01

    abundances and community structures, in relation to both vineyard and time. Rainfall appeared to have an enhancing effect on microarthropod abundance, but only in the old vineyard, where the biota was more structured than in the new one. The euedaphic forms, well adapted to soil life, were always rare. Microbiological analysis revealed a different structure of eubacterial communities between the old and the new vineyard in the whole period. However, the DGGE similarity values of these communities increased by about 2.5% per year, suggesting that at least 3 years more are needed to compare intra- and inter-specific diversity of the two vineyards. In conclusion, the consequences of deep earthworks on soil chemical, micro- and mesobiological properties were still evident 4 years after planting, indicating that more time is necessary for the recovery of soil functions, probably longer than the time needed to reach a state of economically viable grape production.

  7. Chemical shift-selective snapshot FLASH MR imaging in combination with inversion-recovery T1 contrast at different field strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthaei, D.; Haase, A.; Henrich, D.; Duhmke, E.

    1991-01-01

    With fast MR imaging, chemical shift contract becomes available to the clinician in seconds. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the combination of chemical shift selective (CHESS) MR imaging using the snapshot FLASH MR method with the inversion-recovery technique and to obtain information concerning the signal-to-noise and chemical shift with the presaturation method at different field strengths. Investigations with volunteers and experimental animals were done at 2 and 3 T (whole body) and in a 4.7-T animal image. For the inversion-recovery experiments, saturation was done before every snapshot FLASH image. With increasing field strength due to signal-to-noise and chemical shift advantages, the method performs better. Increasing T1 values are also important at high field strengths. The combined technique is useful only for T1 water images with fat saturation. It also allows fast quantification of T1 in water-containing organs and pathologic processes. At high field strengths, fast CHESS and T1 imaging promise fast quantitative information. This is a possible argument for clinical high-field-strength MR imagining along with MR spectroscopy

  8. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Basudev, E-mail: swain@iae.re.kr [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Mishra, Chinmayee [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hyun Seon [Sungshin University, Dept. of Interdisciplinary ECO Science, Seoul, 142-732 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Soo [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11 kg/m{sup 3} of copper and 1.35 kg/m{sup 3} of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100–500 nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process. - Highlights: • From the Indium-Tin-Oxide etching

  9. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Hong, Hyun Seon; Cho, Sung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11 kg/m 3 of copper and 1.35 kg/m 3 of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100–500 nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process. - Highlights: • From the Indium-Tin-Oxide etching wastewater

  10. Integration of Gas Enhanced Oil Recovery in Multiphase Fermentations for the Microbial Production of Fuels and Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-de la Cuesta, Susana; Keijzers, Lore; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Cuellar, Maria C

    2018-04-01

    In multiphase fermentations where the product forms a second liquid phase or where solvents are added for product extraction, turbulent conditions disperse the oil phase as droplets. Surface-active components (SACs) present in the fermentation broth can stabilize the product droplets thus forming an emulsion. Breaking this emulsion increases process complexity and consequently the production cost. In previous works, it has been proposed to promote demulsification of oil/supernatant emulsions in an off-line batch bubble column operating at low gas flow rate. The aim of this study is to test the performance of this recovery method integrated to a fermentation, allowing for continuous removal of the oil phase. A 500 mL bubble column is successfully integrated with a 2 L reactor during 24 h without affecting cell growth or cell viability. However, higher levels of surfactants and emulsion stability are measured in the integrated system compared to a base case, reducing its capacity for oil recovery. This is related to release of SACs due to cellular stress when circulating through the recovery column. Therefore, it is concluded that the gas bubble-induced oil recovery method allows for oil separation and cell recycling without compromising fermentation performance; however, tuning of the column parameters considering increased levels of SACs due to cellular stress is required for improving oil recovery. © 2018 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal Published by Wiley-VCHVerlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. RE-UTILIZATION OF INORGANIC SOLID WASTE (LIME MUD AS FOREST ROAD STABILIZER FROM THE CHEMICAL RECOVERY PROCESS IN KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Eroğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste handling is a concern in all pulp and paper mills. Best available techniques for reducing waste is to minimize the generation of solid waste and/or reuse these materials, wherever practicable. One of the most important solid wastes is lime mud which is generated from the kraft pulping in its chemical recovery process. This paper explores the composition of lime mud resulting from the chemical recovery unite of kraft pulp mill and investigation of this waste for re-using beneficially on sub grade and pavement of forest road as a alternative disposal method. Lime mud obtained from the re-causticising process in SEKA pulp mill that utilizes wheat straw and reed as the principal raw material was supplied with % 47 water content and its chemical and physical characterisations was performed according to standard methods. Dried waste to environmental condition was mixed with certain amount to composite cement for using on pavement and sandy clay, loamy clay and clay soils for enriching forest road sub grade properties. In order to investigate the lime mud addition on pavement and sub grade properties necessary physical tests were performed. As a consequence this study reveals that while waste of lime mud causes environmental and economical problem with conventional disposal techniques and/or abandoning to environment, this waste can be used as good stabilisation materials on forest road sub-grade and pavement without any environmental problem.

  12. A roadmap for the synthesis of separation networks for the recovery of bio-based chemicals: Matching biological and process feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenkie, Kirti M; Wu, WenZhao; Clark, Ryan L; Pfleger, Brian F; Root, Thatcher W; Maravelias, Christos T

    2016-12-01

    Microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks to high-value chemicals is an attractive alternative to current petrochemical processes because it offers the potential to reduce net CO 2 emissions and integrate with bioremediation objectives. Microbes have been genetically engineered to produce a growing number of high-value chemicals in sufficient titer, rate, and yield from renewable feedstocks. However, high-yield bioconversion is only one aspect of an economically viable process. Separation of biologically synthesized chemicals from process streams is a major challenge that can contribute to >70% of the total production costs. Thus, process feasibility is dependent upon the efficient selection of separation technologies. This selection is dependent on upstream processing or biological parameters, such as microbial species, product titer and yield, and localization. Our goal is to present a roadmap for selection of appropriate technologies and generation of separation schemes for efficient recovery of bio-based chemicals by utilizing information from upstream processing, separation science and commercial requirements. To achieve this, we use a separation system comprising of three stages: (I) cell and product isolation, (II) product concentration, and (III) product purification and refinement. In each stage, we review the technology alternatives available for different tasks in terms of separation principles, important operating conditions, performance parameters, advantages and disadvantages. We generate separation schemes based on product localization and its solubility in water, the two most distinguishing properties. Subsequently, we present ideas for simplification of these schemes based on additional properties, such as physical state, density, volatility, and intended use. This simplification selectively narrows down the technology options and can be used for systematic process synthesis and optimal recovery of bio-based chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  13. Preparation of Polymeric Resin Beads Using Gamma Irradiation and Chemical Processes for Use in the Recovery of Some Alkali Metal Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nahas, H. H.; Khalil, F. H.; Ibrahim, G. M.; El-Gammal, B.

    2007-01-01

    Syntheses of resin beads from unsaturated polyester and urea-formaldehyde were carried out by dispersion polymerization. The reaction was performed through gamma irradiation and chemical processing. Factors affecting the reaction and syntheses parameters that are the type and viscosity of dispersant, irradiation dose and agitation rate on the resin beads size were thoroughly investigated. The resulting resin beads were smooth on their spherical surface and the beads diameters were in the range 2-200μm. Some measurements such as beads diameter, surface hardness and scanning electron microscopy were studied. The bead diameter was generally decreased with increasing concentration and viscosity of the dispersant and agitation rate. A comparison study between irradiation and chemical processes for resin beads synthesis was discussed to identify the suitable process for preparing a resin beads in a pilot scale. The different methods of preparation were tried to be applied in the recovery of Li + , Na+, k + and Cs + ions from acidic media.

  14. An overview on emerging bioelectrochemical systems (BESs): Technology for sustainable electricity, waste remediation, resource recovery, chemical production and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, S.; Sharma, M.; Mohanakrishna, Gunda; Benneton, Xochitl Dominguez; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Sarma, Priyangshu M.; Pant, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are unique systems capable of converting chemical energy into electrical energy (and vice-versa) while employing microbes as catalysts. Such organic wastes including low-strength wastewaters and lignocellulosic biomass were converted into electricity with microbial

  15. Research on removing reservoir core water sensitivity using the method of ultrasound-chemical agent for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Huang, Jiehao

    2018-04-01

    The phenomenon of water sensitivity often occurs in the oil reservoir core during the process of crude oil production, which seriously affects the efficiency of oil extraction. In recent years, near-well ultrasonic processing technology attaches more attention due to its safety and energy efficient. In this paper, the comparison of removing core water sensitivity by ultrasonic wave, chemical injection and ultrasound-chemical combination technique are investigated through experiments. Results show that: lower ultrasonic frequency and higher power can improve the efficiency of core water sensitivity removal; the effects of removing core water sensitivity under ultrasonic treatment get better with increase of core initial permeability; the effect of removing core water sensitivity using ultrasonic treatment won't get better over time. Ultrasonic treatment time should be controlled in a reasonable range; the effect of removing core water sensitivity using chemical agent alone is slightly better than that using ultrasonic treatment, however, chemical injection could be replaced by ultrasonic treatment for removing core water sensitivity from the viewpoint of oil reservoir protection and the sustainable development of oil field; ultrasound-chemical combination technique has the best effect for water sensitivity removal than using ultrasonic treatment or chemical injection alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  17. Integrated computer-aided framework for chemical product and process application design and optimization for waste heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Woodley, John M.; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    This contribution presents an integrated framework for product-process design. The framework integrates the two design problems into one and finds the optimal solution through simultaneous optimization. The framework consists of four hierarchical steps and uses a set of methods, tools and databases...... for property prediction, novel fluid design and mathematical programming. The application of the framework is targeted for waste heat recovery design systems, where the sensitivity of product and process design variables is high and the simultaneous design is necessary. The sustainable design solutions...... are showcased in this paper for mixed refrigeration design....

  18. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  19. Recycling of Dilute Deacetylation Black Liquor to Enable Efficient Recovery and Reuse of Spent Chemicals and Biomass Pretreatment Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Chen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Deacetylation/dilute alkaline pretreatment followed by mechanical refining (DMR has been proven as an effective process for biomass sugar liberation without severe chemical modification to lignin. Previous research has been focused on optimizing deacetylation conditions, reducing energy consumptions in mechanical refining, and improving sugar yields and titers in enzymatic hydrolysis. To successfully commercialize this process, another critical challenge is to develop a robust process to balance water usage, recover spent chemicals, and utilize waste carbons from the dilute deacetylation waste liquor. In this work, a new process modification and strategy is pioneered to recycle and reuse the weak black liquor (WBL in order to reduce water, chemical, and energy usage while increasing both inorganic and organic contents in the WBLto facilitate downstream processing. Results suggest that the accumulation did not lower acetyl and lignin removal in alkaline pretreatment, resulting in comparable sugar yields in enzymatic hydrolysis. Sodium and potassium were found to be the two most important inorganic compounds in the recycled WBL. Moreover, the accumulated sodium and phenolic compounds did not inhibit the downstream ethanol fermentation processes. Finally, techno-economic analysis (TEA showed a decrease in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP by ~5 to 15 cents per gallon of ethanol resulting from the inclusion of the recycling of weak black liquor when compared to a conventional non-recycling process.

  20. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1993-07-01

    This report covers work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context, three general areas were studied: (i) The understanding of vapor-liquid flow in porous media, whether the flow is internal (boiling), external (steam injection) or countercurrent (as in vertical heat pipes); (ii) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity, particularly as it regards fractured systems; (iii) The flow properties of additives for the improvement of recovery efficiency, in particular the injection of caustic and foams. The studies completed under this contract involved ap three research tools, analysis, computation and experiments. We have focused on pore level modeling using pore networks and on flow visualization using Hele-Shaw cells. Experiments involving core samples were conducted for the chemical additives investigation. Finally, simulation at the pore scale, pore network scale and reservoir scale were also undertaken. Part of the work has been detailed in five DOE Technical Reports as shown at the end of this report.

  1. Permeability recovery of fouled forward osmosis membranes by chemical cleaning during a long-term operation of anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactors treating low-strength wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Hu, Taozhan; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2017-10-15

    Anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor (AnOMBR) has gained increasing interests in wastewater treatment owing to its simultaneous recovery of biogas and water. However, the forward osmosis (FO) membrane fouling was severe during a long-term operation of AnOMBRs. Here, we aim to recover the permeability of fouled FO membranes by chemical cleaning. Specifically speaking, an optimal chemical cleaning procedure was searched for fouled thin film composite polyamide FO (TFC-FO) membranes in a novel microfiltration (MF) assisted AnOMBR (AnMF-OMBR). The results indicated that citric acid, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA-2Na), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) had a low cleaning efficiency of less than 15%, while hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) could effectively remove foulants from the TFC-FO membrane surface (almost 100%) through oxidizing the functional group of the organic foulants and disintegrating the colloids and microbe flocs into fine particles. Nevertheless, the damage of H 2 O 2 to the TFC-FO membrane was observed when a high cleaning concentration and a long duration were applied. In this case, the optimal cleaning conditions including cleaning concentration and time for fouled TFC-FO membranes were selected through confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the flux recovery rate. The results suggested that the optimal cleaning procedure for fouled TFC-FO membranes was use of 0.5% H 2 O 2 at 25 °C for 6 h, and after that, the cleaned TFC-FO membrane had the same performance as a virgin one including water flux and rejection for organic matters and phosphorus during the operation of AnMF-OMBR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and Performance of an Acrylamide Copolymer Containing Nano-SiO2 as Enhanced Oil Recovery Chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbin Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel copolymer containing nano-SiO2 was synthesized by free radical polymerization using acrylamide (AM, acrylic acid (AA, and nano-SiO2 functional monomer (NSFM as raw materials under mild conditions. The AM/AA/NSFM copolymer was characterized by infrared (IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was found that the AM/AA/NSFM copolymer exhibited higher viscosity than the AM/AA copolymer at 500 s−1 shear rate (18.6 mPa·s versus 8.7 mPa·s. It was also found that AM/AA/NSFM could achieve up to 43.7% viscosity retention rate at 95°C. Mobility control results indicated that AM/AA/NSFM could establish much higher resistance factor (RF and residual resistance factor (RRF than AM/AA under the same conditions (RF: 16.52 versus 12.17, RRF: 3.63 versus 2.59. At last, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR of AM/AA/NSFM was up to 20.10% by core flooding experiments at 65°C.

  3. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential

  4. Periphyton changes over 20 years of chemical recovery of Lake Orta, Italy: differential response to perturbation of littoral and pelagic communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe MORABITO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lake Orta, a large Italian subalpine lake, has a long history of industrial pollution by acid, ammonia, and metals. A whole-lake liming treatment in 1989-1990 led to a gradual increase in pH (from 4.4 to 7 and a concomitant decline in ammonia (from 2.5 to 0.05 mg L-1 and metal concentrations (e.g., copper: from 35 to 3 μg L-1. In this study, we examine the response of the littoral zone, in terms of chemistry and periphyton assemblages, to contamination and recovery of Lake Orta. We compare these findings with a long-term data set of chemistry and phytoplankton collected in the pelagic zone. We sampled periphyton at two sites from the liming period (1989 through 2010 when the lake approached chemical equilibrium. Chemical variables collected in the littoral zone near the periphyton samples followed the same temporal trends observed in the pelagic zone. Chlorophytes, the dominant algae in the preliming period, progressively waned after the calcium carbonate addition. Diatom importance gradually increased to reach up to 80% of the total biovolume in the most recent years. There was a clear shift in the diatom taxonomic composition over the study period. Acidophilous Pinnularia subcapitata var. hilseana and metal-tolerant Achnanthes minutissima were dominant before liming. With the progressive increase in pH and decline in metal concentrations, there was successively the dominance of Fragilaria nanoides (formerly identified as Synedra tenera and Cymbella microcephala in the transition period and of circumneutral Navicula cryptocephala, N. radiosa, and Synedra ulna in the most recent period. Pelagic diatoms were more affected than benthic diatoms by the industrial pollution and their recovery after the liming intervention was slower. Whereas present periphyton diatom assemblages are similar to those observed in nearby unpolluted Lake Mergozzo, pelagic assemblages are still in transition from severe disturbance towards characteristics reported before

  5. Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: practices and chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Fundamental in traditional postpartum recovery in Lao PDR is the use of hotbeds, mother roasting, steam sauna and steam baths. During these treatments medicinal plants play a crucial role, but little has been published about how the treatments are carried out precisely, which species are used, the medicinal properties of these species, and the medicinal efficacy of their chemical constituents. Methods Sixty-five interviews, in 15 rural villages, with women of 4 different ethnic groups were conducted to survey confinement rituals, and postpartum plant use and salience. Essential oils from the main species used were extracted using steam distillation and the main chemical constituents characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results A total of 10 different species were used by three or more of the ethnic groups included in this study. All species were used in steam sauna and bath, but only 3 species were used in hotbed and mother roasting. Essential oils of Amomum villosum, Amomum microcarpum and Blumea balsamifera were found to contain significant amounts of the following terpenes: β-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, D-limonene, fenchone, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene. Conclusions Many of these terpenes have documented antimicrobial and analgesic properties, and some have also synergistic interactions with other terpenes. The mode of application in hotbed and mother roasting differs from the documented mechanisms of action of these terpenes. Plants in these two practices are likely to serve mainly hygienic purposes, by segregating the mother from infection sources such as beds, mats, stools, cloth and towels. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through inhalation of essential oils vapors can possibly have medicinal efficacy, but is unlikely to alleviate the ailments commonly encountered during postpartum convalescence. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through dermal condensation of essential oils, and steam bath

  6. Comparison of diffusion-weighted images using short inversion time inversion recovery or chemical shift selective pulse as fat suppression in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Toshiki; Nasu, Katsuhiro; Kuroki, Yoshifumi; Nawano, Shigeru; Ito, Hisao

    2009-01-01

    Fat suppression is essential for diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the body. However, the chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse often fails to suppress fat signals in the breast. The purpose of this study was to compare DWI using CHESS and DWI using short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) in terms of fat suppression and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value. DWI using STIR, DWI using CHESS, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained in 32 patients with breast carcinoma. Uniformity of fat suppression, ADC, signal intensity, and visualization of the breast tumors were evaluated. In 44% (14/32) of patients there was insufficient fat suppression in the breasts on DWI using CHESS, whereas 0% was observed on DWI using STIR (P<0.0001). The ADCs obtained for DWI using STIR were 4.3% lower than those obtained for DWI using CHESS (P<0.02); there was a strong correlation of the ADC measurement (r=0.93, P<0.001). DWI using STIR may be excellent for fat suppression; and the ADC obtained in this sequence was well correlated with that obtained with DWI using CHESS. DWI using STIR may be useful when the fat suppression technique in DWI using CHESS does not work well. (author)

  7. Fat suppression with short inversion time inversion-recovery and chemical-shift selective saturation: a dual STIR-CHESS combination prepulse for turbo spin echo pulse sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Koji; Nishikawa, Keiichi; Sano, Tsukasa; Sakai, Osamu; Jara, Hernán

    2010-05-01

    To test a newly developed fat suppression magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prepulse that synergistically uses the principles of fat suppression via inversion recovery (STIR) and spectral fat saturation (CHESS), relative to pure CHESS and STIR. This new technique is termed dual fat suppression (Dual-FS). To determine if Dual-FS could be chemically specific for fat, the phantom consisted of the fat-mimicking NiCl(2) aqueous solution, porcine fat, porcine muscle, and water was imaged with the three fat-suppression techniques. For Dual-FS and STIR, several inversion times were used. Signal intensities of each image obtained with each technique were compared. To determine if Dual-FS could be robust to magnetic field inhomogeneities, the phantom consisting of different NiCl(2) aqueous solutions, porcine fat, porcine muscle, and water was imaged with Dual-FS and CHESS at the several off-resonance frequencies. To compare fat suppression efficiency in vivo, 10 volunteer subjects were also imaged with the three fat-suppression techniques. Dual-FS could suppress fat sufficiently within the inversion time of 110-140 msec, thus enabling differentiation between fat and fat-mimicking aqueous structures. Dual-FS was as robust to magnetic field inhomogeneities as STIR and less vulnerable than CHESS. The same results for fat suppression were obtained in volunteers. The Dual-FS-STIR-CHESS is an alternative and promising fat suppression technique for turbo spin echo MRI. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14

    hydrocarbon combustion for energy, chemical and fertilizer plants. For example, coal fired power plants emit large amounts of CO{sub 2} in order to produce electrical energy. Carbon dioxide sequestration is gaining attention as concerns mount over possible global climate change caused by rising emissions of greenhouse gases. Removing the CO{sub 2} from the energy generation process would make these plants more environmentally friendly. In addition, CO{sub 2} flooding is an attractive means to enhance oil and natural gas recovery. Capture and use of the CO{sub 2} from these plants for recycling into CO{sub 2} flooding of marginal reservoirs provides a “dual use” opportunity prior to final CO{sub 2} sequestration in the depleted reservoir. Under the right pressure, temperature and oil composition conditions, CO{sub 2} can act as a solvent, cleaning oil trapped in the microscopic pores of the reservoir rock. This miscible process greatly increases the recovery of crude oil from a reservoir compared to recovery normally seen by waterflooding. An Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) project that uses an industrial source of CO{sub 2} that otherwise would be vented to the atmosphere has the added environmental benefit of sequestering the greenhouse gas.

  9. Radiation and chemically induced potentially lethal lesions in noncycling mammalian cells: recovery analysis in terms of x-ray- and ultraviolet-like-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    Recovery from and fixation of potentially lethal damage after exposure of Chinese hamster cells to uv and to x irradiation were investigated, as was recovery after exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. Recovery after uv radiation has a T/sub 1 / 2 / of about 20 hr; the fraction of cells able to undergo recovery depends upon nutritional factors both before and after exposure. After x irradiation, recovery proceeds with a T/sub 1 / 2 / of approximately 2 hr and is much less influenced by nutritional factors. Fixation after serum stimulation has a T/sub 1 / 2 / of 3 to 4 hr in uv-irradiated cells, a T/sub 1 / 2 / of 30 min in x-irradiated cells. Recovery kinetics after nitrogen mustard and bleomycin exposures mimic those for x-ray exposure; after methyl methane sulfonate the kinetics are mainly uv-like, though with an x-ray-like component. Recovery by cells with BUdR-substituted DNA and irradiated with visible light is primarily x-ray-like, though with a uv-like component. There is no recovery by cells exposed to adriamycin or to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

  10. Seasonal changes in chemical and mineralogical composition of sewage sludge incineration residues and their potential for metallic elements and valuable components recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, Monika; Kowalski, Piotr R.; Michalik, Marek

    2017-04-01

    Increasing energy needs, the implementation of the circular economy principles and rising environmental awareness caused that waste management is becoming a major social and economic issue. The EU Member States have committed to a significant reduction in the amount of waste produced and landfilled and to use their inherent energy and raw materials potential. One of the most reasonable option to fulfil these commitments is waste incineration. The aim of the waste incineration is to reduce their volume and toxicity by disinfection and detoxification at high temperatures. Thermal process and reduction of volume allows the recovery of minerals and metallic elements from residues as well as the energy production (waste-to-energy strategy) during incineration. As a result of waste incineration a variety of solid residues (bottom ash, fly ash, air pollution control residues) and technological waste (gas waste, wastewater) are produced. The goal of this study is to characterize fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues formed as a result of municipal sewage sludge incineration in terms of their chemical and mineral composition and their extractive potential. Residues were sampled quarterly to study their seasonal changes in composition. The fly ash was a Si-P-C-Fe-Al dominated material, whereas the APC residues composition was dominated by Na-rich soluble phases. The removal of soluble phase ( 98% of the material) from the APC residues by dissolution in deionised water caused significant mass reduction and concentration of non-soluble elements. The main mineral phases in fly ash were quartz, hematite, Fe-PO4, whitlockite and feldspar, while in APC thenardite, and in lower amount calcite, apatite and quartz were present. The chemical composition of fly ash was practically invariable in different seasons, but significant differences were observed in APC residues. The lowest concentrations of all elements and the highest TOC content were measured in the samples

  11. Chemical Recovery of Energy in a Combined MHD-Steam Power Station; Recuperation Chimique d'Energie dans une Centrale Combinee MHD-Vapeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasse, J. [Societe Alsthom, Paris (France)

    1966-12-15

    This paper studies the energetic and chemical aspects of the operation of a combined MHD-steam power station using the combustion gases from a fossil fuel in an open circuit with potassium seeding. It describes a process for the recovery of energy by endothermal chemical gasification of the fuel. The author first recalls briefly the thermal and chemical conditions to be met throughout the length of the gas flow and points out that it is vital to ensure as much recycling of energy as possible from below to above the MHD generator, at the expense of the conventional power station located further on in the system. The paper then describes the various processes intended to ensure the thermal operating conditions required, including preheating of the air, oxygen enrichment etc. The last part of the paper, which goes into greater detail while taking the foregoing considerations into account, explains the principle and various feasible methods of application of a process at present under study and experimentation. In this process some of the heat energy of the gases discharged from the MHD duct is recycled, partly in chemical form and partly as a limited amount of gas preheat. For this purpose the fuel, mixed with oxidizing agents such as water vapour or carbon dioxide, is gasified, at about 950 Degree-Sign C and after a series of collectively endothermal reactions, into a gas composed mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, nitrogen and excess water vapour and carbon dioxide. It is thus possible to avoid the employment of very high temperature heat exchangers working with seeded gas. The paper stresses the extraction of seeding material, which is simple and can here take place to a great extent in liquid form (fused salts) due to the fact that operation is in the temperature range around 1000 Degree-Sign C. Consideration is finally given to the use after treatment (cooling, extraction of seeding material, absorption of excess H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}, compression and re

  12. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  13. Leak detection technologies for oil and gas pipelines; Tecnologias para deteccao e localizacao de vazamento em dutos de oleo e ou gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Julio R. [MTT Aselco Automacao Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Two concepts are available for leak detection in oil and/or gas pipelines: On-line leak detection system and off-line leak detection technique. The off-line leak detection technique is, usually, portable and does net configure a 'system'. This technique includes hydro-test, acoustic emission of high frequency, tracer of chemical substances, ultrasonic flow meter (UT), thermographic infra-red mapping, electromagnetic offset registration, etc. Since most of those methods requests stop of the system or depend on direct and detailed inspection of the whole monitored piping they are limited to the off-line inspection. In the current days there are only two technologies applied to detect and locate leaks on-line: The acoustic Leak Detection System and the modeling of computerized simulation also called as RTM (Real Time Modeling), RTTM or Mass Balance. There are still other techniques in the market, as acoustic emission, pressure analysis (PPA) beyond other rough techniques, without good results. Even some of these techniques are working without success, they are still used to accomplish with government standards. (author)

  14. Chemical recovery of acidified Bohemian lakes between 1984 and 2012. The role of acid deposition and bark beetle induced forest disturbance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, Filip; Chuman, Tomáš; Majer, V.; Hruška, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 116, 1-3 (2013), s. 83-101 ISSN 0168-2563 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : acidification * nitrogen saturation * aluminium * recovery * Bark beetle * land cover Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2013

  15. Effects of Non Process Elements in the chemical recovery system of paper mills; Effekter av PFG foer integrerade pappersbruk vid indunstning och foerbraenning av bioslam i sodapannan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbom, Johan [AaF Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Wadsborn, Rickard [STFI-Packforsk AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Effluent treatment of pulp and paper mills generates a biological sludge that according to Swedish implementation of EU-directives from 2005 has to be taken care of by incineration or by production of soil for agriculture or ground cover. An alternative way to take care of the sludge is incineration in the recovery boiler. This method is used in two Finish and two Swedish pulp mills with good results. The purpose of this project is to investigate the consequences for integrated pulp and paper mills when the biological sludge is incinerated in the recovery boiler. The biological sludge contents Non Process Elements, NPE, which increase the risks of incrustations in the system and increase the need of make up lime. This study comprises the following NPE: aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, chloride, potassium, manganese, magnesium, iron, copper, barium and calcium. The simulation program WinGEMS 5.0 (Pacific Simulation) was used in the study to predict the levels of NPE in the recovery system of the Kraft mills. Three different pulp and paper mills were selected for the study, Billerud Skaerblacka, ASSI Domaen Froevi and SCA Obbola. The mills are different concerning raw materials, process, degree of own produced pulp and paper products. All three the mills have effluent treatment and use the method of activated sludge that generates a surplus of biological sludge. The results of the study proved that for Skaerblacka mill the method is applicable. For Obbola the prerequisites are somewhat more complicated, the effluent treatment generates considerably higher amount of sludge per ton pulp produced due to the treatment technique and use of waste paper (40 %) for the paper machine. The high input of aluminum with the sludge will give troublesome incrustations of sodium-aluminum-silicate on the heat surfaces in the evaporation plant. To eliminate the aluminum from the system magnesium can be added to the black liquor which will precipitate as the double salt hydrotalcite in

  16. Periphyton changes over 20 years of chemical recovery of Lake Orta, Italy: differential response to perturbation of littoral and pelagic communities

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe MORABITO; Gabriele TARTARI; Rosario MOSELLO; Michèle DE SÈVE; Antonella CATTANEO

    2011-01-01

    Lake Orta, a large Italian subalpine lake, has a long history of industrial pollution by acid, ammonia, and metals. A whole-lake liming treatment in 1989-1990 led to a gradual increase in pH (from 4.4 to 7) and a concomitant decline in ammonia (from 2.5 to 0.05 mg L-1) and metal concentrations (e.g., copper: from 35 to 3 μg L-1). In this study, we examine the response of the littoral zone, in terms of chemistry and periphyton assemblages, to contamination and recovery of Lake Orta. We co...

  17. Ruthenium recovery from acetic acid industrial effluent using chemically stable and high-performance polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-Escherichia coli biomass composite fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sok; Choi, Yoon-E; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The PEI-PSBF was fabricated and used for Ru recovery from industrial effluent. • PEI-PSBF was not swollen nor dissolved in the effluent. • PEI-PSBF showed superior sorption capacity to commercial resins. • Thin fiber type PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in flow-through column. - Abstract: Recovery of precious metal ions from waste effluents is of high concern. In general, ruthenium (Ru) is used in the Cativa process as promoter for carbonylation catalyst and discharged into acetic acid effluent. In the present work, we have designed and developed polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-bacterial biomass composite fiber (PEI-PSBF) to recover Ru from industrial effluent. The sorbent was manufactured by electrostatic attachment of polyethylenimine (PEI) to the surface of polysulfone-biomass composite fiber (PSBF), which was prepared through spinning of the mixture of polysulfone and Escherichia coli biomass in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) into water. Developed PEI-PSBF was highly stable in the acetic acid effluent. The maximum sorption capacity of the developed sorbent PEI-PSBF, coated with PEI (with M.W. of 75,000), was 121.28 ± 13.15 mg/g, which was much higher than those of ion exchange resins, TP214, Amberjet 4200, and M500. The PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in the flow-through column system, showing 120 beds of breakthrough volume.

  18. Ruthenium recovery from acetic acid industrial effluent using chemically stable and high-performance polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-Escherichia coli biomass composite fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sok [Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-E, E-mail: yechoi@korea.ac.kr [Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeoung-Sang, E-mail: ysyun@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • The PEI-PSBF was fabricated and used for Ru recovery from industrial effluent. • PEI-PSBF was not swollen nor dissolved in the effluent. • PEI-PSBF showed superior sorption capacity to commercial resins. • Thin fiber type PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in flow-through column. - Abstract: Recovery of precious metal ions from waste effluents is of high concern. In general, ruthenium (Ru) is used in the Cativa process as promoter for carbonylation catalyst and discharged into acetic acid effluent. In the present work, we have designed and developed polyethylenimine-coated polysulfone-bacterial biomass composite fiber (PEI-PSBF) to recover Ru from industrial effluent. The sorbent was manufactured by electrostatic attachment of polyethylenimine (PEI) to the surface of polysulfone-biomass composite fiber (PSBF), which was prepared through spinning of the mixture of polysulfone and Escherichia coli biomass in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) into water. Developed PEI-PSBF was highly stable in the acetic acid effluent. The maximum sorption capacity of the developed sorbent PEI-PSBF, coated with PEI (with M.W. of 75,000), was 121.28 ± 13.15 mg/g, which was much higher than those of ion exchange resins, TP214, Amberjet 4200, and M500. The PEI-PSBF could be successfully applied in the flow-through column system, showing 120 beds of breakthrough volume.

  19. Enhanced Etching, Surface Damage Recovery, and Submicron Patterning of Hybrid Perovskites using a Chemically Gas-Assisted Focused-Ion Beam for Subwavelength Grating Photonic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Yang, Yang; Ng, Tien Khee; Dursun, Ibrahim; Shi, Dong; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Priante, Davide; Bakr, Osman; Ooi, Boon S.

    2015-01-01

    is challenging, particularly for patterning. Here, we report the direct patterning of perovskites using chemically gas-assisted focused-ion beam (GAFIB) etching with XeF2 and I2 precursors. We demonstrate etching enhancement in addition to controllability

  20. Evaluation of chloride-ion-specific electrodes as in situ chemical sensors for monitoring total chloride concentration in aqueous solutions generated during the recovery of plutonium from molten salts used in plutonium electrorefining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.

    1992-10-01

    Two commercially available chloride-ion-specific electrodes (CLISEs), a solid-state type and a membrane type, were evaluated as potential in situ chemical sensors for determining total chloride ion concentration in mixed sodium chloride/potassium chloride/hydrochloric acid solutions generated during the recovery of plutonium from molten salts used in plutonium electrorefining operations. Because the response of the solid-state CLISE was closer than was the response of the membrane-type CLISE to the theoretical response predicted by the Nernst equation, the solid-state CLISE was selected for further evaluation. A detailed investigation of the characteristics of the chloride system and the corresponding CLISE response to concentration changes suggested four methods by which the CLISE could be used either as a direct, in situ sensor or as an indirect sensor through which an analysis could be performed on-line with a sample extracted from the process solution

  1. Recovery Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kurtz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A. and other secular, spiritual, and religious frameworks of long-term addiction recovery. The present paper explores the varieties of spiritual experience within A.A., with particular reference to the growth of a wing of recovery spirituality promoted within A.A. It is suggested that the essence of secular spirituality is reflected in the experience of beyond (horizontal and vertical transcendence and between (connection and mutuality and in six facets of spirituality (Release, Gratitude, Humility, Tolerance, Forgiveness, and a Sense of Being-at-home shared across religious, spiritual, and secular pathways of addiction recovery. The growing varieties of A.A. spirituality (spanning the “Christianizers” and “Seculizers” reflect A.A.’s adaptation to the larger diversification of religious experience and the growing secularization of spirituality across the cultural contexts within which A.A. is nested.

  2. Preference of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) to single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and activated carbon for preparing silica nanohybrid pickering emulsion for chemical enhanced oil recovery (C-EOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AfzaliTabar, M. [Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University Branch of Tehran North, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alaei, M., E-mail: alaiem@ripi.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranjineh Khojasteh, R.; Motiee, F. [Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University Branch of Tehran North, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, A.M. [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the best nano hybrid that can be used as a Pickering emulsion Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (C-EOR). Therefore, we have prepared different carbon structures nano hybrids with SiO{sub 2} nano particles with different weight percent using sol-gel method. The as-prepared nano materials were characterized with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Pickering emulsions of these nanohybrids were prepared at pH=7 in ambient temperature and with distilled water. Stability of the mentioned Pickering emulsions was controlled for one month. Emulsion phase morphology was investigated using optical microscopic imaging. Evaluation results demonstrated that the best sample is the 70% MWCNT/SiO{sub 2} nanohybrid. Stability of the selected nanohybrid (70% MWCNT/SiO{sub 2} nanohybrid) was investigated by alteration of salinity, pH and temperature. Results showed that the mentioned Pickering emulsion has very good stability at 0.1%, 1% salinity, moderate and high temperature (25 °C and 90 °C) and neutral and alkaline pH (7, 10) that is suitable for the oil reservoirs conditions. The effect of the related nano fluid on the wettability of carbonate rock was investigated by measuring the contact angle and interfacial tension. Results show that the nanofluid could significantly change the wettability of the carbonate rock from oil wet to water wet and can decrease the interfacial tension. Therefore, the 70% MWCNT/SiO{sub 2} nanohybrid Pickering emulsion can be used for Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (C-EOR).

  3. Preference of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) to single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and activated carbon for preparing silica nanohybrid pickering emulsion for chemical enhanced oil recovery (C-EOR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AfzaliTabar, M.; Alaei, M.; Ranjineh Khojasteh, R.; Motiee, F.; Rashidi, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the best nano hybrid that can be used as a Pickering emulsion Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (C-EOR). Therefore, we have prepared different carbon structures nano hybrids with SiO 2 nano particles with different weight percent using sol-gel method. The as-prepared nano materials were characterized with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Pickering emulsions of these nanohybrids were prepared at pH=7 in ambient temperature and with distilled water. Stability of the mentioned Pickering emulsions was controlled for one month. Emulsion phase morphology was investigated using optical microscopic imaging. Evaluation results demonstrated that the best sample is the 70% MWCNT/SiO 2 nanohybrid. Stability of the selected nanohybrid (70% MWCNT/SiO 2 nanohybrid) was investigated by alteration of salinity, pH and temperature. Results showed that the mentioned Pickering emulsion has very good stability at 0.1%, 1% salinity, moderate and high temperature (25 °C and 90 °C) and neutral and alkaline pH (7, 10) that is suitable for the oil reservoirs conditions. The effect of the related nano fluid on the wettability of carbonate rock was investigated by measuring the contact angle and interfacial tension. Results show that the nanofluid could significantly change the wettability of the carbonate rock from oil wet to water wet and can decrease the interfacial tension. Therefore, the 70% MWCNT/SiO 2 nanohybrid Pickering emulsion can be used for Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (C-EOR).

  4. Safety aspects in rare earths recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of rare earths involves mining of beach sands, mineral separation to obtain monazite and its chemical processing to obtain rare earth composites. The composites are then subjected to further chemical treatment to obtain individual rare earths. Although the separated out rare earths are not radioactive, the process for recovery of rare earths involve both radiological as well as conventional hazards. This paper highlights the safety aspects in the mining, mineral separation and chemical processing of monazite to obtain rare earths

  5. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991 small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility which processes nuclear material in an economical fashion. The material dissolved in this facility was uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid. The paper explained the release of fission material, and the decontamination and recovery of the fuel material. The safety and protection procedures were also discussed. Also described was the chemical analysis which was used to speculate the most probable cause of the explosion. (MB)

  6. Enhanced Etching, Surface Damage Recovery, and Submicron Patterning of Hybrid Perovskites using a Chemically Gas-Assisted Focused-Ion Beam for Subwavelength Grating Photonic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2015-12-22

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted attention for photonic device applications. However, owing to the sensitivity of organic moieties to solvents and temperature, device processing is challenging, particularly for patterning. Here, we report the direct patterning of perovskites using chemically gas-assisted focused-ion beam (GAFIB) etching with XeF2 and I2 precursors. We demonstrate etching enhancement in addition to controllability and marginal surface damage compared to focused-ion beam (FIB) etching without precursors. Utilizing the GAFIB etching, we fabricated a uniform and periodic submicron perovskite subwavelength grating (SWG) absorber with broadband absorption and nanoscale precision. Our results demonstrate the use of FIB as a submicron patterning tool and a means of providing surface treatment (after FIB patterning to minimize optical loss) for perovskite photonic nanostructures. The SWG absorber can be patterned on perovskite solar cells to enhance the device efficiency through increasing light trapping and absorption.

  7. Experimental design and optimization of leaching process for recovery of valuable chemical elements (U, La, V, Mo, Yb and Th) from low-grade uranium ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska-Koltuniewicz, Grażyna; Herdzik-Koniecko, Irena; Cojocaru, Corneliu; Chajduk, Ewelina

    2014-06-30

    The paper deals with experimental design and optimization of leaching process of uranium and associated metals from low-grade, Polish ores. The chemical elements of interest for extraction from the ore were U, La, V, Mo, Yb and Th. Sulphuric acid has been used as leaching reagent. Based on the design of experiments the second-order regression models have been constructed to approximate the leaching efficiency of elements. The graphical illustrations using 3-D surface plots have been employed in order to identify the main, quadratic and interaction effects of the factors. The multi-objective optimization method based on desirability approach has been applied in this study. The optimum condition have been determined as P=5 bar, T=120 °C and t=90 min. Under these optimal conditions, the overall extraction performance is 81.43% (for U), 64.24% (for La), 98.38% (for V), 43.69% (for Yb) and 76.89% (for Mo) and 97.00% (for Th). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Processing of spent Ni-MH batteries for the recovery of cobalt, nickel and rare earth elements bearing materials by means of a chemical and electrochemical sequential process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvasto, P.; Orta Rodríguez, R.; Blanco, S.

    2016-02-01

    Rechargeable Ni-MH batteries contain strategic metal values which are worth to be recovered. In the present work, a preliminary sequential chemical and electrochemical procedure is proposed, in order to reclaim materials bearing Ni, Co and rare earth elements (REE) from Ni-MH spent batteries. Initially, spent batteries are disassembled to separate the electrode materials (anode and cathode), which are then leached with an aqueous solution of 5w% sulphuric acid. The metal content of this solution is checked by atomic absorption spectrometry techniques. The obtained solution is pH-adjusted (with NaOH), until pH is between 4.0 and 4.3; then, it is heated up to 70°C to precipitate a rare earth elements sulphate (Nd, La, Pr, Ce), as determined by means of x-ray fluorescence techniques. The solids-free solution is then electrolyzed, in order to recover a Ni-Co alloy. The electrolysis conditions were established through a cyclic voltammetry technique.

  9. Damage Recovery in Carrara Marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G.; Brantut, N.; Mitchell, T. M.; Meredith, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the effect of confining pressure on the recovery of elastic wave velocities following deformation episodes in Carrara Marble. Dry Carrara Marble cores were deformed in the ductile regime (Pc = 40 MPa) up to 3% axial strain. After deformation, samples were held at constant stress conditions for extended periods of time (5-8 days) whilst continuously recording volumetric strain and seismic wave velocities. The velocity data were used to invert for microcrack densities using an effective medium approach. Finally, thin sections were produced to characterise the microstructures after recovery. During deformation, elastic wave speeds decreased with increasing strain by more than 30% of the value for the intact rock due to the formation of distributed microcracks. Under constant hydrostatic pressure, wave speeds progressively recovered 12-90% of the initial drop, depending on the applied confining pressure. In contrast, the strain recovery (deformation towards the initial shape of the sample) during holding time is negligible (of the order of 10-4). Tests performed under nonhydrostatic (triaxial) stress conditions during recovery showed some time-dependent creep deformation together with very significant recovery of wave velocities. The recovery is interpreted as a progressive reduction in crack density within the sample. The process is highly dependent on confining pressure, which favours it. We propose that the driving process for wave speed recovery is the time-dependent increase of contact area between crack surfaces due to the formation and growth of asperity contacts. We develop a micromechanical model for crack closure driven by asperity creep, which shows a good fit to the experimental data. Most of the recovery is achieved in the initial few hours, implying it is the fastest recovery or healing process, and thus occurs prior to any chemical healing or mineral precipitation. Our data corroborate field observations of post-seismic fault behavior.

  10. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  11. Combustion for Enhanced Recovery of Light Oil at Medium Pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshnevis Gargar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Using conventional production methods, recovery percentages from oil reservoirs range from 5% for difficult oil to 50% for light oil in highly permeable homogeneous reservoirs. To increase the oil recovery factor, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are used. We distinguish EOR that uses chemical

  12. Ecological Recovery Potential of Freshwater Organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergs, André; Classen, Silke; Strauss, Tido

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contaminants released into the in the environment may have adverse effects on (non-target) species, populations and communities. The return of a stressed system to its pre-disturbance or other reference state, i.e. the ecological recovery, may depend on various factors related...... serve as a decision criterion in the environmental risk assessment of chemical stressors remains to be evaluated. For a generic consideration of recovery in the risk assessment of chemicals, we reviewed case studies of natural and artificial aquatic systems and evaluate five aspects that might cause...... to the affected taxon, the ecosystem of concern and the type of stressor with consequences for the assessment and management of risks associated with chemical contaminants. Whereas the effects caused by short-term exposure might be acceptable to some extent, the conditions under which ecological recovery can...

  13. Lignin recovery. A resource to value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbardi, P.; Cardinale, G.; Demichele, M.; Nanna, F.; Viggiano, D.; Bonini, C.; D'Alessio, L.; D'Auria, M.; Teghil, R.; Tofani, D.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper, the effects of the steam explosion (ES) pretreatment conditions on recovery and chemical structure of wheat straw lignin are reported. The experimental data of lignin recovery by caustic extraction, followed by acid precipitation, have been interpolated to obtain the dependence on the time and temperature of SE. The lignin has been characterised by using several methods. Preliminary results on the synthesis of copolymers lignin-styrene are also reported [it

  14. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Richard

    2009-07-01

    The recovery model refers to subjective experiences of optimism, empowerment and interpersonal support, and to a focus on collaborative treatment approaches, finding productive roles for user/consumers, peer support and reducing stigma. The model is influencing service development around the world. This review will assess whether optimism about outcome from serious mental illness and other tenets of the recovery model are borne out by recent research. Remission of symptoms has been precisely defined, but the definition of 'recovery' is a more diffuse concept that includes such factors as being productive and functioning independently. Recent research and a large, earlier body of data suggest that optimism about outcome from schizophrenia is justified. A substantial proportion of people with the illness will recover completely and many more will regain good social functioning. Outcome is better for people in the developing world. Mortality for people with schizophrenia is increasing but is lower in the developing world. Working appears to help people recover from schizophrenia, and recent advances in vocational rehabilitation have been shown to be effective in countries with differing economies and labor markets. A growing body of research supports the concept that empowerment is an important component of the recovery process. Key tenets of the recovery model - optimism about recovery from schizophrenia, the importance of access to employment and the value of empowerment of user/consumers in the recovery process - are supported by the scientific research. Attempts to reduce the internalized stigma of mental illness should enhance the recovery process.

  15. Optimization-based design of waste heat recovery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano

    /or selected. This dissertation focuses on the chemical product and process systems used for waste heat recovery. Here, chemical products are working fluids, which are under continuous development and screening to fulfill regulatory environmental protection and safe operation requirements. Furthermore......, for the recovery of low-grade waste heat, new fluids and processes are needed to make the recovery technically and economically feasible. As the chemical product is influential in the design of the process system, the design of novel chemical products must be considered with the process system. Currently, state...... product and process system in terms of efficiency and sustainability. Today, some of the most important chemical product design problems are solvents and working fluids. Solvents are a vital part in the recovery of valuable resources in separation processes or waste water treatment. Working fluids...

  16. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  17. Water Recovery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is advancing environmental control and life support systems water recovery technologies to support human exploration beyond low...

  18. EPA Recovery Mapper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  19. Method for the recovery of Cr and Co species from effluents using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method for the recovery of Cr and Co species from effluents using agricultural adsorbent ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... recovery of Cr and Co species in microbial-treated industrial wastewater using agricultural ...

  20. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  1. Improving sample recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the tasks, i.e., tests, studies, external support and modifications planned to increase the recovery of the recovery of the waste tank contents using combinations of improved techniques, equipment, knowledge, experience and testing to better the recovery rates presently being experienced

  2. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  3. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  4. Recovery of agricultural nutrients from biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Yang, Yu; McNamara, Patrick J; Mayer, Brooke K

    2016-09-01

    This review lays the foundation for why nutrient recovery must be a key consideration in design and operation of biorefineries and comprehensively reviews technologies that can be used to recover an array of nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or potassium-rich products of relevance to agricultural applications. Recovery of these products using combinations of physical, chemical, and biological operations will promote sustainability at biorefineries by converting low-value biomass (particularly waste material) into a portfolio of higher-value products. These products can include a natural partnering of traditional biorefinery outputs such as biofuels and chemicals together with nutrient-rich fertilizers. Nutrient recovery not only adds an additional marketable biorefinery product, but also avoids the negative consequences of eutrophication, and helps to close anthropogenic nutrient cycles, thereby providing an alternative to current unsustainable approaches to fertilizer production, which are energy-intensive and reliant on nonrenewable natural resource extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Chemical peels Overview Chemical peels: Overview Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do ... Overview Chemical peels: FAQs Chemical peels: Preparation FAQs Chemical peels: FAQs To help you decide whether this ...

  6. Recovery and money management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen; Wilber, Charles; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-06-01

    Social recovery and external money management are important approaches in contemporary mental health care, but little research has been done on the relationship between the two or on application of recovery principles to money management for people at risk of being assigned a representative payee or conservator. Out of 49 total qualitative interviews, 25 transcripts with persons receiving Social Security insurance or Social Security disability insurance who were at risk of being assigned a money manager were analyzed to assess the presence of recognized recovery themes. The recovery principles of self-direction and responsibility were strong themes in participant comments related to money management. Money management interventions should incorporate peoples' recovery-related motivations to acquire financial management skills as a means to direct and assume responsibility for one's finances. Staff involved in money management should receive training to support client's recovery-related goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Tenth oil recovery conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleeper, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  8. Use of chemically treated carbon dioxide. ; Separation, recovery and fixation of carbon dioxide from large scale origination. Nisanka tanso no kagaku teki shori riyo; Nisanka tanso no daikibo hasseigen kara no bunri kaishu to koteika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M. (National Research Inst. for Pollution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-02-15

    Tehcnology for separation, recovery and fixation of CO {sub 2} was stated. In an absorption method used as a separating recovery method, CO {sub 2} in the waste gas is absorbed into a solution such as amine, heated and recovered. In an adsorption method, the CO {sub 2} is adsorbed by adsorbent such as zeolite, and recovered either by reduction of pressure or by heating. In a distillation method, the CO {sub 2} is distilled under low temperature and high pressure. In a membrane separation method, the difference of the membrane transmisison speed is used. In a fixation technology, the CO {sub 2} disposed into the ocean is liquefied by compression and forced into the deep sea through pipings. The liquid CO {sub 2} has greater density than water under 200 to 300 atmospheric pressure and clathrate is produced over the interface between the sea water and the liquid CO {sub 2} but the influence on the environment should be evaluated. As a means of recycling, synthesis of methanol or hydrocarbon with hydrogen contacting can be considered, and if such synthesis is used, fossil fuel can be reduced. As the source of the hydrogen, a method for combining the electrolysis of water and energy such as the sun and hydraulic power which do not generate CO {sub 2}. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Illness management and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Helle Stentoft; Waldemar, Anna Kristine; Korsbek, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a psychosocial intervention with a recovery-oriented approach. The program has been evaluated in different settings; however evidence for the effects of IMR is still deficient. The aim of this trial was to investigate the benefits and harms...

  10. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  11. Chemical and petrochemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2018-03-01

    The potential sources of various metals in chemical and petrochemical processes are discussed. Special emphasis is put on the catalysts used in the industry. Their main applications, compositions, especially metal contents are presented both for fresh and spent ones. The focus is on the main types of metals used in catalysts: the platinum-group metals, the rare-earth elements, and the variety of transition metals. The analysis suggested that chemical and petrochemical sectors can be considered as the secondary source of metals. Because the utilization of spent refinery catalysts for metal recovery is potentially viable, different methods were applied. The conventional approaches used in metal reclamation as hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, as well as new methods include bioleaching, were described. Some industrial solutions for metal recovery from spent solution were also presented.

  12. Biotechnology in petroleum recovery. The microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Biotechnology has played a significant role in enhancing crude oil recovery from the depleted oil reservoirs to solve stagnant petroleum production, after a three-stage recovery process employing mechanical, physical and chemical methods. Biotechnologically enhanced oil recovery processes, known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), involve stimulating indigenous reservoir microbes or injecting specially selected consortia of natural bacteria into the reservoir to produce specific metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. This also involves flooding with oil recovery agents produced ex situ by industrial or pilot scale fermentation. This paper essentially reviews the operating mechanisms and the progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products. Improvement in oil recovery by injecting solvents and gases or by energizing the reservoir microflora to produce them in situ for carbonate rock dissolution and reservoir re-pressurization has been enunciated. The role of biosurfactants in oil mobilization through emulsification and that of biopolymers for selective plugging of oil-depleted zones and for biofilm formation have been delineated. The spoil sport played by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in MEOR has also been briefly reviewed. The importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed. The results of some laboratory studies and worldwide field trials applying ex situ and in situ MEOR technologies were compiled and interpreted. However, the potential of the MEOR technologies has not been fully realized due to poor yield of the useful microbial metabolic products, growth inhibition by accumulated toxic metabolites and longer time of incubation. A complete evaluation and assessment of MEOR from an engineering standpoint based on economics, applicability and performance is required to further

  13. Isolation and recovery of microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious environmental impacts caused by plastic wastes have attracted worldwide concern. The biobased and biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA appears to be one of the potential candidates to replace some conventional plastics. However, high production cost of PHAs has limited their market penetration. The major cost absorbing factors are the upstream fermentation processes and the downstream PHA recovery technologies. The latter significantly affects the overall process economics. Various recovery technologies have been proposed and studied in small scales in the laboratory as well as in industrial scales. These include solvent extraction, chemical digestion, enzymatic treatment and mechanical disruption, supercritical fluid disruption, flotation techniques, use of gamma irradiation and aqueous two-phase system. This paper reviews all the recovery methods known to date and compares their efficiency and the quality of the resulting PHA. Some of the large-scale production of PHA and the strategies employed to reduce the production cost are also discussed.

  14. Oil companies push in-situ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.

    1977-01-01

    Possibly, a third Athabaska tar-sand plant using surface mining will be built in the 1980's, but future development beyond that point will probably depend on in-situ recovery. The discussion of in-situ recovery focusses on the effect it will have on the Canadian chemical industry, for example, the market for sodium hydroxide. To obtain the highest yields of oil from bitumen, an external source of hydrogen is necessary; for example Syncrude imports natural gas to make hydrogen for desulphurization. Gasification of coal is a possible source of hydrogen. Research on hydrocracking is progressing. Use of a prototype CANDU OCR reactor to raise the hot steam necessary for in-situ recovery has been suggested. Venezuela is interested in Canadian upgrading technology. (N.D.H.)

  15. Energy-neutral sustainable nutrient recovery incorporated with the wastewater purification process in an enlarged microbial nutrient recovery cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongya; Gao, Yifan; Hou, Dianxun; Zuo, Kuichang; Chen, Xi; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Huang, Xia

    2018-04-01

    Recovery of nutrient resources from the wastewater is now an inevitable strategy to maintain the supply of both nutrient and water for our huge population. While the intensive energy consumption in conventional nutrient recovery technologies still remained as the bottleneck towards the sustainable nutrient recycle. This study proposed an enlarged microbial nutrient recovery cell (EMNRC) which was powered by the energy contained in wastewater and achieved multi-cycle nutrient recovery incorporated with in situ wastewater treatment. With the optimal recovery solution of 3 g/L NaCl and the optimal volume ratio of wastewater to recovery solution of 10:1, >89% of phosphorus and >62% of ammonium nitrogen were recovered into struvite. An extremely low water input ratio of water. It was proved the EMNRC system was a promising technology which could utilize the chemical energy contained in wastewater itself and energy-neutrally recover nutrient during the continuous wastewater purification process.

  16. Energy recovery from wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefanis, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper are reported analysis of some energy recovery form wastes plants. In this work are considered materials and energy flows, environmental impacts and related treatment costs and financial resources [it

  17. Recovery Audit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Recovery Audit Programs mission is to identify and correct Medicare improper payments through the efficient detection and collection of overpayments made on...

  18. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  19. Spatially Dispersed Employee Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders; Torfadóttir, Embla

    2014-01-01

    Employee recovery addresses either employee well-being or management's practices in aiding employees in recovering themselves following a service failure. This paper surveys the cabin crew at a small, European, low-cost carrier and investigates employees' perceptions of management practices to aid...... personnel achieve service recovery. Employee recovery within service research often focuses on front-line employees that work in a fixed location, however a contribution to the field is made by investigating the recovery of spatially dispersed personnel, such as operational personnel in the transport sector......, who have a work place away from a fixed or central location and have minimal management contact. Results suggest that the support employees receive from management, such as recognition, information sharing, training, and strategic awareness are all important for spatially dispersed front...

  20. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  1. Incineration with energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, T.G.

    1986-02-01

    Motherwell Bridge Tacol Ltd. operate a 'Licence Agreement' with Deutsche Babcock Anlagen of Krefeld, West Germany, for the construction of Municipal Refuse Incineration plant and Industrial Waste plant with or without the incorporation of waste heat recovery equipment. The construction in the UK of a number of large incineration plants incorporating the roller grate incinerator unit is discussed. The historical background, combustion process, capacity, grate details, refuse analysis and use as fuel, heat recovery and costs are outlined.

  2. Techno-economic analysis of resource recovery technologies for wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Matafome, Beatriz; Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina

    2017-01-01

    resource-recovery treatment units: (a) a chemical precipitation process, for recovery of iron phosphate fertilizer; (b) the Exelys technology, for increased biogas production; and, (c) the Phosnix technology, for recovery of struvite fertilizer. Seven upgrade strategies/flowsheets employing different...... upgrading combinations involving chemical precipitation and Exelys technologies were not found economical for the given plant. Sensitivity analyses on the economic evaluation criteria have demonstrated that the results obtained are robust against uncertainties in influent wastewater characteristics...

  3. Organisational Pattern Driven Recovery Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomo, Valentina Di; Presenza, Domenico; Riccucci, Carlo

    The process of reaction to system failures and security attacks is strongly influenced by its infrastructural, procedural and organisational settings. Analysis of reaction procedures and practices from different domains (Air Traffic Management, Response to Computer Security Incident, Response to emergencies, recovery in Chemical Process Industry) highlight three key requirements for this activity: smooth collaboration and coordination among responders, accurate monitoring and management of resources and ability to adapt pre-established reaction plans to the actual context. The SERENITY Reaction Mechanisms (SRM) is the subsystem of the SERENITY Run-time Framework aimed to provide SERENITY aware AmI settings (i.e. socio-technical systems with highly distributed dynamic services) with functionalities to implement applications specific reaction strategies. The SRM uses SERENITY Organisational S&D Patterns as run-time models to drive these three key functionalities.

  4. ICPP custom dissolver explosion recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Hawk, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the recovery from the February 9, 1991, small scale explosion in a custom processing dissolver at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) a Department of Energy facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The custom processing facility is a limited production area designed to recover unirradiated uranium fuel. A small amount of the nuclear material received and stored at the ICPP is unique and incompatible with the major head end dissolution processes. Custom processing is a small scale dissolution facility for processing these materials in an economical fashion in the CPP-627 hot chemistry laboratory. Two glass dissolvers were contained in a large walk in hood area. Utilities for dissolution and connections to the major ICPP uranium separation facility were provided. The fuel processing operations during this campaign involved dissolving uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranium/fissium alloy in nitric acid

  5. Recovery of noble metals from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenson, G.A.; Platt, A.M.; Mellinger, G.B.; Bjorklund, W.J.

    1982-11-01

    Scoping studies were started in 1979 to develop a cost-effective, waste-management-compatible process to extract noble metals from fission products. The process, involving the reaction with glassmelting chemicals, a metal oxide (PbO), and a reducing agent (charcoal), was demonstrated for recovering noble metals from simulated high-level waste oxides. The process has now been demonstrated on a laboratory scale (100 g) using irradiated fuels. Recoveries in the recovered lead averaged 80% for Pd, 60% for Rh, and 14% Ru. The resulting glass product was homogeneous in appearance, and the chemical durability was comparable to other waste oxides

  6. The structure and behavior of salts in kraft recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, R.; Badoi, R.D.; Enestam, S. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The melting behavior in the salt system (Na,K)(CO{sub 3},SO{sub 4},S,Cl,OH) is investigated by laboratory methods to enhance and further develop a chemical model for salt mixtures with compositions relevant for recovery boilers. The model, based on both literature data and experimental work can be used as (a) submodel in models for the over-all chemistry in recovery boilers and to estimate (b) deposit formation on heat transfer surfaces (fouling), (c) the melting properties of the fly ash, and (d) the smelt bed in recovery boilers. Experimental techniques used are thermal analysis, high temperature microscopy` and scanning electron microscopy. The model is implemented in a global calculation model which can handle both gas phases and condensed phases in the recovery boiler. The model gives a detailed description of the chemical reactions involved in the fume and dust formation in different locations of the flue gas channel in the boiler. (orig.)

  7. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    knowledge and data retrieved from the literature. Finally, the information presented in this opinion was reviewed by experts from the relevant EFSA Panels, European risk assessment bodies and through an open consultation requesting input from stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed to address...... recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...

  8. Recovery of personal neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Guariglia, Cecilia; Matano, Alessandro; Paolucci, Stefano; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Extrapersonal unilateral spatial neglect after stroke is associated to a poor rehabilitation outcome. Minor attention has been paid to the recovery of personal neglect, to its relationship with the recovery of extrapersonal neglect and of independency in activities of daily living. The present study aims at evaluating whether there is an association between recovery of extrapersonal and personal neglect. The secondary aim was to investigate if personal neglect may affect the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation in patients with subacute stroke. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation Hospital in Rome, Italy, inpatients. A sample of 49 patients with unilateral spatial neglect resulting from right ischemic cerebral infarction was enrolled in this study, divided into three subgroups according to the presence and the degree of personal neglect, and evaluated pre and postneurorehabilitation. Personal neglect was evaluated using Zoccolotti and Judica's Scale, extrapersonal neglect using Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Rivermead Mobility Index, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. Results showed the following: 1) recovery of personal neglect was not significantly correlated with that of extrapersonal neglect, despite both the disorders were ameliorated after a "non-specific" rehabilitation treatment; 2) personal neglect per se was not an additional negative prognostic factor in the rehabilitation findings. Our results suggested that the recoveries of the two types of neglect are independent from each other, and that the presence of personal neglect does not imply significant additional problems to the functional outcomes. Our study highlighted the need of novel tools to assess the presence and to improve the recovery of personal neglect.

  9. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...

  10. Orimulsion containment and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerville, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need for examination of Orimulsion fuel and its spill behaviour in the light of the anticipated increase in consumption of this fuel which comprises bitumen dispersed in water with addition of a small amount of surfactant. The behaviour and fate of Orimulsion at sea, and observations from experimental and sea trials are examined. The identification of spill control techniques, spill detection, the predictive modeling of the spill and response, sub-surface plume measurement, and containment and deflection are considered. Recovery of the bitumen produced from an Orimulsion spill, combined containment and recovery, dispersed Orimulsion, and beach cleaning are addressed. The properties of Orimulsion are tabulated. (UK)

  11. Recovery of vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, C.P.; Clark, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to the recovery of vanadium oxide from molten metal. The invention provides a method for recovering vanadium oxide from molten metal, which includes passing oxygen and at least one coolant gas or shroud into the molten metal by way of at least one elongate lance. The invention also provides an arrangement for the recovery of vanadium oxide from molten metal, which includes at least one elongate lance extending into the molten metal. The lance is provided with at least one elongate bore extending therethrough. Means are provided to allow at least oxygen and at least one coolant gas to pass through the lance and into the molten metal

  12. Ventilation with heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...... and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain...

  13. JLAB Hurricane recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Hutton; D. Arenius; J. Benesch; S. Chattopadhyay; E. F. Daly; O. Garza; R. Kazimi; R. Lauzi; L. Merminga; W. Merz; R. Nelson; W. Oren; M. Poelker; P. Powers; J. Preble; V. Ganni; C. R. Reece; R. Rimmer; M. Spata; S. Suhring

    2004-01-01

    Hurricane Isabel, originally a Category 5 storm, arrived at Jefferson Lab on September 18, 2003 with winds of only 75 mph, creating little direct damage to the infrastructure. However, electric power was lost for four days allowing the superconducting cryomodules to warm up and causing a total loss of the liquid helium. The subsequent recovery of the cryomodules and the impact of the considerable amount of opportunistic preventive maintenance provides important lessons for all accelerator complexes, not only those with superconducting elements. The details of how the recovery process was structured and the resulting improvement in accelerator availability will be discussed in detail

  14. Olefin recovery from FCC off-gas can pay off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahn, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on olefins recovery from refinery FCC offgas streams which offers an attractive cash flow from olefins from a tail-gas stream that has typically been consumed as refinery fuel. Such recovery schemes can be employed in refineries or olefins plants, and can be tailored to fit individual requirements. Mobil Chemical Co. has operated such a dephlegmator-based off-gas recovery unit at its Beaumont, Tex., olefin plant since 1987. It reported that the project was paid out within 11 months of initial start-up

  15. Feasibility of recovery boiler in paper and pulp industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.

    2010-01-01

    in this paper feasibility of recovery boiler in terms of economics and environmental impacts in studied. Recovery boilers are employed in the pulp and paper industry where the cooking agent is recovered by burning black liquor. Cooking agent is exhausted due to the absorption of lignin (a burnable component) in cooking agent in the process of straw cooking. The process of recovery boiler is to remove lignin by combustion from black liquor, and heat is produced during the combustion of lignin which is used to produce steam. Recovery boiler is economical as it is recovering valuable chemicals and steam is produced as a byproduct. Steam from recovery boiler is also used for concentrating weak black liquor to concentrated black liquor recovering 50% of the utility water being used at the plant. The regenerated water in the form of foul condensate is reused in the process. The recovery of hazardous chemicals also reduces load of environmental pollution. Which otherwise can pollute the water reservoirs, and regeneration of water makes it environmentally friendly plant. Construction and challenges in operation of recovery boiler such as smelt-water explosion are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  16. Behaviour Recovery. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Bill

    2004-01-01

    This second edition of Behaviour Recovery puts emphasis on teaching behaviour concerning children with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). These children have many factors in their lives that affect their behaviour over which schools have limited control. This book acknowledges the challenge and explores the practical realities, options and…

  17. Oil spill recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.; Cooper, W.; Nee, V.; Nigim, H.

    1992-01-01

    Current deficiencies in oil spill cleanup processes have resulted in research and development of new cleanup technologies at the University of Notre Dame. Emphasis on reducing, reusing and recycling equipment and waste at a cleanup site has prompted advances in oil recovery technology as well as improvement in sorbent materials. (author)

  18. Heat Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Ball Metal's design of ducting and controls for series of roof top heat exchangers was inspired by Tech Briefs. Heat exchangers are installed on eight press and coating lines used to decorate sheet metal. The heat recovery system provides an estimated energy savings of more than $250,000 per year.

  19. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  20. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Sludge recovery machine comprising a hollow centrifuge, a vertical pipe for feeding in a liquid containing sludge and a sliding rake pressing against the internal wall of the centrifuge to dislodge and move the sludge, a power drive for spinning the centrifuge at high speed and a rotating drying table to take the sludge and dry it [fr

  1. Collegiate Recovery Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kitty S.; Kimball, Thomas G.; Casiraghi, Ann M.; Maison, Sara J.

    2014-01-01

    More than ever, people are seeking substance use disorder treatment during the adolescent and young adult stages of development. Developmentally, many of these young adults new to recovery are in the process of making career decisions that may require attendance at a college or university. However, the collegiate environment is not conducive to a…

  2. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more ...

  3. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IMTECH),. Chandigarh. Praveen Kumar is pursuing his PhD in chemical dynamics at. Panjab University,. Chandigarh. Keywords. Chemical oscillations, autoca-. talYSis, Lotka-Volterra model, bistability, hysteresis, Briggs-. Rauscher reaction.

  4. Tracer monitoring of enhanced oil recovery projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleven R.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In enhanced oil recovery (EOR, chemicals are injected into the oil reservoir, either to increase macroscopic sweep efficiency, or to reduce remaining oil saturation in swept zones. Tracers can be used to identify reservoirs that are specifically suited for EOR operations. Injection of a selection of partitioning tracers, combined with frequent sample analysis of produced fluids, provides information suited for estimation of residual oil saturation. Tracers can also be used to evaluate and optimize the application of EOR chemicals in the reservoir. Suitable tracers will follow the EOR chemicals and assist in evaluation of retention, degradation or trapping. In addition to field applications, tracers also have a large potential as a tool to perform mechanistic studies of EOR chemicals in laboratory experiments. By labelling EOR chemicals with radioactive isotopes of elements such as H, C and S, detailed studies of transport mechanisms can be carried out. Co-injection of labelled compounds in dynamic flooding experiments in porous media will give information about retention or separation of the unique compounds constituting the chemical formulation. Separation of such compounds may be detrimental to obtaining the EOR effect expected. The paper gives new information of specific methods, and discusses current status for use of tracers in EOR operations.

  5. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  6. Chemical ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasivirta, J.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses risk assessment, chemical cycles, structure-activity relations, organohalogens, oil residues, mercury, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals, and emissions from the forestry industry. Topics include: Cycles of chemicals in the environment. Rick assessment and management, strucuture and toxicity, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals in environment, interpretation of the environmental analysis results, mercury in the environment, organohalogen compounds in the environment, emissions from forestry industry, oil residues in the environment: oil spills in the marine environment

  7. Nuclear industry - challenges in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.; Balu, K.; Garg, R.K.; Murthy, L.G.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Rao, M.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1978-01-01

    As chemical engineering processes and operations are closely involved in many areas of nuclear industry, the chemical engineer has a vital role to play in its growth and development. An account of the major achievements of the Indian chemical engineers in this field is given with view of impressing upon the faculty members of the Indian universities the need for taking appropriate steps to prepare chemical engineers suitable for nuclear industry. Some of the major achievements of the Indian chemical engineers in this field are : (1) separation of useful minerals from beach sand, (2) preparation of thorium nitrate of nuclear purity from monazite, (3) processing of zircon sand to obtain nuclear grade zirconium and its separation from hafnium to obtain zirconium metal sponge, (4) recovery of uranium from copper tailings, (5) economic recovery of nuclear grade uranium from low grade uranium ores found in India, (6) fuel reprocessing, (7) chemical processing of both low and high level radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  8. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  9. A Bridge to Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Loya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual violence can trigger adverse economic events for survivors, including increased expenses and decreased earnings. Using interview data, this exploratory study examines how access to assets (liquid assets, familial financial assistance, and homeownership affects survivors’ economic well-being during recovery. In keeping with asset theory, liquid assets and familial assistance can help offset post-assault expenses and facilitate access to services. Homeownership, meanwhile, appears to have mixed effects on survivors’ economic well-being. These findings suggest that the economic costs of sexual violence can burden survivors with fewer financial resources more heavily than those who own significant assets. As such, these findings shift the focus toward a dimension of inequality in recovery from sexual violence that is often overlooked in research and that may have implications for public policy and victim services.

  10. Recovery of uranium from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabushi, Iwao; Kobuke, Yoshiaki

    1984-01-01

    The present status of technology for the recovery of uranium has been reviewed. Adsorbent qualities were discussed in terms of three important criteria: adsorption rate, equilibrium adsorption and chemical as well as physical stability. It was elucidated that a significant improvement of the adsorption rate is most important. Efforts were made to clarify factors influencing the adsorption rate. A method to treat a tremendous amount of sea water is of much importance as well. Pumping-up and direct use of sea currents were compared with each other. It has been emphasized that the active utilization of the various advantages of the latter method is crucial for the realization of the recovery project. The physical capability of the method was illustrated. Some composite systems with electric power generation plants were also discussed. (author)

  11. Recovery of transuranics from process residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Gray, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Process residues are generated at both the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during aqueous chemical and pyrochemical operations. Frequently, process operations will result in either impure products or produce residues sufficiently contaminated with transuranics to be nondiscardable as waste. Purification and recovery flowsheets for process residues have been developed to generate solutions compatible with subsequent Purex operations and either solid or liquid waste suitable for disposal. The ''scrub alloy'' and the ''anode heel alloy'' are examples of materials generated at RFP which have been processed at SRP using the developed recovery flowsheets. Examples of process residues being generated at SRP for which flowsheets are under development include LECO crucibles and alpha-contaminated hydraulic oil

  12. Enhanced oil recovery: an update review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, V.; Manrique, E.

    2010-01-01

    With the decline in oil discoveries during the last decades it is believed that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technologies will play a key role to meet the energy demand in years to come. This paper presents a comprehensive review of EOR status and opportunities to increase final recovery factors in reservoirs ranging from extra heavy oil to gas condensate. Specifically, the paper discusses EOR status and opportunities organized by reservoir lithology (sandstone and carbonates formations and turbiditic reservoirs to a lesser extent) and offshore and onshore fields. Risk and rewards of EOR methods including growing trends in recent years such as CO 2 injection, high pressure air injection (HPAI) and chemical flooding are addressed including a brief overview of CO 2 -EOR project economics. (authors)

  13. Recovery of uranium values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    A process is provided for the recovery of uranium from an organic extractant phase containing an amine. The extractant phase is contacted in a number of mixing stages with an acidic aqueous stripping phase containing sulphate ions, and the phases are passed together through a series of mixing stages while maintaining a dispersion of droplets of one phase in the other. Uranium is precipitated from the final stage by raising the pH. An apparatus having several mixing chambers is described

  14. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  15. Recovery From Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Carter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidity among mood, anxiety, and alcohol disorders is common and burdensome, affecting individuals, families, and public health. A systematic and integrative review of the literature across disciplines and research methodologies was performed. Supradisciplinary approaches were applied to the review and the ensuing critical appraisal. Definitions, measurement, and estimation are controversial and inconstant. Recovery from comorbidity cannot be easily extricated from a sociocultural milieu. Methodological challenges in quantitative and qualitative research and across disciplines are many and are discussed. The evidence supporting current treatments is sparse and short-term, and modalities operating in isolation typically fail. People easily fall into the cracks between mental health and addiction services. Clinicians feel untrained and consumers bear the brunt of this: Judgmental and moralistic interactions persist and comorbidity is unrecognized in high-risk populations. Competing historical paradigms of mental illness and addiction present a barrier to progress and reductionism is an impediment to care and an obstacle to the integration and interpretation of research. What matters to consumers is challenging to quantify but worth considering: Finding employment, safe housing, and meaning are crucial to recovery. Complex social networks and peer support in recovery are important but poorly understood. The focus on modalities of limited evidence or generalizability persists in literature and practice. We need to consider different combinations of comorbidity, transitions as opposed to dichotomies of use or illness, and explore the long-term view and emic perspectives.

  16. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Whillhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmed; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  17. Recovery of uranium mineral concentrate from copper tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, S.; Tewari, U.K.; Beri, K.K.

    1991-01-01

    Based on the studies conducted on the samples of copper tailings from Surda Copper Concentrator plant, wet concentrating table (Diaster Diagonal Deck) was found most suitable for recovering uranium mineral concentrate. Based on this technique, uranium recovery plants were set up at Surda, Rakha and Mosabani. The recoveries obtained from Surda Uranium Recovery Plant and Rakha Uranium Recovery Plant were in the range of 40-50%. But in Mosaboni Uranium Recovery Plant which is treating copper tailings from Mosaboni Copper Concentrator Plant, the biggest concentrator plant processing nearly 2,700 MT/day of copper ore, the recovery by wet concentrating tables was found to be around 22%. Low recovery was mainly due to low concentration of uranium in ore and as well as more percentage of uranium distribution in fines which tables were unable to recover. Studies were done to recover uranium mineral concentrate from the fines with new set of equipment viz. Curved Static Screen/Bartles Mozley Separator/Cross Belt Concentrator. This gave an improvement of 14-16% only. Studies by low acid leaching in chemical process side have shown that an overall recovery of 68% can be achieved. Though the chemical process is best as far as recovery is concerned but there are several constraints. The major constraint is pertaining to environmental and pollution control. Depending on the results of studies to overcome the constraints decision for the process to be adopted will be taken up and executed. The test results and plant performance data have also been included in the paper. (author). 8 figs., 11 tabs., 1 appendix

  18. Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In a response to potential risks to public health and safety, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the recovery of sealed neutron sources under the Radioactive Source Recovery Program (RSRP). This proposed program would enhance the DOE's and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) joint capabilities in the safe management of commercially held radioactive source materials. Currently there are no federal or commercial options for the recovery, storage, or disposal of sealed neutron sources. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to implement a program for the receipt and recovery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, of unwanted and excess plutonium-beryllium ( 238 Pu-Be) and americium-beryllium ( 241 Am-Be) sealed neutron sources. About 1 kg (2.2 lb) plutonium and 3 kg (6.6 lb) americium would be recovered over a 15-year project. Personnel at LANL would receive neutron sources from companies, universities, source brokers, and government agencies across the country. These neutron sources would be temporarily stored in floor holes at the CMR Hot Cell Facility. Recovery reduces the neutron emissions from the source material and refers to a process by which: (1) the stainless steel cladding is removed from the neutron source material, (2) the mixture of the radioactive material (Pu-238 or Am-241) and beryllium that constitutes the neutron source material is chemically separated (recovered), and (3) the recovered Pu-238 or Am-241 is converted to an oxide form ( 238 PuO 2 or 241 AmO 2 ). The proposed action would include placing the 238 PuO 2 or 241 AmO 2 in interim storage in a special nuclear material vault at the LANL Plutonium Facility

  19. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  20. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  1. Recovery of copper ion by flotation with potassium amylxanthate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Serrano, B.; Coello-Velazquez, A. L.; Bernardo, A.; Afif, E.; Menendez-Aguado, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a study about the column flotation process of copper ion employing potassium amylxanthate as collector reagent is carried out. The effect on the recovery of copper ion by the modification of variables such as collector/metal relation and surface velocity of gas and liquid was determined experimentally by the analysis of the statistic-mathematical model of the copper flotation process, as well as the physico-chemical phenomena that take place, showing the effect of the collector/metal relation in the process. The effect of pH as the main properties of the chemical system in the recovery and the kinetic of the flotation process is made too. The experimental results shows that the recovery of copper in the pH range of 4,5 - 12 is possible with prevalence of precipitate flotation. (Author) 43 refs.

  2. Pyrochemical recovery of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses an important advantage of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is its ability to recycle fuel in the process of power generation, extending fuel resources by a considerable amount and assuring the continued viability of nuclear power stations by reducing dependence on external fuel supplies. Pyroprocessing is the means whereby the recycle process is accomplished. It can also be applied to the recovery of fuel constituents from spent fuel generated in the process of operation of conventional light water reactor power plants, offering the means to recover the valuable fuel resources remaining in that material

  3. Pyrochemical recovery of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses an important advantage of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is its ability to recycle fuel in the process of power generation, extending fuel resources by a considerable amount and assuring the continued viability of nuclear power stations by reducing dependence on external fuel supplies. Pyroprocessing is the means whereby the recycle process is accomplished. It can also be applied to the recovery of fuel constituents from spent fuel generated in the process of operation of conventional light water reactor power plants, offering the means to recover the valuable fuel resources remaining in that material.

  4. Pyrochemical recovery of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses an important advantage of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is its ability to recycle fuel in the process of power generation, extending fuel resources by a considerable amount and assuring the continued viability of nuclear power stations by reducing dependence on external fuel supplies. Pyroprocessing is the means whereby the recycle process is accomplished. It can also be applied to the recovery of fuel constituents from spent fuel generated in the process of operation of conventional light water reactor power plants, offering the means to recover the valuable fuel resources remaining in that material.

  5. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  6. Waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phi Wah Tooi

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Konzen in-house designed anaerobic digester system for the POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) treatment process is one of the registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Malaysia. It is an organic wastewater treatment process which achieves excellent co-benefits objectives through the prevention of water pollution and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is estimated to be 40,000 to 50,000 t-CO 2 per year. The anaerobic digester was designed in mesophile mode with temperature ranging from 37 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius. A microorganisms growth is optimum under moderately warm temperature conditions. The operating temperature of the anaerobic digester needs to be maintained constantly. There are two waste heat recovery systems designed to make the treatment process self-sustaining. The heat recovered will be utilised as a clean energy source to heat up the anaerobic digester indirectly. The first design for the waste heat recovery system utilises heat generated from the flue gas of the biogas flaring system. A stainless steel water tank with an internal water layer is installed at the top level of the flare stack. The circulating water is heated by the methane enriched biogas combustion process. The second design utilizes heat generated during the compression process for the biogas compressor operation. The compressed biogas needs to be cooled before being recycled back into the digester tank for mixing purposes. Both the waste heat recovery systems use a design which applies a common water circulation loop and hot water tank to effectively become a closed loop. The hot water tank will perform both storage and temperature buffer functions. The hot water is then used to heat up recycled sludge from 30 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius with the maximum temperature setting at 50 degree Celsius. The recycled sludge line temperature will be measured and monitored by a temperature sensor and transmitter, which will activate the

  7. MSWI Bottom Ash Characterization and Resource Recovery Potential Assessment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šyc, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Krausová, Aneta; Zach, Boleslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 36 (2015), s. 79-84 ISSN 1640-4902 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : MSWI * bottom ash * metal recovery Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  8. Polymeric surfactants for enhanced oil recovery : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is surely a topic of interest, as conventional oil resources become more scarce and the necessity of exploiting heavy and unconventional oils increases. EOR methods based on polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer flooding and alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding are

  9. Phosphate Recovery From Sewage Sludge Containing Iron Phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    The scope of this thesis was to lay the basis for a phosphate recovery technology that can be applied on sewage sludge containing iron phosphate. Such a technology should come with minimal changes to the existing sludge treatment configuration while keeping the use of chemicals or energy as small as

  10. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.

  11. Alarms, Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    cited in applicable qualitative materiel requirements, small development requirements, technical characteristics, and other requirements and documentation that pertain to automatic chemical agent alarms.

  12. Chemical oceanography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millero, F.J

    1996-01-01

    Chemical Oceanography presents a comprehensive examination of the chemistry of oceans through discussions of such topics as descriptive physical oceanography, the composition of seawater and the major...

  13. Chemical recovery of palladium-103 from irradiated silver target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapshina, E.V.; Kokhanyuk, V.M.; Zhuikov, B.L.; Myasoedova, G.V.; Zakhartchenko, E.A.; Phillips, D.R.; Jamriska, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop an extraction method of no-carrier-added palladium-103 from silver. Metallic silver targets may be irradiated by protons with energy of 60-200 MeV or more to generate palladium-103 simultaneously with other radioactive isotopes of rhodium, ruthenium, technetium, palladium and silver. According to the dependence experimental production yield of Pd-103 and isotopes of other elements in thick silver target vs. Proton energy the most suitable energy for maximum yield of Pd-103 and minimum yield of other elements is from about 100 to about 140 MeV. Activity of radionuclides produced in silver target depends from many factors (target thickness, irradiation time, etc.). Two methods of Pd-103 recovering from irradiated silver target are considered in this work: (1) Silver target is dissolved in nitric acid followed by silver precipitation in the form of silver chloride by addition of HCl. The solution containing Pd, Rh and other radionuclides is passed through the layer of fibrous sorbent POLYORGS-15n. Then the sorbent is washed and Pd is desorbed by hot 12 M hydrochloric acid; (2) Silver target is dissolved in nitric acid followed by passing of the obtained solution (2 M HNO 3 ) through a disk set of complex forming sorbent POLYORGS-33n. Under these conditions palladium is sorbed by the sorbent while silver, rhodium, ruthenium and technetium are passed through the sorbent. Then the sorbent is washed with 2M nitric acid, and Pd is desorbed by 12 M hydrochloric acid. Extraction of palladium is occurred during the formation of palladium complex with a chelate sorbent specific to palladium in acidic solutions. Such a sorbent makes possible separation of palladium from accompanying radionuclides such as rhodium, ruthenium and technetium. The polymeric complex-forming sorbent of fibrous structure with the groups of 3(5)-methylpyrazole (POLYORGS-15) is used. The distinctive feature of the sorbents in the form of fibrous 'filled' material is good kinetic properties. It makes it possible to use them in the process of sorbent extraction of platinum metals from solutions under the conditions of dynamic regime. For example sorbent extraction can be carried out by passing of the solutions easier. Preliminary experimental data demonstrate high radiation resistance of fibrous 'filled' materials. (authors)

  14. Chemical recovery of a palladium-103 from irradiated silver target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapshina, E.V.; Kokhanyuk, V.M.; Zhuikov, B.L.; Myasoedova, G.V.; Zakhartchenko, E.A.; Phillips, D.R.; Jamriska, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop an extraction method of no-carrier-added palladium-103 from silver. Metallic silver targets were irradiated by protons with the energy of 60-140 MeV to generate palladium-103. Other radioactive isotopes of rhodium, ruthenium, technetium, palladium and silver are also formed at the same time. Two methods of Pd-103 recovering from irradiated silver target are considered. The first one includes the dissolving of the irradiated silver target in nitric acid followed by adding of hydrochloric acid to the solution. Palladium with rhodium, ruthenium and technetium completely remained in solution while silver was precipitated in the form of silver chloride. Extraction of palladium from the obtained solution was provided by the formation of palladium complex with a chelate sorbent which is specific to palladium in acidic solutions. The sorbent makes it possible to separate palladium from admixtures of rhodium, ruthenium and technetium isotopes. The polymeric complex-forming sorbent of fibrous structure with the groups of 3 (5) - methylpyrazole (POLYORGS-15n) is used. An other possible method has been also studied. It includes again dissolving of metallic silver in nitric acid, but does not need silver chloride precipitation. Silver may be sorbed by the complex-forming sorbents, but its sorption is very sensitive to acid concentration. Chelate sorbents of fibrous structure with the groups of amidoxime and hydrazidine (POLYORGS-33n) have been successfully used in our experiments. A high efficiency of palladium extraction by POLYORGS-33n from 2-4 M nitric acid solutions was achieved. Concentrated hydrochloric acid (without heating) was used for palladium desorption with higher yield than in the first method. (authors)

  15. Recovery of phenols from coke-chemical resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catana, E.; Mateescu, I.; Stanescu, L.; Bota, T.; Sfintescu, C.

    1986-08-01

    The paper presents some of the results of the tests done on phenolic fractions obtained by primary distillation of tar. The classes of compounds are given, together with the proportions of valuable components and the main means of turning to good account. A recycling technology for these compounds is described. 10 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Framework for assessment of organic Micropollutant removals during managed Aquifer recharge and recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Amy, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MAR) is a reliable and proven process, in which water quality can be improved by different physical, biological, and chemical reactions during soil passage. MAR can potentially be included in a multi

  17. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan; Ren, Lijiao; Siegert, Michael; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment

  18. Recovery in SoccerPart II—Recovery Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Nedelec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Grégory

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue...

  19. Recovery of water from cacti for use in small farming communities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Recovery of water ... 35°C and a pH of 5.5. This relates to a yield of 550 L of water per ton of cacti, making chemical water .... recovery of juice from pineapples by up to 14%. Demir et al. (2001) did ...

  20. Chromic acid recovery by electro-electrodialysis. II. Pilot scal process, development, and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenzel, I.; Frenzel, I.; Holdik, H.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Pourcelly, G.; Wessling, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Electro-electrodialysis is a promising technology for chromic acid recovery and static rinse water purification. It combines the recovery of the plating chemicals from rinse water, the elimination of metallic impurities from the process and rinse water treatment in one step. Previous industrial use

  1. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  2. Technologies for the future : conventional recovery enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This conference presentation examined Alberta's oil production and water use; global finding and development costs across continents; and current trends for conventional oil. The presentation examined opportunities for testing new technologies for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and provided several tables of data on EOR production in the United States. The evolution of United States EOR production, and the number of EOR projects in Canada were also addressed. The presentation also discussed where EOR goes from here as well as the different EOR mechanisms to alter phase behaviour and to alter relative flow. It also discussed chemical methods and major challenges for chemical EOR and examined EOR technologies needing a major push in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Lessons learned from the Joffre site regarding carbon dioxide miscible flood were revealed along with how coal gasification produces substitute natural gas and carbon dioxide for EOR. Suggestions for research and technology and enhanced water management were included. tabs., figs.

  3. Technology for recovery of by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuy, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Products of conventional nuclear fuel processing plants are uranium and plutonium, and any other recovered material is considered to be a by-product. Some by-products have been recovered from past nuclear fuel processing operations, either as a normal mode of operation or by special campaigns. Routing recovery over an extended period has been limited to neptunium, but extended campaigns were used at Hanford to recover strontium for radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Krypton is recovered at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on a campaign basis, and isotope separation of krypton is done at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Past campaigns at Hanford PUREX have recovered cesium, promethium, amercium, cerium, and technetium. Past by-product recovery efforts were usually severely constrained by the status of flowsheet development and availability of existing facilities at the time decisions wee made to recover the by-products. Additional processes were developed to accommodate other unit operations and in response to changes in waste management objectives or user requirements. Now an impressive variety of recovery technology is available for most potential by-products, with varying degrees of demonstration under conditions which satisfy today's environmental protection and waste management constraints

  4. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  5. Recovery from a psychiatrist's viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Ronald J

    2006-09-01

    Recovery is not the same as cure. Recovery from mental illness is the process of having more to life than just illness. It is an ongoing process rather than simply a goal that can be achieved. Recovery from the stigma of mental illness may be as difficult as recovery from the illness itself. Several common, but incorrect, beliefs can interfere with the recovery process. Myths include the belief that the illness has an inherently downhill course, that rehabilitation is useful only after stabilization, and that people with schizophrenia can only work at low-level jobs. People who have schizophrenia have reported that their own process of recovery was helped by their determination to get better, an understanding of the illness, taking personal responsibility, having friends who accept them, an optimistic attitude, and spiritual beliefs that help them find meaning in life.

  6. Teaching recovery to medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeney, Larkin

    2013-03-01

    Community mental health services are evolving toward more holistic, patient-centered, recovery-based practices. This change necessitates an attitudinal shift from mental health workers, and training in recovery principles is helpful in achieving this change. Medical students often have narrow, doctor-centered concepts of mental health care. Traditional clinical placements in psychiatry do little to address this. We evaluated a recovery-focused teaching program for medical students in psychiatry.

  7. Chemical Emergencies - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) PDF Chemical Emergencies - English MP3 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) MP3 Chemical Emergencies - English MP4 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) ...

  8. Probabilistic accident sequence recovery analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutzke, Martin A.; Cooper, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    Recovery analysis is a method that considers alternative strategies for preventing accidents in nuclear power plants during probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Consideration of possible recovery actions in PRAs has been controversial, and there seems to be a widely held belief among PRA practitioners, utility staff, plant operators, and regulators that the results of recovery analysis should be skeptically viewed. This paper provides a framework for discussing recovery strategies, thus lending credibility to the process and enhancing regulatory acceptance of PRA results and conclusions. (author)

  9. Business recovery: an assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Joanne R; Brown, Charlotte; Seville, Erica; Vargo, John

    2018-07-01

    This paper presents a Business Recovery Assessment Framework (BRAF) to help researchers and practitioners design robust, repeatable, and comparable studies of business recovery in various post-disruption contexts. Studies assessing business recovery without adequately considering the research aims, recovery definitions, and indicators can produce misleading findings. The BRAF is composed of a series of steps that guide the decisions that researchers need to make to ensure: (i) that recovery is indeed being measured; (ii) that the indicators of recovery that are selected align with the objectives of the study and the definition of recovery; and, where necessary, (iii) that appropriate comparative control variables are in place. The paper draws on a large dataset of business surveys collected following the earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, on 4 September 2010 and 22 February 2011 to demonstrate the varied conclusions that different recovery indicators can produce and to justify the need for a systematic approach to business recovery assessments. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  10. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  11. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  12. Radiation injuries and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauly, H.

    1974-01-01

    In memory of Prof. Dr. Langendorff, a survey and a cross-section are given of the development of radiobiology during the last 40 years. The importance of radiobiology is shown using several examples. The mechanisms and effects of radiation on man, animals and plants are discussed. Effects of radiation and radiolesious are explained down ot the molecular field, and their importance is discussed quantitatively with stochastic considerations. Stress is laid upon recovering from radiolesious. It is tried to explain recovery quantitatively in all its several sorts. Using all these deliberations, the author also tries to give a wide spectrum for radiation protection. These fundamental deliberations and works of Prof. Dr. Langendorff are guidelines of great importance also for radiation protection in connection with the protection of the civil population. (GSE) [de

  13. Desulfurisation and sulfur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.; Finn, A.; Scott, L. [Costain Oil, Gas and Process Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    This article highlights technical issues associated with different sulphur recovery processes in the hydrocarbon processing industry. Details are given of the Stretford process developed by British Gas for the removal of low concentrations of hydrogen sulphide from natural gas and other hydrocarbon gases; the SulFerox process developed by Shell and Dow for removing moderate amounts of sulphur from contaminated gases using a proprietary iron salt for extracting the sulphur; solvent systems for removing moderately high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide in sour gas or liquid petroleum gases (LPG); the simple Claus process involving the partial combustion of hydrogen sulphide forming sulphur dioxide which reacts with hydrogen sulphide to form sulphur; and enhanced Claus processes. Sour water stripping processes for hydrogen sulphide contaminated water from hydrocarbon processing, tail gas treatment of Claus plant offgases, and hydrotreating are also discussed.

  14. Gas recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.B.; Lewis, W.W.; Edmiston, A.; Klauser, G.

    1980-01-01

    In order to decontaminate a gas stream containing radioactive krypton, a preliminary step of removing oxygen and oxides of nitrogen by catalytic reaction with hydrogen is performed. The gas stream is then passed serially through a drier, a carbon dioxide adsorber and a xenon adsorber to remove sequentially water, CO 2 and xenon therefrom. The gas exiting the xenon adsorber is passed to a krypton recovery plant wherein krypton is concentrated to a first level in a primary distillation column by contact with a reflux liquid in a packed section of the column. The liquid and vapour collecting at the bottom of the column is passed to a separator in which the liquid is separated from the vapour. The liquid is partially evaporated in a vessel to increase concentration thereof and is brought to a concentration of approximately 90 mole % or greater in a second distillation column thereby enabling efficient storage of a radioactive krypton product. (author)

  15. Enhanced oil recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  16. Waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.

    2017-12-19

    A waste heat recovery system includes a Rankine cycle (RC) circuit having a pump, a boiler, an energy converter, and a condenser fluidly coupled via conduits in that order, to provide additional work. The additional work is fed to an input of a gearbox assembly including a capacity for oil by mechanically coupling to the energy converter to a gear assembly. An interface is positioned between the RC circuit and the gearbox assembly to partially restrict movement of oil present in the gear assembly into the RC circuit and partially restrict movement of working fluid present in the RC circuit into the gear assembly. An oil return line is fluidly connected to at least one of the conduits fluidly coupling the RC components to one another and is operable to return to the gear assembly oil that has moved across the interface from the gear assembly to the RC circuit.

  17. Hydration-annealing of chemical radiation damage in calcium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.M.K.; James, C.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of hydration on the annealing of chemical radiation damage in anhydrous calcium nitrate has been investigated. Rehydration of the anhydrous irradiated nitrate induces direct recovery of the damage. The rehydrated salt is susceptible to thermal annealing but the extent of annealing is small compared to that in the anhydrous salt. The direct recovery of damage on rehydration is due to enhanced lattice mobility. The recovery process is unimolecular. (author)

  18. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  19. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  20. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  1. Precious Metals Recovery from Electroplating Wastewater: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, A. A.; Jai, J.; Zamanhuri, N. A.; Yahya, A.

    2018-05-01

    Metal bearing electroplating wastewater posts great health and environmental concerns, but could also provide opportunities for precious and valuable metal recovery, which can make the treatment process more cost-effective and sustainable. Current conventional electroplating wastewater treatment and metal recovery methods include chemical precipitation, coagulation and flocculation, ion exchange, membrane filtration, adsorption, electrochemical treatment and photocatalysis. However, these physico-chemical methods have several disadvantages such as high initial capital cost, high operational cost due to expensive chemical reagents and electricity supply, generation of metal complexes sludge which requires further treatment, ineffective in diluted and/or concentrated wastewater, low precious metal selectivity, and slow recovery process. On the other hand, metal bio-reduction assisted by bioactive phytochemical compounds extracted from plants and plant parts is a new found technology explored by several researchers in recent years aiming to recover precious and valuable metals from secondary sources mainly industrial wastewater by utilizing low-cost and eco-friendly biomaterials as reagents. Extract of plants contains polyphenolic compounds which have great antioxidant properties and reducing capacities, able to reduce metal ions into zerovalent metal atoms and stabilize the metal particles formed. This green bio-recovery method has a value added in their end products since the metals are recovered in nano-sized particles which are more valuable and have high commercial demand in other fields ranging from electrochemistry to medicine.

  2. Chemical Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your expectations. Talk with your doctor about your motivations and expectations, as well as the potential risks. ... the sun permanently to prevent changes in skin color. Keep in mind that chemical peel results might ...

  3. Chemical carcinogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Searle, Charles E

    1976-01-01

    Cancer causing agents are now known to exist throughout the environment-in polluted air and tobacco smoke, in various plants and foods, and in many chemicals that are used in industry and laboratories...

  4. Technology strategy for enhanced recovery; Technology Target Areas; TTA3 - enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) is facing new challenges in reserve replacement and improved recovery in order to maintain the overall oil production rate from the area. A new target for an increase in oil reserves of 800 million Sm3 of oil (5 billion barrels) by year 2015 has been set by NPD. This is an ambitious goal considering several of the large fields are on a steep decline, and most of the recent discoveries are relatively small. A significant part of these increased reserves will have to come from fields currently on production, from reservoir areas that have been partly or fully swept, and it is therefore evident that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods have to play a key role in achieving this target. EOR methods can be divided into gas based EOR methods and water based EOR methods. Thermal methods are not considered applicable on the NCS due to the relatively light oils present, and the depth of the reservoirs. Gas Based EOR; Water Based EOR; CO{sub 2} injection; Surfactants; Air injection; Polymer; Nitrogen injection; Alkaline; Flue gas injection; Polymer gels; WAG; MEOR; FAWAG. The former OG21 strategy document gave high priority to Water Alternating Gas (WAG) methods and CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced recovery. A lot of research and development and evaluation projects on CO{sub 2} injection were launched and are on-going, most of these are being CO{sub 2} WAG studies. The main challenge now in order to realize CO{sub 2} injection on the NCS is on CO{sub 2} availability and transport. It is also believed that increasing gas prices will limit the availability of hydrocarbon gas for injection purposes in the future. There is, however, a clear need for developing alternative cost efficient EOR methods that can improve the sweep efficiency significantly. Since a majority of the fields on the NCS are being produced under water flooding (or WAG), methods that can improve the water flooding efficiency by chemical additives are of special interest and

  5. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  6. SUPRA - Enhanced upset recovery simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.; Ledegang, W.; Field, J.; Smaili, H.; Roza, M.; Fucke, L.; Nooij, S.; Goman, M.; Mayrhofer, M.; Zaichik, L.E.; Grigoryev, M.; Biryukov, V.

    2012-01-01

    The SUPRA research project - Simulation of Upset Recovery in Aviation - has been funded by the European Union 7th Framework Program to enhance the flight simulation envelope for upset recovery simulation. Within the project an extended aerodynamic model, capturing the key aerodynamics during and

  7. Indium recovery by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, Marilia Camargos Botelho

    1999-04-01

    Indium has been recovered as a byproduct from residues generated from the sulfuric acid leaching circuits in mineral plants for zinc recovery. Once its recovery comes from the slags of other metals recovery, it is necessary to separate it from the other elements which usually are present in high concentrations. Many works have been approaching this separation and indicate the solvent extraction process as the main technique used. In Brazilian case, indium recovery depends on the knowledge of this technique and its development. This paper describes the solvent extraction knowledge for the indium recovery from aqueous solutions generated in mineral plants. The results for determination of the best experimental conditions to obtain a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with di (2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) solubilized in isoparafin and exxsol has been presented. (author)

  8. Heat Recovery From Tail Gas Incineration To Generate Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Tarek

    2010-09-15

    Many industrial processes result in tail gas wastes that must be flared or incinerated to abide with environmental guidelines. Tail gas incineration occurs in several chemical processes resulting in high-temperature exhaust gas that simply go to the stack, thus wasting all that valuable heat! This paper discusses useful heat recovery and electric power generation utilizing available heat in exhaust gas from tail gas incinerators. This heat will be recovered in a waste-heat recovery boiler that will produce superheated steam to expand in a steam turbine to generate power. A detailed cost estimate is presented.

  9. Energy balance for uranium recovery from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, E.; Lindner, H. [The University of Texas, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The energy return on investment (EROI) of an energy resource is the ratio of the energy it ultimately produces to the energy used to recover it. EROI is a key viability measure for a new recovery technology, particularly in its early stages of development when financial cost assessment would be premature or highly uncertain. This paper estimates the EROI of uranium recovery from seawater via a braid adsorbent technology. In this paper, the energy cost of obtaining uranium from seawater is assessed by breaking the production chain into three processes: adsorbent production, adsorbent deployment and mooring, and uranium elution and purification. Both direct and embodied energy inputs are considered. Direct energy is the energy used by the processes themselves, while embodied energy is used to fabricate their material, equipment or chemical inputs. If the uranium is used in a once-through fuel cycle, the braid adsorbent technology EROI ranges from 12 to 27, depending on still-uncertain performance and system design parameters. It is highly sensitive to the adsorbent capacity in grams of U captured per kg of adsorbent as well as to potential economies in chemical use. This compares to an EROI of ca. 300 for contemporary terrestrial mining. It is important to note that these figures only consider the mineral extraction step in the fuel cycle. At a reference performance level of 2.76 g U recovered per kg adsorbent immersed, the largest energy consumers are the chemicals used in adsorbent production (63%), anchor chain mooring system fabrication and operations (17%), and unit processes in the adsorbent production step (12%). (authors)

  10. Transcontinental mourning dove recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Brian

    1971-01-01

    A Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) banded in New York has been reported shot in California. On 25 August 1969, near Palmyra (43°00' N, 77°10' W), New York Department of Environmental Conservation personnel placed U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service band 883-97279 on the leg of a hatching-year Mourning Dove of unknown sex. During the first weekend of the dove season in September 1970, Stan Solus (P.O. Box 594, Seiad Valley, California) recovered the band from a dove he shot in the Shasta Valley, Siskiyou County, California (41°30' N, 122°20' W). As Mr. Solus included the band with his reporting letter and, in response to my asking him for verification, reaffirmed his original information, the recovery has been accepted as authentic. I suggest this vagrancy may be explained by assuming that the inexperienced New York bird got emotionally involved with a western bird with which it shared winter quarters, perhaps in Mexico, and thus the following year ended up a flower child in California.

  11. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  12. LHC Report: Rocky Recovery

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The last technical stop finished on Friday 8 July, but the machine returned to its pre-stop performance level over a week later.   Efficiency of LHC fills between 16 July and 20 July, 2011. The cryogenics team had the entire ring cold by Saturday morning and the usual post-technical stop tests with circulating beams started soon after. Unfortunately, they were interrupted by a major perturbation to CERN’s electrical network caused by an impressive thunderstorm that swept over the Pays de Gex. There were major knock-on effects, including the loss of cooling to the cryogenics and an inevitable recovery period once normal service had been re-established. The beams were circulating again by Tuesday afternoon and the post-technical stop checks continued, beefed up with further tests to address a number of issues related to the power cut.  Before the stop, the LHC had managed to get 1380 bunches per beam into collisions and the plan was to ramp back up relatively quickly to this leve...

  13. Refrigeration waste heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    UK Super A Stores was built in 1972 and is part of a small indoor shopping complex linked together by a heated mall. The store has a public floor area of approximately 1,232 m{sup 2} (13,261 ft.{sup 2}) and sells the usual variety of food produce including a large selection of frozen foods. There are five lengths of refrigerated display cabinets with a total area of approximately 78 m{sup 2}. There are also some frozen food storage rooms at the back of the store. This report provides a description of a waste heat recovery system within a medium sized food store. It details how the waste heat that is produced by the conventional frozen food display cabinets, can be reused by the store's space heating system. Recommended uses for this waste heat include: diverting to the loading bays which would make the reheat coil unnecessary, diverting to the front of the shop, and heating the adjacent shopping mall. The CREDA (Conservation and Renewable Energy Demonstration Assistance) program contributed $17,444 towards the total project cost of $30,444. The project was initiated by the store owner, who is now realizing a lower annual fuel consumption, with the resulting financial savings. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Heat recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, I.

    1987-01-01

    Heat transfer is a living science and technical advances are constantly being made. However, in many cases, progress is limited by the equipment that is available on the market, rather than by knowledge of the heat transfer process. A case in point is the design of economizers: in such equipment a small quantity of water (with a relatively good heat transfer coefficient) is heated by a large quantity of low-pressure gas (with an inherently low heat transfer coefficient). As a first step in design finned tubing is used to lessen the discrepancy in coefficients. From this point, it becomes apparent that the equipment consists of a small number of tubes (to maintain good velocity on the water side) of considerable length (to provide sufficient area). In the process industries the base pressure, though low, may be in the region of 0.5 bar, and there is no convenient flue in which to place the heat recovery coil. It is therefore contained in a flat-sided enclosure, which is ill-fitted to pressure containment and is therefore reinforced with a plethora of structural sections. Such inelegant construction is quite common in North America; in Europe, cylindrical containments of vast size have been supplied for the same purposes. The real shortcoming is a successful marriage of different disciplines to produce reliable and efficient heat transfer equipment suitably contained

  15. Recovery from cannabis use disorders: Abstinence versus moderation and treatment-assisted recovery versus natural recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Jonathan N; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C

    2015-09-01

    The present study of recovery from cannabis use disorders was undertaken with 2 primary objectives that address gaps in the literature. The first objective was to provide an exploratory portrait of the recovery process from cannabis use disorders, comparing individuals who recovered naturally with those who were involved in treatment. The second objective was to explore systematically the similarities and differences between abstinence and moderation recoveries. Adults who have recovered from a cannabis use disorder were recruited in the community (N = 119). The abstinence and treatment-assisted participants exhibited higher levels of lifetime cannabis problem severity than the moderation and natural recovery participants, respectively. As well, cognitive factors were identified as the most useful strategies for recovery (e.g., thinking about benefits and negative consequences of cannabis), followed by behavioral factors (e.g., avoidance of triggers for use and high-risk situations). Findings lend further support to the effectiveness of cognitive, motivational, and behavioral strategies as helpful actions and maintenance factors involved in the recovery process. The findings also generally support the idea that cannabis use disorders lie on a continuum of problem severity, with moderation and natural recoveries more likely to occur at the lower end of the continuum and abstinence and treatment-assisted recoveries more likely to occur at the upper end. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Chemical Dependence and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva Nunes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between chemical dependency and personalitystructure in a Brazilian sample. Participants were college students (n=35 and patients of a drug recovery center (n= 48. Two personality scales based on the Big-5 Model were used to measure Extraversion and Agreeableness. A semi-structured interview was used to identify events in the patients' life histories that might support specific classifications. Participants' scores were also compared to Brazilian normative samples. The results showed significant differences between clinical and non-clinical groups in Agreeableness, but not in Extraversion. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using scales and interview aspects for predicting group membership. The model showed 92.1% general predictive power. Results pointed to the advantage of using both interview and objective techniques to assess individuals with antisocial personality symptoms.

  17. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  18. Course of Recovery from Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Kamilla L.; Matzger, Helen; Forcehimes, Alyssa A.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Feldstein, Sarah W.; Willenbring, Mark L.; Weisner, Constance

    2010-01-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2005 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Santa Barbara, California, organized and chaired by Kamilla L. Venner. This symposium integrated current empirical research on the course of recovery from alcoholism from multiple perspectives, an aim that is consistent with NIAAA's new focus on the process of recovery. The presentations and presenters were as follows: (1) The Role of Community Services and Informal Support on 7-Year Drinking Outcomes in Treated and Untreated Drinkers, by Helen Matzger; (2) The Sequence of Recovery Events in a Native American Sample, by Kamilla L. Venner; (3) Transformational Change in Recovery, by Alyssa A. Forcehimes; (4) Social Settings and Substance Use: Contextual Factors in Recovery, by Rudolf H. Moos; and (5) A Broader View of Change in Drinking Behavior, by discussant Mark L. Willenbring. A theme connecting the presentations was that treatment is but one discrete aspect to recovery and that sustained recovery is often influenced by an individual interaction with others within a social context. Collectively, presentations underscored the need to think more broadly about factors contributing to the remission of alcohol dependence. PMID:16737468

  19. Vehicle recovery and towing guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-01-15

    This guideline was developed to provide light and medium duty vehicles operators in the oil and gas industry with a set of best practices for avoiding injury and damage during the recovery of stuck vehicles. The aim of the guideline was to increase awareness of safety issues and promote the safe usage of the vehicles by personnel throughout the petroleum industry and to establish minimum standards of practice for vehicle recovery. The guideline included a step-by-step guide for pulling out a vehicle with a recovery strap as well as vehicle-mounted winch procedures. Pre-job checklists for both procedures were provided. Issues related to the strength rating of vehicle tow hooks and hitch receivers were discussed, as well as some of the hazards associated with steep terrains and heavy mud. The guideline also included recommendations for a vehicle recovery kit with instructions on vehicle recovery, a recovery strap, a recovery hitch and shackle, a collapsible shovel, traffic cones and reflector flares, and a heavy blanket and gloves. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  20. From recovery values to recovery-oriented practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Helle; Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Cunningham, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The recovery model has influenced mental health services and fostered new standards for best practice. However, knowledge about how mental health care professionals (HCPs) experience recoveryoriented programs is sparse. Aim/Question: This paper explores HCPs' experiences when...... facilitating a recovery-oriented rehabilitation program. The research question is howdo HCPs experience a change in their attitude and practicewhen applying recovery-oriented programs? Methods: This paper draws on semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 16 HCPs experienced...... in facilitating a recovery-oriented rehabilitation program in either the USA or Denmark. Results: Three themes emerged from the HCPs' reflections on changes in attitudes and practices: “Hopeful Attitude” captures a change in the HCPs' attitude toward a more positive view on the future for clients' living...

  1. Improved NGL recovery designs maximize operating flexibility and product recoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J.D.; Hudson, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the historically cyclical nature in the market for ethane and propane has demonstrated the need for flexible natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery plants. NEwly developed and patented processes are now available which can provide ultra-high recovery of ethane (95%+) when demand for ethane is high and provide essentially complete ethane rejection without the normally concomitant reduction in propane recovery. This provides plant operators the flexibility to respond more readily to NGL market conditions, thus maximizing plant operating profits. The new process designs provide this flexibility without increasing utility requirements. In fact, utility consumption is often lower when compared to conventional designs. This same process technology can also be easily retrofit into existing plants with relatively quick payout of the modifications from both recovery and efficiency improvements

  2. Nuclear technology and mineral recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Richard M.; Niermeyer, Karl E.

    1970-01-01

    The particular aspect of nuclear technology most applicable to the mineral field, as has been pointed out by various authors, is nuclear blasting. The prime target for this nuclear blasting has usually been a large disseminated deposit of copper mineralization which, because of large dimensions, employs the nuclear devices most effectively. From the work of the AEC we know that the larger nuclear devices fragment rock for a lower energy cost per unit of ground broken than do smaller nuclear devices or chemical explosives. A mineralized deposit near the surface is usually not amenable to nuclear fragmentation, nor are the more deeply buried thin deposits. Also, one would not anticipate fragmenting a zone of excessively erratic mineralization with nuclear devices. Many of our mineralized areas would be eliminated using the above criteria, so at this point you are well aware that my self-imposed limitation is to nuclear blasting and large disseminated copper deposits. As with most other industries, copper mining faces rising costs and greater demands for its products. One of the rising cost features peculiar to extractive industries is the reliance placed on production from lower grade deposits as the higher grade deposits are depleted. As the grade or metal content of an orebody decreases more material must be handled to produce a given amount of metal. The increased volume of ore which must be handled as the grade declines requires expansion of facilities and higher capital expenditures. Expansion of facilities for mining, milling, and concentrating of the ore increases the per unit capital cost of the end product--copper. Increased copper consumption will aggravate this situation with demand for more metal, much of which will have to be obtained from lower grade deposits. As the higher grade deposits are depleted, future production will come from those deposits which cannot be exploited economically today. Most familiar of the proposed new methods for copper mining

  3. Nuclear technology and mineral recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Richard M; Niermeyer, Karl E [Anaconda Company, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The particular aspect of nuclear technology most applicable to the mineral field, as has been pointed out by various authors, is nuclear blasting. The prime target for this nuclear blasting has usually been a large disseminated deposit of copper mineralization which, because of large dimensions, employs the nuclear devices most effectively. From the work of the AEC we know that the larger nuclear devices fragment rock for a lower energy cost per unit of ground broken than do smaller nuclear devices or chemical explosives. A mineralized deposit near the surface is usually not amenable to nuclear fragmentation, nor are the more deeply buried thin deposits. Also, one would not anticipate fragmenting a zone of excessively erratic mineralization with nuclear devices. Many of our mineralized areas would be eliminated using the above criteria, so at this point you are well aware that my self-imposed limitation is to nuclear blasting and large disseminated copper deposits. As with most other industries, copper mining faces rising costs and greater demands for its products. One of the rising cost features peculiar to extractive industries is the reliance placed on production from lower grade deposits as the higher grade deposits are depleted. As the grade or metal content of an orebody decreases more material must be handled to produce a given amount of metal. The increased volume of ore which must be handled as the grade declines requires expansion of facilities and higher capital expenditures. Expansion of facilities for mining, milling, and concentrating of the ore increases the per unit capital cost of the end product--copper. Increased copper consumption will aggravate this situation with demand for more metal, much of which will have to be obtained from lower grade deposits. As the higher grade deposits are depleted, future production will come from those deposits which cannot be exploited economically today. Most familiar of the proposed new methods for copper mining

  4. Whooping crane recovery plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, David L.; Blankenship, David R.; Irby, Harold D.; Erickson, Ray C.; Lock, Ross; Drewien, Roderick C.; Smith, Lawrence S.; Derrickson, Scott R.

    1980-01-01

    This plan has been prepared under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 and subsequent amendments. The Plan is designed to provide decision makers with an orderly set of events which, if carried out to a successful completion, will result in changing the status of the species from the endangered to the threatened level. It must be recognized that this Plan has been prepared 40 years after attempts to preserve the species began. As such, it covers events that have taken place, that are taking place, and that need to take place. The Plan, therefore, not only compiles in one place all whooping crane management and research efforts which are underway, but also proposes additional efforts needed for the recovery of the whooping crane. The Plan also establishes funding evels, time schedules, and priorities for each management and research effort.The Plan is organized into three parts. the first part includes an account of the whooping crane's history, biology, present status, and the factors believed to have resulted in its endangered status. Also included in this part is a synopsis of research and management activities that have taken place through 1978.The second part is a step-down pan wherein all existing and needed research and management efforts are organized into an orderly set of events. The prime objective is to move the whooping crane to non-endangered status. Minimum requirements for the attainment of this objective are the increase of the historical Wood Buffalo-Aransas population to at least 40 nesting pairs and the establishment of at least two additional, separate, and self-sustaining populations consisting of at least 20 nesting pairs each.the third part identifies the responsibility, time schedule, and cost for each element of the step-down plan.

  5. Recovery during radiation mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, D.F.; Shaw, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    Many variables (e.g. cell inoculum size, mutagen dose, expression time, and concentration of the selective agent) are known to affect the induced mutation frequency obtained in cultured mammalian cells. The authors have studied the effects of several parameters on the frequency of radiation-induced resistance to 8-azaguanine in asynchronous V79-171B hamster cells. Inoculation with 10 5 cells was followed by graded doses of radiation, expression times were optimized to maximize mutation frequency, and then the treated cells were challenged with 8-azaguanine for ten days. The optimal expression times which maximized mutation frequency were dose dependent and are in the range of 14-24, 24, and 24-36 hours respectively for doses of 250, 40 and 800 rads. A time interval of 24 hours between two 250-rad fractions resulted in a mutation frequency smaller than that obtained from administration of a single 500-rad dose. With 36 hours between halves of the dose, the induced mutation frequency was an order of magnitude lower than that produced by a single dose and actually below the unirradiated (spontaneous) frequency. Maintenance of cells after irradation first at 18 0 C for 24 hours, and then allowance of expression at 37 0 C for 24 hours, increased both the spontaneous and induced mutation frequency. A one-hour postirradiation balanced salt-solution treatment did not affect the number of spontaneous mutants that arose, but reduced the number of induced mutants. Thus, the balanced salt treatment lowers the induced mutation frequency about a factor of two. The possible significance of these results are discussed with respect to the role of radiation repair mechanisms during mutagenesis, and to recovery at low dose rates. A working hypothesis is advanced to explain the possible mechanism which causes expression time to vary as a function of the dose of mutagen. (author)

  6. General introduction and recovery factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compared methods for estimating an incremental recovery factor (RF) for the carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) process involving the injection of CO2 into oil reservoirs. This chapter first provides some basic information on the RF, including its dependence on various reservoir and operational parameters, and then discusses the three development phases of oil recovery—primary, second­ary, and tertiary (EOR). It ends with a brief discussion of the three approaches for estimating recovery factors, which are detailed in subsequent chapters.

  7. Technology for recovery of byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyl, H.H.

    1983-02-01

    In this paper, a byproduct is considered to be any product from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant other than the principal products of uranium and plutonium. Those which have been recovered on a large scale include: 237 Np, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 85 Kr, 147 Pm, 241 Am, 244 Cm, and 144 Ce. Other byproducts which have been recovered in small amounts during development efforts are: Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Xe. This paper reviews the byproducts of interest, compares and contrasts byproduct recovery with waste management, describes current and past byproduct recovery operations, development status of alternative processes, and bases for selection among alternative processes in developing an integrated byproduct recovery plant

  8. Water control for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.C.; Mody, B.; Pace, J.

    1981-11-01

    Gains in recovery efficiency in W. Texas oil and gas fields have been realized as a result of applying 4 different chemical processes, either singly or in combination. Each of the 4 chemical processes has been tailored to meet specific reservoir requirements. Complete plugging of high flow capacity channels can be accomplished, and the high water production portion of a producing zone can be sealed by injection of gel-forming chemicals into the matrix. Both floodwater diversion and water-oil mobility ratio improvement can be attained by in situ polymerization of a one-stage polymer bank in the reservoir. In producing wells, the water-oil production ratio can be favorably changed by treating certain formulations with a nonplugging polymer which tends to restrict water flow but not oil. One feature which each of the 4 processes has in common is the ability to invade deeply into matrix which may produce long lasting results. A description of each process is presented with various placement techniques used to obtain optimum results. Data from fields which have benefited from these treatments are presented. The work describes what may be expected with each of these proven processes based on field results.

  9. Abstracts of the 47. Canadian chemical engineering conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Chemical engineering and its role in the development of Western Canada's oil sands and heavy oil reserves was the main focus of this conference. The presentations revolved around the theme, 'The Competitive Advantage'. Features of the conference included strong participation by industry, professional development courses, and government. Energy-related sessions were entitled: (1) oil and bitumen recovery, (2) bitumen extraction and froth treatment, (3) bitumen upgrading, (4) in-situ recovery and enhanced oil recovery, (5) air quality, (6) cracking and hydrogenation, and (7) sulfur recovery and gas processing

  10. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2001-02-27

    The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.

  11. Chemical pneumonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cleaning materials such as chlorine bleach, during industrial accidents, or near swimming pools) Grain and fertilizer dust ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Chemical Emergencies ... about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  12. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  13. Forensic recovery within contaminated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Exhibit Handling System, operated by the Anti-Terrorist Branch, has evolved from experiences whilst dealing with long term domestic terrorism and the subsequent prosecution of the offenders. Stringent U.K. criminal law in regard to exhibits and forensic evidence required a strict system in order to provide continuity and integrity to every item that came into possession of the Police. This system also applies to items that are eventually deemed 'unused', as nearly all evidence is disclosed to the defence. I believe that if a system can withstand the close examination that British Criminal Law provides, it will probably be suitable in most countries. The system relies on each item being supplied with a documented trail of all persons who have had possession of it and who have opened the security packaging for examination purposes. In contaminated environments the initial process within the system has to be adapted in order that strict monitoring of the items can be carried out during the packaging process. It is also recognized that access to many exhibits will be heavily restricted and therefore protocols are in place to interrogate the evidence at the packaging stage in order to avoid unnecessary spread of contamination. The protocols are similar for both radiological and nuclear incidents as well as chemical and biological. Regardless of the type of incident the system can be adapted on the advice of the relevant scientific authority. In the U.K. for radiological and nuclear incidents that authority would be the A.W.E. Aldermaston. The integrity and continuity regime should be continued within laboratories which are conducting examinations of exhibits recovered. It is also important that Nuclear Forensic Laboratories do not overlook possibilities of traditional evidence, such as DNA, Fingerprints and fibre traces. Good record photography of items which are unlikely to be released by the laboratory is essential. Finally, cross-contamination has in

  14. Recovery and purification of ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyneke, Rian [Katy, TX; Foral, Michael J [Aurora, IL; Lee, Guang-Chung [Houston, TX; Eng, Wayne W. Y. [League City, TX; Sinclair, Iain [Warrington, GB; Lodgson, Jeffery S [Naperville, IL

    2008-10-21

    A process for the recovery and purification of ethylene and optionally propylene from a stream containing lighter and heavier components that employs an ethylene distributor column and a partially thermally coupled distributed distillation system.

  15. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker cons...... consumption and the impact on the remaining network and the customer service level. The model is applied to 4 real cases from Maersk Line. Solutions are comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved.......Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker...

  16. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  17. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers - KML

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a KML file for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  18. Recovery Time for Sports Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Recovery Time for Sports Concussions En español Send us your comments Scientists look ... an athlete to return to play after a concussion. Paul Burns/Blend Images/Thinkstock A brain injury- ...

  19. Uncovering Recovery: The Resistible Rise of Recovery and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harper

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Discourses of recovery and resilience have risen to positions of dominance in the mental health field. Models of recovery and resilience enjoy purchase, in both policy and practice, across a range of settings from self-described psychiatric survivors through to mental health charities through to statutory mental health service providers. Despite this ubiquity, there is confusion about what recovery means. In this article we problematize notions of recovery and resilience, and consider what, if anything, should be recovered from these concepts. We focus on three key issues, i individualization, ii the persistence of a deficit model, and iii collective approaches to recovery. Through documentary analysis we consider these issues across third sector organizations, and public and mental health policy. Firstly, definitional debates about recovery reflect wider ideological debates about the nature of mental health. The vagueness of these concepts and implicit assumptions inherent in dominant recovery and resilience discourses render them problematic because they individualize what are social problems. Secondly, these discourses, despite being seen as inherently liberatory are conceptually dependent on a notion of deficit in that talk of “positives” and “strengths” requires the existence of “negatives” and “weaknesses” for these concepts to make sense.  We argue that this does little to substantially transform dominant understandings of psychological distress. Thirdly, these issues combine to impact upon the progressive potential of recovery. It comes to be seen as an individualistic experiential narrative accompaniment to medical understandings where the structural causes of distress are obscured. This in turn impacts upon the potential for recovery to be used to explore more collective, political aspects of emotional distress. Drawing on the work of Fraser, we use this critique to characterize “recovery” as a “struggle for

  20. Agricultural utilization of sewage sludge: effect on the chemical and physical properties of soils and on the productivity and recovery of degraded areas/ Uso agrícola do lodo de esgoto: influência nas propriedades químicas e físicas do solo, produtividade e recuperação de áreas degradadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tavares Filho

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an overview of the agricultural recycling of sewage sludge and its impact on the chemical and physical properties of soils and on the productivity and recovery of degraded areas. Sewage sludge contains some of the essential plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, and micronutrients; it also has variable humidity content and is rich in organic matter. Sewage sludge also acts as a soil conditioner, improving soil structure and aggregation, thus decreasing density and increasing aeration of soils.Sewage sludge can complement other crop fertilization techniques by reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and fertilization costs as it increases nutrient availability in soils. As a result, the sludge can enhance plant development and productivity. Sludge application in degraded areas leads to a rapid growth of gramineous and leguminous plants. Plants growing in sludge-applied areas tend to be more vigorous and to cover larger areas (percentage; they also tend to have higher productivity and a better development of the root system. Soil recovery by liming and mineral fertilization can also lead to vegetation regrowth; however, the poor physical and biological soil conditions can deteriorate the cover plants before the soil is actually recovered. Sewage sludge must be processed before being used and cannot be applied directly to agricultural or forested land until biological treatments reduce the sludge organic content and promote organic matter stabilization. In the State of Paraná, Brazil, the direct application of sewage sludge on horticultural and other products that are ingested raw, is not recommended. Sludge fertilization is recommended for corn, wheat, sugarcane, sorghum, fruitiferous plants, and for forest plant species used to recover degraded areas. State regulations determine the levels of heavy metals allowed in the sludge and the maximum dosage of 50 ton biosolid matter/ha, for a 10-year period.Objetivou-se com esta revis

  1. Biological opportunities for metal recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.S.; Debus, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of existing biological technologies for the recovery of copper and uranium. Engineering and biological challenges and opportunities in these areas are discussed. New opportunities for the bio oxidation of refractory goal ore are described. Techniques for the development of new strains of microorganisms for commercial metal recovery applications are discussed with special reference to the use of genetic manipulation for bacterial strain improvement. (author)

  2. Cognitive performance and aphasia recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José; Raposo, Ana; Martins, Isabel Pavão

    2018-03-01

    Objectives This study assessed cognitive performance of subjects with aphasia during the acute stage of stroke and evaluated how such performance relates to recovery at 3 months. Materials & methods Patients with aphasia following a left hemisphere stroke were evaluated during the first (baseline) and the fourth-month post onset. Assessment comprised non-verbal tests of attention/processing speed (Symbol Search, Cancelation Task), executive functioning (Matrix Reasoning, Tower of Hanoi, Clock Drawing, Motor Initiative), semantic (Camel and Cactus Test), episodic and immediate memory (Memory for Faces Test, 5 Objects Memory Test, and Spatial Span. Recovery was measured by the Token Test score at 3 months. The impact of baseline performance on recovery was evaluated by logistic regression adjusting for age, education, severity of aphasia and the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) score. Results Thirty-nine subjects (with a mean of 66.5 ± 10.6 years of age, 17 men) were included. Average baseline cognitive performance was within normal range in all tests except in memory tests (semantic, episodic and immediate memory) for which scores were ≤-1.5sd. Subjects with poor aphasia recovery (N = 27) were older and had fewer years of formal education but had identical ASPECT score compared to those with favorable recovery. Considering each test individually, the score obtained on the Matrix Reasoning test was the only one to predict aphasia recovery (Exp(B)=24.085 p = 0.038). Conclusions The Matrix Reasoning Test may contribute to predict aphasia recovery. Cognitive performance is a measure of network disruption but may also indicate the availability of recovery strategies.

  3. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  4. Global patterns of drought recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Michalak, Anna M.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Biondi, Franco; Koch, George; Litvak, Marcy; Ogle, Kiona; Shaw, John D.; Wolf, Adam; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schaefer, Kevin; Cook, Robert; Wei, Yaxing; Fang, Yuanyuan; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Jain, Atul; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-08-09

    Drought is a recurring multi-factor phenomenon with major impacts on natural and human systems1-3. Drought is especially important for land carbon sink variability, influencing climate regulation of the terrestrial biosphere4. While 20th Century trends in drought regime are ambiguous, “more extreme extremes” as well as more frequent and severe droughts3,7 are expected in the 21st Century. Recovery time, the length of time an ecosystem requires to revert to its pre-drought functional state, is a critical metric of drought impact. Yet the spatiotemporal patterning and controls of drought recovery are largely unknown. Here we use three distinct global datasets of gross primary productivity to show that across diverse terrestrial ecosystems drought recovery times are driven by biological productivity and biodiversity, with drought length and severity of secondary importance. Recovery time, especially for extreme droughts, and the areal extent of ecosystems in recovery from drought generally increase over the 20th Century, supporting an increase globally in drought impact8. Our results indicate that if future Anthropocene droughts become more widespread as expected, that droughts will become more frequent relative to recovery time. This increases the risk of entering a new regime where vegetation never recovers to its original state and widespread degradation of the land carbon sink ensues.

  5. Claus sulphur recovery potential approaches 99% while minimizing cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlie, E M

    1974-01-21

    In a summary of a paper presented to the fourth joint engineering conference of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and the Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering, the Claus process is discussed in a modern setting. Some problems faced in the operation of sulfur recovery plants include (1) strict pollution control regulations; (2) design and operation of existing plants; (3) knowledge of process fundamentals; (4) performance testing; (5) specification of feed gas; (6) catalyst life; (7) instrumentation and process control; and (8) quality of feed gas. Some of the factors which must be considered in order to achieve the ultimate capability of the Claus process are listed. There is strong evidence to support the contention that plant operators are reluctant to accept new fundamental knowledge of the Claus sulfur recovery process and are not taking advantage of its inherent potential to achieve the emission standards required, to minimize cost of tail gas cleanup systems and to minimize operating costs.

  6. Antioxidants, mechanisms, and recovery by membrane processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Laurent; Doyen, Alain

    2017-03-04

    Antioxidants molecules have a great interest for bio-food and nutraceutical industries since they play a vital role for their capacity to reduce oxidative processes. Consequently, these molecules, generally present in complex matrices, have to be fractionated and purified to characterize them and to test their antioxidant activity. However, as natural or synthetics antioxidant molecules differ in terms of structural composition and physico-chemical properties, appropriate separation technologies must be selected. Different fractionation technologies are available but the most commonly used are filtration processes. Indeed, these technologies allow fractionation according to molecular size (pressure-driven processes), charge, or both size and charge (electrically driven processes). In this context, and after summarizing the reaction mechanisms of the different classes and nature of antioxidants as well as membrane fractionation technologies, this manuscript presents the specific applications of these membranes processes for the recovery of antioxidant molecules.

  7. Uranium recovery from slags of metallic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornarolo, F.; Frajndlich, E.U.C.; Durazzo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Center of the Nuclear Fuel of the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research - IPEN finished the program of attainment of fuel development for research reactors the base of Uranium Scilicet (U 3 Si 2 ) from Hexafluoride of Uranium (UF 6 ) with enrichment 20% in weight of 235 U. In the process of attainment of the league of U 3 Si 2 we have as Uranium intermediate product the metallic one whose attainment generates a slag contend Uranium. The present work shows the results gotten in the process of recovery of Uranium in slags of calcined slags of Uranium metallic. Uranium the metallic one is unstable, pyrophoricity and extremely reactive, whereas the U 3 O 8 is a steady oxide of low chemical reactivity, what it justifies the process of calcination of slags of Uranium metallic. The calcination of the Uranium slag of the metallic one in oxygen presence reduces Uranium metallic the U 3 O 8 . Experiments had been developed varying it of acid for Uranium control and excess, nitric molar concentration gram with regard to the stoichiometric leaching reaction of temperature of the leaching process. The 96,0% income proves the viability of the recovery process of slags of Uranium metallic, adopting it previous calcination of these slags in nitric way with low acid concentration and low temperature of leaching. (author)

  8. Loop transfer recovery for general observer architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Søgaard-Andersen, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    A general and concise formulation is given of the loop transfer recovery (LTR) design problem based on recovery errors. Three types of recovery errors are treated: open loop recovery, sensitivity recovery and input-output recovery errors. The three corresponding versions of the asymptotic recovery...... recovery cases. This general recovery formulation covers all known observer based compensator types as special cases. The conditions given in this setting are effectively the aim of all known LTR design methods. The recovery formulation is interpreted in terms of a modelmatching problem as well, which...... is examined by means of the Q-parametrization. It is shown how the general controller obtained by the Q-parametrization can be written as a Luenberger observer based controller. In all cases, n controller states suffice to achieve recovery. The compensators are characterized for errors both on the input...

  9. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium-recovery results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.

    1983-08-01

    The TRIO-01 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery from γ-LiAlO 2 with test conditions chosen to simulate those anticipated in fusion power reactors. A status report is presented which describes qualitatively the results observed during the irradiation phase of the experiment. Both the rate of tritium release and the chemical forms of tritium were measured using a helium sweep gas which flowed past the breeder material to a gas analysis system

  10. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium recovery results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.

    1983-10-01

    The TRIO-01 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery from γ-LiAlO 2 with test conditions chosen to simulate those anticipated in fusion power reactors. A status report is presented which describes qualitatively the results observed during the irradiation phase of the experiment. Both the rate of tritium release and the chemical forms of tritium were measured using a helium sweep gas which flowed past the breeder material to a gas analysis system

  11. Citizenship and recovery: two intertwined concepts for civic-recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-François; Corbière, Marc; Lecomte, Tania; Briand, Catherine; Corrigan, Patrick; Davidson, Larry; Rowe, Michael

    2015-03-04

    Validation of the psychometric properties of a new measure of citizenship was required for a research project in the province of Quebec, Canada. This study was meant to study the interplay between recovery- and citizenship-oriented supportive employment. As recovery and citizenship were expected to be two related concepts, convergent validity between the Citizenship Measure (CM) and the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was tested. Study objectives were to: 1) conduct exploratory factor analyses on the CM and confirmatory factor analysis on the RAS tools (construct validity), 2) calculate Cronbach's alphas for each dimension emerging from objective 1 (reliability), and 3) calculate correlations between all dimensions from both tools (convergent validity). Data were collected from 174 individuals with serious mental illness, working in social firms. Serious mental illnesses include major depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder. Five factors emerged from the exploratory factor analysis of the CM, with good reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the short and the long versions of the RAS present satisfactory results. Finally, the correlation matrix indicated that all dimensions from both tools are significantly correlated, thus confirming their convergent validity. This study confirms the validity and reliability of two tools, CM and RAS. These tools can be used in combination to assess citizenship and recovery, both of which may be combined in the new concept of civic-recovery.

  12. Chemical radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, G.

    1979-01-01

    A reivew of the problems and progress in the field of chemical radioprotection is given. After defining the field of research, the practical significance of radioprotective substances and the requirements for a utilizable radioprotective preparation are presented. Trends of development of this field of research, the state of the art, and resulting conclusions for the future development of radioprotective substances of practical value are discussed. (author)

  13. Chemicals Industry New Process Chemistry Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-08-01

    The Materials Technology I workshop was held in November 1998 to address future research needs for materials technology that will support the chemical industry. Areas covered included disassembly, recovery, reuse and renewable technology; new materials; and materials measurement and characterization. The Materials Technology II workshop was held in September 1999 and covered additives, modeling and prediction and an additional segment on new materials. Materials Technology Institute (MTI) for the Chemical Process Industries, Inc. and Air Products & Chemicals lead the workshops. The Materials Technology Roadmap presents the results from both workshops.

  14. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  15. Quantification of biomolecules in herring (Clupea harengus) industry processing waters and their recovery using electroflocculation and ultrafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ali; Gringer, Nina; Svendsen, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Four types of herring industry processing waters; refrigerated sea water (RSW), storage water (SW), processing water from cutting (PW) and pre-salting brines (SB) were subjected to chemical characterization and biomolecule recovery using electroflocculation (EF) and ultrafiltration (UF). The high......Four types of herring industry processing waters; refrigerated sea water (RSW), storage water (SW), processing water from cutting (PW) and pre-salting brines (SB) were subjected to chemical characterization and biomolecule recovery using electroflocculation (EF) and ultrafiltration (UF...

  16. The Role of Attrition and Solids Recovery in a Chemical Looping Combustion Process Effet de l’attrition et de la récupération des particules dans le procédé de combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramp M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the steady-state behavior of a Chemical Looping Combustion process of interconnected fluidized bed reactors is simulated. The simulations have been carried out in two different scales, 50 kWth and 100 MWth. Attrition model derived from small scale laboratory experiments has been employed for the prediction of the process behavior in terms of attrition and Oxygen Carrier loss. Information on Oxygen Carrier characteristics and reaction kinetics were taken from literature. Realistic circulation mass flows of Oxygen Carrier particles are obtained and Oxygen Carrier losses are quantified. The large scale process looses significantly more Oxygen Carrier than the small scale process based on the same amount of thermal energy produced. Incomplete conversion in the air reactor could be identified as a critical point. Another issue is the fuel gas bypassing the Oxygen Carrier particles through bubbles in the large scale process which leads to lowered fuel conversions. The simulations indicate that a similar performance of a pilot scale and a large scale process is not guaranteed due to the scale-up effect on fluid dynamics. Furthermore, the simulations allow an assessment of the influence of the quality of the solids recovery system on the Oxygen Carrier loss. The distribution of the losses between possible origins is investigated and different changes in the solids recovery system are discussed regarding their potential to decrease the Oxygen Carrier loss. For example, the addition of a second-stage cyclone after the air reactor of the large scale process reduces the Oxygen Carrier loss significantly. Le présent travail propose un modèle de simulation en continu du procédé de combustion en boucle chimique constitué de deux lits fluidisés interconnectés. Les simulations ont été conduites à deux échelles 50 kWth correspondant à une installation pilote et 100 MWth correspondant à une installation industrielle. Un modèle d

  17. Scaling up of renewable chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Karl; Chotani, Gopal; Danielson, Nathan; Zahn, James A

    2016-04-01

    The transition of promising technologies for production of renewable chemicals from a laboratory scale to commercial scale is often difficult and expensive. As a result the timeframe estimated for commercialization is typically underestimated resulting in much slower penetration of these promising new methods and products into the chemical industries. The theme of 'sugar is the next oil' connects biological, chemical, and thermochemical conversions of renewable feedstocks to products that are drop-in replacements for petroleum derived chemicals or are new to market chemicals/materials. The latter typically offer a functionality advantage and can command higher prices that result in less severe scale-up challenges. However, for drop-in replacements, price is of paramount importance and competitive capital and operating expenditures are a prerequisite for success. Hence, scale-up of relevant technologies must be interfaced with effective and efficient management of both cell and steel factories. Details involved in all aspects of manufacturing, such as utilities, sterility, product recovery and purification, regulatory requirements, and emissions must be managed successfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  19. Experimental study on mass transfer of contaminants through an enthalpy recovery unit with polymer membrane foils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Fang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experimental studies were conducted to investigate the mass transfer of contaminants through a total heat recovery unit with polymer membranes foils. The studies were conducted in twin climate chambers which simulated outdoor and indoor thermal climates. One manufacturd total heat...... chemical gases were used to simulate air contaminants. The concentrations of dosed contaminants in the supply and exhaust air upstream and downstream of the total heat recovery unit were measured with Multi-Gas Monitor Innova 1316 in real time. Experiment results showed that 5% to 9% of dosed contaminants...... could transfer from exhaust air to supply air through the enthalpy recovery unit. The mass transfer efficiency of contaminants was independent of the hygro-thermal differences between indoor and outdoor climate conditions. The mass transfer ratio of the chemical contaminants in the total heat recovery...

  20. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  1. Device for controlling gas recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichioka, Atsushi.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a controlling device for UF 6 gas recovery device, which can increase working efficiency and to discriminate normality and abnormality of the recovery device. Constitution: The gas recovery device comprises a plurality of traps, which are connected in series. The UF 6 gas is introduced into the first trap where adsorbing work is taken place to accumulate UF 6 gases, and the UF 6 gases partly flow into the succeeding trap. Even in this trap, when the adsorbing work begins, the succeeding trap is operated in series fashion. In this manner, two traps are continuously operated to recover the gases while performing the steps of adsorbing, waiting and regenerating in that order. The switching operation of the aforesaid steps is accomplished on the basis of concentration of the UF 6 detected between two traps, which are continuously driven. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Uranium recovery from AVLIS slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, A.E.; Mycroft, J.R.; Oliver, A.J.; Schneider, P.G.; Richardson, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Uranium metal for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) project was to have been produced by the magnesiothermic reduction of uranium tetrafluoride. The other product from this reaction is a magnesium fluoride slag, which contains fine and entrained natural uranium as metal and oxide. Recovery of the uranium through conventional mill leaching would not give a magnesium residue free of uranium but to achieve more complete uranium recovery requires the destruction of the magnesium fluoride matrix and liberation of the entrapped uranium. Alternate methods of carrying out such treatments and the potential for recovery of other valuable byproducts were examined. Based on the process flowsheets, a number of economic assessments were performed, conclusions were drawn and the preferred processing alternatives were identified. (author)

  3. Fluid diversion in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimir, Hassan B.

    1999-01-01

    In any oil recovery process, large scale heterogeneities, such as fractures, channels, or high-permeability streaks, can cause early break through of injected fluid which will reduce oil recovery efficiency. In waterflooding, enhanced oil recovery, and acidizing operations, this problem is particularly acute because of the cost of the injected fluid. On the other hand coping with excess water production is always a challenging task for field operators. The cost of handling and disposing produced water can significantly shorten the economic production life of an oil well. The hydrostatic pressure created by high fluid levels in a well (water coning) is also detrimental to oil production. In this paper, the concept of fluid diversion is explained. Different methods that are suggested to divert the fluid into the oil-bearing-zones are briefly discussed, to show their advantages and disadvantages. Methods of reducing water production in production well are also discussed. (Author)

  4. The Dutch "Crisis and Recovery Act": Economic recovery and legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Netherlands, the 2010 Crisis and Recovery Act aims at speeding up decisionmaking on a wide variety of activities, hoping that after the financial and economic crisis has passed, development projects can immediately be carried out without any delay caused by legal procedures in court or elsewhere. The Act meets ...

  5. Dynamic recovery in nanocrystalline Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.; Van Petegem, S.; Cervellino, A.; Durst, K.; Blum, W.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2015-01-01

    The constant flow stress reached during uniaxial deformation of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni reflects a quasi-stationary balance between dislocation slip and grain boundary (GB) accommodation mechanisms. Stress reduction tests allow to suppress dislocation slip and bring recovery mechanisms into the foreground. When combined with in situ X-ray diffraction it can be shown that grain boundary recovery mechanisms play an important role in producing plastic strain while hardening the microstructure. This result has a significant consequence for the parameters of thermally activated glide of dislocations, such as athermal stress and activation volume, which are traditionally derived from stress/strain rate change tests

  6. Short recovery time NMR probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramia, M.E.; Martin, C.A.; Jeandrevin, S.

    2011-01-01

    A NMR probe for low frequency and short recovery time is presented in this work. The probe contains the tuning circuit, diode expanders and quarter wavelength networks to protect the receiver from both the amplifier noise and the coil ringing following the transmitter power pulse. It also possesses a coil damper which is activated by of non active components. The probe performance shows a recovery time of about of 15μs a sensitive Q factor reduction and an increase of the signal to noise ratio of about 68% during the reception at a work frequency of 2 MHz. (author)

  7. Recovery of uranium by chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoto, Shigetoshi; Taki, Tomihiro

    1988-01-01

    The recovery of uranium from uraniferous phosphate by conventional process is generally uneconomic, except that uranium is recovered as a by-product. If an economical process by which uranium is recovered efficiently as a chief product is discovered, uraniferous phosphate will be used effectively as uranium ore. By using chiorination which will be expected to be favorable in comparison with conventional process, the recovery of uranium from uraniferous phosphate has been carried out. The paper describes the reaction machanism and general characteristics of the uranium chiorination, and the research done so for. (author)

  8. Chemical dependency and adolescent self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, D; Anderson, M A

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to determine whether self-esteem differs between chemically dependent adolescents and adolescents from the general high school population. The Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1987) was completed by 119 adolescents (31 inpatient, 31 aftercare, and 57 general high school students) aged 13 to 18. Findings suggest that inpatient, chemically dependent adolescents have lower self-esteem than the other two groups. For the chemically dependent adolescent, nursing case management with communication among and between health care providers, school professionals, and family may facilitate successful, long-term recovery. For adolescents at risk for development of chemical dependence, nursing health promotion behaviors, such as early assessment and implementation of self-esteem-building activities, may assist in prevention of chemical dependency.

  9. Recovery of mineral oil from waste emulsion using electrocoagulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Mohd Najib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research to recover mineral oil from industrial waste emulsion. This research also evaluates the standard of water produced after the oil recovery. The ecosystem could be polluted if this waste is not treated prior to discharge. The equipment needed for this experiment is power supply (generator, connecting wire and metal plate for providing the coagulant. The chosen plates were aluminium and iron plate. The power supply will be connected to the plate producing anode (positive terminal and cathode (negative terminal. Both plates are immersed into a beaker containing waste emulsion. The charge supplied by the current will cause the aluminium or ferum to dissisipate and became ions. These ions will attract the oil to flock together and float at the surface. The water will then filter by using filter paper. Electrocoagulation was done without addition of chemical thus can prevent the hazard from the chemicals. The samples was sent for oil and grease test. The optimum time needed for recovery of oil was 3 hours. The percentage recovery reach constant trend of 95% afterwards. When the power consumption increases, the percentage recovery also increases. However, the current should be lower than 0.5 ampere as it is the limit that human body can withstand. Thus, power consumption of 27.5 Watt was chosen as optimum value. The oil recovery of at power consumption at 27.5W is 96%. The best plate in the process was the aluminium pair which can recover more than ferum plate. The present work concludes the promising future for waste water treatment by usage of electrocoagulation technique.

  10. Development of alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP flooding technology for recovery of Karazhanbas oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birzhan Zhappasbaev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary oil recovery methods like alkaline, surfactant and polymer (ASP flooding are very perspective in order to achieve the synergetic effect out of the different impacts which are caused by these chemicals, which affect oil and water filtration in the reservoir and increase oil recovery. In this communication, we consider the applicability of hydrophobically modified polyampholyte – poly(hexadecylaminocrotonatebetaine (PHDACB as ASP flooding agent for recovery of oil from Karazhanbas oilfield. As “polysoap”, the aqueous solution of PHDACB dissolved in aqueous KOH was used. This system combines the advantages of alkaline, surfactant and polymer and exhibits the synergistic effect. The laboratory results showed that the ASP flooding considerably increases the oil recovery in addition to water flooding. In perspective, the ASP flooding may substitute the steam injection and other thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR technologies.

  11. CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL COVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Novak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A challenge for the environmental recovery of degraded areas is the search for soil data. In this process, the microbiological parameters and soil chemicals are potential indicators of soil quality. This study aimed to evaluate soil quality based on microbiological and chemical soil attributes in different areas involving environmental recovery, sugarcane cultivation and remnants of native vegetation located in a rural private property farm in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Hapludox Eutrophic soil. The microbiological (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration, microbial quotient and metabolic quotient and chemical parameters (organic matter, carbon, pH, cationic exchange capacity, sum of bases, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, saturation base and potential acidity were assessed. Data were assessed by variance and multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis and cluster analysis. Overall, the results showed highest alteration in the chemical and microbiological characteristics of the soil in sugarcane cultivation area in comparison with other areas. Considering the studied recovery areas, REC1, REC5 and REC7 show chemical and microbiological conditions with most similarity to native vegetation. Despite the short period of the resilience enhancement of environmental recovery areas, the development of vegetation cover and establishment of the microbial community were determined to be important factors for improving soil quality and environmental recovery in several of the areas studied.

  12. Recovery mechanisms in nanostructured aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Commercial purity aluminium (99.5%) has been cold rolled to a true strain of 5.5 (99.6% reduction in thickness). The material is very strong but low temperature recovery may be a limiting factor. This has been investigated by isothermal annealing treatments in the temperature range 5–100C. Hardness...

  13. Integrated Resource Management and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    , depends on the quality of these resources and technological abilities to extract resources from mixed materials, e.g. mobile phones, solar cells, or mixed domestic waste. The "effort" invested in recovery of secondary resources should not be more than the "benefit" associated with the secondary resources...

  14. (Bio)electrochemical ammonia recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Rodríguez Arredondo, M.; Georg, S.; Barbosa, S.G.; Heijne, Ter A.; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, (bio)electrochemical systems (B)ES have emerged as an energy efficient alternative for the recovery of TAN (total ammonia nitrogen, including ammonia and ammonium) from wastewater. In these systems, TAN is removed or concentrated from the wastewater under the influence of an

  15. Biosurfactant and enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Michael J.; Jenneman, Gary E.; Knapp, Roy M.; Menzie, Donald E.

    1985-06-11

    A pure culture of Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 (ATCC No. 39307) and a process for using said culture and the surfactant lichenysin produced thereby for the enhancement of oil recovery from subterranean formations. Lichenysin is an effective surfactant over a wide range of temperatures, pH's, salt and calcium concentrations.

  16. Surviving ICU: Stories of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewens, Beverley A; Hendricks, Joyce M; Sundin, Deborah

    2018-02-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate stories of recovery through the lens of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Survival from ICUs is increasing, as are associated physical and psychological complications. Despite the significant impact on survivors, there is inadequate support provision in Australia and world-wide for this population. An interpretive biographical approach of intensive care survivors' experiences of recovery. Data were collected during 2014-2015 from diaries, face to face interviews, memos and field notes. Six participants diarized for 3 months commencing 2 months after hospital discharge. At 5 months, participants were interviewed about the content of their diaries and symbols and signifiers in them to create a shared meaning. Analysis of diaries and interviews were undertaken using two frameworks to identify themes throughout participants' stories and provides a unique portrait of recovery through their individual lens. Participants considered their lives had irreparably changed and yet felt unsupported by a healthcare system that had "saved" them. This view through their lens identified turmoil, which existed between their surface and inner worlds as they struggled to conform to what recovery "should be". The novel biographical methods provided a safe and creative way to reveal survivors' inner thoughts and feelings. Participants' considered creating their stories supported their recovery process and in particular enabled them to reflect on their progress. Findings from this study may lead to increased awareness among health care providers about problems survivors face and improved support services more broadly, based on frameworks appropriate for this population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Defining recovery in adult bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jessica; Agras, W Stewart; Bryson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    To examine how different definitions of recovery lead to varying rates of recovery, maintenance of recovery, and relapse in bulimia nervosa (BN), end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up data were obtained from 96 adults with BN. Combining behavioral, physical, and psychological criteria led to recovery rates between 15.5% and 34.4% at EOT, though relapse was approximately 50%. Combining these criteria and requiring abstinence from binge eating and purging when defining recovery may lead to lower recovery rates than those found in previous studies; however, a strength of this definition is that individuals who meet this criteria have no remaining disordered behaviors or symptoms.

  18. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasiri, Hamidreza

    2011-04-15

    enzymes on interactions in the oil/brine/solid system was studied. It was found that enzymes can change the adhesion behavior of the crude oil on glass surfaces from adhesion to non-adhesion when they are added to the brine solution. This was confirmed by contact angle measurements, which showed that contact angles became more water-wet (i.e. decreased) after exposure to enzyme solutions. Possible mechanisms giving rise to these observations, including catalysis of ester hydrolysis and enzyme adsorption, were discussed and tested. An experimental study of changes in oil-water interfacial properties by addition of enzymes and proteins, including measurements of interfacial tension and electrophoretic mobility, has been performed. It was found that the effect of enzymes on oil-water properties is minor compared to their effect on oil-water-solid properties. Their contribution to change interfacial tension between oil and water is not significant while they affect the electrophoretic mobility of emulsified oil in enzyme-brine solution to some extent. Attempts were also made to study changes in both oil and water phase composition after equilibration with enzymes. However, since the chemical composition of crude oil is highly complex, a model oil was used in some of the experiments. The model oil was chosen to be a water insoluble ester (ethyl decanoate) solved in mineral oil in an effort to verify the possible role of catalysis of ester hydrolysis. Dynamic core displacements using sandstone and carbonate rocks were conducted to show the potential of improved oil recovery by enzyme- and combined enzyme-surfactant flooding. Most of the core flooding experiments commenced with water flooding from initial water saturation, Swi, (established with synthetic sea water) which will be referred to as secondary mode displacements. Accordingly, tertiary oil recovery processes were used to describe injection of enzyme and/or enzyme-surfactant solutions from residual oil saturation, Sor

  19. Advances in primary recovery: centrifugation and membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, David J; Lu, Yuefeng

    2008-01-01

    recovery processes has become substantially more complicated. Ironically, the application of classical chemical engineering approaches to overcome issues in primary recovery and purification (e.g., turbidity and trace impurity removal) are just recently gaining attention. Some of these techniques (e.g., membrane cascades, pretreatment, precipitation, and the use of affinity tags) are now seen almost as disruptive technologies. This paper will review the current and potential future state of research on primary recovery, including relevant papers presented at the 234th American Chemical Society (ACS) National Meeting in Boston.

  20. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less

  1. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  2. Microfluidics: an enabling screening technology for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Victor A

    2016-05-21

    Oil production is a critical industrial process that affects the entire world population and any improvements in its efficiency while reducing its environmental impact are of utmost societal importance. The paper reviews recent applications of microfluidics and microtechnology to study processes of oil extraction and recovery. It shows that microfluidic devices can be useful tools in investigation and visualization of such processes used in the oil & gas industry as fluid propagation, flooding, fracturing, emulsification and many others. Critical macro-scale processes that define oil extraction and recovery are controlled by the micro-scale processes based on wetting, adhesion, surface tension, colloids and other concepts of microfluidics. A growing number of research efforts demonstrates that microfluidics is becoming, albeit slowly, an accepted methodology in this area. We propose several areas of development where implementation of microfluidics may bring about deeper understanding and hence better control over the processes of oil recovery based on fluid propagation, droplet generation, wettability control. Studies of processes such as hydraulic fracturing, sand particle propagation in porous networks, high throughput screening of chemicals (for example, emulsifiers and surfactants) in microfluidic devices that simulate oil reservoirs are proposed to improve our understanding of these complicated physico-chemical systems. We also discuss why methods of additive manufacturing (3D printing) should be evaluated for quick prototyping and modification of the three-dimensional structures replicating natural oil-bearing rock formations for studies accessible to a wider audience of researchers.

  3. Production and Recovery of Pyruvic Acid: Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit; Mazumdar, Bidyut; Kumar, Awanish; Uslu, Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Pyruvic acid is an important keto-carboxylic acid and can be manufactured by both chemical synthesis and biotechnological routes. In the present paper an overview of recent developments and challenges in various existing technique for the production and recovery of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth or from waste streams has been presented. The main obstacle in biotechnological production of pyruvic acid is development of suitable microorganism which can provide high yield and selectivity. On the other hand, technical limitation in recovery of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth is that, it could not be separated as other carboxylic acid in the form of salts by addition of alkali. Besides, pyruvic acid cannot be crystallized. Commercial separation by distillation is very expensive because pyruvic acid decomposes at higher temperature. It is also chemically reactive due to its peculiar molecular structure and has tendency to polymerize. Thus, at high concentration the various type of reaction leads to lower yield of the product, and hence, conventional methods are not favorable. Alternate separation technologies viable to both synthetic and biological routes are the current research areas. Latest techniques such as reactive extraction is new to the field of recovery of pyruvic acid. Recent development and future prospects in downstream processing of biochemically produced pyruvic acids has been discussed in this review article.

  4. Novel approaches to microbial enhancement of oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryachko, Yuriy

    2018-01-20

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) was shown to be feasible in a number of laboratory experiments and field trials. However, it has not been widely used in the oil industry because necessary conditions cannot always be easily established in an oil reservoir. Novel approaches to MEOR, which are based on newly discovered biosurfactant-mediated MEOR-mechanisms, are discussed in this review. Particularly, the possibility of combining MEOR with chemical enhancement of oil recovery in heterogeneous oil reservoirs, which involves rock surface wettability shifts and emulsion inversions, is discussed. In wider (centimeter/millimeter-scale) rock pores, the activity of (bio)surfactants and microbial cells attached to oil may allow releasing trapped oil blobs through oil-in-water emulsification. After no more oil can be emulsified, the addition of alkali or surfactants, which turn rock surface oil-wet, may help release oil droplets trapped in narrow (micrometer-scale) pores through coalescence of the droplets and water-in-oil emulsification. Experiments demonstrating the possibility of (bio)surfactant-mediated enhancement of immiscible gas-driven oil recovery are also reviewed. Interestingly, very low (bio)surfactant concentrations were shown to be needed for enhancement of immiscible gas-driven oil recovery. Some possible side effects of MEOR, such as unintended bioplugging and microbially influenced corrosion (MIC), are discussed as well. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Perspective: Ecological recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory studies were designed to characterize the initial effects and subsequent rate of ecosystem recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. These studies were organized within an ecological risk assessment framework wherein measurements of residual spill hydrocarbons from specific environmental compartments were correlated with observed biological effects for resident species and communities. This allowed an assessment of the likelihood of spill-related effects vs. effects of natural ecosystem variability. Measurement of polycyclic automatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were made from throughout the spill-affected area for water column, intertidal shoreline sediments and deep subtidal sediments. Data document the expected high levels of PAH in 1989 with rapid PAH decreases in following years from all compartments reflecting natural assimilation and dissipation via chemical, physical and biological processes. Parallel investigations of risks to biological resources representing major trophic levels were conducted to quantify recovery rates of spill impacted habitats and resident species. Results are summarized documenting respective recovery rates for key trophic levels including intertidal flora and fauna, benthic invertebrates and infauna, herring and salmon, shorebirds and colonial seabirds and sea otters. Quantitative data developed for these species support the conclusion that the effects of oil spills are largely short-term acute events, and the Prince William Sound recovery was well advanced by 1991

  6. CAMEO Chemicals Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMEO Chemicals is an extensive chemical database, available for download, with critical response information for thousands of chemicals, and a tool that tells you what reactions might occur if chemicals were mixed together.

  7. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  8. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR.

  9. Do Training Programs Work? An Assessment of Pharmacists Activities in the Field of Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Valerie G.; Brock, Tina Penick; Ahn, Jungeun

    2001-01-01

    Seeks to determine if pharmacists who attended a chemical dependency training program were performing more chemical dependency related activities. Results reveal that participants were more likely to perform the following activities: lecture to community groups about chemical dependency; participate in a pharmacists' recovery program; provide…

  10. Rapid and spontaneous recovery in autistic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Pargaonkar, Amol

    2009-01-01

    Recovery in autistic disorder is rare. There are few reports of recovery from autistic disorder after a few years of therapeutic intervention. We report here a case of autistic disorder who recovered spontaneously without any intervention in 13 days.

  11. Addiction recovery: its definition and conceptual boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William L

    2007-10-01

    The addiction field's failure to achieve consensus on a definition of "recovery" from severe and persistent alcohol and other drug problems undermines clinical research, compromises clinical practice, and muddles the field's communications to service constituents, allied service professionals, the public, and policymakers. This essay discusses 10 questions critical to the achievement of such a definition and offers a working definition of recovery that attempts to meet the criteria of precision, inclusiveness, exclusiveness, measurability, acceptability, and simplicity. The key questions explore who has professional and cultural authority to define recovery, the defining ingredients of recovery, the boundaries (scope and depth) of recovery, and temporal benchmarks of recovery (when recovery begins and ends). The process of defining recovery touches on some of the most controversial issues within the addictions field.

  12. Microbial Heat Recovery Cell (MHRC) System Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    This factsheet describes a project that aimed to develop a microbial heat recovery cell (MHRC) system that combines a microbial reverse electrodialysis technology with waste heat recovery to convert industrial effluents into electricity and hydrogen.

  13. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  14. SPECT imaging with resolution recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)

  15. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit for propelling a projectile along a railgun the counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit consists of: a railgun having an effective inductance; a source inductor initially charged to an initial current; current means for initially charging the source inductor to the initial current; first current-zero type switching means; second current-zero type switching; third current-zero type switching; muzzle current-zero type switching means; transfer capacitor, the transfer capacitor is for cooperating with the first, second, third, and muzzle current-zero type switching means for providing a resonant circuit for transferring current from the source inductor to the effective inductance of the railgun during the propelling of a projectile along the railgun and for returning current from the effective inductance of the railgun to the source inductance after the projectile has exited the railgun

  16. Buddhist Approaches to Addiction Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramabandhu Groves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Buddha recognized addiction problems and advised his followers accordingly, although this was not the primary focus of his teachings. Thailand and Japan, which have long-standing Buddhist traditions, have developed Buddhist influenced responses to addiction. With its emphasis on craving and attachment, an understanding of the workings of the mind, as well as practices to work with the mind, Buddhism lends itself as a rich resource to assist addiction recovery. The twelve step movement has been an impetus to making use of ideas and practices from Buddhism. In particular, mindfulness, has started to be used to support addiction recovery, with promising results. Exploration of other areas of Buddhism is beginning, and may provide additional benefit in the future.

  17. Uranium recovery from mine water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    In many plant trials it has been proven that very small amounts (10 to 20 ppm) of uranium dissolved in mine water can be effectively recovered by the use of ion exchange resins and this uranium recovery has many advantages. In this paper an economic analysis at different levels of uranium contamination and at different market prices of uranium are described. For this study an operating mine-mill complex with a sulphuric acid leach circuit, followed by solvent extraction (SX) process, is considered, where contaminated mine water is available in excess of process requirements. It is further assumed that the sulphuric acid eluant containing uranium would be mixed with the mill pregnant liquor stream that proceeds to the SX plant for final uranium recovery

  18. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-01-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function......, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study...... was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery...

  19. Conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.; Qu, Haiyan; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2013-01-01

    ) and purification of target compound(s) from the crude extract. Process analytical technology (PAT) is used in each step to understand the nature of material systems and separation characteristics of each separation method. In the present work, this methodology is applied to generate process flow sheet for recovery......A systematic method of conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from their biological sources is presented. This methodology divides the task into two major subtasks namely, isolation of target compound from a chemically complex solid matrix of biological source (crude extract...... in individual unit operations of maceration, flash column chromatography, and crystallization are 90.0%, 87.1, and 47.6%, respectively. Results showed that the crystallization step is dominant to the overall yield of the process which was 37.3%....

  20. Accelerated recovery after cardiac operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Mehmet; Kut, Mustafa Sinan; Yurtseven, Nurgul; Cimen, Serdar; Demirtas, Mahmut Murat

    2002-01-01

    The accelerated-recovery approach, involving early extubation, early mobility, decreased duration of intensive care unit stay, and decreased duration of hospitalization has recently become a controversial issue in cardiac surgery. We investigated timing of extubation, length of intensive care unit stay, and duration of hospitalization in 225 consecutive cardiac surgery patients. Of the 225 patients, 139 were male and 86 were female; average age was 49.73 +/- 16.95 years. Coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 127 patients; 65 patients underwent aortic and/or mitral or pulmonary valvular operations; 5 patients underwent valvular plus coronary artery operations; and in 28 patients surgical interventions for congenital anomalies were carried out. The accelerated-recovery approach could be applied in 169 of the 225 cases (75.11%). Accelerated-recovery patients were extubated after an average of 3.97 +/- 1.59 hours, and the average duration of stay in the intensive care unit was 20.93 +/- 2.44 hours for these patients. Patients were discharged if they met all of the following criteria: hemodynamic stability, cooperativeness, ability to initiate walking exercises within wards, lack of pathology in laboratory investigations, and psychological readiness for discharge. Mean duration of hospitalization for accelerated-recovery patients was 4.24 +/- 0.75 days. Two patients (1.18%) who were extubated within the first 6 hours required reintubation. Four patients (2.36%) who were sent to the wards returned to intensive care unit due to various reasons and 6 (3.55%) of the discharged patients were rehospitalized. Approaches for decreasing duration of intubation, intensive care unit stay and hospitalization may be applied in elective and uncomplicated cardiac surgical interventions with short duration of aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass, without risking patients. Frequencies of reintubation, return to intensive care unit, and rehospitalization are quite

  1. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  2. Intracellular recovery - basis of hyperfractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, U.; Guttenberger, R.; Kummermehr, J.

    1988-01-01

    The radiobiological basis fo a hyperfractionated radiation therapy versus conventional fractionation with respect to therapeutic gain, i.e., improved normal tissue sparing for the same level of tumour cell inactivation, will be presented. Data on the recovery potential of various tissues as well as the kinetics of repair will be given. The problem of incomplete repair with short irradiation intervals will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  4. Recovery Following Bereavement: Metaphor, Phenomenology, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of recovery following bereavement can be both useful and misleading. As a metaphor, the concept of recovery highlights some aspects of bereavement and obscures others. Bereaved people interviewed in 3 different studies typically did not bring up the term recovery so it did not seem to be a term that described their experience. Across…

  5. Magnetic blocking direct-recovery efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whealton, J.H.; Wooten, J.H.; McGaffey, R.W.

    1981-10-01

    The ion recovery efficiency of a transverse magnetic field monochromatic direct recovery device intended for intense neutral beams is examined theoretically by solving a Poisson-Vlasov equation. An optimum in recovery efficiency is obtained for finite ion current density and excess initial speed

  6. Launch and Recovery System Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    water. Goldie [21] suggests a sled or cart recovery system for use with UAV’s on the Littoral Combatant Ship (LCS) and other small deck navy ships...21. Goldie , J., “A Recovery System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Aboard LCS and other Small-Deck Navy Ships,” ASNE Launch and Recovery of

  7. Polarization recovery through scattering media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Hilton B; Gigan, Sylvain; Brasselet, Sophie

    2017-09-01

    The control and use of light polarization in optical sciences and engineering are widespread. Despite remarkable developments in polarization-resolved imaging for life sciences, their transposition to strongly scattering media is currently not possible, because of the inherent depolarization effects arising from multiple scattering. We show an unprecedented phenomenon that opens new possibilities for polarization-resolved microscopy in strongly scattering media: polarization recovery via broadband wavefront shaping. We demonstrate focusing and recovery of the original injected polarization state without using any polarizing optics at the detection. To enable molecular-level structural imaging, an arbitrary rotation of the input polarization does not degrade the quality of the focus. We further exploit the robustness of polarization recovery for structural imaging of biological tissues through scattering media. We retrieve molecular-level organization information of collagen fibers by polarization-resolved second harmonic generation, a topic of wide interest for diagnosis in biomedical optics. Ultimately, the observation of this new phenomenon paves the way for extending current polarization-based methods to strongly scattering environments.

  8. Advanced regenerative heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A.; Jasti, J. K.

    1982-02-01

    A regenerative heat recovery system was designed and fabricated to deliver 1500 scfm preheated air to a maximum temperature of 1600 F. Since this system is operating at 2000 F, the internal parts were designed to be fabricated with ceramic materials. This system is also designed to be adaptable to an internal metallic structure to operate in the range of 1100 to 1500 F. A test facility was designed and fabricated to test this system. The test facility is equipped to impose a pressure differential of up to 27 inches of water column in between preheated air and flue gas lines for checking possible leakage through the seals. The preliminary tests conducted on the advanced regenerative heat recovery system indicate the thermal effectiveness in the range of 60% to 70%. Bench scale studies were conducted on various ceramic and gasket materials to identify the proper material to be used in high temperature applications. A market survey was conducted to identify the application areas for this heat recovery system. A cost/benefit analysis showed a payback period of less than one and a half years.

  9. Chemical Characterisation of Printed Circuit Board Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobri, S; Ali, A H M, E-mail: eeza@eng.upm.edu.my [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Manufacturing of PCBs is highly complicated and involves many processes. Recycling of PCB wastewater receives wide concerns as the recent international growth in the electronics industry has generated a drastic increase in the amount of waste PCBs with profound environmental impacts such as soil and groundwater contamination. This paper reports on the chemical characterization of PCB wastewater as the initial investigation for selective metal recovery.

  10. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  11. Optimization of Surfactant Mixtures and Their Interfacial Behavior for Advanced Oil Recovery, Annual Report, September 30, 1999-September 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaran, Prof. P.

    2001-04-04

    The goal of this report is to develop improved extraction processes to mobilize and produce the oil left untapped using conventional techniques. Current chemical schemes for recovering the residual oil have been in general less than satisfactory. High cost of the processes as well as significant loss of chemicals by adsorption on reservoir materials and precipitation has limited the utility of chemical-flooding operations. There is a need to develop cost-effective, improved reagent schemes to increase recovery from domestic oil reservoirs. The goal of the report was to develop and evaluate novel mixtures of surfactants for improved oil recovery.

  12. Numerical approach for enhanced oil recovery with surfactant flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Keshtkar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The remained oil in the reservoir after conventional water-flooding processes, forms a dispersed phase in the form of oil drops which is trapped by capillary forces and is almost about 70% of the original oil in the place (OOIP. To reduce oil residual saturation in laboratory experiments and field projects, surfactant flooding is effective via decreasing the interfacial tension mobility ratio between oil and water phases. Estimation of the role of design variables, like chemical concentrations, partition coefficient and injection rate in different performance quantities, considering a heterogeneous and multiphase oil reservoir is a critical stage for optimal design. Increasing demand for oil production from water-flooded reservoirs has caused an increasing interest in surfactant-polymer (SP and alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP. Modeling minimizes the risk of high cost of chemicals by improving our insight of process. In the present paper, a surfactant compositional flood model for a three-component (water, petroleum and surfactant, two phase (aqueous and oleic system is studied. A homogeneous, two-dimensional, isothermal reservoir with no free gas or alkali is assumed. The governing equations are in three categories: the continuity equations for the transport of each component, Darcy's equation for the transport of each phase and other auxiliary equations. The equations are solved by finite-differences using a procedure implicit in pressure and explicit in saturation. The validation of the model is achieved through comparing the modeling results with CMG simulators and Buckley–Leverett theory. The results of modeling showed good agreement with CMG results, and the comparison with Buckley–Leverett theory is explained according to different assumptions. After validation of the model, in order to investigate sensitivity analysis, the effects of system variables (partition coefficient, surface tension, oil viscosity and surface injection

  13. Determing the fate of selected antibiotics during nitrogen recovery via urea-formaldehdye synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kashobwe, Lackson

    2016-01-01

    The work presented here focused on the determination of fate of four selected antibiot-ics: enrofloaxicin, oxytetracyline, sulfamethoxazole and tylosin during nitrogen recovery from source separated urine via urea formaldehyde synthesis. The experimental pH was at 2 and temperature at 25°C throughout the chemical reaction, preventing urea hydroly-sis. Five main chemical reactions: aqueous + antibiotics, Urine + formaldehyde + antibi-otics (UF synthesis experiment), urea-formaldehyde polymer +...

  14. Substances stimulating recovery for radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, A; Yonezawa, M; Katoh, N [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1978-11-01

    A relationship between radiation injury and its recovery (intracellular recovery, intercellular recovery, or individual recovery) was discussed. In addition to histological researches in Japan, some substances (free radicals, endotoxin, vaccine, crude drugs, tissue extracts, blood platelet, etc.) stimulating recovery for radiation injury were introduced, and the progress of the study by the authors was summarized. Effects of a root of Panax ginseng (it is believed to accelerate segmentation of marrow cells, and synthesis of DNA and protein in rats and men), methods of its extracting and administration, its influences upon hemogram and organ weight in animal experiments, exclusion of side effects, period of administration, and purification of its effective components were reported.

  15. The effect of chemical anti-inhibitors on fibrinolytic enzymes and inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, J; Kluft, C

    1997-01-01

    proteases. We studied the influence of chemical anti-inhibitors (chloramine T, flufenamate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and methylamine) on fibrinolytic serine proteases and fibrinolytic enzyme inhibitors using the physiological substrate fibrin as plasmin substrate. Low concentrations of chloramine T (0.01 mmol......%) and plasminogen activators (apparent recovery > 200%). Sodium lauryl sulfate eliminates the major fibrinolytic enzyme inhibitors, but increases the activity of plasmin (apparent recovery > 200%) and plasminogen activator, urokinase type (apparent recovery 130%). Methylamine affects only plasmin inhibition. We...

  16. Recovery of Corneal Endothelial Cells from Periphery after Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ouk Choi

    Full Text Available Wound healing of the endothelium occurs through cell enlargement and migration. However, the peripheral corneal endothelium may act as a cell resource for the recovery of corneal endothelium in endothelial injury.To investigate the recovery process of corneal endothelial cells (CECs from corneal endothelial injury.Three patients with unilateral chemical eye injuries, and 15 rabbit eyes with corneal endothelial chemical injuries were studied. Slit lamp examination, specular microscopy, and ultrasound pachymetry were performed immediately after chemical injury and 1, 3, 6, and 9 months later. The anterior chambers of eyes from New Zealand white rabbits were injected with 0.1 mL of 0.05 N NaOH for 10 min (NaOH group. Corneal edema was evaluated at day 1, 7, and 14. Vital staining was performed using alizarin red and trypan blue.Specular microscopy did not reveal any corneal endothelial cells immediately after injury. Corneal edema subsided from the periphery to the center, CEC density increased, and central corneal thickness decreased over time. In the animal study, corneal edema was greater in the NaOH group compared to the control at both day 1 and day 7. At day 1, no CECs were detected at the center and periphery of the corneas in the NaOH group. Two weeks after injury, small, hexagonal CECs were detected in peripheral cornea, while CECs in mid-periphery were large and non-hexagonal.CECs migrated from the periphery to the center of the cornea after endothelial injury. The peripheral corneal endothelium may act as a cell resource for the recovery of corneal endothelium.

  17. Assessing the additional impact of Process Recovery Communications on Customer Outcomes: A Comprehensive Service Recovery Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Y. VAN VAERENBERGH; B. LARIVIÈRE; I. VERMEIR

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Services recoveries following service failures not only imply customer recovery opportunities in which customer-company relationships can be restored, they can also result in process improvements (i.e. process recoveries in literature). This paper seeks to identify the additional impact of process recoveries on four customer outcome variables (satisfaction with service recovery, overall satisfaction, repurchase intent and word-of-mouth) by communicating these improvements back to th...

  18. Is high recovery more effective than expected recovery in addressing service failure? - a moral judgment perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tong; Ma, Ke; Bian, Xuemei; Zheng, Chundong; Devlin, James

    2018-01-01

    In the context of two distinctive consumer categories and two different product settings, this research examines the effects of recovery on recovery performance as a function of consumer moral judgment of service failure. The findings of two studies reveal that consumers' response to recovery anchors on the magnitude of recovery but these responses are adjusted according to consumers' moral judgment of service failure. Specifically, consumers react more positively toward expected recovery tha...

  19. The Stigma of Mental Illness and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdibegović, Esmina; Hasanović, Mevludin

    2017-12-01

    Stigma and recovery "from" and "in" mental illness are associated in many various ways. While recovery gives opportunities, makes person stronger, gives purpose and meaning to their lives and leads to social inclusion, in the same time stigma reduces opportunities, reduces self-esteem and self-efficacy, reduces the belief in own abilities and contributes to social exclusion through discrimination. The recovery of a person with mental illness means to get and keep hope, to understand their own possibilities and impossibilities, active living, to be autonomous, to have a social identity and to give meaning and purpose of our own lives. The care system, recovery-oriented, provides help and support to people with mental disorders in his/her recovery, which contributes to reduction of self-stigma, to the elimination of stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs in mental health services which consequently may have a positive reflection in reducing the stigma of mental illness in the community. It is important to look at the stigma and recovery from the perspective of individual experience of each person with a mental illness in the process of recovery. A support to the recovery concept and the development of a recovery-oriented system of care should be one of the key segments of any strategy to combat the stigma of mental illness. Also, the cultural and the social stigma aspects of stigma would be taken into account in the developing of the recovery concept and on the recovery-oriented care system.

  20. Recovery and Performance in Sport: Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellmann, Michael; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bosquet, Laurent; Brink, Michel; Coutts, Aaron J; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Halson, Shona L; Hecksteden, Anne; Heidari, Jahan; Kallus, K Wolfgang; Meeusen, Romain; Mujika, Iñigo; Robazza, Claudio; Skorski, Sabrina; Venter, Ranel; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between recovery and fatigue and its impact on performance has attracted the interest of sport science for many years. An adequate balance between stress (training and competition load, other life demands) and recovery is essential for athletes to achieve continuous high-level performance. Research has focused on the examination of physiological and psychological recovery strategies to compensate external and internal training and competition loads. A systematic monitoring of recovery and the subsequent implementation of recovery routines aims at maximizing performance and preventing negative developments such as underrecovery, nonfunctional overreaching, the overtraining syndrome, injuries, or illnesses. Due to the inter- and intraindividual variability of responses to training, competition, and recovery strategies, a diverse set of expertise is required to address the multifaceted phenomena of recovery, performance, and their interactions to transfer knowledge from sport science to sport practice. For this purpose, a symposium on Recovery and Performance was organized at the Technical University Munich Science and Study Center Raitenhaslach (Germany) in September 2016. Various international experts from many disciplines and research areas gathered to discuss and share their knowledge of recovery for performance enhancement in a variety of settings. The results of this meeting are outlined in this consensus statement that provides central definitions, theoretical frameworks, and practical implications as a synopsis of the current knowledge of recovery and performance. While our understanding of the complex relationship between recovery and performance has significantly increased through research, some important issues for future investigations are also elaborated.

  1. Study on the chemical treatment processes of the uranium pyrochlore of Araxa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, H.F.; Fernandes, M.D.

    Several processes are presented for the chemical treatment, in laboratory scale, of the uranium pyrochlore concentrates found in Araxa (Minas Gerais, Brazil), aiming to the extraction of uranium, thorium and rare earths, besides the recovery of niobium pentoxide [pt

  2. Relevance of Linear Stability Results to Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xueru; Daripa, Prabir

    2012-11-01

    How relevant can the results based on linear stability theory for any problem for that matter be to full scale simulation results? Put it differently, is the optimal design of a system based on linear stability results is optimal or even near optimal for the complex nonlinear system with certain objectives of interest in mind? We will address these issues in the context of enhanced oil recovery by chemical flooding. This will be based on an ongoing work. Supported by Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation).

  3. ON THE RECOVERY OF HEMICELLULOSE BEFORE KRAFT PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vila,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility of implementing hemicellulose recovery stages in kraft mills, Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to aqueous treatments with hot, compressed water (autohydrolysis processing to achieve partial dissolution of xylan. Autohydrolyzed solids were subjected to kraft pulping under selected conditions to yield a pulp of low kappa number, and to an optimized TCF bleaching sequence made up of three stages (alkaline oxygen delignification, chelating, and pressurized hydrogen peroxide, with minimized additions of pulping and bleaching chemicals. The final product had a relatively low kappa number (1.4, 641 mL/g ISO intrinsic viscosity, and 86.4% brightness.

  4. Chemical Function Predictions for Tox21 Chemicals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Random forest chemical function predictions for Tox21 chemicals in personal care products uses and "other" uses. This dataset is associated with the following...

  5. Belarus oil recovery. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Belarus Oil Recovery study was sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency and funded by the Danish State Oestlandepulje. The technical work was carried out by COWIconsult, the Danish Geological Survey, and Odin Energi in cooperation with the Belarus State Oil Company, Belorusneft. Belarus, a republic of the former USSR, is a landlocked country with limited and declining oil production. Oil production was initially established in Belarus in 1964, and 56 oil fields have been discovered to date. Production reached a peak of approximately 60,000 barrels per day in the mid 70's, but current production is only about 15,000 bpd, well below the required amount for self sufficiency. The intent of this feasibility study was to determine ways of improving the production potential of the oil fields of Belarus with western technology in order to make Belarus less dependent on other energy resources and on outside supplies of hydrocarbons. All the oil fields in Belarus are located in the Pripyat Basin. The structural complexity of the fields under study coupled with the rather poor reservoir quality have resulted in low oil recoveries, and the aim of the study is to recommend technology which might improve the performance of these reservoirs. Improved well stimulation and water injection using modern western technology is likely to improve recovery from these reservoirs. If this technology proves successful in these fields, then it could be applied to the other larger oil fields in Belarus. It is anticipated that the documented results would enable financing full scale implementation of the technology utilised which could contribute toward the solution of Belarus' energy requirements. (EG)

  6. Indirect effects of recovery strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Rice, Jake

    -based models of fish communities indicate that theserelationships have lawful dynamics that continue to be expressed, even when individualspecies become rarer - as predators or as prey. An ecosystem based management recoverystrategies of a given species or group of species should therefore not be seen...... in isolation,but the expected consequences for the rest of the ecosystem must be analyzed. We use ageneral size- and trait-based model to calculate the ecosystem effects of fishing andrecovery. We present a general analysis of a recovery strategies targeting either large fishes(consumer fishery), small fishes...

  7. Yellowcake processing in uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    This information relates to the recovery of uranium from uranium peroxide yellowcake produced by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide. The yellowcake is calcined at an elevated temperature to effect decomposition of the yellowcake to uranium oxide with the attendant evolution of free oxygen. The calcination step is carried out in the presence of a reducing agent which reacts with the free oxygen, thus retarding the evolution of chlorine gas from sodium chloride in the yellowcake. Suitable reducing agents include ammonia producing compounds such as ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate. Ammonium carbonate and/or ammonium bicarbonate may be provided in the eluant used to desorb the uranium from an ion exchange column

  8. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  9. System i Disaster Recovery Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Dolewski, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Mapping out all the preparations necessary for an effective disaster recovery plan and its safeguard-a continuous maintenance program-this guide is aimed at IT managers of small and medium businesses. The opening section covers the initial steps of auditing vulnerability, ranking essential IT functions, and reviewing the storage of tape backups, with the following discussion focused on the elements of the plan itself. The plan includes a mission statement, a definition of disaster, the assignment of staff to teams, methods of compensating for human error, and standards for documenting the step

  10. Phased operations and recovery options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.

    1989-01-01

    The event sequence diagram is extended with embedded state submodels. This allows process oriented modeling of phased missions, and flexible modeling of recovery from failure states. This also enhances the structured consideration of time dependences in process conditions, and earlier scenario of events. Operational decision alternatives can straightforwardly be included. In fact, the approach has been developed for the analysis of operational alternatives such as plant shutdown versus continued operation, in failure situations of standby safety systems, with the aim of realistic quantification of shutdown related transient risks

  11. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  12. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  13. Multimodal approach to postoperative recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide updated information on recent developments within individual components of multimodal interventions to improve postoperative outcome (fast-track methodology). RECENT FINDINGS: The value of the fast-track methodology to improve recovery and decrease hospital stay...... and morbidity has been firmly consolidated, especially in colorectal procedures. An increasing amount of data from other procedures supports the value of the fast-track concept across procedures. Fast-track programs should be based on the analysis of procedure-specific factors that may influence outcome...

  14. Yellowcake processing in uranium recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J.M.

    1981-10-06

    This information relates to the recovery of uranium from uranium peroxide yellowcake produced by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide. The yellowcake is calcined at an elevated temperature to effect decomposition of the yellowcake to uranium oxide with the attendant evolution of free oxygen. The calcination step is carried out in the presence of a reducing agent which reacts with the free oxygen, thus retarding the evolution of chlorine gas from sodium chloride in the yellowcake. Suitable reducing agents include ammonia producing compounds such as ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate. Ammonium carbonate and/or ammonium bicarbonate may be provided in the eluant used to desorb the uranium from an ion exchange column.

  15. Process heat recovery: hot prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    By updating established technologies to recover heat at higher temperatures and under more corrosive conditions, British industry could recover six to eight million tons of coal equivalent that it currently wastes. Organic liquids in organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines and simpler designs than steam turbines can increase efficiency. They also eliminate the need for vacuum pumps and permit the use of air cooling. Cooperative government-private industry research programs are exploring the use of ORC engines. Other heat-recovery projects include a Scottish paper mill, a metal decorating and printing plant, a falling-cloud heat exchanger, and heat-pipe development. 4 figures, 1 table. (DCK)

  16. Avoiding total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from sodium sulfite pulping recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, J.C.; Sell, N.J.; Ciriacks, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the current trends in paper-making with cellulose pulping is the use of high-yield processes. With yields greater than 65%, these processes include mechanical pulps (groundwood and thermomechanical pulps or TMP), and semichemical types (chemi-TMP or CTMP). Groundwood and TMP make up about 10% of North American pulp production. Semichemical pulp makes up about 7% and is mostly used for corrugating medium. High-yield pulping for linerboard, particularly using the alkaline sulfite process, is also likely to be used in the future. High-yield pulping is based primarily on the sulfite process using mostly sodium-based chemicals. A disadvantage of this process is the unavailability of a recovery system for the inorganic pulping chemicals. Generally, mills have not accepted any particular recovery system for this process. For this and other reasons, sulfite processes constitute only 3-4% of the total North American pulp production. If high-yield processes continue to increase in popularity, a sodium sulfite chemical recovery system will be needed. A number of chemical recovery systems have been developed in the past 30 years for sodium-based sulfite pulping processes, with most of the mills successfully using this process located in Scandinavia

  17. Gas-permeable hydrophobic tubular membranes for ammonia recovery in bio-electrochemical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.; Zamora, P.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    The application of a gas-permeable hydrophobic tubular membrane in bio-electrochemical systems enables efficient recovery of ammonia (NH3) from their cathode compartments. Due to a hydrogen evolution reaction at the cathode, no chemical addition was required to increase the pH for

  18. Simulated Moving Bed Chromatography: Separation and Recovery of Sugars and Ionic Liquid from Biomass Hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caes, Benjamin R.; Van Oosbree, Thomas R.; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John; Maravelias, Christos T.

    2015-01-01

    Simulated moving bed chromatography, a continuous separation method, enables the nearly quantitative recovery of sugar products and ionic liquid solvent from chemical hydrolysates of biomass. The ensuing sugars support microbial growth, and the residual lignin from the process is intact. PMID:23939991

  19. DTDGA impregnated XAD-16 beads for separation and recovery of palladium from acidic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Krishan Kant; Kanagare, Anant B.; Bairwa, K.K.; Manmohan Kumar; Bajaj, Parma N.; Ruhela, Ritesh; Singh, Ajoy K.; Hubli, Rajendra C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study DTDGA extractant impregnated XAD16 polymeric beads (DTDGA- XAD16) were synthesized by wet chemical method and the beads were characterized by various techniques viz. FT-IR, Optical microscopy, SEM and TGA. The DTDGA-XAD 16 beads were evaluated for separation and recovery of palladium from high level waste solutions (HLW)

  20. Reduction efficiency prediction of CENIBRA's recovery boiler by direct minimization of gibbs free energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The reduction efficiency is an important variable during the black liquor burning process in the Kraft recovery boiler. This variable value is obtained by slow experimental routines and the delay of this measure disturbs the pulp and paper industry customary control. This paper describes an optimization approach for the reduction efficiency determination in the furnace bottom of the recovery boiler based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The industrial data used in this study were directly obtained from CENIBRA's data acquisition system. The resulting approach is able to predict the steady state behavior of the chemical composition of the furnace recovery boiler, - especially the reduction efficiency when different operational conditions are used. This result confirms the potential of this approach in the analysis of the daily operation of the recovery boiler.

  1. Impact of carbon nanotubes based nanofluid on oil recovery efficiency using core flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hassan; Baig, Mirza Khurram; Yahya, Noorhana; Khodapanah, Leila; Sabet, Maziyar; Demiral, Birol M. R.; Burda, Marek

    2018-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of carbon nanotubes based nanofluid on interfacial tension and oil recovery efficiency. Practically multi-walled carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized using chemical vapour deposition technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction and Field Emission Scanning Electron microscope in order to understand its structure, shape, and morphology. Nanofluids are one of the interesting new agents for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that can change the reservoir rock-fluid properties in terms of interfacial tension and wettability. In this work, different concentration of carbon nanotubes based fluids were prepared and the effect of each concentration on surface tension was determined using pendant drop method. After specifying the optimum concentration of carbon nanotubes based nanofluid, core flooding experiment was conducted by two pore volume of brine and two pore volume of nanofluid and then oil recovery factor was calculated. The results show that carbon nanotubes can bring in additional recovery factor of 18.57% in the glass bead sample. It has been observed that nanofluid with high surface tension value gives higher recovery. It was found that the optimum value of concentration is 0.3 wt% at which maximum surface tension of 33.46 mN/m and oil recovery factor of 18.57% was observed. This improvement in recovery factor can be recognized due to interfacial tension reduction and wettability alteration.

  2. A new blanket tritium recovery experiment with intense DT neutron source at JAEA/FNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, Kentaro, E-mail: ochiai.kentaro@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Edao, Yuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hoshino, Tsuyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Kawamura, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Ohta, Masayuki; Kwon, Saerom; Konno, Chikara [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • For detail investigation of the tritium recovery performance on the fusion reactor blanket, we have started a new blanket tritium recovery experiment with ionization chamber at JAEA/FNS. • A new improved container was provided for the appropriate tritium measurement by IC and also utilized for the enhancement of TPR in the new container. The TPR was calculated with a calculation code MCNP5 and some typical nuclear data libraries and then the radioactivity of the tritium recovery with LSC corresponded with that of calculation. • The tritium release curves by the IC outputs are similar to those by the LSC output. However, it was indicated that the quantitative measurement by IC needed further improvement for the tritium recovery. - Abstract: We have performed the tritium release experiment on the fusion reactor blanket at JAEA/FNS since 2009, and then clarified the ratio of tritium release and the recovered tritium chemical form. In order to acquire the detailed tritium recovery performances, we have started a new blanket tritium recovery experiment with ionization chamber (IC) at JAEA/FNS. For the appropriate tritium measurement with IC, we improved the experimental container and carried out with an intense DT neutron source at JAEA/FNS. From our new experiment, the tritium recovery radioactivity from the LSC measurement corresponds with the calculation within 6%. However, it was pointed out that further improvement in the quantitative tritium measurement by IC method was needed.

  3. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Hormones and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. ...

  4. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng [Irvine, CA; Sui, Guodong [Los Angeles, CA; Elizarov, Arkadij [Valley Village, CA; Kolb, Hartmuth C [Playa del Rey, CA; Huang, Jiang [San Jose, CA; Heath, James R [South Pasadena, CA; Phelps, Michael E [Los Angeles, CA; Quake, Stephen R [Stanford, CA; Tseng, Hsian-rong [Los Angeles, CA; Wyatt, Paul [Tipperary, IE; Daridon, Antoine [Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  5. Chemical Emergencies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Chemical Emergencies Overview Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... themselves during and after such an event. What chemical emergencies are A chemical emergency occurs when a ...

  6. Measuring individual disaster recovery: a socioecological framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, David M; Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Park, Yoon Soo; Walsh, Lauren; Culp, Derrin

    2010-09-01

    Disaster recovery is a complex phenomenon. Too often, recovery is measured in singular fashion, such as quantifying rebuilt infrastructure or lifelines, without taking in to account the affected population's individual and community recovery. A comprehensive framework is needed that encompasses a much broader and far-reaching construct with multiple underlying dimensions and numerous causal pathways; without the consideration of a comprehensive framework that investigates relationships between these factors, an accurate measurement of recovery may not be valid. This study proposes a model that encapsulates these ideas into a single framework, the Socio-Ecological Model of Recovery. Using confirmatory factor analysis, an operational measure of recovery was developed and validated using the five measures of housing stability, economic stability, physical health, mental health, and social role adaptation. The data were drawn from a sample of displaced households following Hurricane Katrina. Measures of psychological strength, risk, disaster exposure, neighborhood contextual effects, and formal and informal help were modeled to examine their direct and indirect effects on recovery using a structural equation model. All five elements of the recovery measure were positively correlated with a latent measure of recovery, although mental health and social role adaptation displayed the strongest associations. An individual's psychological strength had the greatest association with positive recovery, followed by having a household income greater than $20,000 and having informal social support. Those factors most strongly associated with an absence of recovery included the time displaced since the hurricane, being disabled, and living in a community with substantial social disorder. The socio-ecological framework provides a robust means for measuring recovery, and for testing those factors associated with the presence or absence of recovery.

  7. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 82, quarterly report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This document consists of a list of projects supporting work on oil recovery programs. A publications list and index of companies and institutions is provided. The remaining portion of the document provides brief descriptions on projects in chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, resource assessment, and reservoir class field demonstrations.

  8. Recovery of uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Takahiro; Takagi, Norio; Katoh, Shunsaku

    1995-01-01

    Present status of the development of chelating adsorbents for the recovery of uranium from seawater is outlined with emphasis on the research by the author. Uranium is estimated to exist as stable tri (carbonate) uranylate (6) ion in seawater in a very low concentration. The adsorbent for uranium from seawater in a very low concentration. The adsorbent for uranium from seawater should have high selectivity and affinity for uranium around pH 8. The required characteristics for uranium adsorbent are examined. Various chelating adsorbents have been proposed for the uranium adsorbent and their structures are discussed. Amidoxime type adsorbents have the highest adsorbing power for uranium among the adsorbents hitherto developed and fibrous amidoxime adsorbents are most promising for the practical application. Synthesis, structure and suitable shape of the amidoxime adsorbents are discussed. Uranium adsorption behavior and the amount of saturated adsorption are examined theoretically based on the complexation of an amidoxime monomer and the formula for the adsorption equiliburium is derived. The adsorption and recovery process for uranium from seawater is composed of adsorption, desorption, separation and concentration and finally, uranium is recovered as the yellow cake. A floating body mooring system is proposed by Nobukawa. (T.H.)

  9. Enhanced oil recovery program review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    Canada accounts for 40% of the global resources in heavy oils and oil sands bitumen, however, more than 90% of these resources need new and innovative technologies if they are to be made available at a competitive price. CANMET's Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) program was created in the late 1970s in response to the drive for energy self-sufficiency. Funding of the project is highly leveraged; industry funding towards projects supported under the CANMET Energy Conversion Program averaged over 300% annually since the previous review in 1990. Multi-client EOR technology projects include horizontal well technology, development of the vapour extraction process, and field testing of oil sands extraction technology. Direction and priorities of the program are established in consultation with the Minister's Advisory Council to CANMET (MNACC), industry and other performers and sponsors of enhanced oil recovery R and D. This review, including client feedback from interviews with several industry spokespersons, concluded that the program was well managed, and of high priority. Various options capable of meeting future needs were examined. Continuation of the current program, incorporating a number of significant changes, was recommended

  10. Nitrate Anion Exchange in Pu-238 Aqueous Scrap Recovery Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansoy-Hjelvik, M.E.; Silver, G.L.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Ramsey, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    Strong base, nitrate anion exchange (IX) is crucial to the purification of 238 Pu solution feedstocks with gross levels of impurities. This paper discusses the work involved in bench scale experiments to optimize the nitrate anion exchange process. In particular, results are presented of experiments conducted to (a) demonstrate that high levels of impurities can be separated from 238 Pu solutions via nitrate anion exchange and, (b) work out chemical pretreatment methodology to adjust and maintain 238 Pu in the IV oxidation state to optimize the Pu(IV)-hexanitrato anionic complex sorption to Reillex-HPQ resin. Additional experiments performed to determine the best chemical treatment methodology to enhance recovery of sorbed Pu from the resin, and VIS-NIR absorption studies to determine the steady state equilibrium of Pu(IV), Pu(III), and Pu(VI) in nitric acid are discussed

  11. Rejuvenation of the anion exchanger used for uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, T.-Y.; Espenscheid, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to improving the performance of strong base anionic exchange resins used in uranium recovery that exhibit an undesirable decrease in loading capacity and in total exchange capacity. The invention comprises treating an anionic exchange resin to remove physically adsorbed and occluded fouling agents and to remove poisons which may be chemically bound to active ion groups on the resin. The process involves treating the resin, after the uranium ion exchange stage, with an alkaline carbonate solution, preferably treating the resin with an acid eluant first. The acid treatment dissolves insoluble fouling agents which are physically occluded or adsorbed by the resin and that the weak base treatment augments that result and probably removes poisons which are physically or chemically bound to the resin

  12. Recovery of Copper from Cyanidation Tailing by Flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tingsheng; Huang, Xiong; Yang, Xiuli

    2016-02-01

    In this work, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, sodium metabisulfite and copper sulfate as activators were investigated to lessen the depression effect of cyanide for deep-depressing chalcopyrite. The experimental results indicate that the copper recovery exceeded 94%, 84% and 97% at the dosage: sodium hypochlorite 3 mL/L, hydrogen peroxide 2 mL/L, sodium metabisulfite 2 × 10-3 mol/L and copper sulfate 1.67 × 10-4 mol/L, respectively. According to the results of zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectrum, it is suggested that chalcopyrite was depressed because of the chemical adsorption of cyanide on the chalcopyrite surfaces. Sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and sodium metabisulfite can destroy Cu-C bond on the deep-depressing chalcopyrite surface by chemical reaction. Copper sulfate can activate deep-depressing chalcopyrite by copper ion adsorption.

  13. LCA of Chemicals and Chemical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi

    2018-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance of chemicals as well as of products and processes where chemicals play a key role. The life cycle stages of chemical products, such as pharmaceuticals drugs or plant protection products......, are discussed and differentiated into extraction of abiotic and biotic raw materials, chemical synthesis and processing, material processing, product manufacturing, professional or consumer product use, and finally end-of-life . LCA is discussed in relation to other chemicals management frameworks and concepts...... including risk assessment , green and sustainable chemistry , and chemical alternatives assessment. A large number of LCA studies focus on contrasting different feedstocks or chemical synthesis processes, thereby often conducting a cradle to (factory) gate assessment. While typically a large share...

  14. Chemical problems associated with reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesne, A.

    1981-09-01

    This paper is an attempt to pinpoint the chemical problems raised by the reprocessing of oxide base fuels. Taking the reprocessing of slightly irradiated metallic fuels as a reference, for which long experience has been gained, a review is made of the various stages of the Purex process, in which the increase in mass and activity of the actinides and fission products engenders constraints related to the recovery of fissile materials, their purification, the release rate and, in general, the operation of the installations. The following subjects are discussed: dissolution from the standpoint of dissolution residues and iodine trapping, extraction cycles with respect to the behavior of ruthenium, neptunium, plutonium, technetium and palladium, the recycling of medium activity wastes

  15. Chemical Security Analysis Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  16. Free gold recovery by coal-oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotze, W.; Petersen, F.W. [Cape Technikon Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-02-01

    The gold mining industry has mainly relied upon the use of highly polluting chemicals, such as mercury and cyanide to recover gold from its ores. The Coal Gold Agglomeration (CGA) process was developed some years ago and has the advantage in that gold is recovered by a procedure which has little or no negative impact on the environment. A gold ore containing liberated gold particles is contacted with coal-oil agglomerates, whereby the gold is recovered into the coal/oil phase. Laboratory scale batch tests were performed on an artificial mixture gold slurry and gold recoveries of up to 85% were found under optimized conditions. By recycling the coal/oil phase, it was found that the gold loading onto the agglomerates was increased. Tests performed on an industrial ore yielded slightly lower gold recoveries, and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis on the coal/oil phase showed that minerals other than gold were recovered into this phase. A comparative study was conducted whereby the CGA process was compared to mercury amalgamation. Gold recoveries obtained through amalgamation were 15% lower than by the agglomeration process, which indicates that this process can be considered favourably as an alternative to amalgamation. 16 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Recovery of noble metals from HLLW using photocatalytic reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, T.; Uetake, N.; Kawamura, F.; Yusa, H.

    1987-01-01

    In high-level liquid waste (HLLW) from fuel reprocessing plants, noble metals (palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium), which account for ∼ 10 wt% of fission products, exist as ions. These metals are very useful as catalytic material in automobile exhaust systems and other chemical processes, but they are rare in nature, making their recovery from fission products highly desirable. The ions of noble metals in solution have the feature that their reduction potential from ion to metal is relatively high compared with that of other fission product ions, so they can be selectively separated as a metal by a reduction process. The authors think a photoreduction process using a photocatalysts, which functions as photon-electron conversion agent, is suitable for the recovery of noble metals from HLLW for three reasons: (1) this process uses no reduction agents, which usually degrade the nitric acid, so that coprecipitation of other fission products does not occur. (2) The reactions are induced by light, which does not contaminate the reaction system, and in contrast with ordinary photo-redox reactions, the quantum yield is quite high. (3) As the photocatalyst does not change in the reaction, it can be used again and again. The report shows the results of fundamental experiments on the application of photocatalytic reduction to the recovery of noble metal ions in nitric acid solution

  18. Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth; Koob, George F.; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T.; Chandler, L. Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C.; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N.; Harris, R. Adron; Grant, Kathleen A.; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on “Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence” held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. PMID:26074423

  19. Recovery of PMOSFET NBTI under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yan-Rong; Yang Yi; Cao Cheng; He Wen-Long; Zheng Xue-Feng; Hao Yue; Ma Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) has become a serious reliability issue, and the interface traps and oxide charges play an important role in the degradation process. In this paper, we study the recovery of NBTI systemically under different conditions in the P-type metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistor (PMOSFET), explain the various recovery phenomena, and find the possible processes of the recovery. (paper)

  20. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) system contains information reported to the state environmental programs on activities and cleanup...

  2. Recovery of Overpayments Accounting Reporting Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains detailed accounting of refund and remittance data, beneficiary data, and a history of overpayment recovery efforts. It also house data for overpayments of...

  3. Leading a Recovery-oriented Social Enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeburn, Toby; Hungerford, Catherine; Sayers, Jan; Escott, Phil; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Recovery-oriented mental health services promote the principles of recovery, such as hope and optimism, and are characterized by a personalized approach to developing consumer self-determination. Nurse leaders are increasingly developing such services as social enterprises, but there is limited research on the leadership of these programs. Leading a recovery-oriented mental health nurse social enterprise requires visionary leadership, collaboration with consumers and local health providers, financial viability, and commitment to recovery-focused practice. This article describes the framework of an Australian mental health nursing social enterprise, including the service attributes and leadership lessons that have been learned from developing program sustainability.

  4. Study on tritium recovery from breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, H.; Moritani, K.

    1997-01-01

    For the development of fusion reactor blanket systems, some of the key issues on the tritium recovery performance of solid and liquid breeder materials were studied. In the case of solid breeder materials, a special attention was focussed on the effects of irradiation on the tritium recovery performance, and tritium release experiments, luminescence measurements of irradiation defects and modeling studies were systematically performed. For liquid breeder materials, tritium recovery experiments from molten salt and liquid lithium were performed, and the technical feasibility of tritium recovery methods was discussed. (author)

  5. Energy consumption of chemical uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, T.; Takeda, K.; Obanawa, H.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative study of chemical separation energy for enriching uranium-235 by the redox chromatography was conducted. Isotope exchange reactions between U 4+ -UO 2 2+ ions in the enrichment column are maintained by the redox reactions. The chemical separation energy is ultimately supplied by hydrogen and oxygen gas for regenerating redox agents. The redox energy for the isotope separation is theoretically predicted as a function of the dynamic enrichment factor observed in the chromatographic development of uranium adsorption band. Thermodynamic treatments of the equilibrium reactions implies and inverse redox reaction which can be enhanced by the chemical potential of the ion-exchange reaction of oxidant. Experimental results showed 30 to 90% recovery of the redox energy by the inverse reaction. These results will devise a simplified redox chromatography process where a number of columns in one module is reduced

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project was authorized by the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164) as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes derived from the defense activities of the United States. The WIPP facility is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The TRU waste to be received at WIPP consists largely of such items as laboratory glassware and utensils, tools, scrap metal, shielding, personnel protection equipment, and solidified sludges from the treatment of waste water. Approximately 60 percent of this waste is ''mixed,'' that is, it is also contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and by the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (HWMR-5). Therefore, emplacement of TRU mixed waste in the WIPP repository is subject to regulation under HWMR-5 and RCRA. The permit application under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act for WIPP is divided into five volumes. This document, Volume 3, is Appendix C2 continued. This appendix contains information on shipping; inventories of chemicals present in waste; chemical compatibility of wastes; the methodology to determine compatibility; analytical data regarding volatile organic compounds (VOC), metals, and solvents; and a description of sampling programs of waste drum gases

  7. Factors controlling alkali salt deposition in recovery boilers. Release mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeough, P; Kurkela, M; Kylloenen, H; Tapola, E [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology Group

    1997-10-01

    The research was part of an ongoing cooperative research effort aimed at developing a model to describe the behaviour of inorganic compounds in kraft recovery boilers. During 1996 experimental investigations of sulphur release were continued. Experiments at elevated pressures and employing larger particle sizes were performed in order to gain information about mass transfer effects. The first experiments yielding data on the rates of the sulphur-release reactions were performed. This data will be used as the basis of a drop model for sulphur release being developed in cooperation with another research group. The other part of the work during 1996 explored the possibility of using chemical equilibrium calculations to predict the release of sodium, potassium and chlorine in the recovery furnace. The approach is essentially different from that employed in earlier studies in that the effects of fume formation are taken into account. So far, the predictions of the chemical equilibrium release model have, in no way, conflicted with field measurements. (orig.)

  8. Principles of heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szasz, S.E.; Thomas, G.W.

    1965-10-01

    Rising exploration costs have prompted greater interest in the large known deposits of heavy oil in North America. Because of high oil viscosities in such reservoirs, recoveries are poor, fluid drives are inefficient and production rates are uneconomical. Viscosity reduction can best be accomplished by heating the reservoir. The basic aspects of reservoir heating are reviewed and those processes which are of practical importance in heavy oil reservoirs are discussed. Wellbore heating frequently can be applied to heavy oil reservoirs to increase production rates. In hot waterflooding, the water requirements are much higher than an ordinary waterflood. Steam floods are more attractive, but operating costs are generally high. Conduction heating processes appear most promising. Among these is included the cyclic steam-soak process. A simple method is presented for estimating the performance from the first cycle of steam injection into the formation, assuming gravity as the only driving energy. An example calculation for a typical heavy oil reservoir is given. (26 refs.)

  9. Heat recovery system series arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Justin P.; Welch, Andrew M.; Dawson, Gregory R.; Minor, Eric N.

    2017-11-14

    The present disclosure is directed to heat recovery systems that employ two or more organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units disposed in series. According to certain embodiments, each ORC unit includes an evaporator that heats an organic working fluid, a turbine generator set that expands the working fluid to generate electricity, a condenser that cools the working fluid, and a pump that returns the working fluid to the evaporator. The heating fluid is directed through each evaporator to heat the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit, and the cooling fluid is directed through each condenser to cool the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit. The heating fluid and the cooling fluid flow through the ORC units in series in the same or opposite directions.

  10. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comberiati, Joseph R.; Locke, Charles D.; Kamath, Krishna I.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  11. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  12. Toward a Heat Recovery Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Pan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide population increase and subsequent surge in energy demand leads electricity producers to increase supply in an attempt to generate larger profit margins. However, with Global Climate Change becoming a greater focus in engineering, it is critical for energy to be converted in as environmentally benign a way as possible. There are different sustainable methods to meet the energy demand. However, the focus of this research is in the area of Waste Heat Recovery. The waste heat stored in the exiting condenser cooling water is delivered to the air flow through a water-air cross flow heat exchanger. A converging thermal chimney structure is then applied to increase the velocity of the airflow. The accelerated air can be used to turn on the turbine-generator installed on the top the thermal chimney so that electricity can be generated. This system is effective in generating electricity from otherwise wasted heat.

  13. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations, landfills and recycling facilities for construction and demolition materials, electronics, household hazardous waste, metals, tires, and vehicles in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, West Virginia and Wisconsin.In this update, facilities in the 7 states that border the EPA Region 5 states were added to assist interstate disaster debris management. Also, the datasets for composters, construction and demolition recyclers, demolition contractors, and metals recyclers were verified and source information added for each record using these sources: AGC, Biocycle, BMRA, CDRA, ISRI, NDA, USCC, FEMA Debris Removal Contractor Registry, EPA Facility Registry System, and State and local listings.

  14. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 83, quarter ending June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Summaries of 41 research projects on enhanced recovery are presented under the following sections: (1) chemical flooding; (2) gas displacement; (3) thermal recovery; (4) geoscience technology; (5) resource assessment technology; and (6) reservoir classes. Each presentation gives the title of the project, contract number, research facility, contract date, expected completion data, amount of the award, principal investigator, and DOE program manager, and describes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress.

  15. Petz recovery versus matrix reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzäpfel, Milan; Cramer, Marcus; Datta, Nilanjana; Plenio, Martin B.

    2018-04-01

    The reconstruction of the state of a multipartite quantum mechanical system represents a fundamental task in quantum information science. At its most basic, it concerns a state of a bipartite quantum system whose subsystems are subjected to local operations. We compare two different methods for obtaining the original state from the state resulting from the action of these operations. The first method involves quantum operations called Petz recovery maps, acting locally on the two subsystems. The second method is called matrix (or state) reconstruction and involves local, linear maps that are not necessarily completely positive. Moreover, we compare the quantities on which the maps employed in the two methods depend. We show that any state that admits Petz recovery also admits state reconstruction. However, the latter is successful for a strictly larger set of states. We also compare these methods in the context of a finite spin chain. Here, the state of a finite spin chain is reconstructed from the reduced states of a few neighbouring spins. In this setting, state reconstruction is the same as the matrix product operator reconstruction proposed by Baumgratz et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 020401 (2013)]. Finally, we generalize both these methods so that they employ long-range measurements instead of relying solely on short-range correlations embodied in such local reduced states. Long-range measurements enable the reconstruction of states which cannot be reconstructed from measurements of local few-body observables alone and hereby we improve existing methods for quantum state tomography of quantum many-body systems.

  16. RECOVERY STRATEGIES FOR SERVICE FAILURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budeanu Andreea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Internationally, services represent the most important sector of the economy both in terms of economic performance and labor utilization. Becoming essential part of today society, they are considered the basis of a healthy economy, fact that has increased the importance of services and the research in the field.T hrough this work we intend to address a number of issues that require clarification and are relevant to this sector. Increased competition and customers higher demands lead to difficulties in service delivery, so managers of service organizations must work hard towards developing appropiate strategies that can lead to improved customers satisfaction and to increased efficiency. Because it is inevitably for service providers to face situations in which service failure occurs and their customers are not satisfied, understanding the nature of service failures and the ways in which an organization can recover after a failure are considered key factors for achieving customer satisfaction. Since the data suggests that over 50% of customers who are facing problems are not satisfied with the way they were resolved, we consider appropriate to approach this topic. We intend to draw attention to service providers to the importance of proper management of service failure. They can find ways to recover from these failures and even to turn them into some very pleasant situations that can contribute to customer loyalty. This paper begins by highlighting the various features specific to services which contribute to the increased chances of failure, it continues by presenting the concepts of service failure and service recovery and then it presents some links that exist between service recovery and other aspects of providing services that are demonstrated in the literature. We hope that this paper will significantly contribute to the knowledge and development of the sector under analysis and will highlight some practices that will lead to improved

  17. Recovery of Elemental Palladium by Shewanella putrefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, S.; Xia, X.; Sawada, K.; Enokida, Y.; Yamamoto, I.; Ohnuki, T.

    2006-12-01

    Microbial reduction of metals plays an important role in environmental behavior and provides a technique for the recovery of metals from industrial wastewater. Recently, demand for platinum group metals (PGMs) increases by their catalytic properties. The extreme rarity of PGMs have led to a growing interest in their recovery. Palladium, one of PGMs, has different oxidation states of Pd(II) and Pd(0). The oxidized form of Pd(II) is soluble, while the reduced form of Pd(0) is insoluble. In this study, microbial reduction of palladium by Fe(III)- reducing bacterium, Shewanella putrefaceins was conducted. This bacterium is known to be capable of reducing metals, such as Mn(IV), U(VI), or Tc(VII) with organic C or H2 as an electron donor. In order to investigate the potential of S. putrefaciens to reduce Pd(II) in solution, resting cells or heat-killed cells were suspended under anaerobic conditions with lactate or H2 as an electron donor. The cells of S. putrefaciens (NBRC3908) were grown in aerobic medium, harvested by centrifugation, and then washed with 25 mmol/dm3 HEPES and 100 mmol/dm3 NaCl (HEPES-NaCl) solution (pH 7.0). The heat-killed cells were autoclaved for 20 min at 121 degrees C. The cell suspension (21.5 mg in dry weight) was resuspended in the HEPES-NaCl solution which contained 1.0 mmol/dm3 Na2PdCl4 (Wako Pure chemical Industries, Ltd). The suspensions were bubbled with N2 for 15 min before 10 mmol/dm3 lactate or 4.8 v/v% H2 was added. The suspensions were then incubated at 30 degrees C. Redox potential (Eh) and pH of the solutions were measured in an inert glove box with Ar gas. Concentration of Pd(II) was measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). Deposited Pd and cells were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Approximately 86% of Pd(II) of the initial concentration was removed from solution by the resting cells within 24 h when

  18. Emerging trends in chemical separations with liquid membranes: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    It can be concluded that varied configurations of liquid membranes (LMs) will definitely play an important role in metal separations particularly in situations where other conventional chemical separation techniques fail to deliver goods. Potential areas include decontamination of biotoxic/ radioactive wastes, recovery of precious and strategic metals from lean/ extremely dilute solutions, add on to existing units, hydrometallurgy, etc

  19. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Il; Kim, Seung Jae; Yang, Jae Ho; Ryu, Hwa Won

    1993-01-01

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  20. Relationship Between Magnitude of Applied Spin Recovery Moment and Ensuing Number of Recovery Turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Ernie L.

    1967-01-01

    An analytical study has been made to investigate the relationship between the magnitude of the applied spin recovery moment and the ensuing number of turns made during recovery from a developed spin with a view toward determining how to interpolate or extrapolate spin recovery results with regard to determining the amount of control required for a satisfactory recovery. Five configurations were used which are considered to be representative of modern airplanes: a delta-wing fighter, a stub-wing research vehicle, a boostglide configuration, a supersonic trainer, and a sweptback-wing fighter. The results obtained indicate that there is a direct relationship between the magnitude of the applied spin recovery moments and the ensuing number of recovery turns made and that this relationship can be expressed in either simple multiplicative or exponential form. Either type of relationship was adequate for interpolating or extrapolating to predict turns required for recovery with satisfactory accuracy for configurations having relatively steady recovery motions. Any two recoveries from the same developed spin condition can be used as a basis for the predicted results provided these recoveries are obtained with the same ratio of recovery control deflections. No such predictive method can be expected to give satisfactory results for oscillatory recoveries.

  1. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization.

    In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and

  2. Predictors of recovery in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen F; Mors, Ole; Secher, Rikke Gry

    2013-01-01

    Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis....

  3. Contested understandings of recovery in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Rhiannah; Whittington, Richard; Cramond, Laura; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2018-05-17

    The concept of recovery is contested throughout the existing literature and in mental health services. Little research exists that gives voice to service user perspectives of recovery. This paper explores how service users in two recovery oriented services run by the National Health Service in North West England talked about recovery and what it meant to them. 14 service users accessing these services took part in semi-structured qualitative interviews focusing on the concept of recovery. Data were analysed using an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach. Service users talked about recovery as a dynamic, day to day process as well as an outcome; specifically related to being discharged from inpatient settings. A number of factors including relationships and medication were cited to have the potential to make or break recovery. The study highlights the continued dominance of the biomedical model in mental health services. Service users appear to have internalised staff and services' understanding of recovery perhaps unsurprisingly given the power differential in these relationships. Implications for clinical practice are explored.

  4. Nutrition for recovery in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Mujika, Iñigo

    2014-08-01

    Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs.

  5. Must One Be "In Recovery" To Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpey, Jack

    Rational Recovery (RR) and the Addictive Voice Recognition Technique (AVRT) are described. Rational recovery is a young organization which views alcohol and drug dependency differently from the traditional field which sees addiction as a symptom of something, of a disease, of spiritual bankruptcy, of irrational thinking, of unhappiness, of…

  6. Viewing Reading Recovery as a Restructuring Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, James S.; Short, Paula Myrick

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated components of Reading Recovery that relate to a restructuring paradigm. Specifically, Reading Recovery was analyzed as a way to redesign teachers' work, empower teachers, and affect the core technology of teaching. Data were collected by a survey that consisted of open-ended questions and of categorical response items.…

  7. Factors determining lumber recovery in sawmilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele

    1984-01-01

    Lumber volume recovery in sawmilling is determined by a confusing interaction of several factors. The more one knows about each individual factor, the more one can understand how the factors interact. The author identifies and discusses in detail seven factors influencing lumber recovery. Past and current research is cited, and examples are given to illustrate the...

  8. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal recovery post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolonged, strenuous exercise results in muscle glycogen depletion. Recovery of these stores prior to the next training session or competition is crucial to optimise exercise performance. Nutrition plays an important role during the post-exercise recovery period when processes such as muscle regeneration, glycogen and ...

  9. Split heat pipe heat recovery system

    OpenAIRE

    E. Azad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a split heat pipe heat recovery system. The analysis is based on an Effectiveness-NTU approach to deduce its heat transfer characteristics. In this study the variation of overall effectiveness of heat recovery with the number of transfer units are presented. Copyright , Manchester University Press.

  10. Recovery of oil from underground drill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, W.S.; Hutchinson, T.S.; Ameri, S.; Wasson, J.A.; Aminian, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a significant quantity of oil is left in reservoirs after conventional oil recovery techniques have been applied. In West Virginia and Pennsylvania alone, this oil has been estimated at over 4.5 billion barrels (0.72 billion m 3 ). Conventional recovery methods are already being used when applicable. But a new recovery method is needed for use in reservoirs that have been abandoned. One alternative method for recovery of the residual oil is known as oil recovery from underground drill sites. This recovery technology is a combination of proven methods and equipment from the petroleum, mining, and civil construction industries. Underground oil recovery can be an economically viable method of producing oil. This has been shown in producing fields, field tests, and feasibility, studies. Faced with decreasing domestic oil production, the petroleum industry should give serious consideration to the use of oil recovery from underground drill sites as a safe, practical, and environmentally sensitive alternative method of producing oil from many reservoirs

  11. Lowering operation costs by energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, W; Hausmann, H; Hausmann, K H

    1976-01-01

    Heat recovery and the heat sources available as well as possible applications of the heat recovered are discussed. Groundwater, shower water and waste air are considered as energy sources. Energy recovery by means of finned-tube systems and the heat pump, and economic aspects of the techniques are described.

  12. Isothermal recovery rates in shape memory polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azra, Charly; Plummer, Christopher J G; Månson, Jan-Anders E

    2011-01-01

    This work compares the time dependence of isothermal shape recovery in thermoset and thermoplastic shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) with comparable glass transition temperatures. In each case, tensile tests have been used to quantify the influence of various thermo-mechanical programming parameters (deformation temperature, recovery temperature, and stress and storage times following the deformation step) on strain recovery under zero load (free recovery) and stress recovery under fixed strain (constrained recovery). It is shown that the duration of the recovery event may be tuned over several decades of time with an appropriate choice of programming parameters, but that there is a trade-off between the rate of shape recovery and the recoverable stress level. The results are discussed in terms of the thermal characteristics of the SMPUs in the corresponding temperature range as characterized by modulated differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis, with the emphasis on the role of the effective width of the glass transition temperature and the stability of the network that gives rise to the shape memory effect. (fast track communication)

  13. 50 CFR 680.44 - Cost recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Publication—(i) General. During the first quarter of each crab fishing year, NMFS shall calculate the crab fee... Management Measures § 680.44 Cost recovery. (a) Cost recovery fees—(1) Responsibility. The person documented... holder's liability for noncompliance with this section. (2) Fee liability determination. (i) All CR...

  14. Recovery from Psychosis: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Gary; Hagen, Brad; Peters, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    While mainstream psychiatry tends to view psychosis as an enduring and chronic condition, there is growing interest in the possibility of recovery from psychosis. A phenomenological research method was utilized in interviewing 17 individuals who all self-identified as being in recovery from psychosis. The research question was, "What was the lived…

  15. 30 CFR 75.207 - Pillar recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.207 Pillar recovery. Pillar recovery shall be... be left in place. (b) Before mining is started in a pillar split or lift— (1) At least two rows of breaker posts or equivalent support shall be installed— (i) As close to the initial intended breakline as...

  16. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, July--September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The report contains a general introduction and background to DOE's revised National Energy Strategy Advanced Oil Recovery Program and activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; a detailed synopsis of the symposium, including technical presentations, comments and suggestions; a section of technical information on deltaic reservoirs; and appendices containing a comprehensive listing of references keyed to general deltaic and geological aspects of reservoirs and those relevant to six selected deltaic plays. Enhanced recovery processes include chemical floodings, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, and microbial recovery.

  17. Aromatic chemical feedstocks from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, G

    1982-06-01

    Liquid byproducts of coal carbonization meet some 25% of the world demand for aromatic chemicals, currently at approx. 30 million t/a, in particular 15% of the demand for benzene and over 95% of the demand for condensed aromatics and heteroaromatics. Industrial processing of the aromatic byproducts of coal pressure gasification is carried out to only a minor extent. Other methods that may be employed in future to obtain carbochemical aromatic compounds are solvolysis and supercritical gas extraction, the catalytic liquid-phase hydrogenation and hydropyrolysis of coal, which also permit recovery of benzene and homologues, phenols, and condensed and partially hydrogenated aromatics, and the synthesis of aromatics using methanol as the key compound. As with the present means of obtaining aromatic chemicals from coal, the processes that may in the future be applied on an industrial scale to obtain pure aromatics will only be economically feasible if linked with the manufacture of other mass products and combined with the present production of carbochemical aromatics.

  18. Leak detection and localization system through acoustics; Sistema de deteccao e localizacao de vazamentos por acustica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Julio [Aselco Automacao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Acoustic Leak Detection Systems (ALDS) are used on both liquid and gas pipelines as well as multi-phase flow pipelines to detect leaks quickly and provide a means of limiting product loss. The real-time acoustic signal is continuously compared against signature leak profiles for the particular operating and geometric conditions. These profiles were developed from a database established from over 20 years of experimental and field leak tests. This technique not only drastically reduces the false alarm rate, but also significantly improves the sensitivity and leak location accuracy. This system will also detect leaks with shut-in flow (zero flow rate in the pipeline). With the use of GPS (Global Positioning System) it not only improves leak location accuracy, but also allows for continuous leak detection during the loss of communications. (author)

  19. Comet assay in the detection of irradiated garlic; Teste do cometa na deteccao de alho irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Marin-Huachaca, Nelida Simona; Romanelli, Maria Fernanda [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Delincee, Henry [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition - BFE, Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de

    2002-07-01

    The increased claim for fresh produce has forced a consensus between nations to pay more attention to the phytosanitary regulations. Inhibition of sprouting of bulbs and tubers by applying ionising radiation is authorised by the National Food Codes in Brazil. The availability of methods for detection of irradiated food will contribute to increase consumers' confidence. A quick and simple screening test to indicate whether a food product has been irradiated or not was utilised in this study. The DNA comet assay was applied to verify whether garlic imported from China had been irradiated or not. This test has already been adopted as a European Standard (EN 13784), for detection of irradiated food. Non-irradiated control samples of garlic and garlic treated with maleic hydrazide were compared with garlic samples irradiated in our department. The unirradiated samples exhibited only limited DNA migration. If samples were irradiated, an increased DNA fragmentation was observed which permitted the discrimination between non-irradiated and irradiated samples. Since the garlic samples from China showed only very limited DNA fragmentation, they were deemed non-irradiated. Thus, this simple screening test was shown to be successful for identification of an irradiation treatment. (author)

  20. Sulfate reducing bacteria detection in gas pipelines; Deteccao de bacterias redutoras de sulfato em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutterbach, Marcia Teresa S.; Oliveira, Ana Lucia C. de; Cavalcanti, Eduardo H. de S. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Corrosao e Degradacao]. E-mails: marciasl@int.gov.br; analucia@int.gov.br; eduardoh@int.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    Microbiology induced corrosion (MIC) process associated with sulfate reducing bacteria (BRS) are one of the most important matter of concern for the oil and gas industry as 77% of failures have been attributed this sort of degradation. Corrosion products found present in gas transportation pipelines, the so-called 'black-powder' problem, are also a nuisance and source of economic losses for the gas industry. According to the literature, the incidence of black-powder can be ascribed to the metabolism of BRS that can be found in the gas environment. Integrity monitoring programs of gas pipelines adopt pigging as an important tool for internal corrosion monitoring. Solid residue such as the black-powder, collected by pigging, as well as the condensed, can be seen as a very valuable samples for microbiological analyses that can be used to detect and quantify bacteria related to the incidence of MIC processes. In the present work results concerning samples collected by pigging and condensed are presented. Small populations of viable BRS have been found in the pipeline. It can be seen that the inclusion of microbiological analyses of solid and liquid residues as a complementary action in the integrity monitoring programs adopted by gas transportation industry can be very helpful on the decision making concerning preventive and corrective actions to be taken in order to maintain the CIM processes under control. (author)

  1. Recovery and recrystallization of U3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillibot, P.F.; Wyatt, B.S.

    1969-10-01

    The recovery and recrystallization temperatures of U 3 Si were determined for an alloy of uranium-3.98 wt% silicon containing 600 ppm carbon. Small specimens, deformed by compression, were isothermally and isochronally annealed at temperatures between 350 and 700 o C and their recovery and recrystallization temperatures determined using hardness, grain size and X-ray measurements. For small amounts of strain and an annealing time of 6 hours both recovery and recrystallization begin at 400-450 o C. Complete recrystallization is achieved at 650-700 o C. The effect of small changes in silicon and carbon concentration were determined by examining two further alloys containing 3.27 wt% silicon and 600 ppm carbon, and 4.02 wt% silicon and 140 ppm carbon respectively. A small change in silicon concentration does not affect recovery and recrystallization but decreasing the carbon concentration from 600 to 140 ppm decreases the recovery and recrystallization temperatures. (author)

  2. Functional Recovery After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Tessa; Kozlowski, Allan; Whyte, John

    2014-01-01

    recovery was best modeled with linear, cubic, and quadratic components: relatively steep recovery was followed by deceleration of improvement, which attenuated prior to discharge. Slower recovery was associated with older age, longer coma, and interruptions to rehabilitation. Patients admitted at lower...... multi-disciplinary teams were recorded daily in 15-minute units provided to patients and family members, separately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Motor and Cognitive FIM measured on admission, discharge, and every 2 weeks in between, analyzed with Individual Growth Curve methodology. RESULTS: Inpatient...... functional levels received more treatment and more treatment was associated with slower recovery, presumably because treatment was allocated according to need. Thus, effects of treatment on outcome could not be disentangled from effects of case mix factors. CONCLUSIONS: FIM gain during inpatient recovery...

  3. Coteaching Recovery to Mental Health Care Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Christine; Lange, Mads; Jørgensen, Kim; Kistrup, Kristen; Petersen, Lone

    2018-06-01

    In 2010, the Regional Council of the Capital Region of Denmark endorsed a vision of mental health services based on personal recovery, rehabilitation, and the involvement of caregivers. Programs to achieve this vision include hiring peer support workers, a Recovery College, and service user participation at the organizational level. This column describes a cornerstone of these initiatives-an education program in the recovery model for mental health professionals. In 2013-2014, the Capital Region implemented 148 workshops on recovery-oriented services for all practitioner staff in mental health services in the region. The workshops featured a coteaching model, with both a mental health professional and an individual with lived experience serving as trainers. This model showed promise and should be expanded, including more targeted training for specific services. Such an expansion could be included in a national strategy for user involvement and recovery-oriented practice set to launch in 2018.

  4. Enhanced Recovery in Thoracic Surgery: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna D. Dinic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of enhanced recovery program after thoracic surgery is to minimize stress response, reduce postoperative pulmonary complications, and improve patient outcome, which will in addition decrease hospital stay and reduce hospital costs. As minimally invasive technique, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery represents an important element of enhanced recovery program in thoracic surgery. Anesthetic management during preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative period is essential for the enhanced recovery. In the era of enhanced recovery protocols, non-intubated thoracoscopic procedures present a step forward. This article focuses on the key elements of the enhanced recovery program in thoracic surgery. Having reviewed recent literature, the authors highlight potential procedures and techniques that might be incorporated into the program.

  5. Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemicals Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the chemical manufacturing, processing, and use information collected for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. Users do not have access to the complete CDR data set and should draw conclusions with care.

  6. chemical safety and chemical security overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Wafaa M. Abdou. Chemical Industries Division, National Research Centre, ... substances to attain an acceptably low risk of exposure. Security is: ... Sharing locations of chemicals can publicize targets for theft .... D. Personal Protective Equipments (PPE): ... E. Lighting & Noise Levels ... PPE. ➢ Autoclave or sterilize wastes.

  7. Experimental Study of Enhancing Oil Recovery with Weak Base Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Na2CO3 was used together with surfactant and polymer to form the Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer (ASP flooding system. Interfacial tension (IFT and emulsification of Dagang oil and chemical solutions were studied in the paper. The experiment results show that the ASP system can form super-low interfacial tension with crude oil and emulsified phase. The stability of the emulsion is enhanced by the Na2CO3, surfactant, and the soap generated at oil/water contact. Six core flooding experiments are conducted in order to investigate the influence of Na2CO3 concentration on oil recovery. The results show the maximum oil recovery can be obtained with 0.3 wt% surfactant, 0.6 wt% Na2CO3, and 2000 mg/L polymer. In a heterogeneous reservoir, the ASP flooding could not enhance the oil recovery by reducing IFT until it reaches the critical viscosity, which indicates expanding the sweep volume is the premise for reducing IFT to enhance oil recovery. Reducing or removing the alkali from ASP system to achieve high viscosity will reduce oil recovery because of the declination of oil displacement efficiency. Weak base ASP alkali can ensure that the whole system with sufficient viscosity can start the medium and low permeability layers and enhance oil recovery even if the IFT only reaches 10−2 mN/m.

  8. Identification of environmentally relevant chemicals in bibliographic databases: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan Albert

    2013-01-01

    takes as its starting point environmentally important chemicals and the retrieval of selectively chosen substances in the four databases: SciFinder, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar. The way chemical data are stored in the databases plays a major role in the recovery process...

  9. Recovery of lithium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, Kenta; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Katoh, Shunsaku; Abe, Mitsuo.

    1989-01-01

    Lithium has been used for air conditioners, aluminum refining, ceramics, organic metal compounds, batteries and many other uses. Besides, attention is paid as the aluminum-lithium alloys as aircraft materials, and the raw materials for large capacity batteries and nuclear fusion reactors for the future. The amount of lithium resources has been estimated as 14 million tons, and is relatively abundant, but when the future increase of demand is considered, it is not necessarily sufficient. Japan lacks lithium resources, and the stable ensuring of the resources has become an important problem. Seawater contains lithium by 170 μg/l, and its total amount reaches 230 billion tons. The process of recovering lithium from seawater, geothermal water and natural gas brine has been actively researched since 10 years ago centering around Japan. At present, the search for the adsorbent that effectively collects lithium is the main subject. Also the recovery by coprecipitation has been investigated basically. The inorganic adsorbent for lithium is classified into aluminum type, compound antimonic acid type, layered compound type, ion sieve oxide type and others. Their lithium adsorption performance and adsorption mechanism are different remarkably, therefore, these of each group are described. (K.I.) 70 refs

  10. Particle supply and recovery device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kimio; Okazaki, Takashi.

    1988-01-01

    This invention concerns a particle supply and recovery device suitable to the supply of fuels and exhaustion of reaction products in a tokamak device. The divertor chamber is divided into an inner side and an outer side, in which only the outer side is constituted as a tightly closed structure. Particles are supplied from the inside of main plasmas and exhausted from the outer side of the divertor chamber. In the divertor equilibrium arrangement, particles escaping from the main plasmas are conveyed mainly passing through the outer side scrape-off layer to the divertor chamber. The particle density is higher at the outer side and lower at the inner side of the scrape-off layer. By making the outer side as a tightly closed structure, the pressure is increased and the particle exhaustion efficiency is improved. Since the particle density is low in the inner scrape-layer, the particle supply efficiency to the main plasma is increased by supplying the particles from the inside. Further, particles ionized in the inner scrape-off layer are returned to the main plasma chamber and then supplied again since the inner divertor chamber is not closed. Accordingly, the particle supply efficiency can further be improved. (K.M.)

  11. Radioactive rare gas recoverying device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeo

    1989-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention comprises a vessel for containing coolants, an introduction valve and an introduction pipe for introducing radioactive rare gases and an adsorption floor disposed in the coolants. A josephson device is disposed being immersed in the coolants between a radiation detector for detecting the radioactive level adsorbed to the adsorption floor and a driving section for driving the introduction valve by the signal from the detector. With this constitution, radioactive rare gases introduced into the coolants and then cooled and liquefied are recovered by the adsorption floor. As the adsorption proceeds and when the radioactivity level exceeds a maximum level in the effective shielding range of the recovery apparatus, the signal current from the radiation detector also exceeds a predetermined level. If radioactivity exceeds the maximum level, the electrical resistance of the josephson device is increased infinitely by the josephson effect to close the introduction valve. Accordingly, the radioactivity is not absorbed beyond the effective shielding range. (I.S.)

  12. MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) recovery and regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlroy, R. A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Probert, P. B. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Lahoda, E. J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Swift, W. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jackson, D. M. [Univ. of Tennessee Space Inst. (UTSI), Tullahoma, TN (United States); Prasad, J. [Univ. of Tennessee Space Inst. (UTSI), Tullahoma, TN (United States); Martin, J. [Hudson Engineering (United States); Rogers, C. [Hudson Engineering (United States); Ho, K. K. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Senary, M. K. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

    1988-10-01

    A two-phase program investigating MHD seed regeneration is described. In Phase I, bench scale experiments were carried out to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a proposed Seed Regeneration Process. The Phase I data has been used for the preliminary design of a Proof-of-Concept (POC) plant which will be built and tested in Phase II. The Phase I data will also be used to estimate the costs of a 300 Mw(t) demonstration plant for comparison with other processes. The Seed Regeneration Process consists of two major subprocesses; a Westinghouse Dry Reduction process and a modified Tampella (sulfur) Recovery process. The Westinghouse process reduces the recovered spent seed (i.e., potassium sulfate) to potassium polysulfide in a rotary kiln. The reduction product is dissolved in water to form green liquor, clarified to remove residual coal ash, and sent to the Tampella sulfur release system. The sulfur is released using carbon dioxide from flue gas in a two stage reaction. The sulfur is converted to elemental sulfur as a marketable by product. The potassium is crystallized from the green liquor and dried to the anhydrous form for return to the MHD unit.

  13. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  14. Enhanced Recovery after Vascular Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena D. Stojanovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginnings of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS program were first developed for patients in colorectal surgery, and after it was established as the standard of care in this surgical field, it began to be applied in many others surgical areas. This is multimodal, evidence-based approach program and includes simultaneous optimization of preoperative status of patients, adequate selection of surgical procedure and postoperative management. The aim of this program is to reduce complications, the length of hospital stay and to improve the patients outcome. Over the past decades, special attention was directed to the postoperative management in vascular surgery, especially after major vascular surgery because of the great risk of multiorgan failure, such as: respiratory failure, myocardial infarction, hemodynamic instability, coagulopathy, renal failure, neurological disorders, and intra-abdominal complications. Although a lot of effort was put into it, there is no unique acceptable program for ERAS in this surgical field, and there is still a need to point out the factors responsible for postoperative outcomes of these patients. So far, it is known that special attention should be paid to already existing diseases, type and the duration of the surgical intervention, hemodynamic and fluid management, nutrition, pain management, and early mobilization of patients.

  15. Uranium recovery from phosphonitric solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunus, F.T.; Miu, I.

    1997-01-01

    A new technology for uranium and rare earth recovery applied in a semi-industrial plant processing 5 m 3 /h phosphoric acid has been extended to phosphonitric solution, resulting in the process of nitric acid attack of phosphate rock for complex fertilizer production. In this process uranium and rare earths are obtained at larger quantities due to the complete dissolution of elements involved. The method is based on a one cycle extraction-stripping process using as extractants: di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (DEPA) in mixture either with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) or tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in view of obtaining a synergic effect for U (VI). A mixer-settler extractor in four steps was used. Two stripping steps are involved for the elements mentioned. Before uranium stripping a scrubbing with urea was introduced to eliminate nitric acid extracted. Uranium was obtained as green cake (hydrated uranium tetrafluoride) which can be easily transformed in hexfluoride or converted to a diuranate. At the same time the radium is also eliminated leading to a non-radioactive fertilizer product. (author),. 8 refs, 4 figs

  16. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics. This volume explores: Quantum Dynamical Resonances in Ch

  17. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Paul; Baldwin, Helen

    2013-01-30

    The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital) that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital) or facilitators of (presence of capital) sustained recovery post treatment. A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular) was a key motivator post treatment. Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. 'human capital', provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and maintaining aspects of a 'normal' life i.e. 'social and physical

  18. Recovery post treatment: plans, barriers and motivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing focus on achieving a sustained recovery from substance use brings with it a need to better understand the factors (recovery capital that contribute to recovery following treatment. This work examined the factors those in recovery perceive to be barriers to (lack of capital or facilitators of (presence of capital sustained recovery post treatment. Methods A purposive sample of 45 participants was recruited from 11 drug treatment services in northern England. Semi-structured qualitative interviews lasting between 30 and 90 minutes were conducted one to three months after participants completed treatment. Interviews examined key themes identified through previous literature but focused on allowing participants to explore their unique recovery journey. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches. Results Participants generally reported high levels of confidence in maintaining their recovery with most planning to remain abstinent. There were indications of high levels of recovery capital. Aftercare engagement was high, often through self referral, with non substance use related activity felt to be particularly positive. Supported housing was critical and concerns were raised about the ability to afford to live independently with financial stability and welfare availability a key concern in general. Employment, often in the substance use treatment field, was a desire. However, it was a long term goal, with substantial risks associated with pursuing this too early. Positive social support was almost exclusively from within the recovery community although the re-building of relationships with family (children in particular was a key motivator post treatment. Conclusions Addressing internal factors and underlying issues i.e. ‘human capital’, provided confidence for continued recovery whilst motivators focused on external factors such as family and

  19. Nuclear industry - challenges in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.; Balu, K.; Garg, R.K.; Murthy, L.G.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Rao, M.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical engineering processes and operations are closely involved in every step of the nuclear fuel cycle. Starting from mining and milling of the ore through the production of fuel and other materials and their use in nuclear reactors, fuel reprocessing, fissile material recycle and treatment and disposal of fission product wastes, each step presents a challenge to the chemical engineer to evolve and innovate processes and techniques for more efficient utilization of the energy in the atom. The requirement of high recovery of the desired components at high purity levels is in itself a challenge. ''Nuclear Grade'' specifications for materials put a requirement which very few industries can satisfy. Recovery of uranium and thorium from low grade ores, of heavy water from raw water, etc. are examples. Economical and large scale separation of isotopes particularly those of heavy elements is a task for which processess are under various stages of development. Further design of chemical plants such as fuel reprocessing plants and high level waste treatment plants, which are to be operated and maintained remotely due to the high levels of radio-activity call for engineering skills which are being continually evolved. In the reactor, analysis of the fluid mechanics and optimum design of heat removal system are other examples where a chemical engineer can play a useful role. In addition to the above, the activities in the nuclear industry cover a very wide range of chemical engineering applications, such as desalination and other energy intensive processes, radioisotope and radiation applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. (auth.)

  20. Recovery of iron from cyanide tailings with reduction roasting–water leaching followed by magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yali; Li, Huaimei; Yu, Xianjin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using reduction roasting–water leaching–magnetic separation method, the recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was optimized. ► The recovery of iron was highly depended on the water-leaching process after reduction roasting. ► The results suggest that the method can be effectively used for iron recovery, and the grade of magnetic concentrate and recovery rate can reach 59.11% and 75.12%, respectively. - Abstract: Cyanide tailing is a kind of solid waste produced in the process of gold extraction from gold ore. In this paper, recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was studied with reduction roasting–water leaching process followed by magnetic separation. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery of iron were chiefly introduced. Systematic studies indicate that the high recovery rate and grade of magnetic concentrate of iron can be achieved under the following conditions: weight ratios of cyanide tailings/activated carbon/sodium carbonate/sodium sulfate, 100:10:3:10; temperature, 50 °C; time, 60 min at the reduction roasting stage; the liquid to solid ratio is 15:1 (ml/g), leaching at 60 °C for 5 min and stirring speed at 20 r/min at water-leaching; exciting current is 2 A at magnetic separation. The iron grade of magnetic concentrate was 59.11% and the recovery ratio was 75.12%. The mineralography of cyanide tailings, roasted product, water-leached sample, magnetic concentrate and magnetic tailings were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique. The microstructures of above products except magnetic tailings were also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) to help understand the mechanism.

  1. Functional recovery after cervical spinal cord injury: Role of neurotrophin and glutamatergic signaling in phrenic motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Luther C; Gransee, Heather M; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B

    2016-06-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts descending neural drive to phrenic motoneurons causing diaphragm muscle (DIAm) paralysis. Recent studies using a well-established model of SCI, unilateral spinal hemisection of the C2 segment of the cervical spinal cord (SH), provide novel information regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of functional recovery after SCI. Over time post-SH, gradual recovery of rhythmic ipsilateral DIAm activity occurs. Recovery of ipsilateral DIAm electromyogram (EMG) activity following SH is enhanced by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the region of the phrenic motoneuron pool. Delivery of exogenous BDNF either via intrathecal infusion or via mesenchymal stem cells engineered to release BDNF similarly enhance recovery. Conversely, recovery after SH is blunted by quenching endogenous BDNF with the fusion-protein TrkB-Fc in the region of the phrenic motoneuron pool or by selective inhibition of TrkB kinase activity using a chemical-genetic approach in TrkB(F616A) mice. Furthermore, the importance of BDNF signaling via TrkB receptors at phrenic motoneurons is highlighted by the blunting of recovery by siRNA-mediated downregulation of TrkB receptor expression in phrenic motoneurons and by the enhancement of recovery evident following virally-induced increases in TrkB expression specifically in phrenic motoneurons. BDNF/TrkB signaling regulates synaptic plasticity in various neuronal systems, including glutamatergic pathways. Glutamatergic neurotransmission constitutes the main inspiratory-related, excitatory drive to motoneurons, and following SH, spontaneous neuroplasticity is associated with increased expression of ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in phrenic motoneurons. Evidence for the role of BDNF/TrkB and glutamatergic signaling in recovery of DIAm activity following cervical SCI is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecological distribution of pelagic copepods and species relationship to acidification, liming and natural recovery in a boreal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Birger WÆRVÅGEN

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and ecology of pelagic copepods were studied in a boreal area strongly affected by acidification in southern Norway. Differential regional composition of bedrock geology and Quaternary deposits combined with liming have produced aquatic sites with contrasting acidification and recovery histories. The omnivorous species Eudiaptomus gracilis showed a striking ability to tolerate both acidification and chemical recovery. The predominantly carnivorous species Heterocope saliens increased numerically during acidification, both because it is tolerant to acidic environments and because fish predation diminished or disappeared altogether. After chemical recovery, H. saliens, having an endogenous egg-bank, most readily produced viable populations with numerical abundance depending upon fish predation pressure. Thermocyclops oithonoides and Cyclops scutifer were negatively affected by strongly acidic environments, whereas Mesocyclops leuckarti tolerated acidic conditions better. All three cyclopoid species increased in abundance after chemical recovery, most probably from small residual populations. The hypolimnetic C. scutifer faced dispersal problems in re-establishing following liming. Deep lakes (>20 m harboured considerable residual populations of C. scutifer which recovered rapidly to pre-acidic conditions. Cyclops abyssorum inhabited the pelagial during early recovery of formerly chronically acidified lakes as a fugitive species, probably due to rapid dispersal capacities. Littoral cyclopoids, such as Acanthocyclops vernalis and Diacyclops nanus, were commonly distributed in the free waters of the most acidic lakes (pH = 4.5-4.8, but disappeared from the pelagial shortly after chemical recovery. The total community of pelagic copepods forms a promising tool to identify historical acidification and trajectories of recovery in the freshwater environment.

  3. Measuring the Recovery Orientation of ACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, Michelle P.; Stull, Laura G.; Rollins, Angela L.; McGrew, John H.; Hicks, Lia J.; Thomas, Dave; Strieter, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Background Approaches to measuring recovery orientation are needed, particularly for programs that may struggle with implementing recovery-oriented treatment. Objective A mixed methods comparative study was conducted to explore effective approaches to measuring recovery orientation of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams. Design Two ACT teams exhibiting high and low recovery orientation were compared using surveys, treatment plan ratings, diaries of treatment visits, and team-leader-reported treatment control mechanisms. Results The recovery-oriented team differed on one survey measure (higher expectations for consumer recovery), treatment planning (greater consumer involvement and goal-directed content), and use of control mechanisms (less use of representative payee, agency-held lease, daily medication delivery, and family involvement). Staff and consumer diaries showed the most consistent differences (e.g., conveying hope and choice) and were the least susceptible to observer bias, but had the lowest response rates. Conclusions Several practices differentiate recovery orientation on ACT teams, and a mixed-methods assessment approach is feasible. PMID:23690285

  4. [Recovery: systematic review of a concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccari, Ivana Oliveira Preto; Campos, Rosana Teresa Onocko; Stefanello, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of recovery has been described in papers as a state of psychic, physical and social recuperation of day-to-day functions. The scope of this article is to analyze the concepts of the term in different research methodologies and the paradigmatic evolution of the recovery concept. Systematic bibliographical research was conducted in the Pubmed database using the words "recovery + schizophrenia" limited to freely available full papers published in the previous two years. Nineteen papers were analyzed. The majority of the papers sought associations between characteristic data and recovery; few papers discussed the concept in a way to distinguish it from other words like cure or rehabilitation. Recovery as a state in which people with severe mental illness can feel like the creators of their own itinerary tend to be found in qualitative studies and in bibliographic reviews in which the meaning of recovery is not related to the lack of symptoms and tends to prioritize how participative the life of an individual can be despite the disease. Some quantitative studies detect this conceptual difference. In qualitative research there is an increase in the concept of recovery and in ways of promoting it.

  5. Adaptation to and Recovery from Global Catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth D. Baum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Global catastrophes, such as nuclear war, pandemics and ecological collapse threaten the sustainability of human civilization. To date, most work on global catastrophes has focused on preventing the catastrophes, neglecting what happens to any catastrophe survivors. To address this gap in the literature, this paper discusses adaptation to and recovery from global catastrophe. The paper begins by discussing the importance of global catastrophe adaptation and recovery, noting that successful adaptation/recovery could have value on even astronomical scales. The paper then discusses how the adaptation/recovery could proceed and makes connections to several lines of research. Research on resilience theory is considered in detail and used to develop a new method for analyzing the environmental and social stressors that global catastrophe survivors would face. This method can help identify options for increasing survivor resilience and promoting successful adaptation and recovery. A key point is that survivors may exist in small isolated communities disconnected from global trade and, thus, must be able to survive and rebuild on their own. Understanding the conditions facing isolated survivors can help promote successful adaptation and recovery. That said, the processes of global catastrophe adaptation and recovery are highly complex and uncertain; further research would be of great value.

  6. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Mavros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. CONCLUSION: Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  7. Music and psychophysiological recovery from stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radstaak, Mirjam; Geurts, Sabine A E; Brosschot, Jos F; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2014-09-01

    This experimental study examined whether listening to self-chosen music after stress exposure improves mood, decreases subjective arousal and rumination, and facilitates cardiovascular recovery. Participants (N = 123) were exposed to a mental arithmetic task with harassment to induce stress. Afterward, participants were randomly assigned to one of four "recovery" conditions where they (1) listened to self-chosen relaxing music, (2) listened to self-chosen happy music, (3) listened to an audio book, or (4) sat in silence. After this 5-minute "recovery manipulation period," participants sat in silence for another 5 minutes. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were continuously measured. The recovery conditions caused differences in positive affect (F(3,119) = 13.13, p music or happy music. The conditions showed no differences in subjective arousal (F(3,117) = 2.03, p = .11) and rumination (F(3,119) = 1.10, p = .35). Systolic blood pressure recovery, however, differed between the conditions (linear time trend: F(3,116) = 4.50, p = .005; quadratic time trend: F(3,115) = 5.24, p = .002). Listening to both relaxing and happy music delayed systolic blood pressure recovery when compared with both control conditions. Listening to self-selected music is an effective mood enhancer, but it delays blood pressure recovery.

  8. Prevalence and causes of abnormal PSA recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Noémie; Müntener, Michael; Zanoni, Paolo; Saleh, Lanja; Saba, Karim; Umbehr, Martin; Velagapudi, Srividya; Hof, Danielle; Sulser, Tullio; Wild, Peter J; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Poyet, Cédric

    2018-01-26

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is of paramount importance as a diagnostic tool for the detection and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer. In the presence of interfering factors such as heterophilic antibodies or anti-PSA antibodies the PSA test can yield significantly falsified results. The prevalence of these factors is unknown. We determined the recovery of PSA concentrations diluting patient samples with a standard serum of known PSA concentration. Based on the frequency distribution of recoveries in a pre-study on 268 samples, samples with recoveries 120% were defined as suspect, re-tested and further characterized to identify the cause of interference. A total of 1158 consecutive serum samples were analyzed. Four samples (0.3%) showed reproducibly disturbed recoveries of 10%, 68%, 166% and 4441%. In three samples heterophilic antibodies were identified as the probable cause, in the fourth anti-PSA-autoantibodies. The very low recovery caused by the latter interference was confirmed in serum, as well as heparin- and EDTA plasma of blood samples obtained 6 months later. Analysis by eight different immunoassays showed recoveries ranging between PSA which however did not show any disturbed PSA recovery. About 0.3% of PSA determinations by the electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) of Roche diagnostics are disturbed by heterophilic or anti-PSA autoantibodies. Although they are rare, these interferences can cause relevant misinterpretations of a PSA test result.

  9. Stress and Recovery during Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Michel

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 60-day head-down tilt long-term bed rest (HDT) on stress and recovery in sixteen healthy female volunteers during the WISE-2005 study (Women International Space Simulation for Exploration). Participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise group (Exe) that followed a training program combining resistive and aerobic exercises, or to a no-exercise control group (Ctl). Psychological states were assessed using the Rest-Q, a validated questionnaire based on stress-recovery responses. A longitudinal analysis revealed significant changes in the general and specific stress scales for all participants throughout the experiment with a critical stage from supine to standing posture leading to a significant decrease in physical recovery. During HDT, Exe reported higher scores in stress subscales, as well as lower recovery scores compared to the Ctl. During the post HDT ambulatory recovery period, the exercisers still reported higher scores than the non-exercisers on the Lack of energy stress related scale, along with lower scores in general well-being and personal accomplishment. The present findings show that simulated weightlessness such as HDT may induce psychological stress and lead to subsequent alterations in perceived recovery. Exercise did not reduce HDT impaired effects on stress and recovery states. In the perspective of spaceflights of long-duration such as the future missions to Mars, there is a need for additional experiments to further investigate spaceflight-induced changes of stress and recovery parameters and the effects of exercise on these parameters. Further studies might determine and analyze the psychological factors involved, but also how to intervene concerning these factors with efficient psychological preparation which, although not yet fully investigated, may reduce stress, promote recovery and support adaptive responses to such extreme environments.

  10. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  11. Capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  12. Chemical Weapons Convention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    On April 29, 1997, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC...

  13. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  14. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  15. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  16. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  17. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  18. Chemical cleaning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, B.L.; Thomas, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Three main chemical processes for cleaning steam generators have evolved from the early work of the industry. Of the more than 50 chemical cleanings carried out to date most have been considered a success by the utilities performing them. (author)

  19. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  20. Strontium-90 and promethium-147 recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoisington, J.E.; McDonell, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and promethium-147 are fission product radionuclides with potential for use as heat source materials in high reliability, non-interruptible power supplies. Interest has recently been expressed in their utilization for Department of Defense (DOD) applications. This memorandum summarizes the current inventories, the annual production rates, and the possible recovery of Sr-90 and Pm-147 from nuclear materials production operations at Hanford and Savannah River. Recovery of these isotopes from LWR spend fuel utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP) is also considered. Unit recovery costs at each site are provided

  1. Compression and information recovery in ptychography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetgering, L.; Treffer, D.; Wilhein, T.

    2018-04-01

    Ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging (PCDI) is a scanning microscopy modality that allows for simultaneous recovery of object and illumination information. This ability renders PCDI a suitable technique for x-ray lensless imaging and optics characterization. Its potential for information recovery typically relies on large amounts of data redundancy. However, the field of view in ptychography is practically limited by the memory and the computational facilities available. We describe techniques that achieve robust ptychographic information recovery at high compression rates. The techniques are compared and tested with experimental data.

  2. Plasma glucagon and glucose recovery after hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Holst, Janett

    1991-01-01

    ) and of isolated alpha-adrenergic blockade on hormonal responses to hypoglycemia and on blood glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy subjects. Neither of the pharmacological blockades had any significant effects on plasma glucagon responses to hypoglycemia nor had they any effect on the rate of blood...... glucose recovery after hypoglycemia. We conclude that the autonomic nervous system has no major influence on the glucagon response to hypoglycemia in healthy man. Changes in autonomic nervous activity are not essential for blood glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy man....

  3. Tertiary recovery and tritide injection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin

    1989-01-01

    The exploitation of an oil field is a continously developing process, undergoing seveal stages, such as the low production, the high production, the stable production and the decline. The tertiary recovery is an important means of the enhanced oil recovery. Since the object of the tertiary recovery is to treat the oil in micropores which is difficult to be produced, it is more necessary to know further the reservoir. Tritide can be used as a tracer and is an ideal marker of knowing the reservoir and the state of the fluid movement. The paper presents the tritide injection equipment

  4. Spousal recovery support, recovery experiences, and life satisfaction crossover among dual-earner couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoungAh; Fritz, Charlotte

    2015-03-01

    Research has indicated the importance of recovery from work stress for employee well-being and work engagement. However, very little is known about the specific factors that may support or hinder recovery in the context of dual-earner couples. This study proposes spousal recovery support as a potential resource that dual-earner couples can draw on to enhance their recovery experiences and well-being. It was hypothesized that spousal recovery support would be related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via his or her own recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, and mastery experiences). The study further investigated the crossover of life satisfaction between working spouses as a potential outcome of recovery processes. Data from 318 full-time employed married couples in South Korea were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that spousal recovery support was positively related to all 3 recovery experiences of the recipient spouse. Moreover, this recovery support was related to the recipient spouse's life satisfaction via relaxation and mastery experiences. Unexpectedly, psychological detachment was negatively related to life satisfaction, possibly indicating a suppression effect. Life satisfaction crossed over between working spouses. No gender differences were found in the hypothesized paths. Based on these findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and future research directions are presented. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. From recovery to regulation: an attempt to reconceptualize 'recovery from work'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, F R H; Cropley, M; Rydstedt, L W

    2014-08-01

    The concept of 'recovery' (from work) has quickly gained in importance in the occupational health literature. However, we think that the conceptualization of 'recovery' needs some more attention. Although many authors acknowledge that 'recovery' refers to a 'process', the concept is often treated as a static construct. In this paper, we argue that recovery should be conceptualized as a dynamic construct related to changes in psychophysiological state of the person. We refer to two main theories that have provided a theoretical framework for research in this area: Meijman & Mulder's Effort-Recovery (E-R) model and Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory. In particular, the E-R model has been seminal in this area and stresses the element of changing psychophysiological states that has been used for reconceptualising 'recovery'. Various biological rhythms influence these changing psychophysiological states, and thus the level of energy (or effort) a person can mobilize or wants to mobilize. A distinction is made between 'physical fatigue' and 'mental fatigue' and its consequences for recovery. The discrepancy between 'actual state' and 'required state' has been suggested as the basis for 'recovery'. This emphasises that recovery is a dynamic and ongoing process, which also included motivational aspects, in particular as far as mental work is concerned. The capacity to maintain self-regulation of one's psychophysiological state is important in this respect. Thus, we propose that 'recovery' is the continuous process of harmonizing the 'actual state' with the state that is 'required' at that moment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Houston Recovery Initiative: A Rich Case Study of Building Recovery Communities One Voice at a Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitting, Sara; Nash, Angela; Ochoa, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Recovery from alcohol and drug problems is a process of change through which an individual achieves control and improved quality of life. Recovery is a primary goal for individuals with substance use disorder as it provides hope that treatment and overall health are possible for every individual. More than 23 million Americans are in recovery from addiction to alcohol and other drugs.Recovery-oriented systems of care (ROSC) are networks of community services and peer support that help individuals and families achieve recovery from substances and improve overall health. ROSC is a strengths-based and person-centered model that leverages existing community resources to address the needs of individuals and families as they progress through the journey of recovery. The ROSC model serves as the foundation of the Houston Recovery Initiative (HRI).The purpose of this article is to describe the history, development, and infrastructure of the HRI, which is a volunteer collaboration whose main goal is to educate the community on recovery and broaden the recovery safety net for people with substance use disorder in Houston, Texas. Since 2010, the HRI has grown to include more than 200 agencies across the spectrum of treatment and recovery support services in Houston so as to provide a resource for the community. Herein, we detail efforts to grow the HRI, lessons learned, future plans, and resources needed to move the HRI forward.

  7. Limited recovery of soil microbial activity after transient exposure to gasoline vapors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modrzyński, Jakub J.; Christensen, Jan H.; Mayer, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    During gasoline spills complex mixtures of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released to terrestrial environments. Gasoline VOCs exert baseline toxicity (narcosis) and may thus broadly affect soil biota. We assessed the functional resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery of microbial...... functions) in soil microbial communities transiently exposed to gasoline vapors by passive dosing via headspace for 40 days followed by a recovery phase of 84 days. Chemical exposure was characterized with GC-MS, whereas microbial activity was monitored as soil respiration (CO2 release) and soil bacterial...... microbial activity indicating residual soil toxicity, which could not be attributed to BTEX, but rather to mixture toxicity of more persistent gasoline constituents or degradation products. Our results indicate a limited potential for functional recovery of soil microbial communities after transient...

  8. Biosurfactants production and possible uses in microbial enhanced oil recovery and oil pollution remediation: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banat, I.M.

    1995-01-01

    Surfactants are widely used for various purposes in industry, but for many years were mainly chemically synthesized. It has only been in the past few decades that biological surface-active compounds (biosurfactants) have been described. Biosurfactants are gaining prominence and have already taken over for a number of important industrial uses, due to their advantages of biodegradability, production on renewable resources and functionality under extreme conditions; particularly those pertaining during tertiary crude-oil recovery. Conflicting reports exist concerning their efficacy and the economics of both their production and application. The limited successes and applications for biosurfactants production, recovery, use in oil pollution control, oil storage tank clean-up and enhanced oil-recovery are reviewed from the technical point of view. (author)

  9. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Tervahauta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP, UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased the energy recovery by 23% in the UASB reactor compared to black water treatment. The increase in the energy recovery can cover the increased heat demand of the UASB reactor and the electricity demand of the grey water bioflocculation system with a surplus of 0.7 kWh/cap/y electricity and 14 MJ/cap/y heat. However, grey water sludge introduced more heavy metals in the excess sludge of the UASB reactor and might therefore hinder its soil application.

  10. Application of a precipitation method for uranium recovery from Abu-Zaabal phosphoric acid plant, egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hazek, N.M.T.; Hussein, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Current industrial recovery of uranium from 30% phosphoric acid-produced by the dihydrate process-is based on solvent extraction method. Uranium recovery from concentrated phosphoric acid (45-52% P 2 O 5 ) produced by evaporation of the 30% acid or directly produced by the hemihydrate process, by solvent extraction is difficult to apply in practice. In addition to possible contamination of the acid by the organic solvents and/or their deterioration. This paper investigates the possibility of applying a precipitation method (Weterings and Janssen, 1985) for uranium recovery from both low (28% P 2 O 2 ) and high (48% P 2 O 5 ) concentration phosphoric acids produced by abu-Zaabal phosphoric acid plant (abu-Zaabal fertilizers and chemicals Co., Egypt). The 28% acid produced by H 2 SO 4 dihydrate method and the 48% acid produced by evaporation of the 28% acid

  11. Coarse-grained simulation of molecular mechanisms of recovery in thermally activated shape-memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abberton, Brendan C.; Liu, Wing Kam; Keten, Sinan

    2013-12-01

    recovery at low to intermediate temperatures, a widening of the transition region, and an eventual crossover at high temperatures. Our results corroborate experimental findings on shape-memory behavior and provide new insight into factors governing deformation recovery that can be leveraged in biomaterials design. The established computational methodology can be extended in straightforward ways to investigate the effects of monomer chemistry, low-molecular-weight solvents, physical and chemical crosslinking, different phase-separation morphologies, and more complicated mechanical deformation toward predictive modeling capabilities for stimuli-responsive polymers.

  12. Advances in chemical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  13. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Physics is the only series of volumes available that explores the cutting edge of research in chemical physics. This is the only series of volumes available that presents the cutting edge of research in chemical physics.Includes contributions from experts in this field of research.Contains a representative cross-section of research that questions established thinking on chemical solutions.Structured with an editorial framework that makes the book an excellent supplement to an advanced graduate class in physical chemistry or chemical physics.

  14. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  15. Life Support Systems: Oxygen Generation and Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Oxygen Generation and Recovery technology development area encompasses several sub-tasks in an...

  16. Heart Valve Surgery Recovery and Follow Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide: Understanding Your Heart Valve Problem | Spanish Symptom Tracker | Spanish Pre-surgery Checklist | Spanish What Is Heart ... Heart Valves • Heart Valve Problems and Causes • Risks, Signs and Symptoms • Accurate Diagnosis • Treatment Options • Recovery and ...

  17. Uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In the field of metallurgy, specifically processes for recovering uranium from wet process phosphoric acid solution derived from the acidulation of uraniferous phosphate ores, problems of imbalance of ion exchange agents, contamination of recycled phosphoric acid with process organics and oxidizing agents, and loss and contamination of uranium product, are solved by removing organics from the raffinate after ion exchange conversion of uranium to uranous form and recovery thereof by ion exchange, and returning organics to the circuit to balance mono and disubstituted ester ion exchange agents; then oxidatively stripping uranium from the agent using hydrogen peroxide; then after ion exchange recovery of uranyl and scrubbing, stripping with sodium carbonate and acidifying the strip solution and using some of it for the scrubbing; regenerating the sodium loaded agent and recycling it to the uranous recovery step. Economic recovery of uranium as a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production is effected. (author)

  18. Recovery Act. Tapoco project. Cheoah upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Paul [Alcoa Inc., Alcoa Center, PA (United States)

    2013-10-02

    Under Funding Opportunity Announcement Number: DE-FOA-0000120, Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Modernization, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (APGI), a fully owned subsidiary of Alcoa Inc., implemented major upgrades at its Cheoah hydroelectric facility near Robbinsville, North Carolina.

  19. Nutritional Recovery Outcome among Moderately Malnourished ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional Recovery Outcome among Moderately Malnourished Under-five Children in Communities Implementing Positive Deviance - Hearth or Community Health Workers' Nutrition Promotion Approaches in Karusi and Kirundo Provinces, Burundi.

  20. Recovery and recrystallisation of zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derep, J.L.; Rouby, D.; Fantozzi, G.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the three mechanisms that control the recovery of zircaloy-4 workhardened by rolling: polygonisation leading to a cellular structure, annihilation of dislocations of opposite sign producing thinning of the cell walls, and growth of subgrains by coalescence [fr