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Sample records for chemical pulp

  1. EFFECT OF SCREW EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT ON PULPS FROM CHEMICAL PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Dong,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compressive pretreatment before chemical pulping on the properties of poplar kraft and soda-AQ pulp was evaluated. Compressive pretreatment not only resulted in the dissolution of hemicellulose, but also leached extractives. Pulps made from compressive pretreated wood chips required lower beating energy than the untreated pulps to achieve the same beating degree of 45°SR, and the brightness of the handsheets was improved by 2% ISO. Compressive pretreatment allowed for efficient delignification and saved about 6% alkali consumption to achieve similar pulp screen yield. Furthermore, a higher content of fines and slightly lower mechanical properties were observed after the compressive treatment.

  2. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric C. Xu; Yajun Zhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes.The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  3. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EricC.Xu; YajunZhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes. The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  4. Hemicellulases in the bleaching of chemical pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suurnäkki, A; Tenkanen, M; Buchert, J; Viikari, L

    1997-01-01

    Hemicellulase-aided bleaching is the first full-scale biotechnical application in the pulp and paper industry which truly exploits the unique specificity and safety of biocatalysts. Hemicellulases are used to modify the structure of xylan and glucomannan in pulp fibers in order to enhance the chemical delignification. This technology can be combined with various types of kraft pulping processes and bleaching sequences. The aims of the enzymatic treatment depend on the actual mill conditions, and may be related to environmental demands, reduction of chemical costs, or maintenance or even improvement of product quality. The technology is applied on the mill scale in several countries. This review describes the principles of the enzyme-aided bleaching, the composition of the fiber substrates, the basic enzymology involved, and the present knowledge of the mechanisms of the action of enzymes, as well as the practical results and advantages obtained on the laboratory and industrial scale.

  5. Modeling chlorine dioxide bleaching of chemical pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Tarvo, Ville

    2010-01-01

    This doctoral thesis deals with the phenomenon-based modeling of pulp bleaching. Previous bleaching models typically utilize one or two empirical correlations to predict the kinetics in kappa number development. Empirical correlations are simple to develop, but their parameters are often tied to the validation system. A major benefit of physico-chemical phenomenon models is that they are valid regardless of the reaction environment. Furthermore, modeling the bleaching processes at molecular l...

  6. Polyoxometalates in Oxidative Delignification of Chemical Pulps: Effect on Lignin

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    Kolby Hirth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical pulps are produced by chemical delignification of lignocelluloses such as wood or annual non-woody plants. After pulping (e.g., kraft pulping, the remaining lignin is removed by bleaching to produce a high quality, bright paper. The goal of bleaching is to remove lignin from the pulp without a negative effect on the cellulose; for this reason, delignification should be performed in a highly selective manner. New environmentally-friendly alternatives to conventional chlorine-based bleaching technologies (e.g., oxygen, ozone, or peroxide bleaching have been suggested or implemented. In an attempt to find inorganic agents that mimic the action of highly selective lignin-degrading enzymes and that can be applicable in industrial conditions, the researchers have focused on polyoxometalates (POMs, used either as regenerable redox reagents (in anaerobic conditions or as catalysts (in aerobic conditions of oxidative delignification. The aim of this paper is to review the basic concepts of POM delignification in these two processes.

  7. RECYCLING OF CHEMICAL PULP FROM WHEAT STRAW AND CORN STOVER

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    James Barsness

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Handsheets produced from corn stalks and wheat straw soda AQ pulps were recycled in the lab. Pulping of corn stalks resulted in a low pulp yield, low bonding strength, and low recyclability. Conversely, wheat straw fiber had a better yield, very good tensile properties, and showed a considerably better response to recycling. The tensile index of wheat straw fibers retained 67% of its original value after four cycles. It could be shown that recycling caused only small changes in chemical compo-sition, but that the crystallinity index increased considerably. To be able to understand the behavior of wheat straw fiber as part of a commercial papermaking furnish, a paper containing 20% wheat straw fiber was produced on a 24 inch pilot paper machine and was recycled using a handsheet mold with white water return. Chemical analysis of the control (no wheat fiber and the wheat-containing paper demonstrated slightly higher xylan content for the wheat-containing material. Recyclability increased slightly with addition of wheat fibers to a commercial furnish.

  8. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  9. A Comparative Study of Fibrillated Fibers from Different Mechanical and Chemical Pulps

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    Panu Lahtinen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fibrillation of chemical and mechanical pulps with different lignin contents was studied. The pulps were ion exchanged into their sodium form prior to fibrillation and fibrillated with an increasing level of energy using high-shear friction grinding. The fibrillated samples were characterized for their chemical composition, morphology, rheological properties, and water retention capacity. All pulps had a distinct tendency to form fibrillated material under high shear and compression. The lignin-containing kraft pulps fibrillated easily, and the resulting material can be utilized in applications where high viscosity, water retention capacity, and reinforcement are desired. Fibrillation of mechanical pulps resulted in more heterogeneous samples, which included fiber fragments, branched fibrillar structures, and flake-like particles. This material showed relatively low viscosity and water retention capacity when compared to the samples made from kraft pulps. Chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP, when used as the raw material, yielded a more homogeneous organic filler-like material than did thermomechanical pulp (TMP.

  10. Effect of Pine-apple Pulp on Sensory and Chemical Properties of Burfi

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    Kapila Kamble

    Full Text Available Burfi is a popular khoa based confection and it’s contain considerable amount of milk solids. The manufacture of value added products by using seasonal fruit like pineapple. The present investigation shows that, the overall acceptability of the pineapple pulp Burfi prepared with 15 per cent pineapple pulp in treatment T4 (93.53 was highest and superior. Treatment T4 was more acceptable than all treatments in flavor, body texture and colour and appearance. The chemical composition of Burfi was affected due to addition of pineapple pulp to the fat, protein, total solids, moisture and ash. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(7.000: 329-331

  11. Detection of Chlorophenolic Compounds in Bleaching Effluents of Chemical Pulps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chhaya Sharma; S.Mohanty; S.Kumar; N.J.Rao; li qian

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory bleaching effluents from the chlorination and caustic extraction stages of mixed wood kraft pulp processing have been analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively for various chlorophenolics by using GC.A number of chlorinated derivaties of phenols,catechols,guaiacols and syringaldehydes have been detected and their concentrations are estimated.The results are compared with that of different agriculture residue / hardwood pulps,which were reported in literature.The concentrations of various compounds detected have also been compared with their reported 96LC50 values.

  12. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  13. Biological treatments affect the chemical composition of coffee pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Amato, S.; Huisman, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Biological treatments were applied to fresh coffee pulp (CoP) to improve its nutritive value for monogastric animals by reducing its content of cellulose and antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as total phenols, tannins and caffeine. Treatments were: (1) ensiling with 0, 50 and 100 g kg¿1 molasses f

  14. Biomass use in chemical and mechanical pulping with biomass-based energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Jonas M.; Gustavsson, Leif [Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    The pulp and paper industry is energy intensive and consumes large amounts of wood. Biomass is a limited resource and its efficient use is therefore important. In this study, the total amount of biomass used for pulp and for energy is estimated for the production of several woodfree (containing only chemical pulp) and mechanical (containing mechanical pulp) printing paper products, under Swedish conditions. Chemical pulp mills today are largely self-sufficient in energy while mechanical pulp mills depend on large amounts of external electricity. Technically, all energy used in pulp- and papermaking can be biomass based. Here, we assume that all energy used, including external electricity and motor fuels, is based on forest biomass. The whole cradle-to-gate chain is included in the analyses. The results indicate that the total amount of biomass required per tonne paper is slightly lower for woodfree than for mechanical paper. For the biomass use per paper area, the paper grammage is decisive. If the grammage can be lowered by increasing the proportion of mechanical pulp, this may lower the biomass use per paper area, despite the higher biomass use per unit mass in mechanical paper. In the production of woodfree paper, energy recovery from residues in the mill accounts for most of the biomass use, while external electricity production accounts for the largest part for mechanical paper. Motor fuel production accounts for 5-7% of the biomass use. The biomass contained in the final paper product is 21-42% of the total biomass use, indicating that waste paper recovery is important. The biomass use was found to be about 15-17% lower for modelled, modern mills compared with mills representative of today's average technology. (author)

  15. [Coffee pulp and hulls. XI. Chemical characteristics of silaged coffee pulp with Napier grass (Pennisetum purpurem) and corn plant (Zea mays)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, B; Daqui, L; Cabezas, M T; Bressani, R

    1976-03-01

    Various physical and chemical changes that occur during the process of preparation of coffee pulp silage with the addition of molasses and forage, were identified and measured quantitatively. Three types of silage were prepared in duplicate in laboratory concrete silos, 45 cm wide and 50 cm high. The silages contained the following components: coffee pulp (EPC), pulp and Napier grass (EPCN), and pulp with corn fodder (EPCM). On a fresh basis, the last two contained equal proportions of coffee pulp and forage. Around 16% molasses were aded to all silages. Time of ensiling was 132 to 141 days. In order to determine the physical changes, the silage was weighed at the start and end of the ensiling period; the pH was determined at the end of same, and the drained liquids were measured during the experimental period. To determine the chemical changes, analyses were carried out on the various components used and on the mixtures ensiled at the start and at the end of the experimental period. The pH of the silage was 4.5, 4.3, and 3.8, and the losses of dry matter 10.6, 25.2, and 33.3% for the three types of silages, respectively. These percentages suggest that a better fermentation took place in those silages containing forages. The better fermentation of EPCN over EPC was due to the Napier grass which provided greater amounts of chemical components susceptible of fermentation than those found in coffee pulp. The quality of EPCM was superior due not only to the presence of corn fodder, which produced an effect similar to that of Napier grass, but also due to the fact that the coffee pulp used in this case contained the greater concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and lower levels of lignin than the coffee pulp used alone or with Napier grass. As a result of the fermentation process, in all three types of silage a decrease in dry matter content, of cellular contents and soluble carbohydrates was observed, as well as an increase in cellular walls and its components, and

  16. Biological treatments affect the chemical composition of coffee pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa Rojas, J B; Verreth, J A J; Amato, S; Huisman, E A

    2003-09-01

    Biological treatments were applied to fresh coffee pulp (CoP) to improve its nutritive value for monogastric animals by reducing its content of cellulose and antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as total phenols, tannins and caffeine. Treatments were: (1) ensiling with 0, 50 and 100 gkg(-1) molasses for 2 and 3 months, (2) aerobic decomposition for 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, (3) aerobic bacterial inoculation (Bacillus sp.) for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Ensiled CoP (E-CoP) showed higher fat and ash contents than oven-dried-CoP (OD-CoP; P<0.05). Similarly, true protein values tended to increase. The cellulose and total phenols levels of E-CoP were lower than OD-CoP (P<0.05). The E-CoP tannins levels tended to be lower than OD-CoP whereas caffeine levels remained unaffected. Improvement in the nutritional quality of E-CoP was associated with higher fat and protein contents and reduction of cellulose, total phenols and tannins. The aerobic decomposition treatment improved the nutritional quality of CoP by increasing true protein and fat contents. In addition, total phenols, tannins, caffeine and cellulose contents were reduced by an increase in treatment time (P<0.05). Bacterial treatment increased the protein content of CoP after 21 days (from 137 to 392 gkg(-1)) and decreased it after 28 days. Cellulose, total phenols, tannins and caffeine contents reduced with an increase in time of bacterial degradation. Bacterial treatment improved the CoP quality by increasing protein content and reducing cellulose and ANFs, especially after 21 days of treatment. Both the aerobic decomposition (after 21-28 days) and the aerobic bacterial degradation of CoP (after 21 days) appeared more suitable to improve the nutritional quality of CoP than the ensiling.

  17. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  18. Morphological and Chemical Characterization of Green Bamboo (Dendrocalamopsis oldhami (Munro Keng f. for Dissolving Pulp Production

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    Shilin Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the sustained growth of dissolving pulp demand all over the world, the search for alternative bamboo materials has come into focus in China due to the shortage of wood and the abundance of bamboo resources. In this study, to obtain updated information concerning green bamboo growing in southeastern China and to develop its processing technologies for dissolving pulp, the fiber morphology, chemical composition, elemental composition, degree of polymerization (DP of cellulose, and crystallinity index (CrI of cellulose were investigated. The experimental results show that green bamboo has potential for use as dissolving pulp because it has a lower Runkel ratio and fines content than moso bamboo, and a much lower lignin content and similar α-cellulose and hemicellulose contents compared to softwoods and hardwoods. Compared to the cortex and culm, the node had the shortest fibers and more than 30% of fines, the highest content of extractives and lignin, and the lowest α-cellulose content. As a result, a de-knotting operation prior to cooking can contribute to the production of high-grade dissolving pulp. The DP and CrI of cellulose from the node were much lower than that of cellulose from the culm and cortex. Moreover, green bamboo had the high content of ash, primarily distributed in the cortex. The concentration of Si was 4487 ppm in the cortex, nearly five times higher than that in the culm and node.

  19. STORAGE OF CHEMICALLY PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW – A MEANS TO ENSURE QUALITY RAW MATERIAL FOR PULP PREPARATION

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    Terttu Heikkilä

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of chemical pretreatment and storage on non-wood pulping and on pulp quality. The processes studied were hot water treatment followed by alkaline peroxide bleaching or soda cooking. The results showed that it is possible to store wheat straw outside for at least one year without significant changes in the raw material chemical composition and without adverse effects on the resulting pulp quality. The results are significant to the industry using non-woods to ensure the availability and the quality of the raw-material throughout the year in spite of the short harvesting time.

  20. Effect of different chemical treatments on nutritional and antinutritional properties of coffee pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Weerd, van J.H.; Huisman, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    Different chemical treatments were tested to improve the nutritional value of coffee pulp (CoP): (1) alkali, NaOH solutions of 5 and 10% for 24 and 48 h; (2) a combination of acid and alkali, with first a treatment with HCl (1.5 and 3 M for 24 and 48 h), followed by a NaOH solution of 5% for 48 h; (

  1. [Chemical characteristics of the pulp and oil of the annona tree (Annona coriaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, T da S; Cecchi, H M; Barrera-Arellano, D

    1995-09-01

    Belonging to the Annonaceae family, marolo (Annona coriaceae) is a native species of the Brazilian "cerrado" región (Minas Gerais, Goiás and Distrito Federal) and can be found in South American tropical zones. Its fruits are highly consumed by local people and commercialized in markets or street stalls. There is, however, a tendency for the extinction of marolo due to deforestation and the large scale plantation of monocultures instead of native plants. The literature still offers no data on the chemical composition of the proximate composition and vitamin C, A and tannin contents were carried out on the yellow marolo pulp as well as the determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil. Five batches of fruit from the Alfenas region--south of Minas Gerais State--were analysed in this work and their average composition were: humidity 77%, total sugar 15%, reducing sugar 11%, crude protein 1%, lipids 3%, fiber 5% and fixed mineral residue 1%. The contents of vitamin C and A were 8.2 mg/100g and 117.5 RE/100g, respectively, and the tannin content was 245 mg/100g. The results showed high fiber and lipid contents of marolo pulp in comparison with many other tropical fruit pulps. The vitamin C contents were equivalent to those found in avocado, pineapple and watermelon, while the vitamin A contents were equivalent to papaya, peach, guava and several other tropical fruits. Marolo seed contains 45% of oil on a dry basis. Its composition and physico-chemical characteristics showed the possibility of producing a good quality oil, with great potential for the fine oil market. However the presence of alkaloids in the oil needs to be further studied. Their elimination could be done by refining or extraction in a continuous press. The results exalt the high quality of marolo pulp, showing that the preservation of native species should be stimulated.

  2. Cassava Peels for Alternative Fibre in Pulp and Paper Industry: Chemical Properties and Morphology Characterization

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    Ashuvila Mohd Aripin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Without a proper waste management, the organic wastes such as cassava peels could result in increased amount of solid waste dump into landfill. This study aims to use non-wood organic wastes as pulp for paper making industries; promoting the concept of ‘from waste to wealth and recyclable material’. The objective  of this study is to determine the potential of casssava peel as alternative fibre in pulp and paper based on its chemical properties and surface morphology characteristic. Quantified parameters involved are holocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, one percent of sodium hydroxide, hot water solubility and ash content. The chemical characterization was in accordance with relevant TAPPI Test, Kurscher-Hoffner and Chlorite methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe and determine the morphological characteristic of untreated cassava peels fibre. In order to propose the suitability of the studied plant as an alternative fibre resource in pulp and paper making, the obtained results are compared to other published literatures especially from wood sources. Results indicated that the amount of holocellulose contents in cassava peels (66% is the lowest than of wood (70 - 80.5% and canola straw (77.5%; however this value is still within the limit suitability to produce paper. The lignin content (7.52% is the lowest than those of all wood species (19.9-26.22%. Finally, the SEM images showed that untreated cassava peel contains abundance fibre such as hemicellulose and cellulose that is hold by the lignin in it. In conclusion, chemical properties and morphological characteristics of cassava peel indicated that it is suitable to be used as an alternative fibre sources for pulp and paper making industry, especially in countries with limited wood resources

  3. Chemical characterization of the pulp, peel and seeds of cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal

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    Liliana SERNA-COCK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary The chemical characterization of the pulp, peel and seeds of cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal was determined. In artisanal fruit processing, 26.3% of peel and 9.7% of seeds were obtained. The seeds showed a high potential for the development of value-added products because of their dry matter contents (23.46% as follows: carbohydrate (69.37% dry basis (d.b., nitrogen (3.18 g/100 g of seed d.b., K (0.023 g/100 g of seed d.b., Fe (0.0185 g/100 g of seed d.b. and dietary fiber (21.27 g/100 g of seed d.b.. The carbohydrate, dietary fibre and mineral contents of the pulp, peel and seeds also highlighted the agroindustrial potential of the fruit in that these constituents could be used to develop functional foods, food additives, preparations for functional diets and dietary supplements.

  4. SUGARCANE BAGASSE PULPING AND BLEACHING: THERMAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION

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    Paulo Henrique Fernandes Pereira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fibers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse in three stages. Initially sugarcane bagasse was subjected to a pre-treatment process with hydrolyzed acid to eliminate hemicellulose. Whole cellulosic fibers thus obtained were then subjected to a two-stage delignification process and finally to a bleaching process. The chemical structure of the resulting cellulose fibers was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to analyze the effects of hydrolysis, delignification, and bleaching on the structure of the fibers. Two different thermal analysis techniques were used to study the bleaching cellulose fibers. These techniques confirmed that cellulose fibers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse. A future goal is to use these fibers as reinforcement elements in composites, organic-inorganic hybrid, and membranes for nanofiltration.

  5. Impact of lignin and carbohydrate chemical structures on degradation reactions during hardwood kraft pulping processes

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    Ricardo B. Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most studies aimed at determining rates of hardwood delignification and carbohydrate degradation have focused on understanding the behavior of a single wood species. Such studies tend to determine either the delignification rate or the rate of carbohydrate degradation without examining the potential interactions resulting from related variables. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation on both lignin and carbohydrate degradation during kraft pulping of multiple hardwood species. The kraft delignification rates of E. urograndis, E. nitens, E. globulus, sweet gum, maple, red oak, red alder, cottonwood, and acacia were obtained. Furthermore, the kinetics of glucan, xylan, and total carbohydrate dissolution during the bulk phase of the kraft pulping process for the above species were also investigated. The wide ranges of delignification and carbohydrate degradation rates were correlated to wood chemical characteristics. It appears that the S/G ratio and lignin-carbohydrate-complexes (LCCs are the main characteristics responsible for the differences in kraft pulping performance among the hardwoods studied.

  6. Alkaline peroxide pulping of oil palm empty fruit bunch by variation of chemical strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermawan, Yunita Megasari; Ghazali, Arniza; Daud, Wan Rosli Wan; Lazin, Mohd Azli Khairil Mat

    2012-09-01

    Papers produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) via Alkaline Peroxide Pulping (APP) was preceded by three main steps; dewaxing of EFB, alkaline peroxide (AP) impregnation into EFB and refining of biomass to generate pulp. The experiment was carried by varying chemical level and number of impregnation stages. For 2:2.5% AP level, two-stage impregnation improved hand sheets tear index by 45%, 164% boost in tensile index, 26% enhancement in zero span index and more than 5% in burst index. By applying 8:10% AP level, significant improvements were gained at the third and fourth stages of AP impregnation. Although there was no significant change in hand sheet strength with multiple impregnation for 4:5% AP level, improvement in brightness of hand sheets was apparent, analogous to the effect of increasing AP level. The found paper properties development show that alkaline peroxide pulping of EFB could be adapted to various targeted properties by adjustment of AP level and impregnation stages.

  7. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand in pulping effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Honglei; Chen, Yuancai; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu

    2011-04-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in pulping effluent using chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry. Two calibration models were established by inducing UV-visible spectroscopy (model 1) and derivative spectroscopy (model 2), combined with the chemometrics software Smica-P. Correlation coefficients of the two models are 0.9954 (model 1) and 0.9963 (model 2) when COD of samples is in the range of 0 to 405 mg/L. Sensitivities of the two models are 0.0061 (model 1) and 0.0056 (model 2) and method detection limits are 2.02-2.45 mg/L (model 1) and 2.13-2.51 mg/L (model 2). Validation experiment showed that the average standard deviation of model 2 was 1.11 and that of model 1 was 1.54. Similarly, average relative error of model 2 (4.25%) was lower than model 1 (5.00%), which indicated that the predictability of model 2 was better than that of model 1. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometry method did not need chemical reagents and digestion which were required in the conventional methods, and the testing time of the new method was significantly shorter than the conventional ones. The proposed method can be used to measure COD in pulping effluent as an environmentally friendly approach with satisfactory results.

  8. Research on paper properties variation of softwood chemical pulp applying to APMP pulp%APMP 浆与针叶木化学浆组分配抄的纸张性能变化规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永建; 王倩; 梁巧萍

    2013-01-01

    APMP pulp and the long fiber fraction of APMP pulp were used to prepare hand-sheets with the addition of chemical pulp (softwood pulp) and the short fiber fraction ,re-spectively .Paper properties variation of softwood pulp applying to APMP pulp were re-searched by studying the variation of tensile strength , tear strength and internal bond strength of handsheets .The results showed that the tensile strength ,tear strength and inter-nal bond strength increased with the increasing the chemical pulp dosage when APMP pulp was used to prepare handsheets with the addition of softwood pulp .The tensile strength and tear strength of handsheest ,which were prepared APMP pulp with short fiber content of softwood pulp ,had a twist when the short fiber contents of softwood pulp were 15% .The tensile strength and tear strength increased with the increasing the chemical pulp dosage when APMP pulp and the long fiber fraction of APMP pulp were used to prepare handsheets with the addition of softwood pulp ,respectively .Otherwise ,the fiber length and strength APMP pulp and the long fiber fraction of APMP pulp were used to prepare hand-sheets with the addition of chemical pulp (softwood pulp) and the short fiber fraction ,re-spectively .Paper properties variation of softwood pulp applying to APMP pulp were re-searched by studying the variation of tensile strength , tear strength and internal bond strength of handsheets .The results showed that the tensile strength ,tear strength and inter-nal bond strength increased with the increasing the chemical pulp dosage when APMP pulp was used to prepare handsheets with the addition of softwood pulp .The tensile strength and tear strength of handsheest ,which were prepared APMP pulp with short fiber content of softwood pulp ,had a twist when the short fiber contents of softwood pulp were 15% .The tensile strength and tear strength increased with the increasing the chemical pulp dosage when APMP pulp and the long fiber fraction of APMP pulp

  9. Determination of physical characteristics, chemical composition and digestion coefficients of treated lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in goat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvar, P; Dayani, O; Mehdipour, M; Morovat, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing of lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on physical properties, chemical composition, digestion coefficients and blood parameters. Eight adult male Raeini goats were used in a 28-day period. The experimental design was a completely randomised design with two treatments and four replicates. The first 21 days were for adaptation, and the last 7 days were for collecting samples. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages equipped with a urine-faeces separator and were fed with diet containing alfalfa hay (60%) and lemon pulp (40%) at the maintenance level. Collected data were subjected to analysis of completely randomised design. With diet containing processed lemon pulp, functional specific gravity, bulk density, soluble dry matter, percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and crude ash were significantly increased and water-holding capacity, insoluble dry matter, insoluble ash percentage of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, non-fibrous carbohydrates and nitrogen-free extract were significantly decreased (p lemon pulp (p lemon pulp, digestibility of crude protein and NDF was higher (p lemon pulp with S. cerevisiae improved the physical characteristics and increased the percentage of crude protein and the digestion coefficients of protein and NDF.

  10. Utilization of a chemical-mechanical pulp with improved properties from poplar wood in the composition of packing papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridonov, I.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to obtain a chemical-mechanical pulp (CMP from poplar wood with improved properties, to be used in packing papers in place of more expensive softwood or hardwood pulp. For improving the CMP quality indicators, a preliminary treatment of the pulp has been carried out with a mixture of oxidizing enzymes produced from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase. The two types of fiber materials obtained were double-stage bleached and then ground to 30oSR. It was found that preliminary enzyme treatment yielded CMP with improved physical, mechanical, and optical properties. The enzyme-pretreated CMP also refined faster, thus reducing the electricity consumption. Bleached CMP from poplar wood, obtained after preliminary enzyme treatment, could be successfully utilized at levels up to 40% in the composition of various packaging papers.

  11. Effect of Kraft Pulping Pretreatment on the Chemical Composition, Enzymatic Digestibility, and Sugar Release of Moso Bamboo Residues

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    Caoxing Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, kraft pulping was carried out on moso bamboo residues as a pretreatment and its impact on the chemical compositions and the digestibility of the sample was investigated. Meanwhile, steam explosion and sulfuric acid pretreatments were also carried out on the sample to determine their impacts on enzymatic saccharification. Results showed that kraft pulping pretreatment removed a significant amount of lignin from the sample, and its enzymatic saccharification was enhanced. Approximately 95% of the lignin was removed with the optimized kraft pulping pretreatment (26% effective alkali charge, 24% sulfidity, 160 °C, and 70 min cooking time. Consequently, about 79% and 77% yields of glucan and xylan, respectively, were achieved with enzymatic saccharification from the pretreated sample. As a result, 352 g, 128 g, and 88 g sugars were generated from 1000 g of samples pretreated by kraft pulping, steam explosion, and sulfuric acid, respectively. The results suggested that kraft pulping can be a remarkably effective pretreatment applied on moso bamboo residues (i.e., lignin-rich biomass for sugars released, compared to steam explosion and sulfuric acid pretreatment.

  12. Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Takrama, Jemmy; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

    2011-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4 × 2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content using stan...

  13. KRAFT PULPING CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE MOROCCAN EUCALYPTI. PART 1. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WOODS AND PULPS

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    Mohammed El Moussaouiti,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two eucalyptus hybrids (EGC 39, EGC 241, resulting from crosses between Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, were investigated to see if they could produce kraft papermaking fibers with low lignin and adequate physical properties. The two hybrids were harvested at an age of 8 years along with 6-8 year old Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Rostrata. All three eucalypti were grown in the area of Gharb in the North-West of Morocco. The tracheids in the two hybrids had a very high Runkel ratio (2 x cell wall thickness/lumen diameter and produced kraft paper sheets with low tensile strength due to a low degree of fiber collapse thus a low relative bonded area. These fibers could be used to increase the stiffness of a papermaking furnish. The lignin in the EGC 39 chips was more reactive in kraft pulping as compared to the other two eucalypti. Methoxyl analyses and nitrobenzene oxidation (NBO of the in-situ lignin (wood meals were performed, and it was concluded that the syringyl content of the EGC 39 lignin was less than or equal to those in the other two eucalypti. Differences in the guaiacyl fraction of the three samples will be discussed in Part 2 of this series.

  14. Green chemicals from pulp production black liquor by partial wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddassar, Hassan Raja; Melin, Kristian; de Villalba Kokkonen, Daniela; Riera, Gerard Viader; Golam, Sarwar; Koskinen, Jukka

    2015-11-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, more sustainable sources of energy, fuel and chemicals are needed. Biomass side streams such as black liquor, which is a by-product of pulp production, has the potential to be used for this purpose. The aim of the study was the production of carboxylic acids, such as lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid, from kraft and non-wood black liquor. The processes studied were partial wet oxidation (PWO) and catalytic partial wet oxidation (CPWO). The results show that the yield of carboxylic acid is higher when treated by PWO than the results from CPWO at temperatures of 170 °C and 230 °C. The results shows that the PWO process can increase the yield of carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids in black liquor, reduce lignin content and decrease pH, which makes further separation of the acids more favourable. The hydroxy acids are valuable raw materials for biopolymers, and acetic acid and formic acid are commonly used chemicals conventionally produced from fossil feedstock.

  15. NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP

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    Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were studied. The results showed that superior hand sheet properties could be achieved by using bagasse chemical pulp; in comparison with main mill pulp furnish (83% hardwood CMP pulp and 17% imported long fiber pulp. In other words, by using bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with local mill made hardwood CMP pulp, acceptable newsprint could be made with considerable reduction in the consumptions of hardwood species and softwood reinforcing kraft pulp.

  16. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  17. NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP

    OpenAIRE

    Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy; Hossein Resalati Mail; pejman Rezayati Charani Mail

    2011-01-01

    Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were st...

  18. Chemical composition of abaca (Musa textilis) leaf fibers used for manufacturing of high quality paper pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, José C; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2006-06-28

    The chemical composition of leaf fibers of abaca (Musa textilis), which are commonly used for high-quality paper pulp production, was thoroughly studied. The results revealed that the lignin content was 13.2% of the total fiber. The analysis of abaca fibers by pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) released predominantly compounds arising from lignin and p-hydroxycinnamic acids, with high amounts of 4-vinylphenol. The latter compound was demonstrated to arise from p-coumaric acid by pyrolysis of abaca fibers in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which released high amounts of p-coumaric acid (as the methyl derivative). Products from p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) propanoid units, with a predominance of the latter (H:G:S molar ratio of 1.5:1:4.9), were also released after Py-GC/MS of abaca fibers. Sinapyl and coniferyl acetates, which are thought to be lignin monomer precursors, were also found in abaca. The extractives content of the abaca fiber (0.4%) was low, and the most predominant compounds were free sterols (24% of total extract) and fatty acids (24% of total extract). Additionally, significant amounts of steroid ketones (10%), triglycerides (6%), omega-hydroxyfatty acids (6%), monoglycerides (4%), fatty alcohols (4%), and a series of p-hydroxycinnamyl (p-coumaric and ferulic acids) esterified with long chain alcohols and omega-hydroxyfatty acids were also found, together with minor amounts of steroid hydrocarbons, diglycerides, alpha-hydroxyfatty acids, sterol esters, and sterol glycosides.

  19. [Vegetable resources with agroindustrial potential from Guatemala. Chemical characterization of the pulp and of the seeds of Theobroma bicolor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlán, A L; Bressani, R

    1999-12-01

    T. bicolor grows wild in certain regions of Guatemala. The fruit is utilized by the rural population for the preparation of drinks from the pulp and the seed, replacing cocoa (T. cocoa). The fruit of T. bicolor used in the present study, measured on the average, 15 cm long and had an average weight, of 752 g. The pulp, the shell, and the seed represented 23.8, 62.5, and 13.7%, respectively, of the fruit weight. The pulp contained on the average, 38 seeds/fruit, which weighted on the average, 1.11 g and were 2.4 cm long. T. cacao seeds weighted 0.62 g and were 1.6 cm long. The protein content (24.42%) and fiber content (30.86%) of the T. bicolor seeds, was greater than those from T. cacao, although fat content was lower (25.48%). The fat of the seeds of T. bicolor has different physicochemical characteristics than the fat of the seeds of T. cacao, such as melting point, iodine value, and saponification number. The seeds of both, T. cacao and T. bicolor, were used for the preparation of a local drink using toasted corn flour, sugar, and anatto flour in equal preparations, with and without toasted whole soybean flours (6.25%). Through a sensory ranking trial, it is established that the drink from T. bicolor and soybeans, was preferred over other preparations with T. cacao. The pulp of T. bicolor with an interesting chemical composition, yielded an aromatic pleasant drink, and from T. bicolor, is an interesting resource for industrialization and for genetic characteristics for T. cacao improvement.

  20. Chemical pulping of waste pineapple leaves fiber for kraft paper production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waham Ashaier Laftah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to evaluate the implementation of acetone as a pulping agent for pineapple leaves. Mixtures of water and acetone with concentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 10% were used. The effects of soaking and delignification time on the paper properties were investigated. Thermal and physical properties of paper sheet were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and tearing resistance test respectively. The morphological properties were observed using microscope at 200× magnification. The paper sheet produced from pulping with 3% acetone concentration shows the highest mechanical properties. Papers strength was improved by increasing the delignification time. The delignification time was reduced by cooking the pineapple leaves at a temperature of 118 °C under applied pressure of 80 kPa which has remarkable effect on paper strength.

  1. Physical and chemical characterization of the pulp of different varieties of avocado targeting oil extraction potential

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    Edinéia Dotti Mooz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of avocado pulp of four different varieties (Avocado, Guatemala, Dickinson, and Butter pear and to identify which has the greatest potential for oil extraction. Fresh avocado pulp was characterized by moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energy contents were determined. The carotenoids and chlorophyll contents were determined by the organic solvent extraction method. The results showed significant differences in the composition of the fruit when varieties are compared. However, the striking feature in all varieties is high lipid content; Avocado and Dickinson are the most suitable varieties for oil extraction, taking into account moisture content and the levels of lipids in the pulp. Moreover, it could be said that the variety Dickinson is the most affected by the parameters evaluated in terms of overall quality. Chlorophyll and carotenoids, fat-soluble pigments, showed a negative correlation with respect to lipids since it could be related to its function in the fruit. The varieties Avocado and Dickinson are an alternative to oil extraction having great commercial potential to be exploited thus avoiding waste and increasing farmers’ income.

  2. Chemical composition and physical quality characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp pre-conditioning and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Takrama, Jemmy; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

    2013-12-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the effects of pod storage (as a means of pulp preconditioning) and fermentation on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4 × 2 full factorial design with factors as pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days) and cocoa treatment (fermented and unfermented) were conducted. Samples were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content) and mineral content using standard analytical methods. The physical qualities of the beans were analyzed for their proportions of cocoa nibs, shells and germ. Fermentation and increasing pod storage resulted in significant (P cocoa beans. Proportion of cocoa nibs also increased from with increasing pod storage and fermentation whiles reductions in shell content and no appreciable changes in germ proportions were noted.

  3. Isolation and chemical identification of lipid derivatives from avocado (Persea americana) pulp with antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Dariana Graciela; Flores-García, Mirthala; Silva-Platas, Christian; Rizzo, Sheryl; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; De la Peña-Diaz, Aurora; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Platelets play a pivotal role in physiological hemostasis. However, in coronary arteries damaged by atherosclerosis, enhanced platelet aggregation, with subsequent thrombus formation, is a precipitating factor in acute ischemic events. Avocado pulp (Persea americana) is a good source of bioactive compounds, and its inclusion in the diet as a source of fatty acid has been related to reduced platelet aggregability. Nevertheless, constituents of avocado pulp with antiplatelet activity remain unknown. The present study aims to characterize the chemical nature of avocado constituents with inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation. Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) was used as a fractionation and purification tool, guided by an in vitro adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid or collagen-platelet aggregation assay. Antiplatelet activity was initially linked to seven acetogenins that were further purified, and their dose-dependent effects in the presence of various agonists were contrasted. This process led to the identification of Persenone-C (3) as the most potent antiplatelet acetogenin (IC₅₀=3.4 mM) among the evaluated compounds. In vivo evaluations with Persenone A (4) demonstrated potential protective effects against arterial thrombosis (25 mg kg⁻¹ of body weight), as coagulation times increased (2-fold with respect to the vehicle) and thrombus formation was attenuated (71% versus vehicle). From these results, avocado may be referred to as a functional food containing acetogenin compounds that inhibit platelet aggregation with a potential preventive effect on thrombus formation, such as those that occur in ischaemic diseases.

  4. Chemical characterization of lignin from kraft pulping black liquor of Acacia mangium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermiati, Euis; Risanto, Lucky; Lubis, M. Adly Rahandi; Laksana, Raden Permana Budi; Dewi, Aniva Rizkia

    2017-01-01

    In order to know the proper use of lignin derived from pulping process of A. mangium, it is important to study the characteristics of lignin obtained from this species. The objective of this research was to study the characteristics of lignin isolated from kraft pulping black liquor of A. mangium. Lignin was isolated from the black liquor by single step and two step acid precipitation. The lignins were characterized for their moisture, ash, acid soluble lignin (ASL), and acid insoluble lignin (AIL) contents. Elemental composition, FTIR spectra, UV spectra, and microscopic structure using SEM were also analyzed. The yield of lignin obtained through one step precipitation of black liquor (45.76%) was much higher than that through two step precipitation (7.38%), while ash contents of lignin from one step and two step precipitations were almost the same. Ultimate analysis shows that carbon content in lignin from one step precipitation was lower than that from two step precipitation, while hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur content were relatively the same. Two step precipitation could increase the AIL and decrease the ASL content of the lignin isolate. Results of UV analysis show that in neutral medium (dioxane-water) the two lignin isolates had strong absorbance at 240 nm, while in alkaline medium (NaOH pH 12) there were strong absorption at 210 nm, and weak absorption at 280 nm. The FT-IR spectra reveal that the two lignin isolates had similar functional groups. This means that the removal of sugar from lignin did not change the lignin structure. The SEM analysis shows that both lignin isolates still contain some dirts.

  5. RE-UTILIZATION OF INORGANIC SOLID WASTE (LIME MUD AS FOREST ROAD STABILIZER FROM THE CHEMICAL RECOVERY PROCESS IN KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Eroğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste handling is a concern in all pulp and paper mills. Best available techniques for reducing waste is to minimize the generation of solid waste and/or reuse these materials, wherever practicable. One of the most important solid wastes is lime mud which is generated from the kraft pulping in its chemical recovery process. This paper explores the composition of lime mud resulting from the chemical recovery unite of kraft pulp mill and investigation of this waste for re-using beneficially on sub grade and pavement of forest road as a alternative disposal method. Lime mud obtained from the re-causticising process in SEKA pulp mill that utilizes wheat straw and reed as the principal raw material was supplied with % 47 water content and its chemical and physical characterisations was performed according to standard methods. Dried waste to environmental condition was mixed with certain amount to composite cement for using on pavement and sandy clay, loamy clay and clay soils for enriching forest road sub grade properties. In order to investigate the lime mud addition on pavement and sub grade properties necessary physical tests were performed. As a consequence this study reveals that while waste of lime mud causes environmental and economical problem with conventional disposal techniques and/or abandoning to environment, this waste can be used as good stabilisation materials on forest road sub-grade and pavement without any environmental problem.

  6. THE EFFECT OF CHARGE AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF CATIONIC SURFACTANTS ON LASER TONER AGGLOMERATION UNDER ALKALINE PULPING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jiang,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale agglomeration experiments followed by image analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of different cationic surfactants on the 1-octadecanol agglomeration of a negatively charged laser toner. Various types of surfactants with different geometric structures were investigated. It was found that this toner became agglomerated under neutral pulping conditions, but it did not agglomerate under alkaline conditions at all. A small amount of the cationic surfactant compensated for the agglomeration disruption caused by the negative surface charge of the toner and made this toner agglomerate very well. These cationic surfactants consist of a chemical structure of C12 to C18 saturated alkyl hydrophobic chains. The positive charge of these surfactants played the major role in alleviating agglomeration disruption. Additionally, an extra phenol group on these surfactants contributed only minor advantages for toner agglomeration in the presence of 1-octadecanol. The best co-agglomeration performance occurred within a very narrow range of similar total positive charge densities based on the total toner weight. It was also found that this positive charge effect could not be applied to the chemical compounds of high molecular weight polymeric materials.

  7. The effect of chemical composition on microfibrillar cellulose films from wood pulps: mechanical processing and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Kelley L; Venditti, Richard A; Habibi, Youssef; Rojas, Orlando J; Pawlak, Joel J

    2010-08-01

    Films of microfibrillated celluloses (MFCs) from pulps of different yields, containing varying amounts of extractives, lignin, and hemicelluloses, were produced by combining refining and high-pressure homogenization techniques. MFC films were produced using a casting-evaporation technique and the physical and mechanical properties (including density, roughness, fold endurance and tensile properties) were determined. Homogenization of bleached and unbleached Kraft pulps gave rise to highly individualized MFCs, but not for thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). The resulting MFC films had a roughness equivalent to the surface upon which the films were cast. Interestingly, after homogenization, the presence of lignin significantly increased film toughness, tensile index, and elastic modulus. The hornification of fibers through a drying and rewetting cycle prior to refining and homogenization did not produce any significant effect compared to films from never-dried fibers, indicating that MFC films can potentially be made from low-cost recycled cellulosic materials.

  8. Occupational exposure to chemical and biological agents in the nonproduction departments of pulp, paper, and paper product mills: an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, K; Ahrens, W; Andersen, A; Boffetta, P; Fincham, S; Finkelstein, M; Henneberger, P; Kauppinen, T; Kogevinas, M; Korhonen, K; Liss, G; Liukkonnen, T; Osvoll, P; Savela, A; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, I; Westberg, H; Widerkiewicz, K

    1999-01-01

    As part of an international epidemiological study of workers in the pulp and paper industry, previously unpublished exposure measurements were assembled in a database. This article describes 7293 measurements in nonproduction departments from 147 mills in 11 countries. The greatest variety of agents was measured in the maintenance, construction, and cleaning department, where high exposures to asbestos, chromium [VI] compounds, copper, mercury in urine, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, styrene, sulfur dioxide, trichloroethylene, and welding fumes were observed. Measurements in the storage, yard, loading, and shipping department indicated high exposures to asbestos, carbon monoxide, fungal spores, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and total dust. The steam and power generation department had high exposures to methyl mercaptan, silica, and total dust. Measurements in process and effluent water treatment, laboratory and research, engineering, and office, administration, and cafeteria areas had few elevated exposures. Throughout the nonproduction departments, measurements of pulp-production chemicals such as chlorine and sulfur compounds tended to be low, with many below detection limits. There were some problems with the available data; in particular, detection limits were often not specified, and the data tended to be clustered in such a way that sources of exposure variability could not be distinguished. Despite these problems, the data provide new insight into the exposures of nonproduction pulp and paper industry personnel.

  9. Chemical and microbiological changes during vermicomposting of coffee pulp using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Kurian; Velmourougane, K

    2011-06-01

    Coffee pulp is the main solid residue from the wet processing of coffee berries. Due to presence of anti-physiological and anti-nutritional factors, coffee pulp is not considered as adequate substrate for bioconversion process by coffee farmers. Recent stringent measures by Pollution Control authorities, made it mandatory to treat all the solid and liquid waste emanating from the coffee farms. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and a native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) from coffee farm for decomposition of coffee pulp into valuable vermicompost. Exotic earthworms were found to degrade the coffee pulp faster (112 days) as compared to the native worms (165 days) and the vermicomposting efficiency (77.9%) and vermicompost yield (389 kg) were found to significantly higher with native worms. The multiplication rate of earthworms (280%) and worm yield (3.78 kg) recorded significantly higher with the exotic earthworms. The percentage of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium in vermicompost was found to increase while C:N ratio, pH and total organic carbon declined as a function of the vermicomposting. The plant nutrients, nitrogen (80.6%), phosphorus (292%) and potassium (550%) content found to increase significantly in the vermicompost produced using native earthworms as compared to the initial values, while the calcium (85.7%) and magnesium (210%) content found to increase significantly in compost produced utilizing exotic worms. Vermicompost and vermicasts from native earthworms recorded significantly higher functional microbial group's population as compared to the exotic worms. The study reveals that coffee pulp can be very well used as substrate for vermicomposting using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis).

  10. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  11. Chemical and rheological properties of a starch-rich fraction from the pulp of the fruit cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vriesmann, Lucia C.; Silveira, Joana L.M. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, CP 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Petkowicz, Carmen L. de O [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, CP 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil)], E-mail: clop@ufpr.br

    2009-03-01

    The pulp obtained from the fruit of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) was extracted with hot aqueous 0.1% citric acid to give fraction 0.1CA-2 in 15% yield. This was the predominant component polysaccharide, 91% of which was composed of starch, by an iodine test and monosaccharide composition, and its {sup 13}C NMR spectrum was consistent with that of a high amylose starch. The content of amylose found in fraction 0.1CA-2 was 71%. This value is higher than those of common starches of cereal grains, tubers, roots, and other fruits. The fraction was submitted to rheological examination, gels being prepared on heating with concentrations of 4 to 7% (w/w). A non-Newtonian behavior was observed, and gel viscosity and strength depended on the concentration. The presence of starch, as well as the presence of previously investigated pectin, conferred the high viscosity and gelling capability of the pulp.

  12. Effect of sucrose and pectin addition on physical, chemical, thermal and rheological properties of frozen/thawed pineapple pulps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Márcia Cavalcante; Fernandes, Tatiana Nunes; Prado, Mônica Elisabeth Torres; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2012-09-01

    Pectin (0-1.0 g/100 mL) and sucrose (0-20 g/100 mL) were added to pineapple pulp to improve their rheological properties, thermal properties and stability after freezing and thawing processes. The properties of the mixes were characterized before and after freezing and thawing. Samples were frozen at -20°C, and the freeze concentration was evaluated every 60 min. The thawing rate was evaluated at 19°C and quantified by photographic editing and image analysis software. The thawing rates and values for the freeze concentration were leveled out at pectin concentrations above 0.5 g/100 mL pectin, which indicated that pectin functions to maintain structural homogeneity during freezing. In the thawed samples, the plastic viscosity values were leveled out from pectin concentrations (0.25-0.75 g/100 mL) as the sucrose concentration increased when compared to unfrozen samples. The differences between the rheological parameters of the unfrozen and frozen/thawed pulps, the higher yield stress values after thawing were attributed to the size of suspended particles in the pulp. Applications can specify formulations of frozen products containing pectin, where these properties can be handled after thawing the product.

  13. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  14. Papermaking fibers from giant reed (Arundo donax L. by advanced ecologically friendly pulping and bleaching technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, H.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical structure and chemical composition of the stem-wall material of giant reed is considered from the viewpoint of raw material characterization for industrial fiber production. The effect of stem morphology (nodes and internodes on pulping results and general pulp properties is discussed. The advantages of application of modern organic solvent based (organosolv pulping technologies to giant reed are shown in comparison with the conventional (kraft method. The conditions optimization for Ethanol-Alkali pulping (a selected organosolv pulping process is given, and the chemical kinetics of the principal macromolecular components during ethanol-alkali pulping is described. The bleachability of organosolv pulps by short totally chlorine free (TCF bleaching sequences using hydrogen peroxide and ozone as the active bleaching chemicals without pulp pre-delignification is examined and compared with kraft pulps. The enzymatic pre-treatment of reed organosolv pulps by commercial xylanase preparation is considered as a possibility toward the improvement of pulp bleachability.

  15. HIGH CONSISTENCY PULPING OF OLD NEWSPRINT AND ITS FLOTATION PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunhuiZhang; MenghuaQin

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical and chemical effect on the pulping properties of the old newsprint was studied using a FORMAX Micro-Maelstrom Laboratory Pulper, and the flotation conditions such as velocity of air flow, air pressure and flotation time were also discussed with a FORMAX Deink Cell The results show that sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate, hydrogen peroxide and deinking agent are the key factors in the chemical effect, and pulping consistency is more important than pulping time and rotation speed in the mechanical effect during the high consistency pulping of the ONP. In general, the chemical effect has a greater influence on the deinked pulp properties than the mechanical effect.

  16. HIGH CONSISTENCY PULPING OF OLD NEWSPRINT AND ITS FLOTATION PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhui Zhang; Menghua Qin

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical and chemical effect on the pulping properties of the old newsprint was studied using a FORMAX Micro-Maelstrom Laboratory Pulper, and the flotation conditions such as velocity of air flow,air pressure and flotation time were also discussed with a FORMAX Deink Cell. The results show that sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate, hydrogen peroxide and deinking agent are the key factors in the chemical effect, and pulping consistency is more important than pulping time and rotation speed in the mechanical effect during the high consistency pulping of the ONP. In general, the chemical effect has a greater influence on the deinked pulp properties than the mechanical effect.

  17. Removal of Organic Pollutants and Decolorization of Bleaching Effluents from Pulp and Paper Mill by Adsorption using Chemically Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shaiful Sajab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bleaching effluents from pulp and paper mills using oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB fibers as an adsorbent was conducted to remove color and organic pollutants. Empty fruit bunch fibers were chemically modified with polyethylenimine to enhance the adsorption capacity toward anionic species in the effluents. Effluents from the primary clarifier and aerated treatment pond were treated, and the performance of the adsorbent was investigated in terms of decolorization, total organic carbon, and oxygen demand level. Increasing adsorbent dosage and lower pH resulted in greater adsorption performance. The highest decolorization and reduction of total organic carbon of the effluents were 95.0% and 58.2%, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium can be achieved after 4 h of the adsorption process.

  18. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm3/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115–125 °C, this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  19. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  20. Pulping and paper properties of Palmyra palm fruit fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Waranyou Sridach

    2010-01-01

    Palmyra palm fruit fibers have the properties to be used as an alternative raw material of cellulosic pulps for papermaking.Acid and alkali pulping were investigated by using nitric acid and caustic soda on a laboratory scale, with the purpose of producing printing or writing grade pulp. The chemical composition of fiber strands from palmyra palm fruits were examined, such as holocellulose, cellulose, pentosan, lignin and extractives. The yields of acid and soda pulps were below 40%. The main...

  1. Bioelectrochemical treatment of paper and pulp wastewater in comparison with anaerobic process: integrating chemical coagulation with simultaneous power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, K Vamshi; Sarkar, Omprakash; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-12-01

    The efficiency of a bioelectrochemical treatment system (BET) to treat complex paper and pulp wastewater at two different pH conditions (6 and 7) in comparison with conventional anaerobic treatment process (AnT) was evaluated. Among the operating conditions, BET showed good treatment efficiency at pH 7 in terms of COD (BET/AnT: 55%/51%), nitrates (33.5%/19.1%), phosphates (33%/19%) and sulfates (58%/41%) in removal. The effluent obtained from BET system was subjected to coagulation for further treatment which showed good COD removal (BET/AnT, 95%/69%) and color (100%/68%). Bioelectrochemical analysis revealed higher catalytic currents in BET than AnT specific to oxidation and reduction. Besides, derivative of cyclic voltammetric scans (DCV) also supported the involvement of various membrane bound electron transferring complexes like FAD(H) bound enzymes, ubiquinone, NADH(+)/H(+) bound enzymes, etc. Experimental results demonstrated that BET system can be a viable platform to treat complex wastewaters with simultaneous energy recovery in integrated approach.

  2. Chemical Composition and Antioxidative Properties of Seeds of Moringa oleifera and Pulps of Parkia biglobosa and Adansonia digitata Commonly used in Food Fortification in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Compaoré

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the nutrient composition and antioxidant properties of seeds of Moringa oleifera and pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa. Crude proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, crude fibers, ashes and mineral elements were determined. Total phenols, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins of seeds and pulps were reported. The seeds of Moringa oleifera are particularly rich in proteins (35.37±0.07 g/100 g, lipids (43.56±0.03 g/100 g, and minerals (Mg2+ and Zn2+. Pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa have a relatively high carbohydrates content (67.8±0.05 g/100 g and 67.66±0.05 g/100 g, respectively. Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the main carbohydrates of seeds of Moringa oleifera and pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa. Seeds of Moringa oleifera have the highest proanthocyanidin and flavonoid content whereas pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa were characterized by the highest total phenol content. Seeds of Moringa oleifera had the strongest MBTH radicals scavenging activity (99.74% compared to the pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa 94.98 and 79.40%, respectively. This study indicated that these pulps and seeds have a good potential in macro and micronutrients content and for its valorization they can be effectively used to fortify staple food particularly for children and contribute to eradicate malnutrition due to micronutrients deficiencies.

  3. Chemical Composition and Antioxidative Properties of Seeds of Moringa oleifera and Pulps of Parkia biglobosa and Adansonia digitata Commonly used in Food Fortification in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    W.R. Compaoré; P.A. Nikièma; H.I.N. Bassolé; A. Savadogo; J. Mouecoucou; D.J. Hounhouigan and S.A. Traoré

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the nutrient composition and antioxidant properties of seeds of Moringa oleifera and pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa. Crude proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, crude fibers, ashes and mineral elements were determined. Total phenols, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins of seeds and pulps were reported. The seeds of Moringa oleifera are particularly rich in proteins (35.37±0.07 g/100 g), lipids (43.56±0.03 g/100 g), and minerals (Mg2+ and Zn2+). Pulps of Ada...

  4. Caracterização química do "pitch" em indústria de celulose e papel de Eucalyptus Chemical characterization of pitch in Eucalyptus pulp and paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluze P. Cruz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical analysis of the acetone, chloroform, toluene and methanol extracts of a pitch sample was carried out by IR and GC-MS, leading to the identification of sixty nine compounds, including fatty acids, alcohols and hydrocarbons. Analysis of the acetone extractive of a eucalyptus wood used in Brazil for pulp production was also carried out, resulting in identification of fifty nine compounds, including mainly fatty acids, phenolic compounds, beta-sitosterol and other steroids. This analysis showed that pitch formation had a contribution from wood extractives and other sources of contamination. The results obtained and the methodology applied can be used by the pulp industry to develop new methods of pitch control.

  5. Chemical characteristics and Kraft pulping of tension wood from Eucalyptus globulus labill Características químicas e polpação Kraft de madeira de tração de Eucalyptus globulus labill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Graciela Aguayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tension (TW and opposite wood (OW of Eucalyptus globulus trees were analyzed for its chemical characteristics and Kraft pulp production. Lignin content was 16% lower and contained 32% more syringyl units in TW than in OW. The increase in syringyl units favoured the formation of β-O-4 bonds that was also higher in TW than in OW (84% vs. 64%, respectively. The effect of these wood features was evaluated in the production of Kraft pulps from both types of wood. At kappa number 16, Kraft pulps obtained from TW demanded less active alkali in delignification and presented slightly higher or similar pulp yield than pulps made with OW. Fiber length, coarseness and intrinsic viscosity were also higher in tension than in opposite pulps. When pulps where refined to 30°SR, TW pulps needed 18% more revolutions in the PFI mill to achieve the same beating degree than OW pulps. Strength properties (tensile, tear and burst indexes were slightly higher or similar in tension as compared with opposite wood pulps. After an OD0(EOD1 bleaching sequence, both pulps achieved up to 89% ISO brightness. Bleached pulps from TW presented higher viscosity and low amount of hexenuronic acids than pulps from OW. Results showed that TW presented high xylans and low lignin content that caused a decrease in alkali consumption, increase pulp strength properties and similar bleaching performance as compared with pulps from OW.Madeira de tração e oposta de árvores de Eucalyptus globulus foram analisadas quanto a suas características químicas e produção de polpa Kraft. A caracterização química da madeira de tração (TW de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. mostrou um conteúdo similar de celulose, alto conteúdo de xilanas e baixo conteúdo de lignina quando comparada com a madeira oposta (OW de uma mesma árvore. O conteúdo de lignina foi 16% menor e contém 32% mais unidades siringila em TW que em OW. O aumento das unidades siringila favoreceu a formação de ligações

  6. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  7. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CATIONIC POLYELECTROLYTE AND PULP FINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Orblin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Papermaking pulps are a mixture of fibres, fibre fragments, and small cells (parenchyma or ray cells, usually called pulp fines. The interactions between pulp fines and a cationic copolymer of acrylamide and acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride were investigated based on solid-liquid isotherms prepared under different turbulence, and subsequent advanced surface characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS. The surface charge and surface area of pulp fine substrates were measured by methylene blue sorption-XPS analysis and nitrogen adsorption combined with mercury porosimetry, respectively. The driving force behind polyelectrolyte adsorption was the amount of the surface anionic charge, whereas surface area appeared to be of less importance. Based on a comparison of solid-liquid and XPS sorption isotherms, different polyelectrolyte conformations were suggested, depending on the types of fines: A flatter conformation and partial cell-wall penetration of polyelectrolytes on kraft fines from freshly prepared pulp, and a more free conformation with extended loops and tails on lignocellulosic fines from recycled pulp. Additionally, ToF-SIMS imaging proved that recycled pulp fines contained residual de-inking chemicals (primarily palmitic acid salts that possibly hinder the electrostatic interactions with polyelectrolytes.

  8. REINFORCING POTENTIAL OF JUTE PULP WITH TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA) PULP

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Rawshan; M. Sarwar Jahan

    2009-01-01

    Two morphologically different pulps, a long-fiber jute pulp from a soda-AQ process and a short-fiber Trema orientalis pulp from a kraft process, were evaluated and compared for their reinforcing potential. T. orientalis pulp needed less beating energy than jute pulp at the same drainage resistance. Addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. Sheet density of pulp blends was increased with the increase of beating degree of both pulps and the proportion of T. ...

  9. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  10. Nutritional composition of Annona crassiflora pulp and acceptability of bakery products prepared with its flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Villela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. This study aimed to develop a flour meal from Annona crassiflora pulp; analyze the chemical composition of the fresh pulp and its flour; develop and verify the acceptance of formulations with different concentrations of the flour of Annona crassiflora pulp. Fruit used were selected and processed. The pulp was dried in an oven at 60-65 ºC/48h. We analyzed the chemical composition, and two formulations of breads were prepared with 10 and 20% Annona crassiflora pulp. The results showed that the drying of Annona crassiflora pulp enriched its nutritional value. The Annona crassiflora pulp showed important chemical components, as insoluble fibers (pulp and flour, minerals (potassium, calcium, manganese and others and antioxidant compounds. The formulations were well-accepted in a sensory point of view and proved to be a good alternative to the exploitation of the fruit.

  11. APPLICATION OF NSSC PULPING TO SUGARCANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khakifirooz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The NSSC pulping process was investigated to produce pulp from bagasse for corrugating board manufacture. The chemical contents including cellulose, lignin, ash, and extractives soluble in alcohol-acetone measured 55.75, 20.5, 1.85, and 3.25, respectively. The average fiber length, fiber diameter, lumen width, and cell wall thickness of bagasse were 1.59 mm, 20.96, 9.72, and 5.64 μm, respectively. The optimum conditions, with a yield of 74.95%, were achieved using 20 percent chemicals on the basis of sodium oxide, cooking temperature of 170 °C, and cooking time of 30 minutes. Pulp was refined to freeness 345 and 433 mL CSF according to Canadian standards. 127 g m-2 handsheets from both pulps were made and strength properties measured. Statistical analysis of results indicated that paper derived from freeness 345 and 433 mL CSF had better strength properties in all indices in comparison with NSSC pulp from hardwoods produced at Mazandaran Pulp and Paper factory, Iran.

  12. 刺五加果肉化学成分的研究(Ⅱ)%Chemical Constituents from Pulp of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr.et Maxim) Harms (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫兆威; 刘金平; 卢丹; 李平亚

    2013-01-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from the water extract of the pulp of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. Et Maxim) Harms by various column chromatographic techniques. The structures were elucidated on the basis spectral data ( H NMR, 13 C NMR and MS) and chemical evidences. Their structures were determined as (-)-3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran (1)、(-)-savinin (2) 、5α,8α-epidioxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (3)、Eleutheroside A (4)、Eleutheroside B (5)、Uracil (6)、2-furoic acid (7)、Succinic acid (8)、Phthalic acid bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl) ester (9)、Glyceryl monos-tearate (10)、Isoselachoceric acid (11) and Octadecane (12). Among them compounds 1、3、6 、7 、8 and 9 are isolated from this plant for the first time.%应用多种色谱技术进行分离纯化,从刺五加果肉水提取物中分离得到12个化合物,经理化性质和波谱分析鉴定其结构分别为:(-)-3,4-二香草基四氢呋喃(1)、桧脂素(2)、5α,8α-桥二氧麦角甾-6,22-双烯-3-醇(3)、刺五加苷A(4)、刺五加苷B(5)、尿嘧啶(6)、2-呋喃甲酸(7)、琥珀酸(8)、Phthalic acid bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl) ester (9)、硬脂酸甘油酯(10)、正二十四烷酸(11)和正三十八烷(12).其中化合物1、3、6、7、8和9为首次从本植物中分得.

  13. Dental Pulp Testing: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene Chen; Abbott, Paul V

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp testing is a useful and essential diagnostic aid in endodontics. Pulp sensibility tests include thermal and electric tests, which extrapolate pulp health from sensory response. Whilst pulp sensibility tests are the most commonly used in clinical practice, they are not without limitations and shortcomings. Pulp vitality tests attempt to examine the presence of pulp blood flow, as this is viewed as a better measure of true health than sensibility. Laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse o...

  14. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was

  15. Improvement of bleached wheat straw pulp properties by using aspen high-yield pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjie; Li, Jianguo; Hu, Huiren; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2012-09-01

    The bleached wheat straw pulp (BWSP) accounts for about 25% of the virgin fiber supply in the Chinese Pulp and Paper Industry. As a non-wood chemical pulp, BWSP is known to have low bulk, low light scattering coefficient and poor drainage due to its high content of parenchyma cells. In this study, a high-quality aspen high-yield pulp (HYP) was used to improve the BWSP properties at the laboratory scale. The results indicate that adding 5-20% aspen HYP into unrefined or refined BWSP can minimize many of the drawbacks associated with the BWSP: improving its drainage, bulk, light scattering coefficient and opacity. The addition of a small amount (up to 20%) of aspen HYP can also significantly increase the tear index of BWSP with only a slight decrease of the tensile index.

  16. Pulping and paper properties of Palmyra palm fruit fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waranyou Sridach

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmyra palm fruit fibers have the properties to be used as an alternative raw material of cellulosic pulps for papermaking.Acid and alkali pulping were investigated by using nitric acid and caustic soda on a laboratory scale, with the purpose of producing printing or writing grade pulp. The chemical composition of fiber strands from palmyra palm fruits were examined, such as holocellulose, cellulose, pentosan, lignin and extractives. The yields of acid and soda pulps were below 40%. The main physical and mechanical properties of hand sheets produced from acid and soda processes were evaluated on 80 g/m2 test sheets as functions of the following parameters: tensile index, tear index, and brightness. The mechanical properties of soda pulps were developed by twin-roll press while it was not necessary to fibrillate acidic pulps through the beating step. The soda pulp sheets presented a lower brightness than that of acidic pulp sheets. The mechanicaland physical properties of the acidic and alkaline pulps verified that they were of an acceptable quality for papermaking.

  17. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vail Manfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carried out in to optimize the refining process and to identify the effects of refining variables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulp consistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluated against the pulp quality properties, such as physical strengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as the interactions with papermaking process, such as paper machine runnability, paper breaks and refining control.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, were obtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under the lowest intensity and the highest pulp consistency possible. Changes on the operational refining conditions will have the highest impact on total energy requirements (costs) without any significant effect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control the industrial operation, such as those based on drainage measurements, do not represent the best alternative to maximize the final paper properties neither the paper machine runability.

  18. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VailManfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleachedeucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carded out in to optimize therefining process and to identify the effects of refiningvariables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulpconsistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluatedagainst the pulp quality properties, such as physicalstrengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as theinteractions with papermaking process, such as papermachine runnability, paper breaks and refiningcontrol.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, wereobtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under thelowest intensity and the highest pulp consistencypossible. Changes on the operational refiningconditions will have the highest impact on totalenergy requirements (costs) without any significanteffect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control theindustrial operation, such as those based on drainagemeasurements, do not represent the best alternative tomaximize the final paper properties neither the papermachine runability.

  19. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  20. High-energy electron irradiation of annual plants (bagasse) for an efficient production of chemi-mechanical pulp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shailesh; Ray, A. K.; Großmann, Harald; Kleinert, Rene

    2015-12-01

    The paper industry is one of the largest consumers of energy and energy consumption has been increased several times in last few decades. Bagasse chemical pulping has very low yield about 45-55% and also generates high pollution load in the effluent as compared to mechanical pulping, g. Thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand,-->e.g. thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand, the specific energy consumption is very high for TMP pulps. ETMP (Energy efficient Thermo-Mechanical Pulping) or ECTMP (Energy efficient Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping) is an innovative idea for reducing the energy demand in TMP refining. In the present investigation, energy efficient mechanical pulping potential of bagasse was studied using TMP, CTMP and ECTMP pulping methodology with electron irradiation pretreatment. It is evident from the results that more than 50% energy saving potential of irradiation pre-treatment was achieved.

  1. Effects of Non Process Elements in the chemical recovery system of a kraft pulp mill from the incineration in the recovery boiler of biological sludge; Effekter av PFG vid indunstning och foerbraenning av bioslam i ett massabruks sodapanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbom, Johan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler of a Swedish Kraft pulp mill, StoraEnso Pulp AB Skutskaers Bruk, which has practiced incineration of sludge in the recovery boiler during the last two years. The following aspects of the technique were investigated: Experience from operation of incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler; The content of Non-Process Elements (NPE) in process flows and evaluate the risks of incrustations in the system; The build-up of NPE in the chemicals recovery system and the estimated increase in make-up lime demand; and Technical risks for mills with different process equipment. This study comprises the following NPE: aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, chloride, iron, manganese, potassium, copper, and nitrogen. The operational experience from the system for hydrolysis of the biological sludge and evaporation/incineration in the recovery boiler is excellent. The handling of the sludge takes place in a closed system that demands little supervision and maintenance. Overall, the mill has not seen any negative effects that can be explained by increased intake of NPEs to the chemical recovery system. Aluminium can lead to troublesome incrustations of sodium-aluminium-silicates on the heat surfaces in the evaporation plant. An effective elimination of aluminium by the green liquor dreg is obtained with the double salt hydrotalcite if the quotient Mg/Al is kept higher than 4-5 in the black liquor. The need for make-up lime has increased due to the build-up of phosphorus in the lime. Depending on the level of make-up lime the need will increase 2-5 kg/ t{sub 90} at a price of 2-5 kr/t{sub 90}. If a higher level of phosphorus is accepted instead of increasing lime make-up the running costs will be somewhat higher, 0,5-1 kr/t{sub 90} due to increased ballast. NO{sub x} in the flue gases from the recovery boiler has not increased since the

  2. EVALUATION OF PULP AND PAPER MAKING CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE STEM FIBERS PREPARED BY TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Talebizadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twin-screw extrusion pulping is a new approach to the manufacture of pulp for paper production, designed for non-wood feedstocks. In this research, the production of pulp from rice stem with a newly fabricated twin-screw extruder was investigated. Extrusion pulping of rice stem was conducted following a central composite design using a two-level factorial plan involving three process variables (pretreatment NaOH concentration: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2%; extrusion temperature: 40, 60, 80 oC; and extruder rotational speed: 55, 70, 85 rpm. Responses of pulp and handsheets properties to the process variables were analyzed using statistical software (MINITAB 15. As the results show, pulping of rice stem fiber can be done at a relatively short pretreatment time about 4 hours and a low NaOH concentration about 0.8% by twin-screw extruder with limit extrusion temperature of about 80 oC and extruder rotational speed about 85 rpm. The effect of pretreatment solvent, NaOH, is greatly enhanced by increases in the extrusion temperature. Analysis of the results revealed that this process has suitable potential to be used to obtain a pulp with yields approximately equivalent to neutral sulfite semi-chemical pulping at fixed kappa number, which is applicable for fluting paper and linerboard production.

  3. Estabilidade química, físico-química e microbiológica de polpas de acerola pasteurizadas e não-pasteurizadas de cultivo orgânico Chemical, physicochemical and microbiological stability of pasteurized and non pasteurized acerola pulps from organic cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Maria Temóteo Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a estabilidade química, físico-química e microbiológica de polpas de acerola pasteurizadas e não-pasteurizadas, oriundas de cultivo orgânico e armazenadas sob congelamento (-18±2°C durante 360 dias. O armazenamento sob congelamento não ocasionou perdas significativas de qualidade das polpas de acerola. No entanto, o tratamento térmico influenciou negativamente nos conteúdos iniciais de alguns componentes, principalmente sólidos solúveis, açúcares solúveis totais e redutores, que apresentaram conteúdos inferiores no início do armazenamento para as polpas pasteurizadas. As polpas pasteurizadas e não-pasteurizadas apresentaram boa qualidade microbiológica do início ao final do armazenamento. Dentre as polpas estudadas, as polpas não-pasteurizadas apresentaram melhores características iniciais de cor. As polpas pasteurizadas garantiram melhores características microbiológicas no que concerne aos aspectos de segurança alimentar.The present research aimed to evaluate the chemical, physical-chemical and microbiological stability of pasteurized and non-pasteurized acerola pulp coming from organic cultivation stored frozen for 360 days. Storage under freezing did not cause significant loss of acerola pulp's quality. However, the heat treatment had a negative influence on the initial contents of some components, especially soluble solids, total soluble and reducing sugars, which showed lower contents at the beginning of storage for pasteurized pulp. Among the pulps studied, non-pasteurized pulps showed the best characteristics of the initial color. The pasteurized pulps guaranteed best features in regard to the microbiological aspects of food safety.

  4. [Relationship between the included levels of coffee pulp and the protein content in rations for monogastric animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brenes, R A; Bendaña, G; González, J M; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of including fresh and ensilaged coffee pulp in rations for monogastric animals, and find the best protein and coffee pulp levels in rations for rats. Fresh coffee pulp and pulp ensilaged for 12 months were used; both kinds of pulp were sun-dried before incorporating them into the rations. The chemical analyses of the pulps revealed a lower content in caffeine, tannins, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in the ensilaged pulp than in fresh coffee pulp. Thirty-two experimental rations were prepared, 16 with fresh coffee pulp and 16 with the ensilaged by-product, distributed into four different protein levels (10, 15, 20 and 25%), and three levels of pulp (15, 30 and 45%) for each protein level. The rations thus prepared were fed to Wistar albino rats for a six-week period. The parameters used to measure the effect of the two types of pulp were mortality rate, food consumption, weight gain, food conversion and apparent digestibility of the rations. Ensilaged pulp had a higher nutritive value, lower toxicity and better digestibility than fresh pulp. The increase in the protein level of the ration resulted in partial protection against the negative effects of coffee pulp on the performance of animals, since this improved as the protein level of the ration increased.

  5. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Zeinaly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

  6. ON THE RECOVERY OF HEMICELLULOSE BEFORE KRAFT PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vila,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility of implementing hemicellulose recovery stages in kraft mills, Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to aqueous treatments with hot, compressed water (autohydrolysis processing to achieve partial dissolution of xylan. Autohydrolyzed solids were subjected to kraft pulping under selected conditions to yield a pulp of low kappa number, and to an optimized TCF bleaching sequence made up of three stages (alkaline oxygen delignification, chelating, and pressurized hydrogen peroxide, with minimized additions of pulping and bleaching chemicals. The final product had a relatively low kappa number (1.4, 641 mL/g ISO intrinsic viscosity, and 86.4% brightness.

  7. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors.......Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable...

  8. Simulation and Optimization of a Generic Kraft Pulp Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Barahona Vazquez, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The Canadian pulp and paper industry is going through an economic crisis mainly due to a decrease of world demand and aggressive competition from emerging nations. In this context, the forest biorefinery which can be defined as the “full integration of the incoming biomass and other raw materials, including energy, for simultaneous production of fibres for paper products, chemicals and energy”, is one of the solutions for pulp and paper mills to diversify their core business and regain compet...

  9. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    OpenAIRE

    António J. A. Santos; Ofélia Anjos; Maria Cristina Morais; Graça Diogo; Rogério Simões; Helena Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal) and P. sylvestris (Finland) were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05) tracheid diameter and wall thick...

  10. [Coffee hulls and pulp. XII. Effect of storage of coffee pulp on its nutritive value for calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, M T; Estrada, E; Murillo, B; González, J M; Bressani, R

    1976-06-01

    Coffee pulp, dehydrated and stored for 7, 13 and 17 months or ensiled for 4, 10 and 14 months, was studied in calves with a rapid growing rate. Storage of dehydrated coffee pulp did not affect its chemical composition, but ensiling reduced crude fiber and increased its nitrogen free extract content after 10 and 14 months. Three growth trials were carried out with Holstein calves averaging 95 kg in the first and second trials, and 130 kg in the third. Eighteen calves were used in the first trial and 24 in each of the other two. In each trial the animals were divided into three equal groups and randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: control, which contained 48% cottonseed hulls, and the other two, with 30% dehydrated coffee pulp or 30% ensiled coffee pulp. Basically, the difference between trials consisted in the time of storage or ensiling of coffee pulp. In all trials, weight gains of calves fed coffee pulp (1.00, 0.90 and 0.98 kg/day, and 1.06, 0.94 and 1.08 kg/day, respectively) were significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than the weight gains induced by the control ration (1.21, 1.08 and 1.19 kg/day). Feed intake was also lower, but feed conversion ratio was higher for those rations containing coffee pulp. Calf performance was better with ensiled than with deydrated coffee pulp, particularly in the third trial, where the differences in weight gains were significantly higher (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that storage time does not change nutritive value of coffee pulp; and the ensiling is an adequate process for storing pulp during coffee harvesting, and, possibly also, for improving its nutritive value.

  11. Integration of water footprint accounting and costs for optimal pulp supply mix in paper industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Piantella, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    studies have focused on these aspects, but there have been no previous reports on the integrated application of raw material water footprint accounting and costs in the definition of the optimal supply mix of chemical pulps from different countries. The current models that have been applied specifically...... that minimizes the water footprint accounting results and costs of chemical pulp, thereby facilitating the assessment of the water footprint by accounting for different chemical pulps purchased from various suppliers, with a focus on the efficiency of the production process. Water footprint accounting......Chemical pulp is one of the most important raw materials used in the paper industry. This material is known to make a significant contribution to the water footprint and cost of final paper products; therefore, chemical pulp is crucial in determining the competitiveness of final products'. Several...

  12. PULPING PROPERTIES OF KRAFT PULP OF NIGERIAN-GROWN KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Oluwafemi Oluwadare

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was centered on finding a locally sourced alternative to imported long-fibre pulp for Nigerian pulp and paper mills. Fibre characteristics, chemical composition, and paper properties of pulp handsheets at different levels of kappa number and freeness in the range of 10 oSR and 62 oSR were evaluated using air-dried bast fibre obtained from decorticated kenaf plants grown in southern guinea savanna near Jebba, Nigeria. Kenaf bast fibre compared well with softwood, with an average fibre length of 2.90 mm, a flexibility ratio of 57%, and a Runkel ratio of 0.76. Ash, lignin, and pentosan contents were 0.6%, 12.5%, and 10.6%, respectively, while the cellulose content was 55.5%. Under alkali charge of 15.0 and, sulphidity of 17.5 with constant temperature, cooking time, and liquor-to-fibre ratio of 4.5:1, the screen yield was between 48.8 to 52.8 % with kappa number 12.04 to 20.5. Unbleached pulpsheets at kappa number between 15 and18.5 and pulp freeness 55 oSR and bleached pulp freeness between 148 and 336 mLs had better quality paper in terms of overall pulpsheet strength properties.

  13. EFFECTS OF ALKALINE PRE-IMPREGNATION AND PULPING ON MALAYSIA CULTIVATED KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Suan Ang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify an appropriate alkaline pulping condition for Malaysia cultivated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.. The chemical composition of the kenaf bast and core fibers, and also whole stalk with different growing time were examined prior to pulping attempts. The results of various soda-AQ pulping showed that the degree of carbohydrate degradation and delignification increased with the increase of active alkali and cooking temperature, but decreased with the increase of liquor to material (L:M ratio. The most satisfactory properties of pulp and handsheets from bast could be attained by employing soda-AQ pulping with 19.4% active alkali, 0.10% AQ, and L:M ratio of 7:1 cooked for 2 hours at 160˚C. Besides, it was also found that a mild alkaline pre-impregnation prior pulping improved the pulp viscosity and handsheets’ strength properties, especially the tensile index and folding endurance effectively. Moreover, among the three alkaline pulping processes—kraft, kraft-AQ, and soda-AQ—the results of pulp and handsheet properties showed that the soda-AQ pulp was comparable or even slightly of higher quality than the kraft pulps. Between the unbeaten bast and core soda-AQ handsheets, the strength properties of the core were higher than the bast, as the thin-walled core fibers exhibited much better conformability than the thick-walled bast fibers.

  14. Papermaking fibers from giant reed (Arundo donax L.) by advanced ecologically friendly pulping and bleaching technologies

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The anatomical structure and chemical composition of the stem-wall material of giant reed is considered from the viewpoint of raw material characterization for industrial fiber production. The effect of stem morphology (nodes and internodes) on pulping results and general pulp properties is discussed. The advantages of application of modern organic solvent based (organosolv) pulping technologies to giant reed are shown in comparison with the conventional (kraft) method. The conditions optimiz...

  15. Extended oxygen delignification of high kappa softwood pulp in a flow-through reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Julkaistu vain painettuna, saatavuus katso Bibid. Published only in printed form, availability see Bibid Oxygen delignification (O-delignification) is an important tool for improving yield, reducing lignin content of pulp and lowering the bleach chemical consumption in the pulp and paper industries. This process is designed after cooking to maximize the delignification rate in comparison to the final phase of Kraft cooking without sacrificing pulp quality. In order to improve the yield of ...

  16. Understanding the Nature and Reactivity of Residual Lignin for Improved Pulping and Bleaching Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan-Zong Lai

    2001-11-30

    One of the most formidable challenges in kraft pulping to produce bleached chemical pulps is how to effectively remove the last 5-10% of lignin while maintaining the fiber quality. To avoid a severe fiber degradation, kraft pulping is usually terminated in the 25-30 kappa number range and then followed by an elementally chlorine free (ECF) or a totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching sequence to reduce the environmental impacts.

  17. APPLICATION OF ALKALINE SULFITE PULPING ON CORN STALKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jahan Latibari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline sulfite pulping of corn stalks was investigated to produce supplementary pulp for corrugating board manufacture. Three pulping temperatures (125, 145, and 165°C and five active alkali charges (10, 12, 14, 16, and 18% were used. Cooking time at 30 minutes, Na2SO3/ NaOH ratio at 50:50, and liquor to residue ratio of 8:1 were kept constant. The highest total yield (61.9% was reached applying the treatment combination of 125°C and 10% active alkali, and the lowest total yield (42.5% was related to 165°C and 16% chemical. The influence of sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide ratios was studied applying different ratios (30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, and 70:30 at constant time and temperature of 30 minutes and 145°C respectively and 14 and 16% active alkali. Pulping condition; 16% active alkali, 30 minutes time, 145°C pulping temperature and varying ratios of sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide were selected for pulp strength evaluation. The results of handsheet evaluation indicated that 16% active alkali, 30 minutes pulping at 145ºC and sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide ratio of 50:50 is the optimum pulping condition for corn stalks. Tear, tensile, and burst indices and breaking length of this pulp were measured as 10.53 mN.m2g-1, 62.4 N.mg-1, 3.80 kPa.m2g-1, and 6.07 km, respectively.

  18. Conversion of henequen pulp to microbial biomass by submerged fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blancas, A. (Center of Scientific Research of Yucatan, Merida, Mexico); Alpizar, L.; Larios, G.; Saval, S.; Huitron, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico has cellulosic by-products that could be developed as renewable food sources for animal consumption. Sugarcane bagasse and henequen pulp are the most important of these materials because they are abundant, cheap, renewable, and nontoxic, in addition to being underutilized. A significant research and development effort has centered on the production of single-cell protein from sugarcane begasse. Nevertheless, there are no large-scale processes that utilize this substrate as a source of carbon, probably because of the extensive physical or chemical pretreatment that is needed. Henequen pulp is a by-product which is obtained in large amounts in southeastern Mexico in the process of removing fibers from the leaves of agave (sisal). A group has been working on a fermentative process that will increase the protein content of the henequen pulp by microbial conversion. The primary aim is to carry out the conversion without chemical pretreatment of the substrate and without a separation step for cells and residual substrate. A gram-negative cellulolytic bacteria has been isolated which grows well on microcrystalline cellulose, pectin, and xylane and it is able to convert an appreciable fraction of henequen pulp to microbial biomass. In this article, some results on the effect of substrate and nitrogen source concentration, on the protein enrichment of the henequen pulp, as well as the content of essential amino acids of fermented henequen pulp are presented. 4 figures.

  19. Utilization of by-product sulfur in Kraft pulping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.; Liu, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Chung, K.H. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    This presentation describes how sulfur derived from heavy oil processing can be used by the pulp and paper industry to increase yield, accelerate delignification and shorten the cooking time in the kraft pulping process. The liquor used in the kraft pulping process is a solution of sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. The reaction kinetics of delignification in the cooking process was examined and a new method was proposed. The 3 key kinetic steps in the new method include: (1) adsorption of hydroxide and hydrosulfide ions on the fiber wall, (2) chemical reaction on the solid surface to produce degraded lignin products, and (3) desorption of degradation products from the solid surface. The surface reaction is the most important step in the delignification process. A newly developed kinetic model based on the proposed mechanism can be used to accurately predict the pulping behaviour under a variety of conditions.

  20. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus benthamii WOOD FOR KRAFT PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Nogueira Alves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of Eucalyptus benthamii wood for kraft pulp production. A hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis, probably the most planted Eucalyptus clone in Brazil, was also analyzed for comparison purposes. Basic density, chemical composition and fiber dimensions were determined for the two species. The Eucalyptus benthamii wood presented an anatomical structure, basic density and fiber dimensions quite similar to those of other species planted by the Brazilian pulp industry. However, it presented poorer wood quality characteristics when compared to the hybrid urograndis species, with higher amounts of extractives and lignin, lower amount of glucans, more galactans and lower S/G ratio, characteristics leading to lower pulping yield. Additional studies should be carried out to establish its pulping, bleaching and paper strength properties.

  1. RESEARCH ON FIBER MORPHOLOGY AND PULPING PROPERTIES OF THE TRIPLOID OF PLPULUS TOMENTOSA FROM PLANTATION AT DIFFERENT AGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqiang Pang; Jiachuan Chen; Guihua Yang

    2004-01-01

    The fiber morphology and pulping properties of triploid of populus tomentosa from plantation at different ages were investigated in the paper,also the main chemical compositions were determined. The results showed that the difference of chemical compositions is not significant, and the extractive contents become bigger in some sort with age, the difference of length weighted mean length of fiber also is not significant, and coarseness of fiber has trend of augment by degree, while the fines content increases obviously with age. That difference of pulping properties between chemical pulping (KP process and Soda-AQ process) and chemimechanical pulping (SCMP process and APMP process) is not significant, which is consistent with the analysis of chemical composition and fiber morphology.Considering comprehensively, the tree age of 5 years is better for paper making industry, also the mixed pulping with different ages of the triploid of populus tomentosa is feasible with steady pulp quality.

  2. Pulp response to Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R C; Pountney, S K

    1987-09-01

    The maxillary molar pulps of germ-free rats were mechanically exposed, and suspensions of a strain of freshly grown Streptococcus mutans were applied to the pulp wounds. The pulps were left open to the oral environment, and the animals were maintained in the isolator until they were killed in groups after 2, 7, and 28 days. After 2 days there was little evidence of any pulp response. In the 7-day group early pulp necrosis was present. No evidence of inflammatory infiltration was detected in either the 2- or 7-day animals. After 28 days there was extensive pulp necrosis in many specimens. Dentine bridges were present in fewer than one fourth of the teeth.

  3. Composição química e compostos bioativos presentes na polpa e na amêndoa do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds in the pulp and almond of pequi fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro de Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da composição química dos alimentos é fundamental para se avaliarem a disponibilidade de nutrientes e o seu consumo por populações. Neste trabalho, o pequi (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb. foi caracterizado pela composição centesimal e pela presença de compostos bioativos na polpa e na amêndoa. Os dados do perfil lipídico mostram alto teor de lípides tanto na polpa quanto na amêndoa, destacando-se nos mesmos a presença dos ácidos graxos insaturados, predominando o ácido oléico como principal componente entre os ácidos graxos. Foi observada também a relação entre os elevados teores de ácidos graxos insaturados com os compostos fenólicos e carotenóides presentes, tendo a polpa quantidades mais expressivas dessas substâncias quando comparada à amêndoa, além de conter uma quantidade superior de fibra alimentar. Os resultados obtidos abrem a perspectiva de se utilizar o pequi como fruto que apresenta, na sua composição, compostos importantes para a formulação de uma dieta saudável.The knowledge of the chemical composition of foods is basic for evaluate the nutrients availability and its consumption for the population. In this work, the pulp and the almond of pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb. were characterized by the centesimal composition and the presence of nutrients. The results showed high amount of lipids and in the fatty acids profile, the oleic fatty acid was the main component. The presence between high unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant compounds (phenolic acids and carotenoids was correlated with the fruit protection. In the pulp was observed too high amount of alimentary fiber. These results are suggesting the pequi utilization in a healthful diet preparation.

  4. THREE SHRUBS WOOD PULPS PREPARED BY HYDROGEN PEROXIDE -ALKALINE (PA) COOKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xu; RunCang Sun; huaiyu Zhan

    2004-01-01

    The physical, chemical and fiber characteristics of Caragana Korshinskii, Salix psammophila and Hedysarum scoparium fischer Mey were assessed for their suitability for papermaking. Nonsulfur cooking of hydrogen peroxide-alkaline (PA) was carried out.It is shown from the results that all these three shrubs are good raw materials for pulping and papermaking.The unbleached pulps have high mechanical strengthes.

  5. THREE SHRUBS WOOD PULPS PREPARED BY HYDROGEN PEROXIDE -ALKALINE (PA) COOKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengXu; RunCangSun; huaiyuZhan

    2004-01-01

    The physical, chemical and fiber characteristics ofCaragana Korshinskii, Salix psammophila andHedysarum scoparium fischet Mey were assessed fortheir suitability for papermaking. Nonsulfur cookingof hydrogen peroxide-alkaline (PA) was carried out.It is shown from the results that all these three shrubsare good raw materials for pulping and papermaking.The unbleached pulps have high mechanicalstren~hes.

  6. Accelerated coffee pulp composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G

    1999-02-01

    The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.

  7. ALKALINE PULP OF CORN STALKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.SarwarJalaan; M.AN.Russell; S.A.N.Shamim; A.I.Mostafa; Md.AbdulQuaiyyum

    2004-01-01

    Pulping of corn stalks was studied in soda,soda-anthraquinone (AQ), kraft and kraft-AQprocesses. The time, temperature and alkaliconcentration were varied in soda process. In respectto kappa number and pulp yield, 1 hour cooking at1400C in 14% alkali were best conditions for cornstalks pulping. Pulp yield was increased by 5.5% andkappa number was reduced by 4.4 points with anaddition of 0.05% AQ in the soda liquor. Breakinglength was better in soda-AQ process than sodaprocess but tear strength was inferior. In the kraftprocess, pulp yield was increased with increasingsulphidity and decreasing active alkali. Theeffectiveness of AQ in the low and high sulphiditykraft process was studied. Results showed that AQwas more effective in low sulphidity than highsulphidity. Strength properties in kraft processeswere better than the soda and soda-AQ processes.

  8. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  9. ECF AND TCF BLEACHING OF SECONDARY FIBER PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ventorim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ECF and TCF bleaching processes were evaluated for the bleaching of a deinked mixed office waste (MOW pulp sample produced in a pilot plant. The sample was bleached by all processes to a target brightness of 78 % ISO minimum. The results were interpreted on the basis of chemical cost to reach the target brightness, bleaching yield and bleached pulp quality as measured by viscosity, fluorescence and b* color coordinate. Among the ECF sequences, the mosattractive was the DEDD which showed the lowest chemical cost and produced bleached pulp of high quality as measured by viscosity, fluorescence and b* coordinate. The best TCF sequence with ozone was the Q(PO(ZQ(PO which resulted in very high brightness ceiling. This sequence decreased moderately the pulp b* coordinate and viscosity and slightly its fluorescence. Among the TCF sequences without ozone the Q(POQ(PO was the most effective but showed poor flexibility with regard to brightness ceiling. This sequence had little effect on pulp viscosity, fluorescence and b* coordinate. For all three  bleaching processes, it was determined that process yield is negatively affected by hot alkaline stages such as O, P and (PO.

  10. PULP FIBER SIZE CHARACTERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Liu

    2004-01-01

    Pulp fiber length distribution characterization has been examined in this study. Because of the fiber morphology: slender in shape, fiber size distribution characterization is a very difficult task. Traditional technique involves separation of the particles by size,such as Bauer-McNett fiber classifier, and measuring the weight fractions. The particle fractions obtained may or may not reflect the desired size classification.On the other hand, the more recent technique through optical measurement of fiber length is limited by its inability to measure the mass of the particle fractions.Therefore, not only the two techniques fail to generate identical results, either one was accepted to be of better value. Pure hardwood kraft, softwood kraft, and their mixture samples have been measured for their fiber length distributions using an optical fiber quality analyzer: FQA. The data obtained from FQA are extensively studied to investigate more reliable way of representing the fiber length data and thus examining the viable route for measuring the fiber size distributions. It has been found that the fiber length averaged length 11 is a viable indicator of the average pulp fiber length. The fiber size fraction and/or distribution can be represented by the fiber "length" fractions.

  11. PULP FIBER SIZE CHARACTERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShijieLiu

    2004-01-01

    Pulp fiber length distribution characterization hasbeen examined in this study. Because of the fibermorphology: slender in shape, fiber size distributioncharacterization is a very difficult task. Traditionaltechnique involves separation of the particles by size,such as Bauer-McNett fiber classifier, and measuringthe weight fractions. Themay or may not reflect theparticle fractions obtaineddesired size classification.On the other hand, the more recent technique throughoptical measurement of fiber length is limited by itsinability to measure the mass of the particle fractions.Therefore, not only the two techniques fail togenerate identical results, either one was accepted tobe of better value. Pure hardwood kraft, softwoodkraft, and their mixture samples have been measuredfor their fiber length distributions using an opticalfiber quality analyzer: FQA. The data obtained fromFQA are extensively studied to investigate morereliable way of representing the fiber length data andthus examining the viable route for measuring thefiber size distributions. It has been found that thefiber length averaged length 1~ is a viable indicator ofthe average pulp fiber length. The fiber size fractionand/or distribution can be represented by the fiber"length" fractions.

  12. Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

    The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1∶10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

  13. INTEGRATION OF KRAFT PULPING ON A FOREST BIOREFINERY BY THE ADDITION OF A STEAM EXPLOSION PRETREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Martin-Sampedro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion has been proposed for a wide range of lignocellulosic applications, including fractionation of biomass, pre-treatment of biomass for ethanol production, or as an alternative to conventional mechanical pulping. Nevertheless, a steam explosion process could also be used as pretreatment before chemical pulping, expecting a reduction in cooking time due to the open structure of the exploded chips. Thus, to evaluate the effect of steam explosion as a pretreatment in the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus, steam exploded chips and control chips were subjected to kraft cookings. Steam exploded chips provided pulps with reductions of kappa number by up to 70% with no significant change in viscosity. Therefore, the cooking time could be shortened by 60%, increasing the productivity and obtaining pulps with similar delignification degree to those of the control pulp. Furthermore, not only the production rate could be increased, but also most of the hemicelluloses could be recovered before pulping and converted to a value-added product. Finally, although exploded pulp had inferior mechanical strength, the optical properties, which are more important in eucalyptus pulps, were found to be better.

  14. DELIGNIFICATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE WITH ALKALI AND PERACETIC ACID AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse was delignified with alkali and peracetic acid in a two-stage process to obtain pulps with high yield and low kappa number. The experimental results indicated that alkali pretreatment prior to peracetic acid (PAA delignification could significantly reduce PAA loading by partially removing lignin and swelling the fibers. An optimum condition for the two-stage delignification was obtained for pulping of sugarcane bagasse. The pulps were further characterized by chemical composition analysis, strength property tests, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA. It was found that the alkali-PAA process could be conducted under milder conditions with resulting higher pulping selectivity, higher degree of polymerization (DP, and superior mechanical properties of pulps, compared to the kraft pulping process. Both kraft pulps and alkali-PAA pulp had similar FTIR spectra, XRD spectra, and TGA (DTG curves. However, further analysis indicated that the alkali-PAA pulp had higher infrared crystallization index and cellulose crystallinity.

  15. Chemical composition and biotechnological properties of a polysaccharide from the peels and antioxidative content from the pulp of Passiflora liguralis fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommonaro, G; Rodríguez, C S Segura; Santillana, M; Immirzi, B; Prisco, R De; Nicolaus, B; Poli, A

    2007-09-05

    A new polysaccharide with a high molecular weight (greater than 1 x 106 Da) was extracted and characterized from the peels of Passiflora liguralis (granadilla) fruits. Chemical composition of the biopolymer, performed by using a high pressure anion exchange-pulsed amperometric detector (HPAE-PAD), showed the presence of six different sugar residues: xylose, glucose, galactose, galactosamine, an unknown component, and fucose in the relative ratio of 1:0.5:0.2:0.06:0.05:trace. The optical rotation of this xyloglucan was [alpha](D)(25) degrees C = -186.42 (concentration of 1.4 mg/mL of H(2)O), and the viscosity was dependent on the concentration and pH, showing a maximum value of 1.4 eta at a concentration of 3% in distilled water and a maximum value of 7.0 eta in citrate buffer solution. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that this biopolymer was very stable at high temperatures, showing a degradation temperature at 280 degrees C. The characterization of the polysaccharide was also investigated by spectroscopic methods (1H NMR and IR) pointing out the complexity of this biopolymer and the presence of sugar residues in alpha-manno, alpha-gluco-galacto, and beta-gluco-galacto configurations. The formation of a biodegradable film using this novel xyloglucan was reported, and the anticytotoxic activity of the polysaccharide was studied in a brine shrimp bioassay. Considerable antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 0.32 microM/mg fresh product) was noted in the lipophilic extracts of Passiflora liguralis fruits, indicating, in this fruit, an alternative source of bioactive compounds.

  16. Enzymatic modification of pectic polysaccharides obtained from sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonans and arabinans, purified from an autoclave extract of sugar beet pulp, as well as an acid extracted beet pectin (ABP) were treated with enzymes in order to modify their physico-chemical properties. The enzymes used were arabinofuranosidase B (AF), endo-arabinanase plus arabinofura

  17. BAMBOO CELLULOSIC PULP PRODUCED BY THE ETHANOL/WATER PROCESS FOR REINFORCEMENT APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane da Costa Correia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organosolv pulping is the clean chemical process of using organic solvents to aid in the removal of lignin and hemicellulose from lignocellulosic raw materials. This method provides facility for solvent recovery at the end of the process. In this work, it was to produce bamboo cellulosic pulp by the organosolv process evaluating different temperatures and reaction times, and the pulps were analyzed aiming their future application in the reinforcement of composites. The production of bamboo pulp by the organosolv process was studied varying the cooking conditions at 1, 2 and 3 h and 150, 170 and 190oC of temperature, in order to achieve the ideal conditions of yield, chemical and morphological characteristics of the pulp for its potential application in the reinforcement of composites. The best results for delignification (kappa number of 38, with relatively lower fiber degradation (viscosity of 625 cm3 g-1, aspect ratio of 40.4 and the index zero-span of 204 Nm g-1, were achieved for the pulping process at 190oC for 2 h. These pulping conditions can be considered as the more appropriate in the range of time intervals evaluated in this work. The higher mechanical strength and the lower incidence of morphological defects in the fiber (6.0% of curls and 10.6% of kinks can demonstrate the potential of organosolv bamboo pulp as a reinforcing element.

  18. Effects of orthodontic forces on pulp tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinandi Sri Pudyani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches on pulp tissue changes caused by orthodontic forces have been performed, among others are: pulp angiogenesis, pulp tissue respiration rate, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities; micro vascular response inside the pulp and the effect of dental movement i.e. extrusion, intrusion, and torque. The result is still controversial, as some researchers claim that orthodontic force has a negative effect, others deny by saying there is no such effect on pulp tissue.

  19. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  20. Avaliação física e química da polpa de maracujá congelada comercializada na região de Bauru Physical-chemical evaluation of the frozen passion fruit pulp traded in the Bauru region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Raimundo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de polpa de maracujá tem como objetivo a obtenção de produtos com características sensoriais e nutricionais próximas da fruta in natura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as informações nutricionais das embalagens e as características físico-químicas das polpas de maracujá congeladas. Foram analisadas 25 amostras, de 07 marcas diferentes, adquiridas em supermercados de Bauru-SP, e região. Apenas uma das marcas analisadas (14,3% encontra-se em acordo com a legislação vigente, sendo que as demais apresentam tabelas ultrapassadas ou incompletas. As características físico-químicas diferem entre as marcas comercializadas, principalmente quanto ao teor de ácido ascórbico, sendo que 64,0% das amostras se encontram em desarcordo com o Regulamento Técnico para Fixação dos Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ para polpa de maracujá do Ministério da Agricultura. As variações observadas entre a polpa in natura e a congelada são menores nos itens: densidade, pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez em ácido cítrico e ratio, mas altas quanto ao teor de ácido ascórbico.The purpose of passion fruit pulp industry is to keep the taste and nutritional characteristics as close as possible to the natural fruit. The objective of this work was to evaluate the packing nutritional information and the physical-chemical characteristics of the frozen passion fruit pulp. It was analyzed 25 pulp samples of the 07 different brand names found in Bauru and nearby cities in the State of São Paulo. Just one of the analyzed brand names (14.3 % was according to the current Brazilian Food Legislation, the others had exceeded or incomplete tables. The variations of the physical-chemical characteristics for the traded brands were mainly due to the rate of ascorbic acid (vitamin C and 64% of the samples also don't follow the rules of the Technical Regulation for Identity and Quality Standards (PIQ for passion fruit pulp of the

  1. XYLANASE PREBLEACHING ON NAOH-AQ WHEAT STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caixia Li; Yongjun Deng; Ping Li; Guigan Fang; Shuchai Liu

    2004-01-01

    Before calcium hypochlorite bleaching (H) and chlorination,alkaline extraction, calcium hypochlorite three-stage-bleaching (CEH),we used a kind of hemicellulase, xylanase, to treat wheat straw pulp from Gaoyou Papermill.Xylanase pretreatment contained tow stages, the first stage was xylanase treatment, which was followed by alkaline extraction, the second stage. The xylanase could act on partial lignin and carbohydrate, chiefly xylan. The following alkaline extraction could dissolve something that could not be removed during the first stage. The result of pretreatment was to facilitate penetration of bleaching chemicals, to reduce effective chlorine consumption and to lower pollution loading of bleaching effluent. In the case of these two bleaching processes, the enzymatic pretreatment substantially enhanced the optical properties of the pulps. To calcium hypochlorite bleaching, strength properties of pulps were improved.

  2. Swedish Pulp Mill Biorefineries. A vision of future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore (Chamers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Axegaard, Peter; Backlund, Birgit; Samuelsson, Aasa; Berglin, Niklas; Lindgren, Karin (STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    Today, modern science could make it possible to develop techniques for refining almost the whole wood-matter, pulp mill side streams and bark compounds into platform chemicals, electricity, high quality fuels and structured feed-stock for chemicals and materials. The major challenge is to convert the state of basic scientific knowledge into industrial practise. Our definition of an integrated biorefinery is: 'Full utilization of the incoming biomass and other raw materials for simultaneous and economically optimized production of fibres, chemicals and energy'. Examples of products from a pulp mill biorefinery are: Chemicals and Materials (Phenols, adhesives, carbon fibres, activated carbon, binders, barriers, adhesives, antioxidants, surfactants, chelants, solvents, adhesives surfactants, descaling agents, specialty polymers, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics etc., Biofuels (pellets, lignin fuel, methanol, DME, ethanol etc), Electricity (BLGCC, condensing power etc.). The new or increased amounts of traditional products can be made from internal and/or external biomass. Three different levels can be identified: A high degree of energy saving in future mills, especially chemical pulp mills, will lead to large amounts of excess internal biomass which can be transferred to products mentioned above, Components in e.g. the black liquor, forest residues and bark can be upgraded to more valuable ones and the energy balance of the mill is kept through fuel import, wholly or partly depending on the level of mill energy efficiency. This imported fuel can be biomass or other types. External (imported) biomass (in some cases together with excess internal biomass) can be upgraded using synergy effects of docking this upgrading to a pulp mill. Electricity has been included as one of the possible biorefinery products. The electricity production in a mill can be increased in several ways which cannot be directly considered as biorefineries, e.g. recovery boiler

  3. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. A. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal and P. sylvestris (Finland were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05 tracheid diameter and wall thickness in the earlywood. The total extractives contents were 3.9%, 3.3%, and 2.5% for C. lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica, respectively, lower than the 5.1% for P. pinaster and 4.5% for P. sylvestris. Klason lignin content ranged from 33.0 to 35.6%, higher than the 28.0 to 28.7% for the pinewoods. The kraft pulp yields for C. arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were 37.7%, 36.7%, and 38.7%, respectively, with kappa numbers of 32.0, 31.6, and 28.7, respectively; the yield values were 40.8% and 42.8%, with kappa numbers of 23.4 and 21.0, for P. pinaster and P. sylvestris, respectively. The cypress species are clearly different from pine in relation to wood pulping behavior. Among the cypress, C. sempervirens provided the best pulping results.

  4. Biobleaching of Paper Mulberry (Broussentia papyrifera Pulp Using Laccase Mediator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Chauhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, demand for cleaner production techniques in the handmade paper industry is on rise. Use of enzymes in prebleaching might be very useful in this regard. The laccase enzyme produced from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus was tested as an aid to the bleaching of paper mulberry (Broussentia papyrifera pulp. For this, enzymatic prebleaching was carried out for two different durations i.e. 3 hours and 48 hours. The pulp was then subjected to chemical bleaching by hydrogen peroxide either directly (LP sequence or after an alkaline extraction stage (LEP sequence. The synergistic effect of xylanase enzyme on laccase mediator system was also evaluated and found to be negligible. Under the defined conditions, a gain of up to ten points in brightness value of the treated pulps as compared to the control pulps could be obtained. Thus, laccase mediator system was found to be very effective in boosting the brightness of paper mulberry pulp.

  5. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw.

  6. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jahan Latibari,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 μm, and 7.1 μm, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre-washed chips were chemically treated at 70°C for 120 minutes with different combinations of three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of hydrogen peroxide and three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of sodium hydroxide prior to defibration. Other chemicals including DTPA, sodium silicate, and MgSO4 were constant at 0.5%, 3%, and 0.5%, respectively. The results showed that using a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide charge, the brightness of APMP pulp reached 68.7% ISO and higher chemical dosages did not improve the brightness; however, to produce APMP pulp with higher strength, a sodium hydroxide charge of 4.5% was needed. The tensile strength, tear strength, burst strength indices, and bulk density of the APMP pulp produced from 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide were measured as 15.5Nm/g, 6.54mN.m2/g, 0.56kPa.m2/g, and 3.47cm3/g, respectively. The resulting pulp was bulky and is suitable for use in the middle layer of boxboard to provide the desired stiffness with a lower basis weight.

  7. Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y; Turner, D; Yates, K M; Tizard, I

    2004-12-20

    The clear pulp, also known as inner gel, of Aloe vera L. leaf is widely used in various medical, cosmetic and nutraceutical applications. Many beneficial effects of this plant have been attributed to the polysaccharides present in the pulp. However, discrepancies exist regarding the composition of pulp polysaccharide species and an understanding of pulp structure in relation to its chemical composition has been lacking. Thus, we examined pulp structure, isolated structural components and determined their carbohydrate compositions along with analyzing a partially purified pulp-based product (Acemannan hydrogel) used to make Carrisyn hydrogel wound dressing. Light and electron microscopy showed that the pulp consisted of large clear mesophyll cells with a diameter as large as 1000 microm. These cells were composed of cell walls and cell membranes along with a very limited number of degenerated cellular organelles. No intact cellular organelles were found in mesophyll cells. Following disruption of pulp by homogenization, three components were isolated by sequential centrifugation. They were thin clear sheets, microparticles and a viscous liquid gel, which corresponded to cell wall, degenerated cellular organelles and liquid content of mesophyll cells based on morphological and chemical analysis. These three components accounted for 16.2% (+/-3.8), 0.70% (+/-0) and 83.1% of the pulp on a dry weight basis. The carbohydrate composition of each component was distinct; liquid gel contained mannan, microparticles contained galactose-rich polysaccharide(s) and cell walls contained an unusually high level of galacturonic acid (34%, w/w; Gal A). The same three components were also found in Acemannan Hydrogel with mannan as the predominant component. Thus, different pulp structural components are associated with different polysaccharides and thus may potentially be different functionally. These findings may help lay a basis for further studies and development of better

  8. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Fröling, M

    2010-02-01

    There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DME) and methane (CH(4)) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH(4) production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH(4) production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill.

  9. CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF LIGNIN IN POPLAR APMP PULPS TO PREVENT LIGHT INDUCED YELLOWING%木质素化学改性抑制杨木碱性过氧化氢机械浆返色的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房桂干; Alain,C

    2000-01-01

    中试系统制备了杨木碱性过氧化氢机械浆.分别在水相/有机溶剂相/气相等条件下,使用乙酐处理杨木化机浆(原浆及硼氢化钠还原后纸浆),分别抄造成60g/m 2纸片,测定了不同时间紫外线照射后试样白度.运用返色值(PC no.)和白度稳定效果(BSE) 等指标评价处理后浆料的光学稳定性.研究结果表明,有机溶剂相和气相乙酰化后的纸浆 ,光学稳定性的提高程度取决于乙酐用量和反应时间即乙酰化程度.通过乙酰化,可以获取光学完全稳定的杨木化机浆.紫外漫射反射光谱表明,杨木APMP机械浆光诱导返色的主要原因是纸浆木质素中羰基和酚羟基团吸收紫外光后变化形成发色结构所致.还原配合纸浆乙酰化处理, 可能成为防止高得率纸浆返色的工业应用方法.%Different brightness level s of poplar APMP pulps were prepared in a pilot scale system by alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping process, Un-treated and reduced pulps(borohydride reduction)were modified by acetic anhydride under different conditions, such as in aqueous, organic solvents and gaseous phases.The brightness of pulps before and after UV-light exposure for different periods were measured on handsheets, post-colour number and BSE (brightness stabilizing effect)were used to evaluate the photo -stability of the treated pulps. The results show that, both gaseous and organic phase acetylations improve pulps brightness stability more or less depending on am ount of acetic anhydride applied and reaction time I. E. Degree of acetylation. Co mpletely stabilized pulps were obtained by thorough acetylation.Form UV diffuse reflectance spectra, it seems that carbonyl and phenolic groups mainly contribute to the light-induced yellowing of poplar APMP. Sodium borohydride/so dium bisulfite mixture treatment of pulps followed by gaseous phase acetylation on paper sheet was proposed to be one of the practical process for yellowing inhibition of

  10. On hexenuronic acid (HexA) removal and mediator coupling to pulp fiber in the laccase/mediator treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Edith M; Du, Xueyu; Gellerstedt, Göran; Li, Jiebing; Fillat, Amanda; García-Ubasart, Jordi; Vidal, Teresa; Colom, Josep F

    2011-02-01

    Flax soda/AQ pulps were treated with different fungal laccase-mediator combinations followed by physical and chemical characterization of the pulps to obtain a thorough understanding of the laccase/mediator effects on hexenuronic acid (HexA) removal and the coupling of mediator onto pulps for fiber functionalization. Large differences were found and the presence of lauryl gallate (LG) during Trametes villosa laccase (TvL) treatment (TvL+LG) resulted in a much larger reduction of pulp-linked HexA than the combination of p-coumaric acid (PCA) and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase (PcL). A major portion of LG became attached to the pulp as revealed by an increase in the kappa number and further confirmed by thioacidolysis and (1)H NMR analysis of solubilized pulp fractions. Additional experiments with other chemical pulps and isolated pulp xylan and lignin revealed that HexA seems to be the sole pulp component attacked by TvL+LG. As a substrate for TvL, the reaction preference order is PCA>HexA>LG.

  11. Pulping of the giant leucaena wood. I. Pulping by the kraft process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, K.; Ogino, T.; Takano, I.; Shimada, K.; Nishida, A.

    1980-01-01

    Cooking of Leucaena latisiliqua with kraft liquor (30% sulfidity as Na/sub 2/O) at 160 degrees gave 59.1% pulp with Kappa number 59.0 and Hunter brightness 19.9. The strength properties of pulp were comparable to those of beech pulp. It was confirmed that the extractives remaining in the bleached pulp adversely affect the color reversion.

  12. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF WOOD DENSITY AND CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT ON PULPING YIELD AND PRODUCT QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colodette, J.L.; Mokfienski, A.; Gomide,J.L.; Oliveira, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate basic density, chemical composition and fiber dimensions of ten Eucalyptus sp wood samples and verify the impact of this set of parameters and their combination on the Kraft pulping process yield and on bleached pulp quality. Ten eucalypt woods of different species, with basic densities varying from 365 to 544 kg/m3 and total wood carbohydrate contents varying from 70.0 to 74.5%, were transformed into kraft pulp of kappa number 17-18and bleached to 90% ISO brightness by the sequenceOD (PO)D. Wood basic density showed strongercorrelations with fiber dimensions, pulping yield and pulp quality than did chemical composition. Lighter woods resulted in higher yields. However, wood specific consumption was lower for denser woods,even though these demanded more drastic pulping conditions to achieve a given kappa number. The pulp quality results suggest that lower density woods should be directed towards fabrication of refined paper (printing and writing grades) while the denser woods be directed to the sanitary papers segment (tissue grades).

  13. Fermentation profile, chemical composition and dry matter losses of orange pulp silage with different microbial inoculantsPerfil fermentativo, composição bromatológica e perdas em silagem de bagaço de laranja com diferentes inoculantes microbianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of microbial inoculants on the reduced concentration of gases and effluent, dry matter recovery, pH, volatile fatty acids, and chemical composition of orange pulp silage, using a completely randomized design, with four treatments and four replicates per treatment. The treatments were: orange pulp silage (CONT, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus plantarum (LAC, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus buchneri (BUCH, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus plantarum and buchneri (LACBUCH. Inoculants were applied at a rate of 25 liters of solution per ton of citrus pulp containing 1x103 CFU respectively of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri per gram of silage. There was no effect of the usage of different inoculants on the reduction of gas and effluent, as well as the pH of the silage. The dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, mineral matter (MM, ether extract (EE and the profile of fatty acids did not change significantly with the inclusion of the inoculants. The contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF were higher for silage with Lactobacillus buchneri compared to control. The administration of microbial inoculants in orange pulp silage did not result in benefits relative to the dry matter losses during ensiling or the nutritional components. Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar os efeitos de inoculantes microbianos sobre as perdas por gases e efluentes, recuperação de matéria seca, pH, ácidos graxos voláteis e composição bromatológica de silagens de polpa cítrica, usando-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de polpa cítrica (CONT, silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus plantarum (LAC, silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus buchneri (BUCH; silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus plantarum e buchneri (LACBUCH. Os

  14. Alkaline xylan extraction of bleached kraft pulp-effect of extraction time on pulp chemical composition and physical properties%漂白硫酸盐浆的碱性木聚糖抽提对纸浆化学组分和物理性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林庆旭; 夏新兴

    2013-01-01

    In this pilot scale study, we examined the effects of alkaline extraction time on xylan removal, pulp and paper properties, and the consequences that need to be addressed when scaling up and intensifying the process. Alkaline extraction of bleached birch kraft pulp yields two fractions:pure polymeric xylan and pulp with reduced xylan content. Our results indicate that a similar amount of xylan can be extracted in 5 min as the amount obtained in 60 min. We found, however, that the shorter extraction time is beneficial to maintain the fiber and paper properties at an acceptable level. This pilot trial demonstrated that the washing procedure of the alkali-treated fibers must be selected with care to avoid causing mechanical damage to fibers and to avoid the loss of fines.%  研究了扩大和强化过程时碱抽提时间对木聚糖去除、纸浆和纸张性能及结果的影响。漂白桦木硫酸盐浆的碱抽提产生了两部分产物:纯木聚糖和木聚糖含量降低的纸浆。研究结果表明:抽提5m in得到的木聚糖量与抽提60m in得到的木聚糖量是相近的;在合理的范围内,缩短提取时间有利于保持纤维和纸张的性能;碱处理纤维的洗涤必须小心进行,以避免造成对纤维的机械损伤,以及细小纤维的流失。

  15. Efeitos da adição de inoculantes microbianos sobre o perfil fermentativo da silagem de alfafa adicionada de polpa cítrica Effects of microbial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silage added with citrus pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura de alfafa (19% de MS, cortada com 10% dos perfilhos floridos, foi armazenada em 32 silos experimentais confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos portando válvulas. A alfafa picada foi homogeneizada e submetida a quatro tratamentos com ou sem a adição de 12% de polpa cítrica peletizada: controle, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp. e Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium e L. plantarum. Os silos foram abertos após 133 dias para análise da composição bromatológica, perfil fermentativo e estabilidade aeróbia. Apenas na silagem não adicionada de polpa, todos os inoculantes aumentaram os teores de etanol, o Pioneer aumentou o pH e o Silobac reduziu a concentração de ácido acético. Independentemente da presença de polpa, todos os inoculantes diminuíram as perdas de MS; o Silobac e o Pioneer diminuíram a DIVMS e o Pioneer aumentou o N-NH3. Os inoculantes não afetaram as concentrações dos ácidos lático, propiônico ou butírico, bem como a estabilidade aeróbia, independentemente da presença da polpa. De forma geral, a adição de polpa cítrica melhorou a composição bromatológica e o perfil fermentativo, mas piorou as perdas e a estabilidade aeróbia.Alfalfa crop (19.0% DM was harvested at 35 days and ensiled in 32 plastic experimental silos, consisting of four treatments with or without 12% of citrus pulp: control, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium, and Lactobacillus sp. and Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium and L. plantarum. Silos were opened 133 days after ensiling and sampled to proceed chemical analyses. Only in citrus pulp-free silage, all inoculants increased ethanol concentration; Pioneer increased pH, and Silobac decreased acetic acid concentration, compared to control. Independently of citrus pulp, all inoculants

  16. Alternative Technologies for Biofuels Production in Kraft Pulp Mills—Potential and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Vakkilainen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current global conditions provide the pulp mill new opportunities beyond the traditional production of cellulose. Due to stricter environmental regulations, volatility of oil price, energy policies and also the global competitiveness, the challenges for the pulp industry are many. They range from replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources to the export of biofuels, chemicals and biomaterials through the implementation of biorefineries. In spite of the enhanced maturity of various bio and thermo-chemical conversion processes, the economic viability becomes an impediment when considering the effective implementation on an industrial scale. In the case of kraft pulp mills, favorable conditions for biofuels production can be created due to the availability of wood residues and generation of black liquor. The objective of this article is to give an overview of the technologies related to the production of alternative biofuels in the kraft pulp mills and discuss their potential and prospects in the present and future scenario.

  17. China’s High-yield Pulp Sector and Its Carbon Dioxide Emission: Considering the Saved Standing Wood as an Increase of Carbon Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of high-yield pulp in China has increased significantly in recent years. The well-known advantages of this type of pulp include low production cost, high opacity, and good paper formation. In the context of state-of-the-art technologies, China’s high-yield pulping, which is dominated by the PRC-APMP (preconditioning refiner chemical treatment-alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping process, has a much higher energy input but a significantly lower wood consumption in comparison with the kraft pulping process. If the saved wood in the forest or plantation is considered as an increment of carbon storage, then the carbon dioxide emission from the production of high-yield pulp can be regarded as much lower than that of kraft pulp.

  18. APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the soda pulping of bagasse decreased kappa number and improved the yield and brightness of resulting pulp. Using the surfactants reduced alkali consumpt...

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis of potato pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Lesiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Potato pulp constitutes a complicated system of four types of polysaccharides: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and starch. Its composition makes it a potential and attractive raw material for the production of the second generation bioethanol. The aim of this research project was to assess the usefulness of commercial enzymatic preparations for the hydrolysis of potato pulp and to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrolysates obtained in this way as raw materials for ethanol fermentation. Material  and methods. Sterilised potato pulp was subjected to hydrolysis with commercial enzymatic preparations. The effectiveness of the preparations declared as active towards only one fraction of potato pulp (separate amylase, pectinase and cellulase activity and mixtures of these preparations was analysed. The monomers content in hydrolysates was determined using HPLC method. Results.  The application of amylolytic enzymes for potato pulp hydrolysis resulted in the release of only 18% of raw material with glucose as the dominant (77% constituent of the formed product. In addition, 16% galactose was also determined in it. The hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction yielded up to 35% raw material and the main constituents of the obtained hydrolysate were glucose (46% and arabinose (40%. Simultaneous application of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes turned out to be the most effective way of carrying out the process as its efficiency in this case reached 90%. The obtained hydrolysate contained 63% glucose, 25% arabinose and 12% other simple substances. Conclusion. The application of commercial enzymatic preparations made it possible to perform potato pulp hydrolysis with 90% effectiveness. This was achieved by the application of a complex of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes and the hydrolysate obtained in this way contained, primarily, glucose making it a viable substrate for ethanol fermentation.

  20. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  1. REINFORCEMENT POTENTIAL OF BLEACHED SAWDUST KRAFT PULP IN DIFFERENT MECHANICAL PULP FURNISHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto I. Korpinen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bleached unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulps were added to bleached Norway spruce thermomechanical (TMP and pressurised groundwood (PWG pulps in different proportions. Handsheets were prepared and tested for physical properties. In addition, economic calculations were done to estimate the production costs of different bleached pulps in Finland. It was found that the addition of unrefined and refined sawdust kraft pulp improved drainability of the mechanical pulps. Tear strength of PGW furnishes was increased when either unrefined or refined sawdust pulp was added. Tear strength of TMP furnishes was not influenced when different sawdust kraft pulps were added. Up to 30 % of unrefined sawdust kraft pulp could be added and no significant negative effect was observed in TMP and PGW furnishes. On the other hand, when refined sawdust kraft pulp was added into the mechanical pulp furnishes, a clear improvement in the tensile strength was observed. According to the economic calculation the production cost of bleached sawdust kraft pulp is almost as low as the production cost of bleached mechanical pulp. We suggest that economically viable sawdust kraft pulp can be used as a substituent for expensive long fibre reinforcement kraft pulp in the production of mechanical pulp based papers.

  2. INTEGRATION OF KRAFT PULPING ON A FOREST BIOREFINERY BY THE ADDITION OF A STEAM EXPLOSION PRETREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Martin-Sampedro; Maria E. Eugenio; Esteban Revilla; Juan A. Martin; J. Carlos Villar

    2011-01-01

    Steam explosion has been proposed for a wide range of lignocellulosic applications, including fractionation of biomass, pre-treatment of biomass for ethanol production, or as an alternative to conventional mechanical pulping. Nevertheless, a steam explosion process could also be used as pretreatment before chemical pulping, expecting a reduction in cooking time due to the open structure of the exploded chips. Thus, to evaluate the effect of steam explosion as a pretreatment in the kraft pulpi...

  3. Heat processing (HTST) of umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara) pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuelle Araújo de Oliveira; Soraia Vilela Borges; Ângela Aparecida Lemos Furtado; Regina Célia Della Modesta; Ronoel de Oliveira Godoy

    2011-01-01

    Umbu pulp is an important product in the economy of the northeastern region of Brazil, and its preservation can be ensured by heat treatment. A complete factorial design with 2 factors (time and temperature) and 3 central points was used to verify the effect of the HTST process on the physicochemical, chemical, physical, microbiological, and sensory qualities of umbu pulps. The results showed that the heat treatments applied resulted in products without significant alterations on the physicoc...

  4. Biobleaching of Paper Mulberry (Broussentia papyrifera) Pulp Using Laccase Mediator System

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Chauhan; M. Krishna Mohan; Pradeep Bhatnagar

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, demand for cleaner production techniques in the handmade paper industry is on rise. Use of enzymes in prebleaching might be very useful in this regard. The laccase enzyme produced from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus was tested as an aid to the bleaching of paper mulberry (Broussentia papyrifera) pulp. For this, enzymatic prebleaching was carried out for two different durations i.e. 3 hours and 48 hours. The pulp was then subjected to chemical bleaching by hydrogen peroxide either...

  5. Caracterização físico-química de polpas de frutos da Amazônia e sua correlação com a atividade anti-radical livre Physical and chemical characterization of fruit pulps from Amazonia and their correlation to free radical scavenger activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele André Baptista Canuto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Características físico-químicas (cor, pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais, conteúdo de lipídios e umidade e níveis de compostos bioativos (ácido ascórbico, fenólicos totais foram determinados em quinze amostras de polpas de frutos procedentes da região Amazônica (abiu, acerola, açaí, araçá-boi, bacaba, bacuri, buriti, cajá, cajarana, caju, cupuaçu, graviola, murici, noni e tamarindo. A atividade de radicais livres foi avaliada pelo método de ABTS. Algumas polpas apresentaram alta potencialidade antioxidante, associada com a atividade antirradicais livres obtida e os conteúdos dos componentes bioativos como compostos fenólicos e ácido ascórbico, destacando-se acerola e acaí. O conteúdo total de compostos fenólicos foi correlacionado à capacidade antioxidante das polpas.Physical and chemical characteristics (color, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, lipid content, moisture and levels of bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics were determined in fifteen samples of fruit pulps from Amazonia (abiu, acerola, açaí, araça-boi, bacaba, bacuri, buriti, cajá, cajarana, caju, cupuaçu, graviola, murici, noni e tamarindo. The free radical scavenger activity was evaluated by the ABTS assay. Some pulps presented high antioxidant potential, associated with the free radical scavenger activity measured and the content of bioactive components, such as phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid, especialy in acerola and açaí. The total phenolic content was correlated to antioxidant capacity of pulps.

  6. EFFECTS OF XYLAN IN EUCALYPTUS PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Moreira Barbosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for a better use of wood in the pulp industry has fuelled interest in a more rational use of its components, particularly xylans. The impact of xylans removal and of xylans redeposition on pulp properties for tissue and P&W paper grades are discussed in this paper. Kraft pulp (15.6% xylans treatment with 10-70 g.L-1 NaOH resulted in pulps of 14.5-5.9% xylans. The treatments decreased pulp lignin and HexA contents and caused significant positive impact on subsequent oxygen delignification and ECF bleaching. Xylan removal decreased pulp beatability, water retention value and tensile index but increased drainability, water absorption capacity, capillarity Klemm and bulk. Overall, xylan depleted pulps showed almost ideal properties for tissue paper grade pulps. In a second step of the research, xylans extracted from unbleached (BXL and bleached eucalyptus pulps (WXL by cold caustic extraction (CCE were added to a commercial brown pulp in the oxygen delignification (O-stage and further bleached. Xylans deposition occurred at variable degree (up to 7% on pulp weight depending upon the O-stage reaction pH. Pulp bleachability was not impaired by WXL xylan deposition but slightly negatively affected by BXL xylans. Pulp beatability was improved by xylan deposition. The deposited xylans were quite stable across bleaching and beating, with the WXL xylans being more stable than the BXL ones. At low energy consumption, the deposited xylans improved pulp physical and mechanical properties. Xylans extraction by CCE with subsequent deposition onto pulp in the O-stage proved attractive for manufacturing high xylan P&W paper grades.

  7. Quality of wood and pulp from a clone of Eucalyptus grandis planted at three locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Angeli Sansígolo

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus grandis is one of the most popular species to use as raw material for pulp production in Brazil, as it provides excellent pulping, bleaching and papermaking results. The main objective of this study is to examine the quality of wood and pulp from a clone of Eucalyptus grandis, at age 4 years approximately, planted in three different soils, two of which being low fertility and one being a superior fertility soil, and their reflections on wood quality and pulping results. Chemical analyses of the soils followed guidelines developed by Raij et al. (2001, while physical and chemical properties of the wood followed ABTCP, TAPPI and ABNT standards. Chemical analyses of the soils pointed to lower fertility in Fazenda Limeira and Fazenda Tapera Queimada as opposed to higher fertility in Fazenda Mendes União. Results revealed stronger tendencies for the stand grown in the less fertile soils (Fazenda Limeira and Fazenda Tapera Queimada in comparison to the stand grown in more fertile soil (Fazenda Mendes União as to: higher wood and bark basic density, lower height and dry matter content, higher bark content, lower extractives content and higher holocellulose content, higher total and screened yields from pulping, lower specific wood consumption/t of pulp, and higher tear and tensile indices at low refining levels.

  8. Effects of dental trauma on the pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R M

    1997-05-01

    Infection of the root canal system following dental trauma induces pulp and periapical disease and prevents healing of previously healthy pulp. A clinical goal in treating trauma is the maintenance of pulp vitality, and clinicians should be aware of factors that influence pulp healing. The learning objective of this article is to review the factors and techniques that influence pulp vitality and examine the influence pulp has on the healing of adjacent tissues. The potential routes for bacterial infection of the root canal system are discussed, with the clinical crown as the primary portal of entry. Uncomplicated and complicated crown fractures, as well as the crown-root and root fractures, are reviewed. Complications in pulp healing include canal obliteration, disturbed root development, apexogenesis, apexification, and the various forms of resorption.

  9. Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingwen; Yuan, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration. PMID:27014076

  10. Pulp regeneration: Current approaches and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eYANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, stem cell factor (SCF, and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration.

  11. Mercerization and Enzymatic Pretreatment of Cellulose in Dissolving Pulps

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the preparation of chemically and/or enzymatically modified cellulose. This modification can be either irreversible or reversible. Irreversible modification is used to prepare cellulose derivatives as end products, whereas reversible modification is used to enhance solubility in the preparation of regenerated cellulose. The irreversible modification studied here was the preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) using extended mercerization of a spruce dissolving pulp...

  12. Effect of physical and chemical factors on Macaca Mulatta′s pulp and change of the collagen in pulp%理化因素刺激对牙髓及其胶原 影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁理; 岳林; 毛秀萍; 高岩

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of pulp and its collagen to outside stimuli. Methods 51 permanent teeth from 10 adult healthy Macaca Mulatta′s monkeys were chosen as experimental teeth. 39 of them were prepared Class V cavities. The teeth were divided into two groups, one was filled with zinc phosphate cement and another group with zinc oxide eugenol. A blank control group of 12 teeth was set at the same time. Just after the operation, 3 d, 7 d, 1 month and 3 months later, the animals were executed. Histologic changes were evaluated by means of HE and collagen staining method. Results Local inflammation was the major representation in the pulps of the zinc phosphate cement group from 7d to 3 months after operation. The percentage of collagen decrease dropped sharply,and there was no inflammation cells infiltration in the pulps of zinc oxide eugenol group from 1 to 3 months after operation. By means of collagen staining method, the morphological characters ,distribution and the change of pulpal collagen during a certain pathologic process were clearly represented in histologic slices. The change of collagen appeared earlier than the inflammation cells infiltration. Conclusions Zinc phosphate cement can lead to medium inflammation of the pulp. The change of collagen appears earlier than that of WBC, which can be used as a sensitive indicator.%目的了解猴牙髓及其胶原对物理、化学刺激的反应。方法观察磷酸锌粘固剂及氧化锌丁香油酚粘固剂(zinc oxide eugenol,ZOE)间接盖髓后,恒河猴牙髓即刻、3 d、7 d、1个月、3个月HE和胶原特殊染色后的组织学变化。结果①磷酸锌粘固剂组术后7 d~3个月,牙髓以局限性炎症损伤为主;②ZOE组术后1~3个月胶原减少明显下降,已无炎症细胞浸润;③胶原特殊染色法可清楚地反映牙髓胶原的形态特点、分布及变化,术后3 d胶原明显减少早于炎症细胞的出现。结论磷酸锌粘固剂对

  13. Physicochemical characteristics of commercial umbu pulp (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara: concentration effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Santos Bastos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The umbu is the umbuzeiro fruit (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. which is a tree native of the Brazilian backlands. The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of commercial and concentrated umbu pulp to be used as raw material in the production of structured. The commercial pulp (2.5 kg was acquired in the trade of Feira de Santana. The concentration of the evaporator route pulp vacuo to increase the soluble solids content of 8.5ºBrix to 15.5ºBrix It was held in the Food Chemistry Laboratory of the State University of Feira de Santana. It was obtained after concentrating a yield of 41.12% by mass of fruit pulp. The concentration process had no influence in the nutritional value of umbu pulp. The concentrated pulp had the following properties pH (2.43, soluble solids (15.5°Brix, acidity (3.11 g citric acid/100 g, total protein (1.28% - w/v, vitamin C (4.36 mg/100 g - w/v, reducing sugars (6.08% - w/v, total sugars (13.55% - w/v non reducing sugars (7.46% - w/v and ash (0.42% - w/v. The physicochemical characteristics of commercial umbu pulps had similar pH, Total Soluble Solids, acidity, proteins and ashes; higher values of reducing sugars and non-reducing and a lower vitamin C content that the pulps reported in the literature. The concentration process produced an increase in Total Soluble Solids, proteins, acidity, reducing and non reducing sugars and ash content. However there was a decrease in vitamin C concentration of the pulp.

  14. Caracterização física e química dos frutos da umbu-cajazeira (Spondias spp em cinco estádios de maturação, da polpa congelada e néctar Physical and chemical characterization on the fruits of umbu-cajazeira (Spondias spp in five ripening stages, frozen pulp and nectar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA DOROTEA POZZOBON DE ALBUQUERQUE LIMA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A umbu-cajazeira, no Brasil, apresenta boas potencialidades de cultivo e perspectivas de comercialização, o que objetivou este trabalho de avaliação da qualidade física e química dos frutos em cinco estádios de maturação classificados de acordo com o grau de cor da casca descritos como: fruto totalmente verde (1FTV, frutos com início de pigmentação (2FIP, frutos parcialmente amarelos (3FPA, frutos totalmente amarelos (4FTA, frutos totalmente amarelo-alaranjados (5FTAA, da polpa congelada e do néctar. As variáveis estudadas foram os atributos físicos: peso, diâmetro longitudinal, diâmetro transversal e rendimento em polpa, e químicos: vitamina C, acidez total titulável sólidos solúveis totais, pH e a relação sólidos solúveis totais/acidez total titulável. Os frutos, no estádio de maturação comercial (4FTA, apresentaram os seguintes valores mé ;dio: rendimento de polpa de 55,75%; pH de 2,08; SST de 11,25 °Brix; ATT de 1,77 g de ácido citrico/100g de polpa; SST/ATT de 6,39 e teor de vitamina C total de 17,75 mg/100g. A polpa congelada e o néctar mantiveram-se em condições estáveis em relaç ;ão ao pH, SST, ATT e SST/ATT, durante 60 dias de armazenamento. Quanto ao teor de vitamina C total, a polpa congelada apresentou um decréscimo signi ficativo, o que não ocorreu com o néctar.In Brazil some tropical fruits present great potential for cultivation and perspective of commercialization, one of them is the "umbu-cajazeira". A research has been developed aiming to measure the physical and chemical quality of the frozen pulp and the nectar obtained from "umbu-cajazeira" fruits, which were classified in distinct maturation stages. The fruits were divided according to shell colour in five groups: fruit completely green (1FCG, fruit starting to change shell's colour (2FSCC, fruit partially yellow (3FPY, fruit totally yellow (4FTY, fruit totaly orange-like yellow. The variables analysed comprised the physical

  15. CELLULOSIC PULPS OF CEREAL STRAWS AS RAW MATERIAL FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF ECOLOGICAL PACKAGING

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    Fátima Vargas,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the potential application of four types of cereal straws: oats, maize, rapeseed, and barley, in order to obtain cellulose pulp through the Specel® process for use in the manufacture of 100% biodegradable and ecological packaging. Raw materials were chemically characterized to determine alcohol-extractives, ash, lignin, holocellulose, and α-cellulose. Cellulosic pulps obtained from raw materials were characterized to determine yield, Kappa number, and viscosity. Paper sheets made from cellulosic pulps were characterized to determine beating degree, tensile index, stretch, burst index, tear index, and brightness. Finally, the results were compared to the raw material used in the industrial manufacturing of packaging (wheat. The four studied raw materials (oats, maize, rapeseed, and barley were judged to be suitable for use in the Specel® process to obtain cellulosic pulp suitable for production of ecological containers.

  16. Pulping performance of transgenic poplar with depressed Caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI JianHua; WANG YanZhen; WANG HongZhi; LI RuiFen; LIN Nan; MA RongCai; QU LeQing; SONG YanRu

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluated pulping performance of 3-year-old field-grown transgenic poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba). The transgenic poplar with anti-sense CCoAOMT had an about 13% decreased lignin content, in which a slight increment was found in S/G ratio. Chemical analysis showed that the trans-genic poplar had significantly less benezene-ethanol extractive than that of control wood, but no sig-nificant differences were found in contents of ash, cold water extractive, hot water extractive, 1% NaOH extractive, holocellulose, pentosans and cellulose. Fiber assay demonstrated that down-regulation of CCoAOMTexpression improved the fiber quality in transgenic poplar. Kraft pulping showed that lower lignin in transgenic poplar led to remarkable improved pulp quality and increased pulp yield.

  17. Caffeine reduction in coffee pulp through silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porres, C; Alvarez, D; Calzada, J

    1993-01-01

    Silage tests to study reductions of antiphysiological compounds (caffeine and polyphenols) of fresh coffee pulp during the anaerobic fermentation were done. A concrete silo divided in compartments, with a total capacity of 9 tons of fresh material was utilized. The silage periods ranged between 99-224 days and the following materials were ensiled: 1) coffee pulp, 2) coffee pulp with sugar cane molasses, 3) coffee pulp with a mixture of molasses and ammonia and 4) screw pressed coffee pulp with molasses. Reductions in caffeine, total polyphenols and condensed polyphenols ranged between 13-63%, 28-70% and 51-81% respectively. It was concluded that in the case of coffee pulp, silage presents and ideal method to preserve the material and partially reduce the contents of antiphysiological compounds.

  18. [Pulp response to restorative materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advokaat, J G

    1990-03-01

    Restorations may affect the pulp negatively, rather due to microleakage than to toxic properties of the materials used. Hyperalgesia occurs more frequently after restoration with composite resins than with amalgam, though the resins in contrast to amalgam may be bonded to the enamel margins. A number of recommendations are presented in order to minimize the marginal gap between cavity walls and amalgam and to prevent marginal fracture.

  19. Pilot-plant pulping studies on four abaca varieties. I. Soda pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerrudo, J.V.; Visperas, R.V.; Ballon, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    Cooking of spindle-stripped and decorticated abaca varieties with 13.5% NaOH for 2.5 hours at 170 degrees gave pulp in average yield of 69.1% and 60.9%, respectively. All the pulps had low permanganate numbers, indicating that they can be bleached easily. The strength properties of abaca pulp were related to the plant variety, and Sabahon variety gave pulp with best strength characteristics.

  20. Properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, G. V.; Gamelas, J.A.F.; Ramarao, B. F.; Amidon, T. E.; Ferreira, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    This work was a comprehensive study of the properties of extracted Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulps. Five levels of hot water extraction were performed, each followed by kraft cooking to three different kappa numbers. As extraction took place, the hemicelluloses content of the kraft pulps was reduced from 21%-22% to 3%-4% and, conversely, the cellulose fraction increased from 73%-75% to 85%-90%. Fiber length decreased for all pulps and kink index increased greatly with extraction. The dispersi...

  1. APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Hamzeh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the soda pulping of bagasse decreased kappa number and improved the yield and brightness of resulting pulp. Using the surfactants reduced alkali consumption during pulping. The bleaching experiments showed that the pulps obtained with the three types of applied surfactants namely, ELA-2, FAE-20, and PEG1000 could be easily bleached with D0ED1 or D0EpD1 sequences. The addition of most used surfactants in soda pulping of bagasse led to higher brightness in comparison to reference pulp with the same bleaching sequence. Strength properties of bleached pulps obtained with surfactants were higher than the pulp obtained with conventional soda pulping.

  2. XYLANASE PREBLEACHING ON NaOH-AQ WHEAT STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaixiaLi; YongjunDeng; PingLi; GuiganFang; ShuchaiLiu

    2004-01-01

    Before calcium hypochlorite bleaching (H) and chlorination, alkaline extraction, calcium hypochlorite three-stage-bleaching (CEH),we used a kind of hemicellulase, xylanase, to treat wheat straw pulpfrom Gaoyou Papermill. Xylanase pretreatment contained tow stages, the first stage was xylanase treatment, which was followed by alkaline extraction, the second stage. The xylanase could act on partial lignin and carbohydrate, chiefly xylan. The following alkaline extraction could dissolve something that could not be removed during the first stage. The result of pretreatment was to facilitate penetration of bleaching chemicals, to reduce effective chlorine consumption and to lower pollution loading of bleaching effluent. In the case of these two bleaching processes, the enzymatic pretreatment substantially enhanced the optical properties of the pulps. To calcium hypochlorite bleaching, strength properties of pulps wereimproved.

  3. Characterization and evaluation of golpata fronds as pulping raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Chowdhury, D A Nasima; Islam, M Khalidul

    2006-02-01

    The chemical, morphological and anatomical studies of golpata fronds have been discussed. The lignin, pentosan and alpha-cellulose in golpata fronds were comparable to some common nonwood and hardwood raw materials. The alkali, water and dichloromethane solubility were higher than wood and common nonwood. The fiber length 1.73 mm was observed, which is little bit shorter than softwood and longer than hardwood but fiber diameter was very short. The pulpability of golpata fronds has also been studied. The pulp yield was very low and Kappa number was high. The strength properties were better than that of some common nonwood pulps. FT-IR spectrum and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation products showed that golpata fronds lignin mainly consist of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl units (V).

  4. Chemical and functional characterization of seed, pulp and skin powder from chilto (Solanum betaceum), an Argentine native fruit. Phenolic fractions affect key enzymes involved in metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orqueda, María Eugenia; Rivas, Marisa; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Alberto, María Rosa; Torres, Sebastian; Cuello, Soledad; Sayago, Jorge; Thomas-Valdes, Samanta; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Isla, María Inés

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the nutritional and functional components of powder obtained by lyophilization of whole fruits, seeds, pulp and skin from chilto (Solanum betaceum Cav) cultivated in the ecoregion of Yungas, Argentina. The powders have low carbohydrate and sodium content and are a source of vitamin C, carotenoid, phenolics, potassium and fiber. The HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the fractions enriched in phenolics allowed the identification of 12 caffeic acid derivatives and related phenolics, 10 rosmarinic acid derivatives and 7 flavonoids. The polyphenols enriched extracts before and after simulated gastroduodenal digestion inhibited enzymes associated with metabolic syndrome, including α-glucosidase, amylase and lipase and exhibited antioxidant activity by different mechanisms. None of the analyzed fruit powders showed acute toxicity or genotoxicity. The powders from the three parts of S. betaceum fruit may be a potential functional food and the polyphenol enriched extract of seed and skin may have nutraceutical properties.

  5. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  6. MODELING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF SODA PULP FROM OIL-PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ferrer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the variables soda (0.5-3.0%, hydrogen peroxide (1.0-6.0% and time (1-5 h in the bleaching of soda pulp of empty fruit bunches (EFB from oil-palm, on the properties of bleached pulps, was studied. Polynomial and neural fuzzy models reproduced the results of brightness, kappa number, and viscosity of the pulps with errors less than 10%. By the simulation of the bleaching of pulp, using the polynomial and neural fuzzy models, it was possible to find optimal values of operating variables, so that the properties of bleached pulps differed only slightly from their best values and yet it was possible to save chemical reagents, energy, and plant size, operating with lower values of operating variables. Thus, operating with 1.13% soda concentration and 2.25% hydrogen peroxide concentration for 3 hours, a pulp with a brightness of 75.1% (8.1% below the maximum and a viscosity of 740 mL/g (10.4% less than the maximum value, was obtained.

  7. Potential of thermo and alkali stable xylanases from Thielaviopsis basicola (MTCC-1467) in biobleaching of wood kraft pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluguri, Baby Rani; Thulluri, Chiranjeevi; Cherupally, Madhu; Nidadavolu, Nagaraju; Achuthananda, Das; Mangamuri, Lakshmi Narasu; Addepally, Uma

    2012-08-01

    Thermo- and alkali-stable xylanases produced from Thielaviopsis basicola (MTCC-1467) on low-cost carbon source like rice straw were evaluated for their potential application in biobleaching of wood kraft pulp. Enzyme treatment at retention time of 240 min with 20 IU/gm of dried pulp resulted in ~85.2 % of reduction in kappa number. When compared to control, 110.8, 93, and 72.2 % of enhancement in brightness (percent International Organization of Standardization), whiteness, and fluorescence, respectively, were observed for enzyme-treated pulp. Spectroscopic analysis showed significant release of chromophoric compounds from enzyme-treated pulp. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope studies of unbleached and enzyme bleached pulp revealed the effectiveness of enzymatic treatment. The enzyme-treated pulp subjected to later stages of chemical bleaching resulted in 16 % decrease in chlorine consumption along with considerable reduction in chemical oxygen demand percentage (14.5 %) level of effluent. Various pulp properties like fiber length, fiber width, burst strength, burst index, tear strength, tear index, tensile strength, and breaking length were also significantly improved after enzyme treatment when compared to control.

  8. Impact of lignin and carbohydrate chemical structures on kraft pulping processes and biofuel production%木素和碳水化合物化学结构对硫酸盐法制浆工艺及生物燃料生产的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红峰

    2014-01-01

    Most studies aimed at determining rates of hardwood delignification and carbohydrate degradation have focused on understanding the behavior of a single wood species. Such studies tend to determine either the delignification rate or the rate of carbohydrate degradation without examining the potential interactions resulting from related variables. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation of lignin and carbohydrate degradation during kraft pulping of multiple hardwood species. The kraft deligniifcation rates of Eucalyptus urograndis, E. nitens, E. globulus, sweet gum, maple, red oak, red alder, cottonwood, and acacia were obtained. The kinetics of glucan, xylan, and total carbohydrate dissolution during the bulk phase of the kraft pulping process for those species also were investigated. The wide ranges of deligniifcation and carbohydrate degradation rates were correlated to wood chemical characteristics. It appears that the syringyl: guaiacyl lignin ratio and lignin-carbohydrate complexes are the main factors responsible for the differences in kraft pulping performance among the hardwoods studied.%大多数研究将重点放在认识单个木材组分的行为上,其目的旨在确定阔叶木材脱木素和碳水化合物的降解。这些研究倾向于测定脱木素速率或碳水化合物降解速率,但没有考虑某些相关变量引起的潜在相互影响。本文详细研究了大多数阔叶木材硫酸盐法制浆时木素和碳水化合物的降解过程,并测得桉木、山腊梅、蓝桉、枫香树、枫树、红橡树、红桤木、杨木和合欢树的脱木素速率;同时还研究了这些材种在主要脱木素阶段葡聚糖、聚木糖和总碳水化合物的溶解动力学。脱木素速率与碳水化合物的降解速率变化范围较大,与木材化学特性有关。结果表明,阔叶木硫酸盐制浆性能的差异主要受紫丁香基与愈疮木基比率和木素碳水化合物复合体(LCC)的影响。

  9. Preparation of Cellulose Nanofibrils from Bamboo Pulp by Mechanical Defibrillation for Their Applications in Biodegradable Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Mario; Botaro, Vagner Roberto; Novack, Kátia Monteiro; Neto, Wilson Pires Flauzino; Mendes, Lourival Marin; Tonoli, Gustavo H D

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing interest in cellulose nanofibrils from renewable sources for various industrial applications. However, there is a lack of information on cellulose arising from bamboo pulps. Nanofibrils from refined bamboo pulps, including bleached, unbleached, and unrefined/unbleached, were obtained by mechanical defibrillation for use in biodegradable composites. The influence of industrial processes, such as pulping and refining of unbleached pulps, as well as of alkali pretreatments and bleaching of refined pulps, on the chemical composition of the samples was analyzed. Morphological, structural, thermal, optical and viscometric properties were investigated as a function of the number of passages of refined/bleached suspensions through a defibrillator. For the unbleached suspensions, the effects of refining and bleaching on the properties of nanofibrils were evaluated, fixing the number of passages through the defibrillator. Microscopic studies demonstrated that nanoscale cellulose fibers were obtained from both pulps, with a higher yield for the refined/bleached and refined/unbleached pulp, at the expense of the unbleached/unrefined pulps. The study showed that, in addition to the effectiveness of the pre-treatments, there was an increase in the production efficiency of nanofibrils, as well as in the transparency of the bleached suspensions, while viscosity, thermal stability and crystallinity had reduced levels as the number of passages through the defibrillator increased, showing a gradual improvement in the transition from the micro- to the nano-scale. The present study contributed to the different methods that are available for the production of bamboo cellulose nanofibrils, which can be used in the production of biodegradable composites for various applications.

  10. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Santos Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited States,Canada, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Brazil was inelastic. The Asian demand for thissome pulp was elastic. Europe and the Rest of the World showed negative cross-price elasticity, i. e.,and the imported pulp from other countries are complementary products. North America and Asiashowed positive crow-price elasticity, i. e., they consider the pulp produced in other countries assubstitute products. The net effect of the variation on the price of pulp in a country h, over the amountof pulp that goes to the region i depends on the matching of values related to the elasticity ofsubstitution and the price elasticity of the total demand.

  11. Heat processing (HTST of umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arruda Câmara pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Araújo de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Umbu pulp is an important product in the economy of the northeastern region of Brazil, and its preservation can be ensured by heat treatment. A complete factorial design with 2 factors (time and temperature and 3 central points was used to verify the effect of the HTST process on the physicochemical, chemical, physical, microbiological, and sensory qualities of umbu pulps. The results showed that the heat treatments applied resulted in products without significant alterations on the physicochemical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics. With respect to color, the parameters L and a* were altered by increases in temperature indicating by darkening of color. The sensory evaluation indicated that a treatment of 88 °C for 10 seconds was the best processing condition due to the greater similarity of the resulting product to the reference sample (blanched pulp.

  12. 漂白废报纸脱墨浆AKD施胶过程的湿部化学环境分析%Wet Chemical Environment Analysis of Alkyl Ketene Dimmers (AKD) Sizing of Bleached Waste Newspaper Deinked Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦黎; 曹云峰; 熊林根

    2011-01-01

    An L9(34)orthogonal test was designed to study the effects of AKD (alkyl ketene dimmers) charge, CS (cationic starch) charge, PCC (precipitated calcium carbonate) charge and CPAM (cationic polyacrylamide) charge on AKD sizing of bleached waste newspaper deinked pulp. And the optimal conditions were as follows: AKD dosage 0.4%, CS dosage 0.6%, PCC dosage 5% and CPAM dosage 0.03%. The variation tendency of sizing performance was essentially consistent with the Zeta potential value and cationic demand of furnish. In sizing process, Zeta potential and cationic demand of pulp was also an important factor, which was influential in the AKD sizing performance.%对漂白废报纸脱墨浆AXeD(烷基烯酮二聚物)施胶过程中AKD用量、CS(阳离子淀粉)用量、PCC(沉淀碳酸钙)用量和CPAM(阳离子聚丙烯酰胺)用量进行四因素三水平方差分析,当AKD用量为0.2%~0.4%(质量分数),CS用量为0.6%~1.0%,PCC用量为5%~15%,CPAM用量为0.03%-0.09%时,AKD施胶较为适宜工艺条件为:AKD用量0.4%,CS用量0.6%,PCC用量5%,CPAM用量0.03%。对纸浆动电特性的研究表明,成纸的施胶度基本与纸浆中的Zeta电位、浆料溶解电荷需求量的变化趋势一致。在施胶过程中,控制Zeta电位、浆料溶解电荷需求量也是影响AKD施胶效果的重要因素。

  13. Yield-increasing additives in kraft pulping: Effect on carbohydrate retention, composition and handsheet properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaler, David Andre Grimsoeen

    2008-07-01

    In this thesis, increased hemicellulose retention during kraft pulping has been studied. The work has been divided into three parts: i) Development of an accessible and reliable method for determination of carbohydrate composition of kraft pulps ii) Investigation of the composition and molecular mass distributions of the carbohydrates in kraft pulps with increased hemicellulose content iii) Investigation of the effect of increased hemicellulose content on the sheet properties of kraft pulps with increased hemicellulose content. A method for carbohydrate determination was developed. In this method, enzymes are used to hydrolyse the pulp into monosaccharides. A relatively mild acid hydrolysis is performed prior to detection on an HPLC with an RI-detector. The pulp is not derivatized and no pre-treatment (mechanical or chemical) is needed to determine the carbohydrate composition using the method developed here. Peak deconvolution software is used to improve the accuracy. Polysulphide and H2S primarily increase the glucomannan yield, which can be boosted by up to 7 % on o.d. wood. However, the cellulose yield is more affected by the cooking time and the maximum yield increase of cellulose is approximately 2 % on o.d. wood compared to an ordinary kraft pulp. The cooking time is influenced by sulphide ion concentration, AQ addition and the final Kappa number. The xylan yield is remarkably stable, however the alkali profile during the cook may influence the xylan yield. Surface xylan content of the fibres depends on residual alkali concentration in the black liquor. The molecular mass distributions of cellulose and hemicellulose were determined for pulps with increased hemicellulose content using size exclusion chromatography. Deconvolution by peak separation software is used to gain information about the degree of polymerization for cellulose and hemicellulose. The average DP of glucomannan in the kraft fibre was found to be 350 +- 30 and the average DP of xylan in the

  14. Evaluation of the Phytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    Izharul Haq; Vineeta Kumari; Sharad Kumar; Abhay Raj; Mohtashim Lohani; Ram Naresh Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluent induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) and root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L.) were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity (EC), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total phenols of the pulp and paper mill effluent were beyond the permissible limit specified for the discharge of effluent in inland water bodies. Compared to control plants, seedling exposed to ...

  15. The influence of zeolite on the quality of fresh beet pulp silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koljajić Viliman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different doses of natural zeolite addition on chemical composition and quality of beet pulp silages was investigated. Beet pulp was ensiled in the sugar factory in Požarevac immediately after they were obtained, or after 9 or 17 days. The two-factorial trial was conducted where the first factor (A was the time of ensiling expressed in days after the pulp was obtained (a1= O; a2 = 9; a3 = 17, while the second factor (B was the amount of zeolite added (b1= 0; b2 = 0.05; b3 = 0.25 and b4 = 1.25% in dry matter or 0; 50; 250 and 1250 g zeolite per 100 kg of raw beet pulp. Sample collection for standard chemical composition and quality estimation was taken 60 days after the beginning of the ensiling. The results from the literature show that adding technologically processed natural zeolite (Min-a-Zel, produced by ITNMS, Belgrade while ensiling beet pulp has significant influence on the increase of lactic acid production, decrease in bonded acetic acid content and lower pH value. The influence of explained doses of zeolite on standard chemical composition is smaller and mostly of relative value. The only real changes in chemical composition are the increase in dry matter and mineral content. In the ensiling of the beet pulp stored in the longer period of time, the more intensive fermentation processes were achieved and the production of organic acids was larger which has better conserving effects on silage.

  16. The Effect of the Physical and Chemical Components of Beet Pulp on Nutrient Quality of Dairy Cows%甜菜颗粒粕对奶牛生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海贤; 孔伟

    2013-01-01

    甜菜是我国的主要糖料作物之一.甜菜除了块根用于制糖,其茎叶、根头、根尾和制糖废丝及采种后的母根均含有丰富的营养物质和功能成分,具有重要的饲用价值.本文就甜菜颗粒粕主要营养成分及作用以及部分代替玉米后的饲喂效果进行了分析研究.%Beet is one of China's major sugar crops.Stems and leaves,the root head and ends and some other waste materials of bee were rich rich in nutrient and functional components,which has important nutritional value.The paper analyzed and studied the major nutrient components,the nutritional value and feeding effect of beet pulp which cows are fed instead of corn.

  17. Mesenchymal dental pulp cells attenuate dentin resorption in homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Chen, M; He, L; Marão, H F; Sun, D M; Zhou, J; Kim, S G; Song, S; Wang, S L; Mao, J J

    2015-06-01

    Dentin in permanent teeth rarely undergoes resorption in development, homeostasis, or aging, in contrast to bone that undergoes periodic resorption/remodeling. The authors hypothesized that cells in the mesenchymal compartment of dental pulp attenuate osteoclastogenesis. Mononucleated and adherent cells from donor-matched rat dental pulp (dental pulp cells [DPCs]) and alveolar bone (alveolar bone cells [ABCs]) were isolated and separately cocultured with primary rat splenocytes. Primary splenocytes readily aggregated and formed osteoclast-like cells in chemically defined osteoclastogenesis medium with 20 ng/mL of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and 50 ng/mL of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Strikingly, DPCs attenuated osteoclastogenesis when cocultured with primary splenocytes, whereas ABCs slightly but significantly promoted osteoclastogenesis. DPCs yielded ~20-fold lower RANKL expression but >2-fold higher osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression than donor-matched ABCs, yielding a RANKL/OPG ratio of 41:1 (ABCs:DPCs). Vitamin D3 significantly promoted RANKL expression in ABCs and OPG in DPCs. In vivo, rat maxillary incisors were atraumatically extracted (without any tooth fractures), followed by retrograde pulpectomy to remove DPCs and immediate replantation into the extraction sockets to allow repopulation of the surgically treated root canal with periodontal and alveolar bone-derived cells. After 8 wk, multiple dentin/root resorption lacunae were present in root dentin with robust RANKL and OPG expression. There were areas of dentin resoprtion alternating with areas of osteodentin formation in root dentin surface in the observed 8 wk. These findings suggest that DPCs of the mesenchymal compartment have an innate ability to attenuate osteoclastogenesis and that this innate ability may be responsible for the absence of dentin resorption in homeostasis. Mesenchymal attenuation of dentin resorption may have implications in internal

  18. [Effects of the treatment of coffee pulp, fresh or ensilaged, with calcium hydroxide, on its nutritive value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brenes, R; Bendaña, G; González, J M; Jarquín, R; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

    1988-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the chemical composition and nutritive value of fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp. Fresh or ensilaged pulp were mixed with 1, 2 and 3% of calcium hydroxide. The process was carried out during 0 and 16 hr, after which time the treated pulp was sun-dried for 36 hr until moisture content reached 12%. These samples were then analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and for some minerals (Ca, P, Na, K), as well as for caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids content. Diets were then prepared from these materials, containing 15% protein and 15 or 30% fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp, and offered to weanling rats during six weeks. Information required on weight gain, food conversion, apparent digestibility and toxicity of the diets was recorded. Results of the chemical analysis revealed that the main changes found in both types of pulp as a result of the calcium hydroxide treatment were the following: a decrease in ether extract (from 4.0 to 2.5 g/100 g), crude fiber (from 18.3 to 11.9 g/100 g) and protein content (from 12.3 to 8.6 g/100 g) in an inverse relation to the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The amount of ash increased, fluctuated between 5.5 and 15.4%, depending on the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The latter affected the Ca:P ratio in the diets, where an average ratio of 7.2:1 was found in the control pulp (0% calcium hydroxide) and 59.0:1 in those treated with the highest amount of calcium hydroxide (3%). Regarding the caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids contents, calcium hydroxide was effective in decreasing only tannins, more so in the fresh than in the ensilaged pulp; the decrease was in direct proportion to the amount of calcium hydroxide added and to the length of the Ca(OH)2 treatment. The results of the biological assays showed that the addition of Ca(OH)2 in either of the two time periods used and at either of the

  19. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  20. SONOCHEMICALLY MODIFIED WHEAT STRAW FOR PULP AND PAPERMAKING IN ORDER TO INCREASE ITS ECONOMICAL RATES AND REDUCE THE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Csoka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw (an agricultural by-product was pulped by an alkaline anthraquinone (AQ process. Then the straw pulp was treated by high-power ultrasound under different noble-gas (argon, krypton, xenon combinations. The pulps’ degree of beating and acid-insoluble lignin content were measured. Handsheets were made from sonicated and control pulps and tested for paper tensile strength. In this study we explore which noble-gas combination with ultrasound may be more useable to reduce the lignin content and enhance fibrillation. We also describe the most effective ultrasound-assisted, modified alkaline pulping process. Overall, we found that in two steps ultrasonification decreased the residual lignin contents more then 75 %, the pulp fibrillation increased from 12 to 70 °SR within 20 min. of ultrasound irradiation, and the tensile index of the handsheets increased by 65%. For sustainable paper production, it is required to develop alternative paper resources. Paper made from alternate fiber resources with efficient technology will improve our living standards without sacrificing the environment, our habitat. High frequency ultrasound-based pulp processing offers significant improvements, and it reduces energy and chemical consump-tions for pulp and paper production.

  1. Pectic substances from sugar beet pulp: structural features, enzymatic modification, and gel formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.

    1997-01-01

    Pectic substances are present in high proportions in sugar beet pulp. This by-product is therefore a potential raw material for the pectin industry. However, sugar beet pectin has poor physico-chemical properties compared with pectins from other sources. In order to improve these properties, pectins

  2. Optimization of pulping conditions of abaca. An alternative raw material for producing cellulose pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, L; Ramos, E; Rodríguez, A; De la Torre, M J; Ferrer, J L

    2005-06-01

    The influence of temperature (150-170 degrees C), pulping time (15-45 min) and soda concentration (5-10%) in the pulping of abaca on the yield, kappa, viscosity, breaking length, stretch and tear index of pulp and paper sheets, was studied. Using a factorial design to identify the optimum operating conditions, equations relating the dependent variables to the operational variables of the pulping process were derived that reproduced the former with errors lower than 25%. Using a high temperature, and a medium time and soda concentration, led to pulp that was difficult to bleach (kappa 28.34) but provided acceptable strength-related properties (breaking length 4728 m; stretch 4.76%; tear index 18.25 mN m2/g), with good yield (77.33%) and potential savings on capital equipment costs. Obtaining pulp amenable to bleaching would entail using more drastic conditions than those employed in this work.

  3. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

  4. Functional Properties of Tooth Pulp Neurons Responding to Thermal Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, D.K.; Doutova, E.A.; McNaughton, K.; Light, A.R.; Närhi, M.; Maixner, W.

    2012-01-01

    The response properties of tooth pulp neurons that respond to noxious thermal stimulation of the dental pulp have been not well-studied. The present study was designed to characterize the response properties of tooth pulp neurons to noxious thermal stimulation of the dental pulp. Experiments were conducted on 25 male ferrets, and heat stimulation was applied by a computer-controlled thermode. Only 15% of tooth pulp neurons (n = 39) responded to noxious thermal stimulation of the teeth. Tooth ...

  5. In vitro antibacterial activity of different pulp capping materials

    OpenAIRE

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Ceci, Matteo; Dagna, Alberto; Chiesa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct pulp capping involves the application of a dental material to seal communications between the exposed pulp and the oral cavity (mechanical and carious pulp exposures) in an attempt to act as a barrier, protect the dental pulp complex and preserve its vitality. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare, by the agar disc diffusion test, the antimicrobial activity of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC...

  6. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  7. Nanocrystalline cellulose from aspen kraft pulp and its application in deinked pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinghua; Gao, Yang; Qin, Menghua; Wu, Kaili; Fu, Yingjuan; Zhao, Jian

    2013-09-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) isolated from bleached aspen kraft pulp was characterized, and its application as pulp strengthening additive and retention aid was investigated. Results showed that NCC with high crystallinity of more than 80% can be obtained using 64 wt% sulfuric acid. The structure of nanocrystalline cellulose is parallelepiped rod-like, and their cross-sectional dimension is in the nanometer range with a high aspect ratio. The formation of microparticle retention systems during the application of NCC together with cationic polyacrylamide and cationic starch in deinked pulp was able to further improve pulp retention and strength properties without negative influence on the drainage.

  8. PEROXYACID ENHANCED OXYGEN DELIGNIFICATION OF KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianZhao; XuezhiLi; ShulanShi; HuirenHu

    2004-01-01

    Effect of peroxyacid (a mixture ofperoxymonosulfuric acid and peroxyacetic acid)pretreatment on oxygen delignification of kraft pulpfrom eucalyptus was studied, and the conditions ofpretreatment (e.g. DTPA charge, peroxyacid charge,pretreatment time, pretreatment temperature and pHvalue) were optimized. The results show thatperoxyacid pretreatment prior to oxygendelignification could enhance oxygen delignificationof kraft pulp, and result in selective delignificationand increased delignified-pulp brightness. Theoptimum conditions of peroxyacid pretreatment wereas follows: peroxyacid charge 3% (onperoxymonosulfuric acid), 60~C, 30min, 12% pulpconsistency, pH5.0. Pretreatment with 0.5%DTPAwas essential before peroxyacid pretreatment. Underthe optimum conditions, the degree of delignificationand brightness of final pulp were increased by 12.4%(from 44.9% to 57.3%) and 4.9%(ISO, from 54.0%to 58.9%) respectively while maintaining a similarviscosity of final pulps compared to single oxygendelignification.

  9. Cleaner Production of Wheat Straw Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国林; 陈中胜; 张成芳

    2002-01-01

    A pulping method using NH4OH with less amount of KOH as cooking liquor on wheat straw was developed. KOH could reduce consumption of NH3 and cooking time for its strong alkalinity. The effects of various pulping conditions such as composition of cooking liquor, liquid-to-solid ratio, maximum temperature, cooking time to the maximum temperature and cooking time at the maximum temperature were studied. Experimental results indicated that the rate of delignification was 85.12( and the pulp yield was 49.65% under suitable pulping conditions. It looks promising to use black liquor containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic substance as fertilizer resources for agricultural production. A new pattern of ecological cycling may be set up between paper industry and farming.

  10. Study of Dispersion Characteristics of Mercerized Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyi Hao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercerized pulp is widely used in the filter paper industry. But the major challenge facing users of the pulp is its difficult dispersion in water. It was found that by applying a suitable degree of beating it was possible to achieve better dispersion than the original pulp. The beating degree before and after beating was almost the same. But the properties of filter paper were greatly improved after beating, especially for the formation index and burst index. The morphology of beaten fibers was analyzed by SEM with both the freeze-drying and air drying sample preparation process. The results showed that the primary cell wall of the beaten mercerized pulp fibers were swollen and partly peeled from the fiber main body after beating, as revealed by micrographs obtained after freeze-drying. The results suggest that the improvement of the fiber dispersion in water was caused by these changes on the fiber surface.

  11. Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

    2012-07-01

    The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies.

  12. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively.

  13. Decolorization of sugar syrups using commercial and sugar beet pulp based activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudoga, H L; Yucel, H; Kincal, N S

    2008-06-01

    Sugar syrup decolorization was studied using two commercial and eight beet pulp based activated carbons. In an attempt to relate decolorizing performances to other characteristics, surface areas, pore volumes, bulk densities and ash contents of the carbons in the powdered form; pH and electrical conductivities of their suspensions and their color adsorption properties from iodine and molasses solution were determined. The color removal capabilities of all carbons were measured at 1/100 (w/w) dosage, and isotherms were determined on better samples. The two commercial activated carbons showed different decolorization efficiencies; which could be related to their physical and chemical properties. The decolorization efficiency of beet pulp carbon prepared at 750 degrees C and activated for 5h using CO2 was much better than the others and close to the better one of the commercial activated carbons used. It is evident that beet pulp is an inexpensive potential precursor for activated carbons for use in sugar refining.

  14. Effect of process variables on quality improvement of TGW pulps of Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Longue Júnior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High-yield pulps are usually derived from pine wood on account of its anatomical configuration and technology used. Eucalyptus, on the other hand, is a fast-growing species, abundant in many parts of the world, and has thus emerged as an alternative source for many products in the pulp and paper industry. In this particular study, high-yield pulps of Eucalyptus grandis were used. In order to improve their properties, pulps were subjected to chemical treatments with different doses of sodium hydroxide prior to refining (0, 30, 50 and 70 kg/t, at 75ºC temperature, 3% consistency, during 1 minute. The refining process was done in a Bauer disc refiner (Regmed using various refining times (0, 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Results showed that refining with addition of NaOH did bring significant gains to the eucalyptus fibers regarding strength properties, the dose 50 kg/t being found the most suitable. However, other variables associated with refining could also be modified to further improve the strength properties of eucalyptus pulps, including consistency and refining discs configuration.

  15. A Hyaluronan-Based Scaffold for the in Vitro Construction of Dental Pulp-Like Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Ferroni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis. In the present work, we present an endodontic regeneration method based on the use of a tridimensional (3D hyaluronan scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs to produce a functional dental pulp-like tissue in vitro. An enriched population of DPSCs was seeded onto hyaluronan-based non-woven meshes in the presence of differentiation factors to induce the commitment of stem cells to neuronal, glial, endothelial and osteogenic phenotypes. In vitro experiments, among which were gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence (IF staining, proved the commitment of DPSCs to the main components of dental pulp tissue. In particular, the hyaluronan-DPSCs construct showed a dental pulp-like morphology consisting of several specialized cells growing inside the hyaluronan fibers. Furthermore, these constructs were implanted into rat calvarial critical-size defects. Histological analyses and gene expression profiling performed on hyaluronan-DPSCs grafts showed the regeneration of osteodentin-like tissue. Altogether, these data suggest the regenerative potential of the hyaluronan-DPSC engineered tissue.

  16. Missing Concepts in De Novo Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, G.T.-J.; Garcia-Godoy, F.

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics has gained much attention in the past decade because it offers an alternative approach in treating endodontically involved teeth. Instead of filling the canal space with artificial materials, it attempts to fill the canal with vital tissues. The objective of regeneration is to regain the tissue and restore its function to the original state. In terms of pulp regeneration, a clinical protocol that intends to reestablish pulp/dentin tissues in the canal space has been d...

  17. Flow dynamics of pulp fiber suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Carla; Garcia, Fernando; Ferreira, Paulo; Rasteiro, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The transport between different equipment and unit operations plays an important role in pulp and paper mills because fiber suspensions differ from all other solid-liquid systems, due to the complex interactions between the different pulp and paper components. Poor understanding of the suspensions’ flow dynamics means the industrial equipment design is usually conservative and frequently oversized, thus contributing to excessive energy consumption in the plants. Our study aim was ...

  18. Rheological evaluation of Prunus mume pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Quast

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behaviour of mume pulp at 6, 7, 8 and 9 °Brix was investigated using a rotational viscometer at temperatures ranging from 15 to 75 °C. The rheological models of Herschel-Bulkley and Ostwald-Waele (Power Law were fitted to obtain the rheological parameters of the mume pulp. The product was described as time non-dependent and presented a viscosity of 1.9 Pa.s at 15 °C and 1.1°Pa.s at 65 and 75 °C for the 9 °Brix pulp. The pulp showed non-Newtonian behaviour and the Herschel-Bulkley model was used to describe this behaviour. The activation energy ranged from 6.6-10.6 kJ.mol-1 and the consistency index from 18.0-22.9 Pa.s n for the 9 °Brix pulp and 8.3-12.2 Pa.s n for the 8 °Brix pulp at temperatures varying from 15 to 75 °C. The models presented high correlation values for all the rheological data obtained in the present work.

  19. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram eRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  20. Basic density and pulp yield relationship with some chemical parameters in eucalyptus trees Densidade e rendimento em polpa celulósica e sua relação com alguns parâmetros químicos no eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Loureiro da Seca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of basic density and pulp yield correlations with some chemical parameters, in order to differentiate an homogeneous eucalyptus tree population, in terms of its potential for pulp production or some other technological applications. Basic density and kraft pulp yield were determined for 120 Eucalyptus globulus trees, and the values were plotted as frequency distributions. Homogenized samples from the first and fourth density quartiles and first and fourth yield quartiles were submitted to total phenols, total sugars and methoxyl group analysis. Syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G and syringaldehyde/vanillin (S/V ratios were determined on the kraft lignins from wood of the same quartiles. The results show the similarity between samples from high density and low yield quartiles, both with lower S/G (3.88-4.12 and S/V (3.99-4.09 ratios and higher total phenols (13.3-14.3 g gallic acid kg-1 . Woods from the high yield quartile are statistically distinguished from all the others because of their higher S/G (5.15 and S/V (4.98 ratios and lower total phenols (8.7 g gallic acid kg-1 . Methoxyl group and total sugars parameters are more adequate to distinguish wood samples with lower density.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicabilidade de correlações entre rendimento em polpa e densidade básica com alguns parâmetros químicos, para diferenciar uma população homogênea de árvores de eucalipto, em termos de capacidade de produção de polpa celulósica ou de outras aplicações. Determinou-se a densidade básica e o rendimento em polpa celulósica em 120 árvores de Eucalyptus globulus, e os resultados foram representados como distribuição de freqüências. Na madeira das árvores dos primeiro e quarto quartis de densidade e de rendimento, determinaram-se os teores de fenóis totais, açúcares totais e grupos metoxílicos. Nas respectivas ligninas kraft determinaram-se as razões seringilo

  1. 草浆白泥碳酸钙的性能及应用%Research on the Application of Calcium Carbonate Prepared from Chemical Recovery in Straw Pulping as Filler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏新兴; 杜明珠

    2012-01-01

    The physical characteristics of conventional lime mud from straw pulping process, the refined lime mud and the commercial precipitated calcium carbonate were investigated, and the potential of applying these mineral materials as filler was also studied. The results showed the refined lime mud with an average particle size of 6.36 μm, and about 82% particles less than 10 μm, which were similar to commercial precipitated calcium carbonate. However, the conventional lime mud had a wide size distribution, with an average particle size of 12.78 μm, and 66% particles above 10μm. The refined lime mud had higher oil absorption and lower sedimentation volume. The effect of conventional lime mud and refined lime mud loading on paper properties were also investigated and compared with that of commercial precipitated calcium carbonate loading. The results showed that loading with refined lime mud and commercial precipitated calcium carbonate could increase paper whiteness, on the contrary, loading with conventional lime mud decreased the paper whiteness. The refined lime mud was found to impart good opacity, and the commercial precipitated calcium carbonate took the second place for improving opacit . The paper loaded with refined lime mud improved apparently in sizing effect and strength properties compared with conventional lime mud. Thus it can be concluded that the refined lime mud can take place of commercial precipitated calcium carbonate as filler, while conventional lime mud cannot be accepted as filler.%对比分析了传统草浆白泥碳酸钙、精制草浆白泥碳酸钙及商品轻质碳酸钙的物理性能及其作为填料对纸张性能的影响研究发现,精制草浆白泥碳酸钙平均粒径为6.36μm,10μm以下粒径约占82%,其粒径与商品轻质碳酸钙相近;而传统草浆白泥碳酸钙粒度分布范围宽,10μm以上粒径的约占66%,平均粒径达12.78μm。精制草浆白泥碳酸钙吸油值高、沉降体积小

  2. Optimization of Engineering Process for Bamboo Chemical Pulp Middle-stage Wastewater Treatment%竹材化学浆中段废水处理工程技术优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁来保; 施英乔; 盘爱享; 韩善明; 房桂干

    2015-01-01

    The 35 000 m3/d bamboo pulp wastewater treatment engineering has been technically optimized in two aspects of the optimization of biological treatment system and the application of highly effective new-type coagulant. Meanwhile,the degradation laws of nitrogen and phosphorus were studied. The results showed that the hydrolysis in primary settling tank and balancing tank could promote the release of NH3-N. The addition of phosphate instead of urea into aerobic tank could be favorable for the growth of biological bacteria and improve water treatment effects. When the effluent COD from secondary sedimentation tank came to 200 mg/L or so,with a self-made high efficient coagulant ( PFDAC) dosage of 1. 5 kg/m3 instead of poly aluminum chloride ( PAC) and PAM dosage of 5 mg/L as coagulant anionic in the system,the removal rate of COD could reach above 98% and the main indexes of water quality such as effluent COD (66~89 mg/L),color (dropped 10~30 times),total phosphorus (≤0. 5 mg/L) completely met the new national standard GB3544—2008 after flotation.%从优化生物处理系统和更换新型混凝药剂2个方面入手,对35000 m3/d竹材制浆废水处理工程进行了技术优化,同时对系统的氮、磷降解规律进行了研究。研究结果表明,初沉池、均衡池内的水解作用可促进竹浆废水中NH3-N的释放。好氧池停止尿素添加、补加磷酸盐,更有利于好氧微生物的生长,可提高废水处理效果。当二沉池出水的化学耗氧量( COD)约为200 mg/L时,以自制高效混凝剂( PFDAC)替代聚合氯化铝(PAC),用量1.5 kg/m3,助凝剂阴离子聚丙烯酰胺(PAM)用量为5 mg/L时,气浮处理后出水样COD为66~89 mg/L,气浮COD去除率达到55%以上,色度则降至10~30,总氮( TN)≤10.0 mg/L,氨氮( NH3-N)≤3.00 mg/L,总磷( TP)≤0.5 mg/L,其主要指标完全满足新国标GB 3544—2008。

  3. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  4. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF WOOD DENSITY AND CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT ON PULPING YIELD AND PRODUCT QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colodette,J.L.; Mokfienski; Gomide; J.L.; Oliveiral; R.C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate basicdensity, chemical composition and fiber dimensionsof ten Eucalyptus sp wood samples and verify theimpact of this set of parameters and theii"combination on the Kraft pulping process yield andon bleached pulp quality. Ten eucalypt woods ofdifferent species, with basic densities varying from365 to 544 kg/m3 and total wood carbohydratecontents varying from 70.0 to 74.5% , weretransformed into kraft pulp of kappa number 17-18and bleached to 90% ISO brightness by the sequenceOD (PO)D. Wood basic density showed strongercorrelations with fiber dimensions, pulping yield andpulp quality than did chemical composition. Lighterwoods resulted in higher yields. However, woodspecific consumption was lower for denser woods,even though these demanded more drastic pulpingconditions to achieve a given kappa number. Thepulp quality results suggest that lower density woodsshould be directed towards fabrication of refinedpaper (printing and writing grades) while the denserwoods be directed to the sanitary papers segment(tissue grades).

  5. Activity-guided identification of acetogenins as novel lipophilic antioxidants present in avocado pulp (Persea americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Dariana; Silva-Platas, Christian; Rojo, Rocío P; García, Noemí; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; García-Rivas, Gerardo; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen

    2013-12-30

    Avocado fruit is a rich source of health-related lipophilic phytochemicals such as monounsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenes, acetogenins and sterols. However, limited information is available on the contribution of specific phytochemicals to the overall antioxidant capacity (AOC) of the fruit. Centrifugal partition chromatography was used as fractionation tool, guided by an in vitro chemical assay of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Subsequent experiments focused on isolation and characterization of the chemical nature of the main contributors to lipophilic AOC of avocado pulp. ORAC values obtained for acetogenins were contrasted with results from an isolated kidney mitochondria membrane lipid peroxidation bioassay. The present study established that lipophilic AOC of the pulp was significantly higher than its hydrophilic AOC. Our results confirmed the presence of acetogenins in the fractions with highest lipophilic AOC, and for the first time linked them as contributors to lipophilic-ORAC values. Further HPLC-PDA/MS-TOF analysis led to structural elucidation of two novel acetogenins, not previously reported as present in avocado pulp, along with five already known related-compounds. Antioxidant properties observed for avocado pulp acetogenins by the ORAC assay suggested that, in the presence of an emulsifying agent, acetogenins could serve as novel lipophilic antioxidants in a food matrix. Results from isolated mitochondria lipid peroxidation bioassay, indicated that L-ORAC values which may have relevance for food matrix applications, should not be interpreted to have a direct relevance in health-related claims, compounds need to be evaluated considering the complexity of biological systems.

  6. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  7. EFFECTS OF PROCESSINGOPERATIONS ON ZETAPOTENTIAL AND CATIONICDEMAND OF PULPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NishiK.Bhardwajt; SanjayKumar; PramodK.Bajpai[

    2004-01-01

    The zeta potential and cationic demands of variouskraft pulps - unbleached, bleached and beaten to dif-ferent freeness levels were determined in the labora-tory. The zeta potential of pulp where the final stagewas a lignin degrading and dissolving treatment suchas alkaline extraction or hypochlorite was lower thanthe unbleached pulp. The cationic demand of un-bleached pulp was higher compared to that ofbleached pulp. Beaten pulps showed larger cationicdemands than the unbeaten pulps, which can be at-tributed to the larger specific surface area of pulpcomponents. Fibres become increasingly electroneg-ative when beaten and therefore cationic demand ofpulps increases with beating. When the zeta potentialmethod is used with furnishes of different freeness,the linear relationship is observed. However, theslope is decreasing with the decrease in freeness ofthe pulp.

  8. STUDY ON ELIMINATING FLUORESCENCE IN COTTON PULP WITH PERACETIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LixinXu; BaoguoSun

    2004-01-01

    This paper has studied processing conditions and the influence of every variable to the pulp when the fluorescence in cotton linter pulp is eliminated with peracetic acid. The suitable variables of the elimination of fluorescence, are found.

  9. STUDY ON ELIMINATING FLUORESCENCE IN COTTON PULP WITH PERACETIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin Xu; Baoguo Sun

    2004-01-01

    This paper has studied processing conditions and the influence of every variable to the pulp when the fluorescence in cotton linter pulp is eliminated with peracetic acid. The suitable variables of the elimination of fluorescence. are found.

  10. Diabetes mellitus and reparative response of dental pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Ilić, Jugoslav

    2016-01-01

    Anatomically, dental pulp is connective tissue and specific microcirculatory system with significant reparatory abilities intending to preserve pulp vitality. Various therapeutic approaches in the treatment of affected pulp may be compromised by various factors leading to treatment failure. Due to microcirculatory system disorders, treatment of affected dental pulp in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is additional challenge. The function and levels of growth factors could be altered in va...

  11. THE STUDY ON TCF BLEACHING OF NS REED PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meihong Niu; Shulan Shi; Jinghui Zhou; Yunzhan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we have researched TCF bleaching on reed pulp including oxygen delignification, oxygen delignification with H2O2 intensification and H2O2 bleaching. The results show that Op-P bleaching process on NS reed pulp is suitable and the brightness of bleached pulp is up to 82% ISO.

  12. THE STUDY ON TCF BLEACHING OF NS REED PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MeihongNiu; ShulanShi; JinghuiZhou; YunzhanZhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we have researched TCF bleaching on reed pulp including oxygen delignification, oxygen delignification with H202 intensification and H2O2 bleaching. The results show that Op-P bleaching process on NS reed pulp is suitable and the brightness of bleached pulp is up to 82%ISO.

  13. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260... for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.260 Pulp from reclaimed fiber. (a) Pulp from reclaimed fiber may be safely used as a component of articles used in producing, manufacturing,...

  14. The caries process and its effect on the pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the caries process and its effect on the pulp is presented in the context that caries does develop in various rates of progression. Early in the caries process, the pulp reflects changes within lesion activity. Thus, the early pulp response is reversible. Later, the rate of c...

  15. RESEARCH ON FIBER MORPHOLOGY AND PULPING PROPERTIES OF THE TRIPLOID OF PLPULUS TOMENTOSA FROM PLANTATION AT DIFFERENT AGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhiqiangPang; JiachuanChen; CuihuaYang

    2004-01-01

    The fiber morphology and pulping properties oftriploid of populus tomentosa from plantation atdifferent ages were investigated in the paper, also themain chemical compositions were determined. Theresults showed that the difference of chemicalcompositions is not significant, and the extractivecontents become bigger in some sort with age, thedifference of length weighted mean length of fiberalso is not significant, and coarseness of fiber hastrend of augment by degree, while the fines contentincreases obviously with age. That difference ofpulping properties between chemical pulping (KPprocess and Soda-AQ process) and chemimechanicalpulping (SCMP process and APMP process) is notsignificant, which is consistent with the analysis ofchemical composition and fiber morphology.Considering comprehensively, the tree age of 5 yearsis better for paper making industry, also the mixedpulping with different ages of the triploid of populustomentosa is feasible with steady pulp quality.

  16. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho dos Santos Muguet,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus wood is among the most important biomass resource in the world. Wood mechanical defibration and fibrillation are energy-intensive processes utilized not only to produce pulp for papermaking, but also to produce reinforcement fibers for biocomposites, nanocellulose, or pretreat lignocellulosic material for biofuels production. The structural features of different Eucalyptus hybrids affecting the refining energy consumption and produced fiber furnish properties were evaluated. The defibration and fiber development were performed using an alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP process, which included chelation followed by an alkaline peroxide treatment prior to wood chip defibration. Despite the similar wood densities and chemical compositions of different Eucalyptus hybrids, there was a clear difference in the extent of defibration and fibrillation among the hybrids. The high energy consumption was related to a high amount of guaiacyl lignin. This observation is of major importance when considering the optimal wood hybrids for mechanical wood defibration and for understanding the fundamental phenomena taking place in chemi-mechanical defibration of wood.

  17. Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart E. Strand

    2001-12-06

    The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

  18. The influence of the extraction parameters on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Branislav V.

    2013-01-01

    but relatively mild changes in the characteristics of extracted and dried sugar beet pulp compared to conditions when hydrogen peroxide is used. From the point of the quality of the product of extraction, the most favorable results are obtained when the extraction is carried on at pH 5.5 for a period of 1 h at 70 °C, using water for extraction with sulphourus acid with the addition of 5% hydrogen peroxide. Under these conditions no significant degradation of sugar beet tissue is detected, do not change the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the extracted pulp. But there is an average increase of lightness of dried noodles for about 7 units, which represents a significant improvement of their quality, since there is difficult to sell on the market the dried sugar beet pulp with increased colour.

  19. Effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-07-01

    The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation.

  20. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  1. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  2. Yield-increasing additives in kraft pulping: Effect on carbohydrate retention, composition and handsheet properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaler, David Andre Grimsoeen

    2008-07-01

    In this thesis, increased hemicellulose retention during kraft pulping has been studied. The work has been divided into three parts: i) Development of an accessible and reliable method for determination of carbohydrate composition of kraft pulps ii) Investigation of the composition and molecular mass distributions of the carbohydrates in kraft pulps with increased hemicellulose content iii) Investigation of the effect of increased hemicellulose content on the sheet properties of kraft pulps with increased hemicellulose content. A method for carbohydrate determination was developed. In this method, enzymes are used to hydrolyse the pulp into monosaccharides. A relatively mild acid hydrolysis is performed prior to detection on an HPLC with an RI-detector. The pulp is not derivatized and no pre-treatment (mechanical or chemical) is needed to determine the carbohydrate composition using the method developed here. Peak deconvolution software is used to improve the accuracy. Polysulphide and H2S primarily increase the glucomannan yield, which can be boosted by up to 7 % on o.d. wood. However, the cellulose yield is more affected by the cooking time and the maximum yield increase of cellulose is approximately 2 % on o.d. wood compared to an ordinary kraft pulp. The cooking time is influenced by sulphide ion concentration, AQ addition and the final Kappa number. The xylan yield is remarkably stable, however the alkali profile during the cook may influence the xylan yield. Surface xylan content of the fibres depends on residual alkali concentration in the black liquor. The molecular mass distributions of cellulose and hemicellulose were determined for pulps with increased hemicellulose content using size exclusion chromatography. Deconvolution by peak separation software is used to gain information about the degree of polymerization for cellulose and hemicellulose. The average DP of glucomannan in the kraft fibre was found to be 350 +- 30 and the average DP of xylan in the

  3. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2014-11-15

    Pulp and paper mills generate large amounts of waste organic matter that may be converted to renewable energy in form of methane. The anaerobic treatment of mill wastewater is widely accepted however, usually only applied to few selected streams. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in full-scale reactors range between 30 and 90%, and methane yields are 0.30-0.40 m(3) kg(-1) COD removed. Highest COD removal rates are achieved with condensate streams from chemical pulping (75-90%) and paper mill effluents (60-80%). Numerous laboratory and pilot-scale studies have shown that, contrary to common perception, most other mill effluents are also to some extent anaerobically treatable. Even for difficult-to-digest streams such as bleaching effluents COD removal rates range between 15 and 90%, depending on the extent of dilution prior to anaerobic treatment, and the applied experimental setting. Co-digestion of different streams containing diverse substrate can level out and diminish toxicity, and may lead to a more robust microbial community. Furthermore, the microbial population has the ability to become acclimated and adapted to adverse conditions. Stress situations such as toxic shock loads or temporary organic overloading may be tolerated by an adapted community, whereas they could lead to process disturbance with an un-adapted community. Therefore, anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing elevated levels of inhibitors or toxicants should be initiated by an acclimation/adaptation period that can last between a few weeks and several months. In order to gain more insight into the underlying processes of microbial acclimation/adaptation and co-digestion, future research should focus on the relationship between wastewater composition, reactor operation and microbial community dynamics. The potential for engineering and managing the microbial resource is still largely untapped. Unlike in wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of mill biosludge (waste activated

  5. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  6. Combination of steam explosion and laccase-mediator treatments prior to Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sampedro, R; Eugenio, M E; Carbajo, J M; Villar, J C

    2011-07-01

    The effect of a pretreatment consisting of steam explosion (SE) followed by a laccase mediator system (LMS) stage on Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulping has been evaluated and compared with fungal pretreatments. Pretreatment with SE and LMS was more efficient than pretreatments using Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes sp. I-62. Steam explosion not only improved the enzyme penetration into the wood chips and shortened the pulping process by 60%, but also extracted around 50% of the hemicelluloses which could be converted into value-added products. The optimal conditions for the LMS treatment were 3h, 3UA/g and 40°C. Compared to SE, the SE/LMS treatment yielded an increase in delignification of 13.9% without affecting pulp properties, provided a similar screened kraft yield, and reduced consumption of chemical reagents Na(2)S and NaOH by 11.5% and 6.3%, respectively. Therefore, SE/LMS is a promising pretreatment for converting the pulp mill into a forest bio-refinery.

  7. Effect of steam explosion and enzymatic pre-treatments on pulping and bleaching of Hesperaloe funifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sampedro, R; Eugenio, M E; Villar, J C

    2012-05-01

    A non-wood raw material with high potential for pulp and paper applications (Hesperaloe funifera) was subjected to a steam explosion pre-treatment, and the subsequent effect of this pretreatment on biopulping and biobleaching was studied. An increase in the delignification rate, bigger than that reported for autohydrolysis and acid hydrolysis pre-treatments, and a reduction in chemical consumption were found during kraft pulping of the exploded samples. However, biopulping with the laccase-mediator system (LMS) did not lead to a reduction in the kappa number in either non-exploded or exploded unbleached pulps. On the other hand, the steam explosion pretreatment boosted the advantages of the LMS pre-treatment (decrease in kappa number and increase in brightness) favored biobleaching, with a 53.1% delignification rate and a final brightness of 67% ISO. Finally, the steam explosion pre-treatment also improved the color properties of the bleached pulp and reduced the hydrogen peroxide consumption by 24.6%.

  8. A NEW FAST-GROWING RAW MATERIAL FOR PULP PAPERMAKING-GUANGYECHU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaochun Lei; Jiachuan Chen; Guihua Yang; Zhiqiang Pang

    2004-01-01

    A new pulp papermaking raw material, Guangyechu,is introduced in this paper, including material characteristics and ultilization of bast, wood pole and leaf. The fiber morphological characteristics,chemical composition of wood pole and feasibility of pulping and papermaking by APMP process are studied in the laboratory. The results show that wood pole can be put to use in papermaking industry. The APMP pulp is produced using 5.2% sodium hydroxide and 5.0% hydrogen peroxide. The novel technology has offered breaking length of 4.74km,tearing index 3.08mN @m2 @g-1, brightness of 71.6%ISO, bursting index 2.07 KPa@m2@ g-1, opacity 84.5%and yield of 75.7%. As a pulp for newsprint, offset point paper and information paper, the Guangyechu APMP shows its advantages both quality and cost-efficienty. It is significative to apply the pole of Guangyechu, which is only firing at present to the paper industry.

  9. A NEW FAST-GROWING RAW MATERIAL FOR PULP PAPERMAKING--GUANGYECHU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaochunLei; JiachuanChen; GuihuaYang; ZhiqiangPang

    2004-01-01

    A new pulp papermaking raw material, Guangyechu, is introduced in this paper, including material characteristics and ultilization of bast, wood pole and leaf. The fiber morphological characteristics, chemical composition of wood pole and feasibility of pulping and papermaking by APMP process are studied in the laboratory. The results show that wood pole can be put to use in papermaking industry. The APMP pulp is produced using 5.2% sodium hydroxide and 5.0% hydrogen peroxide. The novel technology has offered breaking length of 4.74km. tearing index 3.08mN·m2·g-1, brightness of 71.6% ISO, bursting index 2.07 KPa·m2@g-1, opacity 84.5% and yield of 75.7%. As a pulp for newsprint, offset point paper and information paper, the Guangyechu APMP shows its advantages both quality and cost-efficienty. It is significative to apply the pole of Guangyechu, which is only firing at present to thepaper industry.

  10. Analysis of the effect of wash water reduction on bleached pulp characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigieri, Tânia Cristina; Ventorim, Gustavo; Savi, Antônio Francisco; Favaro, Jaqueline Silveira Comelato

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse cost reduction by reducing the use of fresh water in the cellulose bleaching process and to make it easier to obtain water in a closed circuit. Eucalyptus oxygen delignified industrial pulp was used. The pulp was bleached 10 times in the D(E+P)DP sequence in the same conditions. Counter current washing was used in the bleaching stages, and each sequence was carried out with different wash factors: 9, 6, 3, and 0 m³ of distilled water/ton of oven dry pulp. The goal was to reach brightness of 92±0.5% ISO. The results showed that there was a chemical oxygen demand (COD) increase and brightness reversion, but the kappa number and viscosity did not change. The apparent colour was increased by increasing COD in the effluent during the cycles and by decreasing the wash water. Up to 3 m³/t of water was tolerable and even recommended to wash pulp. Nine cubic metre per tonne of fresh water is most commonly used in the industry, so water savings make the implementation of the process possible.

  11. Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor -A New Perspective In Pulp And Paper Waste Water Treatment

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    K.Vaidhegi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The pulp and paper mill effluent is one of the high polluting effluent amongst the effluents obtained from polluting industries. All the available methods for treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent have certain drawbacks. In this work, experiments were conducted to treat the pulp and paper mill effluent using moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR.The wastewater generated by these industries contains high COD, BOD, colour, organic substances and toxic chemicals. This study was carried out on laboratory scale Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor with proflex type biocarriers, where the biofilm grows on small, free floating plastic elements with a large surface area and a density slightly less than 1.0 g/cm3 . The reactor was operated continuously at 50% percentages filling of biocarriers. During the filling percentage, the removal efficiencies of COD & BOD were monitored at the time period of 2h, 4h, 6h and 8h. The result showed that the maximum COD and BOD removal of 87% were achieved for the 50 percent filling of biocarriers at the HRT of 8 h. From the experimental results, the moving bed biofilm reactor could be used as an ideal and efficient option for the organic and inorganic removal from the wastewater of pulp and paper industry

  12. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  13. Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in Eucalyptus pulps

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    Israel González

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these different slurries. The results showed that adding NFC to unbeaten pulps results in physical and mechanical properties similar to those in pulps used for printing/writing papers. Nevertheless, the best results were obtained in slurries previously beaten at slight conditions and subsequently reinforced with NFC. These results demonstrate that the addition of NFC allows a reduction in beating intensity without decreasing the desired mechanical properties for this specific purpose.

  14. Bio-modification of eucalyptus chemithermomechanical pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifeng YANG; Huaiyu ZHAN; Shuangfei WANG; Kecheng LI; Shiyu FU

    2008-01-01

    Eucalyptus chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) was modified with the white-rot fungus 19-6 in a stationary culture condition. Different factors that influence the effect of white-rot fungus treatment, including additional nutrition, pH value, temperature, treatment time and oxygen input were investigated. The results show that the energy consumption of post refining of CTMP treated by white-rot fungus 19-6 was lower than that of untreated pulp and the strength properties also obviously improved. At a freeness level of about 330 mL, compared to the untreated pulp, the tensile index, tear index and internal bonding strength increased by 21.3%, 27.4% and 33.1%, respectively. Unfortunately, the treatment with white-rot fungus substantially decreased all optical properties except for opacity, which was essentially unchanged. Brightness and light scatter-ing coefficient were reduced to as much as 25% and 21% compared to the untreated pulps. However, after a tow-stage "Na2S2O4H2O2" bleaching, the final brightness can reach 70.3% ISO, which is similar to that of the untreated CTMP.

  15. [New cellulases efficiently hydrolyzing lignocellulose pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomarovskiĭ, A A; Markov, A V; Gusakov, A V; Kondrat'eva, E G; Okunev, O N; Bekkerevich, A O; Matys, V Iu; Sinitsyn, A P

    2006-01-01

    Commercial and pilot enzyme preparations from fungi of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma have been compared with regard to their action on conifer wood pretreated with acidified aqueous ethanol (organosolve). In most experiments, enzymes from the genus Penicillium allowed higher yields of reducing sugars and glucose than those from Trichoderma. High beta-glucosidase activity is essential for deep pulp hydrolysis.

  16. Pulp-Capping with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

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    Peycheva Kalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two considerations for direct pulp capping - accidental mechanical pulp exposure and exposure caused by caries. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was used as pulp-capping material to preserve the vitality of the pulpal tissues. Follow-up examinations revealed that treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality and continued development of the tooth. On the basis of available information, it appears that MTA is the material of choice for some clinical applications. Material and methods: Cases 18 - 8 teeth with grey MTA, 10 teeth with white MTA; diagnose: Pulpitis chronica ulcerosa, Electro pulpal test (EOD - 30-35 μA, pre-clinical X-ray - without changes in the structures, follow ups for 4 years. Successful treatments: without clinical symptoms and changes in the X-rays: 5 teeth with grey MTA, 8 teeth with white MTA for period of 4 years. Unsuccessful treatments: Clinical symptoms and sometimes changes in the X-ray: 3 with grey MTA, 2 with white MTA. MTA is an appropriate material for pulp-capping and follow-up examinations revealed that the treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality.

  17. Efeito da aplicação de água residuária da lavagem dos frutos de café sobre as propriedades químicas do solo Effect of the application of coffee fruit washing and pulping wastewater on soil chemical properties

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    George B Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações químicas de solos tratados com água residuária de café (ARC. O experimento foi conduzido em colunas de PVC, onde foram avaliadas quatro doses de ARC (0; 174; 522 e 870 t ha-1, em dois Argissolos Amarelos subdivididos em quatro camadas, para dois períodos de incubação (30 e 60 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial, e as variáveis analisadas foram cálcio, magnésio, potássio, sódio, pH e condutividade elétrica do extrato da pasta saturada. As doses de ARC alteraram as propriedades químicas dos solos nos dois períodos de incubação estudados, aumentando os teores de Ca++, Na+ e, principalmente, K+ nos dois solos. A dose de aplicação de 174 t ha-1 de ARC elevou a concentração de K+ no solo para a faixa ideal, de acordo com as exigências nutricionais da cultura. A camada superficial apresentou maior concentração de K+, Na+, Ca++ e, consequentemente, maior CEes.The objective of the present study was to evaluate chemical changes of soils treated with coffee fruit washing and pulping wastewater (CWW. The experiment was carried out in PVC columns, where it was applied four doses of CWW (0, 174, 522, and 870 t ha-1 in two Yellow Argisoil split into four layers in two incubation periods (30 and 60 days. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement, and it was analyzed calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, pH and electric conductivity of the saturated paste extract. The CWW doses affected chemical soil properties in both incubation periods evaluated increasing Ca++, Na+ and mainly K+ in both soils. The CWW dose of 174 t ha-1 increased K+ concentration in soil to the recommended level according to nutrition necessity of the crop. The surface layer presented higher concentration of K+, Na+, Ca++ and, consequently, higher ECes.

  18. Investigating the possibility of chemi-mechanical pulping of bagasse

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    Alireza Khakifirooz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemi-mechanical pulping was evaluated as a potential way to prepare sugarcane bagasse fibers for papermaking. Cellulose, lignin, ash, and extractives soluble in alcohol-acetone were measured as 55.75%, 20.5%, 1.85%, and 3.25%, respectively. Fiber length, diameter, lumen cavity, and cell wall thickness were measured as 1.59 mm, 20.96, 9.72, and 5.64 µm. The chemi-mechanical pulping conditions were selected as follows: three charging levels of 10, 15, and 20% sodium sulphite, and three pulping times of 20, 30, and 40 minutes after reaching the pulping temperature. Pulping temperature was held constant at 165 C. Different pulping conditions resulted in pulp yields between 65.38 and 84.28%. The highest yield (84.28% was obtained using a treatment combination of 20 minutes pulping time and 10% sodium sulphite. The lowest yield (65.38% was related to 40 minutes pulping time and 20% sodium sulphite. Pulps were refined to 300 ± 25 mL CSF, 60 gm-2 handsheets were made, and then strength indices and optical properties of the handsheets were measured. The results showed that 20% sodium sulphite, 40 minutes pulping time, at 165 ºC can be considered as the optimum pulping conditions for bagasse CMP pulping. Tensile, tear, and burst strength indices, as well as the opacity of this pulp were measured as 39.59 Nmg-1, 6.66 mNm2g-1, 2.1 KPa m2g-1, and 95.35%, respectively.

  19. [Incorporation of caffeine into the macromicete fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju growing on coffee pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Ramírez, Ivonne Jeannette; Chegwin Angarita, Carolina; Osorio Zuloaga, Hector Jairo

    2007-03-01

    TWhen the chemical composition of secondary metabolites from the Pleurotus sajor-caju growing on coffee pulp were study, it was found that the fungus has the faculty of incorporating caffeine inside its fructiferous body. Component of the substrate (around 1.3% on dry basis) did not show a structural change over the alkaloid; this constitutes an unexpected outcome for a species belonging to realm of the fungi.

  20. TESTING OF PULP VITALITY BY PULSOXIMETRY

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    Gabriela CIOBANU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods applied for diagnosing the health condition of the pulp tissue are numerous, however, nowadays, an increasingly higher number of conventional tests are replaced by some objective, non-invasive, painless and reliable tests. Among them, pulse oximetry is a method for the investigation of pulp vitality based on oxygen saturation (SaO2 of the hemoglobin from the blood present in the pulp vascular bed, as a means of differentiating among the vital and the non-vital teeth. In the present study, registrations were made on a group of 120 frontal maxillary teeth, in patients with ages between 20 and 40 years, on using a digital sensor modified by the pulse oximeter with which the pulse and the values of oxygen saturation were measured at the level of both teeth and right hand finger. The mean SaO2 value in the pulp blood of the vital teeth was of 83.30% for the central incisor, of 78.51% for the lateral one and of 84.56%, respectively, for the canine; the value recorded at finger level was of 97%. In the non-vital teeth, the SaO2 value measured on the pulse oximeter was of 0%. Pulse registration showed mean values of 70.56 beatings/min at tooth level and of 70.88 beatings/min, respectively, at finger level. The results of the present study may confirm that pulse oximetry represents a simple, non-traumatic, efficient and objective method for testing the vitality condition of the dental pulp.

  1. Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a common public health problem, causing early loss of dental pulp and resultant tooth loss. Dental pulp has important functions to sustain teeth providing nutrient and oxygen supply, innervation, reactionary/reparative dentin formation and immune response. Regeneration of pulp is an unmet need in endodontic therapy, and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and neurogenesis are critical for pulp regeneration. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. In this review, we introduce some stem cell subfractions, CD31(-)/CD146(-) SP cells and CD105(+) cells with high angiogenic and neurogenic potential, derived from human adult dental pulp tissue. Potential utility of these cells is addressed as a source of cells for treatment of cerebral and limb ischemia and pulp inflammation complete with angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

  2. Bioremediation of Agro-Based Pulp Mill Effluent by Microbial Consortium Comprising Autochthonous Bacteria

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    Virendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale agro-based pulp and paper mills are characterized as highly polluting industries. These mills use Kraft pulping process for paper manufacturing due to which toxic lignified chemicals are released into the environment. Lack of infrastructure, technical manpower, and research and development facilities restricts these mills to recover these chemicals. Therefore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD of the emanating stream is quite high. For solving the above problem, four bacteria were isolated from the premises of agro-based pulp and paper mill which were identified as species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Pannonibacter, and Ochrobacterum. These bacteria were found capable of reducing COD up to 85%–86.5% in case of back water and 65-66% in case of back water : black liquor (60 : 40, respectively, after acclimatization under optimized conditions (pH 6.8, temperature 35°C, and shaking 200 rpm when the wastewater was supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus as trace elements.

  3. Evaluation of bleachability on pine and eucalyptus kraft pulps

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    Marcela Freitas Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the pulp industry has been changing and improving its manufacturing processes in order to enhance production capacity, product quality and environmental performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bleachability effect on the efficient washing and alkaline leaching in eucalyptus and pine Kraft pulps using three different bleaching sequences: AD(EPD, A/D(EPDP and DHT(EPDP. This study was carried out in two stages. In the first part, the optimum conditions for pulp bleaching in order to achieve a brightness of 90% ISO were established. The second step was a comparative study between the pulps that received alkaline leaching and efficient washing with reference pulp (without treatment. The brightness, viscosity, kappa number and HexA in pulp were analyzed. The three sequences studied reached the desired brightness, but the sequence AD(EPD produced a lower reagent consumption for the same brightness. In the three sequences studied, the efficient washing of the pulp after oxygen delignification has contributed significantly to the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic materials in the pulp and the alkaline leaching decreased significantly the pulp kappa number due to a higher pulp delignification and bleachability.

  4. Fermentative characteristics of coffee pulp silage with different proportions of coffee hulls

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    Adauto Ferreira Barcelos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of the coffee pulp silages with different proportions of coffee hulls. The material was ensiled in PVC with 150 mm diameter by 750 mm high, according to the treatments: coffee pulp (CoP, CoP + 20% of coffee hulls (CH, CoP + 40% of CH and CoP + 60% CH in a completely randomized design with six replications. The silos were opened 60 days after closing, when samples were taken for determination of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin, cellulose, pH, N-NH3, caffeine, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P and in vitro digestibility of dry matter. We also determined gas production and effluent. There was a linear increase in DM content and pH, and a linear decrease of CP, NDF and ADF, lignin, cellulose, caffeine, Ca and P. This reduction occurs because the coffee hulls have lower levels than pulp to CP, NDF, ADF, caffeine, Ca and P. There was also a linear reduction in N-NH3 values, and only the highest percentage of silage with coffee hulls obtained below 10%, considered as the limit for good quality silage. Effluent production was higher for silage shelled coffee pulp and do not get any production in silage with 60% coffee hull. There was no significant difference in vitro digestibility of dry matter among treatments. The coffee hulls was effective in increasing DM content of CoP silage and to reduce NDF, ADF, N-NH3, providing nutritional value of silage satisfactory for cattle feed, creating an alternative for recovery of such waste. When considering the DM content found in silages, the amount of bark best coffee to be added to coffee pulp for the production of silage is between 30% and 35%.

  5. Detection of organochlorine compounds formed during the contact of sodium hypochlorite with dentin and dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varise, Tiago Gilioli; Estrela, Carlos; Guedes, Débora Fernandes Costa; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

    2014-01-01

    This study used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect the products formed during the contact of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with bovine pulp and dentin. For analysis of the products formed in the volatile phase, 11 mg of bovine pulp tissue were placed in contact with 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl until complete tissue dissolution occurred. The solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was exposed inside the container through the cover membrane and immediately injected into the GC-MS system. 30 mg of the of dentin were kept in contact with NaOCl, and then the SPME fiber was exposed inside the container through the cover membrane for adsorption of the products and injected into the GC-MS system. The same protocol was used for the aqueous phase. For analysis of the volatile compounds, the final solution was extracted using pure ethyl ether. The suspended particulate phase of the mixture was aspirated, and ether was separated from the aqueous phase of the solution. The ether containing the products that resulted from the chemical interaction of dentin and pulp with the NaOCl was filtered and then injected into the GC-MS system for analysis of the aqueous phase. The aqueous and volatile phases of both dentin and pulp showed the formation of chloroform, hexachloroethane, dichloromethylbenzene and benzaldehyde. In conclusion, organochlorine compounds are generated during the contact of dentin and pulp with NaOCl at concentrations of 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.25%.

  6. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  7. Variability analysis of industrial process puree by means of concentrated vegetable pulps, based on the engineering quality.

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    Addys Castellanos Gómez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The instability in quality characteristics: physical-chemical of puree by means of the concentrate plant pulps, can provoke customer dissatisfaction and deterioration of the image of products. With the statistical analysis of the industrial process, was determined as the main cause of erratic behaviour, variability in plant pulps of different suppliers: the different varieties of raw materials and the technologies they used. The solution was established by the quality engineering for improving control and in this case was optimized the product design, consisted on the mixtures of pulps reformulation to ensure initial insensitivity of initial variability that provokes raw material, in this way was achieved the robustness of the process, with positive impact on the production results, both economic and company image to customers.

  8. Development of a mixed drink made from hydrosoluble soybean extract, coconut water and umbu pulp (Spondias tuberosa

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    Luís Gomes de Moura Neto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The food sector depends on consumers and their social behavior. Since currently more and more consumers seek healthy products, exotic fruits have been increasingly on demand, with great opportunities for innovation. Current study developed a ready-to-drink mixed beverage made from hydrosoluble soybean extract, coconut water and umbu pulp. Four formulations were prepared with two proportions of umbu pulp (25 and 30% and soluble solids (17 and 25º Brix. Formulations were submitted to chemical, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses. The beverage was prepared with 25% of umbu pulp and the soluble solids were standardized to 25º Brix with commercial sugar for the highest scores in sensory attributes, overall impression and purchase intent. The four formulations presented pH, acidity, moisture, total sugar, vitamin C and microbiological results in accordance with current legislation.

  9. HPLC quantitative analysis of rhein and antidermatophytic activity of Cassia fistula pod pulp extracts of various storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewchinda, Savita; Wuthi-udomlert, Mansuang; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    Cassia fistula is well known for its laxative and antifungal properties due to anthraquinone compounds in the pods. This study quantitatively analyzed rhein in the C. fistula pod pulp decoction extracts kept under various storage conditions using HPLC. The antifungal activity of the extracts and their hydrolyzed mixture was also evaluated against dermatophytes. The contents of rhein in all stored decoction extracts remained more than 95% (95.69-100.66%) of the initial amount (0.0823 ± 0.001% w/w). There was no significant change of the extracts kept in glass vials and in aluminum foil bags. The decoction extract of C. fistula pod pulp and its hydrolyzed mixture containing anthraquinone aglycones were tested against clinical strains of dermatophytes by broth microdilution technique. The results revealed good chemical and antifungal stabilities against dermatophytes of C. fistula pod pulp decoction extracts stored under various accelerated and real time storage conditions.

  10. Facilitating the enzymatic saccharification of pulped bamboo residues by degrading the remained xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Li, Xin; Min, Douyong; Yong, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    Kraft pulping was performed on bamboo residues and its impact on the chemical compositions and the enzymatic digestibility of the samples were investigated. To improve the digestibility of sample by degrading the xylan and lignin-carbohydrates complexes (LCCs), xylanase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) were supplemented with cellulase. The results showed more carbohydrates were remained in the samples pulped with low effective alkali (EA) charge, compared to conventional kraft pulping. When 120 IU/g xylanase and 15 IU/g AF were supplemented with 20 FPU/g cellulase, the xylan degradation yield of the sample pulped with 12% EA charge increased from 68.20% to 88.35%, resulting in an increased enzymatic saccharification efficiency from 58.98% to 83.23%. The amount of LCCs in this sample decreased from 8.63/100C9 to 2.99/100C9 after saccharification with these enzymes. The results indicated that degrading the remained xylan and LCCs in the pulp could improve its enzymatic digestibility.

  11. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xufang, E-mail: xufang.zhang@student.qut.edu.au [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Jiang, Hongwei, E-mail: jianghw@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Gong, Qimei, E-mail: gongqmei@gmail.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Fan, Chen, E-mail: c3.fan@student.qut.edu.au [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Huang, Yihua, E-mail: enu0701@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Ling, Junqi, E-mail: lingjq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration.

  12. RAT DENTAL PULP RESPONSE TO PROPOLIS AS A DIRECT PULP CAPPING AGENT

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    Sabir Ardo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the response of rat dental pulp to direct pulp capping with ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP. An occlusal cavity was prepared on the right maxillary first molar of Spraque-Dawley rats. The dental pulp was exposed and the lined with a zinc-oxide based filler as a control (group I, or with EEP (group II. Then, each cavity was filled with glass ionomer cement. The animals were sacrificed at week 1, 2, or 4. Biopsy samples were obtained, and these were stained and viewed by a light microscope. The histological examination was based on the presence of polymorph nuclear leukocytes and macrophages, and also the dentinal bridge formation. Data were statistically analysed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that the inflammatory response of EEP group was relatively milder compared to the control group, but there was no significant difference (p>0.05 between the two groups. There was no dentinal bridge formation seen in both groups. Therefore, the present results suggest that direct pulp capping with EEP in rats may delay pulp inflammatory process and fail to stimulate reparative dentin.

  13. In Vivo Experiments with Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Pulp-Dentin Complex Regeneration

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    Sunil Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many studies have examined the pulp-dentin complex regeneration with DPSCs. While it is important to perform research on cells, scaffolds, and growth factors, it is also critical to develop animal models for preclinical trials. The development of a reproducible animal model of transplantation is essential for obtaining precise and accurate data in vivo. The efficacy of pulp regeneration should be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using animal models. This review article sought to introduce in vivo experiments that have evaluated the potential of dental pulp stem cells for pulp-dentin complex regeneration. According to a review of various researches about DPSCs, the majority of studies have used subcutaneous mouse and dog teeth for animal models. There is no way to know which animal model will reproduce the clinical environment. If an animal model is developed which is easier to use and is useful in more situations than the currently popular models, it will be a substantial aid to studies examining pulp-dentin complex regeneration.

  14. An extracellular thermo-alkali-stable laccase from Bacillus tequilensis SN4, with a potential to biobleach softwood pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Sondhi, Sonica; Sharma, Prince; George, Nancy; Chauhan, Prakram Singh; Puri, Neena; Gupta, Naveen

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of residual lignin in kraft pulp by chemical bleaching is implicated in causing environmental pollution. The use of thermo- and alkali-tolerant bacterial laccases is considered to be important biological alternative to chemical processing. Laccases from Bacillus species have shown promise in this respect but their intracellular/spore bound presence make their industrial application economically unfeasible. We report here on a novel extracellular active thermo-alkali-stable laccase...

  15. LIGNIN ADSORPTION AND KAPPA NUMBER IN ETHANOL PULPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjian Xu; Xinping Li; Meiyun Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The effect of washing temperature, washing stages and the cooking operation on the ethanol pulp had been investigated, and the reason for higher kappa number of the ethanol pulp was discussed. The results preliminarily showed that the dissolved lignin could re-adsorb to fiber surface by means of fiber classification technology and explained the questions found during the study. Some measures were taken to reduce the kappa number, the results had shown that there was obvious absorption in the ethanol pulping;lignin remained in the pulp could easily be dissolved and the pulp with lower kappa number could be obtained at a higher temperature; the kappa number could reduce by increasing washing time; it could enable dissolved lignin to separate out from the ethanol pulp and restrain the lignin absorption by blowing cooking liquid at high temperature.

  16. LIGNIN ADSORPTION AND KAPPA NUMBER IN ETHANOL PULPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YongjianXu; XinpingLi; MeiyunZhang

    2004-01-01

    The effect of washing temperature, washing stagesand the cooking operation on the ethanol pulp hadbeen investigated, and the reason for higher kappanumber of the ethanol pulp was discussed. Theresults preliminarily showed that the dissolved lignincould re-adsorb to fiber surface by means of fiberclassification technology and explained the questionsfound during the study. Some measures were taken toreduce the kappa number, the results had shown thatthere was obvious absorption in the ethanol pulping;lignin remained in the pulp could easily be dissolvedand the pulp with lower kappa number could beobtained at a higher temperature; the kappa numbercould reduce by increasing washing time; it couldenable dissolved lignin to separate out fi'om theethanol pulp and restrain the lignin absorption byblowing cooking liquid at high temperature.

  17. Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlewood, Patrick Evan

    Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

  18. Design of a Turbulence Generator of Medium Consistency Pulp Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Li; Haifei Zhuang; Weihao Geng

    2012-01-01

    The turbulence generator is a key component of medium consistency centrifugal pulp pumps, with functions to fluidize the medium consistency pulp and to separate gas from the liquid. Structure sizes of the generator affect the hydraulic performance. The radius and the blade laying angle are two important structural sizes of a turbulence generator. Starting with the research on the flow inside and shearing characteristics of the MC pulp, a simple mathematical model at the flow section of the sh...

  19. CENTRAL KALIMANTAN’S FAST GROWING SPECIES: SUITABILITY FOR PULP AND PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danang Sudarwoko Adi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of fast growing species grown in PT. Sari Bumi Kusuma, Central Kalimantan, show that based on their fiber dimensions there are five species, namely Endospermum diadenum, Dillenia spp., Adinandra dumosa, Adiandra sp., and Nauclea junghuhnii with good potential for pulp and paper production. The fiber length of those five wood species are was more than 2,200 µm on average. This paper studies the physical properties, fiber dimensions and their chemical contents to predict the paper and pulp quality. The result shows that all of the species were classified in the medium to high density category. All species were classified into the first class quality for pulp and paper. Based on chemical contents, Dillenia sp. is the most suitable species due to its high value of holocellulose and a-cellulose, low lignin content, and its fiber length is about 3,119 µm on average. A. dumosa also has good opportunities because it had the longest fiber lengths (3,137 µm on average and high value of holocellulose, even though it has the highest lignin content. While Nuclea junghuhnii is less suitable due to low values of holocellulose and a-cellulose.

  20. AMATE PAPER IN PULP OF COFFEE (Coffea arabica (BENEFIT WET RESIDUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Aguilar-Rivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amate (amatl is a handmade paper of Mexico made by Otomi Indians. This craft is made from bark of tree bark amate or jonote. It is originally developed in the states of Puebla, Hidalgo and Veracruz especially in San Pablito, Puebla. However, amate paper is sold as background Nahua paintings by artists from the state of Guerrero. Amate paper paintings are a combination of Nahua and Otomi traditions. While there have been some minor innovations, the amate paper is still done with the same basic process used in the pre-Hispanic period by obtaining a classical amate tree bark fiber. This is negatively affecting the ecosystem of the North of Puebla and forcing vendors bark in search of other species, so it is necessary to make paper amate more sustainably, including new types of bark from other species and by-products of agro-industries such as rice, coffee sugar cane, and other types of fiber that have high-availability The objective of this work was to analyze and compare the Chemical pulp of coffee characteristics, as raw material for amate paper of higher quality than that produced from the bark of other species. The results showed that the structural and chemical characteristics of coffee pulp cellulose pulp showed ease of paper making, due to its properties of adherence, formation and agglutination of fibers similar to the high quality of the final product as the amate tree bark-derived paper.

  1. Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de G.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Lips, S.J.J.; Bakker, R.R.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and (mixtures of) glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis o

  2. Pulp and paper from oil palm fronds: Wavelet neural networks modeling of soda-ethanol pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarita Zainuddin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet neural networks (WNNs were used to investigate the influence of operational variables in the soda-ethanol pulping of oil palm fronds (viz. NaOH concentration (10-30%, ethanol concentration (15-75%, cooking temperature (150-190 ºC, and time (60-180 min on the resulting pulp and paper properties (viz. screened yield, kappa number, tensile index, and tear index. Performance assessments demonstrated the predictive capability of WNNs, in that the experimental results of the dependent variables with error less than 6% were reproduced, while satisfactory R-squared values were obtained. It thus corroborated the good fit of the WNNs model for simulating the soda-ethanol pulping process for oil palm fronds.

  3. Characterisation of mechanical pulp fines from alkaline peroxide pulping of EFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaludin, Nurul Hasanah; Ghazali, Arniza; Daud, Wan Rosli Wan

    2012-09-01

    EFB (empty fruit bunch) was subjected to alkaline peroxide pulping for generation of fibrous mass as raw material for the making of pulp-based products. During refining, co-produced fines were collected by fractionation on square-mesh screens of 200-, 250-, 300- and 400- mesh sizes, placed at the refining discharge by order of increasing mesh. Each set of the produced paper was incorporated with 12% fines for microscopic analysis. It appears that sheared vessel elements and fibrils were predominant and they make up the mass rendering collapsibility of cell wall for good product formation. The study acknowledged the form of fines functioning as natural filler in pulp network and worthy of utilization for reduction of total suspended solid.

  4. Effect of Different Moisture Absorbents on Silage Fermentation Quality of Wet Potato Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Alipour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Using agricultural-industrial waste is one way to overcome the shortage of animal feed. Potato is one of the most important products in the world after rice, wheat and maize. Potato pulp is a by-product which remains after extraction of starch, and can be used as animal feed. Because of the high moisture content of the potato pulp, silage is the best way to maintain it. However, its high moisture content leads to inappropriate ensilage. Adding of moisture absorbents (MA not only reduce the effluents, but also improve the silage quality. Materials with high content of cell wall are suitable candidates to be used as MA. Agro-industrial co-products including raisin wastes and pomegranate seed pulp have high cell wall and no report was found for their usage as MA. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different absorbents on potato pulp silage fermentation quality. Materials and Methods Fresh potato pulp was obtained from Alvand potato processing company (Hamedan, Iran. After transfer, the potato pulps were immediately ensiled with MAs including wheat bran, raisin pedicles, rejected raisins, pomegranate peel, wheat straw and raisin rachis. The treatments were: 100% potato pulp (control, 80% potato pulp and 20% wheat bran, 80% potato pulp and 20% raisin pedicles, 71% potato pulp and 29% rejected raisin, 80% potato pulp and 20% pomegranate peel, 80% potato pulp and 20% wheat straw and 80% potato pulp and 20% rachis. After 74 days, the silos were opened for investigation. Chemical composition (i.e., dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, Fleig point, pH and lactic acid concentration were determined. In vitro gas production was used to assess fermentation parameters of treatments. Therefore, volume of gas production after 24 hours of incubation, rate of gas production, asymptotic gas production, lag phase, organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, partitioning factor, microbial

  5. IMPACT OF COOKING HOMOGENEITY ON PULP STRENGTH PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bofeng Mao

    2004-01-01

    Cooking homogeneity of kraft pulping can have significant impact on pulp strength properties. We have studied cooking homogeneity of two kraft digesters within Stora Enso. One of the digesters is a one-vessel hydraulic continuous digester (digester A)and the other one is a two-vessel vapor/liquor phase continuous digester (digester B). They are located in the same mill and use the same softwood chip quality. Due to the differences in chip pre-steaming and cooking facilities and conditions, significant differences in pulp strength properties, reject contents and kappa variations have been found between the pulps produced in the two digesters. Digester A has a modem chip bin with efficient pre-heating and air removal, whereas digester B has poor chip pre-steaming conditions. Our strength delivery studies show that although the two digesters produce pulps with the same kappa number and viscosity, the pulp produced in digester A has about 20% higher strength delivery, l%-unit (based on wood) lower reject content and lower kappa variations based on FTIR spectra analysis on pulp sheet than the pulp produced in digester B.Results of the studies indicate that more homogeneous cooking, i.e., lower lignin/kappa variation in the fibers, leads to improved pulp strength properties. Efficient chip pre-steaming is important/essential for achieving homogeneous cooking. Rebuilding the equipment for improving chip pre-steaming conditions of digester B is to be carried out.

  6. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200–400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  7. CHLORINE DIOXIDE BLEACHING OF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE JUTE PULP TO A VERY HIGH BRIGHTNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarwar Jahan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bleaching of soda-anthraquinone jute pulp by chlorine dioxide (ClO2 was studied to reach a target brightness of above 88% for the purpose of using less bleaching chemicals. The performance of either chlorine dioxide or peroxide in the final bleaching to boost brightness was also studied. The experimental results revealed that the final brightness depended on ClO2 charge in the Do and D1 stages. The brightness reversion was lower when the final stage brightening was done by peroxide. The use of Mg(OH2 in the D1 and D2 stages improved the final brightness due to the formation of less chlorate and chlorite during the Mg(OH2- based ClO2 brightening stages. The strength properties of pulp bleached by peroxide in the final stage was slightly better than that from ClO2 as the final ClO2 bleaching stage.

  8. Production of furans from pulp sheet over sulfated solid acid catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdan Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Furans are high value-added biomass-derived chemicals that can be used to replace petrochemicals. In this study, sulfated solid acid catalysts were prepared by precipitation and impregnation and were used for the conversion of a cellulosic pulp sheet into furans. The physicochemical properties of the prepared sulfated solid acid with different calcination temperatures and different mol ratios of Ti-Al were characterized using XRD, elemental analysis, TG, and NH3-TPD. Furthermore, the effects of various processing parameters such as temperature, time, and catalyst dosage on the reaction performance were studied. The combined yield of 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural and furfural reached 8.9% and 4.5% of pulp sheet mass with a 5% dosage of SO42-/TiO2-Al2O3 catalyst at 220 oC for 30 min. The activity for recovered catalyst was also investigated in this study.

  9. A NEW PULP YIELD PREDICTION METHOD APPLIED TO KRAFT,KRAFT-AQ,POLYSULFIDE AND PSAQ PULPING OF ROCK MAPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adriaan van Heiningen; Yang Gao; Mehmet Sefik Tunc

    2004-01-01

    Pulp yield has a major impact on the competitiveness of a mill. In order to optimize pulp yield, for example by changing operating conditions, a mill must be able to monitor the yield accurately. In our previous work,a new method was presented for prediction of pulp yield. The method is based on a fundamental relationship derived from the kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis, peeling and stopping reactions of cellulose and the cellulose mass balance during pulping. In this paper the application of the pulp yield prediction equation for pulping of Rock Maple is investigated. The effect of different operating conditions, such as H-factor, temperature, alkali charge, sulfidity, and the presence of anthraquinone and polysulfide are described.

  10. Fluidization Characteristics of Medium-High-Consistency Pulp Fiber Suspensions with an Impeller

    OpenAIRE

    Ye Daoxing; Li Hong

    2016-01-01

    When the mass concentration exceeds 7%, pulp suspensions stop flowing and act like a solid. To investigate the fluidization characteristics of medium-high-consistency pulp suspensions and achieve pulp fluidization and pumping, experiments were carried out with waste tissue pulp and unbleached kraft pulp. The objectives of this paper were to study the rheology of medium-high-consistency pulp and to determine accurate parameters for the physical Herschel-Bulkley model. To validate this model, c...

  11. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  12. Pemanfaatan Limbah Pulp Buah Semangka (Citrullus vulgaris, Schard) Untuk Pembuatan Nata De Watermelon Pulp Dengan Menggunakan Bakteri Acetobacter xylinum

    OpenAIRE

    Mawaddah

    2011-01-01

    This research done to know can or not the waste of watermelon pulp use to produce nata and how the effect of mass variation using to nata’s quality. This research was done with mass variation of watermelon pulp that is 10 g, 20 g, 30 g, 40 g, 50 g, 60 g, and watermelon pulp without adding sugar as control. Statistical analysis count the thickness, water content, ash content, fiber content and organoleptic test of texture, color, aroma, and taste of nata de watermelon pulp. The result show...

  13. Removal of the organic content from a bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by a treatment with silica-alginate-fungi biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Katia; Justino, Celine I L; Pereira, Ruth; Panteleitchouk, Teresa S L; Freitas, Ana C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Duarte, Armando C

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts a treatment strategy of a bleached kraft pulp mill effluent with Rhizopus oryzae or Pleurotus sajor caju encapsulated on silica-alginate (biocomposite of silica-alginate-fungi, with the purpose of reducing its potential impact in the environment. Active (alive) or inactive (death by sterilization) Rhizopus oryzae or Pleurotus sajor caju was encapsulated in alginate beads. Five beads containing active and inactive fungus were placed in a mold and filled with silica hydrogel (biocomposites). The biocomposites were added to batch reactors containing the bleached kraft pulp mill effluent. The treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by active and inactive biocomposites was performed throughout 29 days at 28°C. The efficiency of treatment was evaluated by measuring the removal of organic compounds, chemical oxygen demand and the relative absorbance ratio over time. Both fungi species showed potential for removal of organic compounds, colour and chemical oxygen demand. Maximum values of reduction in terms of colour (56%), chemical oxygen demand (65%) and organic compounds (72-79%) were attained after 29 days of treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by active Rhizopus oryzae biocomposites. The immobilization of fungi, the need for low fungal biomass, and the possibility of reutlization of the biocomposites clearly demonstrate the industrial and environmental interest in bleached kraft pulp mill effluent treatment by silica-alginate-fungi biocomposites.

  14. A Histopathological Study of Direct Pulp Capping with Adhesive Resins

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    J. Salhenejad

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recently, it has been proposed that different adhesive materials can be used for direct pulp capping. Previous studies have demonstrated that multi steps dentin adhesives could form reparative dentin similar to calcium hydroxide (CH.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological pulp response of ninety mechanically exposed cat pulps to two adhesive resins (Scotch Bond MP and Single Bond 3M were compared with a calcium hydroxide cement (Dycal, Dentsply.Materials and Methods : Class V facial cavities with similar pulpal exposures were prepared in canines. In the experimental groups phosphoric acid was used to etch the enamel and dentin and pulp exposure, and after it dentin adhesives was applied. The exposure point of the control group was capped with Dycal then the remainder of the cavities was etched and a dentin adhesive (single bond was applied. All of the cavities were restored with a composite resin (Z 100 in usual manner. The animals were scarified after 7, 30 and 60 days (n=30, and the pulp evaluated histologically, statistical analysis was carried out with Kruskal- Wallis test (a=0.05.Results: The data showed that most of the cases had mild inflammation of pulp tissue.There was no significant difference in inflammatory reaction of pulp by Dycal and two adhesive systems, severe inflammatory reaction of pulp was observed only in most of the 30- day Single Bond group. Soft tissue organization of dentin bridge was less than ScotchBond and Dycal groups, the differentiation of dentin bridge was less than Scotch Bond group after 7 days.Conclusion: Slight inflammatory cell infiltration was the main reaction of exposed pulp when two commercially available adhesive resins were placed directly on the exposed pulp.There was no significant difference in inflammatory reaction of pulp between Dycal and two adhesive systems after 7 days and 60 days. After 7 days most of the specimens showed an amount of predentin

  15. Histological effects of enamel matrix derivative on exposed dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Bajić Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Direct pulp capping procedure is a therapeutic application of a drug on exposed tooth pulp in order to ensure the closure of the pulp chamber and to allow the healing process to take place. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the histological effects of Emdogain® on exposed tooth pulp of a Vietnamese pig (Sus scrofa verus. Methods. The study comprised 20 teeth of a Vietnamese pig. After class V preparation on the buccal surfaces of incisors, canines and first premolars, pulp was exposed. In the experimental group, the perforations were capped with Emdogain® (Straumann, Basel, Switzerland, while in the control group pulp capping was performed with MTA® (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA. All cavities were restored with glass-ionomer cement (GC Fuji VIII, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. The observational period was 28 days, after which the animal was sacrificed and histological preparations were made. A light microscope was used to analyze dentin bridge formation, tissue reorganization and inflammation, and the presence of bacteria in the pulp. Results. The formation of dentin bridge was observed in the experimental and control groups. Inflammation of the pulp was mild to moderate in both groups. Angiogenesis and many odontoblast-like cells, responsible for dentin bridge formation, were observed. Necrosis was not observed in any case, nor were bacteria present in the pulp. Conclusion. Histological analysis indicated a favorable therapeutic effect of Emdogain® Gel in direct pulp capping of Vietnamese pigs. Pulp reaction was similar to that of MTA®. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON172026

  16. Mechanism of Methanol Formation during Alkaline Pulping of Non-wood Fiber Materials Part I The relationship between the quantity of methanol and chemical composition%非木材原料碱法蒸煮甲醇产生机理的研究 第一部分甲醇发生量与化学成分的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文0秋娟; 刘海学; 李丹

    2012-01-01

    Methanol is the main alcohol of air pollutants generated in the alkaline pulping process. The relationship between the quantity of methanol generated in alkaline processes and lignin and pentosan content of several commonly used non-wood raw materials, as well as the course of methanol formation during sulfate pulping of bamboo, were studied. The results showed that the quantity of generated methanol varied greatly according to the species of raw material. During bamboo kraft pulping process, the amount of methanol increased with the increase of the dissolution of lignin and pentosan.%甲醇为碱法蒸煮过程中产生的主要醇类大气污染物。本文主要研究了几种常用的非木材原料碱法蒸煮甲醇的发生量与木素和聚戊糖含量的关系,并研究了竹材硫酸盐法蒸煮甲醇产生的历程。实验得出,原料种类不同,其甲醇发生量相差很大。刺竹硫酸盐法蒸煮过程中,甲醇发生量随着木索和聚戊糖溶出量的增大而升高。

  17. Free toe pulp flap for finger pulp and volar defect reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoshid R Balan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fingertip injury requiring flap cover is very common in the modern era. The ideal cover should fulfill both functional and aesthetic improvement. Materials and Methods: From June 2015 to April 2016, we performed seven free toe pulp flaps for finger defect reconstruction. All patients were males. Five flaps were done in emergency post-traumatic cases, and two were done in elective set up. The cases included reconstruction of three thumbs, one index and one ring finger in an emergency set up and two ring fingers in the elective. Thumb reconstruction was done with great toe lateral pulp and the other digits reconstructed with second toe pulp flap. Follow-up evaluation included both functional and aesthetic assessment. Results: Five flaps survived completely, one suffered partial loss, and one flap failed completely. The median follow-up period was 9 months. The median duration of surgery was 255 min (range 210 to 300 min. The median two-point discrimination was 6.5 mm (range 4–8 mm. There was the return of temperature sensation in all patients; two had cold intolerance. The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament score varied from 3.61 to 5.07 (median filament index value 4.31/pressure value of 2 g/mm2. Three patients had delayed donor site wound healing. Conclusions: The free toe pulp flap is an efficient choice for fingertip and volar finger defects reconstruction with an excellent tissue match.

  18. Differentiation ability of rat postnatal dental pulp cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current rapid progression in stem cell research has enhanced our knowledge of dental tissue regeneration. In this study, rat dental pulp cells were isolated and their differentiation ability was evaluated. First, dental pulp cells were obtained from maxillary incisors of male Wistar rats. Immuno

  19. Inflammatory effect of green propolis on dental pulp in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Rodrigues Alves Esmeraldo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulpotomy in deciduous teeth is a controversial issue, especially with regard to alternative materials used for the direct pulp capping of the root canal pulp tissue. The aim of the present study was to perform a histological analysis of the initial reaction of the root canal pulp tissue in rats, following pulpotomy and pulp capping with (1 green propolis extract, (2 iodoform paste, (3 green propolis extract + iodoform and (4 calcium hydroxide paste with saline solution. Analyses were performed after 24 hours, 72 hours and 7 days. The substances containing green propolis extract and iodoform led to the production of an intense inflammatory infiltrate and necrosis in the root canal pulp tissue throughout the analyses. In the calcium hydroxide group, inflammatory infiltrate only prevailed at the 72-hour evaluation. Among the substances tested, calcium hydroxide paste induced the lowest intensity of inflammatory response in the root canal pulp tissue. Longer studies should be carried out to analyze the pulp repair process following pulpotomy and pulp capping with the compounds analyzed.

  20. Sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L. ) pulping was

  1. Aetiology, classification and pathogenesis of pulp and periapical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Marcos, Joaquín F

    2004-01-01

    At present, the majority of the treatments that are performed in the clinic are due to disease entities involving the dental pulp and periapex. Dental pulp is a richly vascularized and innervated tissue, enclosed by surrounding tissues that are incapable of expanding, such as dentin. It has terminal blood flow and small-gauge circulatory access the periapex. All of these characteristics severely constrain the defensive capacity of the pulp tissue when faced with the different aggressions it may be subjected to. Pulp tissue can also be affected by a retrograde infection, arising from the secondary canaliculi, from the periodontal ligament or from the apex during the course of periodontitis. Due to the fact that periapical disease is almost inevitably preceded by pulp disease, we shall begin by describing the causes of pulp disease and will then proceed to a discussion of the causes of periapical disease. The course of illness and classification of these pathological entities will depend on the aetiology involved. We will analyse pulp necrosis and pulp degeneration that are capable of triggering reversible apical periodontitis or irreversible apical periodontitis.

  2. Biodentine pulpotomy several days after pulp exposure: Four case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati A Borkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, few-days-old pulp exposures have been treated with root canal treatment. We report four cases of traumatized, fully matured, maxillary permanent central incisors, which have been treated by Biodentine pulpotomy several days after traumatic pulp exposure. Biodentine pulpotomy consisted of pulp tissue removal to a depth of 2 mm, then capping the pulpal wound with Biodentine, followed by immediate restoration. The teeth were assessed clinically through pulpal sensitivity tests and radiographically for periapical healing. At each recall (24 hours, 1 week, 30 days, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, no spontaneous pain was observed; the pulp showed signs of vitality and absence of periapical radiolucency after 18 months. Biodentine pulpotomy is recommended as a treatment option for cases of vital pulp exposure in permanent incisors due to trauma.

  3. STEAM EXPLOSION PULPING OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Wang,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion pulping was evaluated for oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber. The fiber morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. Results indicated that lignin was molten and the cell wall damaged after the steam explosion pulping and that the fiber was partly separated at the same time. The results of handsheet tests showed that the steam exploded pulp had a high yield (78.2%, good physical properties (especially for ring crush 8.6 N•m/g, and low effluent load (SS=910 mg/L; BOD5=3952 mg/L; CODCr=8140 mg/L. The SEP pulp from oil palm EFB fiber was very suitable for packaging paper when combined with American OCC pulp.

  4. Nemesia root hair response to paper pulp substrate for micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp.

  5. Color, TOC and AOX removals from pulp mill effluent by advanced oxidation processes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalkaya, Ebru Cokay; Kargi, Fikret

    2007-01-10

    Pulp mill effluent containing toxic chemicals was treated by different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) consisting of treatments by hydrogen peroxide, Fenton's reagent (H2O2/Fe2+), UV, UV/H2O2, photo-Fenton (UV/H2O2/Fe2+), ozonation and peroxone (ozone/H2O2) in laboratory-scale reactors for color, total organic carbon (TOC) and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) removals from the pulp mill effluent. Effects of some operating parameters such as the initial pH, oxidant and catalyst concentrations on TOC, color, AOX removals were investigated. Almost every method used resulted in some degree of color removal from the pulp mill effluent. However, the Fenton's reagent utilizing H2O2/Fe2+ resulted in the highest color, TOC and AOX removals under acidic conditions when compared with the other AOPs tested. Approximately, 88% TOC, 85% color and 89% AOX removals were obtained by the Fenton's reagent at pH 5 within 30 min. Photo-Fenton process yielded comparable TOC (85%), color (82%) and AOX (93%) removals within 5 min due to oxidations by UV light in addition to the Fenton's reagent. Fast oxidation reactions by the photo-Fenton treatment makes this approach more favorable as compared to the others used.

  6. The Relationship Between Organic Loading and Effects on Fish Reproduction for Pulp Mill Effluents Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Pierre H; O'Connor, Brian I; Kovacs, Tibor G; Van Den Heuvel, Michael R; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Hewitt, L Mark

    2017-02-21

    This study builds upon the work of a multiagency consortium tasked with determining cost effective solutions for the effects of pulp mill effluents on fish reproduction. A laboratory fathead minnow egg production test and chemical characterization tools were used to benchmark eighty-one effluents from twenty mills across Canada, representing the major pulping, bleaching and effluent treatment technologies. For Kraft and mechanical pulp mills, effluents containing less than 20 mg/L BOD5 were found to have the greatest probability of having no effects. Organic loading, expressed as the total detected solvent-extractable components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), also correlate with decreased egg laying. Exceptions were found for specific Kraft, mechanical and sulfite mills, suggesting yet unidentified, causative agents are involved. Recycled fibre mill effluents, tested for the first time, were found to have little potential for reproductive effects despite large variations in BOD5 and the GC/MS profiles. Effluent treatment systems across all production types were generally efficient, achieving a combined 82-98 % BOD5 removal. Further reductions of final effluent organic loadings towards the target of less than 20 mg/L are recommended and can be realized through biotreatment optimization, the reduction of organic losses associated with production upsets and selecting best available technologies that reduce organic loadings to biotreatment.

  7. National design environment for pulp mills; Kansallinen paperitehtaan suunnitteluympaeristoe - PMST 03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaijaluoto, S. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The research to be done in the CACTUS research programme produces new process models and generates new knowledge about the influence of various contaminants on the runnability and the quality of paper. The generated information calls for an environment where it can be analysed and utilised. The goal of the project is to build a design environment for papermaking processes. The environment will be composed of a number of tools, all integrated together, that can be used in process design from preliminary concept screening through detailed simulation studies to the design and tuning of control systems. The design environment is based on the Balas and APMS simulation programmes developed at VTT. Balas is a general steady-state simulation package for chemical processes with emphasis on pulp and paper. Recent applications include the analysis of the influence of new drying techniques on the energy and water management of a paper mill and the evaluation of new paper machine and water treatment concepts. APMS (Advanced Pulp and Paper Mill Simulator) is a new flexible tool intended for fast modelling and efficient simulation of the dynamic performance the various unit processes in pulp and paper mill, or even of the whole integrated mill. (orig.)

  8. Bioactive Phenylpropanoids, Phenolic Acid and Phytosterol from Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv Stringy Seed Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Tochukwu J N; Osadebe, Patience O; Proksch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv is economically important for latex/rubber and folklore medicine. Its stringy seed pulp is freely eaten by humans and animals. Thus, L. owariensis stringy seed pulp was extracted serially with hexane and acetone to isolate and characterize its active pharmaceutical ingredients. Solvent/solvent partition and chromatographic separations afforded four bioactive compounds, (E)-3-(3,4-Dihydroxylcinnamoyl)quinic acid [(E)-Chlorogenic acid], I; (E)-3-(3,4-Dihydroxylcinnamoyl)quinic acid methyl ester [(E)-Chlorogenic acid methyl ester], II; 3,4-Dihydroxylbenzoic acid, (Protocatechuic acid), III; and 22,23-Dihydrostigmaster-3β-ol (3β-Sitosterol) (IV). Structures of I, II and III were assigned by combinations of high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and reference to published literatures, while compound IV was identified by chemical methods and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The phenylpropanoids and phenolic acid (compounds I, II and III) are notable standard antioxidants with confirmed hepatic-protective activity and other exciting biological activities. Compound IV has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity, anti-colon cancer action and a cholesterol-lowering effect. The described compounds are important medicinal constituents of L. owariensis stringy seed pulp, and this is the first major report on the phytochemistry of L. owariensis P. Beauv.

  9. Kinetics of pulp mill effluent treatment by ozone-based processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Hsieh, Po-Hung [School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, Meng-Wen [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tatung University, 40 Chungshan North Road, 3rd Sec., Taipei, 104, Taiwan (China); Chern, Jia-Ming, E-mail: jmchern@ttu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tatung University, 40 Chungshan North Road, 3rd Sec., Taipei, 104, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Shih-Min [Bureau of Environmental Protection Tainan County, No. 78, Sec. 2, Changrong Rd., Sinying City, Tainan County 730, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Chewn-Jeng [CECI Engineering Consultants, Inc., Taiwan, No. 185, Sec. 2, Chinhai Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China)

    2009-09-15

    The wastewaters generated from wood pulping and paper production processes are traditionally treated by biological and physicochemical processes. In order to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color to meet increasingly strict discharge standards, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are being adapted as polishing treatment units. Various ozone-based processes were used in this study to treat simulated wastewaters prepared from black liquor from a hardwood Kraft pulp mill in Taiwan. The experimental results showed that the COD and color were primarily removed by direct ozone oxidation and activated carbon adsorption. While the addition of activated carbon could enhance the COD and color removal during ozonation, the addition of hydrogen peroxide improved the color removal only. For the various ozone-based treatment processes, kinetic models were developed to satisfactorily predict the COD and color removal rates. According to the kinetic parameters obtained from the various ozone-based processes, the enhanced COD and color removal of ozonation in the presence of activated carbon was attributed to the regeneration of the activated carbon by ozonation. These kinetic models can be used for reactor design and process design to treat pulping wastewater using ozone-based processes.

  10. Regional bond strengths of adhesive resins to pulp chamber dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, S; Zhang, Y; Pereira, P N; Ozer, F; Pashley, D H

    2001-08-01

    Microleakage of oral microorganisms, which can occur due to the lack of sealing ability of permanent restorative materials, may cause failure of root canal treatments. Although a great deal of research has been done on sealing enamel and coronal dentin with resins, little research has been done on the adhesion of resins to the walls of pulp chambers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate regional bond strengths of two adhesive systems to the walls of pulp chambers. A section was made horizontally through the middle of the pulp chamber of extracted human third molars to divide the chamber into upper and lower halves. The pulp tissue was removed and the tooth segments were then divided into treatment subgroups. The pulp chambers were bonded with C&B Metabond (Parkell) or One-Step (Bisco), with or without 5% NaOCI pretreatment. The microtensile bond strengths of these resins to four different pulp chamber regions (bottom, wall, roof, and pulp horn areas) were then measured using an Instron machine. The data were expressed in MPa and were analyzed by a three-way ANOVA. Statistically significant differences were found among the test groups (p < 0.001). One-Step produced higher bond strengths to all pulp chamber regions except the floor, compared with C&B Metabond. The results indicated that high bond strengths can be achieved between adhesive resins and the various regions of the pulp chamber. This should permit the use of a thick layer of unfilled resin along the floor of the pulp chamber and over the canal orifices as a secondary protective seal after finishing root canal therapy.

  11. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 1: AS-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharm Dutt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Cannabinus sativa, which are renewable non-woody fiber resources having characteristics similar to that of softwood (bast fibers, when used together with hardwood (core fibers, gave higher pulp yield with good mechanical strength properties when using an alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ pulping process rather than a conventional kraft pulping process and bleached more readily than kraft and soda pulps with a CEHH bleaching sequence. A comparison of properties AS-AQ pulping processes with soda and kraft pulping processes of H. cannabinus, C. sativa, and H. sabdariffa was made. All the properties were found to be better than soda and kraft pulps except tear index. All of the mechanical strength properties of handsheets of AS-AQ pulp improved except tear index. Therefore, the AS-AQ pulping process can be considered as ideal for manufacturing of paper grades like greaseproof, glassine, and high-quality writing and printing paper.

  12. Substituição do grão de milho por polpa de citros em dietas com diferentes níveis de concentrado: 2. Taxas de deposição e composição química corporal Replacement of corn grain by citrus pulp in diets with different concentrate levels: 2. Deposition rates and body chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Leme

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Trinta e dois tourinhos da raça Santa Gertrudis com peso inicial de 230 kg e idade média de 9 meses foram utilizados em um experimento de abate comparativo com delineamento de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2 x 2, com dois níveis de concentrado na dieta, 20 ou 80%, e dois ingredientes energéticos no concentrado, milho ou polpa de citros peletizada. Quatro animais foram abatidos após o período de adaptação para determinação da composição corporal inicial do lote e os que receberam dietas com 80 e 20% de concentrado foram abatidos após 123 e 172 dias de confinamento, respectivamente. O tratamento com 80% de concentrado à base de milho resultou em ganhos de peso vazio de 1,038 kg/dia, 40% maior que os demais. A substituição do milho pela polpa de citros decresceu o ganho a níveis abaixo dos tratamentos com 20% de concentrado, nos quais não foi observada diferença entre as fontes de energia. A composição química corporal, estimada por intermédio da composição do corte da 9-10-11ª costelas com equações obtidas em outro grupo de animais Santa Gertrudis, não revelou diferenças entre os tratamentos.Thirty two Santa Gertrudis young bulls with an initial weight of 230 kg and 9 months of age were used in a comparative slaughter experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with two concentrate levels, 80 and 20%, and two energetic ingredients in the concentrate, corn grain or pelletized citrus pulp. Four animals were slaughtered after the adaptation period for the determination of the initial body composition of lot and those that received diets with 80 and 20% of concentrate were slaughtered after 123 or 172 days, respectively. The treatment with 80% of corn grain based concentrate resulted in empty body weight gain of 1.038 kg/day, 40% greater than the others. The substitution of corn grain by citrus pulp decreased the body weight gain below those of the treatments with 20% concentrate, in which no difference due to

  13. Hygroscopic behavior of lyophilized acerola pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Powder products are characterized by their practicality and long life. However, fruit powders have high hygroscopicity and tend to agglomerate due to its hydrophilic nature. The isotherms of equilibrium moisture content apply to the study of dehydrated food preservation potential. Acerola is a nutritionally rich fruit, with great economic and industrial potential. The objective of this study was to analyse acerola powder adsorption isotherms obtained by lyophilization and characterize the powder obtained from lyophilized acerola pulp. Analysis of hygroscopicity, solubility and degree of caking were performed. Isotherms were represented by the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin, at temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 °C. According to the results, the obtained powder showed hygroscopicity of 5.96 g of absorbed water 100g-1 of solids, solubility of 95.08% and caking of 14.12%. The BET model showed the best fit to the adsorption isotherms of the acerola pulp powder obtained by lyophilization. The obtained isotherm was of type III, with a "J" shape. There was an inversion of the effect of temperature on the isotherms of acerola powders.

  14. Effect of IRM on human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, B; Schröder, U; Granath, L

    1983-08-01

    IRM has been shown to be superior to conventional ZnOE cements. This study is a biotechnical investigation of IRM's effect on the dental pulp with respect to its sealing capacity. Enamel-dentin test bodies with IRM fillings were used in the in vitro part, where insufficiencies in sealing were detected with compressed air. The in vivo part included 44 buccal cavities in intact premolars. In teeth in which the material effect of IRM was tested, the IRM fillings were sealed off from the saliva by acid etch and composite resin. The observation intervals were 1, 7 and 28 days. Histologic changes such as capillary dilatations and presence of inflammatory cells in the pulp adjacent to the dentinal tubules involved in the cavity preparation were registered. The in vitro test showed no leakage in five cases out of six. After extreme temperature cycling, the leakage was comparable with that of zinc-containing amalgam of traditional alloy. The pulpal changes were mild and mainly ascribed to the material effect of IRM, since no evidence was found of leakage of biologic importance.

  15. Adhesive sealing of the pulp chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, S; Zhang, Y; Pereira, P N; Pashley, D H

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate quantitatively the ability of four different filling materials to seal the orifices of root canals as a secondary seal after root canal therapy. Forty extracted human molar teeth were used. The top of pulp chambers and distal halves of the roots were removed using an Isomet saw. The canal orifices were temporarily sealed with a gutta-percha master cone without sealer. The pulp chambers were then treated with a self-etching primer adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond), a wet bonding system (One-Step), a 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride adhesive system (C&B Metabond), or a reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol (IRM). The specimens were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each. A fluid filtration method was used for quantitative evaluation of leakage. Measurements of fluid movement were made at 2-min intervals for 8 min. The quality of the seal of each specimen was measured by fluid filtration immediately and after 1 day, 1 wk, and 1 month. Even after 1 month the resins showed an excellent seal. Zinc oxide-eugenol had significantly more leakage when compared with the resin systems (p < 0.05). Adhesive resins should be considered as a secondary seal to prevent intraorifice microleakage.

  16. Respons Pulp Gigi Tikus terhadap Propolis Sebagai Bahan Kaping Pulpa Langsung

    OpenAIRE

    Ardo Sabir, Dr.drg. M.Kes

    2016-01-01

    The present result suggest that direct pulp capping with EEP in rats may delay dental pulp inflammatory process and fail to stimulate reparative dentin. The aim of the present study was to assess the response of rat dental pulp to direct pulp caping with ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP)

  17. EFFECTS OF PROCESSING OPERATIONS ON ZETA POTENTIAL AND CATIONIC DEMAND OF PULPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nishi K. Bhardwaj; Sanjay Kumar; Pramod K. Bajpai

    2004-01-01

    Thc zeta potential and cationic demands of various kraft pulps - unbleached, bleached and beaten to different freeness levels were determined in the laboratory. The zeta potential of pulp where the final stage was a lignin degrading and dissolving treatment such as alkaline extraction or hypochlorite was lower than the unbleached pulp. The cationic demand of unbleached pulp was higher compared to that of bleached pulp. Beaten pulps showed larger cationic demands than the unbeaten pulps, which can be attributed to the larger specific surface area of pulp components. Fibres become increasingly electronegative when beaten and therefore cationic demand of pulps increases with beating. When the zeta potential method is used with furnishes of different freeness,the linear relationship is observed. However, the slope is decreasing with the decrease in freeness of the pulp.

  18. Can Acceptable Pulp be Obtained from Eucalyptus globulus Wood Chips after Hemicellulose Extraction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the operating conditions used in the soda-anthraquinone pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood after autohydrolysis pretreatment on the yield, kappa number, and brightness of the resulting unbleached pulp. Moreover, strength-related properties of the resulting handsheets was examined to identify the best pulping conditions and compare the outcome with that of a conventional soda-anthraquinone pulping process. The paper strength properties of the pulp were similar to or better than papers made from soda-AQ delignified pulps conducted in a single step. Also, a liquid fraction with a substantial content in hemicellulosic extracts was recovered in the simplified process. Autohydrolysis of the raw material facilitates carrying out soda-AQ pulping under milder conditions. In addition, autohydrolysis improves other properties relative to paper from raw cellulose pulp. Yield, kappa number, and brightness for pulp from solid residues of autohydrolysed eucalyptus wood were similar to those for pulp from untreated eucalyptus wood.

  19. Performance of a Horizontal Triple Cylinder Type Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Pulping process usually uses a machine which constructed by wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processing. One of the weaknesses of a horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is higher in broken beans. Broken bean is one of mayor aspects in defect system that contribute to low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine which resulted in 12.6—21.4% of broken beans. To reduce percentage of broken beans, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and tested a horizontal triple cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine. Material tested was fresh mature Robusta coffee cherries, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content; has classified on 3 levels i.e. unsorted, small and medium, and clean from metal and foreign materials. The result showed that the machine produced 6,340 kg/h in optimal capacity for operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 55.5% whole parchment coffee, 3.66% broken beans, and 1% beans in wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  20. Reducing sugar production of sweet sorghum bagasse kraft pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solihat, Nissa Nurfajrin; Fajriutami, Triyani; Adi, Deddy Triyono Nugroho; Fatriasari, Widya; Hermiati, Euis

    2017-01-01

    Kraft pulping of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) has been used for effective delignification method for cellulose production. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance pulp kraft of SSB for reducing sugar production. The study intended to investigate the effect of active alkali and sulfidity loading variation of SSB pulp kraft on reducing sugar yield per biomass. The SSB pulp was prepared after pulping using three variations of active alkali (17, 19, and 22%) and sulfidity loading (20, 22, and 24%) at 170°C for 4 h with liquor to wood ratio of 10. A total of 9 pulps were obtained from these pretreatments. Delignification pretreatment has been succesfully removed lignin and hemicellulose more than 90% and 50%, respectively. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity loading has significantly increased lignin removal caused by disruption of the cell wall structure for releasing lignin into black liquor in the cellulose extraction. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pulp was carried out with cellulase loading of 40 FPU per g substrate in the shaking incubator at 50°C and 150 rpm for 78 h. For each 24 h, the reducing sugar yield (DNS assay) has been observed. Even though the lignin and hemicellulose loss occurred along with higher active alkali loading, this condition tends to decrease its yield. The reducing sugar concentration varied between 7-8 g/L. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity was significantly decreased the reducing sugar per biomass. Pulp delignified by 17% active alkali and 20% sulfidity has demonstrated the maximum reducing sugar yield per biomass of 45.57% resulted after 72 h enzymatic hydrolysis. These results indicated that kraft pulping was success to degrade more lignin and hemicellulose content to facilitate the enzyme for breaking down the cellulose into its sugar monomer. A high loss of lignin and hemicellulose are not single factor to improve digestibility of SSB. This sugar has potential for yeast fermented into bioethanol.

  1. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Power, Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Betacyanins of the Peel and Pulp of Three Tunisian Opuntia Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila; Guyot, Sylvain; Sotin, Hélène; Ayadi, Malika

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms) and Opuntia stricta have been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified...

  2. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  3. Preparation of clinker from paper pulp industry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruberri, Leire H; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

    2015-04-01

    The production of paper pulp by the Kraft method generates considerable amounts of wastes. Namely, lime mud generated in the recovery circuit of chemical reagents, biological sludge from the wastewater treatment of wood digestion process and fly ash collected in the fluidized bed combustor used to generate electricity from biomass burning. The final destination of such wastes is an important concern, since environmental regulations are becoming stricter regarding their landfill. Driven by this fact, industries are looking for more sustainable solutions, such as the recycling in distinct products. This work tested these wastes as secondary raw materials to produce clinker/cement that was then experienced in mortar formulations. The first step involved the residues detailed characterization and a generated amounts survey. Then, specific but simple steps were suggested, aiming to facilitate transport and manipulation. Distinct blends were prepared and fired in order to get belitic and Portland clinkers. The Portland clinkers were processed at lower temperatures than the normally used in the industry due to the presence of mineralizing impurities in some wastes. Belite-based cements were used to produce mortars that developed satisfactory mechanical strength and did not reveal signs of deterioration or durability weaknesses.

  4. Ash from a pulp mill boiler--characterisation and vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana S M; Monteiro, Regina C C; Davim, Erika J R; Fernandes, M Helena V

    2010-07-15

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical characterisation of the ash resulting from a pulp mill boiler was performed in order to investigate the valorisation of this waste material through the production of added-value glassy materials. The ash had a particle size distribution in the range 0.06-53 microm, and a high amount of SiO(2) (approximately 82 wt%), which was present as quartz. To favour the vitrification of the ash and to obtain a melt with an adequate viscosity to cast into a mould, different amounts of Na(2)O were added to act as fluxing agent. A batch with 80 wt% waste load melted at 1350 degrees C resulting in a homogeneous transparent green-coloured glass with good workability. The characterisation of the produced glass by differential thermal analysis and dilatometry showed that this glass presents a stable thermal behaviour. Standard leaching tests revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in the leaching solution was lower than those allowed by the Normative. As a conclusion, by vitrification of batch compositions with adequate waste load and additive content it is possible to produce an ash-based glass that may be used in similar applications as a conventional silicate glass inclusively as a building ecomaterial.

  5. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Vieira Alves

    Full Text Available Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83% and lipid (40.45%, with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%, antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  6. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  7. The Effect of Enzymatic Treatments of Pulps on Fiber and Paper Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Žnidaršič-Plazl, P.; Rutar, V.; Ravnjak, D.

    2009-01-01

    Biotechnological treatment of pulps provides great potential for the reduction of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In the present work, the influence of different commercial cellulases and xylanases or their mixtures on the quality of different bleached kraft pulps was investigated. The effects of enzymes on reducing sugars release and changes in fiber length were assessed for 3 different eucalyptus pulps, for a pulp consisting of a mixture of hardwoods and for softwood pulp. ...

  8. Histological Analysis of Rat dental Pulp Tissue Capped With Propolis

    OpenAIRE

    Ardo Sabir, Dr.drg. M.Kes

    2005-01-01

    The Result Showed that pulp inflammatory occured in groups I and II as early as week 1. No dentin bridge formation was seen in these groups. In constast, there was no evident inflammatory response in group II at week 1. Mild and moderate pulp inflammatory in this group occured at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment, respectively. Partial dental bridge formation was seen in group II at week4. Therefore, the present result suggest that direct pulp caping with propolis flavonoids in rets may delay den...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN THE AGRO BASED INDIAN PULP & PAPER INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Panwar; N.Endlay; S.Mishra; R.M.Mathur; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION The Indian Pulp & Paper Industry is more than a century old industry . The first paper mill was established in the year 1832 and today the number has grown to more than 400 in the organised sector which are located through out the country . In addition there are another 500 pulp & paper mills in the unorganized sector. The Indian pulp & paper industry can be categorised into large, medium and small depending on the scale of operation as indicated in Table -I Most of the large mills established initially were based on woody raw materials.

  10. BIOCHEMICAL PULPING OF REED PRETREATED BY WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiyuFu; AniwarApiz; HuaiyuZhan

    2004-01-01

    The Soda-AQ pulps were made from reed pretreated by white rot fungi Panus conchatus. Cyathus stercoreus and Pleurotus florida respectively. It was found that kappa number decreased and the brightness increased for Soda-AQ pulps from the reed treated by Pleurotus florida and Panus conchatus, but it was reverse for the pulp from reed treated by Cyathus stercoreus. The result indicated that white rot fungi Pleurotus .florida and Panus conchatus were selective to degrade lignin inreed, which were good for biopulping, but Cyathus stercoreus was preferential to degrade cellulose, which was not good for biopulping.

  11. BIOCHEMICAL PULPING OF REED PRETREATED BY WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiyu Fu; Aniwar Apiz; Huaiyu Zhan

    2004-01-01

    The Soda-AQ pulps were made from reed pretreated by white rot fungi Panus conchatus,Cyathus stercoreus and Pleurotus florida respectively. It was found that kappa number decreased and the brightness increased for Soda-AQ pulps from the reed treated by Pleurotus florida and Panus conchatus, but it was reverse for the pulp from reed treated by Cyathus stercoreus. The result indicated that white rot fungi Pleurotus florida and Panus conchatus were selective to degrade lignin in reed, which were good for biopulping, but Cyathus stercoreus was preferential to degrade cellulose,which was not good for biopulping.

  12. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  13. Low Odor, High Yield Kraft Pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.T. McKean

    2000-12-15

    In laboratory cooks pure oxygen was profiled into the circulation line of a batch digester during two periods of the cooking cycle: The first injection occurred during the heating steps for the purpose of in-situ generation of polysulfide. This chip treatment was studied to explore stabilization against alkaline induced carbohydrate peeling and to increase pulp yield. Under optimum conditions small amounts of polysulfide were produced with yield increase of about 0.5% These increases fell below earlier reports suggesting that unknown differences in liquor composition may influence the relative amounts of polysulfide and thiosulfate generated during the oxidation. Consequently, further studies are required to understand the factors that influence the ratios of those two sulfur species.

  14. PREPARATION OF BAMBOO DISSOLVING PULP FOR TEXTILE PRODUCTION; PART 1. STUDY ON PREHYDROLYSIS OF GREEN BAMBOO FOR PRODUCING DISSOLVING PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Ma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prehydrolysis was used as the first treatment of bamboo materials for producing high dissolving pulp for textile applications. In this paper, green bamboo (Dendrocalamopsis oldhami was hydrolyzed in water, and the hydrolysis process was optimized. The morphology and super-molecular structures of the raw material and prehydrolyzed material were studied by SEM and XRD, respectively. Based on the optimum conditions, a study of the kinetics and mechanism showed that pentosan dissolution during the hydrolysis process was a first order reaction. When cooking temperature was 150 oC, 160 oC, 170 oC, and 180 oC, the corresponding reaction rate constants were 0.00411h-1, 0.00495h-1, 0.00730h-1, and 0.00925h-1, respectively. The activation energy was 44.94 kJ/mol based on the Arrhenius empirical equation. SEM results revealed that after the pre-hydrolysis process, the bamboo structure became loose because of hemicellulose dissolution, which created a favorable environment for chemical penetration in the subsequent treatment. Furthermore, the degree of crystallinity was increased from 45.43% to 57.06% during the prehydrolysis. Both the treated and the untreated fibers were assumed to be cellulose I.

  15. Avaliação química de geléias de manga formuladas com diferentes níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa Chemical evaluation of mango (Mangifera indica L jams formulated with different levels of peels in substitution to pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Damiani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a qualidade de geléias formuladas com níveis de 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 % e 100 % de cascas em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden. Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram os teores de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos totais, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose, vitamina C, fibra insolúvel, pectina, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis nas polpas e cascas das mangas e nos diferentes tratamentos. Observou-se que nos tratamentos com substituição da polpa por cascas encontraram-se teores significativamente maiores de proteínas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e menores valores calóricos, acidez titulável, carboidratos totais e açúcares totais em relação ao controle. Os tratamentos foram semelhantes em relação ao teor de vitamina C e sólidos solúveis. Com a elevação dos níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa observou-se aumento do teor de cinzas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e redução dos açúcares redutores. Concluiu-se que a substituição parcial ou total de polpa por cascas de manga na formulação melhora o valor nutricional e funcional das geléias apesar da diminuição do valor calórico, com benefícios econômicos e ambientais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of jams formulated with peel levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in substitution to mango pulp (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden. The quality criteria were moisture, ashes, proteins, fat, total carbohydrate, total sugars, reducing sugars, sucrose, vitamin C, insoluble fiber, pectin, titrable fruit acidity, soluble solids contents and pH in the mango pulp, mango peels and different treatments. It was observed that in the treatments with substitution of pulp by peels, the contents of proteins, insoluble fiber and sucrose were significantly higher than the control. The caloric values, titrable fruit acidity, total carbohydrate and total sugars were

  16. Pulping byproducts as sacrificial agents in enhanced oil recovery by micellar flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Westmoreland, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    A substantial bar to implementation of enhanced oil recovery by injection of surfactant formulations is the cost of large volumes of the chemicals. A large fraction of the chemicals is lost by adsorption on the minerals in oil-bearing formations or by precipitation by ions in the connate water or displaced from the minerals. Besides the cost, losses make difficult control of the intricate chemistry needed for optimal conditions. Cheap chemicals which would modify the formation by adsorbing competitively on the formation or by sequestering interfering ions could be important in advancing the approach. Substances generated in the pulping of wood by the kraft process are of possible interest, and evaluations of several are presented here. Of these, sodium saccharinate, caustic extract from bleaching, and weak black liquor seem promising.

  17. Storage of ‘umbu-cajá’ pulp powder produced by lyophilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyego da C. Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to study the chemical and physical stability of ‘umbu-cajá’ powders produced by lyophilization during storage. ‘Umbu-cajá’ pulps formulated with different concentrations of gum arabic (10, 20 and 30%, previously frozen, were dehydrated in benchtop lyophilizer at -40 °C for 48 h and disintegrated to obtain the powder, which was stored in laminated packages for 180 days at ambient conditions, with physical, chemical and physico-chemical analyzes performed at the beginning and every 30 days of storage. According to the results, all investigated parameters were significantly altered throughout the storage, yet with less intense variations for important variables, such as ascorbic acid, reducing sugars and titratable acidity. At the end of storage, all powders were microbiologically safe.

  18. Optimum dose of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate based bonding material on pulp cells toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Saraswati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, one type of resins commonly used as bonding base material, is commonly used due to its advantageous chemical characteristics. Several preliminary studies indicated that resin is a material capable to induce damage in dentin-pulp complex. It is necessary to perform further investigation related with its biological safety for hard and soft tissues in oral cavity. Purpose: The author performed an in vitro test to find optimum dose of HEMA resin monomer that may induce toxicity in pulp fibroblast cells. Method: The method of this study was experimental laboratory with post test control group design. Primary cell culture was made from dental pulp fibroblast cells, and was given with HEMA resin bonding material in various concentrations (5 µg/ml–2560 µg/ml, and then subjected to toxicity test (MTT assay. Result: HEMA optimum concentration was 320 µg/ml to induce cytotoxicity in pulp fibroblast cells. Conclusion: The used of HEMA - base bonding material with the concentration of 200 µg/ml may induced pulp fibroblas cell toxicity.Latar belakang: Keberhasilan suatu bahan bonding secara klinis tergantung pada kandungan fisik, kimia dan keamanan secara biologis. HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate adalah bahan resin yang paling banyak digunakan karena memiliki sifat fisik-kimia yang baik. Beberapa penelitian pendahuluan menyebutkan bahwa resin merupakan bahan yang mampu menyebabkan gangguan pada kompleks dentin pulpa sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut menyangkut segi keamanan secara biologis bagi jaringan keras dan jaringan lunak di rongga mulut. Tujuan: Penelitian ini akan menguji secara in vitro (pada kultur sel fibroblas pulpa gigi untuk mengetahui dosis optimal monomer resin HEMA yang dapat menyebabkan toksisitas pada sel fibroblas pulpa. Metode: Metode penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratoris dengan rancangan penelitian post test control group design. Kultur sel primer dibuat dari

  19. Overview of the characteristics, properties and applications of high yield pulp%漂白高得率化学机械浆的性能及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿秀娟; 夏新兴

    2012-01-01

    本文对比了高得率浆(HYP)和化学浆以及机械浆的性能和特征,阐述了高得率化学机械浆的制浆工艺、发展等,并对HYP在纸和纸板中的应用进行了回顾和展望。%The properties and characteristics of high yield pulp (HYP)was compared with those of chemical and mechanical pulp in this paper,the pulping process and development of high yield pulp (HYP) was described,and gave an overview of the lastest developments and future challenges in the application of HYP in paper and board.

  20. Antifungal activity of fruit pulp extract from Bromelia pinguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Hernández, I L; Chávez-Velázquez, J A; Uribe-Beltrán, M J; Ríos-Morgan, A; Delgado-Vargas, F

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Bromelia pinguin was evaluated for its antifungal activity. The extract showed a significant activity against some Trichophyton strains, although Candida strains were generally insensitive.

  1. NIRS Characterization of Paper Pulps to Predict Kappa Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most abundant food crops in the world and its straw stands as an important source of fibres both from an economic and an environmental point of view. Pulp characterization is of special relevance in works involving alternative raw materials, since pulp properties are closely linked to the quality of the final product. One of the analytical techniques that can be used in pulp characterization is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. The use of NIRS has economic and technical advantages over conventional techniques. This paper aims to discuss the convenience of using NIRS to predict Kappa number in rice straw pulps produced under different conditions. We found that the resulting Kappa number can be acceptably estimated by NIRS, as the errors obtained with that method are similar to those found for other techniques.

  2. Enhanced oil recovery chemicals from renewable wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grune, W.N.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Crenshaw, J.M.

    1979-04-01

    Most of the wood pulp in the U.S. is produced by cooking, or digesting, wood chips in a chemical solution. These pulping processes have effluent streams which contain dissolved lignins, lignin breakdown products, and carbohydrates. There is a substantial economic incentive to use these materials as feedstocks for the production of high-valued micellar flood chemicals. The pulp and paper industries have practiced chemical recovery for almost a century. The largest chemical recycle processes are the internal recycle of inorganic salts for reuse in pulping. This is coupled with the use of waste organic compounds in the liquor as a fuel for directly-fired evaporation processes. Diversion of effluent and low valued streams for chemical recovery using fermentation, purification, or synthesis methods appears technically feasible in several cases. The use of new recovery processes could yield a variety of different wood-effluent based products. Some of the sugar acids in pulping liquors might be used as sequestering agents in reservoirs where there are large amounts of multivalent cations in flood brines. Fermentation production of high viscosity polymers, sequestering agents, and coagent alcohols appears worth further investigation. Tall oil acids and their derivatives can be used as surfactants in some reservoirs. Some waste constituents may adsorb preferentially on formations and thereby reduce loss of surfactants and other higher-valued chemicals.

  3. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFECT OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE ON MICROTENSILE BOND STRENGTH OF THREE DIFFERENT BONDING AGENTS TO THE LATERAL WALLS OF PULP CHAMBER: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Gowrish S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The advent of adhesive materials has revolutionized the field of restorative dentistry. Lack of adhesion and sealing between the final restoration and tooth structure may lead to microleakage and ultimate failure of the restoration. These adhesive restorations are also being used in the field of endodontics. A good coronal seal is very important, since the penetration of microorganisms from a coronal direction can reinfect the root canal system and affect the prognosis of the non-surgical root canal therapy. Coronal leakage is particularly significant in multi rooted teeth, in which accessory canal may allow inflammatory change to occur in the periodontal tissues from the pulp chambers. Improper restoration can lead to loss of endodontically treated teeth more than actual failure of endodontic therapy. The restorations with adhesive systems offer the advantage of transmission of functional stresses across the bonded interface to the tooth (mono bloc restoration and potentially reinforce the weakened tooth structure. Bonding to pulp chamber lateral walls is different from bonding other dentinal surface. The structure of pulp chamber wall is complicated and not much is known about the bonding characteristics of pulp chamber, it becomes essential to study the same. This study was done evaluate the effect of sodium hypochlorite on bond strength of bonding agent to the lateral walls of the pulp chamber. However, chemical irrigants, such as sodium hypochlorite used in the endodontic treatment have been shown to affect the bond strength of resin composite to dentin adversely.

  4. Considerations on the ultrastructural particularities of the dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolea, H; Deva, V; Bogdan, Fl; Moraru, Iren; Pancă, Oana-Adina; Caraivan, O

    2008-01-01

    We realized an ultrastructural study of the cells of the dental pulp, having in view their particularities relative to other types of conjunctive tissue. For this purpose, we selected five cases represented by teeth without subjective or objective symptomatology. Within the paper there are exposed the morphological aspects observed by means of electron microscopy. The results are then discussed in relation with a series of observations made by other researchers regarding the particularities of the pulp cells structures.

  5. Nemesia Root Hair Response to Paper Pulp Substrate for Micropropagation

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Labrousse; David Delmail; Raphaël Decou; Michel Carlué; Sabine Lhernould; Pierre Krausz,

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy....

  6. Bacteriological analysis of necrotic pulp and fistulae in primary teeth

    OpenAIRE

    FABRIS, Antônio Scalco; Nakano, Viviane; Avila-Campos,Mario Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Primary teeth work as guides for the eruption of permanent dentition, contribute for the development of the jaws, chewing process, preparing food for digestion, and nutrient assimilation. Treatment of pulp necrosis in primary teeth is complex due to anatomical and physiological characteristics and high number of bacterial species present in endodontic infections. The bacterial presence alone or in association in necrotic pulp and fistula samples from primary teeth of boys and gir...

  7. Histopathological Effect of Advanced Periodontal Disease on the Dental Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Many authors have claimed that pulpal inflammation may occur following periodontal diseases. Appropriate diagnosis of different lesions that have affected the dental pulp or periodontium is critical for prevention of unnecessary or harmful treatments; this must be taken into account before treatment.Purpose: The purpose of this study was histological evaluation of the pulp in the teeth with advanced periodontitis.Materials and Method: 30 permanent single teeth root that ...

  8. Timing of pulp extirpation for replanted avulsed teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stewart, Chris

    2009-01-01

    A search was performed (April 2004) across four databases, namely Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Web of Science, relevant to the proposed PICO ( Patient or problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) question: (P) for a replanted avulsed permanent tooth, (I) is early pulp extirpation within 10-14 days of replantation, (C) compared with delayed pulp extirpation, (O) associated an increased likelihood of successful periodontal healing after tooth replantation. Only articles published in the English language were considered.

  9. [Clinico-pathological studies on the effects of calcium hydroxide eugenol preparations to the human vital pulp tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, M

    1989-05-01

    The present paper reports results of a study to evaluate clinico-pathologically the effects of calcium hydroxide eugenol preparations on exposed pulp tissues in permanent human teeth. The experiments were performed on 80 vital human teeth from patients ranging in age from 12 to 54 years. The experimental teeth were arbitrarily divided into the following 4 groups. Group CRCS: 20 cases treated with CRCS (Hygienic, Akron, Ohio, USA). Group KEZ: 20 cases treated with Dentalis KEZ (Neo Dental Chemical Products, Tokyo, Japan). Group CE: 20 cases treated with calcium hydroxide eugenol (positive control) Group E: 20 cases treated with pure eugenol (negative control). After local anesthesia, the experimental teeth were isolated with rubber dums or cotton rolls. Following preparation of Black's simple class 1 cavities with a diamond instrument mounted high-speed air turbine, the pulp was intentionally exposed by means of a steel bur mounted electric engine. The cavity and exposed pulp surface were cleaned with saline and dried on absorbent material. Then the experimental materials (agents) were applied to exposed pulp surface. The cavity was lined with gutta-percha temporally stopping, and the remainder was filled with silver amalgam. The teeth were clinically observed at various intervals from immediately to 530 days after treatment and then extracted under local anesthesia and prepared for histopathological study. Decalcified sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. 1) CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: During the observation period, symptoms occurred in the following: Group CRCS: 4 (20%) out of 20 cases. Group KEZ: 4 (20%) out of 20 cases. Group CE: 6 (30%) out of 20 cases. Group E: None of 20 cases No spontaneous pain was observed in these groups. 2) Clinical evaluations Group: CRCS: 16 cases (80%) were good, 3 cases (15%) were satisfactory, and 1 cases (5%) were failure. Group KEZ: 16 cases (80%) were good, 1 cases (5%) were satisfactory, and 3 cases (15%) were failure

  10. Indirect pulp therapy: an alternative to pulpotomy in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, N Sue

    2010-11-01

    Preservation of the primary teeth until their normal exfoliation is essential for normal oral function and facial growth of the child. To that end, treatment of primary teeth with large carious lesions approximating the pulp should be aimed at preserving the tooth. Currently, the pulpotomy is the most frequently used pulp treatment for cariously involved primary teeth. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the use of an alternative to the pulpotomy, indirect pulp therapy (IPT), for the treatment of vital, primary teeth with carious involvement approaching the pulp. Accurate diagnosis of the vitality status of the pulp is critical to the success of IPT and involves careful radiographic and clinical assessment of the teeth to be sure they are healthy or at worst, reversibly inflamed. The indications for IPT are the same as for pulpotomy. The technique involves one appointment, requires that some carious dentin be left to avoid pulp exposure and requires the placement of a biologically sealing base and sealing final restoration. Teeth treated with IPT have success rates at least as good as those treated with pulpotomies, and IPT offers an acceptable alternative to pulpotomy as a treatment for vital, asymptomatic, cariously involved primary teeth.

  11. Implant-Root Proximity and Pulp Vitality of the Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasharoie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background When dental implants are applied in partially edentulous patients, there is the risk of placing the implants in close proximity or in direct contact with the adjacent roots. In this situation assurance of pulp vitality of the adjacent tooth is neessary. Objectives The current study aimed to assess pulp response of the tooth after root proximity with dental implant. Patients and Methods After investigating 2800 records of patients, 31 implants in 29 patients were included in this study. A parallel peri-apical radiography was taken and pulp vitality tests (cold, heat and electrical pulp tests were conducted for each patient. Results Among the 31 assessed implants and the adjacent intact teeth, 13 implants had direct contact and 18 implants had proximity of less than 1 mm with the adjacent root. All of the teeth had positive (normal pulp response to all tests. The most prevalent areas for proximity of implant-tooth were upper first premolar implants and upper canine teeth. The most approximation area was apical third of root of the teeth. Conclusions Based on the clinical and radiographic examinations, implant-tooth approximation (less than 1 mm or direct contact is not related to pulp vitality of the tooth. Further studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to confirm the results of the study.

  12. Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey; Soccol; Nigam; Brand; Mohan; Roussos

    2000-10-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as coffee pulp and coffee husk. Coffee pulp or husk is a fibrous mucilagenous material (sub-product) obtained during the processing of coffee cherries by wet or dry process, respectively. Coffee pulp/husk contains some amount of caffeine and tannins, which makes it toxic in nature, resulting the disposal problem. However, it is rich in organic nature, which makes it an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added products. Several solutions and alternative uses of the coffee pulp and husk have been attempted. These include as fertilizers, livestock feed, compost, etc. However, these applications utilize only a fraction of available quantity and are not technically very efficient. Attempts have been made to detoxify it for improved application as feed, and to produce several products such as enzymes, organic acids, flavour and aroma compounds, and mushrooms, etc. from coffee pulp/husk. Solid state fermentation has been mostly employed for bioconversion processes. Factorial design experiments offer useful information for the process optimization. This paper reviews the developments on processes and products developed for the value-addition of coffee pulp/husk through the biotechnological means.

  13. Eucalyptus globulus Stumpwood as a Raw Material for Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gominho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Eucalyptus globulus stumpwood samples collected from six different sites in Portugal were evaluated for their ease of pulping, using two delignification processes (kraft and alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone-methanol (ASAM. Morphologically, the stumpwood included fibers with a mean length of 0.930 mm, diameter of 21.4 µm, lumen width of 9.1 µm, and cell-wall thickness of 6.1 µm. The Runkel ratio varied between 1.0 and 1.9, and the slenderness ratio ranged between 50.6 and 35.1. ASAM pulps presented higher yields and kappa numbers (49.3% and 36, respectively when compared to kraft pulps (42.7% and 14, respectively. Extractive-free material increased pulp yield (51.7% and 47.5% for ASAM and kraft, respectively and decreased kappa number (18 and 11. The kraft pulps showed a coarseness of 0.096 mg/m, curl of 5.2%, and 16.7% kinked fibers, while for the ASAM pulps, these values were 0.105 mg/m, 5.2%, and 16.3%, respectively.

  14. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha Sankar, P C; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M J

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product.

  15. Seeking optimality in fruit pulping schedules: A case study*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Van Vuuren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of scheduling fruit pulping for the production of fruit juices is of great importance in the beverage industry. Decisions have to be made regarding available processing time, the disposal of fruit that will not be pulped before stock loss due to spoilage, the fulfilment of customer demand and an optimal financial position. Sheduling depends on the capacity of the work force, pulping machine limitations and delivery deadlines. However, the situation is often encountered where the plant manager has to decide which fruit batches (usually from stock piles of overwhelming proportions during the harvesting season are to be pulped in order to minimize losses due to fruit deterioration. Such decisions are usually done manually, based on intuition and experience. A mathematical model is presented here which constructs a pulping strategy while minimising cascading financial losses associated with fruit grade drops within the stock pile. It is shown in particular that a minimisation of fruit losses is not a good criterion for optimality, and that substantial financial gains may be accomplished when minimising financial losses in stead of fruit losses, which is currently standard practice at most fruit pulping plants.

  16. METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC ANALYSIS OF WHEAT STRAW PULP CELL TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Karjalainen,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residues are receiving increasing interest when studying renewable raw materials for industrial use. Residues, generally referred to as nonwood materials, are usually complex materials. Wheat straw is one of the most abundant agricultural residues around the world and is therefore available for extensive industrial use. However, more information of its cell types is needed to utilize wheat straw efficiently in pulp and papermaking. The pulp cell types and particle dimensions of wheat straw were studied, using an optical microscope and an automatic optical fibre analyzer. The role of various cell types in wheat straw pulp and papermaking is discussed. Wheat straw pulp components were categorized according to particle morphology and categorization with an automatic optical analyzer was used to determine wheat straw pulp cell types. The results from automatic optical analysis were compared to those with microscopic analysis and a good correlation was found. Automatic optical analysis was found to be a promising tool for the in-depth analysis of wheat straw pulp cell types.

  17. Production of pulp from Salix viminalis energy crops using the FIRSST process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Capek-Menard, Eva; Gauvin, Henri; Chornet, Esteban

    2010-07-01

    In this work, isolation of the cellulose fibres was carried out via the Feedstock Impregnation Rapid and Sequential Steam Treatment process (FIRSST). The latter allows the separation of extractives, hemicellulosic sugars and lignin isolating the cellulose fibres. Quantitative data on the constitutive macromolecules of biomass was obtained using ASTM or TAPPI standard methods. Carbohydrates found in the hemicelluloses were also quantified using HPLC. Kraft pulp from whole biomass has also been produced at a bench scale (few kg per batch) using known and established pulping conditions. The pulps from both pulping techniques were tested following ATTPC standard methods. Pulp yields were of 34% for the classical Kraft processes (using whole biomass) while the FIRSST process showed yields around 30%. The average fibre lengths were similar for FIRSST pulp (0.39 mm) and Kraft pulp (0.41 mm) and the mechanical properties of the FIRSST pulp were as good as those of the Kraft pulp.

  18. A comparative study on dental pulp response to calcium hydroxide, white and grey mineral trioxide aggregate as pulp capping agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eskandarizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions : Based on the result of this study, both types of MTA can be suggested as the materials of choice for direct pulp capping procedure instead of Dycal as hard setting calcium hydroxide cement.

  19. Pulp tissue vacuolization and necrosis after direct pulp capping with calcium hydroxide and transforming growth factor-β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kunarti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical pulp exposure by a rotary cutting instrument or a hand-cutting instrument often happens in deep caries. Application of protective dressing can protect the pulp from additional injury by facilitating healing and repair. Pulp capping has been suggested as one treatment of choice after pulp exposure to maintain pulp vitality. TGF-β1 is growth factor that has important rule in wound healing. The application of Ca(OH2 and exogenous TGF-β1 as direct pulp capping tr4eatment must be experimented in-vivo to see the vacuolization and necrosis in 7, 14, and 21 days after application. This research was done in vivo experiment from orthodontic patients indicated for premolar extraction, between ages 10–15 years. A class V cavity preparation was created in the buccal aspect 1 mm above gingival margin until pulp exposure. Cavity was irrigated slowly with saline solution and dried with a sterile small cotton pellet. Group 1 calcium hydroxide was applied as manufacture procedure. Group 2, the sterile absorbable collagen membrane used, as inert carrier of TGF-β1 was soaked with 5 ml. All groups were covered by a Teflon pledge to separate pulp capping agent from glass ionomer cement restoration. Teeth extracted in 7, 14 and 21 days after treatment. All samples were hystopathologically examined. There were significant difference of TGF-β1 (p < 0.05 in the vacuolization day 14th and 21th compared with 7th. there were not significant difference in necrosis for all variables. Vacuolization and necrosis decreased in the application of TGF-β1.

  20. The Biomineralization of a Bioactive Glass-Incorporated Light-Curable Pulp Capping Material Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Kyung Jun; Jung-Hwan Lee; Hae-Hyoung Lee

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biomineralization of a newly introduced bioactive glass-incorporated light-curable pulp capping material using human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). The product (Bioactive® [BA]) was compared with a conventional calcium hydroxide-incorporated (Dycal [DC]) and a light-curable (Theracal® [TC]) counterpart. Eluates from set specimens were used for investigating the cytotoxicity and biomineralization ability, determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) a...

  1. Reuse the pulp and paper industry wastewater by using fashionable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, K.; Maruthaiya, K.; Kotteeswaran, P.; Murugan, A.

    2016-09-01

    This proposed method is a promising way, which can be implemented in pulp and paper industries by effective removal of the color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the resulting treated water may surely reuse to the other streams. Fourier Transformer Infra Red spectra confirmed the presence of the respective functional groups in the removed pollutants from the wastewater. The efficiency of Non-ferric Alum (NF Alum) and cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) with and without power boiler fly ash was also studied. The reduction efficiency of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) is evaluated at the optimum dosage of NF Alum, fly ash, and C-PAM. At the optimized pH attained from these coagulants using to treat the wastewater, the flocs formation/settling and the pollutant removal efficiency are encouraging and the resulting color of the wastewater is to 40 PtCo units from 330 PtCo units and COD to 66 mg/L from 218 mg/L. While using NF Alum alone with C-PAM for the treatment of wastewater, the highest reduction efficiency of COD is 97 mg/L from 218 mg/L and the color is 60 from 330 PtCo units at pH 4.8 was noted. From these observations, NF Alum and power boiler fly ash with C-PAM can effectively remove the pollutants from the pulp and paper mill wastewater and the water can be reused for other streams.

  2. Local Regeneration of Dentin-Pulp Complex Using Controlled Release of FGF-2 and Naturally Derived Sponge-Like Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Kitamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Restorative and endodontic procedures have been recently developed in an attempt to preserve the vitality of dental pulp after exposure to external stimuli, such as caries infection or traumatic injury. When damage to dental pulp is reversible, pulp wound healing can proceed, whereas irreversible damage induces pathological changes in dental pulp, eventually requiring its removal. Nonvital teeth lose their defensive abilities and become severely damaged, resulting in extraction. Development of regeneration therapy for the dentin-pulp complex is important to overcome limitations with presently available therapies. Three strategies to regenerate the dentin-pulp complex have been proposed; regeneration of the entire tooth, local regeneration of the dentin-pulp complex from amputated dental pulp, and regeneration of dental pulp from apical dental pulp or periapical tissues. In this paper, we focus on the local regeneration of the dentin-pulp complex by application of exogenous growth factors and scaffolds to amputated dental pulp.

  3. The role of bound chlorine in the brightness reversion of bleached hardwood kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Morais Eiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous paper showed fragmentary evidence that pulp brightness reversion may be negatively affected by its organically bound chlorine (OX content. A thorough investigation on eucalyptus kraft pulp led to the conclusion that OX increases reversion of certain pulps but this trend is not universal. Alkaline bleaching stages decrease reversion regardless of pulp OX content. Pulps bleached with high temperature chlorine dioxide revert less than those bleached with conventional chlorine dioxide in sequences ending with a chlorine dioxide stage but similarly in sequences ending with a final peroxide stage. The use of secondary condensate for pulp washing decreases reversion.

  4. Fluidization Characteristics of Medium-High-Consistency Pulp Fiber Suspensions with an Impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Daoxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When the mass concentration exceeds 7%, pulp suspensions stop flowing and act like a solid. To investigate the fluidization characteristics of medium-high-consistency pulp suspensions and achieve pulp fluidization and pumping, experiments were carried out with waste tissue pulp and unbleached kraft pulp. The objectives of this paper were to study the rheology of medium-high-consistency pulp and to determine accurate parameters for the physical Herschel-Bulkley model. To validate this model, computational fluid dynamics (CFD results were compared to experimental data. The simulation values were very similar and were in agreement with experimental results.

  5. Pulp tissue inflammation and angiogenesis after pulp capping with transforming growth factor β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kunarti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In Restorative dentistry the opportunity to develop biomemitic approaches has been signalled by the possible use of various biological macromolecules in direct pulp capping reparation. The presence of growth factors in dentin matrix and the putative role indicating odontoblast differentiation during embryogenesis has led to the examination on the effect of endogenous TGF-β1. TGF-β1 is one of the Growth Factors that plays an important role in pulp healing. The application of exogenous TGF-β1 in direct pulp capping treatment should be experimented in fibroblast tissue in-vivo to see the responses of inflammatory cells and development of new blood vessels. The increase in food supplies always occurs in the process of inflammation therefore the development of angiogenesis is required to fulfil the requirement. This in-vivo study done on orthodontic patients indicated for premolar extraction between 10–15 years of age. A class V cavity preparation was created in the buccal aspect 1 mm above gingival margin to pulp exposure. The cavity was slowly irrigated with saline solution and dried using a sterile small cotton pellet. The sterile absorbable collagen membrane was applied and soaked in 5 ml TGF-β1. It was covered by a Teflon pledge to separate from Glass Ionomer Cement restoration. Evaluation was performed on day 7; 14; and 21. All samples were histopathologycally examined and data was statistically analysed using one way ANOVA and Dunnet T3.There were no inflammatory symptoms in clinical examination on both Ca(OH2 and TGF-β1, but they increased the infiltration of inflammatory cells on histopathological examination. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between Ca(OH2 and TGF-β1 in inflammation cell and significant differences (p < 0.05 in angiogenesis on day 7 and 14. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 in inflammation cell with in TGF-β1 groups and significant differences (p < 0.05 with in Ca(OH2 groups on day 7

  6. THE PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL FROM THE BLACK LIQUOR OF THE SODA PULPING OF RICE STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Jaya Wistara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present works was to determine chemical changes, thermal decomposition, and the content of moisture, ash, volatile, fixed carbon and calorific value of soda pulping black liquor of the rice straw. Neutralized black liquor was dried to a moisture content of 10% and then pyrolized at 106oC-750oC. It was found that calorific value, fixed carbon, volatile mater, and moisture content were in the range of 2782-4716 cal/g, 49.2-81.6%, 15.5-47.5%, and 0.2-3.5%, respectively. Ash content was not influenced by the temperature of pyrolysis and was thought to depend on its initial silicate content. The weight loss of pulp was higher than that of black liquor. Extreme weight loss has been found in the temperature of 200-400oC. Noticeable functional groups changes were found with the increasing temperature of pyrolysis. Hydroxyl group completely disappeared at 300oC and above. Carbonyl related groups were also disappeared at 300-500oC, but it was reformed at 650 and 750oC. It might be brought about by the deformation of chemical bonding of oxygen ring in lignin structures. SIFAT-SIFAT ARANG LINDI HITAM DARI PEMASAKAN JERAMI DENGAN LARUTAN SODA API. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan perubahan sifat kimia, dekomposisi termal dan kadar air, abu, zat terbang, karbon terikat serta nilai kalor arang lindi hitam pemasakan soda jerami padi. Dalam penelitian ini, lindi hitam netral dikeringkan (kadar air 10%, kemudian dipirolisis pada selang suhu 100-750oC di dalam reaktor berpengatur suhu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor, karbon terikat, zat terbang dan kadar air masing-masing berselangdari 2782-4716 cal/g, 49,2-81,6%, 15,5-47,5%, dan 0,2-3,5%. Kadar abu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu pirolisis dan diduga bergantung pada kadar silika bahan bakunya. Nilai kalor meningkat dengan meningkatnya kadar karbon terikat. Perilaku kehilangan berat arang dari lindi hitam berbeda dengan perilaku kehilangan berat pulp jerami. Kehilangan

  7. To the question of production of pectin from beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Zelepukin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since at present their needs for pectin confectionery and pharmaceutical enterprises in Russia is satisfied only in part, because of the import of this product, the problem is currently the domestic production of pectin is very urgent. Sugar production is one of the branches materialconsuming industrial production, requiring a significant amount of raw materials per unit of output. A positive feature of beet raw material is that protopectin content of up to 98% of the total amount of pectin, which makes the extraction process parameters of the desired product. Dried beet pulp coming from the warehouse, is ground for the intensification of the processes of extraction of pectin; further pulp is hydrolyzed; the resulting mixture is sent to a filter press for coarse and fine purification of the extract. Hydrolyse pulp after neutralization fed to cattle feed. The extract was fed to a thin filter cleaning. After purification, the extract fed to precipitate pectin. Then it is crushed, cleaned and dried. The dried pectin packaged and sent to storage. The proposed technological scheme will allow to receive beet pectin, satisfying the requirements of the pectin substances of food and medical supplies. Studies have been conducted to obtain pectin from dried pulp. The resulting pectin organoleptic had a gray tint, which have a negative effect on the quality of the product. The pulp used as a raw material, which is dried by means of flue gases. For comparison was obtained pectin from dried beet pulp, as a coolant which use steam. Pectin is derived from such a pulp had higher quality indicators.

  8. Understanding about the classification of pulp inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Since most authors use the reversible pulpitis and irreversible pulpitis classification, however, many dentists still do not implement these new classifications. Research was made using a descriptive method by proposing questionnaire to dentists from various dental clinics. The numbers of the dentists participating in this research are 22 dentists. All respondents use the diagnosis sheet during their examinations on patients. Nonetheless, it can't be known what diagnosis card used and most of the dentists are still using the old classification. Concerning responses given towards the new classification: a the new classification had been heard, however, it was not clear (36.3%; b the new classification has never been heard at all (63.6%. Then, responses concerning whether a new development is important to be followed-up or not: a there are those who think that information concerning new development is very important (27.2%; b those who feel that it is important to have new information (68.3%; c those who think that new information is not important (8%. It concluded that information concerning the development of classification of pulp inflammation did not reach the dentists.

  9. Bacterial infections of pulp and periodontal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moles, Miguel Angel; González, Nabila M

    2004-01-01

    The anatomical and structural characteristics of the pulp make this structure prone to altering as a result of, for instance, periodontal conditions (proximity), iatrogenic alterations, infections and involvement of vascular and nerve structures (it is surrounded by hard tissues that prevent expansion), to name just a few. Pulpitis is a process that courses with pain of varying intensity that allows us to determine the location of the lesion in clinical terms. Its evolution varies and may even progress to pulpar necrosis that in turn, produces neuritis-like pain. Diagnosis is established by means of clinical symptomatology and supported by X-rays, palpation of tissues at painful sites, application of electrical stimuli, heat, etc. Periodontitis is a bacterial infection originating in the apex. The most important form is the so-called acute apical periodontitis that arises as a result of a prior episode of pulpitis. It is characterized by acute pain located in the tooth, accompanied by the feeling of having a long-tooth. The patient refers being unable to chew on that side; there may be painful mobility of the tooth and an outflow of pus that alleviates symptoms. X-rays do not provide a lot of information, but may attest to a widening of the apical space. This pathology may disseminate to surrounding tissues, leading to conditions of considerable severity.

  10. The annual frequency of root fillings, tooth extractions and pulp-related procedures in Danish adults during 1977-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, L.; Reit, C.

    2004-01-01

    endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions......endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions...

  11. Characterization of endo-β-mannanase from Enterobacter ludwigii MY271 and application in pulp industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miao; Cai, Jun; Wang, Changgao; Du, Xin; Lin, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    β-Mannanases are the second most important enzymes for the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. An endo-β-mannanase from Enterobacter ludwigii MY271 was purified at 11.7 ± 0.2-fold to homogeneity with a final recovery of 15.2 ± 0.2 %. Using purified β-mannanase protein and SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass was found to be 43.16 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme was found to be 7.0 and 55 °C, respectively. The β-mannanase activity was stable over a broad pH range of pH 2.0-10.0. In addition, the purified enzyme was highly activated by several metal ions and chemical reagents, such as Mg(2+), L-cysteine, glutathione (GSH) and β-mercaptoethanol. Whereas the enzyme was strongly inhibited by Hg(2+), Cu(2+), N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-amino-propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC), phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The β-mannanase was highly active towards glucomannan, and showed endo-activity by producing a mixture of oligosaccharides. Moreover, the enzyme displayed a classical endo-type mode on mannooligosaccharides. The β-mannanase coupled with xylanase significantly improved the brightness of kraft pulp, whereas it has no remarkable effect on the tensile strength of the pulp. Our functional studies of the purified β-mannanase indicate that the enzyme is beneficial to industrial applications, in particular, biotechnological processes, such as food, feed and pulp industry.

  12. REFINING BEHAVIOUR OF BAMBOO LONG FIBRE FRACTION PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NishiK.Bhardwaj; S.V.Subrahmanyam; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    Refining of pulp significantly contributes to papermaking process by affecting the runnability of the stock and quality of end product. The greater the production rates of a paper, the greater are the effects of machine downtime through breaks. A correct approach towards refining treatment is very essential for energy savings and product with desired properties. Papermakers are being encouraged to use non-wood fibres for a variety of reasons - the environment, changing agricultural policy and long-term fibre supply. Compared with wood fibres, there is less knowledge on how to treat non-wood fibres for optimum performance. Laboratory studies aimed at understanding the behaviour of unbleached bamboo long fibre fraction pulp on refining in Escher Wyss Laborefmer under simulated process conditions included investigations of the important parameters like wet web tensile, wet web elongation, water retention value and paper strength properties. The paper describes the influence of two specific edge loads, 1000 and 1500 Ws/km on refining of pulp. Bamboo long fibre fraction pulp responds better to lower intensity refining to develop pulp strength.

  13. Stellera chamaejasme Roots as Raw Material for Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic pulps were prepared from Stellera chamaejasme roots using soda, soda-anthraquinone (soda-AQ, and kraft pulping processes. S. chamaejasme is composed of 73.5% holocellulose, 39.7% α-cellulose, and 17.6% lignin, similar to wheat straw and other non-wood plant materials. The ethanol–benzene extractives content of 9.2% is higher than other non-woods. The conditions used for all pulping experiments were as follows: a liquid/solid ratio of 5:1; a time-to-maximum temperature of 100 min; a maximum temperature of 160 °C; and a time-at-maximum temperature of 50 min. The results showed that the pulp yield was 31.27 to 36.83%, the kappa number was 16.32 to 19.42, and the pulps’ intrinsic viscosity was 854 to 976 mL/g. Tear index, tensile index, burst index, and brightness of the papers made from the above unbleached pulps were 12.60 to 13.62 mN•m2/g, 20.57 to 22.56 mN/g, 2.16 to 2.38 kPa•m2/g, and 15.3 to 18.3%, respectively.

  14. [Effect of polyphenols of coffee pulp on iron absorption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rozo, M P; Vélez, J; García, L A

    1985-06-01

    The effect of the polyphenols of coffee pulp on iron absorption was studied using the method of ligated segments in rats. Optimal conditions to measure iron absorption, were determined using as criteria the concentration of Fe59 and the time that produced the highest value of blood radioactivity. A concentration of 0.4 uCi/dose of Fe59 and a 3-hr period were chosen to measure iron absorption. Experimental groups were formed assigning six rats randomly to each group. Each group was injected with a solution of 59Fe and either with the standard polyphenol solution or with the coffee pulp extract, except the control group which was injected with the Fe59 solution only. The effect of two polyphenol concentrations was also studied. Iron uptake from the duodenum was found to be the best indicator of iron absorption when compared to the sum of iron uptake by the tissues (blood, liver, spleen, kidneys, heart and carcass). Therefore, this indicator was used to interpret the results obtained. Catechin, tannic acid and the coffee pulp extract decreased significantly iron absorption when compared with the control group. The level of polyphenols used in these experiments is similar to the amounts consumed by animals fed coffee pulp at a 10% level. Therefore, we can conclude that the antinutritional effect of coffee pulp polyphenols may be partially due to their capacity to bind iron.

  15. REFINING BEHAVIOR OF BAMBOO LONG FIBER FRACTION PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nishi K.Bhardwaj; S.V.Subrahmanyam; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    Refining of pulp significantly contributes to papermaking process by affecting the runnability of the stock and quality of end product. The greater the production rates of a paper, the greater are the effects of machine downtime through breaks. A correct approach towards refining treatment is very essential for energy savings and product with desired properties. Papermakers are being encouraged to use non-wood fibres for a variety of reasons - the environment, changing agricultural policy and long-term fibre supply. Compared with wood fibres,there is less knowledge on how to treat non-wood fibres for optimum performance. Laboratory studies aimed at understanding the behaviour of unbleached bamboo long fibre fraction pulp on refining in Escher Wyss Laborefiner under simulated process conditions included investigations of the important parameters like wet web tensile, wet web elongation, water retention value and paper strength properties. The paper describes the influence of two specific edge loads, 1000 and 1500 Ws/km on refining of pulp.Bamboo long fibre fraction pulp responds better to lower intensity refining to develop pulp strength.

  16. INVESTIGATION ON THE CAUSES OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP BRIGHTNESS REVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M. M. Eiras

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Some high brightness eucalyptus Kraft pulps have shown poor brightness stability. In most cases, the causes have notbeen identified and permanent solutions have not been found. This work focused on evaluating the brightness stability profile of pulpsbleached by in sequences such as O(DC(PODD, O(DC(PODP, OD(PODD, OD(PODP, ODHT(PODD, ODHT(PODP, OA/D(PODD, OA/D(PODP, OAD(PODD and O(ZeD(PO. Brightness stability tests induced by according to Tappi UM200 procedureon samples bleached to 90±0.5% ISO. Brightness stability was measured after each bleaching stage of the various sequences andexpressed as brightness loss in % ISO. The results indicate that pulps bleached with sequences ending with a peroxide stage havehigher brightness stability compared to those ending with a chlorine dioxide stage. Pulps bleached with a standard sequence, initiatingwith a (DC stage, show brightness stability similar to that of pulp bleached by an ECF (Elementary chlorine free sequence initiatingwith a regular D0 stage. ECF sequences, initiated with hot stages produce pulps with higher brightness stability than sequencesinitiating with a regular D0 stage. The profile across the bleaching sequences shows a tendency of increased brightness stability inalkaline stages containing peroxide and decreased stability in those stages containing chlorine and/or chlorine dioxide, parallelingpulp carbonyl group content.

  17. Pulp tissue in sex determination: A fluorescent microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Nayar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine and compare the reliability of pulp tissue in determination of sex and to analyze whether caries have any effect on fluorescent body test. Materials and Methods: This study was carried on 50 maxillary and mandibular teeth (25 male teeth and 25 female teeth, which were indicated for extraction. The teeth are categorized into 5 groups, 10 each (5 from males and 5 from females on the basis of caries progression. The pulp cells are stained with quinacrine hydrochloride and observed with fluorescent microscope for fluorescent body. Gender is determined by identification of Y chromosome fluorescence in dental pulp. Results: Fluorescent bodies were found to be more in sound teeth in males as the caries increase the mean percentage of fluorescent bodies observed decreases in males. We also observed the fluorescent spots in females, and the value of the spot increases in female as the caries progresses, thereby giving false positive results in females. Conclusion: Sex determination by fluorescent staining of the Y chromosome is a reliable technique in teeth with healthy pulps or caries with enamel or up to half way of dentin. Teeth with caries involving pulp cannot be used for sex determination.

  18. CLEAVAGE OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP FIBRES BY HCL AND CELLULASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ander

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new pulp fibre testing procedure called the HCl method was used to compare different spruce and pine fibres and mixtures of these fibres to calculate number of fibre cleavages in dislocations and other weak points. This method was compared with treatment of softwood kraft pulp fibres using different cellulase mixtures. The HCl method can distinguish between mill- and laboratory-made softwood kraft pulp fibres from the same wood batch. The sugar release is characterized by xylose and other hemicellulose sugars and little glucose. This is in contrast to cellulases, which despite strong fibre cleavage, did not distinguish between mill- and laboratory-made pulp fibres and released large amounts of glucose from the fibres. Hemicellulose degradation by HCl and deep penetration of the acid into the primary and secondary fibre cell walls at 80°C seems to be of major importance for the differentiation between mill and laboratory pulp fibres. Cellulases, in contrast, act mostly on the fibre surfaces, and deep penetration only takes place in amorphous regions of dislocations.

  19. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology]|[Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Ahring, B.K. [Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group; Lyberatos, G. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology

    2004-07-01

    Biomass rich in carbohydrates is a potential source of hydrogen. Fermentative hydrogen production includes the transformation of sugars into volatile fatty acids (VFA) without a major effect on the organic content. This study examined the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, the semi-solid residue resulting from the two-phase processing of olives. Formation of VFA during acidogenesis of organic matter precedes methanogenesis. Therefore, anaerobic digestion can potentially be coupled with a preliminary step for hydrogen production. This study focused on production of methane from the raw olive pulp; anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp; and, subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with production of methane. Continuous and batch experiments were performed. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen effluent was up to 19 mmole of methane per gram of total solids. It was concluded that olive pulp is a suitable substrate for methane production and that biohydrogen can be coupled with a subsequent step for methane production. 12 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. Indirect pulp capping and primary teeth: is the primary tooth pulpotomy out of date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, James A

    2008-07-01

    Formocresol pulpotomy (FP) in the United States is most frequently used to treat asymptomatic caries near the pulp in primary teeth. Indirect pulp therapy (IPT) is also indicated and has a significantly higher long-term success. Pulpotomy is thought to be indicated for primary teeth with carious pulp exposures, but research shows the majority of such teeth are nonvital or questionable for treatment with vital pulp therapy. IPT has a significantly higher success in treating all primary first molars, but especially those with reversible pulpitis compared with FP. The purpose of this article was to review the dental literature and new research in vital pulp therapy to determine the following: (1) Is a pulpotomy indicated for a true carious pulp exposure? (2) Is there a diagnostic method to reliably identify teeth that are candidates for vital pulp therapy? (3) Is primary tooth pulpotomy out of date, and should indirect pulp therapy replace pulpotomy?

  1. Can miniature pulpotomy procedure improve treatment outcomes of direct pulp capping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Ahmadyar, Maryam

    2012-02-01

    Dental pulp exposure is a common incident during dental treatment. If there are clinical signs of pulp vitality, it is recommended to carry out direct pulp capping (DPC) using appropriate pulp covering agents (PCA). The main objectives are maintenance of pulp vitality/healing along with the formation of a calcified bridge beneath the PCA. Our proposed hypothesis is based on consideration of biologic principles in order to achieve improved treatment outcomes of DPC for cariously exposed pulp using miniature pulpotomy procedure (MPP). MPP will result in improved treatment outcomes of DPC by improved maintenance of a clean surgical pulp wound; removal of infected dentin chips/damaged pulp tissue specially injured odontoblast cells; improved proximity/interaction of PCA to undifferentiated mesenchymal/stem cells; better control of bleeding; and creating an improved seal using PCA.

  2. ENHANCEMENT OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE PULP BY IN-SITU FILLER PRECIPITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    Full Text Available In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate in bagasse fibers resulted in a very significant increase in specific scattering coefficient and consequently large improvements in opacity and brightness of the handsheets made from such pulp. At the same level of filler loading, the scattering coefficient of in-situ precipitated pulp was much greater than for directly loaded pulp. In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate caused a drop in strength properties of bagasse pulp, but such loss could be recovered to a large extent by blending with other pulps. The effect of in-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate on pulp fibers was quite different for bagasse pulp from hardwood pulp. In-situ precipitation of calcium carbonate on hardwood fibers showed neither much improvement in optical properties nor much reduction in strength properties.

  3. Application of thermoalkalophilic xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 in biobleaching of kraft pulp

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Bhosle, N.B.

    released by enzyme treatment showed a characteristic peak at 280 nm indicating the presence of lignin in the released coloring matter. Enzymatic prebleaching of kraft pulp showed 20 % reduction in kappa number of the pulp without much change in viscosity...

  4. Physical and chemical characterization of the pulp of different varieties of avocado targeting oil extraction potential Caracterização física e química da polpa de diferentes variedades de abacate visando o potencial para extração de óleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinéia Dotti Mooz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of avocado pulp of four different varieties (Avocado, Guatemala, Dickinson, and Butter pear and to identify which has the greatest potential for oil extraction. Fresh avocado pulp was characterized by moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energy contents were determined. The carotenoids and chlorophyll contents were determined by the organic solvent extraction method. The results showed significant differences in the composition of the fruit when varieties are compared. However, the striking feature in all varieties is high lipid content; Avocado and Dickinson are the most suitable varieties for oil extraction, taking into account moisture content and the levels of lipids in the pulp. Moreover, it could be said that the variety Dickinson is the most affected by the parameters evaluated in terms of overall quality. Chlorophyll and carotenoids, fat-soluble pigments, showed a negative correlation with respect to lipids since it could be related to its function in the fruit. The varieties Avocado and Dickinson are an alternative to oil extraction having great commercial potential to be exploited thus avoiding waste and increasing farmers’ income.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as características físico-químicas da polpa de abacate de quatro diferentes variedades (Avocado, Guatemala, Dicson e Manteiga, visando identificar qual possui maior potencial para extração de óleo. A polpa de abacate fresca foi caracterizada através da determinação dos teores de umidade, proteína, lipídios, cinzas, carboidratos e valor energético. Os teores de carotenoides e clorofila foram determinados através do método de extração com solvente orgânico. Os resultados mostram diferenças significativas na composição dos frutos, quando se confrontam as variedades. No entanto, a característica marcante em todas as variedades é o alto teor de lipídios, sendo as variedades

  5. Micro-tensile bond strength of adhesives to pulp chamber dentin after irrigation with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Ç Barutcigil; Arslan, H.; Özcan, E.; O T Harorli

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution on adhesion, that is, the bond strength of the different adhesive systems, to the pulp chamber dentin. Materials and Methods: Recently extracted, sound, human, third molars were cut horizontally to expose the pulp horn. The roof of the pulp chamber and pulp tissue was removed. The teeth were then divided into five main groups. The teeth in each group were ...

  6. Research on the properties of dope-dyed bamboo pulp staple fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. J.

    2016-07-01

    In order to understand the properties of the dope-dyed bamboo pulp staple fibers, the moisture regains, tensile properties, friction properties and electrical conductivity of them and the white bamboo pulp fiber were tested, compared and analyzed. The results show that the moisture regains of the dope-dyed bamboo pulp fibers are smaller than the white bamboo pulp fiber's, whereas their friction coefficients, breaking strengths and elongations and mass ratio resistances are a bit larger.

  7. HISTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF IN VITRO REGENERATION OF HUMAN DENTAL PULP COMPLEX WITH AUTOLOGOUS TISSULAR ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Márquez, Ricardo Manuel; Docente Colaborador del Departamento de Ciencias Básicas Estomatológicas, Curso de Patología General y del Sistema Estomatognático. Facultad de Odontología. UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    A long time ago, dental pulp-complex regeneration was our main objective in radicular reparation which could guarantee all appropiate growth of healthy and functional tissue. The present study is about a histological assay of a new dentinal-pulp complex formation using platelet rich plasm, pulpar tissue and fibrina, all autolougus, as components of dental pulp tissular engineering treatment. Qualitative and quantitative assays about the dentin pulp-complex regeneration grade on experimental a...

  8. The energy saving potential of a new mechanical pulping process; Puristushieronnan mahdollisuudet mekaanisen massanvalmistuksen energiakulutuksen pienentaemisessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietarila, V. (UPM-Kymmene OYj, Lappeenranta (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    The target of this project is to develop a new mechanical pulping process to produce papermaking pulp from chips. Energy consumption of this process should be remarkably lower than in mill processes today. In earlier small scale studies it has been pointed out that it could be possible to produce acceptable pulp in a process that differs from todayAEs pulp production methods. Anyhow extensive research efforts are required to test and develop this new process. (orig.)

  9. Innovative endodontic therapy for anti-inflammatory direct pulp capping of permanent teeth with a mature apex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Direct pulp capping is a treatment of an exposed vital pulp with a dental material to facilitate the formation of reparative dentin and maintenance of vital pulp. It has been studied as an alternate way to avoid vital pulp extirpation. However, the success rate of pulp capping is much lower than that of vital pulp extirpation. Therefore, direct pulp capping is currently considered controversial by many clinicians. To increase success rate, a critical need exists to develop new biologically-based therapeutics that reduce pulp inflammation, promote the continued formation of new dentin-pulp complex, and restore vitality by stimulating the regrowth of pulpal tissue. Bioengineered anti-inflammatory direct pulp capping materials, together with adhesive materials for leakage prevention, have great potential to improve the condition of the existing pulp from an inflamed to a non-inflamed status and lead to a high rate of long-term success. PMID:20416524

  10. Soda pulp and fuel gases synthesis from Hesperaloe funifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Requejo, Ana; Ferrer, Ana; Navarro, Enrique

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the suitability of Hesperaloe funifera which is an alternative raw material, for pulping with soda-anthraquinone to produce pulp and paper. It was studied the influence of operational variables (temperature (155-185 degrees C), cooking time (20-60 min) and soda concentration (5-15%), with a constant addition of 1% of anthraquinone and a liquid/solid ratio of 8, in soda-anthraquinone cooking of H. funifera on pulps and paper sheets properties obtained. Finally, the cooking liquors were acidified to separate solid fractions that were subjected to pyrolysis and gasification in order to obtain synthesis and fuel gases. H. funifera contains little lignin and abundant alpha-cellulose; this, together with the morphological characteristics of its fibers, makes it a potentially highly useful papermaking raw material.

  11. Design of a Turbulence Generator of Medium Consistency Pulp Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbulence generator is a key component of medium consistency centrifugal pulp pumps, with functions to fluidize the medium consistency pulp and to separate gas from the liquid. Structure sizes of the generator affect the hydraulic performance. The radius and the blade laying angle are two important structural sizes of a turbulence generator. Starting with the research on the flow inside and shearing characteristics of the MC pulp, a simple mathematical model at the flow section of the shearing chamber is built, and the formula and procedure to calculate the radius of the turbulence generator are established. The blade laying angle is referenced from the turbine agitator which has the similar shape with the turbulence generator, and the CFD simulation is applied to study the different flow fields with different blade laying angles. Then the recommended blade laying angle of the turbulence generator is formed to be between 60° and 75°.

  12. The peel and pulp of mango fruit: a proteomic samba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Elisa; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of mango peel and pulp as well their peptidome content (the latter as captured with a C18 resin). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the mango proteome, but also to assess the potential presence of allergens and of peptides endowed with biological activities. The proteins of peel and pulp have been captured under both native and denaturing extraction techniques. A total of 334 unique protein species have been identified in the peel vs. 2855 in the pulp, via capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2).

  13. Experimental studies on pulp and paper mill sludge ash behavior in fluidized bed combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latva-Somppi, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology

    1998-11-01

    Ash formation during the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of pulp and paper mill sludges has been experimentally studied on an industrial and bench scale. The methods included aerosol measurements, chemical and crystalline composition analyses, thermogravimetry and electron microscopy. Fly ash mass and number size distributions and elemental enrichment in submicron particles and bottom ash were measured. Fly ash, bottom ash and ash deposits were characterized and their formation mechanisms are discussed. During combustion the fine paper-making additives in sludge, clay minerals and calcite, sintered fanning porous agglomerates. The fly ash mass mean size was 7.5 - 15 lam and the supermicron particles included 93.6 - 97.3 % of the fly ash. Condensation of the volatilized inorganic species formed spherical submicron particles in the fly ash. Their mass concentration was almost negligible when co-firing paper mill sludges and wood. This suggests that the fraction of the volatilized inorganic species in the paper mill sludges was low. Results from pulp mill sludge and bark co-firing were different. A clear mass mode below 0.3 pm, presenting 2.2 - 5.0 weight-% of the fly ash was detected. The condensed species included K, Na, S and Cl. Their mass fraction was higher in the pulp mill sludge than in the paper mill sludge. Evidently this resulted in increased volatilization and formation of condensed particles. The following trace elements were enriched in the submicron ash during pulp mill sludge and wood co-firing: As, Cd, Rb and Pb. The main part of the volatile species was, however, captured in the bulk ash. Presumably, this was due to the high surface area concentration in the bulk ash. Sludge moisture was observed to reduce the inorganic species volatilization. Probably steam vaporization from the wet sludge through the burning layer decreased combustion temperatures on char surface and less char was produced. Hence, the volatilization of ash forming species was

  14. Catalytic oxidation of pulping effluent by activated carbon-supported heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Bholu Ram; Garg, Anurag

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with the non-catalytic and catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) for the removal of persistent organic compounds from the pulping effluent. Two activated carbon-supported heterogeneous catalysts (Cu/Ce/AC and Cu/Mn/AC) were used for CWO after characterization by the following techniques: temperature-programmed reduction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis. The oxidation reaction was performed in a batch high-pressure reactor (capacity = 0.7  L) at moderate oxidation conditions (temperature = 190°C and oxygen pressure = 0.9 MPa). With Cu/Ce/AC catalyst, the maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and lignin removals of 79%, 77% and 88% were achieved compared to only 50% removal during the non-catalytic process. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to COD ratio (a measure for biodegradability) of the pulping effluent was improved to 0.52 from an initial value of 0.16. The mass balance calculations for solid recovered after CWO reaction showed 8% and 10% deduction in catalyst mass primarily attributed to the loss of carbon and metal leaching. After the CWO process, carbon deposition was also observed on the recovered catalyst which was responsible for around 3-4% TOC reduction.

  15. Oil quality of passion fruit seeds subjected to a pulp-waste purification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Alvarenga Regis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit seeds must be clean and dry before the extraction processing to obtain high-quality oil for edible and cosmetic purposes. This research studies the viability of a cleaning process of seeds by evaluating the oil quality. The research examined 2 maturation stages of the fruit and one purification process of the seeds, compared to the control. The oil quality was evaluated by fatty acid composition, acidity, peroxide value and oxidative stability. The pulp waste suffered a thermal treatment in an alkaline water solution at 60°C for 10min and was further purified in an experimental decanter. In the control treatment, the pulp waste was processed using only water at ambient conditions. The passion fruit seeds were totally cleaned by the thermal/chemical treatment, allowing a faster drying (less than 50% of the drying time of the seeds and a bit higher yield of oil extraction (proportionally around 7.7%, without changes in quality of the oil

  16. Enhanced Biodegradability of Aerobic Sludge by Bioaugmentation for Pulping Effluent Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To demonstrate the feasibility of bioaugmentation in enhancement of the biodegradation of pulping effluent, aerobic sludge was intensified with superior mixed flora. The differences between intensified aerobic activated sludge and original sludge were compared. The results showed that the chemical oxygen demand (COD of pulping effluent treated with the intensified sludge dropped to a much lower level compared with the original sludge, which indicated that the biodegradability of sludge was enhanced by bioaugmentation. The growth kinetics of the sludges were established. The growth rate Vmax of the intensified sludge was elevated from 7.8×10-3 to 7.1×10-3, while the saturation constant Ks decreased from 0.33 to 0.21 after bioaugmentation. In addition, the degradation kinetics showed that the equation coefficient of sludge increased from 4.6×10-3 to 6.4×10-3, confirming the intensification of biodegradation as a result of bioaugmentation.

  17. Fermentative lactic acid production from coffee pulp hydrolysate using Bacillus coagulans at laboratory and pilot scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Neu, Anna-Katrin; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the lignocellulosic residue coffee pulp was used as carbon source in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production using Bacillus coagulans. After thermo-chemical treatment at 121°C for 30min in presence of 0.18molL(-1) H2SO4 and following an enzymatic digestion using Accellerase 1500 carbon-rich hydrolysates were obtained. Two different coffee pulp materials with comparable biomass composition were used, but sugar concentrations in hydrolysates showed variations. The primary sugars were (gL(-1)) glucose (20-30), xylose (15-25), sucrose (5-11) and arabinose (0.7-10). Fermentations were carried out at laboratory (2L) and pilot (50L) scales in presence of 10gL(-1) yeast extract. At pilot scale carbon utilization and lactic acid yield per gram of sugar consumed were 94.65% and 0.78gg(-1), respectively. The productivity was 4.02gL(-1)h(-1). Downstream processing resulted in a pure formulation containing 937gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.7%.

  18. Determination of sugars, organic acids, aroma components, and carotenoids in grapefruit pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Quan, Junping; Zheng, Qiao; Xi, Wanpeng

    2016-08-15

    The composition and content of sugars, organic acids, volatiles and carotenoids, in the pulps of six grapefruit cultivars, were examined by HPLC and GC-MS. The results showed that sucrose was the dominant sugar in grapefruit, making up 40.08-59.68% of the total sugars, and the ratio of fructose to glucose was almost 1:1. Citric acid was the major organic acid and represented 39.10-63.55% of the total organic acids, followed by quininic acid. The ratios of individual sugars and organic acids play an important role in grapefruit taste determination. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the predominant volatiles in grapefruit, in particular d-limonene and caryophyllene. Caryophyllene, α-humulene, humulen-(v1), β-linalool and tert-butyl 2-methylpropanoate are the characteristic aroma compounds of grapefruit. Although β-carotene is the primary carotenoid in grapefruit, the pulp color is mainly determined by the ratios of zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. Our results provide the first complete chemical characterization of the taste, aroma and color of grapefruit.

  19. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, L; Fernandes, E; Escapa, A L; Fajardo, A; Aligue, R; Albericio, F; Neng, N R; Nogueira, J M F; Romano, A

    2011-07-13

    Extracts from fruit pulps of six female cultivars and two hermaphrodite Portuguese carob trees [(Ceratonia siliqua L., Fabaceae)] exhibited strong antioxidant activity and were rich in phenolic compounds. The extracts decreased the viability of different human cancer cell lines on a dose- and time-dependent manner. Gender and cultivar significantly influenced the chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts. Extracts from hermaphrodite trees had a higher content of phenolic compounds, and exhibited higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Among females, cv. Aida had the highest radical scavenging activity and total content of phenolics, Mulata the highest capacity to inhibit lipid oxidation and Gasparinha the strongest cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells. The decrease in cell viability was associated with apoptosis on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 lines. (+)-Catechin and gallic acid (GA) were the main compounds identified in the extracts, and GA contributed to the antioxidant activity. Our results show that the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar, and provide new knowledge about the advantages of hermaphrodite trees over female cultivars, namely, as a source of compounds with biological interest, which may represent an increase of their agronomic interest.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of individual pulp fiber bonds quantifies the mechanisms of fiber bonding in paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirn, Ulrich; Schennach, Robert

    2015-05-01

    The process of papermaking requires substantial amounts of energy and wood consumption, which contributes to larger environmental costs. In order to optimize the production of papermaking to suit its many applications in material science and engineering, a quantitative understanding of bonding forces between the individual pulp fibers is of importance. Here we show the first approach to quantify the bonding energies contributed by the individual bonding mechanisms. We calculated the impact of the following mechanisms necessary for paper formation: mechanical interlocking, interdiffusion, capillary bridges, hydrogen bonding, Van der Waals forces, and Coulomb forces on the bonding energy. Experimental results quantify the area in molecular contact necessary for bonding. Atomic force microscopy experiments derive the impact of mechanical interlocking. Capillary bridges also contribute to the bond. A model based on the crystal structure of cellulose leads to values for the chemical bonds. In contrast to general believe which favors hydrogen bonding Van der Waals bonds play the most important role according to our model. Comparison with experimentally derived bond energies support the presented model. This study characterizes bond formation between pulp fibers leading to insight that could be potentially used to optimize the papermaking process, while reducing energy and wood consumption.

  1. [The significance of endogenous peptides for dental pulp pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göres, M; Oehme, P; Zuhrt, R

    1989-01-01

    The increase of knowledges in the field of endorphines and other peptides causes new aspects of development and transmission of dental pain. Methionin-enkephalin (ME) and substance P (SP) are found also in the dental pulp and the dentine. The concentration of SP is higher in the pulp, than in some other tissues. The concentration of both, ME and SP, in the endodont is different with respect to different functional situations, e.g. it is lower in case of pain. We suppose, there is a peptiderg reception and transmission of pain in dentine. Interaction with this new system opens new ways for opposing pulpal pain.

  2. Identification and Isolation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionDentinal repair in the postnatal organism occurs through the activity of specialized cells, odontoblasts, that are thought to be maintained by an as yet undefined precursor population associated with pulp tissue. Adult pulp stem cells was found in 2000. Now, it become a critical research in the world and a new stem-cells resourse for potential clinical applications. But, specific marker of DPSCs is not clear. STRO-1 was the marker that used universally. But, the expression rate was very low in...

  3. Effects of Ethanol Pulping on the Length of Bamboo Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yang; Liao Junhe; Luo Xuegang

    2006-01-01

    On the conditions of different ethanol concentration, acids and catalyzers, the effects of ethanol pulping on the cellulose length of bamboo were studied. The results indicates that ethanol pulping has remarkable effects on the length of cellulose, which is clearly reduced with adding ethanol and acid. The margin of length of cellulose become smaller with the increase of the catalyzer. When the ethanol concentration was 70%, the concentration of acid was 0.3% and some NaOH was used as catalyzer, the length of cellulose was the longest.

  4. Engineering aspects of enzymatic fiber solubilization from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Helle Christine

    ), and content of the glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine. The monosaccharide composition, DM, and content of α-solanine remained rather unchanged, whereas DAc and content of α-chaconine decreased significantly during the campaign. The seven samples were subjected to the same enzymatic treatment...... suggested that potato pulp produced late in the campaign would be preferable to upgrade, due to the higher yield and lower risk of toxicity from glycoalkaloids. The outcome may be the result of an inherent effect of the higher ripeness of the potatoes late in the campaign. Producing fibers from potato pulp...

  5. On the application of grits to thermomechanical pulp refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somboon, P.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this thesis was to develop a mechanical pulping process capable of producing good-quality pulp, while consuming less electrical energy. The study focused on applying of grits to TMP refining to enhance the breaking of the fiber cell wall promoting faster development of pulp fibers to the desired quality for papermaking. The study comprises tests at laboratory scale and development of an application for industrial, including trials at pilot scale A preliminary trial with the grit application in TMP refining was conducted at laboratory scale. The results showed that the grits should be introduced between the first and second stages in TMP refining. The grit treatment on the TMP fibers caused disruption of the wall structure, opening of the outer layers and peeling-off of the cell wall. The efficient disruption with minimal shortening and weakening of fibers was found to be operated at a low-intensity and high-frequency of treatment. According to an experiment with first-stage TMP pulp, the disrupted pulp developed faster during subsequent refining, while the energy consumption was reduced by up to 30% without a significant loss of pulp quality. With the aim of developing an industrial application, the refiner segments were modified by applying grits on the refiner segment surfaces. The grits were made from self-fluxing tungsten-carbide powder and a Ni-base alloy powder, which were laser-clad onto the surface of breaker bars, the inner part of a segment. Trials with grit segments were carried out on a pilot refiner. The grit segments were applied in first-stage TMP refining, followed by treatment with base segments operated under normal mill conditions. The grit segments were found to have no negative effects on the refining system. A refiner equipped with grit segments, operated at a speed of 2400 rpm, produced pulp with a higher level of disruption of fiber cell walls than a refiner equipped with the reference segments. According to the results, the

  6. Evaluation of the Phytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izharul Haq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper mill effluent induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L. were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity (EC, biological oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and total phenols of the pulp and paper mill effluent were beyond the permissible limit specified for the discharge of effluent in inland water bodies. Compared to control plants, seedling exposed to 100% effluent concentration showed a reduction in root and shoot length and biomass by 65%, 67%, and 84%, respectively, after 5 days of treatment. A. cepa root tip cells exposed to effluent concentrations ranging from 25 to 100% v/v showed a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI from 32 to 11% with respect to control root tip cells (69% indicating effluent induced cytotoxicity. Further, the effluent induced DNA damage as evidenced by the presence of various chromosomal aberrations like stickiness, chromosome loss, anaphase bridge, c-mitosis, tripolar anaphase, vagrant chromosome, and telophase bridge and micronucleated and binucleated cell in A. cepa. Findings of the present study indicate that pulp and paper mill effluents may act as genotoxic and phytotoxic agents in plant model system.

  7. Statistical optimization of bioprocess parameters for enhanced gallic acid production from coffee pulp tannins by Penicillium verrucosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoite, Roopali N; Navya, P N; Murthy, Pushpa S

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) was produced by microbial biotransformation of coffee pulp tannins by Penicillium verrucosum. Gallic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design. Process parameters such as pH, moisture, and fermentation period were considered for optimization. Among the various fungi isolated from coffee by-products, Penicillium verrucosum produced 35.23 µg/g of gallic acid on coffee pulp as sole carbon source in solid-state fermentation. The optimum values of the parameters obtained from the RSM were pH 3.32, moisture 58.40%, and fermentation period of 96 hr. Gallic acid production with an increase of 4.6-fold was achieved upon optimization of the process parameters. The results optimized could be translated to 1-kg tray fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and spectral studies such as mass spectroscopy (MS) and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) confirmed that the bioactive compound isolated was gallic acid. Thus, coffee pulp, which is available in enormous quantity, could be used for the production of value-added products that can find avenues in food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries.

  8. Combined effects of independent variables on yield and protein content of pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp by citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Qiang; Du, Guang-Ming; Jing, Wei-Wen; Li, Jun-Fang; Yan, Jia-Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yong

    2015-09-20

    The extraction of pectin from sugar beet pulp by citric acid was carried out under different conditions using Box-Behnken design for four independent variables (pH, temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio). The yield of sugar beet pulp pectin ranged from 6.3% to 23.0%, and the content of protein from 1.5% to 4.5%. All independent variables significantly affected the yield, and all variables except liquid to solid ratio significantly affected the protein content. The yield increased as decreasing pH of extracting solution, extending time and advancing temperature, and an opposite relationship of effects between variables and content of protein was obtained. The chemical composition of collected samples was determined. Moreover, from the results of emulsifying properties study, the extracted pectin from sugar beet pulp could prepare steady oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, it was inferred that the extraction conditions could influence yield and protein content, resulting in different emulsifying property.

  9. In-vitro Study on Temperature Changes in the Pulp Chamber Due to Thermo-Cure Glass Ionomer Cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duinen, Raimond NB; Shahid, Saroash; Hill, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The application of the Glass Ionomer Cements in clinical dentistry is recommended due to properties such as fluoride release, chemical adhesion to tooth, negligible setting shrinkage, and coefficient of thermal expansion close to tooth, low creep, and good color stability. However, the cement is vulnerable to early exposure to moisture due to slow setting characteristics. The uses of external energy such as ultrasound and radiant heat (Thermo-curing) have been reported to provide acceleration of the setting chemistry and enhance physical properties. Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze temperature changes in the pulpal chamber when using radiant heat to accelerate the setting of GICs. Material and Methods:The encapsulated GIC Equia Forte was used for this study. The temperature changes in the pulp were measured using thermocouple in the cavities which were 2,6 and 4,7mm deep with and without filling. Results:The results showed that a temperature rise (ΔT) in the pulp chamber was 3,7°C. ΔT for the 2.6mm and 4.7mm deep cavity and without placing any restoration the temperature was 4,2°C and 2,6°C respectively. After the restoration has been placed, the ΔT range in the pulp chamber was lower ranging from 1.9°C to 2.4°C. Conclusion: It could be concluded that Thermo-curing of the GIC during the setting is safe for the pulp and can be recommended in clinical practice. PMID:28275275

  10. Combination of alkaline and enzymatic treatments as a process for upgrading sisal paper-grade pulp to dissolving-grade pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, David; Köpcke, Viviana; Larsson, Per Tomas; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina; Ek, Monica

    2010-10-01

    A sequence of treatments consisting of an initial xylanase treatment followed by cold alkaline extraction and a final endoglucanase treatment was investigated as a process for upgrading non-wood paper-grade pulps to dissolving-grade pulps for viscose production. Five commercial dried bleached non-wood soda/AQ paper pulps, from flax, hemp, sisal, abaca, and jute, were studied for this purpose. Commercial dried bleached eucalyptus dissolving pulp was used as reference sample. Sisal pulp showed the highest improvement in Fock's reactivity, reaching levels nearly as high or even higher than that of eucalyptus dissolving pulp (65%), and a low hemicellulose content (3-4%) when was subjected to this sequence of treatments. The viscosity, however, decreased considerably. A uniform and narrow molecular weight distribution was observed by size exclusion chromatography. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Raman microspectroscopy revealed that the cellulose structure consisted of cellulose I.

  11. The 90,000 t/a Pulp Project of Yunjing Forest & Pulp in Production Trail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On May 28, Yunjing Forest & Pulp Co., Ltd. held a ceremony to celebrate the start of production trial for its 90,000 t/a pulp rebuilding project. After the completion of the project, the annual production capacity and annual output value of the company can be increased from 110,000 tons to 250,000 tons and from RMB 600 million to RMB 3. billion, respectively, which will lay a solid foundation for the construction of a new 30,000 tons household paper production line.

  12. Papaya pulp gelling: is it premature ripening or problems of water accumulation in the apoplast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Gelled aspect in papaya fruit is typically confused with premature ripening. This research reports the characterization of this physiological disorder in the pulp of papaya fruit by measuring electrolyte leakage, Pi content, lipid peroxidation, pulp firmness, mineral contents (Ca, Mg and K - in pulp and seed tissues, and histological analysis of pulp tissue. The results showed that the gelled aspect of the papaya fruit pulp is not associated with tissue premature ripening. Data indicate a reduction of the vacuole water intake as the principal cause of the loss of cellular turgor; while the waterlogged aspect of the tissue may be due to water accumulation in the apoplast.

  13. Vital pulp therapy in symptomatic immature permanent molars: Report of 3 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SheikhRezaie MS.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nEndodontic treatment of immature permanent teeth accompanies with several issues. The primary goal when treating such teeth is to maintain pulp vitality so that root development can occur normally. Indications and requirements for vital pulp therapy include asymptomatic and reversible pulpitis. Also there are controversial opinions regarding the ultimate clinical treatment of the vital pulp therapy techniques. In this manuscript we report 3 cases of immature symptomatic permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis caused by caries exposure of the pulp that have been undergone vital pulp therapy successfully.

  14. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Linghui [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Guo, Ronghui, E-mail: ronghuiguo214@126.com [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Lan, Jianwu [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Shouxiang [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, Shaojian [Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg Bundesstrasse 45, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric using dopamine as an adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. • Silver coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine has good UV protection and hydrophobic property. • Silver nanoparticles can be strongly fixed on dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  15. SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULP FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF FOR LINERBOARD PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to prepare soda- anthraquinone pulp from kenaf whole stem and to compare the resultant core and bast pulps for linerboard production. Pulping was done under mild cooking conditions (active alkali 12-15% with a cooking time of 30-90 min and a temperature of 160ºC. During the pulping process, kappa numbers ranged from 56.0 to 20.6, while total yields varied from 58.4 to 54.2% with a rejection rate of 2.3 to 0.1%. Based on the quality of pulp produced, kappa numbers 49.4 and 25.4 was selected as symbolic of high and low pulps respectively. The results of the study revealed significant difference between the properties of core, whole stem (KHK and KLK, and bast pulps. Core pulps with low freeness and high drainage time the study found produced sheets with greater density, tensile index, burst index and RCT, with lower light scattering coefficient and tear index than bast pulp. Whole stem pulps showed properties between those of core and bast pulps. Moreover, KLK with high drainage time produced papers with significantly higher strength properties than KHK.

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF SEED AND PULP OF MONKEY COLA ( Cola millenii ON SOME SELECTED CLINICAL AND FOOD BORNE ISOLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giwa O. E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analyses of pulp and seed of Cola milleniiK. Sckhum showed that the extractcontained alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrate, sterol, resin and terpenes that could beresponsible for the observed antimicrobial activities. The bioactives compounds of pulp and seed extract of ColamilleniiK. Sckhum were extracted, using both aqueous (water and organic (ethanol solvents, and wereinvestigated for antimicrobial activity some pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms using agar welldiffusion method. The aqueous extract did not show significant difference in their activities against the variousorganisms but the ethanolic extract had a significant activity demonstrating the highest activity against the testorganisms using analysis of variance p<0.05. The seed extract demonstrated higher activity against both the grampositive and gram negative organisms tested, and also against the selected test fungi with the highest activity(1.73±0.06 cm zone of inhibition against Aspergillusniger. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC andminimum bactericidal/ fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC of the extract ranges between 40-160 mg/ml forboth the seed and pulp of the plant. The antimicrobial property shown by the plant extract is an evidence of theethno-medicinal uses of the plant. Cola millenii seed and pulp bioactive content may therefore be extracted anduse as antibiotics and/or preservative in foods as the result is comparable with commercially available antibioticsand chemical preservatives.

  17. Integrated control of emission reductions, energy-saving, and cost-benefit using a multi-objective optimization technique in the pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zongguo; Xu, Chang; Zhang, Xueying

    2015-03-17

    Reduction of water pollutant emissions and energy consumption is regarded as a key environmental objective for the pulp and paper industry. The paper develops a bottom-up model called the Industrial Water Pollutant Control and Technology Policy (IWPCTP) based on an industrial technology simulation system and multiconstraint technological optimization. Five policy scenarios covering the business as usual (BAU) scenario, the structural adjustment (SA) scenario, the cleaner technology promotion (CT) scenario, the end-treatment of pollutants (EOP) scenario, and the coupling measures (CM) scenario have been set to describe future policy measures related to the development of the pulp and paper industry from 2010-2020. The outcome of this study indicates that the energy saving amount under the CT scenario is the largest, while that under the SA scenario is the smallest. Under the CT scenario, savings by 2020 include 70 kt/year of chemical oxygen demand (COD) emission reductions and savings of 7443 kt of standard coal, 539.7 ton/year of ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) emission reductions, and savings of 7444 kt of standard coal. Taking emission reductions, energy savings, and cost-benefit into consideration, cleaner technologies like highly efficient pulp washing, dry and wet feedstock preparation, and horizontal continuous cooking, medium and high consistency pulping and wood dry feedstock preparation are recommended.

  18. Dental pulp response to traumatic injuries--a retrospective analysis with case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiglin, B

    1996-02-01

    The reactions of the dental pulp to traumatic injuries can be extremely varied. They range from almost immediate pulp death to long-term slow pulp canal calcification. In this study the pulpal reactions were divided into three types: pulps with a very poor prognosis that required endodontic therapy soon after the tooth was traumatized. Seventy-nine teeth were studied in this category, and all 79 teeth required endodontic therapy; pulps with a moderate prognosis that required endodontic intervention some 18 to 24 months after the traumatic episode. Forty-eight teeth were studied in this category, and 27 of them required endodontic therapy: pulps with a very good prognosis that rarely required endodontic therapy. Fifty-two teeth were studied in this category, and only 2 required endodontic therapy. The prognosis of a particular pulp depends on the degree and type of trauma.

  19. Influence of the hexenuronic acid content on refining and ageing in eucalyptus TCF pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Edith M; Vidal, Teresa; Torres, Antonio L

    2010-05-01

    Brightness in totally chlorine-free (TCF) pulp is more unstable than it is in elemental chlorine-free (ECF) pulp, seemingly by effect of the former containing greater amounts of oxidizable structures such as hexenuronic acids (HexA). Accelerated ageing tests involving the application of moist heat to pulp revealed that brightness reversion can be alleviated by using an effective biotechnological method involving an enzyme-mediator treatment. Thus, the joint use of laccase from Trametes villosa and the mediator hydroxybenzotrialoze (HBT) in TCF pulp removes hexenuronic acids by 23% and reduces brightness reversion by 8.4%. Additional tests conducted to assess the effect of HexA on pulp refining revealed that these oxidizable structures introduce hydrophilicity in the pulp. Removing hexenuronic acids from TCF pulp alters its refining outcome as regards drainability ( degrees SR) and water retention capacity (%WRV); also, it leads to paper with comparable strength-related properties which requires no additional refining energy.

  20. Morphological and mechanical effects of extended beating on EFB pulp web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukeri, Mohd Ridzuan Hafiz Mohd; Ghazali, Arniza; Lazin, Mohd Azli Khairil Mat

    2012-09-01

    The pulp extracted from the alkaline peroxide pulping (APP) of EFB was beaten from 500 revolutions to 10000 revolutions using PFI mill to investigate the morphological changes undergone by the pulp and the resultant effect on paper sheet properties. As a result of beating, pulp elements were observed as intensely fibrillated, reducing the amounts of fibre bundles and thus, reducing interruption in the inter-fiber bonding. To a defined extent, beating was also seen as unwinding the structure of vessel element to a single strand of loose spiral body. These fibrillated vessel elements of APP pulp from EFB, plus the fines element germinating from further segmentation of the vessels, were the factors contributing to the overall strength improvement of the produced EFB pulp network. The applied increment in beating revolution had apparently widened the known broad spectrum quality of APP pulp from EFB. This demonstrates EFB potential for application in specialty paper production.

  1. CAMPURAN PULP TANDAN KOSONG KELAPA SAWIT DAN SELULOSA MIKROBIAL NATA DE CASSAVA DALAM PEMBUATAN KERTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaswar Syamsu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, forest-extracted wood cellulose still predominantly serves as raw material for pulp and paper manufacture in Indonesia. Consequently, the deforestation rate has alarmingly increased. The purpose of this research is to study the use of mixed microbial cellulose pulp from nata de cassava and pulp from empty oil palm fruit bunch (EOPFB for paper manufacture. In this research, pulp of nata de cassava’s microbial cellulose was mixed with EOPFB pulp at various proportions. Additives (i.e. 2% alum, 2.5% tapioca starch, and 5% kaolin were added to such mixture. Sheet forming without additives was made as a control. Addition of microbial cellulose tends to increase the physical and strength properties of paper and decrease the capability to absorb water significantly. The mixture of pulp of empty oil palm fruit bunch and microbial cellulose from nata de cassava has a potency to substitute wood pulp for paper manufacture.

  2. Pulp response in sound and carious teeth: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R C

    1981-02-01

    This article describes a pilot investigation in which the response of the pulps in both sound and carious rat molar teeth to traumatic exposure and treatment with three different compounds was assessed. Two of the compounds appeared to give a more favorable response in carious teeth. These results are discussed, and future experiments described.

  3. Role of tissue engineering in dental pulp regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Sial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer′s disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are primarily found in niches and that certain tissues contain more stem cells than others. Among these tissues, the dental pulp is considered a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. It is known that dental pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including odontoblasts, neural progenitors, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative. Collectively, the multipotency, high proliferation rates, and accessibility make the dental pulp an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. This review discusses fundamental concepts of stem cell biology and tissue engineering within the context of regenerative dentistry.

  4. Allogenic banking of dental pulp stem cells for innovative therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Chaubron, Franck; De Vos, John; Cuisinier, Frédéric J

    2015-08-26

    Medical research in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy has brought encouraging perspectives for the use of stem cells in clinical trials. Multiple types of stem cells, from progenitors to pluripotent stem cells, have been investigated. Among these, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are mesenchymal multipotent cells coming from the dental pulp, which is the soft tissue within teeth. They represent an interesting adult stem cell source because they are recovered in large amount in dental pulps with non-invasive techniques compared to other adult stem cell sources. DPSCs can be obtained from discarded teeth, especially wisdom teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. To shift from promising preclinical results to therapeutic applications to human, DPSCs must be prepared in clinical grade lots and transformed into advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP). As the production of patient-specific stem cells is costly and time-consuming, allogenic biobanking of clinical grade human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed DPSC lines provides efficient innovative therapeutic products. DPSC biobanks represent industrial and therapeutic innovations by using discarded biological tissues (dental pulps) as a source of mesenchymal stem cells to produce and store, in good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions, DPSC therapeutic batches. In this review, we discuss about the challenges to transfer biological samples from a donor to HLA-typed DPSC therapeutic lots, following regulations, GMP guidelines and ethical principles. We also present some clinical applications, for which there is no efficient therapeutics so far, but that DPSCs-based ATMP could potentially treat.

  5. Fatty acids profile of pulp and nuts of Brazilian fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and nuts from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil were collected to determine the fatty acid profile of their oils. The species studied were Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Mucajá (Couma rigida M., Inajá (Maximiliana maripa D., Jenipapo (Genipa Americana L., and Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. nuts. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Brazil nut major fatty acid was 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, and Buriti nut had approximately 23 times more 18:3n-3 than the pulp. Mucajá nut presented high content of 12:0 (lauric acid and 16:0 (palmitic acid, and Mucajá pulp showed significant levels of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid. Considering the PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid sum values, almost all fruits and nuts analyzed presented very high levels of these compounds. Regarding n-6/n-3 ratio, only Brazil Nut, Buriti Nut, Inajá pulp, and Jenipapo pulp corresponded to the desired profile. These Brazilian fruits and nuts could be of potential interest due to their high nutritive value and lipid content.

  6. Ultrasonic sensor to characterize wood pulp during refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M S; Panetta, P D; Bond, L J; McCaw, M W

    2006-12-22

    A novel sensor concept has been developed for measuring the degree of refining, the water retention value (WRV), and the weight percentage of wood pulp during the refining process. The measurement time is less than 5 min and the sensor can operate in a slip-stream of the process line or as an at-line instrument. The degree of refining and the WRV are determined from settling measurements. The settling of a pulp suspension (with a weight percentage less than 0.5 wt%) is observed, after the mixer, which keeps the pulp uniformly distributed, is turned off. The attenuation of ultrasound as a function of time is recorded and these data show a peak at a time designated as the "peak time." The peak time T increases with the degree of refining, as demonstrated by measuring pulp samples with known degrees of refining. The WRV can be determined using the relative peak time, defined as the ratio T(2)/T(1), where T(1) is an initial peak time and T(2) is the value after additional refining. This method offers an alternative WRV test for the industry to the current time-consuming method.

  7. IMPACT OF COOKING HOMOGENEITY ON PULP STRENGTH PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BofengMao

    2004-01-01

    Cooking homogeneity of kraft pulping can havesignificant impact on pulp strength properties. Wehave studied cooking homogeneity of two kraftdigesters within Stora Enso. One of the digesters is aone-vessel hydraulic continuous digester (digester A)and the other one is a two-vessel vapor/liquor phasecontinuous digester (digester B). They are located inthe same mill and use the same softwood chipquality. Due to the differences in chip pre-steamingand cooking facilities and conditions, significantdifferences in pulp strength properties, reject contentsand kappa variations have been found between thepulps produced in the two digesters. Digester A has amodem chip bin with efficient pre-heating and airremoval, whereas digester B has poor chippre-steaming conditions. Our strength deliverystudies show that although the two digesters producepulps with the same kappa number and viscosity, thepulp produced in digester A has about 20% higherstrength delivery, l%-unit (based on wood) lowerreject content and lower kappa variations based onFTIR spectra analysis on pulp sheet than the pulpproduced in digester B.Results of the studies indicate that morehomogeneous cooking,variation in the fibers,i.e., lower lignin/kappa leads to improved pulpstrength properties. Efficient chip pre-steaming isimportant/essential for achieving homogeneouscooking. Rebuilding the equipment for improvingchip pre-steaming conditions of digester B is to becarded out.

  8. Use of coffee pulp as feed ingredient for tilapia culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    This research focused on the feasibility of using coffee pulp (CoP) in diets for tilapia ( Oreochromis aureus ). First, a literature survey analyzed the limitations of CoP as an animal foodstuff (several antinutritional factors: ANF's, and high fibre contents), different ways to upgrade the CoP nutr

  9. Allogenic banking of dental pulp stem cells for innovative therapeutics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre-Yves; Collart-Dutilleul; Franck; Chaubron; John; De; Vos; Frédéric; J; Cuisinier

    2015-01-01

    Medical research in regenerative medicine and cellbased therapy has brought encouraging perspectives for the use of stem cells in clinical trials. Multiple types of stem cells, from progenitors to pluripotent stem cells, have been investigated. Among these, dental pulp stem cells(DPSCs) are mesenchymal multipotent cells coming from the dental pulp, which is the soft tissue within teeth. They represent an interesting adult stem cell source because they are recovered in large amount in dental pulps with non-invasive techniques compared to other adult stem cell sources. DPSCs can be obtained from discarded teeth, especially wisdom teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. To shift from promising preclinical results to therapeutic applications to human, DPSCs must be prepared in clinical grade lots and transformed into advanced therapy medicinal products(ATMP). As the production of patient-specific stem cells is costly and time-consuming, allogenic biobanking of clinical grade human leukocyte antigen(HLA)-typed DPSC lines provides efficient innovative therapeutic products. DPSC biobanks represent industrial and therapeutic innovations by using discarded biological tissues(dental pulps) as a source of mesenchymal stem cells to produce and store, in good manufacturing practice(GMP) conditions, DPSC therapeutic batches. In this review, we discuss about the challenges to transfer biological samples from a donor to HLA-typed DPSC therapeutic lots, following regulations, GMP guidelines and ethical principles. We also present some clinical applications, for which there is no efficient therapeutics so far, but that DPSCs-based ATMP could potentially treat.

  10. The influence of liners on the pulp inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidović Lado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The study included application of liners and dental composites in to cavities of six experimental animals - rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate rabbit dental pulp response to different liners. Methods. Cavity preparation for class V were made on the maxillary central incisors and one lower incisor, while the second lower incisor served as a control tooth. These teeth were restored with the use of one of the following liners - Calcimol LC, ANA Liner and Fuji II LC Improved, and Ceram-X mono dental composite. After an observation period of five days animals were sacrificed and prepared for histological analysis. The existence and degree of the pulp inflammation was determined by using a light microscope. Results. Results showed that the used liners do not cause distortion of the structure and continuity of the odontoblastic layer. Inflammation was not registered in the control group, while in each group of tested materials one tooth with mild signs of hyperemia was registered. Results showed that all three tested liners demonstrated favorable effects on the pulp of the tooth and did not lead to inflammatory reactions. Conclusion. Histological analysis of the dental pulp of experimental animals suggests that the liners used in this study do not compromise the integrity of the odontoblastic layer, if it is applied over a thin layer of dentin. In each group of tested materials one tooth with mild signs of hyperemia and vasodilation was registered.

  11. Microscopic analysis of dog dental pulp after pulpotomy and pulp protection with mineral trioxide aggregate and white Portland cement Análise microscópica da polpa dental de cães após pulpotomia e proteção pulpar com agregado de trióxido mineral e cimento Portland branco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Menezes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering previous studies on the similarity between the chemical composition of the mineral trioxide aggregate and the Portland cement, the purpose of this study was to investigate the pulp response of dog's teeth after pulpotomy and direct pulp protection with MTA Angelus and white Portland cement. Thirty eight pulp remnants were protected with these materials. One hundred and twenty days after treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the specimens removed and prepared for histological analysis. Both materials demonstrated the same results when used as pulp capping materials, inducing hard tissue bridge formation and maintaining pulp vitality in all specimens. The MTA Angelus and the white Portland cement showed to be effective as pulp protection materials following pulpotomy.Considerando estudos anteriores sobre a similaridade entre a composição química do agregado de trióxido mineral e o cimento Portland, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a resposta pulpar de dentes de cães após pulpotomia e proteção pulpar direta com MTA Angelus e cimento Portland branco. Trinta e oito remanescentes pulpares foram recobertos com esses materiais. Cento e vinte dias após o tratamento, os animais foram sacrificados e os espécimes removidos e preparados para análise histológica. Ambos os materiais demonstraram os mesmos resultados quando utilizados como materiais de capeamento pulpar, induzindo a formação de ponte de tecido mineralizado e mantendo a vitalidade pulpar em todos os espécimes. Ambos matérias se mostraram efetivos como protetores pulpares após pulpotomia em dentes de cães.

  12. Pulp and plaque microbiotas of children with severe early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Chalmers

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Bacterial invasion into pulps of primary teeth can lead to infection and premature tooth loss in children. This pilot study aimed to explore whether the microbiota of carious exposures of dental pulps resembles that of carious dentin or that of infected root canals. Design: Children with severe early childhood caries were studied. Children were consented and extent of caries, plaque, and gingivitis measured. Bacteria were sampled from carious lesion biofilms and vital carious exposures of pulps, and processed by anaerobic culture. Isolates were characterized from partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and identified by comparison with taxa in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (http://www.HOMD.org. The microbiotas of carious lesions and dental pulps were compared using univariate and multivariate approaches. Results: The microbiota of cariously exposed pulps was similar in composition to that of carious lesion biofilms except that fewer species/taxa were identified from pulps. The major taxa identified belonged to the phyla Firmicutes (mainly streptococci and Actinobacteria (mainly Actinomyces species. Actinomyces and Selenomonas species were associated with carious lesions whereas Veillonella species, particularly Veillonella dispar was associated with pulps. Other bacteria detected in pulps included Streptococcus mutans, Parascardovia denticolens, Bifidobacterium longum, and several Lactobacillus and Actinomyces species. By principal, component analysis pulp microbiotas grouped together, whereas those in caries biofilms were widely dispersed. Conclusions: We conclude that the microbiota of cariously exposed vital primary pulps is composed of a subset of species associated with carious lesions. Vital primary pulps had a dominant Firmicutes and Actinobacteria microbiota which contrasts with reports of endodontic infections which can harbor a gram-negative microbiota. The microbiota of exposed primary pulps may provide

  13. The effects of heartwood and sapwood on kraft pulp properties of Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold and Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf.

    OpenAIRE

    Ataç, Yasin; EROĞLU, Hüdaverdi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of heartwood and sapwood on kraft pulp properties of Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold. and Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf. were investigated. The differences in terms of chemical composition and fiber properties between the heartwood and sapwood of these species were also examined. Heartwood had more holocellulose and extractive compared to sapwood. Moreover, heartwood fiber length was shorter than that of sapwood. Kraft cookings of heartwood and sapwood each species were separately done under...

  14. Environmental Assessment of Enzyme Assisted Processing in Pulp and Paper Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Peter B; Krabek, Anders; Nielsen, Per Henning;

    2008-01-01

    improvements that can be achieved by application of enzymatic solutions in the P&P industry are  promising. To get a greater penetration of enzymatic solutions in the market and to harvest the environmental advantages of biotechnological inventions, it is recommended that enzymatic solutions should be given......The pulp and paper (P&P) industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its large consumptions of energy and chemicals. Enzymatic processing, however, offers potential opportunities for changing the industry towards more environmentally friendly...... and efficient operations compared to the conventional methods. The aims of the present study has been to investigate whether the enzyme technology is a more environmentally sound alternative than the conventional ways of producing paper. The study addresses five enzyme applications by quantitative means...

  15. Preparation of Adsorbent with Magnesium Sulfate and Straw Pulp Black Liquor and Its Phenol Adsorption Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lugang; WANG Haizeng

    2009-01-01

    A magnesia adsorbent was prepared from straw pulp black liquor and magnesium sulfate for the first time, and its adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution was examined. The characteristics of the adsorbent were tested through chemical analysis,surface analysis, X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The effects of various factors, such as dose, adsorption time and adsorption temperature, on phenol adsorption behavior were studied. The results show that the adsorption processes can be fitted to the isotherm Langmuir model very well. It was found that the adsorption process was strongly influenced by temperature and the optimal temperature for phenol removal was 40 ℃. The optimum adsorption time was 10 min, and desorption would happen afterwards. Between the models of Langmuir and Freundlich, the adsorption process of phenol onto magnesia fitted the Langmuir equation better.

  16. Crown-root fracture with pulp exposure: a case report with 16-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Lucia Fatima Almeida de Deus; Leao, Valeria Leopoldino de Area; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; de Moura, Carmem Dolores Vilarinho Soares; Goncalves, Alessandro Ribeiro; Lima, Cacilda Castelo Branco; de Lima, Marina de Deus Moura

    2015-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy presented for dental care 35 days after he fell from his bicycle. Clinical and radiographic examinations revealed a longitudinal crown-root fracture with pulp exposure in the maxillary left central incisor. The radiograph also suggested necrosis of the maxillary right central incisor. Urgent treatment of the left central incisor involved gingivectomy followed by autogenous bonding of the tooth fragment with self-curing composite resin. Immediately after bonding, coronal access was prepared, chemical and mechanical preparation was completed, and a calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing was placed. One week after the initial appointment, endodontic treatment was initiated in the right central incisor. The root canal of the maxillary left central incisor was maintained with calcium hydroxide paste (replaced at 45-day intervals) for 1 year and then definitively obturated. At the 16-year follow-up, satisfactory periodontal, esthetic, and clinical conditions were observed, and a radiograph revealed no resorption or periapical changes.

  17. Molecular Characteristics of Kraft-AQ Pulping Lignin Fractionated by Sequential Organic Solvent Extraction

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    Kun Wang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Kraft-AQ pulping lignin was sequentially fractionated by organic solvent extractions and the molecular properties of each fraction were characterized by chemical degradation, GPC, UV, FT-IR, 13C-NMR and thermal analysis. The average molecular weight and polydispersity of each lignin fraction increased with its hydrogen-bonding capacity (Hildebrand solubility parameter. In addition, the ratio of the non-condensed guaiacyl/syringyl units and the content of β-O-4 linkages increased with the increment of the lignin fractions extracted successively with hexane, diethylether, methylene chloride, methanol, and dioxane. Furthermore, the presence of the condensation reaction products was contributed to the higher thermal stability of the larger molecules.

  18. A Study on Enhancement of Filtration Process with Filter Aids Diatomaceous Earth and Wood Pulp Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都丽红; 陈旭; 李文苹; 朱企新

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a study to enhance the filtration for solid/liquid materials difficult to be filtered, such as highly viscous, highly compactible or gel like materials, is presented. Filter aids diatomaceous earth and wood pulp cellulose are used to enhance the filtration by improving filter cake structure and properties in the filtration of a biological health product and a highly viscous chemical fiber polymer melt product. The property of solid/liquidsystems, filtration at different flow rates, specitic cake resistance, cake wetness, filtration rate, filtrate turbidity for filter aid selection and evaluation, and operation optimization are investigated. The results are successfully applied to industrial process, .and can be used as a reference for similar filtration applications.

  19. EVALUATION OF CONDITION OF THE PULP BY PULSE OXIMETRY.

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    Dimitar Kosturkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To conduct pulse oximetry (PO and electric pulp test (EPT on intact frontal teeth in clinically healthy patients aged between 18 and 25 years who do not have periodontal disease. Material/Methods: To achieve the aim 1058 teeth of 31 patients were studied. The following inclusion criteria for the study were set: 1. Age – 18-25 years. 2. Clinically healthy patient, who does not have any systemic diseases, do not take any medicine systematically. 3. Intact frontal teeth – without carious lesions, restorations or root canal treatment. 4. Lack of periodontal disease. Research was conducted with a pulse oximeter Contec™ - CMS60D and a custom made probe holder. Results: Average values obtained by pulse oximetry in upper jaw vary between 83% and 85%. In lower jaw – between 82% and 85%. 99% is the maximum and 48% is the minimum registered value. The average value of the measurement of all the teeth is 84%. The average saturation measured on the small finger of the right hand of the patient is 98%. The average value of EPT for all teeth is 4 μA. The maximum measured value is 20 μA, and the minimum - 1 μA. Conclusions: 1. Adequate study of the pulp includes two complementary methods – electric pulp test (evaluation of innervation and pulse oximetry (assessment of pulp microcirculation. 2. Teeth that are larger in size have larger values of PO and EPT, which is in direct relation to the size of their pulp chamber. 3. The total saturation, measured in the little finger of the right hand is greater than the one of the teeth.

  20. Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Deciduous Teeth Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Aileen I.; Hong, Hsiang-Hsi; Fu, Jen-Fen; Chang, Chih-Chun; Wang, I-Kuan; Huang, Wen-Hung; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hsu, Ching-Wei

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify predictors of success rate of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) isolation from human deciduous teeth pulp. A total of 161 deciduous teeth were extracted at the dental clinic of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The MSCs were isolated from dental pulps using a standard protocol. In total, 128 colonies of MSCs were obtained and the success rate was 79.5%. Compared to teeth not yielding MSCs successfully, those successfully yielding MSCs were found to have less severe dental caries (no/mild-to-moderate/severe: 63.3/24.2/12.5% versus 12.5/42.4/42.4%, P < 0.001) and less frequent pulpitis (no/yes: 95.3/4.7% versus 51.5/48.5%, P < 0.001). In a multivariate regression model, it was confirmed that the absence of dental caries (OR = 4.741, 95% CI = 1.564–14.371, P = 0.006) and pulpitis (OR = 9.111, 95% CI = 2.921–28.420, P < 0.001) was significant determinants of the successful procurement of MSCs. MSCs derived from pulps with pulpitis expressed longer colony doubling time than pulps without pulpitis. Furthermore, there were higher expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin- (IL-) 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP-) 1, P < 0.01, and innate immune response [toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) and TLR8, P < 0.05; TLR2, TLR3, and TLR6, P < 0.01] in the inflamed than noninflamed pulps. Therefore, a carious deciduous tooth or tooth with pulpitis was relatively unsuitable for MSC processing and isolation. PMID:28377925

  1. Nutrient contents of the fresh pulps and dried pulp cakes of vitellaria paradoxa of Gulu District, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oryema, Christine; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Roos, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn locally known as ‘Yaa’ in Acholi is a valuable edible indigenous wild fruit in Gulu District, northern Uganda. It is a multipurpose fruit tree and highly favoured by the inhabitants of this district. Its fruit pulps are eaten when fresh and/or made into cakes and dried...

  2. THE COMPARISON OF STRENGTH PROPERTY BETWWEEN KRAFT PULP AND ALKALINE SULFITE-ANTHRAQUINONE PULP FOR THICKER CELL WALL FIBER MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Feifei Wang; Yunzhan Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The comparison of strength property between kraft pulp ( KP ) and Alkaline Sulfite-Anthraquinone (AS-AQ) pulp for thicker cell wall fiber materials Larch and Quercus as examples was studied. The average coefficient of flexibility of Larch and Quercus are 0.6-0.7 and 0.45-0.50, respectively. The results showed that the strength property of thicker cell wall pulp is some what different from those reported earlier. The strengths of AS-AQ are all higher than those of KP for Larch and Quercus. For Larch, under same beating degree the breaking length of AS-AQ is 8-16% higher than that of KP, burst index 3-14% higher, folding endurance 30% higher,tear index slightly higher. For Quercus, the breaking length of AS-AQ is 5-10% higher then that of KP,burst index 10-15% higher, folding endurance 30-50% higher, tear index 5-15% higher. Under the same breaking length the tear index of AS-AQ pulp is significantly higher than that of KP for both Larch and Quercus.

  3. Clinical and Histological Evaluation of Direct Pulp Capping on Human Pulp Tissue Using a Dentin Adhesive System

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    Alicja Nowicka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study presents a clinical and histological evaluation of human pulp tissue responses after direct capping using a new dentin adhesive system. Methods. Twenty-eight caries-free third molar teeth scheduled for extraction were evaluated. The pulps of 22 teeth were mechanically exposed and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: Single Bond Universal or calcium hydroxide. Another group of 6 teeth acted as the intact control group. The periapical response was assayed, and a clinical examination was performed. The teeth were extracted after 6 weeks, and a histological analysis was performed. The pulp status was assessed, and the thickness of the dentin bridge was measured and categorized using a histological scoring system. Results. The clinical phase was asymptomatic for Single Bond Universal patients. Patients in the calcium hydroxide group reported mild symptoms of pain, although the histological examination revealed that dentin bridges with or without limited pulpitis had begun forming in each tooth. The universal adhesive system exhibited nonsignificantly increased histological signs of pulpitis (P>0.05 and a significantly weaker thin mineralized tissue layer (P<0.001 compared with the calcium hydroxide group. Conclusion. The results suggest that Single Bond Universal is inappropriate for human pulp capping; however, further long-term studies are needed to determine the biocompatibility of this agent.

  4. Clinical and Histological Evaluation of Direct Pulp Capping on Human Pulp Tissue Using a Dentin Adhesive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parafiniuk, Mirosław; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna; Sobolewska, Ewa; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study presents a clinical and histological evaluation of human pulp tissue responses after direct capping using a new dentin adhesive system. Methods. Twenty-eight caries-free third molar teeth scheduled for extraction were evaluated. The pulps of 22 teeth were mechanically exposed and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: Single Bond Universal or calcium hydroxide. Another group of 6 teeth acted as the intact control group. The periapical response was assayed, and a clinical examination was performed. The teeth were extracted after 6 weeks, and a histological analysis was performed. The pulp status was assessed, and the thickness of the dentin bridge was measured and categorized using a histological scoring system. Results. The clinical phase was asymptomatic for Single Bond Universal patients. Patients in the calcium hydroxide group reported mild symptoms of pain, although the histological examination revealed that dentin bridges with or without limited pulpitis had begun forming in each tooth. The universal adhesive system exhibited nonsignificantly increased histological signs of pulpitis (P > 0.05) and a significantly weaker thin mineralized tissue layer (P < 0.001) compared with the calcium hydroxide group. Conclusion. The results suggest that Single Bond Universal is inappropriate for human pulp capping; however, further long-term studies are needed to determine the biocompatibility of this agent. PMID:27803922

  5. Changes in the physicochemical and microbiological properties of frozen araça pulp during storage

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    Clarissa Damiani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Araça belongs to the Myrtaceae family and is popularly known as araçá-comum, araçá-azedo, or araçá-do-campo. Frozen fruit pulp is of great importance for the food industry, which can produce it at the time of harvest, store it, and use it according to the demand of the consumer market and/or as an ingredient in the formulation of products such as yogurt, candies, and ice creams among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microbiological stability of frozen araça pulp during 12 months of frozen storage. It was observed that the levels of moisture (90.55-88.75%, ash (0.34-0.26% total soluble sugars (7.11-6.62%, sucrose (3.55-1.39%, soluble pectin (0.24-0.23%, total pectin (0.5-0.46%, pH (3.82-2.31%, organic acids (698.12-122.25 µg.g-1 citric acid, and phenolic compounds (6.22-0.00 mg GAE.100 g-1 decreased during storage, whereas the levels of protein (0.61-0.83%, lipids (0.14-0.38%, total carbohydrates (8.36-9.78%, calorific value (37.14-45.86 kcal.100 g-1, reducing sugars (3.51-5.21%, soluble solids (5.17-6.0%, total antioxidant capacity (6.89-35.13%, and color parameters (L*49.75-50.67; a*0.79-1.82 and b*22.5-25.19 increased over the one-year storage period. According to the chemical and microbiological parameters assessed, the product can be stored for 12 months without loss of quality with addition of citric acid as a preservative.

  6. Promotion of Dental Pulp Cell Migration and Pulp Repair by a Bioceramic Putty Involving FGFR-mediated Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Zhu, L X; Cheng, X; Lin, Y; Yan, P; Peng, B

    2015-06-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate is the currently recommended material of choice for clinical pulp repair despite several disadvantages, including handling inconvenience. Little is known about the signaling mechanisms involved in bioceramic-mediated dental pulp repair-particularly, dental pulp cell (DPC) migration. This study evaluated the effects of iRoot BP Plus, a novel ready-to-use nanoparticulate bioceramic putty, on DPC migration in vitro and pulp repair in vivo, focusing on possible involvement of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-related signaling, including mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt pathways. Treatment with iRoot BP Plus extracts enhanced horizontal and vertical migration of DPCs, which was comparable with the effects induced by mineral trioxide aggregate extracts. The DPCs exposed to iRoot BP Plus extracts demonstrated no evident apoptosis. Importantly, treatment with iRoot BP Plus extracts resulted in rapid activation of FGFR, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), and Akt signaling in DPCs. Confocal immunofluorescence staining revealed that iRoot BP Plus stimulated focal adhesion formation and stress fiber assembly in DPCs, in addition to upregulating the expression of focal adhesion molecules, including p-focal adhesion kinase, p-paxillin, and vinculin. Moreover, activation of FGFR, ERK, JNK, and Akt were found to mediate the upregulated expression of focal adhesion molecules, stress fiber assembly, and enhanced DPC migration induced by iRoot BP Plus. Consistent with the in vitro results, we observed induction of homogeneous dentin bridge formation and expression of p-focal adhesion kinase, p-FGFR, p-ERK 1/2, p-JNK, and p-Akt near injury sites by iRoot BP Plus in an in vivo pulp repair model. These data demonstrate that iRoot BP Plus can promote DPC migration and pulp repair involving the FGFR-mediated ERK 1/2, JNK, and Akt pathways. These findings provide

  7. Indirect pulp capping in primary molar using glass ionomer cements

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    Murtia Metalita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indirect pulp capping in primary teeth, however, is more rarely conducted than permanent teeth, since it thought to have low impact and most suggestion is for taking caries lesion aggressively on primary teeth. Purpose: The study was aimed to evaluate the subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance of indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomers cements in primary molar. Methods: Sixteen children in range of age 6 to 8 years old, who visited Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia, were the subject of study. They had one occlusal dental caries on one side of maxillary or mandibular primary molar with the diagnose of pulpitis reversible. The experimental group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with glass ionomer cements (GC Fuji VII®, while the control group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with calcium hydroxide (Metapaste. Each group was filled with GC Fuji IX® as permanent restoration. After one week, one month, and three months later, the observations were made on subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance. Results: The results showed no subjective complaint such as pain or problem on mastication; no negative clinical symptoms such as pain on palpation, gingivitis or periodontitis, and abnormal tooth mobility; no negative radiographic appearance such as pathological apical radioluscency, internal or external resorbtion, and change of ligament periodontal widthafter the treatment. Conclusion: The study suggested that indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomer cement materials on primary teeth might be considered to be the treatment choice.Latar belakang: Indirect pulp capping pada gigi sulung lebih jarang dilakukan dibandingkan gigi permanen, karena dianggap memiliki dampak yang rendah dan sebagian besar menyarankan untuk mengambil lesi karies secara agresif pada gigi sulung. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan

  8. Role of laser irradiation in direct pulp capping procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Abduljabbar, Tariq; Gholamiazizi, Elham; Feng, Changyong; Aldosary, Khaled; Vohra, Fahim; Romanos, Georgios E

    2017-02-01

    A variety of materials are available to treat exposed dental pulp by direct pulp capping. The healing response of the pulp is crucial to form a dentin bridge and seal off the exposed pulp. Studies have used lasers to stimulate the exposed pulp to form tertiary dentin. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the evidence on the effects of laser irradiation as an adjunctive therapy to stimulate healing after pulp exposure. A systematic literature search was conducted up to April 2016. A structured search using the keywords "Direct pulp capping," "Lasers," "Calcium hydroxide pulp capping," and "Resin pulp capping" was performed. Initially, 34 potentially relevant articles were identified. After removal of duplicates and screening by title, abstract, and full text when necessary, nine studies were included. Studies were assessed for bias and data were synthetized using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Six studies were clinical, and three were preclinical animal trials; the follow-up period ranged from 2 weeks to 54 months. More than two thirds of the included studies showed that laser therapy used as an adjunct for direct pulp capping was more effective in maintaining pulp vitality than conventional therapy alone. Meta-analysis showed that the success rate in the laser treatment group was significantly higher than the control group (log odds ratio = 1.737; 95 % confidence interval, 1.304-2.171). Lasers treatment of exposed pulps can improve the outcome of direct pulp capping procedures; a number of confounding factors may have influenced the outcomes of the included studies.

  9. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. Pulp as a Functional Food Product

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    Renata Różyło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat fl our with up to 10 % of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10 % of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15 % of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20 % pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefi ts.

  10. Influence of Soda Pulping Variables on Properties of Pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr. Leaf Pulp and Paper Studied by Face-Centered Composite Experimental Design

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    Jantharat Wutisatwongkul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Face-centered composite design (FCC was used to study the effect of pulping variables: soda concentration (4-5 wt%, temperature (90–130°C, and pulping time (20–60 min on the properties of pineapple leaf pulp and paper employing soda pulping. Studied pulp responses were screened yield and lignin content (kappa number. Paper properties, which include tensile index, burst index, and tear index, were also investigated. Effects of the pulping variables on the properties were statistically analyzed using Minitab 16. The optimum conditions to obtain the maximum tensile index were soda concentration of 4 wt%, pulping temperature of 105°C, and pulping time of 20 min. The predicted optimum conditions provided tensile index, burst index, tear index, screened yield, and kappa number of 44.13 kN·m/kg, 1.76 kPa·m2, 1.68 N·m2/kg, 21.29 wt%, and 28.12, respectively, and were experimentally confirmed.

  11. Pulp tissue from primary teeth: new source of stem cells

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    Paloma Dias Telles

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth represent a population of postnatal stem cells capable of extensive proliferation and multipotential differentiation. Primary teeth may be an ideal source of postnatal stem cells to regenerate tooth structures and bone, and possibly to treat neural tissue injury or degenerative diseases. SHED are highly proliferative cells derived from an accessible tissue source, and therefore hold potential for providing enough cells for clinical applications. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about dental pulp stem cells and discuss tissue engineering approaches that use SHED to replace irreversibly inflamed or necrotic pulps with a healthy and functionally competent tissue that is capable of forming new dentin.

  12. Pulp response to a novel adhesive calcium hydroxide based cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A; Paterson, R C; Cohen, B D; Combe, E C

    1994-09-01

    This study compares pulp responses to 3 formulations of calcium hydroxide, namely: a) An experimental adhesive calcium hydroxide cement containing polyacrylic acid, b) Dycal (L.D> Caulk Co, Milford, Delaware) Batch Nos 176970/176990, c) "Analar" calcium hydroxide mixed with sterile distilled water. After 28 days dentine bridges were present in 77% of teeth capped with the test material, 64% of teeth treated with Dycal and in 62% of teeth capped with calcium hydroxide and water. Inflammatory infiltrates were observed in a number of teeth remote from the bridges. Bacteria were detected in these specimens. Exposed rat molar pulp responses to an experimental adhesive calcium hydroxide cement were similar to to those observed with 2 other calcium hydroxide formulations.

  13. Regenerative medicine using dental pulp stem cells for liver diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkoshi, Shogo; Hara, Hajime; Hirono, Haruka; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Hasegawa, Katsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Acute liver failure is a refractory disease and its prognosis, if not treated using liver transplantation, is extremely poor. It is a good candidate for regenerative medicine, where stem cell-based therapies play a central role. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to differentiate into multiple cell lineages including hepatocytes. Autologous cell transplant without any foreign gene induction is feasible using MSCs, thereby avoiding possible risks of tumorigenesis and immune rejection. Dental pulp also contains an MSC population that differentiates into hepatocytes. A point worthy of special mention is that dental pulp can be obtained from deciduous teeth during childhood and can be subsequently harvested when necessary after deposition in a tooth bank. MSCs have not only a regenerative capacity but also act in an anti-inflammatory manner via paracrine mechanisms. Promising efficacies and difficulties with the use of MSC derived from teeth are summarized in this review. PMID:28217369

  14. Valorisation of by Products from Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. C.; Lopes, O. R.; Colodette, J. L.; Porto, A. O.; Rieumont, J.; Chaussy, D.; Belgacem, M. N.; Silva, G. G.

    2008-08-01

    Three industrial wastes arising from bleached hardwood kraft pulps, namely: unbleached screen rejects (USR), effluent treatment (ETW), and eucalyptus bark (EB) were analyzed with the aim of their possible valorization as an alternative source of cellulose. Their morphological properties were determined using MorFi apparatus. For this study the sample bleached kraft pulp, BKP, was analyzed as a reference. Lignin and carbohydrate contents were also quantified. These by-products were studied as such (i.e. without careful purification) because we intended to find rational and low-cost way of valorization. In fact any additional operation will induce an over cost. The results obtained indicate that these industrial wastes can be potential raw material in fibre-based applications (paper, composites…), since they contain a high proportion of cellulose with preserved fibrillar morphology. Some of these materials have low lignin and inorganic residue contents.

  15. Flow behavior and physicochemical characterization of peach pulps

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    Ernesto Muñoz Puntes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rheological and physicochemical analyses were conducted on nine varieties of peach pulps from Mendoza (Argentina at a range of soluble solids concentration (12.5 to 28°Brix and temperatures (30 to 50°C.The rheology of the pulps followed the power law model for all conditions, behaving as pseudoplastic fluids. Rheological: consistency coefficient and flow behavior index, using a rotational type viscometer and physicochemical parameters (methods proposed by AOAC: soluble solids, pH, water content, insoluble solids, acidity and pectin content (refractometric method were determined in this study. Cluster analysis established two groups (1: Halford, Andross, Astengo, Bowen, Sim’s Cling; 2: Fortuna, Loadel and Palora; Sullivan Cling variety could not be assigned to any group with significant differences.

  16. Recycling cellulase towards industrial application of enzyme treatment on hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ji, Xingxiang; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-07-01

    Cost-effectiveness is vital for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp towards industrial application. The strategy of cellulase recycling with fresh cellulase addition was demonstrated in this work to activate the dissolving pulp, i.e. decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity. Results showed that 48.8-35.1% of cellulase activity can be recovered from the filtered liquor in five recycle rounds, which can be reused for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp. As a result, the recycling cellulase with addition fresh cellulase of 1mg/g led to the pulp of viscosity 470mL/g and Fock reactivity 80%, which is comparable with cellulase charge of 2mg/g. Other pulp properties such as alpha-cellulose, alkaline solubility and molecular weight distribution were also determined. Additionally, a zero-release of recycling cellulase treatment was proposed to integrate into the dissolving pulp production process.

  17. Direct pulp capping in an immature incisor using a new bioactive material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sham S Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of the pulp in a traumatized immature fractured incisor tooth is of prime importance in order to achieve apexogenesis, a natural apical closure. The main factor influencing this is pulpal protection by a bioactive material proving optimum marginal seal in preventing any microleakage. This case report presents an 8-year-old female diagnosed with Ellis Class 3 fracture of immature tooth 11 involving the mesial pulp horn. Under rubber dam isolation, a partial pulpotomy was performed and the pulp was sealed using a new bioactive material BIODENTINE to stimulate apexogenesis, dentine replacement and pulp protection. The fractured segment was reattached for optimum esthetics, which was a concern for the patient. The patient was followed-up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, which revealed continued apical closure and maintenance of pulp vitality. The patient remained asymptomatic. This case report provides evidence for the potential use of Biodentine as an effective pulp capping material in the future.

  18. TCF bleaching sequence in kraft pulping of olive tree pruning residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, A; Rodríguez, A; Colodette, J L; Gomide, J L; Jiménez, L

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to find a suitable Kraft cooking process for olive tree pruning (OTP), in order to produce pulp of kappa number about 17. The Kraft pulp produced under optimized conditions showed a viscosity of 31.5 mPa·s and good physical, mechanical, and optical properties, which are suitable for paper production. The physical-mechanical and optical properties were measured before and after bleaching. Although the OTP pulp was bleached to 90.9% ISO brightness (kappapulp showed a brightness reversion equal to 1.3%. Furthermore, this bleached pulp did not need a high intensity of beating due to high drainability degree in the unbeaten pulp. So that, OTP is suggested as an interesting raw material for cellulosic pulp production because its properties are comparable to those of other agricultural residues, currently used in the paper industry.

  19. Possibility of Using Wood Pulp in the Preparation of Cement Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidalova, Lucia; Stevulova, Nadezda; Geffert, Anton

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable building materials are based on the use of renewable materials instead of non-renewable. Large group of renewable materials composes of plant fibres having high tensile strength are used as fillers into building material with reinforcement function of composite. This study aimed to establish the mechanical and physical properties of cement composites with organic fillers, such as wood pulp. Wood pulp cellulose is very interesting material as reinforcement in cement which contributes to a reduction of pollutants. Varying the producing technology (wood pulp and cement ratio in mixture) it is possible to obtain composites with density from 940 to 1260 kgm-3 and with compressive strength from 1.02 to 5.44 MPa after 28 days of hardening. Based on the experimental results, cement composites with using unbleached wood pulp reach higher values than composites based on bleached wood pulp. Volume ratio of unbleached wood pulp in composites influences water absorbability of cement composites

  20. Possibility of Using Wood Pulp in the Preparation of Cement Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidalova Lucia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable building materials are based on the use of renewable materials instead of non-renewable. Large group of renewable materials composes of plant fibres having high tensile strength are used as fillers into building material with reinforcement function of composite. This study aimed to establish the mechanical and physical properties of cement composites with organic fillers, such as wood pulp. Wood pulp cellulose is very interesting material as reinforcement in cement which contributes to a reduction of pollutants. Varying the producing technology (wood pulp and cement ratio in mixture it is possible to obtain composites with density from 940 to 1260 kgm-3 and with compressive strength from 1.02 to 5.44 MPa after 28 days of hardening. Based on the experimental results, cement composites with using unbleached wood pulp reach higher values than composites based on bleached wood pulp. Volume ratio of unbleached wood pulp in composites influences water absorbability of cement composites

  1. Dietary citrus pulp improves protein stability in lamb meat stored under aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravador, Rufielyn Sungcaya; Jongberg, Sisse; Andersen, Mogens Larsen;

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant effects of dried citrus pulp on proteins in lamb meat, when used as a replacement of concentrate in the feed, was studied using meat from 26 male Comisana lambs. The lambs of age 90. days had been grouped randomly to receive one of the three dietary treatments: (1) commercial...... concentrate with 60% barley (Control, n=8), (2) concentrate with 35% barley and 24% citrus pulp (Cp24, n=9), or (3) concentrate with 23% barley and 35% citrus pulp (Cp35, n=9). Slices from the longissimus thoracis et lomborum muscle were packed aerobically and stored for up to 6. days at 4°C in the dark....... The citrus pulp groups, Cp24 and Cp35, significantly decreased protein radicals and carbonyls, and preserved more thiols within six days of storage compared to the Control group. The citrus pulp groups significantly slowed down the rate of protein oxidation, indicating that dietary citrus pulp reduced...

  2. Histopathological Effect of Advanced Periodontal Disease on the Dental Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmajidi M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Many authors have claimed that pulpal inflammation may occur following periodontal diseases. Appropriate diagnosis of different lesions that have affected the dental pulp or periodontium is critical for prevention of unnecessary or harmful treatments; this must be taken into account before treatment.Purpose: The purpose of this study was histological evaluation of the pulp in the teeth with advanced periodontitis.Materials and Method: 30 permanent single teeth root that had advanced periodontitis with attachment loss ≥ 5 mm at least in one surface were used. The teeth were not maintainable and did not have caries, restoration and any sign of primary trauma from occlusion and did not receive any periodontal professional treatment in the past 6 months with no background of trauma. After clinical and radiographical examination and confirmation of the existence of advanced periodontitis, the teeth were extracted. Then cracks were created in the teeth by special clips. After fixation of the teeth in 10% formalin solution and decalcification by 10% nitric acid, the sections were prepared and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and then evaluated from histological perspectives. The data were analyzed by Spearman correlation coefficient ANOVA, t-test and Kruskal wallis tests.Results: In this survey, we did not find any significant correlation between clinical findings and histopathological situation. The relationship between clinical attachment loss and pulp diagnosis was statistically significant ( p =0.043. Also there was a statistically significant relationship between clinical attachment loss and calcification in the pulp ( p =0.014.Conclusion: According to the result of this research, it seems that periodontal condition affects the pulpal condition and it should be considered in future treatments on these teeth.

  3. Study of pulp microflora in patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Safarov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 335 patients aged 20 to 60 years with various parodontitis inflammatory diseases have been selected for research. All patients have been divided into four groups of different age: with rheumatism - 96 persons, with heart ischemic illness - 82 persons, with arterial hypertension - 89 persons, with neurocirculatory dystonia - 68 persons. The presented results of supervision show diagnostic significant changes of pulp microflora with odontogenic infection in patients, suffering cardiovascular diseases

  4. Apolar Annonaceous acetogenins from the fruit pulp of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melot, Alice; Fall, Djibril; Gleye, Christophe; Champy, Pierre

    2009-11-02

    A methylene chloride extract of the pulp of Annona muricata L. was fractionated in search for scarcely functionalized Annonaceous acetogenins (type E). Previously known C-35 and C-37 mono-epoxy unsaturated compounds, epomuricenins-A and -B (1+2) and epomusenins-A and -B (3+4), were obtained. Two new mono-epoxy saturated C-35 representatives, epomurinins-A and -B (5+6) were also isolated.

  5. Energy conservation in the pulp and paper industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Almost 40 specific research and development ideas were formulated by the 67 participants at this workshop. Projects were assessed with the following criteria in mind: potential energy savings, cost, risk, Federal role, time frame, and priority. Data are tabulated on the projects followed by six topics discussed by panel members: waste and recycling, energy management in the mill, papermaking, pulping and bleaching, power generation in the mill, and coating and conversion. Three summary speeches are included. (MCW)

  6. Recycling agroindustrial waste by lactic fermentations: coffee pulp silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrizales, V.; Ferrer, J.

    1985-04-03

    This UNIDO publication on lactic acid fermentation of coffee pulp for feed production covers (1) a process which can be adapted to existing coffee processing plants for drying the product once harvesting time has finished (2) unit operations involved: pressing (optional), silaging, liming and drying (3) experiments, results and discussion, bibliography, process statistics, and diagrams. Additional references: storage, biotechnology, lime, agricultural wastes, recycling, waste utilization.

  7. A survey of Canadian mechanical pulp and paper mill effluents: insights concerning the potential to affect fish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Tibor G; Martel, Pierre H; O'Connor, Brian I; Hewitt, L Mark; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Van Den Heuvel, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Building on breakthroughs recently made at kraft mills, a survey of mechanical pulp and paper mill effluents was undertaken to gain insights concerning potential effects on fish reproduction. Effluents from seven Canadian mills were characterized chemically for conventional parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS). Each sample was further subjected to solvent extraction followed by gas chromatographic separation for the determination of resin/fatty acids and for the estimation of a gas chromatography (GC) profile index. Each mill effluent was assessed for the potential to affect fish reproduction in the laboratory using a five day adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) egg production bioassay with exposures to 100% effluent. The seven effluents were found to have substantial variation both in terms of chemical characterization and effects on fish reproduction. Temporal variations were also noted in effluent quality at mills sampled on different occasions. Similar to what has been observed for kraft mills, a general trend of greater reductions in egg production caused by effluents with greater BOD concentrations and GC profile indices was noted. Effluents with BOD > 25 mg/L and GC Profile indices >5.0 caused a complete cessation of egg production. At the same time, about half of the total effluents sampled had BOD reproductive effects caused by such effluents is presently unclear. The effluent quality parameters considered in this study may require further refinement to address their utility in predicting the adverse reproductive effects induced by effluents from mechanical pulp and paper mills.

  8. 用木材生产生物燃料与纸浆%From Wood to Biofuels and Pulp Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚光裕

    2012-01-01

    A mild alkaline treatment was applied to aspen chips prior to kraft pulping in order .to ex- tract hemicellulose for use as biofuels(bioethanol),the extraction was performed at 90℃, NaOH 1-2M,liguor towood ratio 1-4. It resulted in a recovery of 40-50kg of hemicellulose per ton of chips and yieled the same amount of pulp after subsequent pulping of the extracted chips,as compared to a control cook. The pre-extract process requires careful optimization of the pulping process and allows shorter cooking time and lower chemical charges. The process did not costly pressurized reaction ves- sels. Kraft pulps obtained from per-extracted chips have a slightiy higher cellulose/hemicellulose ratio and demonstrate a small decrease in tensile index(10%), but improved brightness and shive content, while the hemiecllulose yield for this process is low, this problem is outweighed by the fact that pulp properties and pulping yield can be maintained at a high level. The recovered hemicellulose can be con- centrated and isolateed more easily than furfural obtained by autohydrolysis or dilute acid treatment.%杨木木片硫酸盐制浆前,进行缓和的碱抽提处理,抽提出半纤维素用作生物燃料(生物乙醇),在温度90℃,NaOH1-2M,液比1:4条件下进行碱处理,不需要高压设备,每吨木片得到半纤维素40-50kg,经碱抽提后木片进行硫酸盐蒸煮,与未经碱抽提木片参照对比,纸浆得率基本相同,但是需要很好地控制碱抽提与硫酸盐蒸煮工艺条件,能缩短蒸煮时间和节省化学品用量。碱预抽提木片得到的硫酸盐纸浆中纤维素/半纤维素的比率稍高,导致纸浆的抗张指数稍有降低(约10%),但是纸浆白度较高且筛渣含量低,为使硫酸盐纸浆的质量和得率保持较高水平,采用缓和的碱预抽提,使半纤维素得率较低,而回收的半纤维素的浓缩和离析比木片自水解或稀酸水解回收糠醛更加容易。

  9. Dental pulp response to bacterial cell wall material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfvinge, J; Dahlén, G; Bergenholtz, G

    1985-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Bacteroides oralis and Veillonella parvula and cell wall material from Lactobacillus casei were studied for their capacity to induce leukocyte migration in the dental pulp and in an implanted wound chamber. Three adult monkeys were challenged using lyophilized material sealed into buccal Class V cavities prepared in dentin. Pulp tissue responses were observed histologically eight and 72 hours after initiation of the experiment. Subjacent to cut dentinal tubules, bacterial materials induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN's) infiltration in the pulp tissue of the majority of test teeth examined. Responses were similar for the three bacterial test materials at both time periods. Topical applications of bovine serum albumin (BSA), used as a control, induced significantly less accumulation of PMN's. Assessments of induced exudate volumes and leukocyte densities in chambers implanted in rats showed comparable rankings with pulpal experiment between test (i.e., bacterial) and control (BSA) materials. Analysis of the data indicates that high-molecular-weight complexes of bacterial cell walls may adversely affect pulpal tissue across freshly exposed dentin.

  10. SODA-AQ PULPING OF PAULOWNIA WOOD AFTER HYDROLYSIS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos García

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A trihybrid clone of Paulownia fortunei x tormentosa x elongata was used for pulp and paper production using the soda-anthraquinone (AQ process, comparing the results with those from Paulownia fortunei. An autohydrolysis process had been previously carried out on this raw material. A composite central experimental design and a multiple regression were used for modeling and optimizing the process. A valuable liquid phase could be obtained from the autohydrolysis process of Paulownia, trying to minimize cellulose degradation for pulp and paper production. A compromise to maximize the glucan and minimize the xylan contents in the postautohydrolysis solid phase could be achieved at 187.5ºC and 15 minutes. A suitable cellulosic pulp with kappa number ranging from 12.2 to 69.2 and ISO brightness from 18.2 to 30.6% presented better results than those from other studies. Regarding handsheets physical properties (tensile index 37.3 N•m/g and viscosity (848 cm3/g, significant improvements could be obtained when compared with previous results of a similar process using Paulownia fortunei or Paulownia elongata.

  11. Effect of solids on pulp and froth properties in flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜

    2014-01-01

    Froth flotation is a widely used process of particle separation exploiting differences in surface properties. It is important to point out that overall flotation performance (grade and recovery) is a consequence of the quality and quantity of the solid particles collected from the pulp phase, transported into the froth phase, and surviving as bubble-particle aggregates into the overflow. This work will focus on studying these phenomena and will incorporate the effects of particle hydrophobicities in the 3-phase system. Solids are classed as either hydrophilic non-sulphide gangue (e.g. silica, talc), hydrophilic sulphide (e.g. pyrite), or hydrophobic sulphide (e.g. sphalerite). Talc is a surface-active species of gangue that has been shown to behave differently from silica (frother adsorbs on the surface of talc particles). Both are common components of ores and will be studied in detail. The focus of this work is to investigate the role of solids on pulp hydrodynamics, froth bubble coalescence intensity, water overflow rate with solids present, and in particular, the interactions between solids, frother and gas on the gas dispersion parameters. The results show that in the pulp zone there is no effect of solids on bubble size and gas holdup;in the froth zone, although hydrophilic particles solely do not effect on the water overflow rate, hydrophobic particles produce higher intensity of rates on water overflow and bubble coalescence, and many be attributed to the water reattachment.

  12. Biological removal of phyto-sterols in pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood-Khan, Zahid; Hall, Eric R

    2013-12-15

    Phyto-sterols and extractives found in pulp mill effluents are suspected to cause endocrine abnormalities in receiving water fish. The control of sterols in pulp mill effluents through biological secondary wastewater treatment was studied using two lab-scale bioreactor systems. After achieving a stable performance, both bioreactor systems successfully removed (>90%) sterols and the estimated biodegradation was up to 80%. Reactor 1 system operating at 6.7 ± 0.2 pH effectively treated pulp mill effluent sterols spiked up to 4500 μg/L in 11 h HRT and 11 day SRT. However, Reactor 2 system operating at 7.6 ± 0.2 pH performed relatively poorly. Retention time reductions beyond critical values deteriorated the performance of treatment systems and quickly reduced the sterols biodegradation. The biodegradation loss was indicated by mixed liquor sterols content that started increasing. This biodegradation loss was compensated by the increased role of bio-adsorption and the overall sterols removal remained relatively high. Hence, a relatively small (20-30%) loss in the overall sterols removal efficiency did not fully reflect the associated major (60-70%) loss in the sterols biodegradation because the amount of sterols accumulated in the sludge due to adsorption increased so the estimate of sterols removal through adsorption increased from 30-40% to 70-80% keeping the overall sterols removal still high.

  13. Distinctive genetic activity pattern of the human dental pulp between deciduous and permanent teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Human deciduous and permanent teeth exhibit different developmental processes, morphologies, histological characteristics and life cycles. In addition, their pulp tissues react differently to external stimuli, such as the pulp sensitivity test, dental trauma and pulp therapy materials. These suggest differences in gene expression and regulation, and in this study we compared gene-expression profiles of the human dental pulp from deciduous and permanent teeth. Pulp tissues from permanent premolars and deciduous molars aged 11-14 years were extirpated and mRNA was isolated for cDNA microarray analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Other teeth were used for immunohistochemical analysis (IHC. Microarray analysis identified 263 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression level between the two types of pulp tissue, 43 and 220 of which were more abundant in deciduous and permanent pulp tissues, respectively. qPCR analysis was conducted for eight randomly selected genes, and the findings were consistent with the cDNA microarray results. IHC confirmed that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1 was broadly expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue, but minimally expressed in permanent dental pulp tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that calbindin 1 (CALB1, leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5, and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta 1 (GABRB1 were abundantly expressed in permanent predentin/odontoblasts, but only minimally expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue. These results show that deciduous and permanent pulp tissues have different characteristics and gene expression, suggesting that they may have different functions and responses to therapies focused on pulp or dentin regeneration.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN THE AGRO BASED INDIAN PULP & PAPER INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Panwar; N.Endlay; S.Mishra; R.M.Mathur; A.G.Kulkarni

    2004-01-01

    The Indian Pulp & Paper Industry is more than a century old industry . The first paper mill was established in the year 1832 and today the number has grown to more than 400 in the organised sector which are located through out the country. In addition there are another 500 pulp & paper mills in the unorganized sector. The Indian pulp & paper industry can be categorised into large, medium and small depending on the scale of operation as indicated in Table -I.

  15. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy:

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Materials and methods Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 ...

  16. Characterization of the pulp and kernel oils from Syagrus oleracea, Syagrus romanzoffiana, and Acrocomia aculeata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, Michelle Cardoso; Jorge, Neuza

    2011-10-01

    Vegetable oils are important sources of essential fatty acids. It is, therefore, important to characterize plant species that can be used as new oil sources. This study aimed to characterize the oils from guariroba (Syagrus oleracea), jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana), and macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata). The physicochemical characterization was performed using official analytical methods for oils and fats, free fatty acids, peroxide value, refractive index, iodine value, saponification number, and unsaponifiable matter. The oxidative stability was determined using the Rancimat at 110 °C. The fatty acid composition was performed by gas chromatography. The results were submitted to Tukey's test for the medium to 5% using the ESTAT program. The pulp oils were more unsaturated than kernel oils, as evidenced by the higher refractive index and iodine value, especially the macaúba pulp oil which gave 1.4556 and 80 g I(2) /100 g, respectively, for these indices. The kernel oils were less altered by oxidative process and had high induction period, free fatty acids below 0.5%, and peroxide value around 0.19 meq/kg. The guariroba kernel oil showed the largest induction period, 91.82 h. Practical Application:  The vegetable oils, besides being consumed directly as food, are important raw material for the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In recent years, the world market of vegetable oils has been characterized by stronger growth of demand over supply. Several species of palm trees are shown to be promising sources of oils. The characterization of oils extracted from some species, such as guariroba, jerivá, and macaúba, has not yet been fully elucidated. For this reason, it becomes important to investigate the physicochemical characterization of these oils, aiming at a possible use in food or in the industry.

  17. Photochromic paper from wood pulp modification via layer-by-layer assembly of pulp fiber/chitosan/spiropyran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaojun; Wang, Bin; Li, Jinpeng; Zeng, Jinsong; Chen, Kefu

    2017-02-10

    Cellulosic fiber introducing with photochromic properties can be used in many fields such as security packaging, printing paper, and rewritable paper. To introduce photochromic property to individual fiber, a polyelectrolyte composite layer composed of cationic chitosan (CS) and anionic carboxyl-containing spiropyran (SPCOOH) on pulp fibers was designed using layer-by-layer assembly technique. Scanning electron microscope observation showed that the SPCOOH was successfully absorbed onto the surface of fiber. The photochromic characteristic of LbL-treated fiber could be triggered by UV-vis absorption spectrum and the LbL-treated fibers had a good compatibility with pulp fibers. This study gives a highly effective method to impart the photochromic characteristic to paper.

  18. Effects of pretreated polysulfonamide pulp on the ablation behavior of EPDM composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Xiaolong; Li Gang; Sui Gang; Li Peng; Yu Yunhua; Liu Haiyang [Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Yang Xiaoping [Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: yangxp@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2008-12-20

    Excellent ablative properties of ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer (EPDM) composites were obtained by adding pretreated polysulfonamide pulp (PSA-pulp). The effects of pulp pretreatment and pulp content on the mechanical and ablative properties of PSA-pulp/EPDM composites were studied. Experimental results showed that the tensile strength decreased slightly and the ablative properties increased by 3 folds on addition of 10 phr pretreated PSA-pulp. This significant improvement in the ablative properties was attributed to the enhanced dispersion degree and improved interfacial adhesion of pretreated PSA-pulp to EPDM matrix, which were observed from scanning electron microscopy. The ablation behavior of pretreated PSA-pulp/EPDM composites was proposed in accordance with the characterizations of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). The carbonized PSA-pulp acted as a skeleton in retaining the char layer and reduced the material loss during the high temperature ablation.

  19. Autophagy in SDF-1α-mediated DPSC migration and pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Wan, Chun-Yan; Sun, Zhe-Yi; Nie, Shuai; Jian, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Lu; Song, Guang-Tai; Chen, Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Critical morphological requirements for pulp regeneration are tissues replete with vascularisation, neuron formation, and dentin deposition. Autophagy was recently shown to be related to angiogenesis, neural differentiation, and osteogenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of autophagy in stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)-mediated dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) migration and pulp regeneration, and identify its presence during pulp revascularisation of pulpectomised dog teeth with complete apical closure. In vitro studies showed that SDF-1α enhanced DPSCs migration and optimised focal adhesion formation and stress fibre assembly, which were accompanied by autophagy. Moreover, autophagy inhibitors significantly suppressed, whereas autophagy activator substantially augmented SDF-1α-stimulated DPSCs migration. Furthermore, after ectopic transplantation of tooth fragment/silk fibroin scaffold with DPSCs into nude mice, pulp-like tissues with vascularity, well-organised fibrous matrix formation, and new dentin deposition along the dentinal wall were generated in SDF-1α-loaded samples accompanied by autophagy. More importantly, in a pulp revascularisation model in situ, SDF-1α-loaded silk fibroin scaffolds improved the de novo ingrowth of pulp-like tissues in pulpectomised mature dog teeth, which correlated with the punctuated LC3 and Atg5 expressions, indicating autophagy. Our findings provide novel insights into the pulp regeneration mechanism, and SDF-1α shows promise for future clinical application in pulp revascularisation.

  20. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MODIFIED STARCH-BASED BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS REINFORCED WITH PULP FIBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingfangJi; ShucaiLi

    2004-01-01

    Native corn starch and hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) based plastic films were prepared using the short pulp fiber as reinforcement and the glycerol as the plasticizer. The results of tensile test showed that the tensile strength and the elongation at break increased with the pulp contents. With the glycerol contents, the elongation at break increased considerably, but the tensile strength decreased. The water uptake of the films decreased with the pulp contents and hydroxypropylation, but increased with the glycerol contents. So it is concluded that the films was reinforced by pulp fiber and hydroxypropylation.

  1. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MODIFIED STARCH-BASED BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS EINFORCED WITH PULP FIBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingfang Ji; Shucai Li

    2004-01-01

    Native com starch and hydroxypropyl starch (HPS)based plastic films were prepared using the short pulp fiber as reinforcement and the glycerol as the plasticizer. The results of tensile test showed that the tensile strength and the elongation at break increased with the pulp contents. With the glycerol contents,the elongation at break increased considerably, but the tensile strength decreased. The water uptake of the films decreased with the pulp contents and hydroxypropylation, but increased with the glycerol contents. So it is concluded that the films was reinforced by pulp fiber and hydroxypropylation.

  2. Assessment of the Prevalence of Pulp Stones in a Sample of Turkish Central Anatolian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Çolak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pulp stones (PS in a Turkish dental patient population with respect to sexes and dental localization in relation between sex and this anomaly. Materials Methods. A retrospective study was performed using bitewing radiographs of 814 patients ranging in age from 15 to 65. All data (age, sex, and location was obtained from the files. These patients were analyzed for pulp stones. Descriptive characteristics of sexes, jaws, and dental localization were recorded. The Pearson chi-squared test was used. Results. Of the patients, 462 (56.8% were female and 352 (43.2% were male. Sixty (12% had one or more teeth that contained pulp stones. Pulp stones were identified in 518 (63.6% of the subjects and in 2391 (27.8% of the teeth examined. Pulp stone occurrence was significantly more common in the females than in males. With the increasing of age, the prevalence of pulp stones increased. Molars had statistically more pulp stones than premolars. Pulp stones were significantly more common in the maxilla compared with mandible. Conclusion. Prevalence of pulp stones in Turkish population was 27.8% but further larger-scale studies are required to assess its prevalence in the general population to compare it with other ethnic groups.

  3. Kraft pulp bleaching with molybdenum activated acid peroxide (P{sub Mo} stage); Branqueamento de polpa celulosica kraft de eucalipto com peroxido acido ativado por molibdenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Marcos Sousa [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil). Dept. Regional da Bahia; Silva, Vanessa Lopes; Barros, Denise Pires de; Colodette, Jorge Luiz [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Sacon, Vera Maria; Silva, Marcelo Rodrigues da [Votorantim Celulose e Papel, Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Optimum conditions to run the P{sub Mo} stage for bleaching eucalyptus kraft pulp were 90 deg C, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/t Mo and 5 kg/t H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The P{sub Mo} stage efficiency increased with decreasing pH (1.5-5.5) and increasing temperature (75-90 deg C), time (2-4 h), and hydrogen peroxide (3-10 kg/t) and molybdenum concentration (0.1-0.4 kg/t). The implementation of the P{sub Mo} stage, as replacement for the A stage, decreased total active chlorine demand of the OAZDP sequence by 6 kg/t to reach 90% ISO, both in laboratory and mill scale. Such practice resulted in decreased bleaching chemical costs to produce fully bleached pulp of 90% ISO. (author)

  4. Human Pulp Response to Direct Pulp Capping and Miniature Pulpotomy with MTA after Application of Topical Dexamethasone: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Amir; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Shahnaseri, Shirin; Paymanpour, Payam; Kinoshita, Jun-Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the histologic pulp tissue response to one-step direct pulp capping (DPC) and miniature pulpotomy (MP) with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) after application of dexamethasone in healthy human premolars. Methods and Materials: Forty intact premolars from 10 orthodontic patients, were randomly chosen for DPC (n=20) or MP (n=20). In 10 teeth from each group, after exposure of the buccal pulp horn, topical dexamethasone was applied over the pulp. In all teeth the exposed/miniaturely resected pulp tissue was covered with MTA and cavities were restored with glass ionomer. Teeth vitality was evaluated during the next 7, 21, 42, and 60 days. Signs and/or symptoms of irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis were considered as failure. According to the orthodontic schedule, after 60 days the teeth were extracted and submitted for histological examination. The Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis of the data (P=0.05). Results: Although dexamethasone specimens showed less inflammation, calcified bridge, pulpal blood vasculature, collagen fibers and granulation tissue formation were not significantly different between the groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Topical dexamethasone did not hindered pulp healing but reduced the amount of underlying pulpal tissue inflammation after DPC and MP in healthy human premolars. PMID:27141213

  5. A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky; Kristiina Iisa; W. James Frederick

    2007-03-31

    Production of liquid fuels and chemicals via gasification of kraft black liquor and woody residues (''biorefining'') has the potential to provide significant economic returns for kraft pulp and paper mills replacing Tomlinson boilers beginning in the 2010-2015 timeframe. Commercialization of gasification technologies is anticipated in this period, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are in most cases already commercially established today in the ''gas-to-liquids'' industry. These conclusions are supported by detailed analysis carried out in a two-year project co-funded by the American Forest and Paper Association and the Biomass Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. This work assessed the energy, environment, and economic costs and benefits of biorefineries at kraft pulp and paper mills in the United States. Seven detailed biorefinery process designs were developed for a reference freesheet pulp/paper mill in the Southeastern U.S., together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. Commercial (''Nth'') plant levels of technology performance and cost were assumed. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which would be refined to vehicle fuels at existing petroleum refineries), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or LPG substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. Compared to installing a new Tomlinson power/recovery system, a biorefinery would require larger capital investment. However, because the biorefinery would have higher energy efficiencies, lower air emissions, and a more diverse product slate (including transportation fuel), the internal rates of return (IRR) on the incremental capital investments would be

  6. Main lipophilic extractives in different paper pulp types can be removed using the laccase-mediator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, A; del Río, J C; Rencoret, J; Ibarra, D; Martínez, A T

    2006-10-01

    Lipophilic extractives in wood and other lignocellulosic materials exert a negative impact in pulp and paper manufacturing causing the so-called pitch problems. In this work, the appropriateness of an enzymatic treatment using the laccase-mediator system for pitch biocontrol is evaluated. With this purpose, three pulp types representative for different raw materials and pulping processes-eucalypt kraft pulping, spruce thermomechanical pulping, and flax soda-anthraquinone pulping-were treated with a high-redox-potential laccase from the basidiomycete Pycnoporus cinnabarinus in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole as a redox mediator. The gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of the lipophilic extractives from the enzymatically treated pulps revealed that the laccase-mediator treatment completely or greatly removed most of the pitch-causing lipophilic compounds present in the different pulps including: (1) free and conjugated sitosterol in eucalypt paper pulp; (2) resin acids, sterol esters, and triglycerides in spruce pulp; and (3) sterols and fatty alcohols in the flax pulp. Different amounts of free and conjugated 7-oxosterols were found as intermediate products in the oxidation of pulp sterols. Therefore, the laccase-mediator treatment is reported as an efficient method for removing pitch-causing lipophilic compounds from paper pulps obtained from hardwood, softwood, and nonwoody plants.

  7. Advances and Trends in Utilization of Potato Pulp from Potato Starch Processing%马铃薯渣综合利用研究现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳蓉; 韩黎明; 王英; 刘玲玲; 童丹

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients and the main properties of potato pulp were introduced. And status of potato pulp utilization were summarized, including production of high-protein feed, preparation of dietary fiber and pectin, preparation of alcohol fuel and potato pulp novel adsorbent and binder, and preparation of feed Koji, oil and fat packaging edible film of instant noodle and organic chemical products. The problems of potato pulp utilization were analyzed, i.e. low utilization rate, food security issue and difficult technique extension. Application prospects and development trends of the potato pulp were forecasted. Potato pulp could be used in extraction of dietary fiber and pectin, increasing added value and economic efficiency. Protein feed or feed production from solid-state fermentation of potato pulp might have the most development potential for potato pulp processing. Use of potato pulp for production of fermentation medium might be a value-added research direction. Potato pulp preparation for alcohol fuel and biomass fuel mix production could be another way for use of potato pulp. Use of potato pulp for production of both dietary fiber and alcohol fuel could be a new idea for potato pulp comprehensive utilization worth exploring.%介绍了马铃薯渣营养成分及主要性质,综述了马铃薯渣综合利用研究现状,包括生产高蛋白饲料、制备膳食纤维和果胶,制备燃料酒精和薯渣新型吸附剂和粘结剂、制备饲料种曲、方便面油料包可食性膜和有机化工产品等。剖析了马铃薯渣综合利用中存在的问题,即综合利用率低、食用安全性问题、技术推广困难。展望了马铃薯渣的开发应用前景与发展趋势。马铃薯渣提取膳食纤维和果胶,薯渣加工附加值提高,经济效益较高;固态发酵马铃薯渣生产蛋白饲料或生产配合饲料是薯渣处理最具发展潜力的方向。利用薯渣制作发酵培养基是进行薯渣增值的研究方向;利用

  8. Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

  9. Efficient energy conversion in the pulp and paper industry: application to a sulfite wood pulping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, F.

    2007-07-01

    This report measures the actions performed in 2006 and the actions planned for 2007 within the framework of the project Efficient Energy Conversion in the Pulp and Paper Industry. In addition to the data reconciliation models of the steam and condensate networks and of the process of Borregaard Schweiz AG, process models have been developed with the goal of defining the heat requirements of the process. The combination of utility system data reconciliation with the process models allows to considerably reduce the need for detailed process modelling and for on-site data collection and measurement. A systematic definition of the hot and cold streams in the process has been developed in order to compute the minimum energy requirement of the process. The process requirements have been defined using the dual representation concept where the energy requirement of the process unit operations are systematically analysed from their thermodynamic requirement and the way they are satisfied by the technology that implements the operation. Corresponding to the same energy requirement but realised with different temperature allows on one hand to define the exergy efficiency of the heat transfer system in each of the process unit operations and to identify possible energy savings by heat exchange in the system. The analysis has been completed by the definition of the possible energy recovery from waste streams. The minimum energy requirement of the process using the different requirement representation has been realised and the analysis of the energy savings opportunities is now under preparation. This new step will first concern the definition of the utility system integration and the systematic analysis of the energy savings opportunities followed by the techno-economic evaluation of the most profitable energy savings options in the process. The national and international collaborations constitute also an important part of this project. The project is done in close

  10. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase Ia - Low-temperature gasifier evaluation. Final report, November 1, 1995--October 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southards, W.T.; Blude, J.D.; Dickinson, J.A. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This project, conducted under The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-94GO10002/A002, was part of a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies that improve the energy efficiency and economics of chemical process recovery in the pulp and paper industry. The approach taken was to consider two major alternatives in two phases. Phase I, conducted previously, considered means to improve pulp mill recovery boilers using high-solids advanced combustion of black liquor; while this project, Phase la, considered means to recover kraft pulping mill process chemicals by low-temperature black liquor gasification. The principal steps previously proposed in this program were: (1) Evaluate these two technologies, high-solids advanced combustion and gasification, and then select a path forward using the more promising of these two options for future work. (2) Design and construct a pilot-scale unit based on the selected technology, and using that unit, develop the precompetitive data necessary to make commercialization attractive. (3) Develop and deploy a first-of-a-kind (FOAK) commercial unit in a kraft pulp mill. Phase I, which evaluated the high-solids advanced combustion option, was concluded in 1995. Results of that project phase were reported previously. This report describes the work conducted in Phase Ia. The work is described in Sections 1 through 4 and six appendices provide additional detail.

  11. The prevalence of pulp stones in historical populations from the middle Euphrates valley (Syria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Julian; Zalewska, Marta; Wiśniewska, Ewa; Szopiński, Kazimierz; Olczyk-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    There are many reports in the literature concerning pulp stones in contemporary living populations, but there are no descriptions of cases of pulp stones and their prevalence in populations of the past. Here we present a study of pulp stones in a series of archaeologically derived samples from the Middle Euphrates Valley (Syria) obtained from two sites: Terqa and Tell Masaikh. The specimens were assigned to five periods: Early Bronze (2650-2350 BC); Middle Bronze (2200-1700 BC); late Roman (AD 200-400); Islamic (AD 600-1200); and Modern Islamic (AD 1850-1950). A total of 529 teeth representing 117 adult individuals of both sexes were examined. Pulp stones were identified by X-ray and 10 selected specimens were sectioned for histological study. Pulp stones were found in 99 of 117 individuals (85%) and in 271 of 529 (51%) teeth. Pulp stone prevalence was found to increase with age, for individuals of older age classes have more pulp stones than younger individuals. Intriguingly, the prevalence of single pulp stones was higher among older individuals (36-45, >46), while younger individuals (17-25, 26-35) more often possessed multiple stones. Individuals with moderate to highly advanced dental wear have pulp stones significantly more often than individuals whose tooth wear is limited to invisible or very small facets. Though there is no statistical significance in the prevalence of pulp stones across chronological periods, it appears that a high level of calcium in the diet is accompanied by a greater prevalence of pulp stones.

  12. Correlation between Histological Status of the Pulp and Its Response to Sensibility Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mandana; Khayat, Akbar; Zamaheni, Sara; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of sensibility tests by correlating it with histologic pulp condition. Methods and Materials: Assessment of clinical signs and symptoms were performed on 65 permanent teeth that were scheduled to be extracted for periodontal, prosthodontic or orthodontic reasons. The normal pulp and reversible pulpitis were considered as treatable tooth conditions while irreversible pulpitis and necrosis were considered as untreatable conditions. The teeth were then extracted and sectioned for histological analysis of dental pulp. Histologic status and classification corresponded to the treatable or untreatable pulp condition. Comparisons between histological treatable and untreatable pulp condition were performed with chi-square analysis for sensibility test responses. The positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy to detect untreatable from treatable pulp condition were calculated for each test. Results: A significant difference was detected in the normal and a sharp lingered response to heat and cold tests. There was significant difference in the negative response to EPT between histological groups. The kappa agreement coefficient between clinical and histological diagnosis of pulp condition was about 0.843 (P<0.001). The accuracy of cold and heat tests and EPT to detect treatable pulp or untreatable pulp states were 78, 74 and 62%, respectively. The sensibility tests diagnosed untreatable pulpitis with a higher probability (NPV=63%-67% -54%, PPV=83%-91% -95% for heat, cold and EPT, respectively). Conclusion: Sensibility test results were more likely to diagnose pulpal disease or untreatable pulp conditions. However, to increase the diagnostic accuracy patient history, clinical signs and symptoms and also radiographic findings in conjunction with sensibility tests must be used. The result of this small study demonstrated a good agreement between clinical and histological pulp

  13. Microbiological and microscopic analysis of the pulp of non-vital traumatized teeth with intact crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Firmino Bruno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the presence of microorganisms and analyzed microscopically the pulp of 20 traumatized human teeth with intact crowns and clinical diagnosis of pulp necrosis, based on the association of at least three of the clinical criteria: crown discoloration, negative response to thermal and electric pulp vitality tests, positive response to vertical and horizontal percussion, pain on palpation or mobility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Microbiological collection was performed from the root canals to evaluate the presence of microorganisms. The pulp samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E. for histological evaluation of possible morphological alterations. RESULTS: Analysis of results was performed by statistical tests (linear regression test and diagnostic analysis and subjective analysis of the sections stained with H.E. and revealed that only 15% of the sample did not exhibit microbial development. The time elapsed between dental trauma and onset of endodontic intervention ranged from 15 days to 31 months; the percussion test presented high sensitivity (80% for detection of microorganisms in the root canal of traumatized teeth; 3 teeth (15% did not present pulp tissue, being characterized as complete autolysis; analysis of pulp samples was performed on the other 17 cases, among which 3 (15% exhibited partial necrosis without possibility of repair and 14 presented complete necrosis; none of the clinical criteria employed for the diagnosis of pulp necrosis in traumatized teeth was pathognomonic. CONCLUSIONS: The present results allowed the following conclusions: with regard to microbiological findings, 85% of teeth presented microorganisms in the root canal, despite the presence of an intact crown. Concerning the microscopic findings, 100% of traumatized teeth presented pulp necrosis; the pulp vitality tests based on pulp response to heat, cold and vertical percussion were the most reliable to diagnose pulp necrosis in

  14. C-myb Regulates Autophagy for Pulp Vitality in Glucose Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Kim, H S; Kim, J S; Yu, M K; Cho, S D; Jeon, J G; Yi, H K

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is closely related to oral-complicated diseases by oxidative stress. This study investigates whether cellular myeloblastosis (c-myb) could protect human dental pulp cells against glucose oxidative stress and regulate autophagy activity for pulp vitality. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in Sprague-Dawley rats, and their pulp tissue in teeth was analyzed in terms of pulp cavity and molecules by hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining. Human dental pulp cells were serially subcultured and treated with glucose oxidase in the presence of elevated glucose to generate glucose oxidative stress. The replication-deficient adenovirus c-myb and small interfering RNA c-myb were introduced for c-myb expression. The pulp tissue from the diabetic rats was structurally different from normal tissue in terms of narrow pulp capacity, reduced c-myb, and dentinogenesis molecules. Glucose oxidase treatment decreased c-myb and dentinogenesis molecules (bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 7, dentin matrix protein 1, and dentin sialophosphoprotein) in human dental pulp cells. However, overexpression of c-myb by adenovirus c-myb increased dentinogenesis, autophagy molecules (autophagy protein 5, microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3, and Beclin-1), and cell survival via p-AMPK/AKT signaling even with glucose oxidative stress. In contrast, the lack of c-myb decreased the above molecules and cell survival by downregulating p-AMPK/AKT signaling. The results indicate that diabetes leads to irreversible damage to dental pulp, which is related to downexpression of autophagy via the p-AMPK/AKT pathway by decline of c-myb. The findings of this study provide a new insight that c-myb could ameliorate autophagy activity and that it is applicable for monitoring complicated diseases of dental pulp. The involvement of c-myb in pulp pathology could serve a therapeutic target in oral-complicated diseases.

  15. Isolating lignin from spent liquor of thermomechanical pulping process via adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oveissi, Farshad; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-01-01

    Wood chips are pretreated with steam prior to refining in the thermomechanical pulping process. The steam treatment dissolves part of lignin of wood chips in the spent liquor (SL) of this process, and subsequently the SL is sent to the wastewater system of the process. However, the lignin of SL can be used in the production of value-added chemicals, but it should first be separated from the SL in order to have a feasible downstream process. In this study, activated carbon (AC) was considered as an adsorbent to isolate lignin from SL. The results showed that the maximum adsorption of lignin on AC was 166 mg/g under the optimal conditions of pH 5.2, 30 degrees C and 3 h treatment. Furthermore, the separation of lignin from SL was improved from 45% to 60% by having a two-stage adsorption process at pH 5.2, which also reduced the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand of SL by 39% and 32%, respectively.

  16. The use of natural product-papaya pulp powder as a disinte-grant in tablet formulation and their invitro evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilip Chandrasekhar; Saraswathy R; Krishnan.N.V

    2009-01-01

    Objective:An attempt was made to study the use of papaya pulp powder as a disintegrant in tablet formula-tions.The objective of the present work is to identify a natural binding and disintegrating agent for formulating tablets and to study the effect of disintegrating agents and binding agents on the dissolution of the formulation containing paracetamol.Methods:Papaya pulp powder is obtained from unripe papaya fruit.The fruit was screened for its physical and chemical characteristics and used in tablet formulations.In order to find out the percentage that could be used to formulate a product containing good disintegrating and dissolution characteris-tics,several formulations (Paracetamol)with different concentrations of 8%,10%,12%,15%,20%,25% &30% were prepared.As a comparison,an already established disintegrant,sodium starchgylcolate was select-ed and several formulations containing similar concentrations,were also prepared.The invitro evaluation of the formulations were undertaken,and the results compared.In the present study preformulation studies on the pu-rity,development of calibration curve of the drug and the compatibility between the drug and excepients were carried out.The fruits were cut into small pieces,grated,dried and powdered,passed through different sieves and made into fine powder.Fine powder of papaya was mixed with required amount of drug and sodium starch-gylcolate individually in different concentrations along with other additives &binding agents.The dried gran-ules were compressed into tablets and all the formulated dosage forms of paracetamol tablets were subjected to quality control tests like hardness disintegration and dissolution.Results:From the results it was observed that formulations S1 and P7 containing 8% of sodium starchgylcolate and 30% of papaya pulp powder showed good disintegration and dissolution characteristics.Conclusion:Since the tablet formulation P7 containing 30% of papaya pulp powder shows good disintegration and

  17. WOOD BASIC DENSITY EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla CLONES ON BLEACHED PULP QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  18. Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrije, Truus de; Budde, Miriam A.W.; Lips, Steef J.; Bakker, Robert R.; Mars, Astrid E.; Claassen, Pieternel A.M. [Wageningen UR, Food and Biobased Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and (mixtures of) glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction in carrot pulp. The main sugars in the hydrolysate were glucose, fructose, and sucrose. In fermentations with glucose hydrogen yields and productivities were similar for both strains. With fructose the hydrogen yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced which might be related to uptake of glucose and fructose by different types of transport systems. With T. neapolitana the fructose consumption rate and consequently the hydrogen productivity were low. The hydrogen yields of both thermophiles were 2.7-2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose with 10 g/L sugars from carrot pulp hydrolysate. With 20 g/L sugars the yield of T. neapolitana was 2.4 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose while the yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced to 1.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose due to high lactate production in the stationary growth phase. C. saccharolyticus was able to grow on carrot pulp and utilized soluble sugars and, after adaptation, pectin and some (hemi)cellulose. No growth was observed with T. neapolitana when using carrot pulp in agitated fermentations. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction prior to fermentation increased the hydrogen yield with almost 10% to 2.3 g/kg of hydrolyzed carrot pulp. (author)

  19. 40 CFR 63.444 - Standards for the pulping system at sulfite processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for the pulping system at sulfite processes. 63.444 Section 63.444 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Pulp and Paper Industry §...

  20. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Linghui; Guo, Ronghui; Lan, Jianwu; Jiang, Shouxiang; Lin, Shaojian

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  1. Citrus pulp as an ingredient in ostrich diet: effects on meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, M; Fasone, V; Galofaro, V; Barbagallo, D; Bella, M; Pennisi, P

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this trial was to study the effects of citrus pulp inclusion in ostrich diets on meat quality, evaluated on iliofibularis and gastrocnemius muscles. M. iliofibularis had a lower ultimate pH (Piliofibularis. M. gastrocnemius had a lower proportion of C14:0 (Piliofibularis. Citrus pulp diet increased (P<0.05) meat ultimate pH and reduced cooking losses (P<0.05) as compared to the control diet. Meat from animals given citrus pulp had lower crude fat (P<0.05) and ash percentages (P<0.05) in comparison to that from the control group. The proportions of intramuscular saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were lower (P<0.05) in the citrus pulp group as compared to the control one. Meat from the citrus pulp treatment group had a higher (P<0.05) percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids than meat from the control treatment. In particular, meat from ostriches given citrus pulp diet exhibited higher C18:2ω6 (P<0.05) and C20:4ω6 (P<0.05) contents that accounted for a higher ω6/ω3 ratio (P<0.05) as compared to the control group. Overall, the use of a citrus pulp-included diet in ostrich feeding did not adversely affect meat quality and, therefore, citrus pulp seems to be a possible ingredient to reduce feeding costs.

  2. [Evaluation of coffee pulp as a possible substitute for corn in poultry rations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani, R; González, J M

    1978-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the possibility of using coffee pulp as an ingredient of chick rations. Another objective of the study was to evaluate the biological effect of adding sodium metabisulfite on the nitritive value of the agricultural by-product. Fifteen day-old chicks were fed rations containing 10, 20 and 30% coffee pulp, untreated and treated with 1 and 2% solutions of sodium metabisulfite. After three weeks on these rations, the animals were switched to one containing 30% coffee pulp, for five weeks. Results of the first experimental period showed a negative effect of coffee pulp on weight gain, feed conversion and water consumption on a water intake/weight basis. Apparently, treatment of coffee pulp with a 2% solution of sodium metabisulfite improved the above parameters but without reaching those attained by the control ration. In the second part of the study, the groups fed 30% coffee pulp, with and without metabisulfite treatment, gained less weight and showed lower feed conversion efficiencies than the control group. An interesting fact was the absence of mortality even in those groups fed 30% coffee pulp in the first part of the study. From these data it is concluded that coffee pulp at levels of 10% can be used with no problem in chick rations. It is necessary, however, to carry out additional studies before recommending the use of this by-product in poultry rations.

  3. An environmental systems analysis of the Kraft pulp industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warit, J.

    2006-01-01

    The pulp industry inThailandis of economic and social importance because of its production value, the revenues from export and the employment in this sector. The eucalyptus-based Kraft pulp industry plays an importan

  4. Effect of pulping variables with dimethyl formamide on the characteristics of bagasse-fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayati-Charani, P; Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, J

    2005-10-01

    Organosolv pulping of bagasse was conducted following a central composite design using a two-level factorial plan involving three pulping variables (temperature: 190-210 degrees C, time: 120-180 min, organic solvent ratio: 40-60% dimethyl formamide). Responses of pulp and handsheets properties to the process variables were analyzed using statistical software (MINITAB 14). Using values of the independent variables the variation ranges considered provided the following optimum values of the dependent variables: 82.7% (yield), 92.9 (kappa number), 1.403% (ash), 370 ml (freeness), 6290 m (breaking length), 9.4 (folding endurance), 5.955 mN m2 g(-1) (Tear index) and 2.811 kN g(-1) (Burst index) for pulps and handsheets. Results showed that acceptable physical and mechanical properties of pulps and papers similar the pulp used for bleaching could be achieved at 210 degrees C for 150 min and 50% DMF. These are the most suitable conditions for obtaining paper sheets with a high breaking length, tear and burst indices. Also bagasse could be pulped with ease to about 55.72% yield with kappa number approximately 35. The cooking temperature was a significant factor while the DMF ratio and cooking time were not as important in term of the properties of the resultant pulps and papers.

  5. Estimating exposed pulp lengths of tusks in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana africana : article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Steenkamp

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Captive and wild African elephants frequently suffer tusk fractures. Several institutions shorten the tusks of captive elephants to reduce fractures and injury as a result of behaviour within enclosures. Fracturing or coronal amputations that expose pulp lead to pain for the elephant. Estimating coronal pulp lengths may thus help to minimise the risk of pulp exposure during amputations. We aimed to determine the length of the pulp beyond the lip margin from an external tusk characteristic. Tusks collected from elephants in Namibia and the Kruger National Park had similar morphological relationships. This statistical property allowed us to correct for missing data in our data sets. Pulp volume and pulp length correlated with tusk circumference at the lip. Even so, the circumference at the lip could not predict the length of the pulp in the crown external to the lip. Our findings suggest that tusks, irrespective of sex or age, amputated further than 300 mm from the lip should not expose pulp.

  6. Cultivating High Efficient Bacteria of Degrading Pulping Wastewater by Ultraviolet Mutagenic Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi-ning; ZHANG Ying; LIU Shi-rui; REN Nan-qi

    2004-01-01

    Instead of pure bacteria, induction mutation of activated sludge by ultraviolet (Uv) was studied and used to treat pulping wastewater by continuous-flow. The result showed the mutagenic activated sludge had remarkable effect and application potential in pulping wastewater treatment. Comparing with common activated sludge, the mutagenic activated sludge was more suitable for lignose decomposition and had high decomposing efficiency.

  7. The lycopene content in pulp ad peel of five fresh tomato varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovic, K.; Panjkota-Krbavcic, I.; Krpan, M.; Bicanic, D.D.; Vahcic, N.

    2010-01-01

    The lycopene content in pulp and peel of five fresh tomato cultivars, most common on Croatian market, was determined by spectrophotometry and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peels from the raw tomatoes contained more lycopene (expressed on a fresh basis) than the pulps: the ratio

  8. Influence of splints and temporary crowns upon electric and thermal pulp-testing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulling, H J; Andreasen, J O

    1976-09-01

    The influence of different splints and temporary crowns upon the reliability of electric and thermal pulp-testing procedures was examined in 10 patients with vital maxillary central incisors and 10 patients with vital maxillary central incisors and 10 patients with unilateral pulp necrosis of a central incisor. The pulp-testing procedures were: (1) Bofors Pulp Tester, (2) Siemens Sirotest, (3) heated guttapercha, (4) ice, and (5) carbon dioxide snow (Odontotest). The splints or temporary crowns were: (1) silver cap splint, (2) acrylic cap splint, (3) Hawley orthodontic plate, (4) Saur's arch bar, (5) orthodontic bands, (6) stainless steel crown, and (7) stainless steel crown with labial surface removed. A reliable electrometric pulp response could only be elicited if the pulp tester was applied directly upon enamel and preferably upon the incisal edge. In this instance metal splints or partial steel crowns applied to the tooth had no effect on the pain threshold. A false positive reaction in case of pulp necrosis was only elicited when the electrode was placed directly upon metal which contacted neighboring vital teeth. The use of ice and heated guttapercha appeared to be of limited value, due to inconsistent pulp responses. Carbon dioxide snow gave a reliable response, unless applied on the incisal edge.

  9. the role of soluble and insoluble fibers during fermentation of Chicory root pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, U.

    2014-01-01

     

    This thesis was aimed at understanding the in vitro fermentability of soluble and insoluble fibers in chicory root pulp (CRP). First, CRP and ensiled chicory root pulp (ECRP) were characterized for cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs). Both CRP and ECRP were rich

  10. Effects of materials used in pediatric dentistry on the pulp: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, D L

    1999-11-01

    This paper reviews a selection of materials used in treating children's teeth. Often, the success of the material is determined by its effect on the underlying pulp tissue, either by virtue of its direct effect or in its ability to prevent ingress of contaminants. The materials reviewed will include some of those used for cavity liners, bases, restorations, pulp capping, and pulpotomies.

  11. Improvement of Pulping Uniformity by Measurement of Single Fiber Kappa Number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Gustafson; James B. Callis

    2001-11-20

    A method to measure the kappa of single fibers by staining with a fluorescent dye, Acridine Orange (AO), has been developed. This method is now applied to develop and automated flow-through instrument that permits routine kappa analysis on thousands of images of AO stained fibers to give the fiber kappa number distribution of a pulp sample in a few minutes. The design and operation of the instrument are similar to that of a flow cytometer but with the addition of extensive fiber imaging capability. Fluorescence measurements in the flow-through instrument are found to be consistent with those made with fluorescence microscope provided the signal processing in the flow-thou instrument is handled propertly. The kappa distributions of pulps that were analyzed by means of a density gradient column are compared to those measured with the flow-through instrument with good results. The kappa distributions of various laboratory pulps and commercial pulps have been measured. It has been found that all pulps are non-uniform but that ommercial pulps generally have broader kappa distributions thatn their laboratory counterparts. The effects of different pulping methods and chip pretreatments on pulp uniformity are discussed in the report. Finally, the application of flow-through fluorescence technology to other single fiber measurements are presented.

  12. Innovations in papermaking: An LCA of printing and writing paper from conventional and high yield pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manda, B.M.K.; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Pulp and paper industry is facing challenges such as resource scarcity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this research is to investigate whether the use of new coatings (micro or nano TiO2) and different pulp types could bring savings in wood, energy, GHG emissions and other envir

  13. Human dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells isolation and osteoblast differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Alkhalil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim This study was focused on the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from human dental pulp (DPSC. Methods The study was performed in the Department for Oral and Cranio-Maxillo- Facial Surgey Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar and Weill Cornell Medical Colleague Doha, Qatar, in period 2010-2011. Dental pulp was extracted from premolars and third molars of 19 healthy patients. The pulp was digested in a solution of 3 mg/mL collagenase type I and 4 mg/mL dispase for 1 hour at 37C. After filtration, cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM Low Glucoses with 20% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS, 2mM L-glutamine and antibiotics (100 U/mL penicillin, 100 ug/mL streptomycin at 37 °C under 5% CO2. Cultures were treated with osteoinductive medium for differentiation MSC in to the osteoblast cell line. Staining with Alizarin red were used for the detection of the osteoblast production and calcification new formed tissue. Results On the total of three out of 19 patients it was possible to isolate DPMSCs after 2 to 3 weeks: in one patient it was not possible to expand MSCs because of infection, and in other two patients positive Alizarin red staining reaction showed osteogenic differentiation capability and strong mineralization in vitro. Conclusion The main advantage of using DPSC is absence of morbidity. MSCs could be isolated noninvasively from teeth, routinely extracted in the clinic and discarded as medical waste. Standardization of clinical and laboratory protocols for DPMSCs isolation and team work coordination could lead to significantly improved result.

  14. 40 CFR 430.120 - Applicability; description of the tissue, filter, non-woven, and paperboard from purchased pulp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tissue, filter, non-woven, and paperboard from purchased pulp subcategory. 430.120 Section 430.120... PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tissue, Filter, Non-Woven, and Paperboard From Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.120 Applicability; description of the tissue, filter, non-woven,...

  15. Morphological Study Of Border Area Of Pulp-Capping Materials And Er:YAG Laser Prepared Hard Dental Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanova Vessela P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vital pulp therapy involves biologically based therapeutic activities aimed at restoring health and preserving the vitality of cariously or traumatically damaged pulp. Adaptation of pulp-capping materials to the prepared tooth surface may be the key to the success of biological tooth treatment.

  16. Pulp response to Enamelite restorations in teeth of rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amet, E M; Sayegh, F S

    1977-01-01

    The average magnitudes of cellular displacements, superficial responses, and deep responses were less for specimens restored with ZOE than for Enamelite specimens at the 1 week postoperative period. Of 20 teeth treated, three abscesses were found in the 1 week Enamelite postoperative period when the remaining dentin was 0.3 mm. or less. This indicates the presence of ingredients that are toxic to the pulp when there is little remaining dentin or when the material is placed directly over an exposure. Teeth restored with Enamelite in the 6 week group had values comparable to the ZOE teeth for the same time period.

  17. Pemanfaatan Lignin Isolat Lindi Hitam Dari Toba Pulp Lestari

    OpenAIRE

    Sah, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of black liquor lignin isolates natural binder of Toba Pulp Lestari as asphalt reinforcement has been done. Asphalt modifier made in 9 different types of formulations with a variation ratio of lignin isolates with asphalt at 40:60 ; 35:65 ; 30:70 ; 25:75 ; 20:80 ; 15:85 ; 10:90 ; 5:95 and 0:100 (b/b) in 100 grams, the addition of 300 grams of fine sand aggregate, and processed in an extruder at a temperature of 150oC. Mechanical properties and thermal properties of tested asphalt ...

  18. IMMEDIATE HUMAN PULP RESPONSE TO ETHANOL-WET BONDING TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Débora Lopes Salles; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; Soares, Diana Gabriela; Basso, Fernanda Gonçalves; Pashley, David Henry; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza; Hebling, Josimeri

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the short-term response of human pulps to ethanol-wet bonding technique associated with an etch-and-rinse adhesive system. Methods Deep class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of 17 sound premolars scheduled for extraction for orthodontics. The teeth were assigned into three groups: Ethanol-wet bonding (G1), water-wet bonding (G2) and calcium hydroxide (G3, control). Two teeth were used as intact control. After acid-etching, the cavities from G1 were filled with 100% ethanol for 60s and blot-dried before the application of Single Bond 2. In G2, the cavities were filled with distilled water for 60s previously to adhesive application and in G3, the cavity floor was lined with calcium hydroxide before etching and bonding. All cavities were restored with resin composite. The teeth were extracted 48h after the clinical procedures. From each tooth 6 μm-thick serial sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H/E) and Masson's trichrome. Bacteria microleakage was assessed using Brown & Brenn. All sections were blindly evaluated and scored for five histological features. Results Mean remaining dentin thickness was 463±65μm (G1); 425±184μm (G2); and 348±194μm (G3). Similar pulp reactions followed ethanol- or water-wet bonding techniques. Slight inflammatory responses and disruption of the odontoblast layer related to the cavity floor were seen in all groups. Stained bacteria were not detected in any cavities. Normal pulp tissue was observed in G3 except for one case. Conclusions After 48 h, ethanol-wet bonding technique applied on deep cavities prepared in vital teeth does not increase pulpal damage compared to water-wet bonding technique. Clinical significance Ethanol-wet bonding has been considered an experimental technique that may increase resin-dentin bond durability. This study reported the in vivo response of human pulp tissue when 100% ethanol was applied previously to an etch-and-rinse simplified adhesive

  19. Hard tissue deposition in dental pulp canal by {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Toda, T. [Osaka Dental Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Endodontics; Mandai, Y. [Bio-Chemical Lab. of Nitta Gelatin Inc., Yao (Japan); Oonishi, H. [Osaka Minami National Hospital, Kawachi (Japan). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    2001-07-01

    Canal closure by hard tissue proliferation in the pulp canal and/or apical foramen is the most ideal healing after pulp removal. Generally, Ca(OH){sub 2} may induce secondary dentine or dentine-bridge on the amputated pulp surface. However, Ca(OH){sub 2} shows strong alkalinity and may cause severe inflammatory responses in the residual pulp. Moreover, completely formed dentine-bridge at the orifice will disturb further treatment of residual pulp because of the difficulty in localizing the pathway. The purpose of this study was to see hard tissue induction using newly developed {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate cement and to recognize the morphological difference of hard tissue from that of Ca(OH){sub 2}. (orig.)

  20. Indirect pulp treatment in a permanent molar: case reort of 4-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiane Cestari Fagundes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the Indirect Pulp Treatment (IPT of deep caries lesion in a permanent molar. A 16-year-old male patient reported discomfort associated with thermal stimulation on the permanent mandibular left first molar. The radiographs revealed a deep distal caries lesion, very close to the pulp, absence of radiolucencies in the periapical region, and absence of periodontal space thickening. Pulp sensitivity was confirmed by thermal pulp vitality tests. Based on the main complaint and the clinical and radiographic examinations, the treatment plan was established to preserve pulp vitality. Clinical procedures consisted of removing the infected dentin and lining the caries-affected dentin with calcium hydroxide paste. The tooth was provisionally sealed for approximately 60 days. After this period, tooth vitality was confirmed, the remaining carious dentin was removed, and the tooth was restored. At 4-year follow-up, no clinical or radiographic pathological findings were found.